A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.
Infections with protozoa of the phylum CILIOPHORA.
A class of ciliate protozoa. Characteristics include the presence of a well developed oral apparatus and oral cilia being clearly distinct from somatic cilia.
The small ribonucleoprotein component of RIBOSOMES. It contains the MESSENGER RNA binding site and two TRANSFER RNA binding sites - one for the incoming AMINO ACYL TRNA (A site) and the other (P site) for the peptidyl tRNA carrying the elongating peptide chain.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
Common name for two families of FLATFISHES belonging to the order Pleuronectiformes: left-eye flounders (Bothidae) and right-eye flounders (Pleuronectidae). The latter is more commonly used in research.
A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.

Unusually high evolutionary rate of the elongation factor 1 alpha genes from the Ciliophora and its impact on the phylogeny of eukaryotes. (1/483)

The elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) has become widely employed as a phylogenetic marker for studying eukaryotic evolution. However, a disturbing problem, the artifactual polyphyly of ciliates, is always observed. It has been suggested that the addition of new sequences will help to circumvent this problem. Thus, we have determined 15 new ciliate EF-1 alpha sequences, providing for a more comprehensive taxonomic sampling of this phylum. These sequences have been analyzed together with a representation of eukaryotic sequences using distance-, parsimony-, and likelihood-based phylogenetic methods. Such analyses again failed to recover the monophyly of Ciliophora. A study of the substitution rate showed that ciliate EF-1 alpha genes exhibit a high evolutionary rate, produced in part by an increased number of variable positions. This acceleration could be related to alterations of the accessory functions acquired by this protein, likely to those involving interactions with the cytoskeleton, which is very modified in the Ciliophora. The high evolutionary rate of these sequences leads to an artificial basal emergence of some ciliates in the eukaryotic tree by effecting a long-branch attraction artifact that produces an asymmetric topology for the basal region of the tree. The use of a maximum-likelihood phylogenetic method (which is less sensitive to long-branch attraction) and the addition of sequences to break long branches allow retrieval of more symmetric topologies, which suggests that the asymmetric part of the tree is most likely artifactual. Therefore, the sole reliable part of the tree appears to correspond to the apical symmetric region. These kinds of observations suggest that the general eukaryotic evolution might have consisted of a massive radiation followed by an increase in the evolutionary rates of certain groups that emerge artificially as early branches in the asymmetric base of the tree. Ciliates in the case of the EF-1 alpha genes would offer clear evidence for this hypothesis.  (+info)

Ultrastructure of meiosis-inducing (heterotypic) and non-inducing (homotypic) cell unions in conjugation of Blepharisma. (2/483)

Cells of mating types I and II of Blepharisma japonicum interact with each other and unite in heterotypic (type I-type II) or homotypic (type I-type I, type II-type II) pairs. Heterotypic pairs undergo meiosis and other nuclear changes of conjugation, while homotypic pairs remain united for days without the nuclear changes taking place. We compared cell unions of these two kinds of pairs at the ultrastructural level. In the homotypic union, cell membranes are closely juxtaposed, separated by a distance of about 20 nm. This arrangement is interrupted in some places by vacuoles and small cytoplasmic bridges. Saccule-like structures tend to be more abundant near the united surfaces. Microtubules running at right or slightly obtuse angles with the cell surface (PACM microtubules) are characteristically present at the united region of cells. These structures are very similar to those observed in earlier stages of the heterotypic union. However, in homotypic pairs, cells unite only at the anterior half of the peristome, while in heterotypic pairs cells unite also at the posterior half of the peristome, where the cell membrane totally disappears in later stages. PACM microtubules persist for at least 18 h in homotypic unions, while they disappear within a few hours in heterotypic unions. These differences between the two kinds of cell union are discussed in relation to the initiation mechanism of meiosis and other nuclear changes of conjugation. Similarities between homotypic union and cell junctions in multicellular organisms are also discussed.  (+info)

Dermatitis with invasive ciliated protozoa in dolphins that died during the 1987-1988 Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin morbilliviral epizootic. (3/483)

Dermatitis with intradermal cilated protozoa was identified in 18 of 95 (19%) Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) that died during the 1987-1988 Atlantic-dolphin morbillivirus epizootic. The lesions were characterized by focally extensive suppurative and histiocytic dermatitis and cellulitis with ulceration and variable numbers of dermal and hypodermal ciliates. Vasculitis, thrombosis, and/or intravascular ciliates were rarely present. In one dolphin, there was an associated lymphadenitis with ciliates, and in another, bronchopneumonia with rare intrabronchiolar ciliates. Ten of the dolphins were female, and eight were male. The animals ranged in length from 148 to 260 cm. Eleven were from Virginia, four were from New Jersey, and three were from Florida. In 13 dolphins, results of immunohistochemical and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests were positive for morbillivirus infection. Results of immunohistochemical tests were negative in four dolphins that were not also tested with PCR. Results were also negative in one dolphin tested using both methods. Nine dolphins had concomitant bacterial, fungal, and/or other protozoal infections. Fourteen other dolphins with ciliate-associated dermatitis were identified from 414 Atlantic bottlenose dolphin cases (3%) archived at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. The incidence of dermatitis with invasive ciliates is much greater in dolphins that died during the 1987-1988 epizootic.  (+info)

Rumen ciliate protozoal fauna of native sheep, friesian cattle and dromedary camel in Libya. (4/483)

Rumen ciliate species and composition were surveyed on the native sheep, Friesian-cattle and dromedary (one-humped) camels kept in Libya. As a result of survey, 5 genera including 14 species with 5 formae in native sheep, 9 genera including 27 species with 6 formae in Friesian-cattle and 6 genera including 13 species and 7 formae in dromedary camels were identified. All of the ciliate species and their percentage composition detected from the Libyan sheep and cattle in this examination were similar to those found from corresponding animals in the other countries. Libyan camels lacked some peculiar ciliate species found from camels in the other countries, but had many cosmopolitan species common with those in the domestic ruminants, suggesting that ciliate faunae of camel are easily affected by the other domestic ruminants kept together. The ciliate density was estimated as 105/ml in every host species.  (+info)

Factors affecting the uptake and metabolism of soluble carbohydrates by the rumen ciliate Dasytricha ruminantium isolated from ovine rumen contents by filtration. (5/483)

A filtration technique is described whereby metabolically-active suspensions of Dasytricha ruminantium can be isolated from rumen contents with negligible contamination by bacteria or other protozoa. The effects of environmental factors and of the diurnal cycle of the rumen on the uptake and metabolism of soluble carbohydrates by these isolated cells were examined. The principal contribution of the protozoan metabolic end-products to the host ruminant is the supply of lactic, acetic and butyric acids during periods when soluble sugars are in excess.  (+info)

Anti-immunoglobulin antisera used in an ELISA to detect antibodies in barramundi Lates calcarifer to Cryptocaryon irritans. (6/483)

Immunoglobulins (Ig) in serum from barramundi vaccinated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and affinity chromatography using BSA as the ligand. The BSA-binding activity of eluted putative Ig fractions was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) before being pooled and characterised by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Double affinity purification did not improve the purity of the Ig preparation compared to single affinity purification. Barramundi Ig were injected into sheep to produce anti-Ig antisera which were assessed in an indirect ELISA as the secondary antibody to detect serum Ig in barramundi vaccinated with Cryptocaryon irritans theronts. Affinity-purified Ig induced a more specific reagent for use as secondary antibody in ELISA than did normal whole-barramundi sera. The heavy (H) chain of barramundi Ig had an apparent molecular weight of 70 kDa while that of the light (L) chain was 27 kDa in SDS-PAGE studies. Under non-reducing conditions 2 putative populations of Ig were identified, at 768 and 210 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of the barramundi Ig H chain showed 78% homology with channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus Ig H chain sequence.  (+info)

Graviresponses of certain ciliates and flagellates. (7/483)

Protozoa are eukaryotic cells and represent suitable model systems to study the mechanisms of gravity perception and signal transduction due to their clear gravity-induced responses (gravitaxis and gravikinesis). Among protists, parallel evolution for graviperception mechanisms have been identified: either sensing by distinct stato-organelles (e.g., the Muller vesicles of the ciliate Loxodes) or by sensing the density difference between the whole cytoplasm and the extracellular medium (as proposed for Paramecium and Euglena). These two models are supported by experiments in density-adjusted media, as the gravitaxis of Loxodes was not affected, whereas the orientation of Paramecium and Euglena was completely disturbed. Both models include the involvement of ion channels in the cell membrane. Diverse experiments gave new information on the mechanism of graviperception in unicellular systems, such as threshold values in the range of 10% of gravity, relaxation of the responses after removal of the stimulus, and no visible adaptation phenomena during exposure to hypergravity or microgravity conditions for up to 12 days.  (+info)

A subtelomeric DNA sequence is required for correct processing of the macronuclear DNA sequences during macronuclear development in the hypotrichous ciliate Stylonychia lemnae. (8/483)

During macronuclear differentiation in ciliated protozoa a series of programed DNA reorganization processes occur. These include the elimination of micronuclear-specific DNA sequences, the specific fragmentation of the genome into small gene-sized DNA molecules, the de novo addition of telomeric sequences to these DNA molecules and the specific amplification of the remaining DNA molecules. Recently we constructed a vector containing the modified micronuclear version of macronuclear destined DNA sequences that was correctly fragmented and telomeres were added de novo after injection into the developing macronucleus. It therefore must contain all the cis- acting sequences required for these processes. We made a series of vectors deleting different sequences from the original vector. It could be shown that at least in the case studied here no micronuclear-specific sequences are required for specific fragmentation of the genome and telomere addition. However, a short subtelomeric sequence at the 3[prime]-end is essential for these processes, whereas no specific cut seems to occur at the 5[prime]-end. In addition, we can show that the processing activity is restricted to a short period of time during macronuclear differentiation and that a preceding transcription is required for correct processing of macronuclear-destined DNA sequences. Possible mechanisms of these processes will be discussed.  (+info)

Ciliophora is a phylum in the taxonomic classification system that consists of unicellular organisms commonly known as ciliates. These are characterized by the presence of hair-like structures called cilia, which are attached to the cell surface and beat in a coordinated manner to facilitate movement and feeding. Ciliophora includes a diverse group of organisms, many of which are found in aquatic environments. Examples of ciliates include Paramecium, Tetrahymena, and Vorticella.

Ciliophora is a group of protozoan organisms that are characterized by the presence of hair-like structures called cilia. Some species of Ciliophora can cause infections in humans, known as ciliophoriasis or ciliate infections. These infections typically occur in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or who are taking immunosuppressive drugs.

The most common way that Ciliophora infect humans is through the ingestion of contaminated food or water. Once inside the body, the ciliates can cause a range of symptoms depending on the species and the location of the infection. For example, infections in the gastrointestinal tract can cause abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting, while lung infections can lead to coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing.

Treatment for Ciliophora infections typically involves the use of antiprotozoal medications, such as metronidazole or tinidazole. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Preventing ciliophoriasis involves practicing good hygiene, avoiding contaminated food and water, and taking steps to boost the immune system in individuals who are at high risk of infection.

Oligohymenophorea is a class within the phylum Ciliophora, which includes protozoans commonly known as ciliates. This group is characterized by having a complex ciliary structure called an undulating membrane and a reduced number of oral primordia (hence the name "oligo" meaning few and "hymenophorea" referring to the oral apparatus).

Members of Oligohymenophorea are diverse, ranging from free-living species found in various aquatic environments to parasitic forms that infect animals. Some well-known examples include Tetrahymena, Paramecium, and Ichthyophthirius (the causative agent of "white spot" disease in freshwater fish).

It's important to note that the classification of ciliates has undergone significant revisions in recent years due to advances in molecular biology and ultrastructural studies. As a result, some sources may use different names or classifications for this group.

A ribosome is a complex molecular machine found in all living cells, responsible for protein synthesis. It consists of two subunits: the small and the large subunit. The small ribosomal subunit plays a crucial role in decoding the messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule and positioning transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules during translation.

The small ribosomal subunit, specifically, is composed of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and proteins. In eukaryotic cells, the small ribosomal subunit is composed of a 18S rRNA molecule and approximately 30 distinct proteins. Its primary function is to recognize the start codon on the mRNA and facilitate the binding of the initiator tRNA (tRNAi) to begin the translation process.

Together, the small and large ribosomal subunits form a functional ribosome that translates genetic information from mRNA into proteins, contributing to the maintenance and growth of cells.

18S rRNA (ribosomal RNA) is the smaller subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome, which is the cellular organelle responsible for protein synthesis. The "18S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of this rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its rate of sedimentation in a centrifuge and is expressed in Svedberg units (S).

The 18S rRNA is a component of the 40S subunit of the ribosome, and it plays a crucial role in the decoding of messenger RNA (mRNA) during protein synthesis. Specifically, the 18S rRNA helps to form the structure of the ribosome and contains several conserved regions that are involved in binding to mRNA and guiding the movement of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) during translation.

The 18S rRNA is also a commonly used molecular marker for evolutionary studies, as its sequence is highly conserved across different species and can be used to infer phylogenetic relationships between organisms. Additionally, the analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences has been widely used in various fields such as ecology, environmental science, and medicine to study biodiversity, biogeography, and infectious diseases.

I'd be happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. RNA stands for Ribonucleic Acid, which is a type of nucleic acid involved in various biological roles in the coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. On the other hand, protozoan refers to a unicellular organism from the kingdom Protista, which includes a wide variety of simple eukaryotic organisms such as amoebas, paramecia, and plasmodium (the malaria-causing parasite).

There isn't a specific medical definition for "RNA, protozoan" since RNA is a molecule present in all living cells, including human cells, and protozoans are a group of organisms. However, I can tell you that RNA plays crucial roles in protozoan biology, such as acting as a messenger between DNA and ribosomes during protein synthesis or regulating gene expression.

If you have any further questions or need more specific information about RNA in protozoans, please let me know!

There doesn't seem to be a specific medical definition for "DNA, protozoan" as it is simply a reference to the DNA found in protozoa. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms that can be found in various environments such as soil, water, and the digestive tracts of animals.

Protozoan DNA refers to the genetic material present in these organisms. It is composed of nucleic acids, including deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), which contain the instructions for the development, growth, and reproduction of the protozoan.

The DNA in protozoa, like in other organisms, is made up of two strands of nucleotides that coil together to form a double helix. The four nucleotide bases that make up protozoan DNA are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). These bases pair with each other to form the rungs of the DNA ladder, with A always pairing with T and G always pairing with C.

The genetic information stored in protozoan DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nucleotide bases. This information is used to synthesize proteins, which are essential for the structure and function of the organism's cells. Protozoan DNA also contains other types of genetic material, such as regulatory sequences that control gene expression and repetitive elements with no known function.

Understanding the DNA of protozoa is important for studying their biology, evolution, and pathogenicity. It can help researchers develop new treatments for protozoan diseases and gain insights into the fundamental principles of genetics and cellular function.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "flounder" is not a medical term. It is a common name used for several species of flatfish that are widely consumed as food. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, please don't hesitate to ask!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Namibia" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in southern Africa, bordered by Angola and Zambia to the north, Botswana to the east, South Africa to the south and southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them for you.

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

rRNA (ribosomal RNA) is not a type of gene itself, but rather a crucial component that is transcribed from genes known as ribosomal DNA (rDNA). In cells, rRNA plays an essential role in protein synthesis by assembling with ribosomal proteins to form ribosomes. Ribosomes are complex structures where the translation of mRNA into proteins occurs. There are multiple types of rRNA molecules, including 5S, 5.8S, 18S, and 28S rRNAs in eukaryotic cells, each with specific functions during protein synthesis.

In summary, 'Genes, rRNA' would refer to the genetic regions (genes) that code for ribosomal RNA molecules, which are vital components of the protein synthesis machinery within cells.

"Fish diseases" is a broad term that refers to various health conditions and infections affecting fish populations in aquaculture, ornamental fish tanks, or wild aquatic environments. These diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or environmental factors such as water quality, temperature, and stress.

Some common examples of fish diseases include:

1. Bacterial diseases: Examples include furunculosis (caused by Aeromonas salmonicida), columnaris disease (caused by Flavobacterium columnare), and enteric septicemia of catfish (caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri).

2. Viral diseases: Examples include infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in salmonids, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), and koi herpesvirus (KHV).

3. Fungal diseases: Examples include saprolegniasis (caused by Saprolegnia spp.) and cotton wool disease (caused by Aphanomyces spp.).

4. Parasitic diseases: Examples include ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich), costia, trichodina, and various worm infestations such as anchor worms (Lernaea spp.) and tapeworms (Diphyllobothrium spp.).

5. Environmental diseases: These are caused by poor water quality, temperature stress, or other environmental factors that weaken the fish's immune system and make them more susceptible to infections. Examples include osmoregulatory disorders, ammonia toxicity, and low dissolved oxygen levels.

It is essential to diagnose and treat fish diseases promptly to prevent their spread among fish populations and maintain healthy aquatic ecosystems. Preventative measures such as proper sanitation, water quality management, biosecurity practices, and vaccination can help reduce the risk of fish diseases in both farmed and ornamental fish settings.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

5.8S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of structural RNA molecule that is a component of the large subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. It is one of the several rRNA species that are present in the ribosome, which also include the 18S rRNA in the small subunit and the 28S and 5S rRNAs in the large subunit. The 5.8S rRNA plays a role in the translation process, where it helps in the decoding of messenger RNA (mRNA) during protein synthesis. It is transcribed from DNA as part of a larger precursor RNA molecule, which is then processed to produce the mature 5.8S rRNA. The length of the 5.8S rRNA varies slightly between species, but it is generally around 160 nucleotides long in humans.

Gills are specialized respiratory organs found in many aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, and some mollusks. They are typically thin, feathery structures that increase the surface area for gas exchange between the water and the animal's bloodstream. Gills extract oxygen from water while simultaneously expelling carbon dioxide.

In fish, gills are located in the gill chamber, which is covered by opercula or protective bony flaps. Water enters through the mouth, flows over the gills, and exits through the opercular openings. The movement of water over the gills allows for the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide across the gill filaments and lamellae, which are the thin plates where gas exchange occurs.

Gills contain a rich supply of blood vessels, allowing for efficient transport of oxygen to the body's tissues and removal of carbon dioxide. The counter-current flow of water and blood in the gills ensures that the concentration gradient between the water and the blood is maximized, enhancing the efficiency of gas exchange.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Aquaculture is the controlled cultivation and farming of aquatic organisms, such as fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and aquatic plants, in both freshwater and saltwater environments. It involves the breeding, rearing, and harvesting of these organisms under controlled conditions to produce food, feed, recreational resources, and other products for human use. Aquaculture can take place in a variety of systems, including ponds, raceways, tanks, and cages, and it is an important source of protein and livelihoods for many people around the world.

Seawater is not a medical term, but it is a type of water that covers more than 70% of the Earth's surface. Medically, seawater can be relevant in certain contexts, such as in discussions of marine biology, environmental health, or water safety. Seawater has a high salt content, with an average salinity of around 3.5%, which is much higher than that of freshwater. This makes it unsuitable for drinking or irrigation without desalination.

Exposure to seawater can also have medical implications, such as in cases of immersion injuries, marine envenomations, or waterborne illnesses. However, there is no single medical definition of seawater.

The ribosomal spacer in DNA refers to the non-coding sequences of DNA that are located between the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). These spacer regions are present in the DNA of organisms that have a nuclear genome, including humans and other animals, plants, and fungi.

In prokaryotic cells, such as bacteria, there are two ribosomal RNA genes, 16S and 23S, separated by a spacer region known as the intergenic spacer (IGS). In eukaryotic cells, there are multiple copies of ribosomal RNA genes arranged in clusters called nucleolar organizer regions (NORs), which are located on the short arms of several acrocentric chromosomes. Each cluster contains hundreds to thousands of copies of the 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rRNA genes, separated by non-transcribed spacer regions known as internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and external transcribed spacers (ETS).

The ribosomal spacer regions in DNA are often used as molecular markers for studying evolutionary relationships among organisms because they evolve more rapidly than the rRNA genes themselves. The sequences of these spacer regions can be compared among different species to infer their phylogenetic relationships and to estimate the time since they diverged from a common ancestor. Additionally, the length and composition of ribosomal spacers can vary between individuals within a species, making them useful for studying genetic diversity and population structure.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that is a key component of ribosomes, which are the cellular structures where protein synthesis occurs in cells. In ribosomes, rRNA plays a crucial role in the process of translation, where genetic information from messenger RNA (mRNA) is translated into proteins.

Ribosomal RNA is synthesized in the nucleus and then transported to the cytoplasm, where it assembles with ribosomal proteins to form ribosomes. Within the ribosome, rRNA provides a structural framework for the assembly of the ribosome and also plays an active role in catalyzing the formation of peptide bonds between amino acids during protein synthesis.

There are several different types of rRNA molecules, including 5S, 5.8S, 18S, and 28S rRNA, which vary in size and function. These rRNA molecules are highly conserved across different species, indicating their essential role in protein synthesis and cellular function.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fresh Water" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe water that contains low concentrations of dissolved salts and other dissolved minerals. It is distinguished from saline water, which includes saltwater found in the ocean and brackish water found in estuaries. Fresh water is essential for many biological processes and is the primary source of water for human consumption, agriculture, and industrial use.

Microscopy is a technical field in medicine that involves the use of microscopes to observe structures and phenomena that are too small to be seen by the naked eye. It allows for the examination of samples such as tissues, cells, and microorganisms at high magnifications, enabling the detection and analysis of various medical conditions, including infections, diseases, and cellular abnormalities.

There are several types of microscopy used in medicine, including:

1. Light Microscopy: This is the most common type of microscopy, which uses visible light to illuminate and magnify samples. It can be used to examine a wide range of biological specimens, such as tissue sections, blood smears, and bacteria.
2. Electron Microscopy: This type of microscopy uses a beam of electrons instead of light to produce highly detailed images of samples. It is often used in research settings to study the ultrastructure of cells and tissues.
3. Fluorescence Microscopy: This technique involves labeling specific molecules within a sample with fluorescent dyes, allowing for their visualization under a microscope. It can be used to study protein interactions, gene expression, and cell signaling pathways.
4. Confocal Microscopy: This type of microscopy uses a laser beam to scan a sample point by point, producing high-resolution images with reduced background noise. It is often used in medical research to study the structure and function of cells and tissues.
5. Scanning Probe Microscopy: This technique involves scanning a sample with a physical probe, allowing for the measurement of topography, mechanical properties, and other characteristics at the nanoscale. It can be used in medical research to study the structure and function of individual molecules and cells.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Cluster analysis is a statistical method used to group similar objects or data points together based on their characteristics or features. In medical and healthcare research, cluster analysis can be used to identify patterns or relationships within complex datasets, such as patient records or genetic information. This technique can help researchers to classify patients into distinct subgroups based on their symptoms, diagnoses, or other variables, which can inform more personalized treatment plans or public health interventions.

Cluster analysis involves several steps, including:

1. Data preparation: The researcher must first collect and clean the data, ensuring that it is complete and free from errors. This may involve removing outlier values or missing data points.
2. Distance measurement: Next, the researcher must determine how to measure the distance between each pair of data points. Common methods include Euclidean distance (the straight-line distance between two points) or Manhattan distance (the distance between two points along a grid).
3. Clustering algorithm: The researcher then applies a clustering algorithm, which groups similar data points together based on their distances from one another. Common algorithms include hierarchical clustering (which creates a tree-like structure of clusters) or k-means clustering (which assigns each data point to the nearest centroid).
4. Validation: Finally, the researcher must validate the results of the cluster analysis by evaluating the stability and robustness of the clusters. This may involve re-running the analysis with different distance measures or clustering algorithms, or comparing the results to external criteria.

Cluster analysis is a powerful tool for identifying patterns and relationships within complex datasets, but it requires careful consideration of the data preparation, distance measurement, and validation steps to ensure accurate and meaningful results.

Biodiversity of marine scuticociliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from China: Description of seven morphotypes including a new ...
A starter template for open hardware project websites.
Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution CC BY Licence.. ...
"Ciliophora" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Ciliophora" by people in this website by year, and whether " ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Ciliophora" by people in Profiles. ...
Ciliophora. Ciliophora is the protozoan phylum in the now-obsolete kingdom Protista. They are described by the presence of hair ... Ciliophora have no hard parts and their fossils are rare. There are many types of Ciliophora such as Paramecium, Didiphora, ... Most Ciliophora have a contractile vacuole and a flexible pellicle.. Ciliophora are characterized by the three main features. ... Parasitic Ciliophora can cause death of animals. Ciliophora are Heterotrophs, the feed on small organisms like algae and ...
Ciliophora, Peniculida) from a wastewater treatment plant in Brazil Thiago da Silva Paiva, Bárbara do Nascimento Borges, Maria ... Ciliophora: Oligotrichia) from Brazil Thiago da Silva Paiva, Gabriela Cristina Küppers, Inácio Domingos da Silva-Neto ... v. 17 n. 1 (2016): Revista Brasileira de Zoociências - Ciliophora Publicado: 2016-06-20 ... Occurrence of suctorian ciliates (Ciliophora, Suctoria) in a polluted creek in Southern Brazil Fernanda Benedetto Gazulha, ...
Heliophrya rotunda the focus plane is on the tentacles that are distributed in fascicles which are orientated like the scale marks of a clock. Some diatoms have been caught by the tentacles. Interestingly enough the specimens shown in these images were found on artificilally exposed micro-slides, the same subtrate as described in the book of D. Mattes about Suctoria. The oval-shaped macronucleus with the micronucleus (on the right) is visible in the center of the cell. (1) ...
Ciliophora, Hypotrichida) from activated sludge sewage treatment plants. European Journal of Protistology. 31, p. 459. ...
Lynn, D.H. (2001). "Ciliophora". Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. doi:10.1038/npg.els.0004264. Lynn, D. ( ...
We present a checklist of tintinnids (Ciliophora, Oligotrichea) from Masinloc-Oyon Bay, Province of Zambales, West Philippine ...
Ciliophora - the ciliates, e.g., Balantidium. *Sporozoa - organisms whose adult stage is not motile e.g., Plasmodium, ...
Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) from Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) cultured in southeastern Mexico ... First record of Trichodina centrostrigeata Basson, Van As & Paperna, 1983 (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) from Oreochromis ... Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) from Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) cultured in southeastern Mexico. Lat. Am. J. Aquat. Res. ... Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) from Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) cultured in southeastern Mexico. Latin American Journal ...
Four new species of Hysterocinetida (Protozoa: Ciliophora) from the digestive tract of earthworms collected to the lower Nyong ... Ciliophora) from the digestive tract of earthworms collected to the lower Nyong estuary (South Coast, Cameroon). Zootaxa, 2022 ...
A free silhouette image of Ciliophora Doflein 1901 [Dunthorn & Lynn 2020] by Emily Jane McTavish, from http://chestofbooks.com/ ... Ciliophora by Emily Jane McTavish, from http://chestofbooks.com/animals/Manual-Of-Zoology/images/I-Order-Ciliata-41.jpg. Add to ... Ciliophora by Emily Jane McTavish, from http://chestofbooks.com/animals/Manual-Of-Zoology/images/I-Order-Ciliata-41.jpg ...
Ciliophora class Oligotrichea order Choreotrichida family Epiplocylididae genus Epiplocyloides Name. Homonyms. Epiplocyloides ...
Phylum: Ciliophora. Subphylum: Intramacronucleata. Infraphylum: Ventrata Classis: Plagiopylea Ordo: Odontostomatida Familia: ...
Phylum: Ciliophora. Subphylum: Postciliodesmatophora. Class: Heterotrichea Order: Heterotrichida Suborder: ?Coliphorina ...
Montagnes DJS, Lowe CD, Poultonb A, Jonsson PR (2002). Redescription of Strombidium oculatum Gruber 1884 (Ciliophora, ... Montagnes DJS, Lowe CD, Poultonb A, Jonsson PR (2002). Redescription of Strombidium oculatum Gruber 1884 (Ciliophora, ... Redescription of Strombidium oculatum Gruber 1884 (Ciliophora, Oligotrichia).. The marine, tide pool-dwelling ciliate ... Redescription of Strombidium oculatum Gruber 1884 (Ciliophora, Oligotrichia).. The marine, tide pool-dwelling ciliate ...
Ciliophora, Oligotrichea): phylogenetic position inferred from morphology, ontogenesis, and gene sequence data. Eur J Protistol ...
Ciliophora Phylum. Craspedophyta Phylum. Euglenophycota - euglenoids, eugl nes. Phylum. Protozoa Phylum. Sarcomastigophora ...
European Marine Sites, Datasets, Species and Distribution - MarBEF Integrated Data System (MarIDaS)
Power, C.,Garza, J.,Evans, D.,Nowak, B.,Bridle, A.,Bott, N. (2019). Detection of Miamiensis avidus (Ciliophora: Scuticociliatia ...
Xu, K.; Agatha, S. & Dolan, J. (2023). World Ciliophora Database. Exogenida. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species ...
Ciliophora (ciliates) Protozoa that move by using fine cilia that beat in rhythmic patterns to propel the organism. Members ...
basis of record Coats, D.W.; Clamp, J.C. (2009). Ciliated Protists (Ciliophora) of the Gulf of Mexico. Pp. 57-79 in D.L. Felder ... Xu, K.; Agatha, S. & Dolan, J. (2023). World Ciliophora Database. Lacrymaria olor O.F. Müller, 1776. Accessed through: Costello ...
Redescription of Strombidium oculatum Gruber 1884 (Ciliophora, Oligotrichia) D. J. S. Montagnes, C. Lowe, A. Poulton, Per R. ...
Categories: Ciliophora Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 10 ...
Length: 150-250 mm. • Description:. Frontonia has an ovoid, flattened body, rather dark. • Similar genera:. Paramecium • Pictures: ...
A species related to Schmidingerothrix from the order Ciliophora showed high abundance at high-pH (Figure 1 and Supplementary ... spec., a secondarily oligomerized hypotrich (Ciliophora, Hypotricha, Schmidingerotrichidae nov. fam.) from hypersaline soils of ...
Genetic heterogeneity in internal transcribed spacer genes of Balantidium coli (Litostomatea, Ciliophora). Protist. 2011 Nov. ...

No FAQ available that match "ciliophora"

No images available that match "ciliophora"