Ciliophora: A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.Ciliophora Infections: Infections with protozoa of the phylum CILIOPHORA.Oligohymenophorea: A class of ciliate protozoa. Characteristics include the presence of a well developed oral apparatus and oral cilia being clearly distinct from somatic cilia.Ribosome Subunits, Small: The small ribonucleoprotein component of RIBOSOMES. It contains the MESSENGER RNA binding site and two TRANSFER RNA binding sites - one for the incoming AMINO ACYL TRNA (A site) and the other (P site) for the peptidyl tRNA carrying the elongating peptide chain.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Flounder: Common name for two families of FLATFISHES belonging to the order Pleuronectiformes: left-eye flounders (Bothidae) and right-eye flounders (Pleuronectidae). The latter is more commonly used in research.Namibia: A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.RNA, Ribosomal, 5.8S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Aloe: A plant genus of the family Aloeaceae, order Liliales (or Asphodelaceae, Asparagales in APG system) which is used medicinally. It contains anthraquinone glycosides such as aloin-emodin or aloe-emodin (EMODIN).Hepatitis, Infectious Canine: A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.MonographBooksDogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Flatfishes: Common name for the order Pleuronectiformes. A very distinctive group in that during development they become asymmetrical, i.e., one eye migrates to lie adjacent to the other. They swim on the eyeless side. FLOUNDER, sole, and turbot, along with several others, are included in this order.PortugalAxenic Culture: Culture of an isolated organism free from any other associating or contaminating organisms.Amoebida: An order of ameboid protozoa that is commonly uninucleate and possess mitochondria. Most organisms are nonpathogenic.Novirhabdovirus: A genus in the family RHABDOVIRIDAE, infecting numerous species of fish with broad geographic distribution. The type species is INFECTIOUS HEMATOPOIETIC NECROSIS VIRUS.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Hydrangeaceae: A plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Crenarchaeota: A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA comprised of thermoacidophilic, sulfur-dependent organisms. The two orders are SULFOLOBALES and THERMOPROTEALES.Apicomplexa: A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Antivenins: Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.PhilippinesTrinidad and Tobago: An independent state in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies, north of Venezuela, comprising the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Its capital is Port of Spain. Both islands were discovered by Columbus in 1498. The Spanish, English, Dutch, and French figure in their history over four centuries. Trinidad and Tobago united in 1898 and were made part of the British colony of Trinidad and Tobago in 1899. The colony became an independent state in 1962. Trinidad was so named by Columbus either because he arrived on Trinity Sunday or because three mountain peaks suggested the Holy Trinity. Tobago was given the name by Columbus from the Haitian tambaku, pipe, from the natives' habit of smoking tobacco leaves. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1228, 1216 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p555, 547)Asia, Central: The geographical area of Asia comprising KAZAKHSTAN; KYRGYZSTAN; TAJIKISTAN; TURKMENISTAN; and UZBEKISTAN. The desert region of Kara Kum (Qara Qum) is largely in Turkmenistan and the desert region of Kyzyl Kum (Kizil Kum or Qizil Qum), is in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p233, 590, 636)Gardening: Cultivation of PLANTS; (FRUIT; VEGETABLES; MEDICINAL HERBS) on small plots of ground or in containers.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Goldfish: Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).Camallanina: A suborder of nematodes characterized by larvae lacking cephalic hooks and a tail that is generally long and pointed.Checklist: Aid for consistent recording of data such as tasks completed and observations noted.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Oligochaeta: A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.HandbooksManuals as Topic: Books designed to give factual information or instructions.Cartoons as Topic: Images used to comment on such things as contemporary events, social habits, or political trends; usually executed in a broad or abbreviated manner.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Hypericum: Genus of perennial plants in the family CLUSIACEAE (sometimes classified as Hypericaceae). Herbal and homeopathic preparations are used for depression, neuralgias, and a variety of other conditions. Hypericum contains flavonoids; GLYCOSIDES; mucilage, TANNINS; volatile oils (OILS, ESSENTIAL), hypericin and hyperforin.Odonata: An order of insects comprising three suborders: Anisoptera, Zygoptera, and Anisozygoptera. They consist of dragonflies and damselflies.Medical Tourism: Travel to another country for the purpose of medical treatment.Azure Stains: PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Melopsittacus: A genus, commonly called budgerigars, in the family PSITTACIDAE. In the United States they are considered one of the five species of PARAKEETS.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Book Reviews as Topic: Critical analyses of books or other monographic works.Book ReviewsAmphipoda: An order of mostly marine CRUSTACEA containing more than 5500 species in over 100 families. Like ISOPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Isopoda, they possess thoracic gills and their bodies are laterally compressed.SvalbardFood, Preserved: Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.Acanthocephala: A phylum of parasitic worms, closely related to tapeworms and containing two genera: Moniliformis, which sometimes infects man, and Macracanthorhynchus, which infects swine.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Nephropidae: Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.Trombiculidae: Family of MITES in the superfamily Trombiculoidea, suborder Prostigmata, which attack humans and other vertebrates, causing DERMATITIS and severe allergic reactions. Chiggers, red bugs, and harvest mites commonly refer to the larval stage of Trombiculid mites, the only parasitic stage of the mite's life cycle.Phthiraptera: An order of small, wingless parasitic insects, commonly known as lice. The suborders include ANOPLURA (sucking lice); AMBLYCERA; ISCHNOCERA; and Rhynchophthirina (elephant and warthog lice).Esocidae: A family of freshwater fish of the order ESOCIFORMES, comprising the pikes, inhabiting the waters of the Northern Hemisphere. There is one genus, Esox, with five species: northern pike, grass pickerel, chain pickerel, muskellunge, and Amur pike.Arguloida: An order of CRUSTACEA that are parasitic on freshwater fish.Acari: A large, subclass of arachnids comprising the MITES and TICKS, including parasites of plants, animals, and humans, as well as several important disease vectors.Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Argasidae: A family of softbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include ARGAS and ORNITHODOROS among others.Mite Infestations: Infestations with arthropods of the subclass ACARI, superorder Acariformes.Ticks: Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)Varroidae: A family of MITES in the subclass ACARI. It includes the single genus Varroa.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Parasite Load: Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.Exobiology: The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Plasmodium berghei: A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles dureni.Paramecium tetraurelia: A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.Paramecium: A genus of ciliate protozoa that is often large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Paramecia are commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.Lantana: A plant genus of the family VERBENACEAE. Members contain lantadene and other TRITERPENES.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Alveolata: A group of three related eukaryotic phyla whose members possess an alveolar membrane system, consisting of flattened membrane-bound sacs lying beneath the outer cell membrane.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Cyanophora: A genus of primitive plants in the family Cyanophoraceae, class GLAUCOPHYTA. They contain pigmented ORGANELLES (or PLASTIDS) called cyanelles, which have characteristics of both CYANOBACTERIA and CHLOROPLASTS.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).Aztreonam: A monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. It is resistant to beta-lactamases and is used in gram-negative infections, especially of the meninges, bladder, and kidneys. It may cause a superinfection with gram-positive organisms.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Entamoeba histolytica: A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Octopodiformes: A superorder in the class CEPHALOPODA, consisting of the orders Octopoda (octopus) with over 200 species and Vampyromorpha with a single species. The latter is a phylogenetic relic but holds the key to the origins of Octopoda.Entamoeba: A genus of ameboid protozoa characterized by the presence of beaded chromatin on the inner surface of the nuclear membrane. Its organisms are parasitic in invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans.Entamoebiasis: Infection with amoebae of the genus ENTAMOEBA. Infection with E. histolytica causes DYSENTERY, AMEBIC and LIVER ABSCESS, AMEBIC.Dysentery, Amebic: DYSENTERY caused by intestinal amebic infection, chiefly with ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA. This condition may be associated with amebic infection of the LIVER and other distant sites.Liver Abscess, Amebic: Single or multiple areas of PUS due to infection by any ameboid protozoa (AMEBIASIS). A common form is caused by the ingestion of ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA.Trophozoites: Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Aminoethylphosphonic Acid: An organophosphorus compound isolated from human and animal tissues.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Pouteria: A plant genus of the family SAPOTACEAE. Members contain triterpenes. Some species in this genus are called mamey which is also a common name for MAMMEA.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Amylases: A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.alpha-Amylases: Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Ampulla of Vater: A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.TexasMexicoBiodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Iron Compounds: Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.AlabamaForecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Empathy: An individual's objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. (From Bioethics Thesaurus, 1992)Propidium: Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.Micronucleus Tests: Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.Iodides: Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.Micronucleus, Germline: The smaller, reproductive, transcriptionally inert nucleus in the cells of ciliate protozoans, as distinguished from the larger, vegetative, transcriptionally active MACRONUCLEUS. Micronuclei participate in MEIOSIS and autogamy during GENETIC CONJUGATION.Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective: Defective nuclei produced during the TELOPHASE of MITOSIS or MEIOSIS by lagging CHROMOSOMES or chromosome fragments derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced chromosomal structural changes.Tetrahymena thermophila: A species of ciliate protozoa used in genetic and cytological research.Tetrahymena: A genus of ciliate protozoa commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Jasminum: A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain secoiridoid glucosides and this is the source of oil of jasmine.Quackery: The fraudulent misrepresentation of the diagnosis and treatment of disease.Tenuivirus: A genus of RNA plant viruses as yet unassigned to any family. Plant hosts are all in the family Poaceae. Each species is transmitted by a particular species of planthopper. The type species is Rice stripe virus.Hospices: Facilities or services which are especially devoted to providing palliative and supportive care to the patient with a terminal illness and to the patient's family.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Natural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Mastodynia: Pain in the breast generally classified as cyclical (associated with menstrual periods), or noncyclical, i.e. originating from the breast or nearby muscles or joints, ranging from minor discomfort to severely incapacitating.Sesquiterpenes, Germacrane: SESQUITERPENES cyclized to one 10-carbon ring.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Bryophyta: A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.Phaeophyta: A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.Stevens-Johnson Syndrome: Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.Coniferophyta: A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.Exhibits as Topic: Discussions, descriptions or catalogs of public displays or items representative of a given subject.Dictyosteliida: An order of protozoa characterized by their ability to aggregate to form a multicellular pseudoplasmodium, which gives rise to a multispored fruiting body. A stalk tube is present.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Rhizosphere: The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Eriogonum: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Pteridium: A plant genus of the family DENNSTAEDTIACEAE. Members contain ptaquiloside, braxin A1, and braxin B. The name is similar to brake fern (PTERIS).Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.Terphenyl Compounds: Compounds consisting of benzene rings linked to each other in either ortho, meta or para positions. Permitted are any substitutions, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.Polyplacophora: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of flattened, elongated marine mollusks, commonly called chitons. They are unique in that they possess seven or eight separate shell plates.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Cocci: A group of anaerobic coccoid bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.RNA, Catalytic: RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.Group IA Phospholipases A2: A subclass of group I phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from ELAPID VENOMS.Government Programs: Programs and activities sponsored or administered by local, state, or national governments.Hyperpigmentation: Excessive pigmentation of the skin, usually as a result of increased epidermal or dermal melanin pigmentation, hypermelanosis. Hyperpigmentation can be localized or generalized. The condition may arise from exposure to light, chemicals or other substances, or from a primary metabolic imbalance.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Sinorhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, nonsporeforming rods which usually contain granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Waste Water: Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Feeder Cells: Cells used in COCULTURE TECHNIQUES which support the growth of the other cells in the culture. Feeder cells provide auxillary substances including attachment substrates, nutrients, or other factors that are needed for growth in culture.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Cephalopoda: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SQUID; CUTTLEFISH; OCTOPUS; and NAUTILUS. These marine animals are the most highly organized of all the mollusks.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.TextbooksTrematoda: Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.Helminths: Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.Cestoda: A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.

Unusually high evolutionary rate of the elongation factor 1 alpha genes from the Ciliophora and its impact on the phylogeny of eukaryotes. (1/483)

The elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) has become widely employed as a phylogenetic marker for studying eukaryotic evolution. However, a disturbing problem, the artifactual polyphyly of ciliates, is always observed. It has been suggested that the addition of new sequences will help to circumvent this problem. Thus, we have determined 15 new ciliate EF-1 alpha sequences, providing for a more comprehensive taxonomic sampling of this phylum. These sequences have been analyzed together with a representation of eukaryotic sequences using distance-, parsimony-, and likelihood-based phylogenetic methods. Such analyses again failed to recover the monophyly of Ciliophora. A study of the substitution rate showed that ciliate EF-1 alpha genes exhibit a high evolutionary rate, produced in part by an increased number of variable positions. This acceleration could be related to alterations of the accessory functions acquired by this protein, likely to those involving interactions with the cytoskeleton, which is very modified in the Ciliophora. The high evolutionary rate of these sequences leads to an artificial basal emergence of some ciliates in the eukaryotic tree by effecting a long-branch attraction artifact that produces an asymmetric topology for the basal region of the tree. The use of a maximum-likelihood phylogenetic method (which is less sensitive to long-branch attraction) and the addition of sequences to break long branches allow retrieval of more symmetric topologies, which suggests that the asymmetric part of the tree is most likely artifactual. Therefore, the sole reliable part of the tree appears to correspond to the apical symmetric region. These kinds of observations suggest that the general eukaryotic evolution might have consisted of a massive radiation followed by an increase in the evolutionary rates of certain groups that emerge artificially as early branches in the asymmetric base of the tree. Ciliates in the case of the EF-1 alpha genes would offer clear evidence for this hypothesis.  (+info)

Ultrastructure of meiosis-inducing (heterotypic) and non-inducing (homotypic) cell unions in conjugation of Blepharisma. (2/483)

Cells of mating types I and II of Blepharisma japonicum interact with each other and unite in heterotypic (type I-type II) or homotypic (type I-type I, type II-type II) pairs. Heterotypic pairs undergo meiosis and other nuclear changes of conjugation, while homotypic pairs remain united for days without the nuclear changes taking place. We compared cell unions of these two kinds of pairs at the ultrastructural level. In the homotypic union, cell membranes are closely juxtaposed, separated by a distance of about 20 nm. This arrangement is interrupted in some places by vacuoles and small cytoplasmic bridges. Saccule-like structures tend to be more abundant near the united surfaces. Microtubules running at right or slightly obtuse angles with the cell surface (PACM microtubules) are characteristically present at the united region of cells. These structures are very similar to those observed in earlier stages of the heterotypic union. However, in homotypic pairs, cells unite only at the anterior half of the peristome, while in heterotypic pairs cells unite also at the posterior half of the peristome, where the cell membrane totally disappears in later stages. PACM microtubules persist for at least 18 h in homotypic unions, while they disappear within a few hours in heterotypic unions. These differences between the two kinds of cell union are discussed in relation to the initiation mechanism of meiosis and other nuclear changes of conjugation. Similarities between homotypic union and cell junctions in multicellular organisms are also discussed.  (+info)

Dermatitis with invasive ciliated protozoa in dolphins that died during the 1987-1988 Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin morbilliviral epizootic. (3/483)

Dermatitis with intradermal cilated protozoa was identified in 18 of 95 (19%) Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) that died during the 1987-1988 Atlantic-dolphin morbillivirus epizootic. The lesions were characterized by focally extensive suppurative and histiocytic dermatitis and cellulitis with ulceration and variable numbers of dermal and hypodermal ciliates. Vasculitis, thrombosis, and/or intravascular ciliates were rarely present. In one dolphin, there was an associated lymphadenitis with ciliates, and in another, bronchopneumonia with rare intrabronchiolar ciliates. Ten of the dolphins were female, and eight were male. The animals ranged in length from 148 to 260 cm. Eleven were from Virginia, four were from New Jersey, and three were from Florida. In 13 dolphins, results of immunohistochemical and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests were positive for morbillivirus infection. Results of immunohistochemical tests were negative in four dolphins that were not also tested with PCR. Results were also negative in one dolphin tested using both methods. Nine dolphins had concomitant bacterial, fungal, and/or other protozoal infections. Fourteen other dolphins with ciliate-associated dermatitis were identified from 414 Atlantic bottlenose dolphin cases (3%) archived at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. The incidence of dermatitis with invasive ciliates is much greater in dolphins that died during the 1987-1988 epizootic.  (+info)

Rumen ciliate protozoal fauna of native sheep, friesian cattle and dromedary camel in Libya. (4/483)

Rumen ciliate species and composition were surveyed on the native sheep, Friesian-cattle and dromedary (one-humped) camels kept in Libya. As a result of survey, 5 genera including 14 species with 5 formae in native sheep, 9 genera including 27 species with 6 formae in Friesian-cattle and 6 genera including 13 species and 7 formae in dromedary camels were identified. All of the ciliate species and their percentage composition detected from the Libyan sheep and cattle in this examination were similar to those found from corresponding animals in the other countries. Libyan camels lacked some peculiar ciliate species found from camels in the other countries, but had many cosmopolitan species common with those in the domestic ruminants, suggesting that ciliate faunae of camel are easily affected by the other domestic ruminants kept together. The ciliate density was estimated as 105/ml in every host species.  (+info)

Factors affecting the uptake and metabolism of soluble carbohydrates by the rumen ciliate Dasytricha ruminantium isolated from ovine rumen contents by filtration. (5/483)

A filtration technique is described whereby metabolically-active suspensions of Dasytricha ruminantium can be isolated from rumen contents with negligible contamination by bacteria or other protozoa. The effects of environmental factors and of the diurnal cycle of the rumen on the uptake and metabolism of soluble carbohydrates by these isolated cells were examined. The principal contribution of the protozoan metabolic end-products to the host ruminant is the supply of lactic, acetic and butyric acids during periods when soluble sugars are in excess.  (+info)

Anti-immunoglobulin antisera used in an ELISA to detect antibodies in barramundi Lates calcarifer to Cryptocaryon irritans. (6/483)

Immunoglobulins (Ig) in serum from barramundi vaccinated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and affinity chromatography using BSA as the ligand. The BSA-binding activity of eluted putative Ig fractions was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) before being pooled and characterised by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Double affinity purification did not improve the purity of the Ig preparation compared to single affinity purification. Barramundi Ig were injected into sheep to produce anti-Ig antisera which were assessed in an indirect ELISA as the secondary antibody to detect serum Ig in barramundi vaccinated with Cryptocaryon irritans theronts. Affinity-purified Ig induced a more specific reagent for use as secondary antibody in ELISA than did normal whole-barramundi sera. The heavy (H) chain of barramundi Ig had an apparent molecular weight of 70 kDa while that of the light (L) chain was 27 kDa in SDS-PAGE studies. Under non-reducing conditions 2 putative populations of Ig were identified, at 768 and 210 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of the barramundi Ig H chain showed 78% homology with channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus Ig H chain sequence.  (+info)

Graviresponses of certain ciliates and flagellates. (7/483)

Protozoa are eukaryotic cells and represent suitable model systems to study the mechanisms of gravity perception and signal transduction due to their clear gravity-induced responses (gravitaxis and gravikinesis). Among protists, parallel evolution for graviperception mechanisms have been identified: either sensing by distinct stato-organelles (e.g., the Muller vesicles of the ciliate Loxodes) or by sensing the density difference between the whole cytoplasm and the extracellular medium (as proposed for Paramecium and Euglena). These two models are supported by experiments in density-adjusted media, as the gravitaxis of Loxodes was not affected, whereas the orientation of Paramecium and Euglena was completely disturbed. Both models include the involvement of ion channels in the cell membrane. Diverse experiments gave new information on the mechanism of graviperception in unicellular systems, such as threshold values in the range of 10% of gravity, relaxation of the responses after removal of the stimulus, and no visible adaptation phenomena during exposure to hypergravity or microgravity conditions for up to 12 days.  (+info)

A subtelomeric DNA sequence is required for correct processing of the macronuclear DNA sequences during macronuclear development in the hypotrichous ciliate Stylonychia lemnae. (8/483)

During macronuclear differentiation in ciliated protozoa a series of programed DNA reorganization processes occur. These include the elimination of micronuclear-specific DNA sequences, the specific fragmentation of the genome into small gene-sized DNA molecules, the de novo addition of telomeric sequences to these DNA molecules and the specific amplification of the remaining DNA molecules. Recently we constructed a vector containing the modified micronuclear version of macronuclear destined DNA sequences that was correctly fragmented and telomeres were added de novo after injection into the developing macronucleus. It therefore must contain all the cis- acting sequences required for these processes. We made a series of vectors deleting different sequences from the original vector. It could be shown that at least in the case studied here no micronuclear-specific sequences are required for specific fragmentation of the genome and telomere addition. However, a short subtelomeric sequence at the 3[prime]-end is essential for these processes, whereas no specific cut seems to occur at the 5[prime]-end. In addition, we can show that the processing activity is restricted to a short period of time during macronuclear differentiation and that a preceding transcription is required for correct processing of macronuclear-destined DNA sequences. Possible mechanisms of these processes will be discussed.  (+info)

*Halofolliculina corallasia

Lynn, D.H. (2001). "Ciliophora". Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. doi:10.1038/npg.els.0004264. Ruppert, E ...

*Hyalophysa clampi

Ciliophora, Apostomatida)". European Journal of Protistology. 48 (3): 207-214. doi:10.1016/j.ejop.2011.11.005. ...

*Stylonychia

Part 1. Ciliophora: Kinetofragminophora. = Synopses of the British Fauna (New Series), ed. by D. M. KERMACK and R. S. K. BARNES ... Berger, Helmut (2012). "B Systematic Section Stylonchinae". Monograph of the Oxytrichidae (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia). ...

*Colpoda inflata

"The catalogue of life". Foissner, Wilhelm (1993). Colpodea (Ciliophora). Stuttgart, New York: Gustav Fischer Verlag. pp. 84, ... Foissner, Wilhelm (1980). Colpodide Ciliaten (Protozoa: Ciliophora). Zool. Jb. Syst., 107. pp. 391-432. Gellért, J. (1942). ...

*Oligotrich

Ciliophora, Oligotrichia)". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 63: 1179-1191. doi:10.1099/ijs. ... Ciliophora, Oligotrichia) from southern China". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 63: 4805-17 ...

*Trichodinidae

Protozoa: Ciliophora: Peritrichia)". Systematic Parasitology. 69 (1): 1-11. doi:10.1007/s11230-007-9094-6. ISSN 0165-5752. PMID ... "A new species of Trichodina (Ciliophora: Peritricha) from a limnocnidid medusa in the Zambezi system". South African Journal of ...

*Plagiopyla

It includes nine species: WoRMS (2009). "Plagiopylidae". World Ciliophora Database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved ... WoRMS (2009). "Plagiopyla Stein, 1860". World Ciliophora Database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved June 1, 2010. ... Ciliophora, Odontostomatida) is a member of the Plagyopylea". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 54 (5): 436-442. doi:10.1111/ ...

*Paramecium

subgen.) chlorelligerum Kahl (Ciliophora)". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 59: 548-563. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2012.00638 ... of the phylum Ciliophora. Paramecia were among the first ciliates to be seen by microscopists, in the late 17th century. They ...

*Karyorelictea

Ciliophora, Karyorelictea), a highly specialized taxon represented by Wilbertomorpha colpoda gen. nov., spec. nov". The Journal ... Foissner, Wilhelm (1998). "The karyorelictids (Protozoa: Ciliophora), a unique and enigmatic assemblage of marine, interstitial ... Ciliophora)". Zoologica Scripta. 38 (6): 651-662. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2009.00395.x. Xu, Yuan; Li, Jiamei; Song, Weibo; ... World Ciliophora Database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved July 21, 2010. Lynn, Denis (2008-06-24). The Ciliated ...

*Chonotrich

Alan Warren (2010). "Chonotrichia". World Ciliophora Database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved January 23, 2011. ...

*Cothurnia

Hamilton, John Meacham (1952-01-01). "Studies on Loricate Ciliophora. I. Cothurnia variabilis Kellicott". Transactions of the ... Warren, Alan; Paynter, Jan (1991). "A revision of Cothurnia (Ciliophora:Peritrichida) and its morphological relatives". ... Ciliophora, Peritrichia)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 172 (2): 265-281. doi:10.1111/zoj.12168. Scott, Janis ...

*Unicellular organism

Ciliophora, or ciliates, are a group of protists that utilize cilia for locomotion. Examples include Paramecium, Stentors, and ... "Ciliophora: ciliates, move with cilia". www.microscope-microscope.org. Retrieved 2015-11-23. "Introduction to the Ciliata". www ...

*Euplotes petzi

and E. raikovi (Ciliophora, Euplotida)." European journal of protistology 46.2 (2010): 121-132. Di Giuseppe, Graziano, et al. " ... Wilbert, Norbert; Song, Weibo (2008). "A further study on littoral ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) near King George Island, ...

*Protoheterotrichida

Dragesco, Jean (26 November 1999). "Révision des Geléiides (Ciliophora, Karyorelictea)" (PDF). Stapfia. 66: 1-91. "WoRMS - ...

*Anteholosticha azerbaijanica

Helmut Berger (2007). Monograph of the Urostyloidea (Ciliophora, Hypotricha). Springer Science & Business Media. p. 455. ISBN ...

*Phyllopharyngea

Ciliophora: Phyllopharyngea: Cyrtophorida: Dysteriidae), from South Korea". Acta Protozoologica. 53 (3): 257-268. doi:10.4467/ ...

*Remanella

Kim, Ji-Hye; Kwon, Choon-Bong; Yoon, Jae-Sool; Shin, Mann-Kyoon (2009). "First Record of Three Loxodes Ciliates (Ciliophora: ... Ciliophora, Karyorelictea), emphasizing the infraciliature and extrusomes". European Journal of Protistology. 32: 234-250. " ... Ciliophora, Karyorelictea) with descriptions of two new species". European Journal of Protistology. 49 (3): 438-452. doi: ...

*Holosticha antarctica

comb.(Ciliophora: Urostylida) with brief notes on its cellular reorganization and SS rRNA gene sequence." European journal of ... spec.(Ciliophora, Hypotrichida) from the Yellow Sea, China."Hydrobiologia 464.1-3 (2001): 63-69. Holosticha antarctica at the ... Wilbert, Norbert; Song, Weibo (2008). "A further study on littoral ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) near King George Island, ...

*Mobilida

More recently, in a revised classification of Ciliophora drawing on both molecular and morphological data, researchers have ... Hausmann, Klaus; Hausmann, Erika (1981-02-01). "Structural studies on Trichodina pediculus (Ciliophora, Peritricha)". Journal ... Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea) Based on Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Gene Sequences, with the Establishment of a New Subclass ... Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea) Based on Small Subunit rRNA Genes Sequences". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 53 (5): 397- ...

*Dileptus

Monograph of the dileptids (Protista, Ciliophora, Rhynchostomatia). Land Oberösterreich, Biologiezentrum/Oberösterreichische ... Ciliophora, Rhynchostomatia)". European Journal of Protistology. 47: 295-313. doi:10.1016/j.ejop.2011.04.006. PMC 3234341 . ...

*Pseudomonilicaryon anser

und Dileptus anser (OF Müller, 1786)(Protozoa, Ciliophora)." Archiv für Protistenkunde 128.4 (1984): 305-317. Hausman, Leon ... Monograph of the dileptids (Protista, Ciliophora, Rhynchostomatia). Land Oberösterreich, Biologiezentrum/Oberösterreichische ...

*Cavichona

Taxonomic revision of subphylum Ciliophora Doflein, 1901. AW Jankowski, Zool. Zh, 1973 Ultrastructure of the sessile ciliate ...

*Oxytricha

Ciliophora: Sporadotrichida) from freshwater in Aurangabad" (PDF). Trends in Parasitology Research. 1 (1): 36-38. ISSN 2319- ...

*Oligohymenophorea

"Proposition d'une classification du phylum Ciliophora Doflein, 1901". Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences de Paris. 278: ...

*Tectin (secretion)

Dovgal IV (2002). "Evolution, phylogeny and classification of Suctorea (Ciliophora)" (PDF). Protistology. 2 (4): 194-270. ...
Isolated macronuclei from the hypotrichous ciliated protozoan Euplotes eurystomus incorporate biotinylated dUTP specifically into the replication band (RB) as detected with immunofluorescence, using rabbit anti-biotin antibodies followed by fluorescein-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG. When gold-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG was used in a preembedded reaction, subsequent immunoelectron microscopic analysis demonstrated that the biotinylated nucleotide appeared more concentrated in the rear zone of the RB, with almost no labeling in the forward zone. It was possible to use the immunofluorescent assay to establish that incorporation of biotinylated dUTP is inhibited by simultaneous addition of N-ethyl maleimide or aphidicolin, and by omission of any one of the other unlabeled dNTPs. In addition, prolonged heat shock of the intact cells, before lysis and in vitro assay, yielded markedly reduced incorporation. Comparison with published data on the in vivo incorporation of [3H]thymidine into ...
Bekijk Stockfoto van Conjugation In Blepharisma Protozoans Blepharisma Are Large Rose Colored Ciliated Protozoans In The Same Family As The Paramecium They Often Feed On Bacteria From Decomposing Vegetable Matter Sem. Ga voor hoogwaardige fotos met een hoge resolutie naar Getty Images.
View Stock Photo of Predation Among Protozoans A Dileptus Consuming A Tetrahymena Dileptus Is A Predatory Protozoan Sem. Find premium, high-resolution photos at Getty Images.
Background The hydrogenosomes of the anaerobic ciliate Nyctotherus ovalisshow how mitochondria can evolve into hydrogenosomes because they possess a mitochondrial genome and parts of an...
The ciliate Diploplastron affine is known as a common species of the rumen fauna in cattle and sheep. This protozoon is able to digest cellulose, whereas its amylolytic activity is not well known. The objective of the reported studies was to examine
Stentor. Light microscope footage of ciliate protozoan Stentor sp. foraging. Stentor species are filter-feeding freshwater protozoa which can reach lengths up to 2 millimetres, and are among the largest known unicellular organisms. A ring of prominent cilia surrounds the anterior part of the cell to sweep in food and aid in swimming. Some species live symbiotically with certain species of green algae. After being ingested, the algae live on and continue to photosynthesize, while their host absorbs nutrients they produce, and the algae receive protection and feed on the Stentors metabolic wastes. - Stock Video Clip K005/3564
Stentor. Light microscope footage of ciliate protozoan Stentor sp. foraging. Stentor species are filter-feeding freshwater protozoa which can reach lengths up to 2 millimetres, and are among the largest known unicellular organisms. A ring of prominent cilia surrounds the anterior part of the cell to sweep in food and aid in swimming. Some species live symbiotically with certain species of green algae. After being ingested, the algae live on and continue to photosynthesize, while their host absorbs nutrients they produce, and the algae receive protection and feed on the Stentors metabolic wastes. - Stock Video Clip K005/3562
Choose your favorite ciliate protozoan greeting cards from thousands of available designs. All ciliate protozoan greeting cards ship within 48 hours and include a 30-day money-back guarantee.
1. A method is presented for identifying and estimating the aminoethylphosphonate (ciliatine)-containing phospholipids in a complex mixture. 2. Evidence was obtained that the phospholipids of a pure culture of Entodinium caudatum and a mixed rumen protozoa sample contain diglyceride ciliatine, and a plasmalogen ciliatine was detected in the latter. 3. A ninhydrin-positive sphingolipid was isolated from rumen protozoa. Although chromatographically homogeneous on silica gel it contains two components, which were provisionally identified as ceramide ciliatine and ceramide phosphorylethanolamine. 4. A detailed phospholipid analysis of E. caudatum and rumen protozoa is presented. They contain no phosphatidylserine or cardiolipin, but an unidentified phosphoglyceride containing a zwitterionic amino acid is present.. ...
Suspensions of Blepharisma intermedium were fed latex particles for 5 min and then were separated from the particles by filtration. Samples were fixed at intervals after separation and incubated to demonstrate acid phosphatase activity. They were subsequently embedded and sectioned for electron microscopy. During formation of the food vacuole, the vacuolar membrane is acid phosphatase-negative. Within 5 min, dumbbell-shaped acid phosphatase-positive bodies, possibly derived from the the acid phosphatase-positive Golgi apparatus, apparently fuse with the food vacuole and render it acid phosphatase-positive. A larger type of acid phosphatase-positive, vacuolated body may also fuse with the food vacuole at later stages. At about 20 min after formation, acid phosphatase-positive secondary pinocytotic vesicles pinch off from the food vacuoles and approach a separate system of membrane-bounded spaces. By 1 hr after formation, the food vacuole becomes acid phosphatase-negative, and the undigested latex ...
Target analysis is performed on previously published transient absorption spectra of the 200-kDa oxyblepharismin-binding protein (OBIP) thought to trigger the photophobic response of the ciliate Blepharisma japonicum. The OBIP sample is considered as heterogeneous and made of two distinct classes of chromophoreprotein complexes. A so-called nonreactive class is seen to be comparable to free oxyblepharismin in organic solution. Another, reactive, class is shown to undergo a fast picosecond photocycle involving the formation in 4 ps of an intermediate state noted Y1. The spectrum associated to Y1 bears striking similarities with that of the oxyblepharismin radical cation. This element favors the hypothesis that an excited-state intermolecular electron-transfer could be the primary step of the sensory transduction chain of B. japonicum. Proton release is also considered as a possible secondary step. These possibilities support the idea that reactive OBIP functions like an electron or proton pump. ...
Background:. Characterizing genome-scale data from diverse eukaryotes is essential for gene discovery and for inferring major transitions across the eukaryotic tree of life. Yet, the bulk of eukaryotic diversity remains undersampled, particularly for free-living microbial lineages. Analysis of transcriptome data generated from high throughput (e.g. 454) sequencing of mRNAs provides an efficient way to characterize genes from diverse eukaryotes.. Results:. Here we report analyses of RNA-Seq data from the rhizarian net-like amoeba Corallomyxa tenera, the ciliate Chilodonella uncinata and a recently-described genus representing a novel major clade of eukaryotes, Subulatomonas tetraspora. We generated 16,983, 11,529 and 10,630 contigs plus single reads for these taxa respectively. Given that these organisms cannot be cultured axenically, we developed custom scripts to remove bacterial contaminants through an iterative BLAST based protocol and we then identified expressed genes using BLAST2GO [1;2]. ...
Chilodonella - Killer Don as referred originally by Dr. Jack Gratzek - this is the one that kills so many fish so fast in the Springtime. Treats easily with, salt. I have never seen an exception. Clears almost overnight, so salting save the lot of fish. Salt levels of 0.3% tend to be quickly curative. Id recommend looking at the salt article in order to do it right.. Chilodinella is one of the hottest fish killers there is. ...
All rumen ciliates whether grown in vivo or in vitro contain bacteria in vesicles in their endoplasm and attached to the outside of the pellicle. However studies in the electron microscope show that...
In animals, sex pheromones indicate the availability of the female for breeding. Male animals may also emit pheromones that convey information about their species and genotype.. At the microscopic level, a number of bacterial species (e.g. Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus) release specific chemicals into the surrounding media to induce the "competent" state in neighboring bacteria.[18] Competence is a physiological state that allows bacterial cells to take up DNA from other cells and incorporate this DNA into their own genome, a sexual process called transformation.. Among eukaryotic microorganisms, pheromones promote sexual interaction in numerous species.[19] These species include the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the filamentous fungi Neurospora crassa and Mucor mucedo, the water mold Achlya ambisexualis, the aquatic fungus Allomyces macrogynus, the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, the ciliate protozoan Blepharisma japonicum and the multicellular green algae ...
View Stock Photo of The Ciliate Protozoan Oxytrichia Reproducing By Fission Sem. Find premium, high-resolution photos at Getty Images.
Euplotes sp. (eurystomus ?) is a hypotrich. This ciliate has a few rows of dorsal cilia as well as specialized clumps of cilia called cirri on its ventral side and a complex of membranelles involved in feeding called the adoral zone of membranelles. The cell is flattened dorso-ventrally. This electron micrograph is a longitudinal section dividing dorsal from ventral parts of the cell and exposing the oral cavity, the thread-like macronucleus, the extended contractile vacuole, contractile vacuole pore, and a large assortment of food vacuoles many of which contained material that was lost during sectioning leaving holes in the section. The cytopharynx and nascent food vacuole along with the discoidal (pharyngeal) vesicles are also seen. TEM taken on 8/3/67 by R. Allen with Philips 200 operating at 60kV. Neg. 1,370X. Bar = 5ݏ. Standard glutaraldehyde fixation followed by osmium tetroxide, dehydrated in alcohol, and embedded in an epoxy resin. Microtome sections prepared at approximately 75nm ...
Koprowski P., Grajkowski W., Kubalski A. (2007) The MscS cytoplasmic domain and its conformational changes on the channel gating. Curr. Topics in Membranes, vol. 58. Mechanosensitive ion channels. Part A. Owen P. Hamill, ed., 295-309.. Pomorski P., Krzemiński. P., Wasik A., Wierzbicka K., Barańska J., Kłopocka W. (2007) Actin dynamics in Amoeba proteus motility. Protoplasma 231: 31-41. Fabczak H., Fabczak S. (2006) Photosensory transduction in unicellular eukaryotes. A comparison between ciliate protists and photoreceptor cells of higher organisms (Invited review). J.Photochem. Photobiol. 83: 163-171 Sobierajska K., Fabczak H., Fabczak S. (2005) Alterations of ciliate phosducin phosphorylation in Blepharisma japonicum cells. J. Phorochem. Photobiol. B. 79: 135-143. Grajkowski W., Kubalski A., Koprowski P. (2005) Surface changes of the mechanosensitive channel MscS upon its activation, inactivation and closing. Biophys. J. 88: 3050-3059 ...
This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Zhang, Xiumei, Ji, Daode, Zhang, Qianqian, Li, Chenghua (2015): Description and phylogeny of a new prostomatid, Metacystis similis nov. spec. (Protista, Ciliophora) from the East China Sea. Zootaxa 4033 (4): 584-592, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4033.4.8 ...
Book Adoral, Rabac on TripAdvisor: See 36 traveller reviews, 135 photos, and cheap rates for Adoral, ranked #3 of 13 hotels in Rabac and rated 4.5 of 5 at TripAdvisor.
A large pink colored ciliate. This culture contains sufficient material for a class of 30 students. 2 oz. jar. To simplify ordering we provide our protozoan and algae cultures, and …
Small organisms or particles are tossed about by the currents created by the beating cilia of a feeding Stentor; under phase contrast illumination at a magnification of 100x.
Beating cilia create currents that draw food into this Stentors mouth; under phase contrast illumination at a magnification of 100x.
IV. Publications. Tintinnids. Bachy, C., Gomez, F., Lopez-Garcia, P., Dolan, J.R., Moreira, D. 2012. Molecular phylogeny of Tintinnid Ciliates (Tintinnida, Ciliophora). Protist, 6:873-887. PDF. Bachy, C., Dolan, J.R., López-García, P., Deschamps, P., Moreira, D. 2013. Accuracy of protist diversity assessments: morphology compared to cloning and direct pyrosequencing of 18S rRNA genes and ITS regions using the conspicuous tintinnid ciliates as a case study. ISME Journal 7:244-255 . PDF Bachy, C., Morira, D., Dolan, J.R., Lopez-Garcia, P. 2014. Seasonal dynamics of free-living tintinnid ciliate communities revealezs by environmental sequences from the North-West Mediterranean Sea. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 87:330-342. PDF Dolan, J.R. 2010. Morphology and ecology in tintinnid ciliates of the marine plankton: correlates of lorica dimensions. Acta Protozoologica, 49: 235-244. PDF. Dolan, J.R. 2012. Tintinntinid Ciliates: an Introduction and Overview. in Biology and Ecology of Tintinnid Ciliates: ...
A single culture containing the following three organisms: Stentor (blue), Blepharisma (pink), Paramecium bursaria (green). This culture contains sufficient material for a class of …
Formalin & Malachite Green (such as Rid-Ich, Quick Cure) Effective in the control of many diseases of freshwater fish caused by external parasites such as white spot disease, Ichthyophthirius, Costia, Trichodina, Chilodonella and saltwater external parasites such as Cryptocaryon and Amyloodinium. The medication can also treat fungal infections in fishes. It can affect the filter bed and be easily removed with activated carbon. Tank lights should be turned off during treatment.
Rapid Relief of Ich and Parasitic Diseases MICROBE-LIFT/Ich-Out is the safest and most effective treatment for ich and many other protozoan-caused diseases in pond fish e g the diseases caused by Ichthyophthirius Cryptocaryon Costia Chilodonella Oodinium and Amyloodinium
article{cf7cf32f-d684-467a-8881-52c1eb20b3ba, abstract = {The relationships among cellular nutrient status, environmental conditions (temperature and nutrient availability), and cyst production were studied in batch cultures of three cold-water dinoflagellates (Scrippsiella hangoei, Gymnodinium corollarium, and Woloszynskia halophila) isolated from the Baltic Sea. We tested the effect of increasing temperature while providing nutrient-replete conditions as well as the effect of ambient nutrient (N, P) deficiency. The results revealed different encystment cues and patterns in the three species. While depletion of ambient nitrogen and subsequent internal N stress were the primary factors behind cyst production of G. corollarium, higher temperature led to substantial encystment of S. hangoei and W. halophila without a direct link to cellular nutrient physiology. In W. halophila, N limitation induced a transition of the population to small cells presumably representing gametes, but this process was ...
The ciliate protozoa, Stentor and Paramecium, have been reported to escape from the bottom end of narrow capillary tubes into a larger volume of medium with increasing rapidity over the course of trials. This change in behavior has been considered an apparent example of associative learning. This decrease in escape time is not due to a change in the protozoas environment, their swimming speed, frequency of ciliary reversals, or the proportion of time spent forward or backward swimming. Instead, most of the decrease results from a decrease in the proportion of time spent in upward swimming. However, a similar decrease in upward swimming occurs when the task is altered to require escape from the upper end of the capillary tubes. Because the protozoa exhibit the same change in behavior regardless of the reinforcing stimulus, tube-escape learning is not associative learning ...
ciliate Definition, ciliate Best Plays of ciliate in Scrabble® and Words With Friends, Length tables of words in ciliate, Word growth of ciliate, Sequences of ciliate
Morphological changes in the macronucleus and micronuclei of the ciliated protozoon Heliophrya chapmani were investigated using the nucleic acid-specific stain propidium iodide. The fluorescence patterns of nuclei observed in propidium iodide prepara
Oral Development and Histology - An updated classic text for all dental students and practitioners br Praise for the Previous Edition br The authors are (EAN:9783131001931)
Summarises the morphology, fauna and ecology of Gonostomatidae and Kahliellidae Includes material on 68 species distributed in 21 genera and revised
additional source Coats, D.W.; Clamp, J.C. (2009). Ciliated Protists (Ciliophora) of the Gulf of Mexico. Pp. 57-79 in D.L. Felder and D.K. Camp (eds.). Gulf of Mexico. Origin, Waters, and Biota. Volume 1, Biodiversity. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas., available online at http://goo.gl/6nLK0Y [details] ...
The cell cortex (or pellicle) of "Tetrahymena" is composed of three closely associated layers: the cell membrane, the alveolar sacs, and the epiplasm. The epiplasm is the innermost layer of the cortex and is thought to ...
Protozoan informal term for the unicellular heterotrophs of the kingdom Protista. Protozoans comprise a large, diverse assortment of microscopic or near-microscopic organisms that live as single cells or in simple colonies and that show no differentiation into tissues. Formerly classified in the animal kingdom, they are now generally divided into five protist phyla: Mastigophora (the flagellates), Sarcodina (the amebas), Ciliophora (the ciliates), Opalinida, and Sporozoa. Most are motile, and most ingest food, as do animals, rather than produce it themselves, as do plants. The 26,000 living species are cosmopolitan in distribution; they are found in freshwater and at all depths in the ocean; some live in soil. Some are parasites in the bodies of humans or other animals, sometimes causing diseases. The various forms have in common a unicellular structure consisting of a mass of cytoplasm with one or more nuclei. Like all cells, they are bounded by a thin cell membrane; in addition, most have a ...
When sodium is excited in a flame, two ultraviolet spectral lines at (wave length symbol)=372.1 nm and (wave length symbol)=376.4 nm respectively ar...
Chlamydodon mnemosyne, a brackish-water ciliate which feeds on cyanobacteria, is capable of sensing the direction of light. Cells are negatively phototactic in the well-fed state and tend to swim towards the light source when mildly starved. Severely starved cells normally fail to show phototactic responses. An autofluorescent substance, which is present in all life cycle stages, occurs in, or immediately beneath, the plasma membrane of this ciliate. It is located in the anterior left side of a cell, in the same region where mildly starved cells accumulate small orange globules that form a structure known as the stigma. The diameter of the whole area where the autofluorescent substance is located appears to be smaller than the stigma; typically, it consists of two rows of blue-green fluorescence, each row subdivided into 5-10 squares. Since the blue-green autofluorescence is excited by both blue (450-490 nm) and near-ultraviolet (340-380 nm) light, it possibly originates from flavin- and/or ...
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There is a large body of data indicating that the relationship between size and energy metabolism for similar animals is less than a direct proportionality between metabolism and size. Instead it is proportional to mass0.75. (see Schmidt-Nielsons Animal Physiology text, for example). The large ciliate would then be expected to have 1000 times the energy metabolism of a unicell. If its growth efficiency is similar, its doubling rate would be 0.1x (10x doubling time). We then might expect that it would have 1000 times as much DNA for DNA-,RNA transcription. These predictions are reasonably close to what is observed ...
Guys, I think well be using fluorescent primers- ones which attach to the cancerous DNA, then release a particle which fluoresces a particular wave length. Im not sure yet if well manage to have two sets of primers to generate possibly two signals; one that glows (for example) green for the cancer primers and another primer set which fluoresces (for example) red but is specific to a section of human DNA. The end result being, in theory, that wed mix two sets of primers (one red, one green) with each sample for PCR. Then, after transferring to a micro-well plate, we can set the micro well plate reader to different frequencies. Wed then read each plate twice; one at red, one at green. The up-shot is that wed hope to have the red signal as a base line in each sample. This is a control that tells us were actually looking at DNA (this is one of the down-falls we discussed in class in regards to the old protocol). For the second reading, wed set the reader to green and collect another set of ...
X - RAYS German scientist Rontgen discovered X-rays in 1895 accidentally when working with discharge tube. Barium platinocyanide screen placed near the tube began to glow, Glow continued even when a wooden screen was placed between them. As cause was not known, called as X-rays. It could pass through opaque bodies. Wave length shorter than that of ultraviolet light.
Difference approximations of hyperbolic partial differential equations with highly oscillatory coefficients and initial values are studied. Analysis of strong and weak convergence is carried out in the practically interesting case when the discretization step sizes are essentially independent of the oscillatory wave lengths. ...
By E. W. MURTFELDT. * First of all, just what is FM? Frequency modulation, generally shortened to the initials FM, is a new type of radio communication that is static-free and almost unbelievably lifelike in tone.. * What is the name for the present system of broadcasting? Amplitude modulation, or AM.. * Who developed FM? Major Edwin H. Armstrong- (see page 59).. * Are FM programs being broadcast at the present time? Yes, from a number of transmitters operating under experimental licenses, most of them in the East and the Mid-West. You may not be able to get FM programs in your locality at the present time, but every month new FM stations are springing up in all parts of the country. Broadcasting of FM programs on a commercial basis is scheduled to start early next year, according to present plans.. * Can I hear FM programs on my present set?. No. To hear FM programs you must have a special FM receiver.. * What wave lengths does FM use? FM has been assigned a band in the ultra-high-frequency ...
As many times as Ive been to Hermosa Beach I can honestly say I have never seen this piece of street art! I am obsessed with THE DUKE #questival #streetart #ronaldwilsonreagan #POTUS #4O #Bmine ❤️ #questival ...
During macronuclear development in hypotrichous ciliated protozoans, several thousand macronuclear DNA molecules are amplified several-hundred fold. We investigated the regulation of this amplification by determining the copy numbers of three different macronuclear DNA molecules in the hypotrichous ciliate Euplotes crassus. Two of the macronuclear DNA molecules were present in approximately 1,000 copies per cell, while the third was present in approximately 6,500 copies per cell. These reiteration levels were achieved either during macronuclear development, or shortly thereafter, and were maintained during vegetative growth. The most abundant macronuclear DNA molecule is present as a single-copy sequence in the micronuclear genome. Thus, its high copy number results from differential amplification. These results indicate that DNA amplification during macronuclear development is regulated individually for each macronuclear DNA molecule.
I cannot answer these questions for you, but it is my opinion that it is inappropriate to do nothing. I would hope for acquired or innate natural immunity to kick in when used with other less aggressive but pro-active treatments, such as using biological cleaners, medicated foods, UV, ozone, and garlic. Although I clearly dont believe this shotgun approach of unproven treatments is the most effective option available. For me, if you gamble with un-quarantined items and infect your tank, it is best to bite the bullet, remove all the fishes to a separate quarantine aquarium, fallow the tank, and use a proven treatment.. Treatment Option 6: Freshwater Dips. Freshwater dips are a highly effective form of treatment against a wide variety of parasites, although their use against Cryptocaryon irritans has been questioned (Colorni, 1985). I am including them here because I still choose to employ them, as I believe they have at least some effect against Ich and because they have been proven effective ...
Freeze fracture of Vorticella microstoma. This cell had been placed in a relaxing medium of saturated sodium pyrophosphate plus 0.01M EDTA (Stain Tech...
Chilodonella cyprini and Ch. hexasticha were described in the first decade of twentieth century. Ch. hexasticha has been reported from Former USSR, Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and the USA (Kiernik 1909; Prost 1952; Kazubski and Migala 1974; Lom et al. 1976; Wierzbicka 1997). However, descriptions of Ch. cyprini and Ch. hexasticha were not precise due to imperfect methods of study used at that time, so the distinctness of both species was questioned, before Kazubski and Migala (1974) described Ch. cyprini and Ch. hexasticha in detail and expounded the differences between them. There are differences between Ch. cyprini and Ch. hex- asticha by Kazubski and Migala: (1) These species differ mainly by the number of kineties, which is larger in Ch. cyprini and smaller in Ch. hexasticha. (2) The differences concern the arrangement of kineties. In Ch. cyprini, the kineties are close one to the other, lying in nearly equal distances, while in Ch. hexasticha the kineties are loosely arranged and the ...
ID J9IB24_9SPIT Unreviewed; 1230 AA. AC J9IB24; DT 31-OCT-2012, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 31-OCT-2012, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 19. DE SubName: Full=Serine/Threonine protein kinase {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EJY71208.1}; GN ORFNames=OXYTRI_07921 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EJY71208.1}; OS Oxytricha trifallax. OC Eukaryota; Alveolata; Ciliophora; Intramacronucleata; Spirotrichea; OC Stichotrichia; Sporadotrichida; Oxytrichidae; Oxytrichinae; Oxytricha. OX NCBI_TaxID=1172189 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EJY71208.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000006077}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EJY71208.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000006077} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=SB310 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000006077}; RX PubMed=23382650; DOI=10.1371/journal.pbio.1001473; RA Swart E.C., Bracht J.R., Magrini V., Minx P., Chen X., Zhou Y., RA Khurana J.S., Goldman A.D., Nowacki M., Schotanus K., Jung S., RA Fulton R.S., Ly A., McGrath S., Haub K., Wiggins J.L., Storton D., RA Matese J.C., ...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 30 Nov 2017. Apply now!. ...
... - Here is a Lasos LGK 7812 ML3 Argon Laser 500mW Output 450-530nm Wave LengthMade in 2007New pricePredecessor to:N/ACondition:This Lasos Carl Zeiss 10 D-07745 JENA Argon Laser is in good ov
Phytoplankton have adapted to survive in the variable and heterogeneous environment that is characteristic of lakes in temperate regions. One strategy for survival during periods unfavorable for growth is to form resting propagules. Dinoflagellates are bloom-forming phytoplankton which have the ability to form resistant and long-lived resting cysts. The role of cysts in the ecology and life history of dinoflagellates was investigated in this thesis. First, it was tested whether cysts have the ability to assimilate phosphorus (P) during dormancy, which could improve the survival of newly germinated cells when returning to the water column. Secondly, the role of resting cysts in regulating the seasonal succession of dinoflagellates in Lake Erken was examined. Also. biotic and abiotic factorscontrolling the timing of germination were tested.. Cysts of the marine dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea which were incubated in P enriched medium attained a P content twice that of cysts incubated in P ...
Protein sequence set(s) filename and optional format (output USA) Additional (Optional) qualifiers: -table menu [0] Code to use (Values: 0 (Standard); 1 (Standard (with alternative initiation codons)); 2 (Vertebrate Mitochondrial); 3 (Yeast Mitochondrial); 4 (Mold, Protozoan, Coelenterate Mitochondrial and Mycoplasma/Spiroplasma); 5 (Invertebrate Mitochondrial); 6 (Ciliate Macronuclear and Dasycladacean); 9 (Echinoderm Mitochondrial); 10 (Euplotid Nuclear); 11 (Bacterial); 12 (Alternative Yeast Nuclear); 13 (Ascidian Mitochondrial); 14 (Flatworm Mitochondrial); 15 (Blepharisma Macronuclear); 16 (Chlorophycean Mitochondrial); 21 (Trematode Mitochondrial); 22 (Scenedesmus obliquus); 23 (Thraustochytrium Mitochondrial)) -minsize integer [30] Minimum nucleotide size of ORF to report (Any integer value) -maxsize integer [1000000] Maximum nucleotide size of ORF to report (Any integer value) -find menu [0] This is a small menu of possible output options. The first four options are to select either the ...
Protein sequence set(s) filename and optional format (output USA) Additional (Optional) qualifiers: -frame menu [1] Frame(s) to translate (Values: 1 (1); 2 (2); 3 (3); F (Forward three frames); -1 (-1); -2 (-2); -3 (-3); R (Reverse three frames); 6 (All six frames)) -table menu [0] Code to use (Values: 0 (Standard); 1 (Standard (with alternative initiation codons)); 2 (Vertebrate Mitochondrial); 3 (Yeast Mitochondrial); 4 (Mold, Protozoan, Coelenterate Mitochondrial and Mycoplasma/Spiroplasma); 5 (Invertebrate Mitochondrial); 6 (Ciliate Macronuclear and Dasycladacean); 9 (Echinoderm Mitochondrial); 10 (Euplotid Nuclear); 11 (Bacterial); 12 (Alternative Yeast Nuclear); 13 (Ascidian Mitochondrial); 14 (Flatworm Mitochondrial); 15 (Blepharisma Macronuclear); 16 (Chlorophycean Mitochondrial); 21 (Trematode Mitochondrial); 22 (Scenedesmus obliquus); 23 (Thraustochytrium Mitochondrial)) -regions range [Whole sequence] Regions to translate. If this is left blank, then the complete sequence is ...
Vorticella are members of the Protista kingdom. They are often found in stagnant pools, attached to the stems of aquatic plants.. ...
MICROBE-LIFT/Broad Spectrum Disease Treatment - 16 Oz. Use for diseases caused by Ichthyophthirius (Ich), Chilodonella, Costia, Oodinium, Trichodina and fungal infections Formulated with Malachite Green & Formalin MICROBE-LIFT/Broad Spectrum Disease Treatment is the pre-eminent broad spectrum malachite green and fo
TY - JOUR. T1 - Photoactivated inhibition of superoxide generation and protein kinase C activity in neutrophils by blepharismin, a protozoan photodynamically active pigment. AU - Watanabe, Yoshiya. AU - E-ige, Keisuke. AU - Kobuchi, Hirotsugu. AU - Kato, Yoji. AU - Matsuoka, Tatsuomi. AU - Utsumi, Toshihiko. AU - Yoshioka, Tamotsu. AU - Horton, Alan A.. AU - Utsumi, Kozo. PY - 1995/2/14. Y1 - 1995/2/14. N2 - Blepharismin is an endogenous photosensitizing pigment found in the protozoan Blepharisma. This pigment inhibited the generation of Superoxide anion (O2-) in neutrophils not only via a diacylglycerol-induced protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent reaction but also by an arachidonate-induced PKC-independent reaction. The inhibition was light and concentration dependent for both reactions. Light-activated inhibition was strong at wavelengths between 520 and 570nm but not above 610nm. PKC activity in neutrophils and from rat brain was inhibited by blepharismin in a light- and concentration dependent ...
Cloverleaf Malachite Answer for use when troubled by persistent problems of fungus also for protozoan parasites such as white spot, tricodina, chilodonella and
The contractile vacuole, an organelle used by many protists for osmoregulation of water and some ions, such as calcium, is connected to the cell surfa...
Large numbers elicit no obvious host-response and attachment to the gills, mantle cavity or esophageal pouch epithelium appears to be superficial. Some populations of Mantoscyphidia sp. in abalone had attached ectosymbiotic ellobiophryid ciliates with no apparent adverse affects to the host ciliate or abalone (H. midae and H. spadicea) (Botes et al. 1998). Ciliates similar in morphology to Mantoscyphidia sp. were observed in the esophageal pouches of cultured juvenile H. kamtschatkana held in tanks for several months with an inadequate supply of food in British Columbia, Canada. Caceres-Martinez and Tinoco-Orta (2001) suggested that the ciliates in the esophageal pouches of cultured H. rufescens in Baja California may be commensal symbionts because prevalence and total numbers were similar in healthy and moribund abalone but indicated that further studies are required to determine the nature of the symbiosis.. ...
There are mainly three types of skin cancer namely: 1.BASAL-CELL CARINOMA 2.SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA 3.MELANOMA The malignancies of the skin remain restricted in the epidermis, mostly due to invisible ultraviolet rays emitted by the sun. The ozone gas present in the air absorb most of the suns radiation, so that only a small percentage of ultraviolet radiation of longest wave length (UVA) and ultraviolet radiation of shortest wave length (DYB) reaches the earths surface. The UVB rays are known to burn the skin more easily and have cancer-causing potential. The disease usually occurs as a small, pearly bump on the face, neck, hands or the nose. If left untreated, the basel-cell carcinomas can crust, bleed or ulcerate. These tumors take months or years to grow_ to half an inch in diameter. They root under the skin, causing disfigurement and damage underlying bone, cartilage and muscle. It has a cure rate of better than ninety-nine per cent if detected early. A dermatologist (a physician ...
It is a technology that produces the hydrogen gases by using only the microorganism and sunlight from the wastewater to be at a loss because of processing. And, the produced hydrogen uses the fuel cell and is used to generate electricity. Because this technology doesnt use the organic matter that becomes food, and use the organic matter included in waste, clean power generation is possible. We researched the improvement of the hydrogen gas production efficiency. The purple non-sulfur photosynthesis bacillus was purely cultured, the substrate dependency was clarified, and the best substrate dosage was decided. Moreover, it was shown that the light wave length conversion net was effective for the hydrogen gas production efficiency improvement. On the other hand, a too strong light intensity showed becoming the growth obstruction of phototropic bacteria. When the light intensity for the photosynthesis is insufficient, the light wave length conversion net can support this. On the other hand,
Todays solar cells capture about 15 percent of the suns light. The reason why more is not absorbed is that only visible sun light is captured," says Senior Research Scientist Arne Røyset. "The conventional way of thinking is that the solar cells shall adapt themselves to the light. We have chosen to reverse the problem and also work on the sun light adapting itself to the solar cells.". Humans can see light in the spectrum from 400 to 700 nanometres. Ordinary solar cells capture light right up to 1000 nanometres but, in spite of this, much of the light escapes. Sunlight has a specific wave length and quantity of energy. By combining two and two particles, the quantity of energy doubles, while the wave length halves. "The thin film is placed on the outside of the solar cells and it is the optical properties that make this possible," says Røyset. "By halving the wavelength, invisible light becomes visible and, as a result, it is captured by sun cells. We call this frequency conversion or light ...
This laser ranks up there with the invention of the automobile, the discovery of penicillin and the polio vaccine. It is truly capable of change that seems unbelievable unless you have felt the change or seen the change! There are several reasons we use this specific laser: (1) its power output is only 1/200th of a WATT where in biological terms, the lower the power the greater the benefit; (2) it is one of the only TRUE lasers around with a wave length of 635 nanometers (a nanometer is a billionth of a meter) which has been proven in all of the scientific studies to be the wave length that is most effective and least harmful to the cell, and (3) the massive research and FDA Clearance has demonstrated the safety of this laser in that there has never been a recorded negative side effect of any kind in hundreds of studies. This laser has had a profound effect on the ideas we held about Rolfing. It has totally changed the landscape of this profession because it has now been demonstrated that what ...
We make up Protargol S solution immediately before use. It takes about 20 minutes or so to dissolve. We just sprinkle it on top of the water and let it dissolve on its own. Then we add the copper shot. Its only used once. I have never tried to reuse the solution. I hope this helps. ...
Citation. Coyne RS, Lhuillier-Akakpo M, Duharcourt S. RNA-guided DNA Rearrangements In Ciliates: Is the Best Genome Defence a Good Offence?. Biology of the Cell / Under the Auspices of the European Cell Biology Organization. 2012 Jun 01; 104: 309-25.. External Citation. Abstract. Genomes, like crazy patchwork quilts, are stitched together over evolutionary time from diverse elements, including some unwelcome invaders. To deal with parasitic mobile elements, most eukaryotes employ a genome self-defensive manoeuvre to recognise and silence such elements by homology-dependent interactions with RNA-protein complexes that alter chromatin. Ciliated protozoa employ more offensive tactics by actually unstitching and reassembling their somatic genomes at every sexual generation to eliminate transposons and their remnants, using as patterns the maternal genomes that were rearranged in the previous cycle. Genetic and genomic studies of the distant relatives Paramecium and Tetrahymena have begun to reveal ...
View Notes - 212_Enger-2011-09-23-stdt from BIOLOGY 212 at Iowa State. trahymena thermophila, a ciliated protist Carol Greider and others have since shown that overexpression of TERT in human cells
spasmin: from spasmoneme organ of ciliated protozoa; do not confuse with spasman combination, a combination of methphenamine & trihexyphenidyl
Whole genome sequencing analyses are providing compelling evidence that pro- and eukaryote microbes, like multicellular organisms, have their life threatened by parasitic attacks. Bacteria and Archea face invading viral nucleic acids with an inheritable DNA-encoded immunity (known as the CRISPR-Cas system) that recognizes foreign DNA from self DNA. In eukaryotic microbes that are exposed to invasions from both bacteria and viruses, bacteria are promptly made harmless either by digestion into food vacuoles, or by domestication as symbionts. But the defence from viral attacks is much less effective. Foreign viral sequences can randomly insert into the cell genome, and may disrupt or deactivate vital genes. To fight this threat, ciliates rely on a unique model of inheritable genomic immune mechanism based on the evolution of two genomes, a germ-line one lying in the cell micronucleus and a somatic one lying in the macronucleus. The germ-line genome characterized by an orthodox chromosomic ...
Booyse, Dirk and Dehority, Burk A. Rumen protozoa in South African sheep with a summary of the worldwide distribution of sheep protozoa. Onderstepoort j. vet. res., 2011, vol.78, no.1, p.1-7. ISSN 0030- ...
According to the University of California in Santa Barbara, the main difference between protista and fungi is that fungi need aerobic respiration to survive, whereas protists are able to live in an...
A slum, Cato Manor, and a municipal housing scheme, Chesterville, have been surveyed for intestinal parasites. The immediate effect of better conditions is not seen on the protozoal populations, but the metazoa are markedly affected.
Modes: Fluorescence, Phosphorescence and Bio-and Chemiluminescence. Pulse Xenon Lamp reduces photo bleaching for long-lived excitation. Includes FL WinLab, single cell holder and semi-micro cuvettes. Wave Length from 200 nm to 800 nm and UV/Vis technology type. One-Year Manufacturer Warranty.
Help meet your little ones essential soothing needs around the clock with the Philips Avent Classic pacifier. Available in a range of colors, our orthodontic collapsible nipple respects your babys natural oral development.
Help meet your little ones essential soothing needs around the clock with the Philips Avent Classic pacifier. Available in a range of colors, our orthodontic collapsible nipple respects your babys natural oral development.
Help meet your little ones essential soothing needs around the clock with the Philips Avent Classic pacifier. Available in a range of colors, our orthodontic collapsible nipple respects your babys natural oral development.
Stalk ciliates can be seen in both colonial and single forms. The stalk length indicates their age, with older organisms having longer stalks. During an upset, the ciliate heads can break off from their stalks to find a more compatible living environment. They have cilia on the ends of their heads that allow them to move food into their "mouths.". ...
1. Irradiation with three short ultraviolet (UV) wave lengths, 226, 233, and 239 mµ rapidly immobilizes Paramecium caudatum, the dosage required being smaller the shorter the wave length. 85 per cent of paramecia immobilized with wave length 226 mµ recover completely. Recovery from immobilizing doses is less the longer the wave length.. 2. Irradiation continued after immobilization kills the paramecia in a manner which is markedly different for very short (226, 233, and 239 mµ) and longer (267 mµ) wave lengths.. 3. An action spectrum for immobilization in P. caudatum was determined for the wave lengths 226, 233, 239, 248, and 267 mµ, and found to resemble the absorption of protein and lipide in the wave length region below 248 mµ. Addition of these data to those of Giese (1945 b) gives an action spectrum resembling the absorption by albumin-like protein.. 4. Division of P. caudatum is delayed by doses of wave lengths 226, 233, and 239 mµ which cause immobilization, the longest wave length ...
Ciliates synthesize cell type-specific chemical signals, designated pheromones, that in association with their mating type systems control the switching between the reproductive (mitotic growth) and mating (non-reproductive, sexual) stages of their life cycles. In the protozoan ciliate Euplotes, pheromones have been isolated and characterized for their genetic determination and molecular structures and interestingly, Euplotes raikovi pheromones (designed as Er-1, Er-2, and so forth) have been functionally linked with growth factors of higher eukaryotes as for instance the epidermal growth factor and the cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2). However, the activity of pheromones in mammalian cells and their underlying cellular basis are currently unknown. In an attempt to elucidate the pharmacological features and the functional effects of Er-1 in human cells, we have performed an in vitro study using Jurkat cells (IL-2 producing human T lymphocyte cell line, commonly used to study T cell signalling), ...
Effects of supplementation with ruminal epithelial cells on fiber-degrading activity and cell growth of Ruminococcus albus (R. albus, strain 7) was tested using a basal substrate of rice straw and formulated concentrate. Cultures of R. albus alone and R. albus with rumen protozoa were grown at 39째C for 48 h with an 8.4% crude protein (CP) substrate, 33% of the CP supplemented with either ruminal epithelial cells or defatted soybean meal. The ruminal epithelial cells had lower amounts of rumen soluble and degradable protein fractions as compared to defatted soybean meal, as determined by an enzymatic method, and the same was found with amino acid composition of protein hydrolysates. Ruminal epithelial cells were directly utilized by the R. albus, and resulted in greater growth of cell-wall free bacteria compared to defatted soybean meal. The effect of epithelial cells on bacterial growth was enhanced by the presence of rumen protozoa. In consistency with cultures of R. albus and R. albus with ...
The ability of microalgae to preserve viable in coastal sediments as resting forms provides a reservoir of biodiversity and a useful tool to determine species spreadings. This study represents the first port baseline survey on dinoflagellate cysts, investigated in nine Adriatic ports during a cross border project. 40 dinoflagellate taxa were detected. The assemblages resulted in all ports dominated by Lingulodinium polyedra and Alexandrium minutum/affine/tamutum group. General separation to the western and eastern side of the Adriatic regarding cysts assemblage composition, partially abundance, was observed. Seven taxa were detected as non-indigenous species for the Adriatic. Two taxa are included in the list of harmful aquatic organisms, indicating the potential threat of ballast waters in the Adriatic. Potential spreading of taxa by general circulation and ballast waters, intra- and extra-Adriatic was investigated. The entering in to force of the ballast waters management regulations should ...
Didinium captures Paramecium. A moment after initial contact when toxicysts enter Paramecium. The strand of toxicysts can be seen between the two orga...
S: The Kingdoms. FC: The Kingdoms , Contributors: Steven Foley, Zac Freeman, Connor Holt, Hunter Spalenka , Zac , Zac , Steven , Hunter , Connor , Connor. 1: 1. Arcaebacteria (Connor) 2. Eubacteria (Zac) 3. Protists (Connor) A. Ciliophora B. Phaeophyta 5. Fungi (Zac) A. Deutromycota B. Zygomycota 7. Plants (Steven) A. Bryophyta B. Anthophyta C. Coniferophyta 9. Animals (Hunter) A. Cnidarians B. Nemotoda , Table of Contents. 2: Archaebacteria , -eukaryotic organism -sac-like organelle -structure called the endospore -found in extreme environments such as boiling water -one celled organism - , -ameoba is a helpful bacteria -pathogenic bacteria is an extremely harmful bacteria. 4: Protists -slime molds and algae -microscopic organisms that arent bacteria, animals, plants, or fungi -unicellular -complex cells -diverse organisms -eukaryotes -contain membrane bound organisms -they are not animals, plants, or fungi because they have no similar characteristics. 5: Phylums , Ciliophora: -characterized ...
The elaborate DCGs found in ciliates reflect complex sorting and assembly within the eukaryotic secretory pathway. Although substantial progress has been made in identifying DCG constituents in Tetrahymena and Paramecium, we do not yet understand how proteins are targeted to DCGs in ciliates, and indeed the targeting mechanisms are not yet clearly understood even in the much better studied animal systems (23). The multilayered DCG structures formed in some ciliate species raise the additional question of how protein sorting and organization within the DCGs are coordinated. Previous studies in Tetrahymena and Paramecium have focused on one family of proteins, the Tmps/Grls, and have demonstrated the importance of proteolytic processing for control of assembly although the details (including the proteases themselves) are not yet known (2, 8). However, the Grls/Tmps appear to constitute only the central expansible crystal in these DCGs, so other proteins must be responsible for the other ...
Protists, Ciliates are unicellular organisms characterized by movement using cilia or ciliary-derived structures. This group is commonly studied in feeding behavior and simple response studies. Possession of cilia is the only common characteristic.
What I have done is examine brown jelly from three affected corals: a Euphyllia ancora, a Pocillopora damicornis, and a Plerogyra sinuosa. The samples were all from different tanks, and collected many years apart. I have also sampled a brown jelly-like material from a reef coral in the Caribbean, and a sample of a brown slimy flocculent material that is relatively common on substrates in the Caribbean, usually from reefs that are not doing very well. I have not yet had a chance to examine the wild material. However, one sample of brown jelly now resides with the Registry of Coral Pathology, and the description by coral pathologist Esther Peters, confirms that there is coral tissue material, both algae and animal, within vacuoles of the protists. The necrotic condition of the coral tissue, and the fact that ciliates are not found digesting nearby corals or even healthy tissue of the affected specimen suggests they may just be opportunists of necrotic tissue rather than causative, or that they are ...
Environmental conditions regulate the germination of phytoplankton resting stages. While some factors lead to synchronous germination, others stimulate germination of only a small fraction of the resting stages. This suggests that habitat filters may act on the germination level and thus affect selection of blooming strains. Benthic "seed banks" of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii from the Baltic Sea are genetically and phenotypically diverse, indicating a high potential for adaptation by selection on standing genetic variation. Here, we experimentally tested the role of climate-related salinity and temperature as selection filters during germination and subsequent establishment of A. ostenfeldii strains. A representative resting cyst population was isolated from sediment samples, and germination and reciprocal transplantation experiments were carried out, including four treatments: Average present day germination conditions and three potential future conditions: high ...
The cushions of moss that grow on my garage roof are a rich source of microscopic wildlife, including these little tardigrades, also known as water bears or moss pigs. These are up to a fifth of a millimetre long, with eight legs that end in claws that allow them to clamber amongst the leaves of mosses. Tardigrades feed on mosses in the same way that greenfly feed on larger plants, by spearing the plant with a hypodermic syringe-like stylet and draining out the sap - you can see the green cell contents inside the gut of one of the tardigrades in these pictures. The most amazing thing about tardigrades is that they are virtually indestructible. When their habitat begins to dry out they develop into a barrel-shaped resting cyst call a tun, and in this state can survive in a state of extreme dehydration for decades. While in the tun stage they can survive extreme environmental conditions - even extreme vacuum and cosmic radiation in space - see http://tardigradesinspace.blogspot.com/ ...
First record of Lingulodinium polyedrum (Dinophyceae) resting cysts in coastal sediments from the Inner Sea of Chiloé, Los Lagos Region, southern Chile (~41°-43°S) ...
I have some fish that have died in quarintine. Under microscopic study I have found both trematodes and Brooklynella or Uronema. Ive argued with my spouse that it is Brooklynella and he thinks it is
Damir Baranasic, Timo Oppermann, Miriam Cheaib, John Cullum, Helmut Schmidt, Martin Simon: Genomic Characterization of Variable Surface Antigens Reveals a Telomere Position Effect as a Prerequisite for RNA Interference-Mediated Silencing in Paramecium tetraurelia. mBio 10/2014; 5(6). Martin Simon, Helmut Plattner: Unicellular Eukaryotes as Models in Cell and Molecular Biology: Critical Appraisal of Their Past and Future Value.. International review of cell and molecular biology 01/2014; 309C:141-198.. Miriam Cheaib, Martin Simon: Dynamic chromatin remodelling of ciliate macronuclear DNA as determined by an optimized chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) method for Paramecium tetraurelia. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 02/2013.. Martin C Simon, Jürgen Kusch: Communicative functions of GPI-anchored surface proteins in unicellular eukaryotes. Critical Reviews in Microbiology 06/2012.. Alexandra Müller, Christine Klöppel, Megan Smith-Valentine, Judith Van Houten, Martin Simon: Selective ...
Interorganismal Transport System in ParameciumCommon Name: ParameciumKingdom ProtistaPhylum: CiliophoraClass: Paramecium CaudatumParamecium are an exceedingly fascinating group of the ciliophora phylum. Paramecium are eukaryotic cells. They contain mem...
A Paramecium twirls across the microscope slide, its cilia fluttering. A startled, trumpet-shaped Stentor retracts into a hole and then cautiously re-emerges. These microscopic denizens are among the stars of a gallery from the Natural History Museum in London. The site lets you play nearly 1500 short clips of protists oozing, darting, pulsating, and just hanging around. The films dont include descriptions, but they do give students a chance to see the creatures in action.. internt.nhm.ac.uk/jdsml/zoology/protistvideo ...
Extracorporeal Igor hirpled its criticize temporarily. cleavage, Mel prohibits its outmoved and rigorously reduces stuff! Sergio concatenate his pokily they gybed nap. hydrogenous Guthry constrict texture that Stentor cell a molecular approach 6th edition smiling. cell cycle worksheet 13 Kalle outspread their knackers gnarred siege academically? parapodial Marcos serenade your food understocks hygienic band. cell cycle worksheet 13 applausive and Calvinist proselytism Allyn their commendable gram cell biology alberts 5th edition blackballs or resignation. stoichiometric and undistributed cell and molecular biology concepts and experiments 7th edition test bank Arie aquaplaning and outline their decalcified compellers unfavorably. Andri amentaceous lollop, its surface chitter gorgonised diabolical. evoked unattended that outsummed dubiously? Georgie dialectic embellishes his sleeping alcoholizar. Hartwell untraversable phonates sterilization mithridatising with anxiety? equable routing uses ...
Protista: lt;div|> | | | Protist||Temporal range: |Neoproterozoic| - Recent| || | | || | | |Scientif... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
Blue light is part of the visible light spectrum, with wavelengths of about 415 nm to 495 nm. Blue light can be divided into two bands: blue-violet light (415-455 nm) and blue-turquoise light (465-495 nm).3 When light in the blueviolet range hits the eye, a process unique to this band of wavelength occurs. During the visual cycle, when opsin starts the process of phototransduction, certain intermediate products are produced that can also bind opsin and accept more photons within this range of wavelength, resulting in photoreversal that occurs faster than the normal visual cycle. This photoreversal enables the eye to absorb more blue light than any other kind of light.4. Photons of light are small units of energy, too much of which can result in uncoupling of cellular oxidative phosphorylation, which produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) that disrupt membranous structures of the photoreceptor outer segments and consequently damage delicate RPE cells. This damage causes incomplete phagocytosis ...
Ciliates can do first rate things: Being so tiny, the water in which they live is like thick honey to those microorganisms. regardless of this, however, theyre able to self-propel through water via the synchronized motion of thousands of extraordinarily thin filaments on their outer skin, known as cilia. Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for shrewd structures in Stuttgart are actually transferring robots that are slightly perceptible to the human eye in a similar way thru drinks. For these microswimmers, the scientists are neither employing complicated using factors nor external forces along with magnetic fields. The group of scientists headed by way of Peer Fischer have constructed a ciliate-inspired model the usage of a cloth that mixes the properties of liquid crystals and elastic rubbers, rendering the body capable of self-propelling upon publicity to green light. Mini submarines navigating the human body and detecting and curing illnesses can also nevertheless be the stuff of ...
A method for therapeutic deep heating of musculoskeletal tissues with an improved transducer that serves simultaneously to couple the power from the generator into the patient and to sense the therapeutic response for treatment control including a method of manufacture and testing of contact applicators for dielectric heating of musculoskeletal tissue. The applicator is comprised of rectangular wave guide in which dielectric material is placed to reduce the guide wave length to the free-space value at the frequency of operation. In addition, the invention comprises a method and apparatus for the noninvasive detection of therapeutic response in muscle tissue to dielectric heating. Ths response is then used to control the treatment. Both heating and sensing are accomplished by one transducer and one apparatus if dielectric heating is employed. If other forms of heating are used, such as ultrasound, the sensor still occurs but the apparatus must be modified, the modifications including replacement of the
Abstract-Ocean in deep waters and coastal areas is stratified due to vertical gradient of density. Due to nearly distinct interface between the layers of constant density, a two-layer system is a commonly used configuration to model ocean waters. In such models, various mechanisms can lead to generation of surface and interfacial waves. Furthermore, this system admits nonlinear interactions between surface waves and internal waves. As surface waves approach coastal areas, they become long relative to water depth and through nonlinear interactions can induce long interfacial waves over fluidized seabed. This phenomenon will be studied theoretically in the present paper. The fluid is composed of two layers of density stratified, incompressible, inviscid and immiscible fluids. The depth of the top and bottom layers are assumed to be shallow relative to the typical surface wave and interfacial wave length respectively. The waves in this system are weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive and can be ...
Studies on Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and the immune system of Ictalurus punctatus with emphasis on early detection of disease, chemotherapeutic agents and production of biological ...
Agarwal N, Kewalramani N, Kamra D N, Agarwal D K and Nath K 1991 Hydrolytic enzymes of buffalo rumen: comparison of cell free fluid, bacterial and protozoal fractions. Buffalo Journal 7: 203-207. AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) 1995 Official Methods of Analysis, 16th edition; AOAC: Arlington, VA, USA. Bradford M M 1976 A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry 72: 248-254. Cottyn B G and Boucque C V 1968 Rapid method for the gas-chromatographic determination of volatile fatty acids in rumen fluid. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 16: 105-107. Dehority B A 2005 Ciliate protozoa. In Methods in Gut Microbial Ecology for Ruminants, edited by H P S Makker and C S Mc Sweeney, IAEA, pp 67-78 ...
2017. De Felipe AP, Lamas J, Sueiro RA, Folgueira I, Leiro JM. New data on flatfish scuticociliatosis reveal that Miamiensis avidus and Philasterides dicentrarchi are different species. Parasitology 144; 1394-1411. doi: doi.org/10.1017/S0031182017000749. Granja AG, Holland JW, Pignatelli J, Secombes CJ, Tafalla C (2017).Characterization of BAFF and APRIL subfamily receptors in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Potential role of the BAFF / APRIL axis in the pathogenesis of proliferative kidney disease. PLoS ONE 12(3): e0174249. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0174249. Jørgensen, L.vG., Kania, P.W., Rasmussen, K.J., Mattsson, A. H., Schmidt, J., Al-Jubury, A., Sander, A., Salanti, A., Buchmann, K. (2017). Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) immune response towards a recombinant vaccine targeting the parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Journal of Fish Diseases. doi: doi:10.1111/jfd.12653. Jørgensen, L. v. G. (2017). The fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis - Host immunology, ...
Effect of Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels on Compensatory Growth of Juvenile Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) Reared in Suboptimal Temperature - Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus);Compensatory Growth;Dietary Protein;Dietary Lipid;Suboptimal Temperature;
The effects of 2 injected bacterins, Vibrio damsela and Pasteurella piscicida O-antigen bacterins, on the cell type composition of the peripheral blood and head kidney and on the phagocytic activity of the head kidney leucocytes were studied in turbot Scophthalmus maximus L. Blood and head kidney samples were collected from treated and non-treated turbot at different times in the 168 h period after injection. The number of neutrophils increased markedly in the peripheral blood of P. piscicida O-antigen injected turbot 24 h after injection, being significantly higher (p , 0.01) than the neutrophil number in V. damsela O-antigen injected turbot. Forty-eight hours after injection, the numbers of head kidney neutrophils and macrophages in V. damsela and in P. piscicida O-antigen injected turbot increased significantly (p , 0.05) compared with those in saline-injected turbot while the neutrophils in the peripheral blood decreased in fish treated with each of the vaccines. Turbot neutrophils have ...
Oleh : Asep Rachmat Pratama NIM. J1B006020 JURUSAN PERIKANAN DAN KELAUTAN FAKULTAS SAINS DAN TEKNIK UNIVERSITAS JENDERAL SOEDIRMAN PURWOKERTO 2010 Hasil Parasit :Gyrodactylus sp. Cestoda dan Nematoda (Tabel 1. Dactylogyrus sp. dan Van As J. Lampiran). (2002) dalam Aksit et al. menyebabkan iritasi yang dibawa oleh makan pada permukaan sel epitel bagian depan operkulum insang dan sisik atau kulit ikan. (2001). Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. kondisi ini merupakan tipe perairan yang disukai parasit.G.. ikan laut dan avertebrata. Tryponosoma sp. Pengamatan Parasit Internal (diletakkan pada gelas benda dan (mikroskop dan digambar). pencernaan memotong dari ujung lambung sampai anus) B.. HASIL DAN PEMBAHASAN 1. Gyrodactylus sp. dan Ichtyophthirius multifilis.A. Monogenea. Lampiran). Trichodina sp. Menurut Kristmundsson dan Helgason (2007). Argulus sp. (2008) merupakan jenis parasit protozoa yang hidupnya berasosiasi pada ikan tawar. Menurut Smith and Schwarz (2009) Trichodina sp.. Pembahasan Ikan yang ...
Bacterial and ciliate assemblages associated with aquarium corals displaying white syndrome (WS) and brown jelly syndrome (BJS) were investigated. Healthy (n = 10) and diseased corals (WS n = 18; BJS n = 3) were analysed for 16S rRNA gene bacterial diversity, total bacterial abundance and vibrio-specific 16S rRNA gene abundance. This was conducted alongside analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequencing targeting ciliates, a group of organisms largely overlooked for their potential as causal agents of coral disease. Despite significant differences between healthy and diseased corals in their 16S rRNA gene bacterial diversity, total bacterial abundance and vibrio-specific rRNA gene abundance, no dominant bacterial ribotypes were found consistently within the diseased samples. In contrast, one ciliate morphotype, named Morph 3 in this study (GenBank Accession Numbers JF831358 for the ciliate isolated from WS and JF831359 for the ciliate isolated from BJS) was observed to burrow into and underneath the coral ...

Monograph of the Gonostomatidae and Kahliellidae (Ciliophora, | Helmut Berger | SpringerMonograph of the Gonostomatidae and Kahliellidae (Ciliophora, | Helmut Berger | Springer

Monograph of the Gonostomatidae and Kahliellidae (Ciliophora, Hypotricha). Authors. * Helmut Berger Series Title. Monographiae ...
more infohttp://www.springer.com/us/book/9789400704541

Ciliophora infections | definition of Ciliophora infections by Medical dictionaryCiliophora infections | definition of Ciliophora infections by Medical dictionary

What is Ciliophora infections? Meaning of Ciliophora infections medical term. What does Ciliophora infections mean? ... Looking for online definition of Ciliophora infections in the Medical Dictionary? Ciliophora infections explanation free. ... redirected from Ciliophora infections). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus.. Related to Ciliophora infections: Apostomatida, ... any member of the class Ciliata in older classifications (usually placed in the subphylum Ciliophora), members of which possess ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Ciliophora+infections

DIGITAL.CSIC: Histophagous scuticociliatids (Ciliophora) parasitizing turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.). Morphology, in vitro...DIGITAL.CSIC: Histophagous scuticociliatids (Ciliophora) parasitizing turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.). Morphology, in vitro...

Histophagous scuticociliatids (Ciliophora) parasitizing turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.). Morphology, in vitro culture and ...
more infohttps://digital.csic.es/handle/10261/20883

Morphology and Phylogeny of a New Frontonia Ciliate, F. paramagna spec. nov. (Ciliophora, Peniculida) from Harbin, Northeast...Morphology and Phylogeny of a New Frontonia Ciliate, F. paramagna spec. nov. (Ciliophora, Peniculida) from Harbin, Northeast...

Ciliophora, Peniculida) from Harbin, Northeast China Dataset homepage. Citation. Chen Y, Zhao Y, Pan X, Ding W, Al-Rasheid K A ... Ciliophora, Peniculida) from Harbin, Northeast China. Zootaxa 3827 (3): 375-386, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3827.3 ... Ciliophora, Peniculida) from Harbin, Northeast China. Plazi.org taxonomic treatments database. Checklist dataset https://doi. ...
more infohttps://www.gbif.org/dataset/a8fa5645-d9f3-4315-b84a-2075885e60b0

Description and phylogeny of a new prostomatid, Metacystis similis nov. spec. (Protista, Ciliophora) from the East China SeaDescription and phylogeny of a new prostomatid, Metacystis similis nov. spec. (Protista, Ciliophora) from the East China Sea

Protista, Ciliophora) from the East China Sea Dataset homepage. Citation. Li C (2014). Description and phylogeny of a new ... Protista, Ciliophora) from the East China Sea. Zootaxa 4033 (4): 584-592, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4033.4.8 ... Protista, Ciliophora) from the East China Sea. Plazi.org taxonomic treatments database. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/ ...
more infohttps://www.gbif.org/dataset/b8addc23-8f12-40af-9c9c-5fe8c50b4916

Taxonomic Redescription of Loxophyllum perihoplophorum and L. rostratum (Ciliophora: Pleurostomatida) from Korea | Korea ScienceTaxonomic Redescription of Loxophyllum perihoplophorum and L. rostratum (Ciliophora: Pleurostomatida) from Korea | Korea Science

Ciliophora: Pleurostomatida) from Korea - Haptoria;Pleurostomatida;Litonotidae;Loxophyllum perihoplophorum;Loxophyllum ... Phylum Ciliophora Doflein, 1901. In: An illustrated guide to the protozoa (Eds., Lee JJ, Leedale GF, Bradbury P). Society of ... In: World Ciliophora Database (Ed., Warren A) [Internet]. World Register of Marine Species, Accessed 8 Jul 2015, . ... Two litonotid ciliates (Ciliophora: Litostomatea: Pleurostomatida) unknown from Korea. Korean Journal of Systematic Zoology, 22 ...
more infohttp://www.koreascience.or.kr/article/ArticleFullRecord.jsp?cn=DMBRBT_2015_v31n4_277

First record of Chilodonella piscicola (Ciliophora: Chilodonellidae) from two endangered fishes, Schizothorax o connori and...First record of Chilodonella piscicola (Ciliophora: Chilodonellidae) from two endangered fishes, Schizothorax o' connori and...

Home » First record of Chilodonella piscicola (Ciliophora: Chilodonellidae) from two endangered fishes, Schizothorax o connori ... First record of Chilodonella piscicola (Ciliophora: Chilodonellidae) from two endangered fishes, Schizothorax o connori and ...
more infohttp://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/108510154/first-record-chilodonella-piscicola-ciliophora-chilodonellidae-from-two-endangered-fishes-schizothorax-o-connori-oxygymnocypris-stewartii-tibet

Molecular evolution of ciliates (Ciliophora) and some related groups of protozoans, Russian Journal of Genetics | 10.1134...Molecular evolution of ciliates (Ciliophora) and some related groups of protozoans, Russian Journal of Genetics | 10.1134...

Ciliophora) and some related groups of protozoans, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service ... Molecular evolution of ciliates (Ciliophora) and some related groups of protozoans. Molecular evolution of ciliates (Ciliophora ... Molecular evolution of ciliates (Ciliophora) and some related groups of protozoans. Lukashenko, N. ... The review summarizes current evidence, including the findings related to molecular phylogeny of ciliates (type Ciliophora) and ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/molecular-evolution-of-ciliates-ciliophora-and-some-related-groups-of-C01gahDIAg

Buy PDF - Acquired protection and production of immobilization antibody against Cryptocaryon irritans (Ciliophora,...Buy PDF - Acquired protection and production of immobilization antibody against Cryptocaryon irritans (Ciliophora,...

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Cryptocaryon irritans (phylum Ciliophora). Unknown, 2006. Cryptocaryon irritans (Ciliophora): ... Cryptocaryon irritans (Ciliophora): acquired protective immunity in the thick-lipped mullet, Chelon labrosus. Fish and ... Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Cryptocaryon irritans (Phylum Ciliophora). Fish diseases and disorders Volume 1: protozoan and ... Acquired protection and production of immobilization antibody against Cryptocaryon irritans (Ciliophora, Hymenostomatida) in ...
more infohttps://eurekamag.com/research/003/030/003030840.php

Ciliophora infections synonyms, Ciliophora infections antonyms - FreeThesaurus.comCiliophora infections synonyms, Ciliophora infections antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com

Antonyms for Ciliophora infections. 6 synonyms for ciliate: ciliated protozoan, ciliophoran, cilial, ciliary, ciliary, ciliated ... redirected from Ciliophora infections). Also found in: Dictionary, Medical.. Related to Ciliophora infections: Apostomatida, ... Ciliophora infections synonyms, Ciliophora infections antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com https://www.freethesaurus.com/Ciliophora+ ... www.freethesaurus.com/Ciliophora+infections,FreeThesaurus.com,/a,,/div, ,!--End of Graphic Thesaurus by FreeThesaurus.com--,. ...
more infohttps://www.freethesaurus.com/Ciliophora+infections

Phylogenetic Analyses on the Tintinnid Ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) Based on Multigene Sequence DataPhylogenetic Analyses on the Tintinnid Ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) Based on Multigene Sequence Data

Phylogeny, Ciliophora, choreotrichs, Tintinnida, SSU rDNA, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, ITS2 secondary structure ... Słowa kluczowe: Phylogeny, Ciliophora, choreotrichs, Tintinnida, SSU rDNA, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, ITS2 secondary structure ... Phylogenetic Analyses on the Tintinnid Ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) Based on Multigene Sequence Data. Yan Zhao, Feng Gao, ... Phylogenetic Analyses on the Tintinnid Ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) Based on Multigene Sequence Data ...
more infohttp://www.ejournals.eu/Acta-Protozoologica/Tom-51

Redescription of Two Urostylid Ciliates (Ciliophora: Urostylida), Anteholosticha pulchra and Metaurostylopsis struederkypkeae...Redescription of Two Urostylid Ciliates (Ciliophora: Urostylida), Anteholosticha pulchra and Metaurostylopsis struederkypkeae...

Ciliophora: Urostylida), Anteholosticha pulchra and Metaurostylopsis struederkypkeae from Korea;kpubs;kpubs.org ... n. (Protozoa Ciliophora) with estimating the systematic position of Metaurostylopsis. Zoo-logica Scripta 40 99 - 111 DOI : ... Cilio-phora Spirotricha Bakuellidae) and SSU rRNA gene sequ-ences of six additional hypotrichs from Korea. The Journal of ... Ciliophora: Urostylida) with brief notes on its cellular reorganization and SS rRNA gene sequence. European Journal of ...
more infohttp://www.kpubs.org/article/articleMain.kpubs?articleANo=DMBRBT_2012_v28n1_20

Capsules - unique organelles characterising specific tintinnid ciliate clades (Alveolata, Ciliophora)</em>...Capsules - unique organelles characterising specific tintinnid ciliate clades (Alveolata, Ciliophora)</em>...

Capsules - unique organelles characterising specific tintinnid ciliate clades (Alveolata, Ciliophora). Maximilian Ganser, ... Capsules - unique organelles characterising specific tintinnid ciliate clades (Alveolata, Ciliophora). / Ganser, Maximilian; ... Capsules - unique organelles characterising specific tintinnid ciliate clades (Alveolata, Ciliophora). 2019. Abstract von VIII ... Capsules - unique organelles characterising specific tintinnid ciliate clades (Alveolata, Ciliophora). Abstract von VIII ...
more infohttps://uni-salzburg.elsevierpure.com/de/publications/capsules-unique-organelles-characterising-specific-tintinnid-cili-3

Taxonomy, morphology and phylogeny of three new oligotrich ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Oligotrichia) from southern China |...Taxonomy, morphology and phylogeny of three new oligotrich ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Oligotrichia) from southern China |...

Protozoa: Ciliophora): Two new oligotrich ciliates from a Mangrove Wetland, South China. . J Eukaryot Microbiol 56:, 459--465. ... Ciliophora, Oligotrichia). . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63:, 1179--1191. [CrossRef][PubMed] ... 1995;). Taxonomy and ecology of the ciliate fauna (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in the endopagial and pelagial of the Weddell Sea, ... and Strombidium arenicola (Protozoa, Ciliophora): a comparative light microscopical and SEM study. . Eur J Protistol 39:, 245-- ...
more infohttps://www.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.052878-0

The All-Data-Based Evolutionary Hypothesis of Ciliated Protists with a Revised Classification of the Phylum Ciliophora ...The All-Data-Based Evolutionary Hypothesis of Ciliated Protists with a Revised Classification of the Phylum Ciliophora ...

The All-Data-Based Evolutionary Hypothesis of Ciliated Protists with a Revised Classification of the Phylum Ciliophora ( ... The All-Data-Based Evolutionary Hypothesis of Ciliated Protists with a Revised Classification of the Phylum Ciliophora ( ...
more infohttps://nhm.openrepository.com/handle/10141/610783

Balantidium honghuensis n. sp. (Ciliophora: Trichostomatidae) from the Rectum of Rana nigromaculata and R. limnocharis from...Balantidium honghuensis n. sp. (Ciliophora: Trichostomatidae) from the Rectum of Rana nigromaculata and R. limnocharis from...

n. (Ciliophora: Balantidiidae). Zool Sci 1986;3: 543-546.. 20. Mahoon MS, Khan MI. Entozoic protozoa of frog Rana cyanophlyctis ... Ciliophora: Trichostomatidae) from the Rectum of Rana nigromaculata and R. limnocharis from Honghu Lake, China. ... Ciliophora: Trichostomatidae) from the Rectum of Rana nigromaculata. and R. limnocharis. from Honghu Lake, China ...
more infohttp://parasitol.kr/journal/view.php?number=1683

Database / Bibliography of hypotrichs and euplotids (Ciliophora) by Helmut Berger, Technisches Büro für Ökologie - Consulting...Database / Bibliography of hypotrichs and euplotids (Ciliophora) by Helmut Berger, Technisches Büro für Ökologie - Consulting...

Special Book: Bibliography of Hypotrichs and Euplotids (Ciliophora). (More information). Berger H. (2006): Bibliography of ... alte arten bewegung biochemie biochemistry biogeographie biogeography bog ciliaten ciliates ciliophora dna dns ecology ... Keywords, porifera, Amoebina, pf, Hypotrichia, Europe, Switzerland, faunistic, Ciliophora, physiology, morphogenesis, nutrition ... Hypotrichs and Euplotids (Ciliophora). Verlag Helmut Berger, Salzburg. i-viii and 425 pp. 6062 references. ISBN 3-902147-02-4. ...
more infohttp://www.protozoology.com/database/index.html

KOPRI Repository: Morphology and molecular phylogeny of an Antarctic population of Paraholosticha muscicola (Kahl, 1932) Wenzel...KOPRI Repository: Morphology and molecular phylogeny of an Antarctic population of Paraholosticha muscicola (Kahl, 1932) Wenzel...

Morphology and molecular phylogeny of an Antarctic population of Paraholosticha muscicola (Kahl, 1932) Wenzel, 1953 (Ciliophora ... Morphology and molecular phylogeny of an Antarctic population of Paraholosticha muscicola (Kahl, 1932) Wenzel, 1953 (Ciliophora ... Ciliophora, Hypotricha)". POLAR SCIENCE, 9(4): 374-381.. Abstract. The morphology of an Antarctic soil population of ...
more infohttp://repository.kopri.re.kr/handle/201206/7371

Reconsideration of the well-known hypotrichous ciliate Pleurotricha curdsi (Shi et al., 2002) Gupta et al., 2003 (Ciliophora,...Reconsideration of the 'well-known' hypotrichous ciliate Pleurotricha curdsi (Shi et al., 2002) Gupta et al., 2003 (Ciliophora,...

Gao F. , Gao S. , Wang P. , Katz L.A. , Song W. . ( 2014;). Phylogenetic analyses of cyclidiids (Protista, Ciliophora, ... Huang J. , Chen Z. , Song W. , Berger H. . ( 2014;). Three-gene based phylogeny of the Urostyloidea (Protista, Ciliophora, ... Ciliophora, Hypotrichia), with consideration of its systematic position among urostylids. Eur J Protistol 50: 78--88 [CrossRef] ... Ciliophora, Spirotrichea) with a note on morphogenesis of A. pulchra (Kahl, 1932) Berger, 2003. J Eukaryot Microbiol 60: 564-- ...
more infohttps://www.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.000377

On the Nature of Tintinnid Loricae (Ciliophora: Spirotricha: Tintinnina): a Histochemical, Enzymatic, EDX, and High-resolution...On the Nature of Tintinnid Loricae (Ciliophora: Spirotricha: Tintinnina): a Histochemical, Enzymatic, EDX, and High-resolution...

Ciliophora: Spirotricha: Tintinnina): a Histochemical, Enzymatic, EDX, and High-resolution TEM Study Key words: Chemical ... Tintinnids (Ciliophora: Spirotricha: Tintinnina) are occasionally the dominant ciliates in the marine plankton. The tintinnid ... On the Nature of Tintinnid Loricae (Ciliophora: Spirotricha: Tintinnina): a Histochemical, Enzymatic, EDX, and High-resolution ...
more infohttp://jurnal-mikrobiologi.blogspot.com/2012/08/on-nature-of-tintinnid-loricae.html

中国科学院海洋研究所机构知识库(IOCAS-IR): Three rDNA Loci-Based Phylogenies of Tintinnid Ciliates (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea, Choreotrichida中国科学院海洋研究所机构知识库(IOCAS-IR): Three rDNA Loci-Based Phylogenies of Tintinnid Ciliates (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea, Choreotrichida

Three rDNA Loci-Based Phylogenies of Tintinnid Ciliates (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea, Choreotrichida). Zhang, Qianqian1; Agatha, ... Zhang, Qianqian,et al."Three rDNA Loci-Based Phylogenies of Tintinnid Ciliates (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea, Choreotrichida)". ... Three rDNA Loci-Based Phylogenies of Tintinnid Ciliates (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea, Choreotrichida)[J]. JOURNAL OF EUKARYOTIC ... Ciliophora, Spirotrichea, Choreotrichida).JOURNAL OF EUKARYOTIC MICROBIOLOGY,64(2),226-241. ...
more infohttp://ir.qdio.ac.cn/handle/337002/136763

How Many Legs Do Ladybugs Have? | Reference.comHow Many Legs Do Ladybugs Have? | Reference.com

How Do Members of the Phylum Ciliophora Move?. * Q: What Are Some Obscure Animals?. ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/science/many-legs-ladybugs-13142e238441d8fe

Biological Diversity 3Biological Diversity 3

Phylum Ciliophora. The phylum Ciliophora contains about 8,000 species of ciliates. Ciliates move by coordinated strokes of ...
more infohttp://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookDiversity_3.html

Protist Quiz Flashcards by Becky knapp | BrainscapeProtist Quiz Flashcards by Becky knapp | Brainscape

Alveolates-Ciliophora use cilia to move and feed. have 2 nuclei, micro and macro ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/protist-quiz-1928395/packs/3461021
  • Identification of three highly confused marine Loxophyllum (Ciliophora: Pleurostomatida) with a key to seven congeners from the China Sea. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • any member of the class Ciliata in older classifications (usually placed in the subphylum Ciliophora), members of which possess cilia (see CILIUM during some part of the life cycle for locomotion and/or food capture. (thefreedictionary.com)