A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.
The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.
Tumors or cancer of the UVEA.
Diseases of the uvea.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.
The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.
The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.
The pigmented vascular coat of the eyeball, consisting of the CHOROID; CILIARY BODY; and IRIS, which are continuous with each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)
Diseases, dysfunctions, or disorders of or located in the iris.
The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.
Inflammation of the anterior uvea comprising the iris, angle structures, and the ciliary body. Manifestations of this disorder include ciliary injection, exudation into the anterior chamber, iris changes, and adhesions between the iris and lens (posterior synechiae). Intraocular pressure may be increased or reduced.
The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Tumors of the iris characterized by increased pigmentation of melanocytes. Iris nevi are composed of proliferated melanocytes and are associated with neurofibromatosis and malignant melanoma of the choroid and ciliary body. Malignant melanoma of the iris often originates from preexisting nevi.
The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The selectively permeable barrier, in the EYE, formed by the nonpigmented layer of the EPITHELIUM of the CILIARY BODY, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the IRIS. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.
Surgical removal of a section of the iris.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
Tumors of the choroid; most common intraocular tumors are malignant melanomas of the choroid. These usually occur after puberty and increase in incidence with advancing age. Most malignant melanomas of the uveal tract develop from benign melanomas (nevi).
The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)
An ionic monomeric contrast medium that was formerly used for a variety of diagnostic procedures. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)
The normal decreasing elasticity of the crystalline lens that leads to loss of accommodation.
The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.
A porelike structure surrounding the entire circumference of the anterior chamber through which aqueous humor circulates to the canal of Schlemm.
The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye with a specialized optical instrument (gonioscope) or a contact prism lens.
Tumors or cancer of the EYE.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
'Eye proteins' are structural or functional proteins, such as crystallins, opsins, and collagens, located in various parts of the eye, including the cornea, lens, retina, and aqueous humor, that contribute to maintaining transparency, refractive power, phototransduction, and overall integrity of the visual system.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A water-soluble radiographic contrast media for cholecystography and intravenous cholangiography.
A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
General disorders of the sclera or white of the eye. They may include anatomic, embryologic, degenerative, or pigmentation defects.
The thin noncellular outer covering of the CRYSTALLINE LENS composed mainly of COLLAGEN TYPE IV and GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS. It is secreted by the embryonic anterior and posterior epithelium. The embryonic posterior epithelium later disappears.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The making of a continuous circular tear in the anterior capsule during cataract surgery in order to allow expression or phacoemulsification of the nucleus of the lens. (Dorland, 28th ed)
'Rats, Inbred Lew' is a strain of laboratory rat that is widely used in biomedical research, known for its consistent genetic background and susceptibility to certain diseases, which makes it an ideal model for studying the genetic basis of complex traits and disease processes.
The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.
Diseases affecting the eye.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Devices used in a technique by which cells or tissues are grown in vitro or, by implantation, in vivo within chambers permeable to diffusion of solutes across the chamber walls. The chambers are used for studies of drug effects, osmotic responses, cytogenic and immunologic phenomena, metabolism, etc., and include tissue cages.
A form of glaucoma in which the intraocular pressure increases because the angle of the anterior chamber is blocked and the aqueous humor cannot drain from the anterior chamber.
'Lens diseases' is a broad term referring to various pathological conditions affecting the lens of the eye, including cataracts, subluxation, and dislocation, which can lead to visual impairment or blindness if not managed promptly.
Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.
The coagulation of tissue by an intense beam of light, including laser (LASER COAGULATION). In the eye it is used in the treatment of retinal detachments, retinal holes, aneurysms, hemorrhages, and malignant and benign neoplasms. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)

Intercellular junctions in the ciliary epithelium. (1/1033)

The fine structure of the intercellular junctions in the ciliary epithelium of rhesus monkeys and rabbits was studied with conventional electron microscopy of thin-sectioned specimens and the freeze-fracturing technique. In the rhesus monkey, a zonula occludens, zonula adhaerens, gap junctions, and desmosomes interconnect the nonpigmented cells, whereas gap junctions, puncta adhaerentia, and desmosomes connect pigmented to nonpigmented cells, and pigmented cells to one another. In the rabbit, desmosomes are absent between nonpigmented cells, and substituted for by puncta adhaerentia. The zonula occludens between nonpigmented cells greatly varies in its complexity in different regions of the cell perimeter, and in places, it may consist of very few intramembrane strands; this suggests that the ciliary epithelium is relatively leaky to ions and small molecules. Gap junctions are ubiquitous in the ciliary epithelium and particularly numerous at the interface between pigmented and nonpigmented layers; this finding indicates that the cells of the ciliary epithelium are joined in a metabolic syncytium. All gap junctions are characterized by the crystalline configuration which is typical of the uncoupled state; furthermore, in specimens fixed by immersion, they may be caused by uncoupling and take place in the time interval elapsing between interruption of the blood supply and arrival of the fixative fluid. Puncta adhaerentia resemble zonulae adhaerentes in their structural details but are macular in shape instead of encompassing the cell perimeter in a beltlike fashion. In contrast with desmosomes, the intercellular cleft of puncta adhaerentia has an irregular width and contains opaque material, but this never gives rise to the central band typical of desmosomes. On the inner aspect of the junctional membranes, there is a layer of fluffy material but no plaque of insertion for a bundle of tonofilaments. Finally, puncta adhaerentia have no representation in the interior of the plasmalemma and are intimately associated with cytoplasmic microfilaments. They probably anchor to the plasmalemma the contractile apparatus of the ciliary epithelial cells.  (+info)

Microvascular loops and networks as prognostic indicators in choroidal and ciliary body melanomas. (2/1033)

BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma of the ciliary body and choroid of the eye is a tumor that disseminates frequently, and 50% of the diagnosed patients die within 10 years. We investigated the hypothesis that, by histopathologic analysis of the arrangement of microvessels (i.e., small blood vessels) in loops and networks, we might be able to differentiate better those patients with a favorable prognosis from those with a poor prognosis. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study of melanoma-specific and all-cause mortality for 167 consecutive patients who had an eye surgically removed because of malignant choroidal or ciliary body melanoma during the period from 1972 through 1981. Microvascular loops and networks were evaluated independently by two pathologists who were unaware of patient outcome. RESULTS: Microvascular patterns could be assessed in 134 (80%) of 167 melanoma specimens. The 10-year probability of melanoma-specific survival was worse if microvascular loops (0.45 versus 0.83; two-sided P<.0001) and networks (0.41 versus 0.72, two-sided P<.0001) were present. In multivariate Cox regression analysis of melanoma-specific survival, the hazard ratios were 1.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19-2.30) for the presence of loops and networks as a combined three-category variable, 2.36 (95% CI = 1.37-4.05) for the presence of epithelioid cells, 1.11 (95% CI = 1.03-1.19) for the largest basal tumor diameter (evaluated as a continuous variable), and 2.14 (95% CI = 1.25-3.67) for ciliary body involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with malignant uveal melanoma who have a favorable prognosis can be distinguished from those with a poor prognosis by histopathologic analysis of microvascular patterns in uveal melanoma tumor specimens.  (+info)

Hyaluronan synthase expression in bovine eyes. (3/1033)

PURPOSE: Hyaluronan (HA), a high-molecular-weight linear glycosaminoglycan, is a component of the extracellular matrix (ECM). It is expressed in eyes and plays important roles in many biologic processes, including cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Hyaluronan is produced by HA synthase (HAS), which has three isoforms: HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3. In this study, the HAS expression in the anterior segment of bovine eyes was investigated to determine the significance of HA in eyes. METHODS: To obtain bovine HAS probes, degenerate oligonucleotide primers, based on well-conserved amino acid sequences including the catalytic region of each HAS isoform, were used for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to amplify mRNA from bovine corneal endothelial cells (BCECs). Hyaluronan synthase-1 expression in the anterior segment of bovine eyes at the protein level was investigated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: All three HAS isoforms were expressed in BCECs at the mRNA level. Amplified cDNA fragments of HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3 from BCECs can be aligned to human counterparts, showing similarities of 100%, 97.3%, and 100%, respectively, at the amino acid level. Hyaluronan synthase 1 was expressed at the protein level in corneal epithelium, keratocyte, corneal endothelium, conjunctival epithelium, ciliary epithelium, capillary endothelium, and trabecular meshwork. CONCLUSIONS: Hyaluronan synthase isoforms were expressed in the ocular anterior segment and are speculated to be involved in HA production in situ.  (+info)

Latrunculin-A causes mydriasis and cycloplegia in the cynomolgus monkey. (4/1033)

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of latrunculin (LAT)-A, which binds to G-actin and disassembles actin filaments, on the pupil, accommodation, and isolated ciliary muscle (CM) contraction in monkeys. METHODS: Pupil diameter (vernier calipers) and refraction (coincidence refractometry) were measured every 15 minutes from 0.75 to 3.5 hours after topical LAT-A 42 microg (approximately 10 microM in the anterior chamber [AC]). Refraction was measured every 5 minutes from 0.5 to 1.5 hours after intracameral injection of 10 microl of 50 microM LAT-A (approximately 5 microM in AC), with intramuscular infusion of 1.5 mg/kg pilocarpine HCl (PILO) during the first 15 minutes of measurements. Pupil diameter was measured at 1 and 2 hours, and refraction was measured every 5 minutes from 1 to 2 hours, after intravitreal injection of 20 microl of 1.25 mM LAT-A (approximately 10 microM in vitreous), with intramuscular infusion of 1.5 mg/kg PILO during the first 15 minutes of measurements (all after topical 2.5% phenylephrine), and contractile response of isolated CM strips, obtained <1 hour postmortem and mounted in a perfusion apparatus, to 10 microM PILO +/- LAT-A was measured at various concentrations. RESULTS: Topical LAT-A of 42 microg dilated the pupil without affecting refraction. Intracameral LAT-A of 5 microM inhibited miotic and accommodative responses to intramuscular PILO. Intravitreal LAT-A of 10 microM had no effect on accommodative or miotic responses to intramuscular PILO. LAT-A dose-dependently relaxed the PILO-contracted CM by up to 50% at 3 microM in both the longitudinal and circular vectors. CONCLUSIONS: In monkeys, LAT-A causes mydriasis and cycloplegia, perhaps related to its known ability to disrupt the actin microfilament network and consequently to affect cell contractility and adhesion. Effects of LAT-A on the iris and CM may have significant physiological and clinical implications.  (+info)

A3 adenosine receptors regulate Cl- channels of nonpigmented ciliary epithelial cells. (5/1033)

Adenosine stimulates Cl- channels of the nonpigmented (NPE) cells of the ciliary epithelium. We sought to identify the specific adenosine receptors mediating this action. Cl- channel activity in immortalized human (HCE) NPE cells was determined by monitoring cell volume in isotonic suspensions with the cationic ionophore gramicidin present. The A3-selective agonist N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA) triggered shrinkage (apparent Kd = 55 +/- 10 nM). A3-selective antagonists blocked IB-MECA-triggered shrinkage, and A3-antagonists (MRS-1097, MRS-1191, and MRS-1523) also abolished shrinkage produced by 10 microM adenosine when all four known receptor subtypes are occupied. The A1-selective agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine exerted a small effect at 100 nM but not at higher or lower concentrations. The A2A agonist CGS-21680 triggered shrinkage only at high concentration (3 microM), an effect blocked by MRS-1191. IB-MECA increased intracellular Ca2+ in HCE cells and also stimulated short-circuit current across rabbit ciliary epithelium. A3 message was detected in both HCE cells and rabbit ciliary processes using RT-PCR. We conclude that human HCE cells and rabbit ciliary processes possess A3 receptors and that adenosine can activate Cl- channels in NPE cells by stimulating these A3 receptors.  (+info)

Higher proportions of type C than of types A and B natriuretic peptide receptors exist in the rat ciliary body. (6/1033)

We investigate the interaction of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) with their receptors (NPRA, NPRB and NPRC), as well as the proportion and localization of those receptors in the rat ciliary body. Binding assays and affinity cross-linking experiments demonstrated the presence of the NPRC receptor type. However, the three natriuretic peptides stimulate the guanylate cyclase activity in the ciliary body membranes suggesting the presence of the NPRA and NPRB receptor type. Microautoradiographic data show that the NPRs are localized in the whole ciliary body. Our results indicated that NPRC is the most prominent receptor type in this tissue.  (+info)

Dendritic cells and macrophages in the uveal tract of the normal mouse eye. (7/1033)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages are components of the immune cell populations in the uveal tract whose density, distribution, turnover, and function may play a role in the maintenance of immunological homeostasis in the eye. Little is known of these cells in the mouse eye despite this being the predominant experimental model in many studies of ocular immune responses and immunoinflammatory mediated eye diseases. The aim of the present study was to obtain further immunophenotypic data on resident tissue macrophages and DC populations in the mouse uveal tract. METHODS: Pieces of iris, ciliary body, and choroid dissected from perfusion fixed BALB/c mice were incubated whole in a variety of anti-macrophage and DC monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Labelled cells were visualised using either single or double immunoperoxidase techniques. RESULTS: Quantitative analysis and double immunolabelling revealed that 80% of F4/80(+) cells (a mAb that recognises both DC and macrophages) in the iris are macrophages (SER4(+)). The iris contained a network of Ia+ cells (412 (SD 130) cells/mm2) of which two thirds appear to be DC. A similar pattern was observed in the ciliary body and choroid. Only a few DC in the uveal tract were very weakly reactive for mAbs which recognise B7-1 (CD80), B7-2 (CD86), beta2 integrin (mAb N418), and multivesicular bodies associated with antigen presentation (mAb M342). CONCLUSIONS: The present study reveals that the mouse uveal tract, like the rat, contains rich networks of DC and resident tissue macrophages. The networks of resident tissue macrophages in the mouse uveal tract closely resemble similar networks in non-ocular tissues. The phenotype of uveal tract DC suggests they are in the "immature" phase of their life cycle, similar to Langerhans cells of the skin, thus implying their role in situ within the eye is antigen capture and not antigen presentation.  (+info)

Age-related changes in human ciliary muscle and lens: a magnetic resonance imaging study. (8/1033)

PURPOSE: To use high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) images of the eye to directly measure the relationship between ciliary muscle contraction and lens response with advancing age. METHODS: A General Electric, 1.5-Tesla MR imager and a custom-designed eye imaging coil were used to collect high-resolution MR images from 25 subjects, 22 through 83 years of age. A nonmagnetic binocular stimulus apparatus was used to induce both relaxed accommodation (0.1 diopter [D]) and strong accommodative effort (8.0 D). Measurements of the ciliary muscle ring diameter (based on the inner apex), lens equatorial diameter, and lens thickness were derived from the MR images. RESULTS: Muscle contraction is present in all subjects and reduces only slightly with advancing age. A decrease in the diameter of the unaccommodated ciliary muscle ring was highly correlated with advancing age. Lens equatorial diameter does not correlate with age for either accommodative state. Although unaccommodated lens thickness (i.e., lens minor axis length) increases with age, the thickness of the lens under accommodative effort is only modestly age-dependent. CONCLUSIONS: Ciliary muscle contractile activity remains active in all subjects. A decrease in the unaccommodated ciliary muscle diameter, along with the previously noted increase in lens thickness (the "lens paradox"), demonstrates the greatest correlation with advancing age. These results support the theory that presbyopia is actually the loss in ability to disaccommodate due to increases in lens thickness, the inward movement of the ciliary ring, or both.  (+info)

The ciliary body is a part of the eye's internal structure that is located between the choroid and the iris. It is composed of muscle tissue and is responsible for adjusting the shape of the lens through a process called accommodation, which allows the eye to focus on objects at varying distances. Additionally, the ciliary body produces aqueous humor, the clear fluid that fills the anterior chamber of the eye and helps to nourish the eye's internal structures. The ciliary body is also responsible for maintaining the shape and position of the lens within the eye.

In medical terms, the iris refers to the colored portion of the eye that surrounds the pupil. It is a circular structure composed of thin, contractile muscle fibers (radial and circumferential) arranged in a regular pattern. These muscles are controlled by the autonomic nervous system and can adjust the size of the pupil in response to changes in light intensity or emotional arousal. By constricting or dilating the iris, the amount of light entering the eye can be regulated, which helps maintain optimal visual acuity under various lighting conditions.

The color of the iris is determined by the concentration and distribution of melanin pigments within the iris stroma. The iris also contains blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue that support its structure and function. Anatomically, the iris is continuous with the ciliary body and the choroid, forming part of the uveal tract in the eye.

Uveal neoplasms refer to tumors that originate in the uveal tract, which is the middle layer of the eye. The uveal tract includes the iris (the colored part of the eye), ciliary body (structures behind the iris that help focus light), and choroid (a layer of blood vessels that provides nutrients to the retina). Uveal neoplasms can be benign or malignant, with malignant uveal melanoma being the most common primary intraocular cancer in adults. These tumors can cause various symptoms, such as visual disturbances, eye pain, or floaters, and may require treatment to preserve vision and prevent metastasis.

Uveal diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the uvea, which is the middle layer of the eye located between the sclera (the white of the eye) and the retina (the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye). The uvea consists of the iris (the colored part of the eye), the ciliary body (which controls the lens), and the choroid (a layer of blood vessels that provides nutrients to the retina).

Uveal diseases can cause inflammation, damage, or tumors in the uvea, leading to symptoms such as eye pain, redness, light sensitivity, blurred vision, and floaters. Some common uveal diseases include uveitis (inflammation of the uvea), choroidal melanoma (a type of eye cancer that affects the choroid), and iris nevus (a benign growth on the iris). Treatment for uveal diseases depends on the specific condition and may include medications, surgery, or radiation therapy.

The eye is the organ of sight, primarily responsible for detecting and focusing on visual stimuli. It is a complex structure composed of various parts that work together to enable vision. Here are some of the main components of the eye:

1. Cornea: The clear front part of the eye that refracts light entering the eye and protects the eye from harmful particles and microorganisms.
2. Iris: The colored part of the eye that controls the amount of light reaching the retina by adjusting the size of the pupil.
3. Pupil: The opening in the center of the iris that allows light to enter the eye.
4. Lens: A biconvex structure located behind the iris that further refracts light and focuses it onto the retina.
5. Retina: A layer of light-sensitive cells (rods and cones) at the back of the eye that convert light into electrical signals, which are then transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve.
6. Optic Nerve: The nerve that carries visual information from the retina to the brain.
7. Vitreous: A clear, gel-like substance that fills the space between the lens and the retina, providing structural support to the eye.
8. Conjunctiva: A thin, transparent membrane that covers the front of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids.
9. Extraocular Muscles: Six muscles that control the movement of the eye, allowing for proper alignment and focus.

The eye is a remarkable organ that allows us to perceive and interact with our surroundings. Various medical specialties, such as ophthalmology and optometry, are dedicated to the diagnosis, treatment, and management of various eye conditions and diseases.

Acoustic microscopy is a non-invasive imaging technique that uses sound waves to visualize and analyze the structure and properties of various materials, including biological samples. In the context of medical diagnostics and research, acoustic microscopy can be used to examine tissues, cells, and cellular components with high resolution, providing valuable information about their mechanical and physical properties.

In acoustic microscopy, high-frequency sound waves are focused onto a sample using a transducer. The interaction between the sound waves and the sample generates echoes, which contain information about the sample's internal structure and properties. These echoes are then recorded and processed to create an image of the sample.

Acoustic microscopy offers several advantages over other imaging techniques, such as optical microscopy or electron microscopy. For example, it does not require staining or labeling of samples, which can be time-consuming and potentially damaging. Additionally, acoustic microscopy can provide high-resolution images of samples in their native state, allowing researchers to study the effects of various treatments or interventions on living cells and tissues.

In summary, acoustic microscopy is a non-invasive imaging technique that uses sound waves to visualize and analyze the structure and properties of biological samples with high resolution, providing valuable information for medical diagnostics and research.

The anterior eye segment refers to the front portion of the eye, which includes the cornea, iris, ciliary body, and lens. The cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye that refracts light entering the eye and provides protection. The iris is the colored part of the eye that controls the amount of light reaching the retina by adjusting the size of the pupil. The ciliary body is a muscle that changes the shape of the lens to focus on objects at different distances. The lens is a transparent structure located behind the iris that further refracts light to provide a clear image. Together, these structures work to focus light onto the retina and enable vision.

The pigment epithelium of the eye, also known as the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), is a layer of cells located between the photoreceptor cells of the retina and the choroid, which is the vascular layer of the eye. The RPE plays a crucial role in maintaining the health and function of the photoreceptors by providing them with nutrients, removing waste products, and helping to regulate the light that enters the eye.

The RPE cells contain pigment granules that absorb excess light, preventing it from scattering within the eye and improving visual acuity. They also help to create a barrier between the retina and the choroid, which is important for maintaining the proper functioning of the photoreceptors. Additionally, the RPE plays a role in the regeneration of visual pigments in the photoreceptor cells, allowing us to see in different light conditions.

Damage to the RPE can lead to various eye diseases and conditions, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which is a leading cause of vision loss in older adults.

The Uvea, also known as the uveal tract or vascular tunic, is the middle layer of the eye between the sclera (the white, protective outer coat) and the retina (the light-sensitive inner layer). It consists of three main parts: the iris (the colored part of the eye), the ciliary body (structures that control the lens shape and produce aqueous humor), and the choroid (a layer of blood vessels that provides oxygen and nutrients to the retina). Inflammation of the uvea is called uveitis.

Aqueous humor is a clear, watery fluid that fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It is produced by the ciliary processes in the posterior chamber and circulates through the pupil into the anterior chamber, where it provides nutrients to the cornea and lens, maintains intraocular pressure, and helps to shape the eye. The aqueous humor then drains out of the eye through the trabecular meshwork and into the canal of Schlemm, eventually reaching the venous system.

Iris diseases refer to a variety of conditions that affect the iris, which is the colored part of the eye that regulates the amount of light reaching the retina by adjusting the size of the pupil. Some common iris diseases include:

1. Iritis: This is an inflammation of the iris and the adjacent tissues in the eye. It can cause pain, redness, photophobia (sensitivity to light), and blurred vision.
2. Aniridia: A congenital condition characterized by the absence or underdevelopment of the iris. This can lead to decreased visual acuity, sensitivity to light, and an increased risk of glaucoma.
3. Iris cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that form on the iris. They are usually benign but can cause vision problems if they grow too large or interfere with the function of the eye.
4. Iris melanoma: A rare type of eye cancer that develops in the pigmented cells of the iris. It can cause symptoms such as blurred vision, floaters, and changes in the appearance of the iris.
5. Iridocorneal endothelial syndrome (ICE): A group of rare eye conditions that affect the cornea and the iris. They are characterized by the growth of abnormal tissue on the back surface of the cornea and can lead to vision loss.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of iris diseases, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and preserve your vision.

Eye enucleation is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the entire eyeball, leaving the eye muscles, eyelids, and orbital structures intact. This procedure is typically performed to treat severe eye conditions or injuries, such as uncontrollable pain, blindness, cancer, or trauma. After the eyeball is removed, an implant may be placed in the socket to help maintain its shape and appearance. The optic nerve and other surrounding tissues are cut during the enucleation procedure, which means that vision cannot be restored in the affected eye. However, the remaining eye structures can still function normally, allowing for regular blinking, tear production, and eyelid movement.

Anterior uveitis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of the front portion of the uvea, which is the middle layer of the eye. The uvea includes the iris (the colored part of the eye), the ciliary body (a structure behind the iris that helps focus light onto the retina), and the choroid (a layer of blood vessels that supplies oxygen and nutrients to the retina).

Anterior uveitis is characterized by inflammation of the iris and/or the ciliary body, leading to symptoms such as redness, pain, sensitivity to light, blurred vision, and a small pupil. The condition can be caused by various factors, including infections, autoimmune diseases, trauma, or unknown causes (idiopathic).

Treatment of anterior uveitis typically involves the use of topical corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and cycloplegics to relieve pain and prevent spasms of the ciliary muscle. In some cases, oral medications may be necessary to control the inflammation. Prompt treatment is important to prevent complications such as glaucoma, cataracts, or permanent vision loss.

The sclera is the tough, white, fibrous outer coating of the eye in humans and other vertebrates, covering about five sixths of the eyeball's surface. It provides protection for the delicate inner structures of the eye and maintains its shape. The sclera is composed mainly of collagen and elastic fiber, making it strong and resilient. Its name comes from the Greek word "skleros," which means hard.

Iris neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the iris, which is the colored part of the eye. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign iris neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant iris neoplasms, on the other hand, can grow quickly and may spread to other parts of the eye or nearby structures, such as the ciliary body or choroid.

Iris neoplasms can cause various symptoms, including changes in the appearance of the eye, such as a visible mass or discoloration, pain, redness, light sensitivity, blurred vision, or changes in the size or shape of the pupil. The diagnosis of iris neoplasms typically involves a comprehensive eye examination, including a visual acuity test, refraction, slit-lamp examination, and sometimes imaging tests such as ultrasound or optical coherence tomography (OCT).

Treatment options for iris neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and severity of the tumor. Small, benign iris neoplasms may not require treatment and can be monitored over time. Larger or malignant iris neoplasms may require surgical removal, radiation therapy, or other treatments to prevent complications or spread to other parts of the eye or body. It is essential to seek medical attention promptly if you experience any symptoms of iris neoplasms or notice any changes in your vision or the appearance of your eyes.

Ocular accommodation is the process by which the eye changes optical power to maintain a clear image or focus on an object as its distance varies. This is primarily achieved by the lens of the eye changing shape through the action of the ciliary muscles inside the eye. When you look at something far away, the lens becomes flatter, and when you look at something close up, the lens thickens. This ability to adjust focus allows for clear vision at different distances.

The blood-aqueous barrier (BAB) is a specialized structure in the eye that helps regulate the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products between the bloodstream and the anterior chamber of the eye. It is composed of two main components: the nonpigmented epithelial cells of the ciliary body and the endothelial cells of the iris vasculature.

The nonpigmented epithelial cells of the ciliary body form a tight junction that separates the anterior chamber from the ciliary blood vessels, while the endothelial cells lining the iris blood vessels also have tight junctions that restrict the movement of molecules between the blood and the anterior chamber.

The BAB helps maintain the homeostasis of the anterior chamber by controlling the entry of immune cells and preventing the passage of large molecules, toxins, and pathogens from the bloodstream into the eye. Dysfunction of the BAB can lead to various ocular diseases such as uveitis, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration.

An iridectomy is a surgical procedure that involves removing a small portion of the iris, which is the colored part of the eye. This procedure is typically performed to treat conditions such as closed-angle glaucoma or to prevent the development of acute angle closure glaucoma. By creating an opening in the iris, the surgery helps to improve the flow of fluid within the eye and reduce pressure inside the eye. It is usually done using a laser (laser iridectomy) or with surgical instruments (surgical iridectomy).

The crystalline lens is a biconvex transparent structure in the eye that helps to refract (bend) light rays and focus them onto the retina. It is located behind the iris and pupil and is suspended by small fibers called zonules that connect it to the ciliary body. The lens can change its shape to accommodate and focus on objects at different distances, a process known as accommodation. With age, the lens may become cloudy or opaque, leading to cataracts.

Choroid neoplasms are abnormal growths that develop in the choroid, a layer of blood vessels that lies between the retina and the sclera (the white of the eye). These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Benign choroid neoplasms include choroidal hemangiomas and choroidal osteomas. Malignant choroid neoplasms are typically choroidal melanomas, which are the most common primary eye tumors in adults. Other types of malignant choroid neoplasms include metastatic tumors that have spread to the eye from other parts of the body. Symptoms of choroid neoplasms can vary depending on the size and location of the growth, but may include blurred vision, floaters, or a dark spot in the visual field. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and personal preferences.

The anterior chamber is the front portion of the eye, located between the cornea (the clear front "window" of the eye) and the iris (the colored part of the eye). It is filled with a clear fluid called aqueous humor that provides nutrients to the structures inside the eye and helps maintain its shape. The anterior chamber plays an important role in maintaining the overall health and function of the eye.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Iodopyracet" does not appear to be a recognized or established term in medical or pharmaceutical science. It's possible that you may have misspelled the name or it could be a term used in a specific context that I'm not aware of. If you intended to ask about a different term, please provide the correct spelling and I would be happy to help you find a definition for it.

Presbyopia is a age-related eye condition, typically occurring after the age of 40, where the lens of the eye loses its flexibility and makes it difficult to focus on near objects. This results in blurred vision when reading, sewing or focusing on other close-up tasks. It's a natural part of the aging process and is not a disease. Corrective measures such as reading glasses, bifocals, multifocal lenses or contact lenses, or refractive surgery can help manage this condition.

The choroid is a layer of the eye that contains blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the outer layers of the retina. It lies between the sclera (the white, protective coat of the eye) and the retina (the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye). The choroid is essential for maintaining the health and function of the retina, particularly the photoreceptor cells that detect light and transmit visual signals to the brain. Damage to the choroid can lead to vision loss or impairment.

Ligaments are bands of dense, fibrous connective tissue that surround joints and provide support, stability, and limits the range of motion. They are made up primarily of collagen fibers arranged in a parallel pattern to withstand tension and stress. Ligaments attach bone to bone, and their function is to prevent excessive movement that could cause injury or dislocation.

There are two main types of ligaments: extracapsular and intracapsular. Extracapsular ligaments are located outside the joint capsule and provide stability to the joint by limiting its range of motion. Intracapsular ligaments, on the other hand, are found inside the joint capsule and help maintain the alignment of the joint surfaces.

Examples of common ligaments in the body include the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in the knee, the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) in the elbow, and the coracoacromial ligament in the shoulder.

Injuries to ligaments can occur due to sudden trauma or overuse, leading to sprains, strains, or tears. These injuries can cause pain, swelling, bruising, and limited mobility, and may require medical treatment such as immobilization, physical therapy, or surgery.

The trabecular meshwork is a specialized tissue located in the anterior chamber angle of the eye, near the iris and cornea. It is composed of a network of interconnected beams or trabeculae that provide support and structure to the eye. The primary function of the trabecular meshwork is to regulate the outflow of aqueous humor, the fluid that fills the anterior chamber of the eye, and maintain intraocular pressure within normal ranges.

The aqueous humor flows from the ciliary processes in the posterior chamber of the eye through the pupil and into the anterior chamber. From there, it drains out of the eye through the trabecular meshwork and into the canal of Schlemm, which leads to the venous system. Any obstruction or damage to the trabecular meshwork can lead to an increase in intraocular pressure and potentially contribute to the development of glaucoma, a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide.

The vitreous body, also known simply as the vitreous, is the clear, gel-like substance that fills the space between the lens and the retina in the eye. It is composed mainly of water, but also contains collagen fibers, hyaluronic acid, and other proteins. The vitreous helps to maintain the shape of the eye and provides a transparent medium for light to pass through to reach the retina. With age, the vitreous can become more liquefied and may eventually separate from the retina, leading to symptoms such as floaters or flashes of light.

Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the fluid pressure within the eye, specifically within the anterior chamber, which is the space between the cornea and the iris. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). The aqueous humor, a clear fluid that fills the anterior chamber, is constantly produced and drained, maintaining a balance that determines the IOP. Normal IOP ranges from 10-21 mmHg, with average values around 15-16 mmHg. Elevated IOP is a key risk factor for glaucoma, a group of eye conditions that can lead to optic nerve damage and vision loss if not treated promptly and effectively. Regular monitoring of IOP is essential in diagnosing and managing glaucoma and other ocular health issues.

Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea, the middle layer of the eye between the retina and the white of the eye (sclera). The uvea consists of the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. Uveitis can cause redness, pain, and vision loss. It can be caused by various systemic diseases, infections, or trauma. Depending on the part of the uvea that's affected, uveitis can be classified as anterior (iritis), intermediate (cyclitis), posterior (choroiditis), or pan-uveitis (affecting all layers). Treatment typically includes corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive drugs to control inflammation.

Gonioscopy is a diagnostic procedure in ophthalmology used to examine the anterior chamber angle, which is the area where the iris and cornea meet. This examination helps to evaluate the drainage pathways of the eye for conditions such as glaucoma. A special contact lens called a goniolens is placed on the cornea during the procedure to allow the healthcare provider to visualize the angle using a biomicroscope. The lens may be coupled with a mirrored or prismatic surface to enhance the view of the angle. Gonioscopy can help detect conditions like narrow angles, closed angles, neovascularization, and other abnormalities that might contribute to glaucoma development or progression.

Eye neoplasms, also known as ocular tumors or eye cancer, refer to abnormal growths of tissue in the eye. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Eye neoplasms can develop in various parts of the eye, including the eyelid, conjunctiva, cornea, iris, ciliary body, choroid, retina, and optic nerve.

Benign eye neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as vision changes, eye pain, or a noticeable mass in the eye. Treatment options for benign eye neoplasms include monitoring, surgical removal, or radiation therapy.

Malignant eye neoplasms, on the other hand, can grow and spread rapidly to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as vision changes, eye pain, floaters, or flashes of light. Treatment options for malignant eye neoplasms depend on the type and stage of cancer but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

It is important to note that early detection and treatment of eye neoplasms can improve outcomes and prevent complications. Regular eye exams with an ophthalmologist are recommended for early detection and prevention of eye diseases, including eye neoplasms.

The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive layer of tissue in the eye of many vertebrates and some cephalopods. It receives light that has been focused by the cornea and lens, converts it into neural signals, and sends these to the brain via the optic nerve. The retina contains several types of photoreceptor cells including rods (which handle vision in low light) and cones (which are active in bright light and are capable of color vision).

In medical terms, any pathological changes or diseases affecting the retinal structure and function can lead to visual impairment or blindness. Examples include age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, and retinitis pigmentosa among others.

Eye proteins, also known as ocular proteins, are specific proteins that are found within the eye and play crucial roles in maintaining proper eye function and health. These proteins can be found in various parts of the eye, including the cornea, iris, lens, retina, and other structures. They perform a wide range of functions, such as:

1. Structural support: Proteins like collagen and elastin provide strength and flexibility to the eye's tissues, enabling them to maintain their shape and withstand mechanical stress.
2. Light absorption and transmission: Proteins like opsins and crystallins are involved in capturing and transmitting light signals within the eye, which is essential for vision.
3. Protection against damage: Some eye proteins, such as antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins, help protect the eye from oxidative stress, UV radiation, and other environmental factors that can cause damage.
4. Regulation of eye growth and development: Various growth factors and signaling molecules, which are protein-based, contribute to the proper growth, differentiation, and maintenance of eye tissues during embryonic development and throughout adulthood.
5. Immune defense: Proteins involved in the immune response, such as complement components and immunoglobulins, help protect the eye from infection and inflammation.
6. Maintenance of transparency: Crystallin proteins in the lens maintain its transparency, allowing light to pass through unobstructed for clear vision.
7. Neuroprotection: Certain eye proteins, like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), support the survival and function of neurons within the retina, helping to preserve vision.

Dysfunction or damage to these eye proteins can contribute to various eye disorders and diseases, such as cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and others.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Epithelium is the tissue that covers the outer surface of the body, lines the internal cavities and organs, and forms various glands. It is composed of one or more layers of tightly packed cells that have a uniform shape and size, and rest on a basement membrane. Epithelial tissues are avascular, meaning they do not contain blood vessels, and are supplied with nutrients by diffusion from the underlying connective tissue.

Epithelial cells perform a variety of functions, including protection, secretion, absorption, excretion, and sensation. They can be classified based on their shape and the number of cell layers they contain. The main types of epithelium are:

1. Squamous epithelium: composed of flat, scalelike cells that fit together like tiles on a roof. It forms the lining of blood vessels, air sacs in the lungs, and the outermost layer of the skin.
2. Cuboidal epithelium: composed of cube-shaped cells with equal height and width. It is found in glands, tubules, and ducts.
3. Columnar epithelium: composed of tall, rectangular cells that are taller than they are wide. It lines the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive tracts.
4. Pseudostratified epithelium: appears stratified or layered but is actually made up of a single layer of cells that vary in height. The nuclei of these cells appear at different levels, giving the tissue a stratified appearance. It lines the respiratory and reproductive tracts.
5. Transitional epithelium: composed of several layers of cells that can stretch and change shape to accommodate changes in volume. It is found in the urinary bladder and ureters.

Epithelial tissue provides a barrier between the internal and external environments, protecting the body from physical, chemical, and biological damage. It also plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis by regulating the exchange of substances between the body and its environment.

Iodipamide is not typically defined in a medical dictionary or resource as it is not a medical term itself, but rather a chemical compound. Iodipamide is a radiocontrast agent that contains iodine atoms and is used during imaging procedures such as X-rays and CT scans to enhance the visibility of internal body structures.

The chemical formula for iodipamide is C8H9I5N2O2, and it is a type of organoiodine compound that is highly water-soluble and radiopaque, making it useful as a contrast agent in medical imaging. Iodipamide works by blocking X-rays and absorbing them, which allows the radiologist to see the internal structures more clearly on an X-ray or CT scan image.

While iodipamide is generally considered safe for use as a contrast agent, it can cause side effects in some people, including allergic reactions, kidney damage, and thyroid problems. As with any medical procedure, patients should discuss the risks and benefits of using iodipamide with their healthcare provider before undergoing an imaging exam.

Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is a type of electron microscopy that uses a focused beam of electrons to transmit through a specimen and create an image based on the interactions between the electrons and the sample. In STEM, the electron beam is scanned across the sample in a raster pattern, similar to how a television or computer monitor displays an image. As the electrons pass through the sample, they interact with the atoms in the material, causing scattering and energy loss. By detecting these scattered and energy-loss electrons, a high-resolution image of the sample can be created.

Scanning transmission electron microscopy is particularly useful for imaging thin specimens with high resolution, making it an important tool in materials science, biology, and other fields where detailed information about the structure and composition of materials is needed. The technique can provide information about the crystal structure, chemical composition, and electronic properties of materials at the atomic level.

Overall, scanning transmission electron microscopy is a powerful tool for characterizing materials and understanding their properties at the nanoscale and atomic level.

Melanoma is defined as a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes. It typically occurs in the skin but can rarely occur in other parts of the body, including the eyes and internal organs. Melanoma is characterized by the uncontrolled growth and multiplication of melanocytes, which can form malignant tumors that invade and destroy surrounding tissue.

Melanoma is often caused by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds, but it can also occur in areas of the body not exposed to the sun. It is more likely to develop in people with fair skin, light hair, and blue or green eyes, but it can affect anyone, regardless of their skin type.

Melanoma can be treated effectively if detected early, but if left untreated, it can spread to other parts of the body and become life-threatening. Treatment options for melanoma include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, depending on the stage and location of the cancer. Regular skin examinations and self-checks are recommended to detect any changes or abnormalities in moles or other pigmented lesions that may indicate melanoma.

The cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It plays a crucial role in focusing vision. The cornea protects the eye from harmful particles and microorganisms, and it also serves as a barrier against UV light. Its transparency allows light to pass through and get focused onto the retina. The cornea does not contain blood vessels, so it relies on tears and the fluid inside the eye (aqueous humor) for nutrition and oxygen. Any damage or disease that affects its clarity and shape can significantly impact vision and potentially lead to blindness if left untreated.

Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that damage the optic nerve, often caused by an abnormally high pressure in the eye (intraocular pressure). This damage can lead to permanent vision loss or even blindness if left untreated. The most common type is open-angle glaucoma, which has no warning signs and progresses slowly. Angle-closure glaucoma, on the other hand, can cause sudden eye pain, redness, nausea, and vomiting, as well as rapid vision loss. Other less common types of glaucoma also exist. While there is no cure for glaucoma, early detection and treatment can help slow or prevent further vision loss.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT), Indirect is a type of immunofluorescence assay used to detect the presence of specific antigens in a sample. In this method, the sample is first incubated with a primary antibody that binds to the target antigen. After washing to remove unbound primary antibodies, a secondary fluorescently labeled antibody is added, which recognizes and binds to the primary antibody. This indirect labeling approach allows for amplification of the signal, making it more sensitive than direct methods. The sample is then examined under a fluorescence microscope to visualize the location and amount of antigen based on the emitted light from the fluorescent secondary antibody. It's commonly used in diagnostic laboratories for detection of various bacteria, viruses, and other antigens in clinical specimens.

Scleral diseases refer to conditions that affect the sclera, which is the tough, white outer coating of the eye. The sclera helps to maintain the shape of the eye and provides protection for the internal structures. Scleral diseases can cause inflammation, degeneration, or thinning of the sclera, leading to potential vision loss or other complications. Some examples of scleral diseases include:

1. Scleritis: an inflammatory condition that causes pain, redness, and sensitivity in the affected area of the sclera. It can be associated with autoimmune disorders, infections, or trauma.
2. Episcleritis: a less severe form of inflammation that affects only the episclera, a thin layer of tissue overlying the sclera. Symptoms include redness and mild discomfort but typically no pain.
3. Pinguecula: a yellowish, raised deposit of protein and fat that forms on the conjunctiva, the clear membrane covering the sclera. While not a disease itself, a pinguecula can cause irritation or discomfort and may progress to a more severe condition called a pterygium.
4. Pterygium: a fleshy growth that extends from the conjunctiva onto the cornea, potentially obstructing vision. It is often associated with prolonged sun exposure and can be removed surgically if it becomes problematic.
5. Scleral thinning or melting: a rare but serious condition where the sclera degenerates or liquefies, leading to potential perforation of the eye. This can occur due to autoimmune disorders, infections, or as a complication of certain surgical procedures.
6. Ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (OHS): a condition caused by the Histoplasma capsulatum fungus, which can lead to scarring and vision loss if it involves the macula, the central part of the retina responsible for sharp, detailed vision.

It is essential to consult an ophthalmologist or eye care professional if you experience any symptoms related to scleral diseases to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.

The crystalline lens of the eye is covered by a transparent, elastic capsule known as the lens capsule. This capsule is made up of collagen and forms the continuous outer layer of the lens. It is highly resistant to both physical and chemical insults, which allows it to protect the lens fibers within. The lens capsule is important for maintaining the shape and transparency of the lens, which are essential for proper focusing of light onto the retina.

Immunoenzyme techniques are a group of laboratory methods used in immunology and clinical chemistry that combine the specificity of antibody-antigen reactions with the sensitivity and amplification capabilities of enzyme reactions. These techniques are primarily used for the detection, quantitation, or identification of various analytes (such as proteins, hormones, drugs, viruses, or bacteria) in biological samples.

In immunoenzyme techniques, an enzyme is linked to an antibody or antigen, creating a conjugate. This conjugate then interacts with the target analyte in the sample, forming an immune complex. The presence and amount of this immune complex can be visualized or measured by detecting the enzymatic activity associated with it.

There are several types of immunoenzyme techniques, including:

1. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): A widely used method for detecting and quantifying various analytes in a sample. In ELISA, an enzyme is attached to either the capture antibody or the detection antibody. After the immune complex formation, a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme, producing a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.
2. Immunoblotting (Western blot): A method used for detecting specific proteins in a complex mixture, such as a protein extract from cells or tissues. In this technique, proteins are separated by gel electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane, where they are probed with an enzyme-conjugated antibody directed against the target protein.
3. Immunohistochemistry (IHC): A method used for detecting specific antigens in tissue sections or cells. In IHC, an enzyme-conjugated primary or secondary antibody is applied to the sample, and the presence of the antigen is visualized using a chromogenic substrate that produces a colored product at the site of the antigen-antibody interaction.
4. Immunofluorescence (IF): A method used for detecting specific antigens in cells or tissues by employing fluorophore-conjugated antibodies. The presence of the antigen is visualized using a fluorescence microscope.
5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): A method used for detecting and quantifying specific antigens or antibodies in liquid samples, such as serum or culture supernatants. In ELISA, an enzyme-conjugated detection antibody is added after the immune complex formation, and a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme to produce a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.

These techniques are widely used in research and diagnostic laboratories for various applications, including protein characterization, disease diagnosis, and monitoring treatment responses.

Capsulorhexis is a surgical procedure that is commonly performed during cataract surgery. It involves creating a circular opening in the front part of the lens capsule, which is a clear membrane that surrounds and holds the lens in place inside the eye. This opening allows the cloudy lens material (cataract) to be removed and replaced with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL).

The procedure is typically performed using a specialized instrument called a cystotome or a femtosecond laser, which creates a small tear in the capsule that can be carefully enlarged to the desired size. The capsulorhexis is crucial for the successful removal of the cataract and the proper placement of the IOL. If the capsulorhexis is not performed correctly, it can lead to complications such as posterior capsular opacification (PCO), which is a thickening and clouding of the back part of the lens capsule that can cause visual symptoms similar to those of a cataract.

I'm happy to help! "Rats, Inbred Lew" is a specific strain of laboratory rats that have been inbred for research purposes. The "Lew" part of the name refers to the location where they were first developed, the Lewis Institute in Lake Bluff, Illinois, USA.

Inbreeding is a process of mating closely related individuals over many generations to create a genetically homogeneous population. This results in a high degree of genetic similarity among members of the strain, making them ideal for use as experimental models because any differences observed between individuals are more likely to be due to the experimental manipulation rather than genetic variation.

Inbred Lew rats have been widely used in biomedical research, particularly in studies related to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. They exhibit a number of unique characteristics that make them useful for these types of studies, including their susceptibility to developing high blood pressure when fed a high-salt diet or given certain drugs.

It's important to note that while inbred strains like Lew rats can be very useful tools for researchers, they are not perfect models for human disease. Because they have been bred in a controlled environment and selected for specific traits, they may not respond to experimental manipulations in the same way that humans or other animals would. Therefore, it's important to interpret findings from these studies with caution and consider multiple lines of evidence before drawing any firm conclusions.

The conjunctiva is the mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and covers the front part of the eye, also known as the sclera. It helps to keep the eye moist and protected from irritants. The conjunctiva can become inflamed or infected, leading to conditions such as conjunctivitis (pink eye).

Eye diseases are a range of conditions that affect the eye or visual system, causing damage to vision and, in some cases, leading to blindness. These diseases can be categorized into various types, including:

1. Refractive errors: These include myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), astigmatism, and presbyopia, which affect the way light is focused on the retina and can usually be corrected with glasses or contact lenses.
2. Cataracts: A clouding of the lens inside the eye that leads to blurry vision, glare, and decreased contrast sensitivity. Cataract surgery is the most common treatment for this condition.
3. Glaucoma: A group of diseases characterized by increased pressure in the eye, leading to damage to the optic nerve and potential blindness if left untreated. Treatment includes medications, laser therapy, or surgery.
4. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD): A progressive condition that affects the central part of the retina called the macula, causing blurry vision and, in advanced stages, loss of central vision. Treatment may include anti-VEGF injections, laser therapy, or nutritional supplements.
5. Diabetic retinopathy: A complication of diabetes that affects the blood vessels in the retina, leading to bleeding, leakage, and potential blindness if left untreated. Treatment includes laser therapy, anti-VEGF injections, or surgery.
6. Retinal detachment: A separation of the retina from its underlying tissue, which can lead to vision loss if not treated promptly with surgery.
7. Amblyopia (lazy eye): A condition where one eye does not develop normal vision, often due to a misalignment or refractive error in childhood. Treatment includes correcting the underlying problem and encouraging the use of the weaker eye through patching or other methods.
8. Strabismus (crossed eyes): A misalignment of the eyes that can lead to amblyopia if not treated promptly with surgery, glasses, or other methods.
9. Corneal diseases: Conditions that affect the transparent outer layer of the eye, such as keratoconus, Fuchs' dystrophy, and infectious keratitis, which can lead to vision loss if not treated promptly.
10. Uveitis: Inflammation of the middle layer of the eye, which can cause vision loss if not treated promptly with anti-inflammatory medications or surgery.

Immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) is a specialized type of electron microscopy that combines the principles of immunochemistry and electron microscopy to detect and localize specific antigens within cells or tissues at the ultrastructural level. This technique allows for the visualization and identification of specific proteins, viruses, or other antigenic structures with a high degree of resolution and specificity.

In IEM, samples are first fixed, embedded, and sectioned to prepare them for electron microscopy. The sections are then treated with specific antibodies that have been labeled with electron-dense markers, such as gold particles or ferritin. These labeled antibodies bind to the target antigens in the sample, allowing for their visualization under an electron microscope.

There are several different methods of IEM, including pre-embedding and post-embedding techniques. Pre-embedding involves labeling the antigens before embedding the sample in resin, while post-embedding involves labeling the antigens after embedding. Post-embedding techniques are generally more commonly used because they allow for better preservation of ultrastructure and higher resolution.

IEM is a valuable tool in many areas of research, including virology, bacteriology, immunology, and cell biology. It can be used to study the structure and function of viruses, bacteria, and other microorganisms, as well as the distribution and localization of specific proteins and antigens within cells and tissues.

Diffusion chambers are devices used in tissue culture and microbiology to maintain a sterile environment while allowing for the exchange of nutrients, gases, or other molecules between two separate environments. In the context of cell or tissue culture, diffusion chambers are often used to maintain cells or tissues in a controlled environment while allowing them to interact with other cells, molecules, or drugs present in a separate compartment.

Culture diffusion chambers typically consist of two compartments separated by a semi-permeable membrane that allows for the passive diffusion of small molecules. One compartment contains the cells or tissues of interest, while the other compartment may contain various nutrients, growth factors, drugs, or other substances to be tested.

The use of diffusion chambers in cell and tissue culture has several advantages, including:

1. Maintaining a sterile environment for the cells or tissues being cultured.
2. Allowing for the exchange of nutrients, gases, or other molecules between the two compartments.
3. Enabling the study of cell-cell interactions and the effects of various substances on cell behavior without direct contact between the cells and the test substance.
4. Providing a means to culture sensitive or difficult-to-grow cells in a controlled environment.

Diffusion chambers are widely used in research settings, particularly in the fields of cell biology, tissue engineering, and drug development.

Angle-closure glaucoma is a type of glaucoma that is characterized by the sudden or gradually increasing pressure in the eye (intraocular pressure) due to the closure or narrowing of the angle between the iris and cornea. This angle is where the drainage system of the eye, called the trabecular meshwork, is located. When the angle becomes too narrow or closes completely, fluid cannot properly drain from the eye, leading to a buildup of pressure that can damage the optic nerve and cause permanent vision loss.

Angle-closure glaucoma can be either acute or chronic. Acute angle-closure glaucoma is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment to prevent permanent vision loss. It is characterized by sudden symptoms such as severe eye pain, nausea and vomiting, blurred vision, halos around lights, and redness of the eye.

Chronic angle-closure glaucoma, on the other hand, develops more slowly over time and may not have any noticeable symptoms until significant damage has already occurred. It is important to diagnose and treat angle-closure glaucoma as early as possible to prevent vision loss. Treatment options include medications to lower eye pressure, laser treatment to create a new opening for fluid drainage, or surgery to improve the flow of fluid out of the eye.

Lens diseases refer to conditions that affect the lens of the eye, which is a transparent structure located behind the iris and pupil. The main function of the lens is to focus light onto the retina, enabling clear vision. Here are some examples of lens diseases:

1. Cataract: A cataract is a clouding of the lens that affects vision. It is a common age-related condition, but can also be caused by injury, disease, or medication.
2. Presbyopia: This is not strictly a "disease," but rather an age-related change in the lens that causes difficulty focusing on close objects. It typically becomes noticeable in people over the age of 40.
3. Lens dislocation: This occurs when the lens slips out of its normal position, usually due to trauma or a genetic disorder. It can cause vision problems and may require surgical intervention.
4. Lens opacity: This refers to any clouding or opacification of the lens that is not severe enough to be considered a cataract. It can cause visual symptoms such as glare or blurred vision.
5. Anterior subcapsular cataract: This is a type of cataract that forms in the front part of the lens, often as a result of injury or inflammation. It can cause significant visual impairment.
6. Posterior subcapsular cataract: This is another type of cataract that forms at the back of the lens, often as a result of diabetes or certain medications. It can also cause significant visual impairment.

Overall, lens diseases can have a significant impact on vision and quality of life, and may require medical intervention to manage or treat.

A cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division between the sac and its surrounding tissue, that contains fluid, air, or semisolid material. Cysts can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, internal organs, and bones. They can be caused by various factors, such as infection, genetic predisposition, or blockage of a duct or gland. Some cysts may cause symptoms, such as pain or discomfort, while others may not cause any symptoms at all. Treatment for cysts depends on the type and location of the cyst, as well as whether it is causing any problems. Some cysts may go away on their own, while others may need to be drained or removed through a surgical procedure.

"Light coagulation," also known as "laser coagulation," is a medical term that refers to the use of laser technology to cauterize (seal or close) tissue. This procedure uses heat generated by a laser to cut, coagulate, or destroy tissue. In light coagulation, the laser beam is focused on the blood vessels in question, causing the blood within them to clot and the vessels to seal. This can be used for various medical purposes, such as stopping bleeding during surgery, destroying abnormal tissues (like tumors), or treating eye conditions like diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration.

It's important to note that this is a general definition, and the specific use of light coagulation may vary depending on the medical specialty and the individual patient's needs. As always, it's best to consult with a healthcare professional for more detailed information about any medical procedure or treatment.

The ciliary body joins the ora serrata of the choroid to the root of the iris. The ciliary body is a ring-shaped thickening of ... The ciliary body is a part of the eye that includes the ciliary muscle, which controls the shape of the lens, and the ciliary ... The aqueous humor is produced in the non-pigmented portion of the ciliary body. The ciliary body is part of the uvea, the layer ... The ciliary body is also known to receive sympathetic innervation via long ciliary nerves. When test subjects are startled, ...
... melanoma of the eye Ciliary Body Melanoma - Springer Long-term survival in choroidal and ciliary body melanoma after ... with Choroidal and Ciliary Body Melanoma Long-term risk of local failure after proton therapy for choroidal/ciliary body ... Ciliary body melanoma is a type of cancer arising from the coloured part (uvea) of the eye. About 12% of uveal melanoma arise ... Enucleation (surgical removal of the eye) is the treatment of choice for large ciliary body melanomas. Small or medium sized ...
... ciliary body and iris. The sympathetic root originates from the internal carotid plexus with cell bodies in the superior ... The ciliary ganglion contain many more nerve fibers directed to the ciliary muscle than nerve fibers directed to the ... Perez, GM; Keyser, RB (September 1986). "Cell body counts in human ciliary ganglia". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual ... Because of the much larger size of the ciliary muscle, 95% of the neurons in the ciliary ganglion innervate it compared to the ...
The long ciliary nerves are distributed to the ciliary body, iris, and cornea. The long ciliary nerves provide sensory ... Short ciliary nerves Pathways in the Ciliary Ganglion. Standring, Susan (2020). Gray's Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of ... Accompanied by the short ciliary nerves, the long ciliary nerves pierce and enter the posterior part of[citation needed] the ... The long ciliary nerves are 2-3 nerves that arise from the nasociliary nerve (itself a branch of the ophthalmic branch (CN V1) ...
... ciliary body, and iris. Non-terminal branches are distributed to the ciliary muscle/ciliary body, and anterior choroid. ... Upon reaching the ciliary body, the long posterior ciliary arteries ramify superiorly and inferiorly, the branches forming ... They pass forward within the eye to reach the ciliary body where they ramify and anastomose with the anterior ciliary arteries ... ciliary body, and iris. There are two long ciliary arteries. They are branches of the ophthalmic artery. The long posterior ...
Labeled structures: 1. Schwalbe's line, 2. Trabecular meshwork (TM), 3. Scleral spur, 4. Ciliary body, 5. Iris Anterior chamber ... of the ciliary muscle, and is attached posteriorly to the trabecular meshwork. Open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and closed-angle ... which cause rapid miosis and contraction of the ciliary muscles, this pulls the scleral spur and results in the trabecular ...
Anterior uveitis is an inflammatory process affecting the iris and ciliary body, with resulting inflammatory signs in the ... Labeled structures: 1. Schwalbe's line, 2. Trabecular meshwork (TM), 3. Scleral spur, 4. Ciliary body, 5. Iris Anterior chamber ...
Labeled structures: 1. Schwalbe's line, 2. Trabecular meshwork (TM), 3. Scleral spur, 4. Ciliary body, 5. Iris Snell, Richard S ...
"Iris and Ciliary body". Current Ocular Therapy (6 ed.). p. 518.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) ... Unilateral excessive accommodation-Trigeminal neuralgia, and head trauma may cause ciliary spasm and may cause accommodative ... Bilateral excessive accommodation-Diseases like Encephalitis, Syphilis, Head trauma, Influenza, Meningitis may cause ciliary ...
"Leucocoria as the presenting sign of a ciliary body melanoma in a child". Br J Ophthalmol. 85 (1): 115-6. doi:10.1136/bjo.85.1. ... "Malignant teratoid ciliary body medulloepithelioma in a neonate". J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 50 Online (6): e37-40. doi: ... "Ciliary body medulloepithelioma in an adult". Surv Ophthalmol. 58 (3): 266-72. doi:10.1016/j.survophthal.2012.08.006. PMID ... "Ciliary body medulloepithelioma: analysis of 41 cases". Ophthalmology. 120 (12): 2552-2559. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.05.015. ...
Within the ciliary body, the anterior ciliary arteries anastomose with branches of the long posterior ciliary arteries to form ... The anterior ciliary arteries contribute arterial blood supply to the rectus muscles, conjunctiva, sclera, and the ciliary body ... There are seven anterior ciliary arteries on each side of the body; two anterior ciliary arteries are associated with the ... and the ciliary body. The arteries end by anastomosing with branches of the long posterior ciliary arteries to form the ...
... and ciliary body) run posteriorly through the short ciliary nerves and pass through the ciliary ganglion without forming ... The parasympathetic root of ciliary ganglion provides parasympathetic supply to the ciliary ganglion. The ciliary ganglion is a ... and the short ciliary nerves (from the ciliary ganglion). Sympathetic fibers in the short ciliary nerves pass through the ... They leave the ciliary ganglion in the sensory root of ciliary ganglion, which joins the nasociliary nerve-a branch of the ...
... ganglion via the postganglionic parasympathetic fibers which travel in the short ciliary nerves and supply the ciliary body and ... The ciliary muscle receives parasympathetic fibers from the short ciliary nerves that arise from the ciliary ganglion. The ... namely the ciliary body and annular suspension of the lens of the eye. The arteries of the choroid and iris. The greater part ... The ciliary muscle is an intrinsic muscle of the eye formed as a ring of smooth muscle in the eye's middle layer, uvea ( ...
... , or ciliary body medulloepithelioma, or teratoneuroma, is a rare tumor arising from primitive medullary epithelium in ... the ciliary body of the eye. Almost all diktyomas arise in the ciliary body, although, rarely, they may arise from the optic ... On CT, dityomas typically appear as dense, irregular masses in the ciliary body, which enhances with administration of ... while the most common signs are leukocoria and presence of a mass in the iris or ciliary body. Other signs and symptoms include ...
It can also be used to identify midzonal cysts behind the iris and to determine whether there is ciliary body involvement. The ... Iris cyst must be differentiated from other kinds of possible "bodies" in the eye. After the body has been established as an ... "Ciliary body enlargement and cyst formation in uveitis" (PDF). British Journal of Ophthalmology: 895-899. Shields, Carol L.; ... midzonal cysts are located from the iris root to the ciliary body, and peripheral cysts are located at the iridociliary sulcus ...
... is involved in the maintenance of ciliary basal bodies. Mutations in rotatin result in fewer, abnormally short cilia, ... with bulbous tips and multiple basal bodies. It is also involved in the radial migration of neurons in the cerebral cortex and ...
These tumors can occur in the choroid, iris and ciliary body. The latter are sometimes called iris or ciliary body melanoma. ... Melanomas (choroidal, ciliary body and uveal) - In the early stages there may be no symptoms (the person does not know there is ... "Ciliary Body Melanoma - The Eye Cancer Network". Archived from the original on 2009-08-20. Retrieved 2010-03-10. "The Nevus of ... Choroidal hemangioma Choroidal melanoma Choroidal metastasis Choroidal nevus Choroidal osteoma Ciliary body melanoma The nevus ...
"High-resolution ultrasonic imaging and characterization of the ciliary body". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 42 ... "Correlation of anterior chamber angle and ciliary sulcus diameters with white-to-white corneal diameter in high myopes using ...
Certain cells within the eye's ciliary body produce aqueous humor. A ciliary destructive or cyclodestructive procedure is one ... A cyclogoniotomy is a surgical procedure for producing a cyclodialysis, in which the ciliary body is cut from its attachment at ... Cyclophotocoagulation, also known as transscleral cyclophotocoagulation, ciliary body ablation, cyclophotoablation, and ... A surgical cyclodialysis is a rarely used procedure that aims to separate the ciliary body from the sclera to form a ...
The middle portion of the optic cup develops into the ciliary body and iris. During the invagination of the optic cup, the ... Neuroectoderm gives rise to the following compartments of the eye: retina epithelial lining of ciliary body and iris optic ... Neuroepithelium forms the retina, ciliary body, iris, and optic nerves. Surface ectoderm forms the lens, corneal epithelium and ...
Aqueous humor is produced in the portion of the eye known as the ciliary body. The ciliary body contains 72 protrusions known ... The stent is implanted through an ab interno approach and inserted into the supraciliary space (between the ciliary body and ... Chen J, Cohn RA, Lin SC, Cortes AE, Alvarado JA (December 1997). "Endoscopic photocoagulation of the ciliary body for treatment ... The destruction of these ciliary processes with a diode laser, known as cyclophotocoagulation, can be used to decrease the ...
2003). "BetaB1-crystallin: identification of a candidate ciliary body uveitis antigen". Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44 (1): ...
A cyclectomy is an excision of portion of the ciliary body. A cyclotomy, or cyclicotomy, is a surgical incision of the ciliary ... A ciliectomy is the surgical removal of part of the ciliary body or the surgical removal of part of a margin of an eyelid ... A corectomedialysis, or coretomedialysis, is an excision of a small portion of the iris at its junction with the ciliary body ... An iridocyclectomy is the surgical removal of the iris and the ciliary body. An iridocystectomy is the surgical removal of a ...
"Ciliary proteins link basal body polarization to planar cell polarity regulation". Nature Genetics. 40 (1): 69-77. doi:10.1038/ ...
... may refer to: Cilium - projections from living cells that have locomotive or sensory functions Ciliary body - the ... circumferential tissue inside the eye Ciliary muscle - eye muscle used for focusing Ciliary nerves (disambiguation) Ciliary ... Look up ciliary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... page lists articles associated with the title Ciliary. If an ...
This reduces cAMP and hence aqueous humour production by the ciliary body. Peripheral α2 agonist activity results in ... This may lead to relaxed ciliary muscle and increased uveoscleral outflow. It is sold under the brand names Alphagan, Alphagan- ...
Tamimi Y, Skarie JM, Footz T, Berry FB, Link BA, Walter MA (2006). "FGF19 is a target for FOXC1 regulation in ciliary body- ...
Cloquet's space: A space between the ciliary zonule and the vitreous body. Category:Taxa named by Hippolyte Cloquet "Parts of ...
... is attached to the sclera and the anterior ciliary body. The iris and ciliary body together are known as the anterior uvea. ... The ciliary zone is the rest of the iris that extends to its origin at the ciliary body. The collarette is the thickest region ... The iris along with the anterior ciliary body provide a secondary pathway for aqueous humour to drain from the eye. The iris is ... The structural folds of Schwalbe are radial folds extending from the border of the ciliary and pupillary zones that are much ...
... either in the ciliary sulcus-the space between the iris and the ciliary body-in the anterior chamber in front of the iris, or ... The lens is implanted in the eye's lens capsule, where the contractions of the ciliary body, which would focus the eye with the ... Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome has an incidence ranging from around 0.5% to 2.0%. Iris or ciliary body injury has an ... Zonular dehiscence: Breaking of the fibrous strands (zonules) connecting the crystalline lens to the ciliary body. Dropped ...
The ciliary body produces the fluid in the eye called aqueous humor. It also contains the ciliary ... The ciliary body is a circular structure that is an extension of the iris, the colored part of the eye. ... The ciliary body is a circular structure that is an extension of the iris, the colored part of the eye. The ciliary body ... It also contains the ciliary muscle, which changes the shape of the lens when your eyes focus on a near object. This process is ...
Ciliary body melanoma (see the image below) is a rare tumor. It is encountered approximately one tenth as often as is choroidal ... Some ciliary body melanomas with diffuse growth patterns can extend around the circumference of the ciliary body for 360°. ... The uvea is subdivided into the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. The ciliary body is located between the iris and the ora ... What are the sexual predilections of ciliary body melanoma?. Which age groups have the highest prevalence of ciliary body ...
Ciliary body melanoma (see the image below) is a rare tumor. It is encountered approximately one tenth as often as is choroidal ... Some ciliary body melanomas with diffuse growth patterns can extend around the circumference of the ciliary body for 360°. ... The uvea is subdivided into the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. The ciliary body is located between the iris and the ora ... What are the sexual predilections of ciliary body melanoma?. Which age groups have the highest prevalence of ciliary body ...
Ciliary body. The ciliary body is a ring of tissue that encircles the lens. The ciliary body contains smooth muscle fibers ... called ciliary muscles that help to control the shape of the lens. Towards the posterior surface of the lens there are ciliary ...
Ciliary body medulloepithelioma associated with pleuropulmonary blastoma Philip W Laird et al. Br J Ophthalmol. 2013 Aug. ... Ciliary body medulloepithelioma associated with pleuropulmonary blastoma Philip W Laird 1 , Hans E Grossniklaus, G Baker ... Cavitary melanoma of ciliary body simulating a cyst. Zhang J, Demirci H, Shields CL, Leon JA, Shields JA, Eagle RC Jr. Zhang J ... Medulloepithelioma of the ciliary body associated with massive intravitreal hemorrhage in an adult. Pushker N, Khuraijam N, Sen ...
New to this... Im 24 and my husband was diagnosed with Iris melanoma (might be in the ciliary body). ... He is currently going through some tests for Iris melanoma (possibly Ciliary cancer). It started with a regular optometrist ... and possible ciliary cancer. I am really scared, we have no family near us (about 13 hours away) and June 13th they are took ...
... potently reduces appetite and body weight in rodents and humans. We studied the short- and long-term effects of CNTFAx15 ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) potently reduces appetite and body weight in rodents and humans. We studied the short- and ... Total body fat (%) . Abdominal fat tissue mass (g) . Abdominal lean tissue mass (g) . Abdominal body fat (%) . ... Total body fat (%) . Abdominal fat tissue mass (g) . Abdominal lean tissue mass (g) . Abdominal body fat (%) . ...
Ciliary body melanomas. These rare cancers can be treated with either surgical removal of the tumor, if it is small enough, or ... Iridocyclectomy (removal of a portion of the iris and the ciliary body) ... Tumor ablation and radiation might also be used for tumors that have spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs. ... If these treatments cant be used, medicines that reach all parts of the body might be helpful for some people. Lab tests might ...
Melanoma of the ciliary body has a severe prognosis, the diagnosis is often delayed as it has symptoms similar to some eye ... Melanoma of the ciliary body has a severe prognosis, the diagnosis is often delayed as it has symptoms similar to some eye ... Melanoma of the ciliary body has a severe prognosis, the diagnosis is often delayed as it has symptoms similar to some eye ... The ciliary body melanoma has a severe prognosis, the diagnosis is often delayed as it has symptoms similar to some eye ...
Malignant Melanoma of Ciliary Body (excluding Iris) Primary Site. Histology. Schema Discriminator: Melanoma Ciliary Body/ ... Melanoma Ciliary Body/Melanoma Iris** is used to discriminate between tumors arising in the ciliary body and the iris, both ... C694 Ciliary body [excluding iris] **Note 1:** This schema is based on the UICC chapter *Malignant Melanoma of Uvea,* pages 284 ... SSF25: Schema Discriminator: Melanoma Ciliary Body/Melanoma Iris. 010. Yes. NAACCR #2879 csSiteSpecificFactor25 All. None. ...
Cyclophotocoagulation/laser iridotomy/destruction procedures on the iris, ciliary body of the eye. 66700, 66710, 66711, 66761, ... Iridectomy/incision procedures on the iris, ciliary body of the eye. 66500, 66505, 66600, 66625, 66630. ...
E) Photomicrograph of the ciliary body highlighting the labeling in the pigmented epithelium (arrowheads) and stroma. Original ... ciliary body; CJ, conjunctival; CO, corneal; FA, filtration angle; I, iris; IHC, immunohistochemical. ...
Ciliary body: Disturbance of accommodation with symptoms of blurred vision. This reaction is dose-related and reversible with ... A total dose representing 25 mg of base per kg of body weight is administered in three days, as follows:. First dose: 10 mg ... In infants and children, the weekly suppressive dosage is 5 mg, calculated as base, per kg of body weight, but should not ... The dosage for adults may also be calculated on the basis of body weight; this method is preferred for infants and children. ...
Identification of a novel element in the human eye: the inner connective tissue layer of the ciliary body characterized with ... The HNK-1 epitope and the elastic fiber system of the human ciliary body. An immunoelectron microscopic study. ... The HNK-1 epitope and the elastic fiber system of the human ciliary body. An immunoelectron microscopic study. ... Type VII Collagen in the Human Accommodation System: Expression in Ciliary Body, Zonules, and Lens Capsule ...
Benign neoplasm of ciliary body D33.3 Benign neoplasm of cranial nerves. D49.81. Neoplasm of unspecified behavior of retina and ... Penetrating wound with foreign body of eyeball. T37.2x1+ - T37.2x4+. Poisoning by antimalarials and drugs acting on other blood ... Injury of conjunctiva and corneal abrasion without foreign body. S05.10xx - S05.12xx. Contusion of eyeball and orbital tissues ... Although the kinetics of GA progression are highly variable among individual patients, a growing body of evidence suggested ...
Iris and ciliary body, excision of tumour of. 42767 * excision of tumour of 42764 ... Intranasal operation on antrum/foreign body. 53009 Intranasal operation on antrum/removal offoreign body. 41716 * operation on ...
After injury to the cornea, immune cells travel from the ciliary body to the lens along fibers known as ciliary zonules. ... Ciliary zonules (white) that link the lens to the ciliary body. Image credit: JodiRae DeDreu, Thomas Jefferson University. ... Unlike most of the bodys organs, blood vessels dont reach the lens. If they did, theyd obscure our vision and we wouldnt be ... The discovery adds to a growing body of evidence that is working to overturn the accepted dogma of the field. ...
Ciliary Body A9.371.60.160. Citalopram D3.383.312.225.187. Clavulanic Acid D4.75.80.875.99.221.374.160. Clavulanic Acids D4.75. ... Geniculate Bodies A8.186.211.730.385.826.701.444 A8.186.211.730.317.826.701.444. Germ Layers A16.254.425 A16.504. Giant Cells, ... Mamillary Bodies A8.186.211.730.385.357.362.500 A8.186.211.730.317.357.362.500. Mast-Cell Sarcoma C4.557.386.802.750 C4.557. ... Foreign-Body A11.627.624.480.376 A11.627.482.376. Giant Cells, Langhans A11.627.624.480.380 A11.627.482.380. Globus Pallidus ...
2. Ciliary body naevus.. Taban M; Sears JE; Singh AD. Eye (Lond); 2007 Dec; 21(12):1528-30. PubMed ID: 17041573. [TBL] ... Melanocytoma of the ciliary body].. Gallego Y; Mendicute J; Ruiz M; Ruiz I; Ubeda M. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol; 2005 Feb; 80(2):109 ... 4. A ciliary body tumor preventing angle closure.. Mehanna C; Desjardins L; Puech M; Cohn H. J Glaucoma; 2014 Feb; 23(2):125-7 ... 6. [Pigmented ciliary body tumours: benign or malignant?].. Vallejo-Vicente E; Saornil-Álvarez MA; López-Lara F; García-Álvarez ...
Categories: Ciliary Body Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 1 ...
Chronic exposure to gasoline may cause damage to the cornea, retina, and ciliary body. ... "Body bags" are not recommended.. Report to the base station and the receiving medical facility the condition of the patient, ... body weight ratios and increased minute volumes:weight ratios. In addition, they may be exposed to higher levels than adults in ...
KIAA0556 is a novel ciliary basal body component mutated in Joubert syndrome. Sanders AA, et al. Genome Biol, 2015 Dec 29. PMID ...
Tumors were categorized as involving ciliary body if they extended anterior to ora serrata and were recorded as having ... Chromosome 6p gain correlated strongly with lack of ciliary body involvement and weakly with lack of epithelioid cellularity. ... ciliary body involvement, and extraocular spread (2-4). These tumor characteristics form the basis of the 7th edition of the ... ciliary body involvement, and increased mitotic rate. This chromosomal abnormality was more common in melanomas affecting the ...
The anterior segment includes the cornea, iris, ciliary body, and ocular lens. Disruptions in the health of the anterior ...
Primary ciliary dyskinesia, or PCD, causes symptoms in the sinuses, ears, and lungs. Symptoms can include chronic congestion, ... Symptoms in the body include:. *Both men and women may have fertility problems, or difficulty having children. ... Babies born with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) may have respiratory distress within the first day after birth, while other ...
Uveitis is inflammation of the eye originating in the uvea, which includes the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.NEI ...
  • The ciliary body joins the ora serrata of the choroid to the root of the iris. (wikipedia.org)
  • They can be classified as anterior uveal melanomas when the tumor arises in the iris and as posterior uveal melanomas when it arises in either the choroid or the ciliary body. (medscape.com)
  • The uvea is subdivided into the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. (medscape.com)
  • The middle layer (choroid, ciliary body and the iris) is vascular. (mountsinai.org)
  • It is made of the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. (limamemorial.org)
  • Low concentrations were found in the iris and ciliary body, the lens, and in the choroid. (avma.org)
  • The ciliary body is a part of the eye that includes the ciliary muscle, which controls the shape of the lens, and the ciliary epithelium, which produces the aqueous humor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Folds on the inner ciliary epithelium are called ciliary processes, and these secrete aqueous humor into the posterior chamber. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ciliary epithelium of the ciliary processes produces aqueous humor, which is responsible for providing oxygen, nutrients, and metabolic waste removal to the lens and the cornea, which do not have their own blood supply. (wikipedia.org)
  • Separation and disruption of the overlying ciliary epithelium decreases its production of aqueous humor with consequent ocular hypotension. (medscape.com)
  • To investigate the electrophysiology and mechanisms of chloride (Cl − ) transport across the ciliary body-epithelium (CBE) of the porcine eye. (arvojournals.org)
  • E) Photomicrograph of the ciliary body highlighting the labeling in the pigmented epithelium (arrowheads) and stroma. (cdc.gov)
  • Aqueous humor is produced by a structure in the ciliary body called the ciliary epithelium. (allaboutvision.com)
  • The ciliary epithelium is located in the posterior chamber. (allaboutvision.com)
  • The ciliary body is attached to the lens by connective tissue called the zonular fibers (fibers of Zinn). (wikipedia.org)
  • Relaxation of the ciliary muscle puts tension on these fibers and changes the shape of the lens in order to focus light on the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ciliary body has three functions: accommodation, aqueous humor production and resorption, and maintenance of the lens zonules for the purpose of anchoring the lens in place. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accommodation essentially means that when the ciliary muscle contracts, the lens becomes more convex, generally improving the focus for closer objects. (wikipedia.org)
  • These provide strong attachments between the ciliary muscle and the capsule of the lens. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also contains the ciliary muscle, which changes the shape of the lens when your eyes focus on a near object. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The ciliary body is a ring of tissue that encircles the lens. (mountsinai.org)
  • The ciliary body contains smooth muscle fibers called ciliary muscles that help to control the shape of the lens. (mountsinai.org)
  • Towards the posterior surface of the lens there are ciliary processes which contain capillaries. (mountsinai.org)
  • The thickness of the lens is adjusted by contraction and relaxation of the ciliary body, made up of smooth muscle. (washington.edu)
  • But the story is inverted, my dear friends, For the ciliary muscles and the lens. (washington.edu)
  • The ciliary (pronounced: SIL-ee-air-ee) body contains the muscular structure in the eye that changes the shape of the eye's lens. (kidshealth.org)
  • In people who have normal vision, the ciliary body flattens the lens enough to bring objects into focus at a distance of 20 feet or more. (kidshealth.org)
  • The aqueous humor is produced in the non-pigmented portion of the ciliary body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the ciliary body produces aqueous humor, it is the main target of many medications against glaucoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • There 3 main types of medication affecting the ciliary body: Beta blockers, the second most common treatment method for glaucoma, reduce the production of aqueous humor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, less selective alpha agonists such as [epinephrine] may decrease the production of aqueous humor through vasoconstriction of the ciliary body (only for open-angle glaucoma). (wikipedia.org)
  • The ciliary body produces the fluid in the eye called aqueous humor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aqueous humor drainage is inadequate, whereas production by the ciliary body is normal. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Ablation, or destruction, of part of the ciliary body lowers the IOP by decreasing the fluid or aqueous humor within the eye and thus helping to control glaucoma. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
  • Mesectodermal leiomyoma of the ciliary body extending into the anterior chamber. (qxmd.com)
  • A neoplasm of the ciliary body extending from the equator to the iris and the anterior chamber was observed in an 18-year old girl. (qxmd.com)
  • Presenta una agudeza visual (AV) de 1/0,9, en fondo de ojo izquierdo un quiste vítreo anterior. (bvsalud.org)
  • In eyes with APAC, as well as their fellow eyes, ciliary bodies are thinner and anteriorly rotated, and this anatomical change is associated with shorter AL and high intraocular pressure. (cjeo-journal.org)
  • This procedure lowers the intraocular pressure by destroying the source of intraocular fluid, the ciliary body, and subsequently lowering the intraocular pressure, as well as decreasing the pain of patients with some glaucomas, the most notable of which is neovascular glaucoma. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
  • Ciliary body melanoma is a rare tumor. (medscape.com)
  • Transpupillary photograph of ciliary body melanoma. (medscape.com)
  • Ciliary body melanoma is a subtype of uveal melanoma, the most common primary malignant tumor of the eye. (medscape.com)
  • Uveal melanomas are the most common primary intraocular malignancies and the second most common type of primary malignant melanoma in the body. (medscape.com)
  • Fundus photograph of a large ciliary body melanoma. (medscape.com)
  • Melanoma in the ciliary body poses a serious threat to life. (medscape.com)
  • Patients who die from ciliary body melanoma die because of distant metastasis rather than local spread. (medscape.com)
  • Less frequently, ciliary body melanoma can grow transsclerally, through emissary channels, and can spread locally into the orbit and conjunctiva. (medscape.com)
  • Local growth of ciliary body melanoma produces signs and symptoms as it pathologically involves adjacent structures. (medscape.com)
  • Primary ciliary body melanoma arises from melanocytes in the uveal tract. (medscape.com)
  • Note 2:** *Schema Discriminator 1: Melanoma Ciliary Body/Melanoma Iris* is used to discriminate between Melanoma Ciliary Body and Melanoma Iris which are coded to ICD-O-3 code C694. (cancer.gov)
  • Methods: A 63-year-old man referred a suspected iris-ciliary body melanoma in his left eye. (scirp.org)
  • Ectopically expressed Root resides at the base of mother centrioles in spermatocytes and localizes asymmetrically to mother centrosomes in neuroblasts, both requiring Bld10, a basal body protein with varied functions. (fsu.edu)
  • Ciliary body melanomas can push the iris diaphragm anteriorly, or they can infiltrate the trabecular meshwork, producing acute angle closure. (medscape.com)
  • To investigate the measurements of the ciliary body in patients with acute primary angle-closure (APAC). (cjeo-journal.org)
  • ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed a normal ciliary body. (bvsalud.org)
  • The ciliary body is a ring-shaped thickening of tissue inside the eye that divides the posterior chamber from the vitreous body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inner layer is transparent and covers the vitreous body, and is continuous from the neural tissue of the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Postsynaptic fibers from the ciliary ganglion form the short ciliary nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • It contains the ciliary muscle, vessels, and fibrous connective tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rootletin organizes the ciliary rootlet to achieve neuron sensory function in Drosophila. (fsu.edu)
  • The ciliary body is part of the uvea, the layer of tissue that delivers oxygen and nutrients to the eye tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • These diseases occur when the body's immune system attacks and destroys healthy body tissue by mistake. (limamemorial.org)
  • An autoimmune disorder occurs when the body's immune system attacks and destroys healthy body tissue by mistake. (limamemorial.org)
  • Parasympathetic activation of the M3 muscarinic receptors causes ciliary muscle contraction, the effect of contraction is to decrease the diameter of the ring of ciliary muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • For cyclocryotherapy, the patient's eyelids are first retracted (A). A cryoprobe is applied to the outside of the eyeball in the area surrounding the iris (B). The probe freezes ciliary bodies in 50-60 seconds. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
  • The ciliary body is located between the iris and the ora serrata. (medscape.com)
  • Root is required for cohesion of basal bodies, but the cilium structure appears normal in Root mutant neurons. (fsu.edu)
  • The ciliary body is a circular structure that is an extension of the iris , the colored part of the eye. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In many cell types, a cytoskeletal structure called the ciliary rootlet links the cilium to the cell body. (fsu.edu)
  • Ciliary body melanomas are mostly found in Whites, particularly in those with light-colored irides. (medscape.com)
  • Children exposed to the same levels of gasoline vapor as adults may receive larger doses because they have greater lung surface area:body weight ratios and increased minute volumes:weight ratios. (cdc.gov)
  • The ciliary body is a circular structure that is an extension of the iris , the colored part of the eye. (medlineplus.gov)
  • They can be classified as anterior uveal melanomas when the tumor arises in the iris and as posterior uveal melanomas when it arises in either the choroid or the ciliary body. (medscape.com)
  • The uvea is subdivided into the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. (medscape.com)
  • The ciliary body is located between the iris and the ora serrata. (medscape.com)
  • Ciliary body melanomas can push the iris diaphragm anteriorly, or they can infiltrate the trabecular meshwork, producing acute angle closure. (medscape.com)
  • 11. Evaluation of iris and iridociliary body lesions with anterior segment optical coherence tomography versus ultrasound B-scan. (nih.gov)
  • Uveitis is inflammation of the eye originating in the uvea, which includes the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. (nih.gov)
  • The uveal tract consists of three structures: the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The anterior segment of the eye includes the ocular surface (cornea, conjunctiva, lacrimal gland, and tear film), anterior uvea (iris and ciliary body), and lens. (hindawi.com)
  • inflammation of the uvea (also known as the uveal tract), which is a part of the eye that includes the iris, the ciliary body, and the choroid. (litter-robot.com)
  • The uveal tunic is the pigmented middle layer of the optic wall composed of the choroid, ciliary body and iris. (histologyguide.com)
  • Surveillance of the lens by immune cells in response to wounding of the cornea: 3D surface structure imaging at one day post-corneal wounding shows immune cells (CD45+, green) migrating along within ciliary zonule fibrils (MAGP1+, white) that extend along the surface of the matrix capsule that surrounds the lens (perlecan+, red). (nih.gov)
  • called the trabecular meshwork and the ciliary body, that regulate the intraocular pressure. (nih.gov)
  • Like myocilin, this protein is found in the trabecular meshwork, ciliary body, and other structures of the eye. (nih.gov)
  • Separation and disruption of the overlying ciliary epithelium decreases its production of aqueous humor with consequent ocular hypotension. (medscape.com)
  • It accumulated selectively in the melanin structures of the fetal eyes and was retained in the ocular tissues for five months after the drug had been eliminated from the rest of the body. (nih.gov)
  • Pigmented malignant medulloepithelioma of the ciliary body. (nih.gov)
  • 6. [Pigmented ciliary body tumours: benign or malignant? (nih.gov)
  • The ciliary body produces the fluid in the eye called aqueous humor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 17. Cavitary melanocytoma of the ciliary body. (nih.gov)
  • Medulloepithelioma of the ciliary body associated with massive intravitreal hemorrhage in an adult. (nih.gov)
  • The uveal tract may become inflamed because of infection, injury, a bodywide autoimmune disorder (which causes the body to attack its own tissues), or for unknown reasons. (msdmanuals.com)
  • 4. A ciliary body tumor preventing angle closure. (nih.gov)
  • CNTF acts via both leptin-like and -independent mechanisms, with previous studies showing that CNTF decreases body weight and food intake in leptin-deficient ob/ob ( 4 ) and leptin-resistant db/db and diet-induced obese AKR/J mice ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 14. [Symptomatic ciliary body melanocytoma: melanocytomalytic glaucoma]. (nih.gov)
  • Babies born with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) may have respiratory distress within the first day after birth, while other people may go through life without knowing that they have the disease. (nih.gov)
  • The immunoreaction was localized along the cell membrane, both around the cell body and around its long, slender cytoplasmic processes. (arvojournals.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is likely not a ciliary protein but rather has distant sequence homology to type II chaperonins. (genetex.com)
  • The effect of CNTF Ax15 on food intake and body weight was more pronounced in CNTF Ax15 -treated diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice compared with pair-fed controls and was associated with suppressed expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y and agouti gene-related protein. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Administration of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a neuronal growth factor studied in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, results in anorexia and weight loss in humans ( 1 , 2 ) and mice ( 3 , 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Such structural abnormalities may be part of a genetic disorder that affects many body systems, called a syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • Many people with uveitis have a disorder that also affects organs elsewhere in the body. (msdmanuals.com)
  • METHODS: Seven specimens representing the pars plicata (age range, 12 to 86 years) and three specimens representing the pars plana (age range, 29 to 71 years) of the ciliary body were sampled at death from eight normal human eyes. (arvojournals.org)
  • Finally, CNTF Ax15 administration improved the metabolic profile in both diet-induced obese C57BL/6J and UCP1-DTA mice and resulted in a significantly improved glycemic response to oral glucose tolerance tests in CNTF Ax15 -treated UCP1-DTA compared with pair-fed mice of similar body weight. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 10. Ultrasound biomicroscopy in the management of melanocytoma of the ciliary body with extrascleral extension. (nih.gov)
  • 16. Surgical management of melanocytoma of the ciliary body with extrascleral extension. (nih.gov)
  • Longitudinal observations revealed a sustained reduction in body weight for several days post-CNTF Ax15 treatment of CNTF Ax15 -treated but not pair-fed mice, followed by a gradual regain in body weight over 28 days. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Children exposed to the same levels of gasoline vapor as adults may receive larger doses because they have greater lung surface area:body weight ratios and increased minute volumes:weight ratios. (cdc.gov)
  • Since we've been here we've had another more detailed sonogram (the technician did not get to make any of it, it showed a rare mass, nothing she had seen before, but sadly it came back showing not only a mass but cysts, and possible ciliary cancer. (cancer.org)
  • CNTF Ax15 administration (0.1, 0.3, or 1.0 μg · g −1 · day −1 s.c.) for 3 or 7 days reduced food intake and body weight (mainly body fat mass). (diabetesjournals.org)

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