A neurotrophic factor that promotes the survival of various neuronal cell types and may play an important role in the injury response in the nervous system.
Cell surface receptors for CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR. They are heterotrimeric proteins formed by the association of the CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT with the LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130. Although the receptor regulates neuronal development, it is structurally similar to the cytokine receptor for INTERLEUKIN-6; (RECEPTORS, INTERLEUKIN-6).
A ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor subunit. It is anchored to the cell surface via GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE and has specificity for binding to CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR. It lacks signal transducing domains which are found on the other two subunits of the receptor.
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.
A receptor subunit that combines with CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form the dual specificity receptor for LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR and ONCOSTATIN M. The subunit is also a component of the CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR RECEPTOR. Both membrane-bound and secreted isoforms of the receptor subunit exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. The secreted isoform is believed to act as an inhibitory receptor, while the membrane-bound form is a signaling receptor.
Cell surface receptors formed from the dimerization of LIF RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT with CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130. Although originally described as receptors for LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR these receptors also bind the closely-related protein ONCOSTATIN M and are referred to as both LIF receptors and type I oncostatin M receptors.
The founding member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family. It was originally characterized as a NERVE GROWTH FACTOR promoting the survival of MIDBRAIN dopaminergic NEURONS, and it has been studied as a potential treatment for PARKINSON DISEASE.
A cytokine receptor that acts through the formation of oligomeric complexes of itself with a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.
Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
A cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions that depend upon the cellular microenvironment. Oncostatin M is a 28 kDa monomeric glycoprotein that is similar in structure to LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR. Its name derives from the the observation that it inhibited the growth of tumor cells and augmented the growth of normal fibroblasts.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4 and neurotrophin 5. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and plays a role in mediating the effects of neurotrophins on growth and differentiation of neuronal cells.
A neurotrophic factor involved in regulating the survival of visceral and proprioceptive sensory neurons. It is closely homologous to nerve growth factor beta and BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A family of GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL-anchored cell surface receptors that are specific for GLIAL CELL LINE-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS. They form a multi-component receptor complex with PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-RET and regulate a variety of intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS in conjunction with c-ret protein.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Cell surface receptors with specificity for ONCOSTATIN M. Two subtypes of receptors have been identified and are defined by their subunit composition.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-11. They consist of heterodimers of the INTERLEUKIN-11 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A low affinity interleukin-11 receptor subunit that combines with the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-11. Multiple isoforms of this protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its MRNA.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
A metabolite of tryptophan with a possible role in neurodegenerative disorders. Elevated CSF levels of quinolinic acid are correlated with the severity of neuropsychological deficits in patients who have AIDS.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.
Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Hereditary, progressive degeneration of the neuroepithelium of the retina characterized by night blindness and progressive contraction of the visual field.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that has specificity for directly repeated (DR) AGGTCA sequences. It binds DNA as either as a homodimer or as a heterodimer with the closely-related orphan nuclear receptor NUCLEAR RECEPTOR SUBFAMILY 2, GROUP C, MEMBER 2. The protein was originally identified as a PROSTATE-specific protein and is involved in the regulation of variety of cellular processes, including CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL PROLIFERATION; and APOPTOSIS.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)
A family of intracellular tyrosine kinases that participate in the signaling cascade of cytokines by associating with specific CYTOKINE RECEPTORS. They act upon STAT TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS in signaling pathway referred to as the JAK/STAT pathway. The name Janus kinase refers to the fact the proteins have two phosphate-transferring domains.
Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Receptor protein-tyrosine kinases involved in the signaling of GLIAL CELL-LINE DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR ligands. They contain an extracellular cadherin domain and form a receptor complexes with GDNF RECEPTORS. Mutations in ret protein are responsible for HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE and MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 2.
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-6. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES, mitogen-activated B-LYMPHOCYTES, and peripheral MONOCYTES. The receptors are heterodimers of the INTERLEUKIN-6 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A lymphohematopoietic cytokine that plays a role in regulating the proliferation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS. It induces maturation of MEGAKARYOCYTES which results in increased production of BLOOD PLATELETS. Interleukin-11 was also initially described as an inhibitor of ADIPOGENESIS of cultured preadipocytes.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Group of alkaloids containing a benzylpyrrole group (derived from TRYPTOPHAN)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor ligand that is specific for the GFRA2 RECEPTOR. Neurturin is essential for the development of specific postganglionic parasympathetic NEURONS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A low affinity receptor that binds NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; and neurotrophin 4.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NEUROTROPHIN 3. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and may play a role in mediating the effects of NEUROTROPHIN 3 on the proliferation and differentiation of NEURONS.
Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.

Leukemia inhibitory factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor cause dendritic retraction in cultured rat sympathetic neurons. (1/406)

Dendritic retraction occurs in many regions of the developing brain and also after neural injury. However, the molecules that regulate this important regressive process remain largely unknown. Our data indicate that leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) cause sympathetic neurons to retract their dendrites in vitro, ultimately leading to an approximately 80% reduction in the size of the arbor. The dendritic retraction induced by LIF exhibited substantial specificity because it was not accompanied by changes in cell number, in the rate of axonal growth, or in the expression of axonal cytoskeletal elements. An antibody to gp130 blocked the effects of LIF and CNTF, and both cytokines induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of stat3. Moreover, addition of soluble interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor to the medium endowed IL-6 with the ability to cause dendritic regression. These data indicate that ligands activating the gp130 pathway have the ability to profoundly alter neuronal cell shape and polarity by selectively causing the retraction of dendrites.  (+info)

CNTF, not other trophic factors, promotes axonal regeneration of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult hamsters. (2/406)

PURPOSE: To investigate the in vivo effects of trophic factors on the axonal regeneration of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult hamsters. METHODS: The left optic nerve was transected intracranially or intraorbitally, and a peripheral nerve graft was apposed or sutured to the axotomized optic nerve to enhance regeneration. Trophic factors were applied intravitreally every 5 days. Animals were allowed to survive for 3 or 4 weeks. Regenerating retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were labeled by applying the dye Fluoro-Gold to the distal end of the peripheral nerve graft 3 days before the animals were killed. RESULTS: Intravitreal application of ciliary neurotrophic factor substantially enhanced the regeneration of damaged axons into a sciatic nerve graft in both experimental conditions (intracranial and intraorbital optic nerve transections) but did not increase the survival of distally axotomized RGCs. Basic fibroblast growth factor and neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4/5 failed to enhance axonal regeneration of distally axotomized RGCs. CONCLUSIONS: Neurons of the adult central nervous system can regenerate in response to trophic supply after injury, and ciliary neurotrophic factor is at least one of the trophic factors that can promote axonal regeneration of axotomized RGCs.  (+info)

Receptor recognition sites of cytokines are organized as exchangeable modules. Transfer of the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor-binding site from ciliary neurotrophic factor to interleukin-6. (3/406)

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) are "4-helical bundle" cytokines of the IL-6 type family of neuropoietic and hematopoietic cytokines. IL-6 signals by induction of a gp130 homodimer (e.g. IL-6), whereas CNTF and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signal via a heterodimer of gp130 and LIF receptor (LIFR). Despite binding to the same receptor component (gp130) and a similar protein structure, IL-6 and CNTF share only 6% sequence identity. Using molecular modeling we defined a putative LIFR binding epitope on CNTF that consists of three distinct regions (C-terminal A-helix/N-terminal AB loop, BC loop, C-terminal CD-loop/N-terminal D-helix). A corresponding gp130-binding site on IL-6 was exchanged with this epitope. The resulting IL-6/CNTF chimera lost the capacity to signal via gp130 on cells without LIFR, but acquired the ability to signal via the gp130/LIFR heterodimer and STAT3 on responsive cells. Besides identifying a specific LIFR binding epitope on CNTF, our results suggest that receptor recognition sites of cytokines are organized as modules that are exchangeable even between cytokines with limited sequence homology.  (+info)

Repeated injections of a ciliary neurotrophic factor analogue leading to long-term photoreceptor survival in hereditary retinal degeneration. (4/406)

PURPOSE: To determine whether ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) treatment leads to long-term photoreceptor survival in hereditary retinal degeneration. METHODS: An autosomal dominant feline model of rod-cone dystrophy was used throughout the study with two normal animals. In the first experiment, intravitreal injections of a human CNTF analogue (Axokine; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY) were administered to one eye of each animal (n = 10) beginning on postnatal day 10 and were repeated every 4 weeks. Clinical and histopathologic examinations were performed at 5.5, 9.5, and 13.5 weeks. In the second experiment, animals (n = 17) were randomly assigned to receive intravitreal injections of either Axokine (at half the initial dose), human BDNF, or the vehicle for Axokine to one eye at 5.5 weeks. The same therapy was repeated every 4 weeks in each group. Clinical and histopathologic examinations were performed at 9.5, 13.5, and 17.5 weeks. Photoreceptor survival was assessed by cell counting. Apoptotic cells were identified by morphology and a modified TdT-dUTP terminal nick-end labeling (TUNEL) technique. In the third experiment, two normal animals were treated with Axokine as in the first experiment. Glial fibrillary acidic protein ((GFAP) immunohistochemistry was performed to assess glial cell reaction. RESULTS: In the first two experiments, Axokine significantly prolonged photoreceptor survival (P < 0.01) and reduced the presence of apoptotic cells (P < 0.05) and TUNEL-positive cells (P < 0.05). In the second experiment, results in the the BDNF- and sham-injected eyes were not significantly different from those in the untreated eyes. Minimal posterior subcapsular cataract and mild retinal folds were found in all Axokine-treated eyes in both dystrophic and normal animals. These complications were milder in the second experiment when injections were started later and at a reduced dose. GFAP immunolabeling was also increased in all Axokine-treated eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Axokine, but not BDNF, delays photoreceptor loss in this hereditary retinal degeneration. Repeated injections maintain the protective effect.  (+info)

Signalling by the RET receptor tyrosine kinase and its role in the development of the mammalian enteric nervous system. (5/406)

RET is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) superfamily, which can transduce signalling by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurturin (NTN) in cultured cells. In order to determine whether in addition to being sufficient, RET is also necessary for signalling by these growth factors, we studied the response to GDNF and NTN of primary neuronal cultures (peripheral sensory and central dopaminergic neurons) derived from wild-type and RET-deficient mice. Our experiments show that absence of a functional RET receptor abrogates the biological responses of neuronal cells to both GDNF and NTN. Despite the established role of the RET signal transduction pathway in the development of the mammalian enteric nervous system (ENS), very little is known regarding its cellular mechanism(s) of action. Here, we have studied the effects of GDNF and NTN on cultures of neural crest (NC)-derived cells isolated from the gut of rat embryos. Our findings suggest that GDNF and NTN promote the survival of enteric neurons as well as the survival, proliferation and differentiation of multipotential ENS progenitors present in the gut of E12.5-13.5 rat embryos. However, the effects of these growth factors are stage-specific, since similar ENS cultures established from later stage embryos (E14. 5-15.5), show markedly diminished response to GDNF and NTN. To examine whether the in vitro effects of RET activation reflect the in vivo function(s) of this receptor, the extent of programmed cell death was examined in the gut of wild-type and RET-deficient mouse embryos by TUNEL histochemistry. Our experiments show that a subpopulation of enteric NC undergoes apoptotic cell death specifically in the foregut of embryos lacking the RET receptor. We suggest that normal function of the RET RTK is required in vivo during early stages of ENS histogenesis for the survival of undifferentiated enteric NC and their derivatives.  (+info)

Target-dependent regulation of acetylcholine secretion at developing motoneurons in Xenopus cell cultures. (6/406)

1. Myocyte-dependent regulation of acetylcholine (ACh) quantal secretion from developing motoneurons was studied in day-3 Xenopus nerve-muscle co-cultures. Spontaneous synaptic currents (SSCs) were measured in manipulated synapses by using whole-cell voltage-clamped myocytes. Changes in SSC amplitude were assumed to reflect changes in the ACh content of secreted quantal packets. Compared with natural synapses, motoneurons without any contact with a myocyte (naive neurons) released ACh in smaller quantal packets. 2. Bipolar cultured motoneurons, which were in contact with a myocyte with one axon branch (contact-end) but remained free at another axon branch (free-end), were further used to examine quantal ACh secretion. The ACh quantal size recorded at free-end terminals was similar to that of naive neurons and was smaller than that at the contact-end, indicating that myocyte contact exerts differential regulation on quantal secretion in the same neuron. 3. Some of the neurons that formed a natural synapse with a myocyte continued to grow forward and ACh quantal secretion from the free growth cone was examined. The ACh quantal size recorded at free growth cones was inversely proportional to the distance to the natural synapse, implying localized regulation of quantal secretion by the myocyte. 4. Chronic treatment of day-1 cultures with veratridine and d-tubocurarine, respectively, increased and decreased the neurotrophic action of myocytes when assayed on day 3. 5. Taken together, these findings suggest that the myocyte is an important postsynaptic target in the regulation of quantal secretion and that the trophic action is spatially restricted to the neighbourhood of the neuromuscular junction.  (+info)

Dynamic regulation of expression and phosphorylation of tau by fibroblast growth factor-2 in neural progenitor cells from adult rat hippocampus. (7/406)

The nature of the extracellular signals that regulate the expression and the phosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau, which is aberrantly hyperphosphorylated in Alzheimer disease and other adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases, is not known. We have found that neural progenitor cells from adult rat hippocampus express adult isoforms of tau and that the expression and the phosphorylation of tau are regulated by fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). Astrocytes that are differentiated from these cells by stimulation with ciliary neurotrophic factor express phosphorylated tau similarly when cultured in the presence of FGF-2. In fetal progenitor cells that express only the fetal tau isoform, expression, but not the phosphorylation, of this protein is regulated by FGF-2 in cultures of higher passages. The FGF-2-mediated tau hyperphosphorylation is inhibited by lithium, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), but not by inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase or the cyclin-dependent kinases. Furthermore, both GSK-3 activity and the phosphorylation of tau increase when the concentration of FGF-2 is increased up to 40 ng/ml. These results demonstrate that proliferating adult rat hippocampal progenitor cells express adult isoforms of tau stably and that FGF-2 upregulates the expression and, by upregulating GSK-3 activity, the phosphorylation of tau.  (+info)

Activation of TrkA by nerve growth factor upregulates expression of the cholinergic gene locus but attenuates the response to ciliary neurotrophic growth factor. (8/406)

Nerve growth factor (NGF) stimulates the expression of the cholinergic gene locus, which encodes choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), the proteins necessary for the synthesis and storage of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). To determine whether this action of NGF is mediated by the p140TrkA NGF receptor (a member of the Trk tyrosine kinase family) we used a murine basal forebrain cholinergic cell line, SN56, stably transfected with rat trkA cDNA. Treatment of these transfectants with NGF activated mitogen-activated protein kinase and increased cytosolic free calcium concentrations, confirming the reconstitution of TrkA-mediated signalling pathways. The expression of ChAT and VAChT mRNA, as well as ACh content, were coordinately up-regulated by NGF in SN56-trkA transfectants. None of these responses occurred in the parental SN56 cells, which do not express endogenous TrkA, indicating that these actions of NGF required TrkA. We previously reported that ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) upregulates the expression of ChAT and VAChT, as well as ACh production, in SN56 cells. The combined treatment of SN56-trkA cells with CNTF and NGF revealed a complex interaction of these factors in the regulation of cholinergic gene locus expression. At low concentrations of CNTF (<1 ng/ml), the upregulation of ACh synthesis evoked by these factors was additive. However, at higher concentrations of CNTF (>1 ng/ml), NGF attenuated the stimulatory effect of CNTF on ChAT and VAChT mRNA and ACh content. This attenuation was not due to interference with early steps of CNTF receptor signalling, as pre-treatment of SN56-trkA cells with NGF did not affect the nuclear translocation of the transcription factor, Stat3, evoked by CNTF.  (+info)

L~..Lary IUeurotroph~cPactor: Pharmacokrnetics m-d Acute-Phase Response in Rat Falk Dittrich, Hans Thoenen, and Michael Sendtnet Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) supports the survival of motoneurons in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant CNTF is an investigational drug for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We determined the pharmacokinetics of radioiodinated CNTF after intravenous injection into rats. CNTF shows a biphasic clearance with an initial plasma half-life of 2.9 minutes and is removed from the circulation by the liver. No accumulation of radioactivity was detectable in nerve tissue or skeletal muscle after intravenous injection of 0.1 pg and 0.5 pg of CNTF. Radioactive degradation products accumulate in the skin. Liver cells express specific binding proteins for CNTF, and the incorporation and degradation of intravenously injected CNTF by the liver may occur after association of CNTF with the soluble CNTF receptor cu in the circulation. Probably a9 a consequence of its ...
The relationship between ciliary neurotrophic factor CNTF genotype and motor unit physiology: preliminary studies. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Ciliary neurotrophic factor improves diabetic parameters and hepatic steatosis and increases basal metabolic rate in db/db mice.: Obesity plays a central role i
References for Abcams Recombinant Human CNTF protein (ab78711). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Complete information for CNTF gene (Protein Coding), Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Description: Human CNTF ELISA development kit contains the key components required for the quantitative measurement of natural and/or recombinant CNTF in a sandwich ELISA format within the range of 47-3,000 pg/mL. Using the ELISA protocol described below, this kit provides sufficient reagents to assay CNTF in approximately 1,000 ELISA plate wells ...
A recombinant version of human CNTF (rhCNTF), trade name Axokine, is a modified version with a 15 amino acid truncation of the C-terminus and two amino acid substitutions. It is three to five times more potent than CNTF in in vitro and in vivo assays and has improved stability properties.[6] Like CNTF it is a neurotrophic factor, and may stimulate nerve cells to survive. It was tested in the 1990s as a treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It did not improve muscle control as much as expected, but trial participants did report a loss of appetite. Phase III clinical trials for the drug against obesity were conducted in 2003 by Axokines maker, Regeneron, demonstrating a small positive effect in some patients, but the drug was not commercialized. A major problem with the treatment was that in nearly 70% of the subjects tested, antibodies against Axokine were produced after approximately three months of treatment.[7] In the minority of subjects who did not develop the antibodies, weight loss ...
Results: The athlete group showed an allelic distribution of ACTN3 (R/R:64%, R/X:16%, X/X:20%) and CNTF (G/G:72%, G/A:26%, A/A:2%), significantly imbalanced towards alleles R/R and G/G, respectively, compared to controls (ACTN3=R/R:40% R/X:22% X/X:38% and CNTF=G/G:52%, G/A:24%, A/A:24%) (p=0.0024 and p=0.0001, respectively). Only the ACTN3 577X/X polymorphism showed a significant association with the anaerobic threshold of athletes (F-ratio= 4.037; p=0.025). Factorial ANOVA demonstrated a non significant interaction between favourable allelic patterns of ACTN3 and CNTF genes on aerobic performance in the athlete group ...
Animals and genotyping. LIFR +/− mice generated on the B6,129/J genetic background and C57BL6 STOCK (for expanding theLIFR +/− mice) were obtained from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME). Mice were then bred to allow for the generation of homozygote, heterozygote, and wild-type littermates (Koblar et al., 1998). The genotyping of mice carryingLIFR mutations was performed as described previously (Ware et al., 1995). CD-1 mice stocks were maintained in the University of Calgary Bioscience Animal Resources Center.. Neural stem cell culture and growth factors. Generation and differentiation of spheres from embryonic and adult forebrain were performed as described previously with minor modifications (Reynolds and Weiss, 1992; Reynolds et al., 1992). Briefly, striato-pallidum complexes were removed from mouse embryos at E14 and collected into PBS containing 0.6% glucose, penicillin (50 U/ml), and streptomycin (50 U/ml; both from Life Technologies, Gaithersburg, MD) and then transferred into ...
The views presented here are those of the author and are not to be construed as official or reflecting the views of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government ...
This study examined the mechanisms underlying the long term functional outcome after bone marrow derived multipotent progenitor cell (MPC) transplantation in a porcine model of postinfarction Left Ventricular (LV) remodeling. Myocardial infarction (MI) was created by ligating the distal left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Intramyocardial injection of 50 million lacZ labeled MPC was performed in the periscar region (Cell, n=7) with 5 equal injections immediately after MI, while in control animals (CONT, n=7) saline was injected. Outcome was assessed with MRI and P-31 MRS. Engraftment was studied on histology and gene chip (Affymetrix) array analysis was used to study differential expression of genes in the two groups at 4 months. MPC treatment resulted in improvement of ejection fraction as early as 10 days after MI (32.2±9.5 vs. 43.4±5.1 in CONT and Cell respectively, p ,0.05). This improvement was seen each month and persisted up to 4 months (35.7±6.2 vs. 51.2±4.8 in CONT and ...
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a promyelinating trophic factor, and the mechanisms by which CNTF expression could be increased in the brain are poorly understood. Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) is one of the most widely used analgesics. Interestingly, aspirin increased mRNA and protein expression of CNTF in primary mouse and human astrocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Aspirin induced the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) but not protein kinase C (PKC). H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, abrogated aspirin-induced expression of CNTF ...
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Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and related cytokines, such as leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), oncostatin M (OSM), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and IL-11 exhibit multiple functions and redundancy in biological activities and play important roles in the immune response, hematopoiesis, the nervous system …
Clinical trials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been conducted for over half a century now and have incorporated a wide variety of drugs. Most of these trials have had negative results and a cure remains elusive. The explosion in our understanding of molecular biology and parallel developments in clinical epidemiology have opened up a vast number of novel therapeutic strategies. However, advances in statistical analysis, computing, and global communications have also put greater pressure on scientific investigators to improve the design and implementation of clinical trials so that they permit rigorous testing of hypotheses within a solid ethical framework. This article documents the first published trial for all drugs tried clinically in the treatment of ALS, focusing in more detail on the large, multicenter trials of recent years, namely those involving riluzole, ciliary neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-I, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and SR57746A. The problems ...
Interleukin-19 (IL-19) is a novel cytokine that was initially identified during a sequence data base search aimed at finding potential IL-10 homologs. IL-19 shares a receptor complex with IL-20, indicating that the biological activities of these two cytokines overlap and that both may play an important role in regulating development and proper functioning of the skin. We determined the crystal structure of human recombinant IL-19 and refined it at 1.95-A resolution to an R-factor of 0.157. Unlike IL-10, which forms an intercalated dimer, the molecule of IL-19 is a monomer made of seven amphipathic helices, A-G, creating a unique helical bundle. On the basis of the observed structure, we propose that IL-19, IL-20, and other putative members of the proposed IL-10 family together form a distinct subfamily of helical cytokines. Crystal structure of interleukin-19 defines a new subfamily of helical cytokines.,Chang C, Magracheva E, Kozlov S, Fong S, Tobin G, Kotenko S, Wlodawer A, Zdanov A J Biol ...
Rat CNTF ELISA development kit contains the key components required for the quantitative measurement of natural and/or recombinant Rat CNTF
Objective(s): Occlusal trauma is one of the most common forms of oral biting dysfunction. Long-term occlusal trauma could weaken the stomatognathic system; especially damage ones masticatory muscle. Through using the rat model, this study investigated the trophic effect of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on injured masseter muscle. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (n=36) were randomly divided into five experimental groups and one control group (6 rats per group). Animals in the experimental group were cemented modified crowns on their mandibular first molars to artificially induce occlusal trauma in 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days. Control group was sham-treated with forced mouth-opening for about 5 min, while no crowns were placed. After 28 days of treatment, all rats were euthanized and their masseter muscle was collected. Through immunofluorescence and real-time quantitative PCR, the expression of desmin, CNTF, and CNTFRα was investigated in rat masseter muscle. The microstructure of ...
Astrocytes are activated by ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in vivo and in vitro, however, the consequences on the L-type calcium channel (LCC) of neurons are still poorly understood. Therefore, in the present study, whole-cell patch clamp, western-blot and RT-PCR assay were performed to evaluate the effects of CNTF-treated astrocyte conditioned medium (CNTF-ACM) on LCC current (I(Ca)-L) and the expression of Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 in Sprague-Dawley rat cortical neurons. The results revealed that CNTF-ACM enhanced the amplitude of Ica-L and the expression of Cav1.3 significantly, but had no effects on Cav1.2 expression. We also found an increase in the concentration of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) in CNTF-ACM by ELISA assay. Taken together, these findings indicate that CNTF induces the release of factors, including FGF-2, from astrocytes, thereby potentiating the activity of LCC in cortical neurons.. ...
Motoneurons of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) reside in the lower lumbar spinal cord and innervate the bulbocavernosus (BC) and levator ani (LA) muscles. Adult males have larger BC and LA muscles and many more SNB motoneurons than do females. This sex difference comes about as a result of androgen-regulated cell death. How is androgen stimulation of the BC/LA muscles translated into a live-or-die decision by the SNB motoneurons? Neurotrophic factors such as ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) may play such a role. The experiments described in this dissertation are designed to (1)� identify potential direct sites of CNTF action in the SNB neuromuscular system, (2)� examine androgen regulation of CNTFR�± gene expression in BC/LA muscle and lumbosacral spinal cord, and (3)� to test whether endogenously produced neurotrophic factors normally influence SNB cell survival. To determine whether CNTFR�± is expressed in the developing SNB system, I first performed ...
Motoneurons innervating the skeletal musculature were among the first neurons shown to require the presence of their target cells to develop appropriatelyl,2. But the characterization of molecules allowing motoneuron survival has been difficult. Ciliary neurotrophic factor prevents the death of motoneurons3-6, but its gene is not expressed during development7. Although the presence of a neurotrophin receptor on developing motoneurons8-1O has suggested a role for neurotrophins, none could be shown to promote motoneuron survival in vitro3. We report here that brainderived neurotrophic factor can prevent the death of axotomized motoneurons in newborn rats, suggesting a role for this neurotrophin for motoneuron survival in vivo.
We have determined the structure of murine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) by X-ray crystallography at 2.0 A resolution. The current crystal structure comprises native LIF residues 9 to 180 with 40 ordered water molecules. For this model the R value (with a bulk solvent correction) is 18.6% on all data from 20.0 A to 2.0 A with stereochemistry typified by root mean square deviations from ideal bond lengths of 0.015 A. The mainchain fold conforms to the four alpha-helix bundle topology previously observed for several members of the hematopoietic cytokine family. Of these, LIF shows closest structural homology to granulocyte colony stimulating factor and growth hormone. Sequence alignments for the functionally related molecules oncostatin M and ciliary neurotrophic factor, when mapped to the LIF structure, indicate regions of conserved structural and surface character. Analysis of published mutagenesis data implicate two regions of receptor interaction which are located in the fourth helix and the
Membrane lipid composition is central to the highly specialized functions of neurological tissues. In the retina, abnormal lipid metabolism causes severe forms of blindness, often through poorly understood neuronal cell death. Here, we demonstrate that deleting the de novo lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS) from the neural retina, but not the vascular retina, results in progressive neurodegeneration and blindness with a temporal pattern resembling rodent models of retinitis pigmentosa. Blindness was not rescued by protection from light-evoked activity; by eating a diet enriched in palmitate, the product of the FAS reaction; or by treatment with the PPARα agonist fenofibrate. Vision loss was due to aberrant synaptic structure, blunted responsiveness to glial-derived neurotrophic factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor, and eventual apoptotic cell loss. This progressive neurodegeneration was associated with decreased membrane cholesterol content, as well as loss of discrete n-3 ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a signal transducer shared by many cytokines, including interleukin 6 (IL6), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and oncostatin M (OSM). This protein functions as a part of the cytokine receptor complex. The activation of this protein is dependent upon the binding of cytokines to their receptors. vIL6, a protein related to IL6 and encoded by the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, can bypass the interleukin 6 receptor (IL6R) and directly activate this protein. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this gene plays a critical role in regulating myocyte apoptosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 17 ...
Production and functional integration of new neurons have been shown to persist throughout life in two specialized neurogenic regions of the adult brain: the lateral ventricle subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the neurogenic potential in these areas could open up new avenues for the development of cell replacement therapies for neurodegenerative diseases. Ciliary neurotrophic factor and other gp130-associated cytokines have been identified to be among the extracellular signals which regulate proliferation and cell fate decisions of neural stem cells. By in vivo experiments using mouse mutants and by in vitro studies in adult stem cell cultures we aim to elucidate how these cytokines exert their influence on neural stem cells. ...
Interleukin 11 receptor, alpha subunit is a subunit of the interleukin 11 receptor. IL11RA is its human gene. Interleukin 11 is a stromal cell-derived cytokine that belongs to a family of pleiotropic and redundant cytokines that use the gp130 transducing subunit in their high affinity receptors. This gene encodes the IL-11 receptor, which is a member of the hematopoietic cytokine receptor family. This particular receptor is very similar to ciliary neurotrophic factor, since both contain an extracellular region with a 2-domain structure composed of an immunoglobulin-like domain and a cytokine receptor-like domain. Alternative splicing has been observed at this locus and two variants, each encoding a distinct isoform, have been identified. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000137070 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Entrez Gene: IL11RA interleukin 11 receptor, alpha. Chérel M, Sorel M, Lebeau B, et al. (1995). Molecular cloning of two isoforms of a ...
Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are molecules which act to promote the differentiation of neurons and to maintain their phenotype. The discovery by Hamburger and Levi- Montalcini in 1949 that the number...
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Human BDNF (Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor) ELISA Kit assay has a sensitivity of |2pg/ml. Measure BDNF (Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor) in serum, blood, plasma, cell supernatant samples.
FGFR substrate 3 (human); FGFR-signaling adaptor SNT2 (human); SNT-2 (human); Suc1-associated neurotrophic factor target 2 (human ...
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Cardiotrophin-like cytokine (CLC), also known as novel neurotrophin-1 (NNT-1) and B cell stimulating factor (BSF-3), is a member of the IL-6 family of cytokines (1, 2). CLC associates with the secreted soluble cytokine-like factor 1 (CLF-1), a member of the cytokine type I receptor family, to form the heteromeric composite cytokine CLF-1/CLC (3, 5). CLC can also form an alternate composite cytokine with soluble ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha (CNTF R alpha ) (4). Co-expression of CLC with either CLF-1 or CNTF R alpha is required for the formation of the composite cytokines and for CLC secretion (3-5). CLF-1/CLC binds to the membrane-associated CNTF R alpha to initiate the heterodimerization between gp130 and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR) and stimulate the PI 3-kinase and the MAP kinase activity. The CLF-1/CLC complex displays activities only on those cells expressing the functional tripartite receptor complex (5). Mouse CLF-1 is a 425 amino acid (aa) protein that contains ...
Our data provide a link between loss of epidermal JunB and the development of SLE both in human patients and in an animal model, which can be helpful for further studies of SLE. The direct regulation of IL-6 by JunB emphasizes IL-6 as a target for anti-cytokine therapy in human SLE patients. IL-6 has been suggested to play a role in the development of SLE (21), and especially in patients with Lupus-nephritis, IL-6 levels are significantly increased (29, 30). In addition it was shown that IL-6 can experimentally deteriorate lupus nephritis (7) and that IL-6R blockage can improve it (31). In contrast, we did not find evidence for involvement of other Stat3-activating cytokine or growth factor receptor systems. We looked in detail for gp130 family members (1-3) such as the receptor chains for oncostatin M (OSMR) or leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR), since these are not restricted to specific organs such as caliotrophin (heart) or ciliary neurotrophic factor (neuronal tissue). In contrast ...
CNTF treatment dose-dependently prevented NCV slowing in galactose-fed rats, a model of elevated hexose sugar metabolism by aldose reductase, and was without effect in control rats. We have previously shown that galactose intoxication markedly reduces nerve CNTF and that this depletion can be prevented by aldose reductase inhibition (13,14). As aldose reductase inhibitors also prevent NCV slowing in galactose-fed rats (14), it seems reasonable to suggest that nerve CNTF depletion is an intermediary in the causative sequence that leads from increased hexose sugar metabolism by aldose reductase in Schwann cells to NCV slowing. Providing exogenous CNTF may replace the deficient production of this factor by metabolically stressed Schwann cells, although the site of action of exogenous CNTF is not yet known and further studies are required to establish how CNTF maintains NCV.. Exogenous administration of CNTF also had a significant impact on nerve function in rats with already established STZ-induced ...
Acronyms and Abbreviations: AP2, adaptor protein-2; BCR, B-cell antigen receptor; BMP, bone morphogenic protein; CNTF, ciliary neurotrophic factor; CT-1, cardiotrophin-1; DD, death domain; DR, death receptor; EPO, erythropoietin; EPOR, erythropoietin receptor; ERK, extracellular response kinase; FADD, Fas-associated death domain; FAK, focal adhesion kinase; G-CSF, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; Gab, Grb binding; GH, growth hormone; GM-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; GPCR, G-protein-coupled receptor; HCR, hematopoietic cytokine receptor; IAP, inhibitors of apoptosis; IKK, I-κB kinase; IL, interleukin; IRS, insulin receptor substrate; ITAM, immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif; ITIM, immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif; JAK, Janus family kinase; JNK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase; LIF, leukemia inhibitory factor; M-CSF, macrophage colony-stimulating factor; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; NR, nuclear receptor; OSM, oncostatin M; PI3K ...
The developing avian ciliary ganglion has been a particularly amenable system for the identification, isolation, and characterization of putative target-derived molecules that mediate retrograde interactions. To date a number of biochemically distinct activities that regulate neuronal survival, transmitter phenotype, and chemosensitivity of ciliary ganglion neurons have been identified. Of these, only two survival-promoting molecules have been purified to homogeneity: ciliary neurotrophic factor and a related molecule, growth-promoting activity. A somatostatin-inducing activity found in cultured choroid cells is very likely to be chick activin A. Other molecules that regulate acetylcholine and acetylcholine receptor expression comigrate on a gel filtration column at a molecular weight of 50-60 kD, but they have yet to be isolated. Once molecules that mimic retrograde influences are identified, a number of criteria must be met before their physiological significance can be established. These ...
Neurotech Pharmaceuticals, Inc., in collaboration with the Lowy Medical Research Institute (LMRI), has announced 24-month results demonstrating that NT-501 delivering Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) has a beneficial effect in patients with Macular Telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel). The multicenter, randomized clinical trial demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in the progressive loss of photoreceptors in treated versus untreated eyes. NT-501 utilizes the Companys proprietary Encapsulated Cell Therapy (ECT) platform that can be customized to deliver specific therapeutic molecules to the back of the eye for retinal disease.. [Read More]. ...
Abstract: : Purpose: The objective of the current study was to examine the role of media volume, feed, gas exchange and incubation time on encapsulated cell performance in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Two genetically modified mammalian cell lines (NTC-201-10 and NTC-201-6A) secreting low and high levels of CNTF were encapsulated within a polymer membrane and placed in holding packages containing either 2, 20 or 40 mL of culture media. The media in the 2 mL volume package was replaced weekly and exposed to 95% humidity and 5% CO 2 . Packages containing 20 and 40 mL of media were closed to the environment with no air headspace and no media replenishmet following closure. All packages were maintained at 37°C for 2-weeks, 1, 2, 3 and 4 months post-encapsulation. At each time point, some of the encapsulated capsules from each treatment group were evaluated for CNTF output and cell viability, and some were surgically implanted into the vitreous of individual eyes of rabbits. After 1 month, the devices ...
4) Neuroprotection. ri 1990 s ndu Dr. Steinberg og Dr LaVai fyrst fram , d ratilraunum, a n tt rulegir ttir ( neuron-survival factor ) g tu h gt hr rnunarferli lj snemanna sj nhimnunni. N er etta kalla Neuroprotection. dag hafa margir n tt rulegir ttir veri fundnir heila, sj nhimnu og rum l kamsvefjum, sem hamla dau a lj snemana. Einn af eim er kalla ur CNTF.. Neuroprotection - Klin skar tilraunir. Neurotech fyrirt ki er me gangi kl n skar tilraunir me CNTF b i RP and AMD tilfellum. Me t kni sem kallast: Encapsulated Cell Technology (ECT), er neuron-survival ttinum CNTF komi til sj nhimnunnar. ECT byggir a litlu hylki er komi fyrir innan vi auga . hylkinu eru s rstakar frumur sem eru l ffr ilega hanna ar til a framlei a CNTF. CNTF er sleppt r hylkinu til sj nhimnunnar ar sem a hj lpar til vi a verja hinar sj ku lj snemafrumur.. Framt ar me fer ir?. N verandi kl n skar tilraunir Neurotech ver a br tt yfirsta nar. essar tilraunir ttu a lei a til fyrstu hrifar ku, almennu og a gengilegu me fer a ...
However, no correlation was found between BDNF levels and depression scores or age, duration of illness, pain score or number of pain points.
CNTF is a polypeptide trophic factor, member of the alpha-helical cytokine superfamily. It was initially purified from the chick eye on the basis of…
CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR VARIANTS - Nucleic acid molecule selected from the group consisting of (a) a nucleic acid molecule having a nucleotide sequence shown in SEQ ID: NO 1, (b) a nucleic acid molecule which encodes a peptide having an amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID: NO 2, (c) a nucleic acid molecule whose complementary strand hybridizes to a nucleic acid molecule according to (a) or (b) and which codes for a peptide which binds to ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor (CNTFR), the peptide binding with lower affinity than ciliary neurotrophic factor to the interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R), (d) a nucleic acid molecule whose nucleotide sequence differs from the nucleotide sequence of a nucleic acid molecule according to (c) due to the degenerated genetic code, the codon at positions 82-84 of the nucleic acid molecule according to (a) coding for a non-positively charged amino acid, and the peptide at position 28 shown in SEQ ID: NO 2 having a non-positively charged amino acid residue ...
Multiple cytokines, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-11, IL-27, oncostatin M (OSM), and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), signal via the common GP130 cytokine receptor subunit. leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) receptor, oncostatin M (OSM) receptor, or ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) receptor, facilitating recognition of multiple ligands including IL-6, IL-11, IL-27, LIF, OSM, CNTF, cardiotrophin 1 (CT1), and cardiotrophin-like cytokine (CLC). Signal transduction via GP130 is mediated by the JAK/STAT pathway and includes phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT1, as well as activation of RAS/MAPK (OShea and Plenge, AC220 2012). An AC220 essential role for GP130-dependent signaling is shown by the lethality of the corresponding homozygous KO (mutations, is a complex immunodeficiency that presents with pneumonia, lung abnormalities, high levels of IgE, eosinophilia, eczema, and skeletal and connective tissue abnormalities including retained primary teeth, scoliosis, and craniosynostosis (Smithwick et ...
A study performed in November 2010 and published March 2011, was done by a team of scientists from the University of Rochester and University of Colorado School of Medicine. They did an experiment to attempt to repair trauma to the Central Nervous System of an adult rat by replacing the glial cells. When the glial cells were injected into the injury of the adult rats spinal cord, astrocytes were generated by exposing human glial precursor cells to bone morphogenetic protein (Bone morphogenetic protein is important because it is considered to create tissue architecture throughout the body). So, with the bone protein and human glial cells combined, they promoted significant recovery of conscious foot placement, axonal growth, and obvious increases in neuronal survival in the spinal cord laminae. On the other hand, human glial precursor cells and astrocytes generated from these cells by being in contact with ciliary neurotrophic factors, failed to promote neuronal survival and support of axonal ...
Sympathetic ganglia are composed of noradrenergic and cholinergic neurons. The differentiation of cholinergic sympathetic neurons is characterized by the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), induced in vitro by a subfamily of cytokines, including LIF, CNTF, GPA, OSM and cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1). To interfere with the function of these neuropoietic cytokines in vivo, antisense RNA for gp130, the common signal-transducing receptor subunit for neuropoietic cytokines, was expressed in chick sympathetic neurons, using retroviral vectors. A strong reduction in the number of VIP-expressing cells, but not of cells expressing ChAT or the adrenergic marker tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), was observed. These results reveal a physiological role of neuropoietic cytokines for the control of VIP expression during the development of cholinergic sympathetic neurons.. ...
From a treatment standpoint, methods of increasing neuroplasticity can include physical exercise, which has been found to increase neurotrophic factors, a kind of fertilizer for the brain, in addition to stimulating angiogenesis. Cognitive exercise can also increase a specific type of fertilizer called brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and increases synaptogenesis. The question then arises, What if these therapy activities were combined? For example, what if you had someone walking on a treadmill while performing some type of cognitive activity so that you stimulate neurotrophic factors on two fronts? One study actually did find that such a combination of activities can exponentially enhance the production of neurotrophic factors. ...
Psychology Definition of NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR: any polypeptide which is synthesized and then released by neurons to support their growth.
Altered neuronal responses and regulation of neurotrophic proteins in the medial septum following fimbria-fornix transection in CNTF- and LIF-deficient mice. Eur J Neurosci 24:2223-2232. Schubert KO, Naumann T, Schnell O, Zhi Q, Steup A, Hofmann H-D, Kirsch M (2005 ...
The involvement of neurotrophic factors in neuronal survival and differentiation is well established. The more recent realization that these factors also play pivotal roles in the maintenance and...
Noon Nymm 12, Y.K. 988 Undisclosed Location, Vicinity of New Cyre, Breland A few days ago, each of you received a missive from Prince Oargev irWynarn of Cyre, detailing a mission of vital importance. No other information was given aside from a place and time for the meeting, the code word is Thunder and that discretion is necessary. The date came and you arrived a few minutes before the designated time. The location for the meeting is a small barren cave on the outskirts of New Cyre.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Distribution and localization of pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor-like immunoreactivity in the peripheral and central nervous system. AU - Zhou, Xin-Fu. AU - Song, Xingyun. AU - Zhong, Jin Hua. AU - Barati, Shahram. AU - Zhou, F. AU - Johnson, Stephen. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. M3 - Article. VL - 91. SP - 704. EP - 715. JO - Journal of Neurochemistry. JF - Journal of Neurochemistry. SN - 0022-3042. IS - 3. M1 - CC. ER - ...
Neuronerne kommunikerer med hinanden ved hjælp af en vifte af kemiske budbringere, kaldet neurotransmittere; og denne kommunikation og væksten og overlevelsen af selve neuronen - er moduleret af lokalt aktive proteiner, som Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), et vigtigt protein, som påvirker hjernens funktion, samt det perifere nervesystem. Ændringer i neurotransmitterniveauerne og optagelsen er fundet i tilstande som stress og humørskift, og dette har ført til udviklingen af lægemidler, der manipulerer neurotransmitterniveauerne. Det faktum, at disse stoffer er langsomt virkende og relativt ineffektive, fører til andre forskningsveje og det er for nylig afdækket, at ændringer i BDNF og relaterede faktorer er ligeså eller mere vigtige. Bioaktiverne i safran har været vist sig at øge både neurotransmittere og BDNF ...
This book gives a comprehensive summary of oral drug delivery systems, both conventional and novel, and the ways in which polymers have been adapted for these systems.
July 1991). "The receptor for ciliary neurotrophic factor". Science. 253 (5015): 59-63. doi:10.1126/science.1648265. PMID ... March 1990). "Neurotrophin-3: a neurotrophic factor related to NGF and BDNF". Science. 247 (4949 Pt 1): 1446-51. doi:10.1126/ ... Yancopoulos has cloned novel families of growth factors, including ephrins/Ephs and angiopoietins, and elucidated the basis of ...
... ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), cardiotrophin-like cytokine (CLC), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF ... March 2003). "Signaling of human ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) revisited. The interleukin-6 receptor can serve as an alpha ... BDNF is a neurotrophic factor implicated in spine formation, density, and morphology on neurons. Downregulation of BDNF, ... The effects of IL-6 on depression are mediated through the repression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in ...
Schooltink H, Stoyan T, Roeb E, Heinrich PC, Rose-John S (Dec 1992). "Ciliary neurotrophic factor induces acute-phase protein ... Schooltink H, Stoyan T, Roeb E, Heinrich PC, Rose-John S (1992). "Ciliary neurotrophic factor induces acute-phase protein ... Interleukin-6 receptor has been shown to interact with Interleukin 6 and Ciliary neurotrophic factor. Cluster of ... "Signaling of human ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) revisited. The interleukin-6 receptor can serve as an alpha-receptor for ...
Kuroda H, Sugimoto T, Horii Y, Sawada T (2001). "Signaling pathway of ciliary neurotrophic factor in neuroblastoma cell lines ...
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a cytosolic protein that is not secreted. CNTF has been shown to promote the survival of ... 1995). "A role for ciliary neurotrophic factor as an inducer of reactive gliosis, the glial response to central nervous system ... and neurotrophic factors. The expression of these molecules depends on the location of the microglial cells relative to the ... Particularly, the response of the astrocytes to the injury varies depending on factors such as the nature of the injury and the ...
Zinc finger protein 91 homolog (mouse), ciliary neurotrophic factor transcription unit, also known as ZFP91-CNTF, is a human ... "Entrez Gene: ZFP91-CNTF zinc finger protein 91 homolog (mouse), ciliary neurotrophic factor transcription unit". Iuchi S (2001 ... 1991). "Sequence and structural organization of the human gene encoding ciliary neurotrophic factor". Gene. 102 (2): 271-6. doi ...
2001). "The ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha component induces the secretion of and is required for functional ... CLCF1 is closely related to other proteins called cardiotrophin-1 and ciliary neurotrophic factor. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 2006). "Inactivation of cardiotrophin-like cytokine, a second ligand for ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor, leads to cold- ... specific requirement of the membrane-bound form of ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha component". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ...
CNTF: Ciliary neurotrophic factor is another protein that acts as a survival factor for motor neurons. CNTF acts via a receptor ... GDNF: Glial derived neurotrophic factor is a member of the TGFb family of proteins, and is a potent trophic factor for striatal ... The survival of neurons is regulated by survival factors, called trophic factors. The neurotrophic hypothesis was formulated by ... Nerve Growth Factor (NGF): Rita Levi Montalcini and Stanley Cohen purified the first trophic factor, Nerve Growth Factor (NGF ...
Setoguchi T, Kondo T (Sep 2004). "Nuclear export of OLIG2 in neural stem cells is essential for ciliary neurotrophic factor- ... Oligodendrocyte transcription factor (OLIG2) is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor encoded by the Olig2 gene ... Lin YW, Deveney R, Barbara M, Iscove NN, Nimer SD, Slape C, Aplan PD (Aug 2005). "OLIG2 (BHLHB1), a bHLH transcription factor, ... Lin YW, Deveney R, Barbara M, Iscove NN, Nimer SD, Slape C, Aplan PD (Aug 2005). "OLIG2 (BHLHB1), a bHLH transcription factor, ...
Schwann cells play an important role in not only producing neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor (NGF) and ciliary ... Neurotrophic factors are those that promote survival and growth of neurons. A trophic factor can be described as a factor that ... MacLennan AJ, Devlin BK, Neitzel KL, McLaurin DL, Anderson KJ, Lee N (1999). "Regulation of ciliary neurotrophic factor ... growing neurons that are contacted with a trophic factor to promote further growth and regeneration Ciliary neurotrophic factor ...
Successful experiments in animals have also been carried out using ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), and CNTF is currently ... "Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) for human retinal degeneration: Phase I trial of CNTF delivered by encapsulated cell ... McGee Sanftner LH, Abel H, Hauswirth WW, Flannery JG (December 2001). "Glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor delays ... but such activity is lost with other angiogenic factors. Many angiostatic factors have been shown to counteract the effect of ...
His group conducted the first human clinical trial of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) as a rescue factor for retinitis ... "Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) for human retinal degeneration: Phase I trial of CNTF delivered by encapsulated cell ...
Young WJ, Smith SM, Chang C (Jan 1997). "Induction of the intronic enhancer of the human ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor ( ... The testicular receptor 4 is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. Testicular receptor 4 has been ... shown to interact with Androgen receptor, Estrogen receptor alpha, and Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha. Testicular receptor ...
... forms a secreted complex with cardiotrophin-like cytokine factor 1 and acts on cells expressing ciliary neurotrophic factor ... a second ligand for ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor, leads to cold-induced sweating syndrome in a patient". Proc. Natl. ... specific requirement of the membrane-bound form of ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha component". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... Cytokine receptor-like factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRLF1 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ...
Upregulation of GFAP, which is induced by FGF, TGFB, and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), is a classic marker for reactive ... Molecular triggers that lead to this scar formation include epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), ... One specific drug candidate is BB14, which is a nerve growth factor-like peptide that acts as a TrkA agonist. BB14 was shown to ... For example, a few studies have used nerve growth factors to regain some cholinergic function in patients with Alzheimer's. ...
Signaling of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor and Related Helical Type 1 Cytokines Targeting the gp130/Leukemia Inhibitory Factor ... Glerup, S.; Nykjaer, A.; Vaegter, C. B. (2014), "Sortilins in Neurotrophic Factor Signaling", Neurotrophic Factors, Springer ... Examples of ligands are neurotrophic factors, amyloid precursor protein (APP), lipoproteins, and cytokines. In addition to ... brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and TrkB (BDNF receptor tyrosine kinase) inside neurons in the hippocampal region of the ...
... and ciliary neurotrophic factor. Muse cells can spontaneously differentiate in vitro into hepatocyte lineage cells positive for ... In the presence of insulin-transferrin-selenium, dexamethasone, hepatocyte growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor-4, Muse ... trophic factors and anti-inflammatory factors. In 2009, a study showed that only SSEA-3+ cells generate induced pluripotent ... Application of a cytokine induction system comprising Wnt3a, SCF, ET-3, basic fibroblast growth factor, linoleic acid, cholera ...
... including the cloning of brain derived neurotrophic factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor. Almost all his subsequent research ... At Basel, his attention turned to nerve growth factor and other neurotrophins. His laboratory made a series of groundbreaking ... including other growth factors, the presynaptic release of neurotransmitters, glucocorticosteroids, and stress. His work has ... focused on this class of proteins, the elucidation of their physiological functions, and the factors that influenced their ...
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is believed to have neuroprotective properties and could thus be able to slow down the ... "is a semipermeable fiber membrane filled with human retinal pigment epithelium cells that secrete ciliary neurotrophic factor ... or anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents. Photocoagulation was recommended by Gass and remains to date the ...
... ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Although many of these specific modulatory ... Neuroprotective effects - Reactive astrocytes release neurotrophic factors, such as glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor ( ... In addition, active microglia release anti-inflammatory factors and other molecules, such as IL-6 and TGF-β, which regulate ... One potential trigger is transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). TGF-β2, whose expression is gradually increased as gliosis ...
Boulton TG, Stahl N, Yancopoulos GD (April 1994). "Ciliary neurotrophic factor/leukemia inhibitory factor/interleukin 6/ ... including the ciliary neurotrophic factor, growth hormone and prolactin. Leukemia inhibitory factor receptor has been shown to ... "The ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha component induces the secretion of and is required for functional responses to ... "Structure of the gene encoding the human differentiation-stimulating factor/leukemia inhibitory factor receptor". Journal of ...
... ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), oncostatin M (OSM), and IL-11. There are also several other proteins which have structural ... There are many other proteins which associate with gp130, such as cardiotrophin 1 (CT-1), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), ... Glycoprotein 130 has been shown to interact with: Grb2, HER2/neu, Janus kinase 1 Leukemia inhibitory factor receptor, PTPN11, ... The phosphorylation leads to association with JAK/Tyk tyrosine kinases and STAT protein transcription factors. In particular, ...
Other factors are ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), glial cell line-derived growth factor (GDNF) and acidic and basic ... Neurotrophic factors can influence development, survival, outgrowth, and branching. Neurotrophins include nerve growth factor ( ... Cells are also effective delivery vehicles for ECM components, neurotrophic factors and cell adhesion molecules. Olfactory ... NGF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5). ...
... hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), Notch-1, sonic hedgehog (SHH), noggin, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), and a soluble ... fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), epidermal growth factor (EGF), neuregulins (NRGs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF ... Enhancing neurogenesis can be done by injecting growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and epidermal growth ... Other factors that contribute of the migration are slit proteins (produced at the choroid plexus) and their gradient (generated ...
... human glial precursor cells and astrocytes generated from these cells by being in contact with ciliary neurotrophic factors, ... Just as with neuronal cell specification, canonical signaling factors like sonic hedgehog (SHH), fibroblast growth factor (FGFs ... brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), galanin, and vasopressin are all ... and down-regulated by a number of different factors. One factor at the forefront of recent research is in the pain-potentiating ...
JAK/STAT signaling is also known to promote gliogenesis Significant levels of the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) are ... These transcription factors function to interact with transcription factors generated from Notch signaling. Consequently, this ... Proneural factors are expressed in high concentrations during times in which glial cells are not to form or neuron development ... Transcription factors synthesized as a result of the Notch signaling cascade bind to promoters of genes responsible for glial ...
... derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Due to the relationship between the presence of BDNF and ciliary neurotrophic factor and ...
This family includes IL-6, IL-11, IL-27, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), oncostatin M (OSM), ciliary neurotrophic factor ( ... Growth Factor Reviews. 26 (5): 545-58. doi:10.1016/j.cytogfr.2015.07.006. PMID 26198770. Hilde Moyaert et al.: A blinded, ... Growth Factor Reviews. 19 (5-6): 347-56. doi:10.1016/j.cytogfr.2008.08.003. PMC 2659402. PMID 18926762. Rabenhorst A, Hartmann ...
... neurotrophic factors (ciliary neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor 1, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial cell ... Those proteins include neurotrophic factors and insulin-like growth factor 1. Both those proteins are still under clinical ... Ekestern, Eva (2004). "Neurotrophic Factors and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis". Neurodegenerative Dis. 1 (2-3): 88-100. doi: ... line-derived neurotrophic factor, xaliproden, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor), anti-inflammatory drugs (plasma ...
Ciliary neurotrophic factor family Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) Interleukin-6 (IL-6) ... Fibroblast growth factor 1(FGF1) Fibroblast growth factor 2(FGF2) Fibroblast growth factor 3(FGF3) Fibroblast growth factor 4( ... Fibroblast growth factor 6(FGF6) Fibroblast growth factor 7(FGF7) Fibroblast growth factor 8(FGF8) Fibroblast growth factor 9( ... Growth factor for plasma cells. IL-7 - Growth factor for pre-B cells. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) Migration-stimulating ...
AAV encoding neurotrophic factors such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family members and GDNF either protected ... there is a major interest in developing a more generally applicable survival factor therapy. Neurotrophic factors have the ... such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inhibitors of angiogenesis, such as pigment epithelium-derived factor ( ... Modification of systemic risk factors for retinal disease. Uncommon treatment modalities[edit]. Rare or uncommon methods of ...
insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)[23], ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)[24], pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF)[25] ... vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)[26], 등 각자 다양한 역할을 수행한다. . 면역조절 작용[편집]. 앞에서 말했듯이, 망막 안쪽 부분은 신체 내부의 면역 반응으로부터 분리되었으며, ... 망막색소상피세포는 다양한 신호물질을 분비해서 광수용세포 유지 및 면역 시스템 조절 역할을 수행한다.[19] 그 종류도 fibroblast growth factors[20],[21], transforming growth ... 0. Ogata N, Wada M, Otsuji T, Jo N, Tombran-Tink J, and Matsumura M. Expression of pigment epithelium-derived factor in normal ...
The term neurotrophic factor generally refers to these four neurotrophins, the GDNF family of ligands, and ciliary neurotrophic ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor[edit]. Main article: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( ... Nerve growth factor[edit]. Main article: Nerve growth factor. Nerve growth factor (NGF), the prototypical growth factor, is a ... Growth factors such as neurotrophins that promote the survival of neurons are known as neurotrophic factors. Neurotrophic ...
CNTF: Ciliary neurotrophic factor is another protein that acts as a survival factor for motor neurons. CNTF acts via a receptor ... Neurotrophic factors[edit]. The survival of neurons is regulated by survival factors, called trophic factors. The neurotrophic ... GDNF: Glial derived neurotrophic factor is a member of the TGFb family of proteins, and is a potent trophic factor for striatal ... Nerve Growth Factor (NGF): Rita Levi Montalcini and Stanley Cohen purified the first trophic factor, Nerve Growth Factor (NGF ...
... human glial precursor cells and astrocytes generated from these cells by being in contact with ciliary neurotrophic factors, ... brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), galanin, and vasopressin are all ... canonical signaling factors like Sonic hedgehog (SHH), Fibroblast growth factor (FGFs), WNTs and bone morphogenetic proteins ( ... and down-regulated by a number of different factors. One factor at the forefront of recent research is in the pain-potentiating ...
Mesencephalic Astrocyte-derived Neurotrophic Factor (MANF) Protects Rod and Cone Photoreceptors from Degeneration in Transgenic ... These factors are ubiquitously expressed and it is proposed that defects in a ubiquitous factor (a protein expressed everywhere ... "Mesencephalic Astrocyte-derived Neurotrophic Factor (MANF) Protects Rod and Cone Photoreceptors from Degeneration in Transgenic ... Mutations in four pre-mRNA splicing factors are known to cause autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. These are PRPF3 (human ...
"Signaling of human ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) revisited. The interleukin-6 receptor can serve as an alpha-receptor for ... o factor neurotrófico ciliar (CNTF), a cardiotrofina-1 (CT-1), a citocina similar á cardiotrofina (CLC), o factor inhibidor da ... "The Val66Met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic-factor gene is associated with geriatric depression". Neurobiol. ... é o transdutor de sinais común de varias citodinas como o factor inhibidor da leucemia (LIF), factor neurotrópico ciliar, ...
Ciliary neurotrophic factor[edit]. Ciliary neurotrophic factor affects embryonic motor neurons, dorsal root ganglion sensory ... The CNTF family of neurotrophic factors includes ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor[edit]. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is structurally similar to NGF, NT-3, and NT- ... Most neurotrophic factors belong to one of three families: (1) neurotrophins, (2) glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor ...
"Signaling of human ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) revisited. The interleukin-6 receptor can serve as an alpha-receptor for ... "Regional localization of the interferon-beta 2/B-cell stimulatory factor 2/hepatocyte stimulating factor gene to human ... Stenvinkel P, Ketteler M, Johnson RJ, et al. (2005). "IL-10, IL-6, and TNF-alpha: central factors in the altered cytokine ... Morishita R, Aoki M, Yo Y, Ogihara T (2003). "Hepatocyte growth factor as cardiovascular hormone: role of HGF in the ...
Ciliary neurotrophic factor family *Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). *Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) ... "Growth factors" redirects here. For the journal, see Growth Factors (journal).. This article needs additional citations for ... Migration-stimulating factor (MSF). *Macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP), also known as hepatocyte growth factor-like protein ... Growth factors are important for regulating a variety of cellular processes. Growth factors typically act as signaling ...
Human ciliary neurotrophic factor has been shown to interact with the Interleukin 6 receptor. Ciliary neurotrophic factor ... 1996). "Binding interactions of leukemia inhibitory factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor with the different subunits of their ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CNTF gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... "Entrez Gene: CNTF ciliary neurotrophic factor". McGregor NE, Poulton IJ, Walker EC, Pompolo S, Quinn JM, Martin TJ, Sims NA ( ...
... ciliary neurotrophic factor, leukemia inhibitory factor, insulin-like growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor. These ... Other neurotrophic molecules produced by Schwann cells and fibroblasts together include brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ... Another factor that affects degradation rate is the diameter of the axon: larger axons require a longer time for the ... Due to lack of such favorable promoting factors in CNS, regeneration is stunted in CNS. Mice belonging to the strain C57BL/Wlds ...
The ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor, also known as CNTFR, binds the ciliary neurotrophic factor. This receptor and its ... Ciliary+Neurotrophic+Factor+Receptor+alpha+Subunit at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e ... Sleeman MW, Anderson KD, Lambert PD, Yancopoulos GD, Wiegand SJ (2000). "The ciliary neurotrophic factor and its receptor, ... "The receptor for ciliary neurotrophic factor". Science. 253 (5015): 59-63. Bibcode:1991Sci...253...59D. doi:10.1126/science. ...
Human ciliary neurotrophic factor has been shown to interact with the Interleukin 6 receptor. Ciliary neurotrophic factor ... 1996). "Binding interactions of leukemia inhibitory factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor with the different subunits of their ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CNTF gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... "Entrez Gene: CNTF ciliary neurotrophic factor". McGregor NE, Poulton IJ, Walker EC, Pompolo S, Quinn JM, Martin TJ, Sims NA ( ...
The ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor, also known as CNTFR, binds the ciliary neurotrophic factor. This receptor and its ... Ciliary+Neurotrophic+Factor+Receptor+alpha+Subunit at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e ... Sleeman MW, Anderson KD, Lambert PD, Yancopoulos GD, Wiegand SJ (2000). "The ciliary neurotrophic factor and its receptor, ... "The receptor for ciliary neurotrophic factor". Science. 253 (5015): 59-63. Bibcode:1991Sci...253...59D. doi:10.1126/science. ...
Regional changes of ciliary neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor levels in post mortem spinal cord and cerebral cortex ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor prevents the degeneration of motor neurons after axotomy. Nature 345:440-441 (1990).PubMedCrossRef ... Purification of the chick eye ciliary neurotrophic factor, J Neurochem 43:1468-1478 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Y.W. Kwon, and M.E. Gurney, Systemic injections of ciliary neurotrophic factor induce sprouting by adult motor neurons, ...
Compare ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, ... ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody- ... Your search returned 89 ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor ELISA ELISA Kit across 6 suppliers. ...
1996). "Binding interactions of leukemia inhibitory factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor with the different subunits of their ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CNTF gene.[1][2][3] ... "Entrez Gene: CNTF ciliary neurotrophic factor".. *↑ McGregor NE, Poulton IJ, Walker EC, Pompolo S, Quinn JM, Martin TJ, Sims NA ... 1995). "Ciliary neurotrophic factor". J. Neurobiol. 25 (11): 1436-53. doi:10.1002/neu.480251110. PMID 7852996.. ...
... neurotrophic factors, and cytokines as therapeutics for RP. Specifically, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has proven to be ... Evaluation of Safety of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Implants in the Eye. The safety and scientific validity of this study is ... This study will evaluate the safety of a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) implant placed in the eye to allow the release of ... A phase I study of recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor (rHCNTF) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The ...
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) administration reduces weight in leptin-resistant mice via the signalling pathway normally ... Null mutation in human ciliary neurotrophic factor gene confers higher body mass index in males Eur J Hum Genet. 2002 Nov;10(11 ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) administration reduces weight in leptin-resistant mice via the signalling pathway normally ...
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is involved in the survival of a number of different neural cell types, including motor ... The ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha component induces the secretion of and is required for functional responses to ... The ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor α component induces the secretion of and is required for functional responses to ... The ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor α component induces the secretion of and is required for functional responses to ...
For example, a leptin-like role has been suggested for ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). CNTF administration to ob/ob and db/ ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and leptin decrease food intake and body weight. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a potent ... Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor and Leptin Induce Distinct Patterns of Immediate Early Gene Expression in the Brain. ... Shapiro L, Zhang XX, Rupp RG, Wolff SM, Dinarello CA: Ciliary neurotrophic factor is an endogenous pyrogen. Proc Natl Acad Sci ...
A combination of ciliary neurotrophic factor with other neurotrophic factors (as suggested by results on animal models) and ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as motor neuron disease. Amyotrophic lateral ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been shown to slow disease progression and improve muscle strength in an animal model of ... The objective of this review was to examine the efficacy of ciliary neurotrophic factor in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. ...
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was the most effective neurotrophic factor to promote oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation ... insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), or glial cell line-derived growth factor (GDNF). All these neurotrophic factors have been ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has neuroprotective effects on a variety of CNS and PNS neurons (Barbin et al., 1984; Hagg ... 1996) Ciliary neurotrophic factor enhances the rate of oligodendrocyte generation. Mol Cell Neurosci 8:146-156. ...
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was the most effective neurotrophic factor to promote oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation ... Transplantation of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor-Expressing Adult Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Promotes Remyelination and ... Transplantation of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor-Expressing Adult Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Promotes Remyelination and ... Transplantation of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor-Expressing Adult Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Promotes Remyelination and ...
Abstract 5374: Increased Levels Of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Associated with Long Term Functional Improvement After Bone ... Abstract 5374: Increased Levels Of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Associated with Long Term Functional Improvement After Bone ... Abstract 5374: Increased Levels Of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Associated with Long Term Functional Improvement After Bone ... Abstract 5374: Increased Levels Of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Associated with Long Term Functional Improvement After Bone ...
Ciliary neurotrophic factor potentiates the beta-cell inhibitory effect of IL-1beta in rat pancreatic islets associated with ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor potentiates the beta-cell inhibitory effect of IL-1beta in rat pancreatic islets associated with ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor potentiates the beta-cell inhibitory effect of IL-1beta in rat pancreatic islets associated with ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor potentiates the beta-cell inhibitory effect of IL-1beta in rat pancreatic islets associated with ...
To study the effects of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on denervated skeletal muscle atrophy and to find a new approach to ... Induction of motor neuron sprouting in vivo by ciliary neurotrophic factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. J Neurosci, 1992 ... Davis S, Aldrich T H, Valenzuela D M. The receptor for ciliary neurotrophic factor. Science, 1991, 253: 59PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... To study the effects of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on denervated skeletal muscle atrophy and to find a new approach to ...
Possible implication of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and beta-synuclein in the ammonia effect on cultured rat astroglial ... A notable decrease in ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was demonstrated by Western blot after ammonia treatment, concurring ...
Myokines (muscle-derived cytokines and chemokines) including ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) inhibit osteoblast ... Myokines (muscle-derived cytokines and chemokines) including ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) inhibit osteoblast ... Australia and New Zealand Childhood Arthritis Risk factor Identification Study (ANZ CLARITY)*About the CLARITY team ...
... Askmyr ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is one of the cytokines that signals through the gp130 receptor complex. CNTF has previously ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is one of the cytokines that signals through the gp130 receptor complex. CNTF has previously ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is one of the cytokines that signals through the gp130 receptor complex. CNTF has previously ...
It possesses the livelong capacity to regenerate, it displays an extraordinary wealth of neurotrophic factors and it is easily ... study aimed to deliver a comprehensive description of the localization and possible function of ciliary neurotrophic factor ( ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) im olfaktorischen System von Ratten und Mäusen. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in the ... It possesses the livelong capacity to regenerate, it displays an extraordinary wealth of neurotrophic factors and it is easily ...
... for the Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Retinitis Pigmentosa Study Group. Randomized trial of ciliary neurotrophic factor delivered ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a neurotrophic agent that has been shown to slow rod photoreceptor loss in several animal ... Recently, a role for CNTF as a neuroprotective factor for cone photoreceptors has been proposed. Ciliary neurotrophic factor ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor did not alter the scotopic a-wave in either CNGB3−/− or WT mice, but it increased the scotopic b- ...
Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor for Macular Telangiectasia Type 2: 48 Month Results from the Phase 1 Safety Trial ... Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor for Macular Telangiectasia Type 2: 48 Month Results from the Phase 1 Safety Trial ... Traci E Clemons, Emily Y Chew, Tunde Peto, Ferenc B Sallo, Irene Leung; Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor for Macular Telangiectasia ... Purpose : To assess functional and structural progression after 48 months of treatment with ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) ...
Polymorphisms of alpha-actinin-3 and ciliary neurotrophic factor in national-level Italian athletes. Persi A. 1, Maltese P. E. ... A polymorphism of the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) gene have been associated with a favourable muscle phenotype (more ...
Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Culture Media, Conditioned DNA Primers Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Rats Rats, Sprague-Dawley ... Astrocytes are activated by ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in vivo and in vitro, however, the consequences on the L-type ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte conditioned medium regulates the L-type calcium channel activity in rat cortical ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte conditioned medium regulates the L-type calcium channel activity in rat cortical ...
... glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the normal ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is implicated in the trophic support of immature neurons. Ciliary neurotrophic factor is ... glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor immunoreactivity was abolished from the neuroepithelium. Ciliary neurotrophic ... Postbulbectomy, there was loss of strong ciliary neurotrophic factor immunoreactivity in olfactory neurons, however, low levels ...
... ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor; MGC1774; CNTFR alpha; ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor; ciliary neurotrophic factor ... Recombinant Human Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Receptor. Download Datasheet See All CNTFR Products. Bring this labeled protein ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha (CNTF Rα) is anchored to the cell membrane by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol ... CNTFR ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor [ Homo sapiens ]. Synonyms:. CNTFR; ...
Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Recombinant Protein-NP_740756.1 (MBS144453) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Recombinant Proteins ... Recombinant Mouse Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor. Product Synonym Names CNTF Mouse; Ciliary-Neurotrophic Factor Mouse Recombinant ... Molecular Function: interleukin-6 receptor binding; growth factor activity; cytokine activity; ciliary neurotrophic factor ... Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (mCNTF), Recombinant Protein. ★Popular Item★ Also Known As ...
... fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor (FGFR)-1, FGFR3, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor-alpha (PDGFRalpha ... While CNTF initially was characterized as a trophic factor for neurons, more recent evidence supports roles for this factor in ... Here we tested the hypothesis that CNTF can induce expression of receptors on oligodendrocytes for factors that are known to ... Evidence is emerging to support the hypothesis that CNTFs actions may include enhancing other growth and trophic factors. ...
Chicken CNTF(Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor) ELISA Kit. To Order: Contact us. Chicken Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) ELISA Kit ... Rabbit CNTF(Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor) ELISA Kit. Menu Toggle. *Rabbit CTGF(Connective Tissue Growth Factor) ELISA Kit. Menu ... Chicken CNTF(Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor) ELISA Kit. Menu Toggle. *Chicken FGF1(Fibroblast Growth Factor 1, Acidic) ELISA Kit. ... Should the Human Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a ...
Ciliary neurotrophic factor improves diabetic parameters and hepatic steatosis and increases basal metabolic rate in db/db mice ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor improves diabetic parameters and hepatic steatosis and increases basal metabolic rate in db/db mice ... We therefore examined the effects of a modified form of ciliary neurotrophic factor [Axokine, which is hereafter referred to as ... ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)Ax15], which uses a leptin-like mechanism to reduce body weight, in the db/db murine model of ...
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  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CNTF gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like CNTF it is a neurotrophic factor, and may stimulate nerve cells to survive. (wikipedia.org)
  • NT-501 is a product being developed by Neurotech that consists of encapsulated human cells genetically modified to secrete ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Y. Arakawa, M. Sendtner, and H. Thoenen, Survival effect of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on chick embryonic motoneurons in culture: comparison with other neurotrophic factors and cytokines, J Neuroscience 10:3507-3515 (1990). (springer.com)
  • Orrell R.W., Lane R.J.M., de Belleroche J.S. (1996) Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF): Possible Implications in the Pathogenesis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. (springer.com)
  • This study will evaluate the safety of a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) implant placed in the eye to allow the release of CNTF directly on the retina. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Researchers have found, however, that certain proteins, called ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), can partially protect cells in the eye if given directly inside the eye. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) administration reduces weight in leptin-resistant mice via the signalling pathway normally activated by leptin. (nih.gov)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is involved in the survival of a number of different neural cell types, including motor neurons. (nih.gov)
  • CNTF functional responses are mediated through a tripartite membrane receptor composed of two signalling receptor chains, gp130 and the leukaemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR), associated with a non-signalling CNTF binding receptor alpha component (CNTFR). (nih.gov)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and leptin decrease food intake and body weight. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • For example, a leptin-like role has been suggested for ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been shown to slow disease progression and improve muscle strength in an animal model of MND, through survival-promoting effects on motor neurons. (cochrane.org)
  • Bongioanni P, Reali C, Sogos V. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or motor neuron disease. (cochrane.org)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was the most effective neurotrophic factor to promote oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation and survival of OPCs in vitro . (jneurosci.org)
  • The levels of ZFP91 (Zinc finger protein 91) were increased by 3.73 folds (p=0.003) in the MPC treated group and CNTF (ciliary neurotrophic factor) is co-transcribed with ZFP91. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here we investigated 1) if the effects of IL-6 are mimicked by ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), another member of the IL-6 family of cytokines signaling via gp130, 2) the possible cellular mechanisms for these effects, and 3) if islet endocrine cells are a source of CNTF. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To study the effects of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on denervated skeletal muscle atrophy and to find a new approach to ameliorate atrophy of denervated muscle, a model was established by cutting the right sciatic nerve in 36 Wistar mice, with the left side serving as control. (springer.com)
  • A notable decrease in ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was demonstrated by Western blot after ammonia treatment, concurring with the reduction in CNTF mRNA observed in DNA microarrays. (nih.gov)
  • Myokines (muscle-derived cytokines and chemokines) including ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) inhibit osteoblast differentiation. (edu.au)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is one of the cytokines that signals through the gp130 receptor complex. (lu.se)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was recently shown to augment cone function in CNGB3 mutant achromat dogs. (arvojournals.org)
  • To assess functional and structural progression after 48 months of treatment with ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) delivered using an encapsulated cell implant for the treatment of macular telangiectasia (MacTel) Type 2. (arvojournals.org)
  • Aim: The R577X polymorphism of the alpha-actinin-3 (ACTN3) gene and the IVS1-6G>A polymorphism of the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) gene have been associated with a favourable muscle phenotype (more muscle fibres with high glycolytic activity), reduced predisposition for congenital dystrophy and resistance to sarcopenia in old age. (minervamedica.it)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha (CNTF Rα) is anchored to the cell membrane by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol linkage and is expressed exclusively in the nervous system and skeletal muscle. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Lyophilized Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor although stable at room temperature for 3 weeks, should be stored desiccated below -18 degree C. Upon reconstitution CNTF should be stored at 4 degree C between 2-7 days and for future use below -18 degree C.Please prevent freeze-thaw cycles. (mybiosource.com)
  • Co-transcription from the two loci results in a transcript that contains a complete coding region for the zinc finger protein but lacks a complete coding region for ciliary neurotrophic factor.CNTF is a survival factor for various neuronal cell types. (mybiosource.com)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is produced and released in response to injury in the central nervous system (CNS). (semanticscholar.org)
  • While CNTF initially was characterized as a trophic factor for neurons, more recent evidence supports roles for this factor in survival, proliferation, and maturation of oligodendrocyte lineage cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We therefore examined the effects of a modified form of ciliary neurotrophic factor [Axokine, which is hereafter referred to as ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)Ax15], which uses a leptin-like mechanism to reduce body weight, in the db/db murine model of type 2 diabetes. (mysciencework.com)
  • Although more information is being discovered about neurotrophic factors, their classification is based on different cellular mechanisms and they are grouped into three main families: the neurotrophins , the CNTF family, and GDNF family . (wikipedia.org)
  • Human CNTF (hCNTF), a polypeptide of approximate 23 kDa, is involved in the maintenance of ciliary and motor neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Out of 67 transcripts increased in MS cortex nine were related to the signalling mediated by the neurotrophin ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). (elsevier.com)
  • CNTF (Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • CNTF is a survival factor for various neuronal cell types. (genecards.org)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been regarded as a potent trophic factor for motor neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For instance, CNTF stimulates astrocytes to secrete FGF-2 and rat microglia to secrete glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), which suggest that CNTF exerts effects on astrocytes and microglia to promote motor neuron survival indirectly. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of injury to the central nervous system. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Change in macular thickness was identified as a dose-dependent response to a ciliary neurotrophic factor implant in eyes with retinitis pigmentosa, according to a study.Data were culled from the phase 2 Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF)-3 and CNTF-4 clinical trials. (linkoph.com)
  • The relationship between ciliary neurotrophic factor CNTF genotype and motor unit physiology: preliminary studies - Descarga este documento en PDF. (duhnnae.com)
  • BackgroundCiliary neurotrophic factor CNTF is important for neuronal and muscle development, and genetic variation in the CNTF gene has been associated with muscle strength. (duhnnae.com)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) reverses obesity by promoting the preferential loss of white adipose tissue. (qxmd.com)
  • Locally applied ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has a powerful effect on retrograde axonal reaction following facial nerve crush in neonatal rats. (uu.nl)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) regulates the differentiation and survival of a wide spectrum of developing and adult neurons, including motor neuron loss after injury. (unipd.it)
  • We recently described a cell-penetrant recombinant human CNTF (rhCNTF) molecule, formed by fusion with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 transactivator of transcription (TAT) protein transduction domain (TAT-CNTF) that, upon subcutaneous administration, retains full neurotrophic activity without cytokine-like side-effects. (unipd.it)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) maintains survival of adult motor neurons. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) is a neurotrophic factor with promising benefits in a wide range of pathologies such as neurodegenerative diseases, spinal cord injuries, retinal degeneration, autoimmune neuroinflammation and obesity-related metabolic diseases. (brainfogrelief.com)
  • We discovered that the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) receptor is abundantly expressed in tumor cells from these mice. (figshare.com)
  • Furthermore, CNTF - but not nerve growth factor, brain-derived nerve growth factor, neurotrophin 3, or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor - promoted neuronal differentiation and withdrawal from the cell cycle. (figshare.com)
  • Through using the rat model, this study investigated the trophic effect of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on injured masseter muscle. (ac.ir)
  • Conclusion:CNTF, as an important neurotrophic factor, was tightly associated to the restoring of rat injured masseter muscle, which provides new target and treatment method for clinical application. (ac.ir)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a neurocytokine expressed in glial cells that acts on brain cells to promote gene expression, survival, and differentiation. (elsevier.com)
  • Intravitreal injection of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is known to induce glial intermediate filament protein (GFAP) expression in retinal Müller cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) on astrocytes prevents ongoing degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons in MPP⁺-lesioned rats via ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). (bvsalud.org)
  • Introduction The Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) is a pluripotent cytokine with anorexigenic actions in the hypothalamus that improves insulin sensitivity, increases energy expenditure and induces weight loss. (elsevier.com)
  • This laboratory recently conducted the first human trial of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) as possible treatment for human hereditary retinal degenerative diseases, known principally as retinitis pigmentosa [Sieving, 2006]. (nih.gov)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a polypeptide initially purified from chick embryo ocular tissue and identified as a trophic factor for embryonic chick ciliary parasympathetic neurons in culture. (rndsystems.com)
  • Subsequent studies have demonstrated that CNTF is a survival factor for additional neuronal cell types including: dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons, sympathetic ganglion neurons, embryonic motor neurons, major pelvic ganglion neurons and hippocampal neurons. (rndsystems.com)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is part of the cytokine family. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) is a cytokine belonging to the Interleukin 6 (IL-6) family, which also includes IL-6, Oncostatin M, Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF), and Cardiotrophin-1. (genscript.com)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is structurally similar to NGF, NT-3, and NT-4 /5, [7] and shares the TrkB receptor with NT-4. (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] Other experiments suggest BDNF is more important and necessary for neuronal survival than other factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a protein, a polypeptide hormone, and a neurotrophic factor (like BDNF , NGF , GDNF , CDNF , and MANF ). (brainfogrelief.com)
  • In this review, we describe the existing approaches for delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is the most abundant neurotrophin in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). (mdpi.com)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor trkB support both motoneuron survival and synaptic differentiation. (frontiersin.org)
  • 9 Furthermore, it has been found that Tet can increase neuroprotective brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels in the rat hippocampus and regulate the central monoaminergic neurotransmitter system. (dovepress.com)
  • NGF (nerve growth factor), BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), NT-3 (neurotrophin-3) and NT-4 (neurotrophin-4) also mediate additional higher-order activities, such as learning, memory and behaviour, in addition to their established functions for cell survival. (clinsci.org)
  • Iron deficiency downregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus without compensatory upregulation of its specific receptor, tyrosine-receptor kinase B. Consistent with low overall BDNF activity, we found lower expression of early-growth response gene-1 and -2, transcriptional targets of BDNF signaling. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that is a potent survival factor for neurons and oligodendrocytes and may be relevant in reducing tissue destruction during inflammatory attacks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Q. Yan, C, Matheson, and O.T. Lopez, In vivo neurotrophic effects of GDNF on neonatal and adult facial motor neurons. (springer.com)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor prevents the degeneration of motor neurons after axotomy. (springer.com)
  • M. Sendtner, H. Schmalbruch, K.A. Stockli, P. Carroll, G.W. Kreutzberg, and H. Thoenen, Ciliary neurotrophic factor prevents degeneration of motor neurons in mouse mutant progressive motor neuronopathy, Nature 358:502-504. (springer.com)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte conditioned medium regulates the L-type calcium channel activity in rat cortical neurons. (nextbio.com)
  • Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor immunoreactivity was present in the mature olfactory neurons and also their synaptic target cells in the olfactory bulb. (garvan.org.au)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor was present throughout the olfactory neuronal lineage with strongest immunoreactivity in the horizontal basal cells and mature olfactory neurons as well as several cell types in the olfactory bulb. (garvan.org.au)
  • Postbulbectomy, there was loss of strong ciliary neurotrophic factor immunoreactivity in olfactory neurons, however, low levels persisted in the remaining neuronal population. (garvan.org.au)
  • Our results would be consistent with glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor expression in mature olfactory neurons being dependent upon functional synaptic contact with the olfactory bulb. (garvan.org.au)
  • Alternatively, this factor may be acting as target-derived growth factor for olfactory neurons, a role in keeping with its function in spinal motoneurons and in the nigrostriatal system. (garvan.org.au)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is implicated in the trophic support of immature neurons. (garvan.org.au)
  • The protein is a potent survival factor for neurons and oligodendrocytes, and it may be involved in reducing tissue destruction during inflammatory attacks. (mybiosource.com)
  • Neurotrophic factors ( NTFs ) are a family of biomolecules - nearly all of which are peptides or small proteins - that support the growth, survival, and differentiation of both developing and mature neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] Neurotrophic factors also promote the initial growth and development of neurons in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system , and they are capable of regrowing damaged neurons in test tubes and animal models. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, some neurotrophic, antiapoptotic, and myotrophic factors are able to promote survival of motor neurons or improve muscle strength shown in SMA mouse models or clinical trials. (hindawi.com)
  • Our recent studies revealed that adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (AAV1) transduction with Rheb(S16H), a constitutively active form of Rheb, exhibits neuroprotective properties through the induction of various neurotrophic factors, promoting neurotrophic interactions between neurons and astrocytes in the hippocampus of the adult brain. (mdpi.com)
  • Davies, A.M. (1989) in Neurotrophic Factor Bioassay Using Dissociated Neurons , Nerve Growth Factor. (rndsystems.com)
  • Using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-based assay system for monitoring the expression of multiple phenotypic markers in cultured sympathetic neurons, we present further evidence that, in addition to cholinergic differentiation factor/leukemia inhibitory factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor, oncostatin M, growth promoting activity, interleukin 6, and interleukin 11 belong in this family. (caltech.edu)
  • In addition, one member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, activin A, shares a selective overlap with the neuropoietic family in the spectrum of neuropeptides that it induces in sympathetic neurons. (caltech.edu)
  • However, neither the effects of early-life iron deficiency anemia on growth, differentiation, and survival of hippocampal neurons nor regulation of the neurotrophic factors that mediate these processes has been investigated. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • they did not show any significant effect of ciliary neurotrophic factor on progression of ALS or MND in man. (cochrane.org)
  • Multiple cytokines, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-11, IL-27, oncostatin M (OSM), and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), signal via the common GP130 cytokine receptor subunit. (rupress.org)
  • While growth factor implies a positive effect on cell division, cytokine is a neutral term with respect to whether a molecule affects proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein combines with a high-affinity converter subunit, gp130, to form a receptor complex that mediates the action of the leukemia inhibitory factor, a polyfunctional cytokine that is involved in cellular differentiation, proliferation and survival in the adult and the embryo. (genecards.org)
  • The studies presented herein show that a broad spectrum of antimalarial drugs augmented the replication of SFV in mice, concomitant with greater tissue damage and up-regulation of mRNA levels of various inflammatory cytokine genes, including interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), II-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-12p40, and interferon-gamma inducing factor. (ajtmh.org)
  • Other strategies involve weakening rogue immune cells by reducing their production of inflammatory chemicals (including molecules such as tumour-necrosis factor-α, a type of cytokine protein), and by inhibiting destructive enzymes known as metalloproteases 2 . (nature.com)
  • Most neurotrophic factors belong to one of three families: (1) neurotrophins , (2) glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor family ligands (GFLs), and (3) neuropoietic cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurotrophins are a unique family of polypeptide growth factors that influence the proliferation, differentiation, survival and death of neuronal and non-neuronal cells. (clinsci.org)
  • We have examined the expression of three neurotrophic factors, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the normal rat olfactory system and following synaptic target ablation (olfactory bulbectomy). (garvan.org.au)
  • Following bulbectomy, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor immunoreactivity was abolished from the neuroepithelium. (garvan.org.au)
  • It is believed to be a trauma factor released following glial cell rupture in response to injury. (brainfogrelief.com)
  • In contrast, iron deficiency upregulated hippocampal nerve growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and glial-derived neurotrophic factor accompanied by an increase in neurotrophic receptor p75 expression. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • On the other hand, several adverse effects were observed after treatment with ciliary neurotrophic factor. (cochrane.org)
  • No significant difference was observed between ciliary neurotrophic factor and placebo groups for survival, the primary outcome measure. (cochrane.org)
  • [8] The brain-derived neurotrophic factor/TrkB system promotes thymocyte survival, as studied in the thymus of mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurotrophic factors influence survival, differentiation, proliferation and death of neuronal cells within the central nervous system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor treatment had no significant effect on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis progression. (cochrane.org)
  • The objective of this review was to examine the efficacy of ciliary neurotrophic factor in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (cochrane.org)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor genotype does not influence clinical phenotype in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Human ciliary neurotrophic factor (hCNTF) has neuroprotective properties and is also known to influence energy balance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The regulation and activation of ciliary neurotrophic factor signaling proteins in adipocytes. (qxmd.com)
  • Individual growth factor proteins tend to occur as members of larger families of structurally and evolutionarily related proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas neurotrophic factors within the neurotrophin family commonly have a protein tyrosine kinase receptor (Trk), Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) has the unique receptor, TrkC . (wikipedia.org)
  • The ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor, also known as CNTFR, binds the ciliary neurotrophic factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha component induces the secretion of and is required for functional responses to cardiotrophin-like cy. (nih.gov)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor induces expression of the IGF type I receptor and FGF receptor 1 mRNAs in adult rat brain oligodendrocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Neuronal growth factors play an important role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system. (garvan.org.au)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor is clearly important in this unique neuronal system but elucidation of its role awaits further investigation. (garvan.org.au)
  • A recent study profiling altered gene expression induced by perinatal iron deficiency identified alterations in salient molecular pathways involved in neuronal differentiation ( 19 ), most notably the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, which integrates external stimuli such as nutrients and growth factors to regulate gene expression necessary for synaptic maturation and plasticity in the hippocampus ( 20 - 22 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a polypeptide hormone and neurotrophic factor whose actions have mainly been studied in the nervous system where it promotes neurotransmitter synthesis and neurite outgrowth in certain neural populations including astrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mutation in this gene, which results in aberrant splicing, leads to ciliary neurotrophic factor deficiency, but this phenotype is not causally related to neurologic disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include growth factor activity and ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor binding . (genecards.org)
  • Twenty-six other cytokines and growth factors were without detectable activity in this assay. (caltech.edu)
  • Human ciliary neurotrophic factor has been shown to interact with the Interleukin 6 receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • 9 Tet ameliorates amyloid-β(1-42)-induced spatial learning and memory impairment, and the beneficial effect of tetrandrine treatment may be linked to the inhibition of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activity and downregulation of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α. (dovepress.com)
  • Your search returned 89 ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor ELISA ELISA Kit across 6 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor has intrinsic and extrinsic roles in regulating B cell differentiation and bone structure. (lu.se)
  • From precursors to myelinating oligodendrocytes: contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic factors to white matter plasticity in the adult brain. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We explored whether the combination of neurotrophic factors and transplantation of adult rat spinal cord oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) could enhance remyelination and functional recovery after SCI. (jneurosci.org)
  • We found that brain-derived neurotrophic factor immunoreactivity was confined to the horizontal basal cells of the olfactory neuroepithelium and was unaltered by bulbectomy. (garvan.org.au)
  • In studies, neurotrophic factors are normally used in conjunction with other techniques such as biological and physical cues created by the addition of cells and specific topographies. (wikipedia.org)
  • By following the formation of tumors in homozygous TH- MYCN mice, an established mouse model of neuroblastoma, we were able to capture transformed cells prior to the formation of large, vascularized tumors in order to determine the responsiveness of cells to neurotrophic factors. (figshare.com)
  • Growth factors typically act as signaling molecules between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-4 - Growth factor for activated B cells, resting T cells, and mast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth factor for plasma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-7 - Growth factor for pre-B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alpha granules in blood platelets contain growth factors PDGF, IGF-1, EGF, and TGF-β which begin healing of wounds by attracting and activating macrophages , fibroblasts , and endothelial cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor with many important functions in the biology of normal and transformed cells. (springer.com)
  • A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth , [1] proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation . (wikipedia.org)
  • While some cytokines can be growth factors, such as G-CSF and GM-CSF , others have an inhibitory effect on cell growth or proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gurney M E, Yamamoto H, Kwon Y. Induction of motor neuron sprouting in vivo by ciliary neurotrophic factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. (springer.com)
  • Currently, neurotrophic factors are being intensely studied for use in bioartificial nerve conduits because they are necessary in vivo for directing axon growth and regeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronically increased ciliary neurotrophic factor and fibroblast growth factor-2 expression after spinal contusion in rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We compared hippocampal expression of neurotrophic factors in male rats made iron deficient (ID) from gestational d 2 to postnatal d (P) 7 to iron-sufficient controls at P7, 15, and 30 with quantitative RT-PCR, Western analysis, and immunohistology. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Long-term Follow-up of Patients With Retinitis Pigmentosa Receiving Intraocular Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Implants. (ohsu.edu)
  • Purification of the chick eye ciliary neurotrophic factor, J Neurochem 43:1468-1478 (1984). (springer.com)
  • For example, epidermal growth factor (EGF) enhances osteogenic differentiation, [2] while fibroblast growth factors and vascular endothelial growth factors stimulate blood vessel differentiation ( angiogenesis ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Recombinant Mouse produced in E Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 198 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 22.6kDa. (mybiosource.com)
  • Recombinant human Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (rhCNTF) produced in E. coli is a single non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 199 amino acids. (genscript.com)
  • Absence of fibroblast growth factor 2 promotes oligodendroglial repopulation of demyelinated white matter. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The data show that fusion of a protein transduction domain may change rhCNTF CNS distribution, while further strengthening the utility of cell-penetrating peptide technology to neurotrophic factor biology beyond the neuroscience field. (unipd.it)
  • Quantification of ellipsoid zone changes in retinitis pigmentosa using en face spectral domain-optical coherence tomography. (ohsu.edu)
  • Finkelstein D I, Bartlett P F, Horne M K. Leukemia inhibitory factor is a myotrophic and neurotrophic agent that enhance the reinnervation of muscle in the rat. (springer.com)
  • Anti-neuroinflammatory and neurotrophic effects of combined therapy with annexin II and Reg-2 on injured spinal cord. (semanticscholar.org)
  • When nervous system homeostasis is disturbed by hazardous stimuli, like viruses, bacteria or traumatic injury, microglia become activated and are capable of secreting an array of soluble factors that include cytokines, chemokines and reactive nitrogen and oxygen species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • IL-6 (10 ng/ml) also potentiated IL-1beta-mediated NO synthesis and inhibition of insulin release, whereas beta-nerve growth factor (NGF) (5 or 50 ng/ml) had no effect. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In the olfactory system, neurogenesis and synapse formation occur not only during development but throughout life and it would be expected that growth factors play a significant role in these ongoing processes. (garvan.org.au)
  • Evidence is emerging to support the hypothesis that CNTF's actions may include enhancing other growth and trophic factors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • [1] [4] Some neurotrophic factors are also released by the target tissue in order to guide the growth of developing axons . (wikipedia.org)
  • Yancopoulos has cloned novel families of growth factors, including ephrins/Ephs and angiopoietins, and elucidated the basis of how many receptors work. (wikipedia.org)
  • In our study we addressed the question how neurotrophic factor signaling corresponds to cell autonomous excitability and growth cone formation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Growth factors" redirects here. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the journal, see Growth Factors (journal) . (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth factors are important for regulating a variety of cellular processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • They often promote cell differentiation and maturation, which varies between growth factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The growth factor was first discovered by Rita Levi-Montalcini , which won her a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine . (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-2 - T-cell growth factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • A growth hormone releasing factor (GRF) analog used to reduce excessive abdominal fat in HIV patients who have developed lipodystrophy. (drugbank.ca)
  • Schwannoma-derived growth factor must be transported into the nucleus to exert its mitogenic activity. (pnas.org)
  • However, the specific effect of perinatal iron deficiency on the expression of neurotrophic growth factors critical for inducing and maintaining hippocampal neurogenesis, differentiation, and plasticity has not been investigated. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Chapter 5 discusses the potential of and rationale for the use of various neuroprotective and potentially restorative therapies for MS. Many of the current putative neuroprotective or restorative agents in clinical or pre-clinical research are protein growth factors that must somehow be delivered to the central nervous system (CNS), either directly or across the normally restrictive blood-brain barrier. (nap.edu)
  • However, it should be noted that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) appears to cross the blood-brain barrier in certain experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models, so the inflammatory nature of the acute MS lesion might permit the use of such agents in the acute setting. (nap.edu)
  • Neurodegenerative diseases represent a major public health problem, but beneficial clinical treatment with neurotrophic factors has not been established yet. (mdpi.com)