Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor: A neurotrophic factor that promotes the survival of various neuronal cell types and may play an important role in the injury response in the nervous system.Receptor, Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor: Cell surface receptors for CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR. They are heterotrimeric proteins formed by the association of the CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT with the LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130. Although the receptor regulates neuronal development, it is structurally similar to the cytokine receptor for INTERLEUKIN-6; (RECEPTORS, INTERLEUKIN-6).Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Receptor alpha Subunit: A ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor subunit. It is anchored to the cell surface via GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE and has specificity for binding to CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR. It lacks signal transducing domains which are found on the other two subunits of the receptor.Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Leukemia Inhibitory Factor: An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor alpha Subunit: A receptor subunit that combines with CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form the dual specificity receptor for LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR and ONCOSTATIN M. The subunit is also a component of the CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR RECEPTOR. Both membrane-bound and secreted isoforms of the receptor subunit exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. The secreted isoform is believed to act as an inhibitory receptor, while the membrane-bound form is a signaling receptor.Receptors, OSM-LIF: Cell surface receptors formed from the dimerization of LIF RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT with CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130. Although originally described as receptors for LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR these receptors also bind the closely-related protein ONCOSTATIN M and are referred to as both LIF receptors and type I oncostatin M receptors.Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: The founding member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family. It was originally characterized as a NERVE GROWTH FACTOR promoting the survival of MIDBRAIN dopaminergic NEURONS, and it has been studied as a potential treatment for PARKINSON DISEASE.Cytokine Receptor gp130: A cytokine receptor that acts through the formation of oligomeric complexes of itself with a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.Nerve Tissue ProteinsReceptors, Nerve Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.Growth Inhibitors: Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).Oncostatin M: A cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions that depend upon the cellular microenvironment. Oncostatin M is a 28 kDa monomeric glycoprotein that is similar in structure to LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR. Its name derives from the the observation that it inhibited the growth of tumor cells and augmented the growth of normal fibroblasts.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Receptor, trkB: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4 and neurotrophin 5. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and plays a role in mediating the effects of neurotrophins on growth and differentiation of neuronal cells.Neurotrophin 3: A neurotrophic factor involved in regulating the survival of visceral and proprioceptive sensory neurons. It is closely homologous to nerve growth factor beta and BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Receptors: A family of GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL-anchored cell surface receptors that are specific for GLIAL CELL LINE-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS. They form a multi-component receptor complex with PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-RET and regulate a variety of intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS in conjunction with c-ret protein.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Receptors, Oncostatin M: Cell surface receptors with specificity for ONCOSTATIN M. Two subtypes of receptors have been identified and are defined by their subunit composition.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Axotomy: Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Optic Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.Receptors, Interleukin-11: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-11. They consist of heterodimers of the INTERLEUKIN-11 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Interleukin-11 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-11 receptor subunit that combines with the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-11. Multiple isoforms of this protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its MRNA.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Quinolinic Acid: A metabolite of tryptophan with a possible role in neurodegenerative disorders. Elevated CSF levels of quinolinic acid are correlated with the severity of neuropsychological deficits in patients who have AIDS.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Oligodendroglia: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate: Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Retinitis Pigmentosa: Hereditary, progressive degeneration of the neuroepithelium of the retina characterized by night blindness and progressive contraction of the visual field.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 2, Group C, Member 1: A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that has specificity for directly repeated (DR) AGGTCA sequences. It binds DNA as either as a homodimer or as a heterodimer with the closely-related orphan nuclear receptor NUCLEAR RECEPTOR SUBFAMILY 2, GROUP C, MEMBER 2. The protein was originally identified as a PROSTATE-specific protein and is involved in the regulation of variety of cellular processes, including CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL PROLIFERATION; and APOPTOSIS.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Retinal Degeneration: A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)Mice, Inbred C57BLJanus Kinases: A family of intracellular tyrosine kinases that participate in the signaling cascade of cytokines by associating with specific CYTOKINE RECEPTORS. They act upon STAT TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS in signaling pathway referred to as the JAK/STAT pathway. The name Janus kinase refers to the fact the proteins have two phosphate-transferring domains.Schwann Cells: Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret: Receptor protein-tyrosine kinases involved in the signaling of GLIAL CELL-LINE DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR ligands. They contain an extracellular cadherin domain and form a receptor complexes with GDNF RECEPTORS. Mutations in ret protein are responsible for HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE and MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 2.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Receptors, Interleukin-6: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-6. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES, mitogen-activated B-LYMPHOCYTES, and peripheral MONOCYTES. The receptors are heterodimers of the INTERLEUKIN-6 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Interleukin-11: A lymphohematopoietic cytokine that plays a role in regulating the proliferation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS. It induces maturation of MEGAKARYOCYTES which results in increased production of BLOOD PLATELETS. Interleukin-11 was also initially described as an inhibitor of ADIPOGENESIS of cultured preadipocytes.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Indole Alkaloids: Group of alkaloids containing a benzylpyrrole group (derived from TRYPTOPHAN)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Neurturin: A glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor ligand that is specific for the GFRA2 RECEPTOR. Neurturin is essential for the development of specific postganglionic parasympathetic NEURONS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor: A low affinity receptor that binds NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; and neurotrophin 4.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Receptor, trkC: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NEUROTROPHIN 3. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and may play a role in mediating the effects of NEUROTROPHIN 3 on the proliferation and differentiation of NEURONS.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.

Leukemia inhibitory factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor cause dendritic retraction in cultured rat sympathetic neurons. (1/406)

Dendritic retraction occurs in many regions of the developing brain and also after neural injury. However, the molecules that regulate this important regressive process remain largely unknown. Our data indicate that leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) cause sympathetic neurons to retract their dendrites in vitro, ultimately leading to an approximately 80% reduction in the size of the arbor. The dendritic retraction induced by LIF exhibited substantial specificity because it was not accompanied by changes in cell number, in the rate of axonal growth, or in the expression of axonal cytoskeletal elements. An antibody to gp130 blocked the effects of LIF and CNTF, and both cytokines induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of stat3. Moreover, addition of soluble interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor to the medium endowed IL-6 with the ability to cause dendritic regression. These data indicate that ligands activating the gp130 pathway have the ability to profoundly alter neuronal cell shape and polarity by selectively causing the retraction of dendrites.  (+info)

CNTF, not other trophic factors, promotes axonal regeneration of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult hamsters. (2/406)

PURPOSE: To investigate the in vivo effects of trophic factors on the axonal regeneration of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult hamsters. METHODS: The left optic nerve was transected intracranially or intraorbitally, and a peripheral nerve graft was apposed or sutured to the axotomized optic nerve to enhance regeneration. Trophic factors were applied intravitreally every 5 days. Animals were allowed to survive for 3 or 4 weeks. Regenerating retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were labeled by applying the dye Fluoro-Gold to the distal end of the peripheral nerve graft 3 days before the animals were killed. RESULTS: Intravitreal application of ciliary neurotrophic factor substantially enhanced the regeneration of damaged axons into a sciatic nerve graft in both experimental conditions (intracranial and intraorbital optic nerve transections) but did not increase the survival of distally axotomized RGCs. Basic fibroblast growth factor and neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4/5 failed to enhance axonal regeneration of distally axotomized RGCs. CONCLUSIONS: Neurons of the adult central nervous system can regenerate in response to trophic supply after injury, and ciliary neurotrophic factor is at least one of the trophic factors that can promote axonal regeneration of axotomized RGCs.  (+info)

Receptor recognition sites of cytokines are organized as exchangeable modules. Transfer of the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor-binding site from ciliary neurotrophic factor to interleukin-6. (3/406)

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) are "4-helical bundle" cytokines of the IL-6 type family of neuropoietic and hematopoietic cytokines. IL-6 signals by induction of a gp130 homodimer (e.g. IL-6), whereas CNTF and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signal via a heterodimer of gp130 and LIF receptor (LIFR). Despite binding to the same receptor component (gp130) and a similar protein structure, IL-6 and CNTF share only 6% sequence identity. Using molecular modeling we defined a putative LIFR binding epitope on CNTF that consists of three distinct regions (C-terminal A-helix/N-terminal AB loop, BC loop, C-terminal CD-loop/N-terminal D-helix). A corresponding gp130-binding site on IL-6 was exchanged with this epitope. The resulting IL-6/CNTF chimera lost the capacity to signal via gp130 on cells without LIFR, but acquired the ability to signal via the gp130/LIFR heterodimer and STAT3 on responsive cells. Besides identifying a specific LIFR binding epitope on CNTF, our results suggest that receptor recognition sites of cytokines are organized as modules that are exchangeable even between cytokines with limited sequence homology.  (+info)

Repeated injections of a ciliary neurotrophic factor analogue leading to long-term photoreceptor survival in hereditary retinal degeneration. (4/406)

PURPOSE: To determine whether ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) treatment leads to long-term photoreceptor survival in hereditary retinal degeneration. METHODS: An autosomal dominant feline model of rod-cone dystrophy was used throughout the study with two normal animals. In the first experiment, intravitreal injections of a human CNTF analogue (Axokine; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY) were administered to one eye of each animal (n = 10) beginning on postnatal day 10 and were repeated every 4 weeks. Clinical and histopathologic examinations were performed at 5.5, 9.5, and 13.5 weeks. In the second experiment, animals (n = 17) were randomly assigned to receive intravitreal injections of either Axokine (at half the initial dose), human BDNF, or the vehicle for Axokine to one eye at 5.5 weeks. The same therapy was repeated every 4 weeks in each group. Clinical and histopathologic examinations were performed at 9.5, 13.5, and 17.5 weeks. Photoreceptor survival was assessed by cell counting. Apoptotic cells were identified by morphology and a modified TdT-dUTP terminal nick-end labeling (TUNEL) technique. In the third experiment, two normal animals were treated with Axokine as in the first experiment. Glial fibrillary acidic protein ((GFAP) immunohistochemistry was performed to assess glial cell reaction. RESULTS: In the first two experiments, Axokine significantly prolonged photoreceptor survival (P < 0.01) and reduced the presence of apoptotic cells (P < 0.05) and TUNEL-positive cells (P < 0.05). In the second experiment, results in the the BDNF- and sham-injected eyes were not significantly different from those in the untreated eyes. Minimal posterior subcapsular cataract and mild retinal folds were found in all Axokine-treated eyes in both dystrophic and normal animals. These complications were milder in the second experiment when injections were started later and at a reduced dose. GFAP immunolabeling was also increased in all Axokine-treated eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Axokine, but not BDNF, delays photoreceptor loss in this hereditary retinal degeneration. Repeated injections maintain the protective effect.  (+info)

Signalling by the RET receptor tyrosine kinase and its role in the development of the mammalian enteric nervous system. (5/406)

RET is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) superfamily, which can transduce signalling by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurturin (NTN) in cultured cells. In order to determine whether in addition to being sufficient, RET is also necessary for signalling by these growth factors, we studied the response to GDNF and NTN of primary neuronal cultures (peripheral sensory and central dopaminergic neurons) derived from wild-type and RET-deficient mice. Our experiments show that absence of a functional RET receptor abrogates the biological responses of neuronal cells to both GDNF and NTN. Despite the established role of the RET signal transduction pathway in the development of the mammalian enteric nervous system (ENS), very little is known regarding its cellular mechanism(s) of action. Here, we have studied the effects of GDNF and NTN on cultures of neural crest (NC)-derived cells isolated from the gut of rat embryos. Our findings suggest that GDNF and NTN promote the survival of enteric neurons as well as the survival, proliferation and differentiation of multipotential ENS progenitors present in the gut of E12.5-13.5 rat embryos. However, the effects of these growth factors are stage-specific, since similar ENS cultures established from later stage embryos (E14. 5-15.5), show markedly diminished response to GDNF and NTN. To examine whether the in vitro effects of RET activation reflect the in vivo function(s) of this receptor, the extent of programmed cell death was examined in the gut of wild-type and RET-deficient mouse embryos by TUNEL histochemistry. Our experiments show that a subpopulation of enteric NC undergoes apoptotic cell death specifically in the foregut of embryos lacking the RET receptor. We suggest that normal function of the RET RTK is required in vivo during early stages of ENS histogenesis for the survival of undifferentiated enteric NC and their derivatives.  (+info)

Target-dependent regulation of acetylcholine secretion at developing motoneurons in Xenopus cell cultures. (6/406)

1. Myocyte-dependent regulation of acetylcholine (ACh) quantal secretion from developing motoneurons was studied in day-3 Xenopus nerve-muscle co-cultures. Spontaneous synaptic currents (SSCs) were measured in manipulated synapses by using whole-cell voltage-clamped myocytes. Changes in SSC amplitude were assumed to reflect changes in the ACh content of secreted quantal packets. Compared with natural synapses, motoneurons without any contact with a myocyte (naive neurons) released ACh in smaller quantal packets. 2. Bipolar cultured motoneurons, which were in contact with a myocyte with one axon branch (contact-end) but remained free at another axon branch (free-end), were further used to examine quantal ACh secretion. The ACh quantal size recorded at free-end terminals was similar to that of naive neurons and was smaller than that at the contact-end, indicating that myocyte contact exerts differential regulation on quantal secretion in the same neuron. 3. Some of the neurons that formed a natural synapse with a myocyte continued to grow forward and ACh quantal secretion from the free growth cone was examined. The ACh quantal size recorded at free growth cones was inversely proportional to the distance to the natural synapse, implying localized regulation of quantal secretion by the myocyte. 4. Chronic treatment of day-1 cultures with veratridine and d-tubocurarine, respectively, increased and decreased the neurotrophic action of myocytes when assayed on day 3. 5. Taken together, these findings suggest that the myocyte is an important postsynaptic target in the regulation of quantal secretion and that the trophic action is spatially restricted to the neighbourhood of the neuromuscular junction.  (+info)

Dynamic regulation of expression and phosphorylation of tau by fibroblast growth factor-2 in neural progenitor cells from adult rat hippocampus. (7/406)

The nature of the extracellular signals that regulate the expression and the phosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau, which is aberrantly hyperphosphorylated in Alzheimer disease and other adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases, is not known. We have found that neural progenitor cells from adult rat hippocampus express adult isoforms of tau and that the expression and the phosphorylation of tau are regulated by fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). Astrocytes that are differentiated from these cells by stimulation with ciliary neurotrophic factor express phosphorylated tau similarly when cultured in the presence of FGF-2. In fetal progenitor cells that express only the fetal tau isoform, expression, but not the phosphorylation, of this protein is regulated by FGF-2 in cultures of higher passages. The FGF-2-mediated tau hyperphosphorylation is inhibited by lithium, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), but not by inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase or the cyclin-dependent kinases. Furthermore, both GSK-3 activity and the phosphorylation of tau increase when the concentration of FGF-2 is increased up to 40 ng/ml. These results demonstrate that proliferating adult rat hippocampal progenitor cells express adult isoforms of tau stably and that FGF-2 upregulates the expression and, by upregulating GSK-3 activity, the phosphorylation of tau.  (+info)

Activation of TrkA by nerve growth factor upregulates expression of the cholinergic gene locus but attenuates the response to ciliary neurotrophic growth factor. (8/406)

Nerve growth factor (NGF) stimulates the expression of the cholinergic gene locus, which encodes choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), the proteins necessary for the synthesis and storage of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). To determine whether this action of NGF is mediated by the p140TrkA NGF receptor (a member of the Trk tyrosine kinase family) we used a murine basal forebrain cholinergic cell line, SN56, stably transfected with rat trkA cDNA. Treatment of these transfectants with NGF activated mitogen-activated protein kinase and increased cytosolic free calcium concentrations, confirming the reconstitution of TrkA-mediated signalling pathways. The expression of ChAT and VAChT mRNA, as well as ACh content, were coordinately up-regulated by NGF in SN56-trkA transfectants. None of these responses occurred in the parental SN56 cells, which do not express endogenous TrkA, indicating that these actions of NGF required TrkA. We previously reported that ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) upregulates the expression of ChAT and VAChT, as well as ACh production, in SN56 cells. The combined treatment of SN56-trkA cells with CNTF and NGF revealed a complex interaction of these factors in the regulation of cholinergic gene locus expression. At low concentrations of CNTF (<1 ng/ml), the upregulation of ACh synthesis evoked by these factors was additive. However, at higher concentrations of CNTF (>1 ng/ml), NGF attenuated the stimulatory effect of CNTF on ChAT and VAChT mRNA and ACh content. This attenuation was not due to interference with early steps of CNTF receptor signalling, as pre-treatment of SN56-trkA cells with NGF did not affect the nuclear translocation of the transcription factor, Stat3, evoked by CNTF.  (+info)

L~..Lary IUeurotroph~cPactor: Pharmacokrnetics m-d Acute-Phase Response in Rat Falk Dittrich, Hans Thoenen, and Michael Sendtnet Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) supports the survival of motoneurons in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant CNTF is an investigational drug for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We determined the pharmacokinetics of radioiodinated CNTF after intravenous injection into rats. CNTF shows a biphasic clearance with an initial plasma half-life of 2.9 minutes and is removed from the circulation by the liver. No accumulation of radioactivity was detectable in nerve tissue or skeletal muscle after intravenous injection of 0.1 pg and 0.5 pg of CNTF. Radioactive degradation products accumulate in the skin. Liver cells express specific binding proteins for CNTF, and the incorporation and degradation of intravenously injected CNTF by the liver may occur after association of CNTF with the soluble CNTF receptor cu in the circulation. Probably a9 a consequence of its ...
The relationship between ciliary neurotrophic factor CNTF genotype and motor unit physiology: preliminary studies. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Ciliary neurotrophic factor improves diabetic parameters and hepatic steatosis and increases basal metabolic rate in db/db mice.: Obesity plays a central role i
References for Abcams Recombinant Human CNTF protein (ab78711). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Complete information for CNTF gene (Protein Coding), Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
A recombinant version of human CNTF (rhCNTF), trade name Axokine, is a modified version with a 15 amino acid truncation of the C-terminus and two amino acid substitutions. It is three to five times more potent than CNTF in in vitro and in vivo assays and has improved stability properties.[6] Like CNTF it is a neurotrophic factor, and may stimulate nerve cells to survive. It was tested in the 1990s as a treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It did not improve muscle control as much as expected, but trial participants did report a loss of appetite. Phase III clinical trials for the drug against obesity were conducted in 2003 by Axokines maker, Regeneron, demonstrating a small positive effect in some patients, but the drug was not commercialized. A major problem with the treatment was that in nearly 70% of the subjects tested, antibodies against Axokine were produced after approximately three months of treatment.[7] In the minority of subjects who did not develop the antibodies, weight loss ...
Animals and genotyping. LIFR +/− mice generated on the B6,129/J genetic background and C57BL6 STOCK (for expanding theLIFR +/− mice) were obtained from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME). Mice were then bred to allow for the generation of homozygote, heterozygote, and wild-type littermates (Koblar et al., 1998). The genotyping of mice carryingLIFR mutations was performed as described previously (Ware et al., 1995). CD-1 mice stocks were maintained in the University of Calgary Bioscience Animal Resources Center.. Neural stem cell culture and growth factors. Generation and differentiation of spheres from embryonic and adult forebrain were performed as described previously with minor modifications (Reynolds and Weiss, 1992; Reynolds et al., 1992). Briefly, striato-pallidum complexes were removed from mouse embryos at E14 and collected into PBS containing 0.6% glucose, penicillin (50 U/ml), and streptomycin (50 U/ml; both from Life Technologies, Gaithersburg, MD) and then transferred into ...
The views presented here are those of the author and are not to be construed as official or reflecting the views of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government ...
This study examined the mechanisms underlying the long term functional outcome after bone marrow derived multipotent progenitor cell (MPC) transplantation in a porcine model of postinfarction Left Ventricular (LV) remodeling. Myocardial infarction (MI) was created by ligating the distal left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Intramyocardial injection of 50 million lacZ labeled MPC was performed in the periscar region (Cell, n=7) with 5 equal injections immediately after MI, while in control animals (CONT, n=7) saline was injected. Outcome was assessed with MRI and P-31 MRS. Engraftment was studied on histology and gene chip (Affymetrix) array analysis was used to study differential expression of genes in the two groups at 4 months. MPC treatment resulted in improvement of ejection fraction as early as 10 days after MI (32.2±9.5 vs. 43.4±5.1 in CONT and Cell respectively, p ,0.05). This improvement was seen each month and persisted up to 4 months (35.7±6.2 vs. 51.2±4.8 in CONT and ...
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a promyelinating trophic factor, and the mechanisms by which CNTF expression could be increased in the brain are poorly understood. Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) is one of the most widely used analgesics. Interestingly, aspirin increased mRNA and protein expression of CNTF in primary mouse and human astrocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Aspirin induced the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) but not protein kinase C (PKC). H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, abrogated aspirin-induced expression of CNTF ...
Clinical trials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been conducted for over half a century now and have incorporated a wide variety of drugs. Most of these trials have had negative results and a cure remains elusive. The explosion in our understanding of molecular biology and parallel developments in clinical epidemiology have opened up a vast number of novel therapeutic strategies. However, advances in statistical analysis, computing, and global communications have also put greater pressure on scientific investigators to improve the design and implementation of clinical trials so that they permit rigorous testing of hypotheses within a solid ethical framework. This article documents the first published trial for all drugs tried clinically in the treatment of ALS, focusing in more detail on the large, multicenter trials of recent years, namely those involving riluzole, ciliary neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-I, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and SR57746A. The problems ...
Interleukin-19 (IL-19) is a novel cytokine that was initially identified during a sequence data base search aimed at finding potential IL-10 homologs. IL-19 shares a receptor complex with IL-20, indicating that the biological activities of these two cytokines overlap and that both may play an important role in regulating development and proper functioning of the skin. We determined the crystal structure of human recombinant IL-19 and refined it at 1.95-A resolution to an R-factor of 0.157. Unlike IL-10, which forms an intercalated dimer, the molecule of IL-19 is a monomer made of seven amphipathic helices, A-G, creating a unique helical bundle. On the basis of the observed structure, we propose that IL-19, IL-20, and other putative members of the proposed IL-10 family together form a distinct subfamily of helical cytokines. Crystal structure of interleukin-19 defines a new subfamily of helical cytokines.,Chang C, Magracheva E, Kozlov S, Fong S, Tobin G, Kotenko S, Wlodawer A, Zdanov A J Biol ...
Rat CNTF ELISA development kit contains the key components required for the quantitative measurement of natural and/or recombinant Rat CNTF
Objective(s): Occlusal trauma is one of the most common forms of oral biting dysfunction. Long-term occlusal trauma could weaken the stomatognathic system; especially damage ones masticatory muscle. Through using the rat model, this study investigated the trophic effect of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on injured masseter muscle. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (n=36) were randomly divided into five experimental groups and one control group (6 rats per group). Animals in the experimental group were cemented modified crowns on their mandibular first molars to artificially induce occlusal trauma in 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days. Control group was sham-treated with forced mouth-opening for about 5 min, while no crowns were placed. After 28 days of treatment, all rats were euthanized and their masseter muscle was collected. Through immunofluorescence and real-time quantitative PCR, the expression of desmin, CNTF, and CNTFRα was investigated in rat masseter muscle. The microstructure of ...
Astrocytes are activated by ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in vivo and in vitro, however, the consequences on the L-type calcium channel (LCC) of neurons are still poorly understood. Therefore, in the present study, whole-cell patch clamp, western-blot and RT-PCR assay were performed to evaluate the effects of CNTF-treated astrocyte conditioned medium (CNTF-ACM) on LCC current (I(Ca)-L) and the expression of Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 in Sprague-Dawley rat cortical neurons. The results revealed that CNTF-ACM enhanced the amplitude of Ica-L and the expression of Cav1.3 significantly, but had no effects on Cav1.2 expression. We also found an increase in the concentration of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) in CNTF-ACM by ELISA assay. Taken together, these findings indicate that CNTF induces the release of factors, including FGF-2, from astrocytes, thereby potentiating the activity of LCC in cortical neurons.. ...
Motoneurons of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) reside in the lower lumbar spinal cord and innervate the bulbocavernosus (BC) and levator ani (LA) muscles. Adult males have larger BC and LA muscles and many more SNB motoneurons than do females. This sex difference comes about as a result of androgen-regulated cell death. How is androgen stimulation of the BC/LA muscles translated into a live-or-die decision by the SNB motoneurons? Neurotrophic factors such as ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) may play such a role. The experiments described in this dissertation are designed to (1)� identify potential direct sites of CNTF action in the SNB neuromuscular system, (2)� examine androgen regulation of CNTFR�± gene expression in BC/LA muscle and lumbosacral spinal cord, and (3)� to test whether endogenously produced neurotrophic factors normally influence SNB cell survival. To determine whether CNTFR�± is expressed in the developing SNB system, I first performed ...
Membrane lipid composition is central to the highly specialized functions of neurological tissues. In the retina, abnormal lipid metabolism causes severe forms of blindness, often through poorly understood neuronal cell death. Here, we demonstrate that deleting the de novo lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS) from the neural retina, but not the vascular retina, results in progressive neurodegeneration and blindness with a temporal pattern resembling rodent models of retinitis pigmentosa. Blindness was not rescued by protection from light-evoked activity; by eating a diet enriched in palmitate, the product of the FAS reaction; or by treatment with the PPARα agonist fenofibrate. Vision loss was due to aberrant synaptic structure, blunted responsiveness to glial-derived neurotrophic factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor, and eventual apoptotic cell loss. This progressive neurodegeneration was associated with decreased membrane cholesterol content, as well as loss of discrete n-3 ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a signal transducer shared by many cytokines, including interleukin 6 (IL6), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and oncostatin M (OSM). This protein functions as a part of the cytokine receptor complex. The activation of this protein is dependent upon the binding of cytokines to their receptors. vIL6, a protein related to IL6 and encoded by the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, can bypass the interleukin 6 receptor (IL6R) and directly activate this protein. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this gene plays a critical role in regulating myocyte apoptosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 17 ...
Production and functional integration of new neurons have been shown to persist throughout life in two specialized neurogenic regions of the adult brain: the lateral ventricle subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the neurogenic potential in these areas could open up new avenues for the development of cell replacement therapies for neurodegenerative diseases. Ciliary neurotrophic factor and other gp130-associated cytokines have been identified to be among the extracellular signals which regulate proliferation and cell fate decisions of neural stem cells. By in vivo experiments using mouse mutants and by in vitro studies in adult stem cell cultures we aim to elucidate how these cytokines exert their influence on neural stem cells. ...
Interleukin 11 receptor, alpha subunit is a subunit of the interleukin 11 receptor. IL11RA is its human gene. Interleukin 11 is a stromal cell-derived cytokine that belongs to a family of pleiotropic and redundant cytokines that use the gp130 transducing subunit in their high affinity receptors. This gene encodes the IL-11 receptor, which is a member of the hematopoietic cytokine receptor family. This particular receptor is very similar to ciliary neurotrophic factor, since both contain an extracellular region with a 2-domain structure composed of an immunoglobulin-like domain and a cytokine receptor-like domain. Alternative splicing has been observed at this locus and two variants, each encoding a distinct isoform, have been identified. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000137070 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: IL11RA interleukin 11 receptor, alpha". Chérel M, Sorel M, Lebeau B, et al. (1995). "Molecular cloning of two isoforms of a ...
Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are molecules which act to promote the differentiation of neurons and to maintain their phenotype. The discovery by Hamburger and Levi- Montalcini in 1949 that the number...
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Human BDNF (Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor) ELISA Kit assay has a sensitivity of |2pg/ml. Measure BDNF (Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor) in serum, blood, plasma, cell supernatant samples.
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Acronyms and Abbreviations: AP2, adaptor protein-2; BCR, B-cell antigen receptor; BMP, bone morphogenic protein; CNTF, ciliary neurotrophic factor; CT-1, cardiotrophin-1; DD, death domain; DR, death receptor; EPO, erythropoietin; EPOR, erythropoietin receptor; ERK, extracellular response kinase; FADD, Fas-associated death domain; FAK, focal adhesion kinase; G-CSF, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; Gab, Grb binding; GH, growth hormone; GM-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; GPCR, G-protein-coupled receptor; HCR, hematopoietic cytokine receptor; IAP, inhibitors of apoptosis; IKK, I-κB kinase; IL, interleukin; IRS, insulin receptor substrate; ITAM, immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif; ITIM, immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif; JAK, Janus family kinase; JNK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase; LIF, leukemia inhibitory factor; M-CSF, macrophage colony-stimulating factor; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; NR, nuclear receptor; OSM, oncostatin M; PI3K ...
The developing avian ciliary ganglion has been a particularly amenable system for the identification, isolation, and characterization of putative target-derived molecules that mediate retrograde interactions. To date a number of biochemically distinct activities that regulate neuronal survival, transmitter phenotype, and chemosensitivity of ciliary ganglion neurons have been identified. Of these, only two survival-promoting molecules have been purified to homogeneity: ciliary neurotrophic factor and a related molecule, growth-promoting activity. A somatostatin-inducing activity found in cultured choroid cells is very likely to be chick activin A. Other molecules that regulate acetylcholine and acetylcholine receptor expression comigrate on a gel filtration column at a molecular weight of 50-60 kD, but they have yet to be isolated. Once molecules that mimic retrograde influences are identified, a number of criteria must be met before their physiological significance can be established. These ...
Neurotech Pharmaceuticals, Inc., in collaboration with the Lowy Medical Research Institute (LMRI), has announced 24-month results demonstrating that NT-501 delivering Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) has a beneficial effect in patients with Macular Telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel). The multicenter, randomized clinical trial demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in the progressive loss of photoreceptors in treated versus untreated eyes. NT-501 utilizes the Companys proprietary Encapsulated Cell Therapy (ECT) platform that can be customized to deliver specific therapeutic molecules to the back of the eye for retinal disease.. [Read More]. ...
Abstract: : Purpose: The objective of the current study was to examine the role of media volume, feed, gas exchange and incubation time on encapsulated cell performance in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Two genetically modified mammalian cell lines (NTC-201-10 and NTC-201-6A) secreting low and high levels of CNTF were encapsulated within a polymer membrane and placed in holding packages containing either 2, 20 or 40 mL of culture media. The media in the 2 mL volume package was replaced weekly and exposed to 95% humidity and 5% CO 2 . Packages containing 20 and 40 mL of media were closed to the environment with no air headspace and no media replenishmet following closure. All packages were maintained at 37°C for 2-weeks, 1, 2, 3 and 4 months post-encapsulation. At each time point, some of the encapsulated capsules from each treatment group were evaluated for CNTF output and cell viability, and some were surgically implanted into the vitreous of individual eyes of rabbits. After 1 month, the devices ...
4) Neuroprotection. ri 1990 s ndu Dr. Steinberg og Dr LaVai fyrst fram , d ratilraunum, a n tt rulegir ttir ( neuron-survival factor ) g tu h gt hr rnunarferli lj snemanna sj nhimnunni. N er etta kalla Neuroprotection. dag hafa margir n tt rulegir ttir veri fundnir heila, sj nhimnu og rum l kamsvefjum, sem hamla dau a lj snemana. Einn af eim er kalla ur CNTF.. Neuroprotection - Klin skar tilraunir. Neurotech fyrirt ki er me gangi kl n skar tilraunir me CNTF b i RP and AMD tilfellum. Me t kni sem kallast: Encapsulated Cell Technology (ECT), er neuron-survival ttinum CNTF komi til sj nhimnunnar. ECT byggir a litlu hylki er komi fyrir innan vi auga . hylkinu eru s rstakar frumur sem eru l ffr ilega hanna ar til a framlei a CNTF. CNTF er sleppt r hylkinu til sj nhimnunnar ar sem a hj lpar til vi a verja hinar sj ku lj snemafrumur.. Framt ar me fer ir?. N verandi kl n skar tilraunir Neurotech ver a br tt yfirsta nar. essar tilraunir ttu a lei a til fyrstu hrifar ku, almennu og a gengilegu me fer a ...
However, no correlation was found between BDNF levels and depression scores or age, duration of illness, pain score or number of pain points.
CNTF is a polypeptide trophic factor, member of the alpha-helical cytokine superfamily. It was initially purified from the chick eye on the basis of…
CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR VARIANTS - Nucleic acid molecule selected from the group consisting of (a) a nucleic acid molecule having a nucleotide sequence shown in SEQ ID: NO 1, (b) a nucleic acid molecule which encodes a peptide having an amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID: NO 2, (c) a nucleic acid molecule whose complementary strand hybridizes to a nucleic acid molecule according to (a) or (b) and which codes for a peptide which binds to ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor (CNTFR), the peptide binding with lower affinity than ciliary neurotrophic factor to the interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R), (d) a nucleic acid molecule whose nucleotide sequence differs from the nucleotide sequence of a nucleic acid molecule according to (c) due to the degenerated genetic code, the codon at positions 82-84 of the nucleic acid molecule according to (a) coding for a non-positively charged amino acid, and the peptide at position 28 shown in SEQ ID: NO 2 having a non-positively charged amino acid residue ...
A study performed in November 2010 and published March 2011, was done by a team of scientists from the University of Rochester and University of Colorado School of Medicine. They did an experiment to attempt to repair trauma to the Central Nervous System of an adult rat by replacing the glial cells. When the glial cells were injected into the injury of the adult rats spinal cord, astrocytes were generated by exposing human glial precursor cells to bone morphogenetic protein (Bone morphogenetic protein is important because it is considered to create tissue architecture throughout the body). So, with the bone protein and human glial cells combined, they promoted significant recovery of conscious foot placement, axonal growth, and obvious increases in neuronal survival in the spinal cord laminae. On the other hand, human glial precursor cells and astrocytes generated from these cells by being in contact with ciliary neurotrophic factors, failed to promote neuronal survival and support of axonal ...
Sympathetic ganglia are composed of noradrenergic and cholinergic neurons. The differentiation of cholinergic sympathetic neurons is characterized by the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), induced in vitro by a subfamily of cytokines, including LIF, CNTF, GPA, OSM and cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1). To interfere with the function of these neuropoietic cytokines in vivo, antisense RNA for gp130, the common signal-transducing receptor subunit for neuropoietic cytokines, was expressed in chick sympathetic neurons, using retroviral vectors. A strong reduction in the number of VIP-expressing cells, but not of cells expressing ChAT or the adrenergic marker tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), was observed. These results reveal a physiological role of neuropoietic cytokines for the control of VIP expression during the development of cholinergic sympathetic neurons.. ...
From a treatment standpoint, methods of increasing neuroplasticity can include physical exercise, which has been found to increase neurotrophic factors, a kind of fertilizer for the brain, in addition to stimulating angiogenesis. Cognitive exercise can also increase a specific type of fertilizer called brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and increases synaptogenesis. The question then arises, What if these therapy activities were combined? For example, what if you had someone walking on a treadmill while performing some type of cognitive activity so that you stimulate neurotrophic factors on two fronts? One study actually did find that such a combination of activities can exponentially enhance the production of neurotrophic factors. ...
Altered neuronal responses and regulation of neurotrophic proteins in the medial septum following fimbria-fornix transection in CNTF- and LIF-deficient mice. Eur J Neurosci 24:2223-2232. Schubert KO, Naumann T, Schnell O, Zhi Q, Steup A, Hofmann H-D, Kirsch M (2005 ...
The involvement of neurotrophic factors in neuronal survival and differentiation is well established. The more recent realization that these factors also play pivotal roles in the maintenance and...
Noon Nymm 12, Y.K. 988 Undisclosed Location, Vicinity of New Cyre, Breland A few days ago, each of you received a missive from Prince Oargev irWynarn of Cyre, detailing a mission of vital importance. No other information was given aside from a place and time for the meeting, the code word is Thunder and that discretion is necessary. The date came and you arrived a few minutes before the designated time. The location for the meeting is a small barren cave on the outskirts of New Cyre.
This book gives a comprehensive summary of oral drug delivery systems, both conventional and novel, and the ways in which polymers have been adapted for these systems.
The low-affinity leukaemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIF-R) is believed to be required for the biological activities of a family of cytokines including LIF, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), oncostatin (OSM) and cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1). These are pleiotropic cytokines which have effects on a variety of cell types. Two important activities are as self-renewal factors for pluripotential embryonic stem (ES) cells and as survival factors of neutrons. To investigate requirements for LIF-R signalling in vivo, mice deficient for LIF-R have been generated via homologous recombination in ES cells. Homologous recombination in ES cells was achieved at high frequency (11/58) using a promoterless targeting construct. In order to ensure a null mutation, a 20Kb segment of the lif-r gene encoding the presumed ligand binding domain was deleted and replaced by an Internal Ribosome Entry Site-LacZ-neo-polyA (IRESβgeopA) cassette. This places the expression of βgeo under the control of LIF-R regulatory ...
Repairing trauma to the central nervous system by replacement of glial support cells is an increasingly attractive therapeutic strategy. We have focused on the less-studied replacement of astrocytes, the major support cell in the central nervous system, by generating astrocytes from embryonic human glial precursor cells using two different astrocyte differentiation inducing factors. The resulting astrocytes differed in expression of multiple proteins thought to either promote or inhibit central nervous system homeostasis and regeneration. When transplanted into acute transection injuries of the adult rat spinal cord, astrocytes generated by exposing human glial precursor cells to bone morphogenetic protein promoted significant recovery of volitional foot placement, axonal growth and notably robust increases in neuronal survival in multiple spinal cord laminae. In marked contrast, human glial precursor cells and astrocytes generated from these cells by exposure to ciliary neurotrophic factor both failed
When DArcy Wentworth Thompsons On Growth and Form was published 100 years ago, it raised the question of how biological forms arise during development and across evolution. In light of the advances in molecular and cellular biology since then, a succinct modern view of the question states: how do genes encode geometry? Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales.. Read the Editorial by guest editors Thomas Lecuit and L. Mahadevan, as they provide a perspective on the influence of DArcy Thompsons work and an overview of the articles in this issue.. ...
新規高感度定量法を用いた小胞体ストレス応答性因子 mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor とその paralog の性状解 ...
AASraw is a manufacturer for bulk production J 147 powder (1146963-51-0) under CGMP regulation, and provides online sales,chemical synthetic and customized,
Purpose.: To develop a robust ex vivo model for evaluating cone survival in end-stage retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and apply this to quantify the effects of putative neuroprotective compounds. Methods.: Rhodopsin knockout mice were crossed with OPN1-GFP reporter mice so that GFP-positive cones could be identified against the background of a rod-specific degeneration. Retinal explants were harvested from 10-week-old mice and maintained in organotypic culture. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), or vascular endothelial growth factor 165b (VEGF165b) was administered daily to treatment groups at three doses (200 ng/mL, 100 ng/mL, or 50 ng/mL; n = 5 explants per group). Fluorescence microscopy was performed on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 12 to document the number of GFP-expressing cones. Results.: Cone survival could be assessed reliably and reproducibly in this model, and cone degeneration was significantly greater in the absence of rods, in keeping with ...
Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are a family of biomolecules - nearly all of which are peptides or small proteins - that support the growth, survival, and differentiation of both developing and mature neurons.[1][2][3] Most NTFs exert their trophic effects on neurons by signaling through tyrosine kinases,[2] usually a receptor tyrosine kinase. In the mature nervous system, they promote neuronal survival, induce synaptic plasticity, and modulate the formation of long-term memories.[2] Neurotrophic factors also promote the initial growth and development of neurons in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, and they are capable of regrowing damaged neurons in test tubes and animal models.[1][4] Some neurotrophic factors are also released by the target tissue in order to guide the growth of developing axons. Most neurotrophic factors belong to one of three families: (1) neurotrophins, (2) glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor family ligands (GFLs), and (3) neuropoietic ...
Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is associated with coronary artery diseases. However, its role and mechanism in myocardial infarction (MI) is not fully understood. Methods: ...
Researchers have reported that serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (sBDNF) of drug-free depressed patients are lower than those of healthy controls and proposed that low sBDNF levels might reflect
Read "Survival of purified embryonic chick retinal ganglion cells in the presence of neurotrophic factors, Journal of Neuroscience Research" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
To further reveal the relationship between Atg5 and the JAK‐STAT signaling pathway, a series of experiments were performed to investigate changes of inhibitors of JAK/STAT including SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, and SHP‐2 [31], [32]. The greatest decrease of SOCS2 (the suppressor of cytokine signaling 2, a member of STAT‐induced STAT inhibitors) was observed when Atg5 was overexpressed (Supplementary Fig S4D). Next, we observed that Atg5 knockdown elevated the expression of SOCS2 (Fig 5C), and Atg5 overexpression decreased SOCS2 (Supplementary Fig S4F). We further found that SOCS2 knockdown (Supplementary Fig S4E) resulted in the increased expression of pSTAT3 and could restore decreased pSTAT3 levels to normal caused by Atg5 knockdown (Fig 5D). To further analyze the relationship between SOCS2 and Atg5 in vivo, we investigated whether SOCS2 downregulation could rescue astrocyte differentiation defects caused by Atg5 loss. Our data show that SOCS2 knockdown restored the number of GFAP‐positive ...
PRF readers can get free access to a selected Journal of Pain paper each month, thanks to the American Pain Society. Get the free full text of the selection from the February 2018 issue here.. ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
BDNF - BDNF (untagged)-Human brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Axon regeneration failure accounts for permanent functional deficits following CNS injury in adult mammals. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In analyzing axon regeneration in different mutant mouse lines, we discovered that deletion of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) in adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) promotes robust regeneration of injured optic nerve axons. This regeneration-promoting effect is efficiently blocked in SOCS3-gp130 double-knockout mice, suggesting that SOCS3 deletion promotes axon regeneration via a gp130-dependent pathway. Consistently, a transient upregulation of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was observed within the retina following optic nerve injury. Intravitreal application of CNTF further enhances axon regeneration from SOCS3-deleted RGCs. Together, our results suggest that compromised responsiveness to injury-induced growth factors in mature neurons contributes significantly to regeneration failure. Thus, developing strategies to ...
SEA085Hu, ELISA Kit for Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF), Homo sapiens (Human), Sandwich ELISA, CDF, D-FACTOR, HILDA, MLPLI, Cholinergic Differentiation Factor, Differentiation-Stimulating Factor, Melanoma-Derived LPL Inhibitor, Emfilermin, Designed by Cloud-Clone Corp.
Read "A Retinal Ganglion Cell Neurotrophic Factor Purified from the Superior Colliculus, Journal of Neurochemistry" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Coordinate expression of vesicular acetylcholine transporter and choline acetyltransferase in sympathetic superior cervical neurones. AU - Misawa, Hidemi. AU - Takahashi, R.. AU - Deguchi, T.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is synthesized by choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and transported into synaptic vesicles by the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Recently it has been reported that the entire coding region of VAChT mRNA is located in the first intron of the ChAT gene. In this study, ChAT and VAChT mRNAs were analysed in cultured sympathetic neurones. Cholinergic differentiation factor/leukaemia inhibitory factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor induced strong expression of ChAT and VAChT mRNAs in parallel. RT-PCR analysis of ChAT mRNAs revealed that five types of ChAT transcripts which differed in the 5 non coding regions were increased. RT-PCR analysis of VAChT mRNA indicated that the cytokines induced only VAChT mRNA species which ...
We have investigated the role of trkA, the tyrosine kinase NGF receptor, in mediating the survival response of embryonic neurons to NGF. Embryonic trigeminal mesencephalic (TMN) neurons, which normally survive in the presence of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) but not NGF, become NGF-responsive when microinjected with an expression vector containing trkA cDNA. In contrast, microinjection of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)-dependent embryonic ciliary neurons with the same construct does not result in the acquisition of NGF responsiveness by these neurons despite de novo expression of trkA mRNA and protein. The failure of trkA to result in an NGF-promoted survival response in ciliary neurons is not due to absence of the low-affinity NGF receptor, p75, in these neurons. Quantitative RT/PCR and immunocytochemistry showed that TMN and ciliary neurons both express p75 mRNA and protein. These findings not only provide the first direct experimental demonstration of trkA mediating a ...
Research proven, purified rabbit polyclonal GDNF Receptor Alpha 4/GFRA 4 antibody (Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor alpha 3). Important marker embyogensis of kidneys, CNS and ENS and survival of central nervous system and peripheral neurons. Excellent for for immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, western blotting, ELISA and related applications. IHC image available.
One of the heavy progressive vascular complications of type 2 diabetes is a central nervous system, manifesting cognitive dysfunction due to metabolic changes. Goal. Defining the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and methods. The study involved 83 patients with type 2 diabetes at the age of 40 - 70 years. Complex examination included clinical and laboratory examination, neuropsychological testing. To screen for cognitive impairment used the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MOS test). To identify early markers of cognitive impairment was determined the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Results. The study found a negative correlation between the level of BDNF and the HbA1c (r = - 0,494, p = 0.01), fasting glucose (r = - 0,499, p = 0.01), and a positive relationship between the level of BDNF and cognitive function in patients with type 2 diabetes. Conclusion. In patients with ...
Experimental evidence in mice indicates that environmental conditions affect females and males differently. However, in a recent study analyzing the heterozygous mutation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), both sexes presented a similar emotional phenotype, which became obvious only under impoverished, but not in enriched conditions suggesting an enrichment-induced rescue. To investigate the basis of this behavioral rescue effect, we analyzed neurochemical changes (BDNF expression, serotonergic changes, and corticosterone) in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and hypothalamus of animals housed under respective conditions. In male mice, enrichment induced an increase of BDNF expression in the hippocampus of both BDNF heterozygous (BDNF(+/-)) and wild-types. Notably, in enriched-reared BDNF(+/-) mice BDNF mRNA and protein increased to levels comparable to those of wild-types in impoverished environment. In the frontal cortex of males, only wild-types presented an enrichment-induced increase of
Authors: GV Brierley, IK Priebe, L Purins, KYC Fung, B Tabor, T Lockett, E Nice, P Gibbs, J Tie, P McMurrick, J Moore, A Ruszkiewicz, A Burgess, LJ Cosgrove
Human NGF-beta is a neurotrophic factor related to BDNF, NT-3 and NT-4. Human NGF-beta acts as a neurotrophic factor through its receptor beta-NGFR. This cytokine stimulates division and differentiation of sympathetic and embryonic sensory neurons, and is also involved in the growth and differentiation of B lymphocytes and B-cell survival. Human NGF-beta is a noncovalently disulfide-linked homodimer consisting of 121 amino acids with a MW of 2 x 13.6 kDa ...
BDNF - BDNF (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), transcript variant 18 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Higher level of protein from the gene called brain-derived neurotrophic factor may provide a buffer for the brain and protect it against the effects of the plaques.
Cytokines are important mediators of intercellular communication in higher organisms. The subfamily of haematopoietic cytokines plays a central role in the regulation of haematopoiesis and the immune response (Wells and de Vos, 1996). From knockout studies, it became evident that these mediators are also involved in the regulation of other fundamental biological processes such as embryonic development (Yoshida et al., 1996) and fertility (Robb et al., 1998; Stewart et al., 1992). In line with their biological activities, dysregulation of haematopoietic cytokine signalling contributes significantly to acute and chronic inflammation, immune deficiencies and cancer progression.. Together with interferons and cytokines of the IL-10 family, the haematopoietic cytokines build up the large family of helical cytokines (Boulay et al., 2003). Whereas interferons and IL-10 family cytokines signal through class II cytokine receptors, the haematopoietic cytokines use class I cytokine receptors. The ...
BDNF antibody (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) for ELISA. Anti-BDNF pAb (GTX17884) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Video-interviste a prestigiosi specialisti sulle caratteristiche della Cheratite neurotrofica e sulla terapia a base di NGF ricombinante umano
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein that is important in nervous system development and function. BDNF also appears to function downstream of the leptin-melanocortin signaling pathway to control appetite. In both animals and humans, diminished BDNF function is associated with hyperphagia, obesity, and neurocognitive deficits. We propose to study BDNF in two hyperphagic disorders: Prader-Willi syndrome and MC4R function-altering mutations. We hypothesize that patients with PWS may have increased BDNF during infancy, followed by a decline in BDNF that precedes the onset of hyperphagia and persists after the onset of obesity. We hypothesize that patients with MC4R mutations will have decreased BDNF, the severity of which will be associated with the degree of MC4R functional loss caused by the specific mutation(s) in each individual. To test these hypotheses, we wish to conduct cross-sectional studies to evaluate serum BDNF concentrations, metabolism, body composition, and ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein that is important in nervous system development and function. BDNF also appears to function downstream of the leptin-melanocortin signaling pathway to control appetite. In both animals and humans, diminished BDNF function is associated with hyperphagia, obesity, and neurocognitive deficits. We propose to study BDNF in two hyperphagic disorders: Prader-Willi syndrome and MC4R function-altering mutations. We hypothesize that patients with PWS may have increased BDNF during infancy, followed by a decline in BDNF that precedes the onset of hyperphagia and persists after the onset of obesity. We hypothesize that patients with MC4R mutations will have decreased BDNF, the severity of which will be associated with the degree of MC4R functional loss caused by the specific mutation(s) in each individual. To test these hypotheses, we wish to conduct cross-sectional studies to evaluate serum BDNF concentrations, metabolism, body composition, and ...
and CNTF using real 1662274 time RT-PCR. IL-6, LIF and CNTF were all expressed in human NPCs. However, TNF-a specifically increased the mRNA expression of LIF and IL6 in a time dependent manner (Figure 2A, B), but not CNTF (data not shown). We also detected LIF and IL-6 protein levels in TNFa-treated NPC supernatant by ELISA. TNF-a modestly increased IL-6 and LIF production at 6 h, and significantly increased IL-6 and LIF production at 24 h, but not at 30 min (Figure 2C, D). These data indicate that TNF-a induces IL-6 and LIF production via transcriptional regulation, but not through direct secretion. To confirm that LIF is produced by human NPCs, we further assess the protein levels of LIF expression by immunocytochemistry. Human NPCs were treated with TNF-a (20 ng/ml) for 14 h. As shown in Figure 3, TNF-a increased the expression of LIF in the cytoplasm of nestin-positive cells. The co-localization of LIF with nestin suggests that LIF is indeed produced by human NPCs following TNF-a ...
PAX3 is a novel regulator of GFAP transcription, which could bind the promoter region of GFAP and down regulate the GFAP level during the serum-induced astrocyte differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) ...
Expression of Neurotrophic Factors in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) - An Experimental study on Rat Model and NSC-34 Cell Line ...
teónd, es; m. An accuser:--Gif wíteþeów mon betýnþ . . . ðonne áh se teónd áne swingellan æt him, L. In. 48; Th. i. 132, 9. Eode se man sylf tó ðe man tuge, and hæbbe se teónd (se ðe týhþ, MS. B.) cyre, swá wæterordál swá ýsenordál, L. Ath. iv. 6; Th. i. 224, 15. Tiónd, L. Eth. iii. 6; Th. i. 296, 3. Gylde man ðam teónde his ceápgyld, L. Edg. ii. 7; Th. i. 268, 19: L. Eth. i. 1; Th. i. 280, 20: 282, 3. teóne, an; f. Calumny, reproach:--Teóne calumnia, Wrt. Voc. i. 21, 29. Wæ-acute;ron hyra tungan getale teónan gehwylcre and tó yfele gehwam ungemet scearpe, Ps. Th. 56, 6. v. teóna. teónere, es; m. A calumniator:--Hé geeádmét ðane teónere humiliabit calumniatorem, Ps. Lamb. 71, 4. teón-full; adj. I. grievous, vexatious, troublous, woeful:--Se teónfulla dæg (the last day), Wulfst. 187, 3. Hú geswincful and hú teónful ðis líf is how full of travail and trouble this life is, 273, 6. Ða teónfullan infesta, Wrt. Voc. ii. 88, 15. II. of persons, (1) ...
July 1991). "The receptor for ciliary neurotrophic factor". Science. 253 (5015): 59-63. doi:10.1126/science.1648265. PMID ... March 1990). "Neurotrophin-3: a neurotrophic factor related to NGF and BDNF". Science. 247 (4949 Pt 1): 1446-51. doi:10.1126/ ... Yancopoulos has cloned novel families of growth factors, including ephrins/Ephs and angiopoietins, and elucidated the basis of ...
... ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), cardiotrophin-like cytokine (CLC), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF ... "Signaling of human ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) revisited. The interleukin-6 receptor can serve as an alpha-receptor for ... The effects of IL-6 on depression are mediated through the repression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in ... ciliary neurotropic factor, oncostatin M, IL-11 and cardiotrophin-1, and is almost ubiquitously expressed in most tissues. In ...
Schooltink H, Stoyan T, Roeb E, Heinrich PC, Rose-John S (Dec 1992). "Ciliary neurotrophic factor induces acute-phase protein ... Schooltink H, Stoyan T, Roeb E, Heinrich PC, Rose-John S (1992). "Ciliary neurotrophic factor induces acute-phase protein ... Interleukin-6 receptor has been shown to interact with Interleukin 6 and Ciliary neurotrophic factor. Cluster of ... "Signaling of human ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) revisited. The interleukin-6 receptor can serve as an alpha-receptor for ...
Kuroda H, Sugimoto T, Horii Y, Sawada T (2001). "Signaling pathway of ciliary neurotrophic factor in neuroblastoma cell lines ...
"Signaling of human ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) revisited. The interleukin-6 receptor can serve as an alpha-receptor for ... o factor neurotrófico ciliar (CNTF), a cardiotrofina-1 (CT-1), a citocina similar á cardiotrofina (CLC), o factor inhibidor da ... "The Val66Met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic-factor gene is associated with geriatric depression". Neurobiol. ... é o transdutor de sinais común de varias citodinas como o factor inhibidor da leucemia (LIF), factor neurotrópico ciliar, ...
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a cytosolic protein that is not secreted. CNTF has been shown to promote the survival of ... 1995). "A role for ciliary neurotrophic factor as an inducer of reactive gliosis, the glial response to central nervous system ... and neurotrophic factors. The expression of these molecules depends on the location of the microglial cells relative to the ... Particularly, the response of the astrocytes to the injury varies depending on factors such as the nature of the injury and the ...
Zinc finger protein 91 homolog (mouse), ciliary neurotrophic factor transcription unit, also known as ZFP91-CNTF, is a human ... 1991). "Sequence and structural organization of the human gene encoding ciliary neurotrophic factor". Gene. 102 (2): 271-6. doi ... "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: ZFP91-CNTF zinc finger protein 91 homolog (mouse), ciliary neurotrophic factor ...
2001). "The ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha component induces the secretion of and is required for functional ... CLCF1 is closely related to other proteins called cardiotrophin-1 and ciliary neurotrophic factor. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 2006). "Inactivation of cardiotrophin-like cytokine, a second ligand for ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor, leads to cold- ... specific requirement of the membrane-bound form of ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha component". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ...
Young WJ, Smith SM, Chang C (Jan 1997). "Induction of the intronic enhancer of the human ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor ( ... The testicular receptor 4 is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. Testicular receptor 4 has been ... shown to interact with Androgen receptor, Estrogen receptor alpha, and Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha. Testicular receptor ...
"Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor for Macular Telangiectasia Type 2: Results from a Phase 1 Safety Trial". American Journal of ... The use of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors, which have proven so successful in treating age-related ... but these do not appear to be causative factors. Macular telangiectasia type 2 usually present first between the ages of 50 and ... or anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents. Photocoagulation was recommended by Gass and remains to date the ...
CNTF: Ciliary neurotrophic factor is another protein that acts as a survival factor for motor neurons. CNTF acts via a receptor ... GDNF: Glial derived neurotrophic factor is a member of the TGFb family of proteins, and is a potent trophic factor for striatal ... The survival of neurons is regulated by survival factors, called trophic factors. The neurotrophic hypothesis was formulated by ... Nerve Growth Factor (NGF): Rita Levi Montalcini and Stanley Cohen purified the first trophic factor, Nerve Growth Factor (NGF ...
Setoguchi T, Kondo T (Sep 2004). "Nuclear export of OLIG2 in neural stem cells is essential for ciliary neurotrophic factor- ... Oligodendrocyte transcription factor (OLIG2) is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor encoded by the Olig2 gene ... Lin YW, Deveney R, Barbara M, Iscove NN, Nimer SD, Slape C, Aplan PD (Aug 2005). "OLIG2 (BHLHB1), a bHLH transcription factor, ... Lin YW, Deveney R, Barbara M, Iscove NN, Nimer SD, Slape C, Aplan PD (Aug 2005). "OLIG2 (BHLHB1), a bHLH transcription factor, ...
Successful experiments in animals have also been carried out using ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), and CNTF is currently ... "Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) for human retinal degeneration: Phase I trial of CNTF delivered by encapsulated cell ... Sanftner LH, Abel H, Hauswirth WW, Flannery JG (2001). "Glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor delays photoreceptor ... Vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor expression in a mouse model of retinal neovascularization. PNAS ...
... forms a secreted complex with cardiotrophin-like cytokine factor 1 and acts on cells expressing ciliary neurotrophic factor ... a second ligand for ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor, leads to cold-induced sweating syndrome in a patient". Proc. Natl. ... specific requirement of the membrane-bound form of ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha component". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... Cytokine receptor-like factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRLF1 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ...
Upregulation of GFAP, which is induced by FGF, TGFB, and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), is a classic marker for reactive ... Molecular triggers that lead to this scar formation include epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), ... One specific drug candidate is BB14, which is a nerve growth factor-like peptide that acts as a TrkA agonist. BB14 was shown to ... For example, a few studies have used nerve growth factors to regain some cholinergic function in patients with Alzheimer's. ...
Schwann cells play an important role in not only producing neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor (NGF) and ciliary ... Neurotrophic factors are those that promote survival and growth of neurons. A trophic factor can be described as a factor that ... MacLennan, AJ; Devlin, BK; Neitzel, KL; McLaurin, DL; Anderson, KJ; Lee, N (1999). "Regulation of ciliary neurotrophic factor ... growing neurons that are contacted with a trophic factor to promote further growth and regeneration Ciliary neurotrophic factor ...
... and ciliary neurotrophic factor. Muse cells can spontaneously differentiate in vitro into hepatocyte lineage cells positive for ... In the presence of insulin-transferrin-selenium, dexamethasone, hepatocyte growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor-4, Muse ... trophic factors and anti-inflammatory factors. In 2009, a study showed that only SSEA-3+ cells generate induced pluripotent ... Application of a cytokine induction system comprising Wnt3a, SCF, ET-3, basic fibroblast growth factor, linoleic acid, cholera ...
Ciliary neurotrophic factor family *Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). *Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) ... Migration-stimulating factor (MSF). *Macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP), also known as hepatocyte growth factor-like protein ... Growth factors are important for regulating a variety of cellular processes. Growth factors typically act as signaling ... For example, epidermal growth factor (EGF) enhances osteogenic differentiation, [2] while fibroblast growth factors and ...
... ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Although many of these specific modulatory ... Neuroprotective effects - Reactive astrocytes release neurotrophic factors, such as glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor ( ... In addition, active microglia release anti-inflammatory factors and other molecules, such as IL-6 and TGF-β, which regulate ... One potential trigger is transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). TGF-β2, whose expression is gradually increased as gliosis ...
... ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), oncostatin M (OSM), and IL-11. There are also several other proteins which have structural ... There are many other proteins which associate with gp130, such as cardiotrophin 1 (CT-1), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), ... Glycoprotein 130 has been shown to interact with: Grb2, HER2/neu, Janus kinase 1 Leukemia inhibitory factor receptor, PTPN11, ... The phosphorylation leads to association with JAK/Tyk tyrosine kinases and STAT protein transcription factors. In particular, ...
Other factors are ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), glial cell line-derived growth factor (GDNF) and acidic and basic ... Neurotrophic factors can influence development, survival, outgrowth, and branching. Neurotrophins include nerve growth factor ( ... Cells are also effective delivery vehicles for ECM components, neurotrophic factors and cell adhesion molecules. Olfactory ... NGF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5). ...
... hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), Notch-1, sonic hedgehog (SHH), noggin, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), and a soluble ... fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), epidermal growth factor (EGF), neuregulins (NRGs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF ... Enhancing neurogenesis can be done by injecting growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and epidermal growth ... Other factors that contribute of the migration are slit proteins (produced at the choroid plexus) and their gradient (generated ...
... human glial precursor cells and astrocytes generated from these cells by being in contact with ciliary neurotrophic factors, ... Just as with neuronal cell specification, canonical signaling factors like Sonic hedgehog (SHH), Fibroblast growth factor (FGFs ... brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), galanin, and vasopressin are all ... and down-regulated by a number of different factors. One factor at the forefront of recent research is in the pain-potentiating ...
JAK/STAT signaling is also known to promote gliogenesis Significant levels of the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) are ... These transcription factors function to interact with transcription factors generated from Notch signaling. Consequently, this ... Proneural factors are expressed in high concentrations during times in which glial cells are not to form or neuron development ... Transcription factors synthesized as a result of the Notch signaling cascade bind to promoters of genes responsible for glial ...
This family includes IL-6, IL-11, IL-27, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), oncostatin M (OSM), ciliary neurotrophic factor ( ... Growth Factor Reviews. 26 (5): 545-58. doi:10.1016/j.cytogfr.2015.07.006. PMID 26198770. Hilde Moyaert et al.: A blinded, ... Growth Factor Reviews. 19 (5-6): 347-56. doi:10.1016/j.cytogfr.2008.08.003. PMC 2659402 . PMID 18926762. Rabenhorst A, Hartmann ...
AAV encoding neurotrophic factors such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family members and GDNF either protected ... there is a major interest in developing a more generally applicable survival factor therapy. Neurotrophic factors have the ... such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inhibitors of angiogenesis, such as pigment epithelium-derived factor ( ... Modification of systemic risk factors for retinal disease. Uncommon treatment modalities[edit]. Rare or uncommon methods of ...
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is involved in the survival of a number of different neural cell types, including motor ... The ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha component induces the secretion of and is required for functional responses to ... The ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor α component induces the secretion of and is required for functional responses to ... The ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor α component induces the secretion of and is required for functional responses to ...
Regional changes of ciliary neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor levels in post mortem spinal cord and cerebral cortex ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor prevents the degeneration of motor neurons after axotomy. Nature 345:440-441 (1990).PubMedCrossRef ... Purification of the chick eye ciliary neurotrophic factor, J Neurochem 43:1468-1478 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Y.W. Kwon, and M.E. Gurney, Systemic injections of ciliary neurotrophic factor induce sprouting by adult motor neurons, ...
Human ciliary neurotrophic factor has been shown to interact with the Interleukin 6 receptor. Axokine Ciliary neurotrophic ... 1996). "Binding interactions of leukemia inhibitory factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor with the different subunits of their ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CNTF gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... "Entrez Gene: CNTF ciliary neurotrophic factor". McGregor NE, Poulton IJ, Walker EC, Pompolo S, Quinn JM, Martin TJ, Sims NA ( ...
Compare ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, ... ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody- ... Your search returned 89 ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor ELISA ELISA Kit across 6 suppliers. ...
The ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor, also known as CNTFR, binds the ciliary neurotrophic factor. This receptor and its ... Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Receptor alpha Subunit at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Sleeman MW, Anderson KD, Lambert PD, Yancopoulos GD, Wiegand SJ (2000). "The ciliary neurotrophic factor and its receptor, ... "The receptor for ciliary neurotrophic factor". Science. 253 (5015): 59-63. doi:10.1126/science.1648265. PMID 1648265. ...
1996). "Binding interactions of leukemia inhibitory factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor with the different subunits of their ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CNTF gene.[1][2][3] ... "Entrez Gene: CNTF ciliary neurotrophic factor".. *↑ McGregor NE, Poulton IJ, Walker EC, Pompolo S, Quinn JM, Martin TJ, Sims NA ... 1995). "Ciliary neurotrophic factor". J. Neurobiol. 25 (11): 1436-53. doi:10.1002/neu.480251110. PMID 7852996.. ...
... neurotrophic factors, and cytokines as therapeutics for RP. Specifically, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has proven to be ... Evaluation of Safety of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Implants in the Eye. The safety and scientific validity of this study is ... This study will evaluate the safety of a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) implant placed in the eye to allow the release of ... A phase I study of recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor (rHCNTF) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The ...
A combination of ciliary neurotrophic factor with other neurotrophic factors (as suggested by results on animal models) and ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as motor neuron disease. Amyotrophic lateral ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been shown to slow disease progression and improve muscle strength in an animal model of ... The objective of this review was to examine the efficacy of ciliary neurotrophic factor in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. ...
The Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor/Leukemia Inhibitory Factor/gp130 Receptor Complex Operates in the Maintenance of Mammalian ... The Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor/Leukemia Inhibitory Factor/gp130 Receptor Complex Operates in the Maintenance of Mammalian ... The Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor/Leukemia Inhibitory Factor/gp130 Receptor Complex Operates in the Maintenance of Mammalian ... The Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor/Leukemia Inhibitory Factor/gp130 Receptor Complex Operates in the Maintenance of Mammalian ...
Abstract 5374: Increased Levels Of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Associated with Long Term Functional Improvement After Bone ... Abstract 5374: Increased Levels Of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Associated with Long Term Functional Improvement After Bone ... Abstract 5374: Increased Levels Of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Associated with Long Term Functional Improvement After Bone ... Abstract 5374: Increased Levels Of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Associated with Long Term Functional Improvement After Bone ...
Ciliary neurotrophic factor potentiates the beta-cell inhibitory effect of IL-1beta in rat pancreatic islets associated with ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor potentiates the beta-cell inhibitory effect of IL-1beta in rat pancreatic islets associated with ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor potentiates the beta-cell inhibitory effect of IL-1beta in rat pancreatic islets associated with ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor potentiates the beta-cell inhibitory effect of IL-1beta in rat pancreatic islets associated with ...
To study the effects of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on denervated skeletal muscle atrophy and to find a new approach to ... Induction of motor neuron sprouting in vivo by ciliary neurotrophic factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. J Neurosci, 1992 ... Davis S, Aldrich T H, Valenzuela D M. The receptor for ciliary neurotrophic factor. Science, 1991, 253: 59PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... To study the effects of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on denervated skeletal muscle atrophy and to find a new approach to ...
Myokines (muscle-derived cytokines and chemokines) including ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) inhibit osteoblast ... Myokines (muscle-derived cytokines and chemokines) including ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) inhibit osteoblast ... Australia and New Zealand Childhood Arthritis Risk factor Identification Study (ANZ CLARITY)*About the CLARITY team ...
... Askmyr ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is one of the cytokines that signals through the gp130 receptor complex. CNTF has previously ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is one of the cytokines that signals through the gp130 receptor complex. CNTF has previously ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is one of the cytokines that signals through the gp130 receptor complex. CNTF has previously ...
... for the Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Retinitis Pigmentosa Study Group. Randomized trial of ciliary neurotrophic factor delivered ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a neurotrophic agent that has been shown to slow rod photoreceptor loss in several animal ... Recently, a role for CNTF as a neuroprotective factor for cone photoreceptors has been proposed. Ciliary neurotrophic factor ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor did not alter the scotopic a-wave in either CNGB3−/− or WT mice, but it increased the scotopic b- ...
Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor for Macular Telangiectasia Type 2: 48 Month Results from the Phase 1 Safety Trial ... Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor for Macular Telangiectasia Type 2: 48 Month Results from the Phase 1 Safety Trial ... Traci E Clemons, Emily Y Chew, Tunde Peto, Ferenc B Sallo, Irene Leung; Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor for Macular Telangiectasia ... Purpose : To assess functional and structural progression after 48 months of treatment with ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) ...
Gene expression of the neurotrophic pigment epithelium-derived factor in the human ciliary epithelium. Synthesis and secretion ... Gene expression of the neurotrophic pigment epithelium-derived factor in the human ciliary epithelium. Synthesis and secretion ... PURPOSE: To study the expression of the neurotrophic pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a protein with neurotrophic and ... Gene expression of the neurotrophic pigment epithelium-derived factor in the human ciliary epithelium. Synthesis and secretion ...
Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Culture Media, Conditioned DNA Primers Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Rats Rats, Sprague-Dawley ... Astrocytes are activated by ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in vivo and in vitro, however, the consequences on the L-type ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte conditioned medium regulates the L-type calcium channel activity in rat cortical ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte conditioned medium regulates the L-type calcium channel activity in rat cortical ...
Purpose: : To transdifferentiate human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) into retinal neurons with ciliary neurotrophic factor ( ... of Transdifferentiated Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells by Adeno-Associated Virus Carrying Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor . ... of Transdifferentiated Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells by Adeno-Associated Virus Carrying Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor ... of Transdifferentiated Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells by Adeno-Associated Virus Carrying Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor ...
... glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the normal ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is implicated in the trophic support of immature neurons. Ciliary neurotrophic factor is ... glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor immunoreactivity was abolished from the neuroepithelium. Ciliary neurotrophic ... Postbulbectomy, there was loss of strong ciliary neurotrophic factor immunoreactivity in olfactory neurons, however, low levels ...
... ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor; MGC1774; CNTFR alpha; ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor; ciliary neurotrophic factor ... Recombinant Human Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Receptor. Download Datasheet See All CNTFR Products. Bring this labeled protein ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha (CNTF Rα) is anchored to the cell membrane by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol ... CNTFR ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor [ Homo sapiens ]. Synonyms:. CNTFR; ...
Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Recombinant Protein-NP_740756.1 (MBS144453) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Recombinant Proteins ... Recombinant Mouse Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor. Product Synonym Names CNTF Mouse; Ciliary-Neurotrophic Factor Mouse Recombinant ... Molecular Function: interleukin-6 receptor binding; growth factor activity; cytokine activity; ciliary neurotrophic factor ... Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (mCNTF), Recombinant Protein. ★Popular Item★ Also Known As ...
... fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor (FGFR)-1, FGFR3, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor-alpha (PDGFRalpha ... While CNTF initially was characterized as a trophic factor for neurons, more recent evidence supports roles for this factor in ... Here we tested the hypothesis that CNTF can induce expression of receptors on oligodendrocytes for factors that are known to ... Evidence is emerging to support the hypothesis that CNTFs actions may include enhancing other growth and trophic factors. ...
Ciliary neurotrophic factor improves diabetic parameters and hepatic steatosis and increases basal metabolic rate in db/db mice ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor improves diabetic parameters and hepatic steatosis and increases basal metabolic rate in db/db mice ... We therefore examined the effects of a modified form of ciliary neurotrophic factor [Axokine, which is hereafter referred to as ... ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)Ax15], which uses a leptin-like mechanism to reduce body weight, in the db/db murine model of ...
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  • they did not show any significant effect of ciliary neurotrophic factor on progression of ALS or MND in man. (cochrane.org)
  • On the other hand, several adverse effects were observed after treatment with ciliary neurotrophic factor. (cochrane.org)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor treatment had no significant effect on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis progression. (cochrane.org)
  • The objective of this review was to examine the efficacy of ciliary neurotrophic factor in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (cochrane.org)
  • We found that brain-derived neurotrophic factor immunoreactivity was confined to the horizontal basal cells of the olfactory neuroepithelium and was unaltered by bulbectomy. (garvan.org.au)
  • Particularly, the response of the astrocytes to the injury varies depending on factors such as the nature of the injury and the microenvironment at the injury location. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies to PEDF were used to monitor its synthesis and secretion by metabolically labeling ciliary processes in vitro with 35S-methionine, followed by immunoprecipitation. (arvojournals.org)
  • We compared hippocampal expression of neurotrophic factors in male rats made iron deficient (ID) from gestational d 2 to postnatal d (P) 7 to iron-sufficient controls at P7, 15, and 30 with quantitative RT-PCR, Western analysis, and immunohistology. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)