Ciliary Arteries: Three groups of arteries found in the eye which supply the iris, pupil, sclera, conjunctiva, and the muscles of the iris.Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Retinal Artery: Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.Ciliary Body: A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Levobunolol: The L-Isomer of bunolol.Oxymetazoline: A direct acting sympathomimetic used as a vasoconstrictor to relieve nasal congestion. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1251)Myography: The recording of muscular movements. The apparatus is called a myograph, the record or tracing, a myogram. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Corrosion Casting: A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.Retinal Vein: Central retinal vein and its tributaries. It runs a short course within the optic nerve and then leaves and empties into the superior ophthalmic vein or cavernous sinus.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Adrenergic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Papaverine: An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid: A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Subclavian Artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Crowdsourcing: Social media model for enabling public involvement and recruitment in participation. Use of social media to collect feedback and recruit volunteer subjects.Meningeal Arteries: Arteries which supply the dura mater.Ethmoid Bone: A light and spongy (pneumatized) bone that lies between the orbital part of FRONTAL BONE and the anterior of SPHENOID BONE. Ethmoid bone separates the ORBIT from the ETHMOID SINUS. It consists of a horizontal plate, a perpendicular plate, and two lateral labyrinths.Cranial Fossa, Anterior: The compartment containing the inferior part and anterior extremities of the frontal lobes (FRONTAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. It is formed mainly by orbital parts of the FRONTAL BONE and the lesser wings of the SPHENOID BONE.Ethmoid Sinus: The numerous (6-12) small thin-walled spaces or air cells in the ETHMOID BONE located between the eyes. These air cells form an ethmoidal labyrinth.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.

Analysis of blood flow in the long posterior ciliary artery of the cat. (1/68)

PURPOSE: Experiments were undertaken to use a new technique for direct on-line measurement of blood flow in the long posterior ciliary artery (LPCA) in cats and to evaluate possible physiological mechanisms controlling blood flow in the vascular beds perfused by this artery. METHODS: Blood flow in the temporal LPCA was measured on a continuous basis using ultrasonic flowmetry in anesthetized cats. Effects of acute sectioning of the sympathetic nerve and changes in LPCA and cerebral blood flows in response to altered levels of inspired CO2 and O2 were tested in some animals. In others, the presence of vascular autoregulatory mechanisms in response to stepwise elevations of intraocular pressure was studied. RESULTS: Blood flow in the temporal LPCA averaged 0.58+/-0.03 ml/min in 45 cats anesthetized with pentobarbital. Basal LPCA blood flow was not altered by acute sectioning of the sympathetic nerve or by changes in low levels of inspired CO2 and O2, although 10% CO2 caused a modest increase. Stepwise elevations of intraocular pressure resulted in comparable stepwise decreases of LPCA blood flow, with perfusion pressure declining in a linear manner throughout the perfusion-pressure range. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonic flowmetry seems to be a useful tool for continuous on-line measurement of LPCA blood flow in the cat eye. Blood flow to vascular beds perfused by this artery does not seem to be under sympathetic neural control and is refractory to modest alterations of blood gas levels of CO2 and O2. Blood vessels perfused by the LPCA show no clear autoregulatory mechanisms.  (+info)

Effect of Ox-LDL on endothelium-dependent response in pig ciliary artery: prevention by an ET(A) antagonist. (2/68)

PURPOSE: To investigate whether oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) affects endothelium-dependent responses in isolated porcine ciliary arteries. METHODS: In a myograph system for isometric force measurements, quiescent vessels were incubated with 50 microg/ml, 100 microg/ml, or 200 microg/ml Ox-LDL; 100 microg/ml native LDL (n-LDL); 1 microM of the ET(A)- endothelin receptor antagonist BQ 123; 100 microg/ml Ox-LDL coadministered with 1 microM BQ 123; or 100 microg/ml Ox-LDL coadministered with 50 microM of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Vessels with nonfunctional endothelium (intentionally and mechanically damaged) were also exposed to 100 microg/ml Ox-LDL. Two hours later, vessels were washed, precontracted with the thromboxane A2 analog U 46619 (approximately 0.1 microM), and exposed to bradykinin (0.1 nM to 3 microM), an endothelium-dependent relaxing agent. RESULTS: In quiescent vessels, Ox-LDL evoked delayed contractions. In contrast, no contractions were observed after exposure to n-LDL, BQ 123, Ox-LDL with BQ 123, or Ox-LDL with cycloheximide. In vessels with nonfunctional endothelium, Ox-LDL did not evoke contraction. Bradykinin-induced relaxations were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by Ox-LDL, but not by n-LDL, BQ 123 alone, Ox-LDL with BQ 123, or Ox-LDL with cycloheximide. CONCLUSIONS: In porcine ciliary arteries, Ox-LDL affects endothelium-dependent responses through the activation of ET(A)- endothelin receptors. As Ox-LDL can accumulate in atherosclerotic plaques, such a mechanism might be involved in the occlusion of the ophthalmic circulation observed in patients with hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis.  (+info)

Effect of acute intraocular pressure changes on short posterior ciliary artery haemodynamics. (3/68)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Vascular insufficiency due to abnormal autoregulation has been proposed as a major factor in the development of glaucoma. The anterior optic nerve is primarily perfused by the short posterior ciliary arteries. The autoregulatory capacity of these vessels in response to acutely elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) was examined in normal human subjects. METHODS: Colour Doppler imaging was performed on the short posterior ciliary arteries of 10 normal subjects at baseline and during four incremental IOP elevations. Using a scleral suction cup placed temporally, IOP was elevated to approximately 25, 30, 40, and 50 mm Hg. Additional measurements were performed immediately after pressure release. Systolic and diastolic flow velocities were measured and Pourcelot's resistivity index was calculated. RESULTS: Systolic and diastolic flow velocities decreased linearly with each incremental increase in IOP (p < 0.001). Pourcelot's resistivity index increased linearly with each incremental increase in IOP (p < 0.001). Changes in end diastolic velocity, peak systolic velocity, and Pourcelot's resistivity index were linearly related to changes in IOP. CONCLUSION: The normal healthy eye is not able to autoregulate to maintain PCA blood flow velocities in response to acute large elevations in IOP.  (+info)

Morphological variations of the peripapillary circle of Zinn-Haller by flat section. (4/68)

AIMS: To evaluate the morphometric and morphological variations of the circle of Zinn-Haller (CZH) in the human eye. METHODS: 42 human enucleated eyes were used in this study. After transverse flat thick sections were cut through the optic nerve and adjacent sclera, tissue sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin or examined immediately by wet preparation under a light microscope. The average vessel diameter of the arterial circle and the average distance between the optic nerve head (ONH) and the arterial circle were determined. Various branching patterns of the CZH were also evaluated. RESULTS: The vessel diameter of the arterial circle was 123 (SD 75) microm (range 20-230 microm). The distance of the CZH from the ONH margin was 403 (352) microm (0-1050 microm). The CZH gave off branches to the optic nerve and to the peripapillary choroid (PPC) with various branching patterns especially at the entry point of paraoptic short posterior ciliary artery. CONCLUSIONS: The CZH exists within a variable distance from the ONH and its average diameter is similar to that of the central retinal vessels though it shows marked variation even in the same circle. The CZH also shows variable configurations in branching patterns. These variations may act as contributing factors that are responsible for the individual susceptibility of the anterior optic nerve and the PPC to circulatory disturbances.  (+info)

Microvasculature of the rat optic nerve head. (5/68)

PURPOSE: To describe the arterial blood supply, capillary bed, and venous drainage of the rat optic nerve head. METHODS: Ocular microvascular castings from 6 Wistar rats were prepared by injection of epoxy resin through the common carotid arteries. After polymerization, tissues were digested with 6 M KOH, and the castings washed, dried, and coated for scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Immediately posterior to the globe, the ophthalmic artery trifurcates into the central retinal artery and two posterior ciliary arteries. The central retinal artery directly provides capillaries to the nerve fiber layer and only contributes to capillary beds in the neck of the nerve head. The remainder is supplied by branches of the posterior ciliary arteries that are analogous to the primate circle of Zinn-Haller. Arterioles arising from these branches supply the capillaries of the transitional, or laminar, region of the optic nerve head. These capillaries are continuous with those of the neck and retrobulbar optic nerve head. All optic nerve head capillaries drain into the central retinal vein and veins of the optic nerve sheath. A flat choroidal sinus communicates with the central retinal vein, the choriocapillaris, and with large veins of the optic nerve sheath. CONCLUSIONS: The microvasculature of the rat optic nerve head bears several similarities to that of the primate, with a centripetal blood supply from posterior ciliary arteries and drainage into the central retinal and optic nerve sheath veins. Association of nerve sheath veins with the choroid represents an important difference from the primate.  (+info)

Neurogenic vasoconstriction as affected by cholinergic and nitroxidergic nerves in dog ciliary and ophthalmic arteries. (6/68)

PURPOSE: To determine the involvement of noradrenergic and other vasoconstrictor nerves in the contraction of ocular arteries and the modification by cholinergic and nitroxidergic nerves of vasoconstrictor nerve function. METHODS: Changes in isometric tension were recorded in helical strips of the canine posterior ciliary and external ophthalmic arteries denuded of the endothelium, which were stimulated by transmurally applied electrical pulses (5 Hz). Vasoconstrictor mediators were analyzed by pharmacological antagonists, such as prazosin, alpha,beta-methylene ATP, a P2alpha-purinoceptor antagonist, and BIBP3226, a neuropeptide Y receptor antagonist. RESULTS: Transmural electrical stimulation produced contractions that were potentiated by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor. The contraction was partially inhibited by prazosin and abolished by combined treatment with alpha,beta-methylene ATP but was not influenced by BIBP3226. Stimulation-induced contraction was attenuated by physostigmine and potentiated by atropine. Contractions induced by exogenous ATP were reversed to relaxations by alpha,beta-methylene ATP. In the strips treated with L-NA, prazosin, and alpha,beta-methylene ATP, the addition of L-arginine elicited relaxations by nerve stimulation. The ATP-induced relaxation was attenuated by aminophylline, whereas neurogenic relaxation was unaffected. CONCLUSIONS: Ciliary and ophthalmic arterial contractions by nerve stimulation are mediated by norepinephrine and ATP, which stimulate alpha1-adrenoceptor and P2X purinoceptor, respectively. ATP from the nerve is unlikely involved in vasodilatation. Acetylcholine derived from the nerve impairs the neurogenic contraction, possibly by interfering with the release of vasoconstrictor transmitters, and neurogenic NO also inhibits the contraction postjunctionally by physiological antagonism.  (+info)

Specialised sympathetic neuroeffector associations in immature rat iris arterioles. (7/68)

Sympathetic nerve-mediated vasoconstriction in iris arterioles of mature rats occurs via the activation of alpha(1B)-adrenoceptors alone, while in immature rat iris arterioles, vasoconstriction occurs via activation of both alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptors. In mature rats the vast majority of sympathetic varicosities form close neuroeffector junctions. Serial section electron microscopy of 14 d iris arterioles has been used to determine whether restriction in physiological receptor types with age may result from the establishment of these close neuroeffector junctions. Ninety varicosities which lay within 4 microm of arteriolar smooth muscle were followed for their entire length. Varicosities rarely contained dense cored vesicles even after treatment with 5-hydroxydopamine. 47 % of varicosities formed close associations with muscle cells and 88 % formed close associations with muscle cells or melanocytes. Varicosities in bundles were as likely as single varicosities to form close associations with vascular smooth muscle cells, although the distribution of synaptic vesicles in single varicosities did not show the asymmetric accumulation towards the smooth muscle cells seen in the varicosities in bundles which were frequently clustered together. We conclude that restriction of physiological receptor types during development does not appear to correlate with the establishment of close neuroeffector junctions, although changes in presynaptic structures may contribute to the refinement of postsynaptic responses.  (+info)

Optic nerve and peripapillary choroidal microvasculature of the rat eye. (8/68)

PURPOSE: To investigate the three-dimensional microvascular anatomy of the optic nerve and peripapillary choroid in the rat eye. METHODS: Gross vascular anatomy of the posterior eye segment of Wistar rats was studied in serial microsections with a light microscope. The optic nerve and peripapillary choroidal vessels were sequentially microdissected, using methylmethacrylate corrosion microvascular castings, and were examined with a scanning electron microscope to determine the three-dimensional relationships of the vessels. RESULTS: The posterior ciliary artery traveled along the inferior side of the optic nerve sheath, directly entered the optic nerve head, and divided into three branches: the central retinal artery and medial and lateral long posterior ciliary arteries, which provided several short branches to the choroid. The optic nerve head vasculature was consistently nourished by a recurrent arteriole from the central retinal artery and an arteriole from the choroidal artery at the peripapillary choroid. The central retinal vein flowed into a venous anastomosis along the optic disc border of the peripapillary choroid. Capillaries within the optic nerve drained into the central retinal vein, the marginal venous anastomosis of the peripapillary choroid, and the pial veins, all of which flowed into the posterior ciliary veins along the optic nerve sheath. CONCLUSIONS: The findings illustrate vascular anatomic differences in optic nerve and peripapillary choroidal microcirculation between rat and human. In rats, the peripapillary choroid plays a significant role in both blood supply and venous drainage of the optic nerve head. The central retinal artery also contributes to the optic nerve head circulation.  (+info)

*Ciliary arteries

The short posterior ciliary arteries from six to twelve in number, arise from the ophthalmic as it crosses the optic nerve. The ... The anterior ciliary arteries are derived from the muscular branches of the ophthalmic artery. The ophthalmic artery and its ... The ciliary arteries are divisible into three groups, the long posterior, short posterior, and the anterior. ... long posterior ciliary arteries, two for each eye, pierce the posterior part of the sclera at some little distance from the ...

*Anterior ciliary arteries

The anterior ciliary arteries are seven small arteries in each eye-socket that supply the conjunctiva, sclera and the rectus ... The anterior ciliary arteries are branches of the ophthalmic artery and run to the front of the eyeball in company with the ... Three of the four rectus muscles; the superior, inferior and medial, are supplied by two ciliary arteries each, while the ...

*Long posterior ciliary arteries

The long posterior ciliary arteries are arteries of the head arising, together with the other ciliary arteries, from the ... The long posterior ciliary arteries supply the iris, ciliary body and choroid. Short posterior ciliary arteries This article ... to the ciliary muscle, where they divide into two branches. These form an arterial circle, the circulus arteriosus major, ...

*Short posterior ciliary arteries

... and ciliary processes. Some branches of the short posterior ciliary arteries also supply the optic disc via an anastomotic ring ... The short posterior ciliary arteries from six to twelve in number, arise from the ophthalmic artery as it crosses the optic ... Long posterior ciliary arteries This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy ( ...

*Posterior ischemic optic neuropathy

The anterior optic nerve receives blood primarily from the posterior ciliary arteries. The anterior optic nerve, a.k.a. the ... When T-cells damage arteries supplying the optic nerve, a blood clot forms and stops blood flow. When blood flow stops, oxygen ...

*Eye surgery

A cycloanemization is a surgical obliteration of the long ciliary arteries in the treatment of glaucoma. An ... A cyclectomy is an excision of portion of the ciliary body. A cyclotomy, or cyclicotomy, is a surgical incision of the ciliary ... A ciliectomy is 1) the surgical removal of part of the ciliary body, or 2) the surgical removal of part of a margin of an ... A corectomedialysis, or coretomedialysis, is an excision of a small portion of the iris at its junction with the ciliary body ...

*Extraocular muscles

Additional branches of the ophthalmic artery include the ciliary arteries, which branch into the anterior ciliary arteries. ... Each rectus muscle receives blood from two anterior ciliary arteries, except for the lateral rectus muscle, which receives ... The exact number and arrangement of these cilary arteries may vary. Branches of the infraorbital artery supply the inferior ...

*Toxocariasis

Larvae are thought to enter the eye through the optic nerve, central retinal artery, short posterior ciliary arteries, soft ...

*Ophthalmic artery

Long posterior ciliary arteries Short posterior ciliary arteries Anterior ciliary artery Central retinal artery Superior ... anatomists made little distinction between the posterior ciliary arteries and the short and long posterior ciliary arteries ... The OA then turns medially giving off 1 to 5 posterior ciliary arteries (PCA) that subsequently branch into the long and short ... The PCAs arise directly from the OA and are end arteries which is to say no PCA or any of its branches anastomose with any ...

*Choroid

... supplied in humans by posterior ciliary arteries, originating from the ophthalmic artery. The arteries of the uveal circulation ... Along with the ciliary body and iris, the choroid forms the uveal tract. The structure of the choroid is generally divided into ...

*Central retinal artery

However it should be remembered that the Cilio retinal artery itself is a branch of the Short Posterior Ciliary Arteries which ... In some cases - approximately 20% of the population - there is a branch of the ciliary circulation called the cilio-retinal ... it is the continuation of the long ciliary artery.[citation needed] Horizontal section of the eyeball. The terminal portion of ...

*Amaurosis fugax

... and/or ciliary arteries, causing decreased blood flow to the ipsilateral retina; examples being those arising due to (1) atrial ... or ciliary arteries may cause this transient monocular blindness. Atherosclerotic carotid artery: Amaurosis fugax may present ... Giant cell arteritis can result in granulomatous inflammation within the central retinal artery and posterior ciliary arteries ... or ciliary artery blood flow, leading to a decrease in retinal circulation which, in turn, causes retinal hypoxia. While, most ...

*Circulus arteriosus

... may refer to Circulus arteriosus major, an anastomosis of the anterior ciliary arteries Circulus arteriosus ...

*Circulus arteriosus major

... is formed by anastomosis of the anterior ciliary arteries with the Long posterior ciliary arteries at the ciliary body. It ... supplies the iris, ciliary body and choroid. The veinous drainage of CIA is : 4 vortex veins that drain into the ophthalmic ...

*Index of anatomy articles

... tympani Chorionic villi choroid choroid plexus chyle ciliary arteries ciliary body ciliary ganglion ciliary muscle ciliary ... lateral rectus muscle lateral sclerosis lateral semicircular canal lateral spinothalamic tract lateral striate arteries lateral ... tract lissencephalic list of human anatomical features Little's area liver lobule locus coeruleus loin long bone long ciliary ... septum primum septum secundum serous serous membrane serous pericardium sesamoid bone sex organ Sharpey's fibres short ciliary ...

*Cherry-red spot

... supplied by the posterior ciliary arteries, while the surrounding retina is pale due to retinal artery infarction. It is also ...

*Tocopherol

... decreases in the resistivity index in the posterior ciliary arteries and in the pulsatility index in the ophthalmic arteries ... promotes blockages in coronary arteries that may lead to atherosclerosis and heart attacks.[citation needed] Vitamin E may help ...

*Arterial tree

... ciliary arteries Circulus arteriosus major Circulus arteriosus minor Short posterior ciliary arteries Anterior ciliary artery ... bronchial arteries esophageal arteries mediastinal branches Lower 9(3rd to 11th) posterior intercostal arteries subcostal ... In anatomy, arterial tree is used to refer to all arteries and/or the branching pattern of the arteries. This article regards ... arteries superior phrenic arteries left gastric artery hepatic branch oesophageal branch common hepatic artery proper hepatic ...

*Outline of human anatomy

Ophthalmic artery Central retinal artery Lacrimal artery Short posterior ciliary arteries Long posterior ciliary arteries Supra ... Eyeball Fibrous layer of eyeball Sclera Cornea Vascular layer of eyeball Choroid Ciliary body Ciliary processes Ciliary muscle ... Thoracic aorta Posterior intercostal arteries Subcostal artery Abdominal aorta Inferior phrenic artery Lumbar arteries Median ... Parasympathetic part Cranial part Ciliary ganglion Short ciliary nerves Pterygopalatine ganglion Nerve of pterygoid canal ...

*List of MeSH codes (A07)

... temporal arteries MeSH A07.231.114.248 --- ciliary arteries MeSH A07.231.114.269 --- coronary vessels MeSH A07.231.114.330 --- ... thoracic arteries MeSH A07.231.114.891.525 --- mammary arteries MeSH A07.231.114.895 --- tibial arteries MeSH A07.231.114.920 ... bronchial arteries MeSH A07.231.114.186 --- carotid arteries MeSH A07.231.114.186.200 --- carotid artery, common MeSH A07.231. ... meningeal arteries MeSH A07.231.114.565 --- mesenteric arteries MeSH A07.231.114.565.510 --- mesenteric artery, inferior MeSH ...

*Short ciliary nerves

They run forward with the ciliary arteries in a wavy course, one set above and the other below the optic nerve, and are ... Sympathetic connections of the ciliary and superior cervical ganglia. Pathways in the Ciliary Ganglion. Long ciliary nerves ... the postganglionic parasympathetics leave the ciliary ganglion in the short ciliary nerve and supply the ciliary body and iris ... The branches of the ciliary ganglion are the short ciliary nerves. These are delicate filaments, from six to ten in number, ...

*Ciliary muscle

... namely the ciliary body and annular suspension of the lens of the eye. The arteries of the choroid and iris. The greater part ... The ciliary muscle receives parasympathetic fibers from the short ciliary nerves that arise from the ciliary ganglion. These ... and travel through the ciliary ganglion. Parasympathetic activation of the M3 muscarinic receptors causes ciliary muscle ... The word ciliary had its origins around 1685-1695. The term cilia originated a few years later in 1705-1715, and is the Neo- ...

*Exhaled nitric oxide

In the latter condition, inhaled NO is used as a diagnostic test of the response of the pulmonary arteries to vasodilators ( ... Low levels have been found in primary ciliary dyskinesia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. ... In 1987, experiments with coronary arteries showed that nitric oxide was the long sought endothelium-derived relaxing factor. ...

*Prostaglandin EP4 receptor

... and FP receptors in human ciliary epithelial and ciliary muscle cells". Biochemical Pharmacology. 53 (9): 1249-55. doi:10.1016/ ... kidney glomeruli and Tunica media of kidney arteries; corpus cavernosum of the penis; carotid artery atherosclerotic plaques; ... Abdominal aorta aneurysms; corneal endothelium, corneal keratocytes, trabecular cells, ciliary epithelium, conjunctival stromal ... analogs are used to keep the ductus open in neonates with congenital heart defects such as Transposition of the great arteries ...

*Optic neuropathy

The anterior optic nerve is supplied by the short posterior ciliary artery and choroidal circulation, while the retrobulbar ... and anterior communicating arteries. Ischemic optic neuropathies are classified based on the location of the damage and the ...

*List of diseases (C)

... due to random ciliary orientation Ciliary dyskinesia, due to transposition of ciliary microtubules Ciliary dyskinesia- ... syndrome Corneodermatoosseous syndrome Coronal synostosis syndactyly jejunal atresia Coronaro-cardiac fistula Coronary arteries ... Chudley-Mccullough syndrome Churg-Strauss syndrome Chylous ascites Cicatricial pemphigoid Ciguatera fish poisoning Ciliary ...
Purpose: : To evaluate the influence of a cilioretinal artery on the visual acuity in elderly individuals. Methods: : A representative and randomly selected sample of persons from the Østerbro population was included: 827 individuals aged 60-80 years were assessed for a cilioretinal artery using colour fundus photographs. Visual acuity in eyes of individuals with an identified unilateral cilioretinal artery was compared to the contralateral eye and subsequently stratified and analyzed concerning age and macular pathology. Results: : 209 (25.3%) individuals had a unilateral cilioretinal artery, 54 (6.5%) had bilateral cilioretinal arteries. The fraction of eyes with the cilioretinal artery was not influenced by age or sex. Age stratification revealed that the younger and older individuals (60-66 and 74-80 years, respectively) had the same visual acuity in eyes with and without a cilioretinal artery. Individuals aged 67-73 years had a significantly reduced visual acuity in eyes with a ...
Short posterior ciliary arteries aka Arteriae ciliares posteriores breves in the latin terminology and part of arteries and veins of the eye. Learn more now!
Methods In this observational study, 103 patients with OAG were examined at baseline and 18 months follow-up. Retrobulbar blood flow was measured by colour Doppler imaging in the ophthalmic, central retinal and temporal posterior ciliary artery (TPCA) and nasal short posterior ciliary artery. Retinal capillary blood flow was measured by confocal scanning laser Doppler. Peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness was assessed by optical coherence tomography. Non-parametric Wilcoxon signed ranks tests were used to assess for any statistically significant changes between the baseline and 18-month visits for the retrobulbar and retinal flow, as well as the structural parameters.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Visual function, optic nerve structure, and ocular blood flow parameters after 1 year of glaucoma treatment ith fixed combinations. AU - Januleviciene, Ingrida. AU - Ehrlich, Rita. AU - Siesky, Brent. AU - Nedzelskiené, Irena. AU - Harris, Alon. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Purpose. To compare the effects of latanoprost/timolol (LTFC) versus dorzolamide/timolol (DTFC) fixed combinations on intraocular pressure (IOP), visual function, and retrobulbar blood flow in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Methods. This was a prospective, randomized, double masked, parallel study on 30 patients with OAG. All patients received 4 weeks of timolol treatment prior to randomization to LTFC or DTFC treatment. Measurements after randomization were taken at 1, 6, and 12 months, including arterial blood pressure; IOP; color Doppler imaging of the ophthalmic artery (OA), central retinal artery, and short posterior ciliary artery (SPCA); scanning laser polarimetry; Humphrey visual field ...
Methylmethacrylate lumenal castings of the ciliary body microvasculature were prepared from eight mammalian species and studied with the scanning electron microscope. In all of these species, the ciliary body is supplied by the major arterial circle, which originates solely from the long posterior ciliary arteries without contribution from the anterior ciliary circulation. In contrast to primates and rabbits, the ciliary processes of the eight species we studied are supplied by only one type of arteriole, which travels posteriorly from the major arterial circle to the iris root, where it gives rise to ciliary process arterioles. Using precise microdissection techniques, we found marked interspecies variations in ciliary process angioarchitecture among the mammalian eyes examined. Rodents (rat and guinea pig) demonstrated several interesting similarities to primates, with extensive interprocess connections and irregularly dilated, concentrically parallel capillaries traveling posteriorly to empty ...
Background: Spinal fractures related to AS are often treated by long posterior stabilisation. The biomechanical rationale behind is the neutralisation of long lever arms in the ankylosed spine to avoid non-union or neurological deterioration. Despite the widespread application of long posterior instrumentation it has never been investigated in a biomechanical model. The objective of this study is to develop a finite element model for spinal fractures related to AS and to establish a biomechanical foundation for long posterior stabilisation of cervicothoracic fractures related to ankylosing spondylitis (AS).. Methods: An existing finite element-model (consisting of two separately developed models) including the cervical and thoracic spine were adapted to the conditions of AS (all discs fused, C0-C1 and C1-C2 mobile) and a fracture at the level C6-C7 was simulated. Besides a normal spine (no AS, no fracture) and the uninstrumented fractured spine four different posterior transpedicular ...
Thromboxane A2 (TxA2) receptors in human eye sections were identified and localised using a potent TxA2 specific agonist, 125-iodinated 5-heptenoic acid 7-[3-[3-hydroxy-4-[4-(iodo-125I) phenoxy]-1-butenyl]-7- oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl]-,[1S-[1a,2a,(Z),3B(1E,3S*),4a]]-C23 H29 IO5 (125I-BOP) in a binding assay. TxA2 receptors were concentrated in several specific loci within ocular tissues, including the corneal epithelium, the ciliary processes, retina, and posterior ciliary arteries. In addition, we have used the method of in situ hybridisation to observe the distribution of TxA2 receptor mRNA. The distributions of both receptor binding sites and receptor mRNAs showed a close correlation. These studies employed film autoradiography which does not permit cellular resolution. In order to obtain enhanced cellular resolution and more detailed information about the localisation of the receptors and their corresponding mRNAs, emulsion autoradiography was used after ligand binding and in situ ...
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D VIII - I, 21 - 24; A II - I, 18 - 20; GR 9 - 11 + 22 - 26 = 32 - 37. Body elongated, compressed, somewhat slender; dorsal and ventral profiles almost equally convex. Small conical teeth irregularly arranged in a row on both jaws; vomerine tooth patch arrowhead-shaped with a long posterior extension. Breast usually scaled completely; straight part of lateral line with 4 - 12 scales followed by 23 - 34 scutes. Color: body silvery blue-gray dorsally, silvery white ventrally; tip of anterior rays of second dorsal fin jet-black distally with white margin; caudal fin yellow. Size: maximum length about 22 cm. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific, from Persian Gulf to Philippines and Indonesia. Remarks: occurring in coastal waters ...
Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is the most common acute optic neuropathy in people older than 50 years. It is characterized by sudden partial loss of vision in one eye and has an increased risk of vision loss in the fellow eye. Although cause has not been determined, NAION is thought to occur following an idiopathic ischemic event involving the short posterior ciliary arteries that supply blood to the most anterior part of the optic nerve. A complete loss of vision is rare, but partial loss of visual field or acuity can result from NAION in the affected eye(s).. Patients who have a disc at risk or crowded disc (small cup: disc ratio) are at increased risk for developing NAION. Other risk factors for NAION include age , 50 years and white race (estimated 95% of cases). Hypertension and diabetes also predispose to NAION development. Other factors that have been associated with NAION include high cholesterol, arteriosclerosis, stroke, cardiac and intraocular surgery, ...
Definition of anterior ciliary arteries. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
BACKGROUND: Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (N-AION) is caused by acute ischemic infarction of the optic nerve head, supplied by the posterior ciliary arteries. Thrombophilia is the tendency/predisposition to vascular thromboses of a
Looking for online definition of LPCA or what LPCA stands for? LPCA is listed in the Worlds largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms
68-year-old woman noticed central vision loss in the right eye about a week ago. It is getting a little bit better. OD 20/160, OS 20/25 ...
68-year-old woman noticed central vision loss in the right eye about a week ago. It is getting a little bit better. OD 20/160, OS 20/25 ...
4İnönü Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Pediatri A.D., Malatya, Doç. Dr. In our study, we aim to present an interesting case who developed central retinal artery occlusion with preserved central vision because of the presence of cilioretinal artery. A 17-year-old man appealed to our clinic with the complaint of visual loss in the right eye (seeing only the center where the eyes stare at, but not surroundings) suddenly begun 3 months ago. On the examination, visual acuity of the right eye was 10/10, anterior segment examination was normal. On fundus examination, optic nerve head pallor was observed. The examination of the left eye was normal. The computerized visual field revealed concentric narrowing of visual field in the right eye. Since neurologic examination and VEP examination were normal, we carefully reexamined the fundus, and recognized the presence of cilioretinal artery in the right eye. Given these findings, the diagnosis of the previous occlusion of central retinal artery in the ...
GCA causes vasculitis characterized by granulomatous inflammation in the wall of medium-size and large arteries and preferentially affects extracranial branches of the carotid artery1. Occlusion of the posterior ciliary arteries leading to anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is the most frequent complication, but cerebral arteries can also be involved, leading to cerebral infarction. Nesher, et al2 reported cranial ischemic complications (including visual loss and stroke) in 25% of a group of patients with GCA, but Wiszniewska, et al3 found only 0.15% of stroke in a population of 4086 patients with GCA. Vertebral arteries are more likely affected than internal carotid arteries, especially in the extradural portion, where there is more elastic tissue4. Our patients cerebral angiography showed multiple stenosis of this portion of the right vertebral artery, but the intracranial portion and the basilar artery were of normal diameter without stenosis (Figure 1B). Involvement of intracranial arteries ...
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A central retinal artery occlusion is caused by arteriosclerosis, small emboli from cardiac arhythmias, temporal arteritis, and many other causes. The central vision can sometimes be maintained if there is an anomylous cilio-retinal artery, otherwise there is profound sudden loss of vision which is often unreversible unless treated within a short period of time ...
Prior to pigment spot formation, there is no distinctive cell population found specifically at the future position of the posterior ciliated cells (Figure8A). By spot stage, cells just anteriolateral to the pigment spot are distinguished from the surrounding epithelial cells due to their columnar morphology and alignment (Figure8A), coincident with the spatial expression of AmqNotch and AmqDelta4 at this stage (Figures 5B and7B). In late ring embryos, these cells have further elongated internally, and are polarized; nuclei are basal, cilia are apical and the cells are in small clusters (Figure8A"). The expression of AmqNotch and AmqDelta4 is now also seen in a narrower domain that lies just below the surface of the embryo (Figures 5D,D and 7E). The larval expression of AmqDelta4 remains in the region under the pigment ring, the presumptive location of the nuclei of the cells bearing the long posterior cilia (Figure5E).. At the anterior pole of the A. queenslandica larva is a cluster of ...
Information about the open-access article Retrobulbar blood flow and visual organ function disturbance in the course of giant cell arteritis coexisting with optic disc drusen - a case report in DOAJ. DOAJ is an online directory that indexes and provides access to quality open access, peer-reviewed journals.
In HIRUDINARIA the excretory system includes 17 pairs of Nephridia. They are arranged in 6th to 22nd segments, one pair in each segment. In these 17 pairs the first six pairs will not show contact with testis. They are called pre-testicular nephridia. The next 11 pairs of nephridia will show contact with testis, hence they are called testicular nephridia.. Structure of Testicular Nephridium: Each nephridium contains six regions. 1) Main lobe 2) Vesicle 3) Apical lobe 4) Inner lobe 5) Initial lobe 6) Ciliated organ. 1) Main lobe: It is the bigger part of the nephridium. It is present in between two adjacent crop caecae. It has short posterior and long anterior limbs. They are free in the median axis. They are used externally. It looks like a horse shoe. 2) Vesicle : It is a thin walled large chamber. It shows inner ciliated epithelium. It is present behind the main lobe. It gets a vesicle duct from the ventral end of the anterior limb of the main lobe. This vesicle takes up storage of excretory ...
SUMMARY: We report 11 patients who were referred to our institution for severe open-angle glaucoma who had a paraoptic cyst on MR imaging. All cysts were extraoptic and retrolaminar; most were deforming the adjacent optic nerve. Cysts had a high signal on T2 and FLAIR sequences, and a variable signal on T1 and variable echogenicity, suggesting different proteinaceous content. Arterial vascularization of the optic nerve was normal. Cyst volumes were inversely correlated with the severity of glaucoma on the same eye (P , .01-.05, Spearman correlation coefficient). We hypothesized that such cysts may reflect a valve mechanism, which would allow preservation of the translamina cribrosa pressure and thus could preserve visual function. The rarity of this association, together with the frequent mass effect of the cyst on the optic nerve, stresses the necessity of long-term follow-up in these patients.. ...
Non-arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (NAION or NAAION) is a condition that occurs when blood flow to the optic nerve is blocked. Non-arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy, sometimes called eye stroke, is characterized by rapid vision loss or blindness that may occur over minutes, hours, or sometimes days.
Central retinal artery occlusion is a relatively rare emergent condition of the eye resulting in sudden painless vision loss. This vision loss is usually dramatic and permanent and the prognosis is poor. Patients particularly at risk include those with giant cell arteritis, atherosclerosis, and thromboembolic disease, a wide variety of treatment modalities have been tried over the last one hundred years with little to no success, with the exception of hyperbaric oxygen therapy.. The arterial blood supply to the eye is provided by the ophthalmic artery, one of the branches of cavernous portion of the internal carotid artery. Some of the branches of the ophthalmic artery (lacrimal, supraorbital, ethmoidals, medial palpebral, frontal, dorsal nasal) supply orbital structures, while others (central artery of the retina, short and long posterior ciliaries, anterior ciliaries) supply the tissues of the globe. The central retinal artery enters the globe within the substance of the optic nerve and serves ...
Abstract Background  We aim to study the circulatory parameters in the retrobulbar central retinal artery and vein in diabetic patients with and without medically treated systemic hypertension. Methods  The study included 108 patients with diabetes that were allocated in four different groups according to the presence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and hypertension: group 1â€"patients without DR and without hypertension (n = 23), group 2â€"patients without DR and with hypertension (n = 21), group 3â€"patients with nonproliferative DR and without hypertension (n = 36), group 4â€"patients with nonproliferative DR and with hypertension (n = 28). The circulatory parameters that were evaluated were: peak systolic blood velocity (PSV), end-diastolic blood velocity (EDV), maximum venous velocity (Vmax), minimum venous velocity (Vmin) and the Pourcelot index which were measured using color Doppler imaging. Non-parametric tests ...
A doctor may also order a test of your bloods sedimentation rate, and a temporal artery biopsy may be useful if giant cell arteritis is suspected.. Vision loss with CRAO is usually severe. However, CRAOs in patients who have a cilioretinal artery have better visual prognosis, usually recovering to 20/50 vision or better in over 80% of eyes. Visual field loss in BRAO is usually permanent, but central visual acuity may recover to 20/40 or better in 80% of eyes.. Formation of new blood vessels of the retina or iris that are prone to bleed is a rare complication seen after a CRAO or BRAO. Growth of these vessels can further decrease vision by causing vitreous hemorrhage and glaucoma. If this happens, laser photocoagulation therapy is used to create burns in the area of the blocked artery to try to lower the oxygen demand of the retina and thus stop the abnormal blood vessels from growing.. Intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF medications such as Avastin® (bevacizumab), Lucentis® (ranibizumab) or ...
What is Central Retinal Artery Occlusion?. The central retinal artery branches off the ophthalmic artery which in turn branches off the internal carotid artery. The central retinal artery is vital because it supplies blood to the inner two-thirds of the retina. . If the central retinal artery becomes occluded, there will be a sudden painless loss of vision in that eye.. Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is generally due to an embolism including platelet-fibrin, cholesterol, or calcium plaque. The emboli break off vessel walls ...
Introduction: The venturi effect, flow drag effect and abnormal mitral valve apparatus have all been implicated in the development of systolic anterior motion (SAM) of mitral valve among HCM patients. Nevertheless, SAM has also been shown to occur in the absence of HCM or abnormal mitral apparatus. A long posterior mitral leaflet (PML) in relation to the LV cavity may move the coaptation point of the leaflets anteriorly during systole, thus exposing the PML/AML to the flow drag effect of the ejecting blood.. Hypothesis: We hypothesize that a simple mismatch between PML length and LV cavity i.e. a high PML/LV internal diameter in systole (LVIDS) ratio is an important factor for SAM of mitral valve to occur in HCM patient. The null hypothesis is there was no difference in the PML/LVIDS ratio among HCM patients, with or without SAM.. Methods: Consecutive 74 patients who were diagnosed to have HCM with asymmetrical septal hypertrophy(ASH) from our echocardiography laboratories from November 2007 ...
Sympathetic innervation to the eye consists of a three neuron arc. The first neuron originates in the hypothalamus. It descends and travels between the levels of the eighth cervical and forth thoracic vertebrae (C8-T4) of the spinal cord. There, it synapses with second order neurons whose preganglionic cell bodies give rise to axons. These axons pass over the apex of the lung and enter the sympathetic chain in the neck, synapsing in the superior cervical ganglion. Here, cell bodies of third order neurons give rise to postganglionic axons that course to the eye via the cavernous sinus. These sympathetic nerve fibers course anteriorly through the uveal tract and join the fibers of long posterior ciliary nerves to innervate the dilator of the iris. Postganglionic sympathetic fibers also innervate the muscle of Mueller within the eyelid, which is responsible for the initiation of eyelid retraction during eyelid opening. Postganglionic sympathetic fibers, responsible for facial sweating, follow the ...
Lack of available treatment for patients with NAION is a source of discomfort for the neuroophthalmologist. Various agents and procedures for NAION treatment have been suggested, but most without encouraging results.. The idea of treating NAION with corticosteroids is that relieving the pressure on the axons during the acute phase (when the optic disc is edematous) may prevent further damage to the optic nerve. Therefore, in most studies corticosteroids were administered in the acute phase, which is believed to be within the first 2 weeks [19]. This therapeutic window is also supported by animal models [25] as well as the common clinical experience of general progression in visual loss during this period, with stabilization thereafter [3]. For this reason the IONDT [4] also allowed a 2-week therapeutic window for the decompression to be made (for regular-entry patients). In our study all patients also received treatment within 2 weeks of onset.. The largest series to date reporting ...
Kayser, S., Vargas, P., Mendelsohn, D., Han, J., Bi, H., Benavente, A., & Bittner, A. K. (2017). Reduced Central Retinal Artery Blood Flow Is Related to Impaired Central Visual Function in Retinitis Pigmentosa Patients. Current Eye Research, 42(11), 1503-1510.. ...
Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is a disease of the eye where the flow of blood through the central retinal artery is blocked (occluded). There are several different causes of this occlusion; the most common is carotid artery atherosclerosis. Central retinal artery occlusions cause sudden, acute, and painless loss of vision in one eye. Fundoscopic exam will show a red lesion, called a "cherry red spot," with surrounding pale retina (the pale color is caused by ischemia of the retina). The most common cause for CRAO is carotid artery atherosclerosis. In patients of 70 years of age and older, giant cell arteritis is more likely to be the cause than in younger patients. Other causes can include dissecting aneurysms and arterial spasms. The ophthalmic artery branches off into the central retinal artery which travels with the optic nerve until it enters the eye. This central retinal artery provides nutrients to the retina of the eye, more specifically the inner retina and the surface of the ...
Sudden vision loss in one or both eyes can be a sign of a serious eye problem called non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION)? Snakk med lege eller apotek hvis du tar for mye Valtrex! 30 A course of oral azithromycin after completing intravenous azithromycin and ceftriaxone (Rocephin) is effective and well-tolerated! [22] [23] Η δράση των αντιβιοτικών μπορεί να εξαρτάται από τη συγκέντρωση αυτών στούς ιστούς και η χαρακτηριστική αντιμικροβιακή δράση αυξάνει προοδευτικά με τον υψηλότερο επίπεδο συγκεντρώσεων του αντιβιοτικού στον ιστό [24] Μπορούν επίσης η δράση του αντιβιοτικού να είναι χρονικά εξαρτώμενη, και να μήν εξαρτάται από την αύξηση της συγκεντρώσεως του αντιβιοτικού. There ...
Prediction of sudden cardiac death fter myocardial infarction in the beta-blocking a,a. Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy the impact propraolol tobacco use.
Medline Industries, Inc. All rights reserved. Advancing the Health of Healthcare is a trademark and Medline is a registered trademark of Medline Industries, Inc ...
Define resistivity. resistivity synonyms, resistivity pronunciation, resistivity translation, English dictionary definition of resistivity. n. pl. re·sis·tiv·i·ties 1. The capacity for or tendency toward resistance. 2. Electricity An intrinsic property of a material that is measured as its...
Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion which is caused by the obstruction of the central retinal artery is a rare disease seen among one in 50,000 people.
0200]Further, according to the above-described exemplary embodiments, the above-described method of evaluating a belt member is used to determine a specification of the intermediate transfer belt 201 serving as an endless belt member having a multi layer structure with a high-resistance surface layer. The method uses the difference between the amounts of resistivity change of the outer and inner surfaces and the volume resistivity of the intermediate transfer belt 201 to evaluate the intermediate transfer belt 201, where the amount of resistivity change of the outer surface indicates a difference between a surface resistivity value measured after a given voltage is applied for 1 second and a surface resistivity value measured after a given voltage is applied for 100 seconds on the outer surface of the endless intermediate transfer belt 201, and the amount of resistivity change of the inner surface indicates a difference between a surface resistivity value measured after a given voltage is ...

Anterior ciliary arteries definition | Drugs.comAnterior ciliary arteries definition | Drugs.com

Definition of anterior ciliary arteries. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... anterior ciliary arteries. Definition: one of several arteries derived from muscular branches of the ophthalmic arteries that ... perforate the anterior part of the sclera and anastomose with posterior ciliary arteries and contribute to the greater arterial ... circle of the iris, supplying the anterior vascular layer of the eyeball: iris, ciliary body, and anterior choroid. ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/anterior-ciliary-arteries.html

Ciliary Arteries | Technology TrendsCiliary Arteries | Technology Trends

... ciliary arteries, arteries, ciliary:. Long Posterior Ciliary Arteries. ... The long posterior ciliary arteries are arteries of ... Ciliary Arteries. The ciliary arteries are divisible into three groups, the long posterior, short posterior, and the anterior. ... Additional branches of the ophthalmic artery include the ciliary arteries, which branch into the anterior ciliary arteries ... ... Ciliary Arteries - Additional Images. ... List of arteries of head and neck (TA A12.2.05-08, GA 6.549) CC EC sup ... ...
more infohttp://www.primidi.com/ciliary_arteries

Posterior Ciliary Arteries | Technology TrendsPosterior Ciliary Arteries | Technology Trends

... includes Posterior ciliary arteries Long posterior ciliary arteries Short posterior ciliary arteries Anterior ciliary artery ... Posterior Ciliary Arteries. Some articles on posterior ciliary arteries, arteries, ciliary:. Ophthalmic Artery - Course and ... Posterior Ciliary Arteries. ... The OA then turns medially giving off 1 to 5 posterior ciliary arteries (PCA) that subsequently ... anatomists made little distinction between the posterior ciliary arteries and the short and long posterior ciliary arteries ...
more infohttp://www.primidi.com/posterior_ciliary_arteries

Anterior ciliary arteries - wikidocAnterior ciliary arteries - wikidoc

The anterior ciliary arteries are derived from the muscular branches of the Ophthalmic Artery. ... Anterior+ciliary+artery at eMedicine Dictionary. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of ... ocular group: central retinal - ciliary (short posterior, long posterior, anterior) - hypophysial (superior, inferior). ... The arteries of the choroid and iris. The greater part of the sclera has been removed. ...
more infohttp://wikidoc.org/index.php/Anterior_ciliary_arteries

Ciliary Arteries | Profiles RNSCiliary Arteries | Profiles RNS

"Ciliary Arteries" by people in this website by year, and whether "Ciliary Arteries" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Ciliary Arteries" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Ciliary Arteries" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Ciliary Arteries". ...
more infohttps://profiles.umassmed.edu/display/128034

Ciliary arteries - WikipediaCiliary arteries - Wikipedia

The short posterior ciliary arteries from six to twelve in number, arise from the ophthalmic as it crosses the optic nerve. The ... The anterior ciliary arteries are derived from the muscular branches of the ophthalmic artery. The ophthalmic artery and its ... The ciliary arteries are divisible into three groups, the long posterior, short posterior, and the anterior. ... long posterior ciliary arteries, two for each eye, pierce the posterior part of the sclera at some little distance from the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ciliary_arteries

Anterior ciliary arteries - WikipediaAnterior ciliary arteries - Wikipedia

The anterior ciliary arteries are seven small arteries in each eye-socket that supply the conjunctiva, sclera and the rectus ... The anterior ciliary arteries are branches of the ophthalmic artery and run to the front of the eyeball in company with the ... Three of the four rectus muscles; the superior, inferior and medial, are supplied by two ciliary arteries each, while the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anterior_ciliary_arteries

Short posterior ciliary arteries (Arteriae ciliares posteriores breves) | KenhubShort posterior ciliary arteries (Arteriae ciliares posteriores breves) | Kenhub

Short posterior ciliary arteries aka Arteriae ciliares posteriores breves in the latin terminology and part of arteries and ... Short posterior ciliary arteries Arteriae ciliares posteriores breves Close. Want more colour?. Register for free to get this ... AnatomyHead & NeckOrbit and contentsBlood vessels of the eyeballShort posterior ciliary arteries ... Arteries and Veins of the Orbit This is an article covering the anatomy of the arteries and veins of the orbit. Learn all about ...
more infohttps://www.kenhub.com/en/atlas/arteriae-ciliares-posteriores-breves

Pulse Doppler Analysis in External Ophthalmic and the Long Ciliary Ophthalmic Arteries in the CatPulse Doppler Analysis in External Ophthalmic and the Long Ciliary Ophthalmic Arteries in the Cat

... in external ophthalmic and the long ciliary ophthalmic arteries in the cat by pulse Doppler. Design- Descriptive study Animals ... Vosough, D. Pulse Doppler Analysis in External Ophthalmic and the Long Ciliary Ophthalmic Arteries in the Cat. Iranian Journal ... Vosough, D. (2011). Pulse Doppler Analysis in External Ophthalmic and the Long Ciliary Ophthalmic Arteries in the Cat. Iranian ... "Pulse Doppler Analysis in External Ophthalmic and the Long Ciliary Ophthalmic Arteries in the Cat". Iranian Journal of ...
more infohttp://www.ivsajournals.com/article_3128.html

1 - Opth - Introduction and Anatomy - Middle (uveal) layer) Flashcards by Vish Gossain | Brainscape1 - Opth - Introduction and Anatomy - Middle (uveal) layer) Flashcards by Vish Gossain | Brainscape

projects out from ciliary body. vascular and pigmented. SM fibres.... --Sphincter pupillae - constricts pupil - PS fibres from ... 2 Paeds Cvs Transposition Of The Great Arteries * 2 Paeds Cvs Cardiac Disease And Syndromes + Hypoplastic Lh Syndrome ... contains ciliary muscle - smooth mm - innervated by parasym fibres from oculomotor nerve (,,,). Circular (pars plicata) and ... Ciliary body - continuous with? attached to? Contains? Type? Innervation? Two types of fibre? ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/1-opth-introduction-and-anatomy-middle-uv-6317229/packs/9607212

Ciliary processes - WikipediaCiliary processes - Wikipedia

The ciliary processes produce aqueous humour. References[edit]. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page ... short posterior ciliary arteries. Identifiers. Latin. processus ciliares. TA. A15.2.03.011. FMA. 76551. ... The ciliary processes are formed by the inward folding of the various layers of the choroid, i.e., the choroid proper and the ... Ciliary process visible superior to the lens, immediately above the Zonule of Zinn. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ciliary_processes

Fitxer:Schematic diagram of human eye multilingual.svg - Viquipèdia, lenciclopèdia lliureFitxer:Schematic diagram of human eye multilingual.svg - Viquipèdia, l'enciclopèdia lliure

Blood vessels of the retina; Ciliary arteries (34. Short posterior ones, 35. Long posterior ones and 37. Anterior ones). 38. ... Ciliary body (with a: pars plicata and b: pars plana) and 16. Choroid); 17. Ora serrata, 18. Vitreous humor with 19. Hyaloid ... 1. Lens, 2. Zonule of Zinn or Ciliary zonule, 3. Posterior chamber and 4. Anterior chamber with 5. Aqueous humour flow; 6. ... Add arteries and veins, aqueous humor, corneosclera. Resize tendons. Redraw ora serrata. ...
more infohttps://ca.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fitxer:Schematic_diagram_of_human_eye_multilingual.svg

Giant Cell ArteritisGiant Cell Arteritis

Posterior ciliary arteries. *Visual deficit is permanent. *May be preceded by visual changes or Headaches by hours or days ... Over temporal or occipital arteries (but may occur elsewhere). *Boring ache of moderate intensity with minimal relief from ... Inflammation of medium and large arteries originating from aortic arch. *Infiltration of arterial wall with inflammatory cells ... Tenderness over temporal or occipital arteries, scalp. *Temporal artery abnormalities (palpate superior to ear tragus, compare ...
more infohttps://fpnotebook.com/mobile/Neuro/Eye/GntClArtrts.htm

Arterial tree - WikipediaArterial tree - Wikipedia

Long posterior ciliary arteries *Circulus arteriosus major. *Circulus arteriosus minor. *Short posterior ciliary arteries ... In anatomy, arterial tree is used to refer to all arteries and/or the branching pattern of the arteries. This article regards ... Common iliac arteries[edit]. internal iliac artery[edit]. Anterior division[edit]. *obturator artery ... 5 Common iliac arteries *5.1 internal iliac artery *5.1.1 Anterior division ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arterial_tree

Sclera - wikidocSclera - wikidoc

anterior ciliary arteries MeSH Sclera Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] ...
more infohttp://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/Sclera

Ocular haemodynamic responses to induced hypercapnia and hyperoxia in glaucoma | British Journal of OphthalmologyOcular haemodynamic responses to induced hypercapnia and hyperoxia in glaucoma | British Journal of Ophthalmology

SPCAs, short posterior ciliary arteries. Glaucomatous optic neuropathy is a disease characterised by pathological changes to ... and short posterior ciliary arteries (SPCAs). At the first visit, measurements were taken at baseline (B1: breathing room air) ... and short posterior ciliary arteries (SPCAs) for normal subjects and glaucoma patients at baseline (open) and in response to ... and the nasal and temporal short posterior ciliary arteries (SPCAs) by a single observer using the Siemens Quantum 2000 colour ...
more infohttp://bjo.bmj.com/content/88/3/406

Lobar artery, middle | definition of lobar artery, middle by Medical dictionaryLobar artery, middle | definition of lobar artery, middle by Medical dictionary

ciliary artery. The anterior ciliary, the short posterior ciliary, or the long posterior ciliary arteries, which supply blood ... gonadal arteries the ovarian arteries or the testicular arteries.. helicine arteries 1. small arteries that for their entire ... ciliary arteries, anterior origin, ophthalmic and lacrimal arteries; branches, episcleral and anterior conjunctival arteries; ... The anterior ciliary arteries are derived from the arteries to the four recti muscles and they anasto-mose in the ciliary ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/lobar+artery%2C+middle

Caudal artery | definition of Caudal artery by Medical dictionaryCaudal artery | definition of Caudal artery by Medical dictionary

ciliary artery. The anterior ciliary, the short posterior ciliary, or the long posterior ciliary arteries, which supply blood ... gonadal arteries the ovarian arteries or the testicular arteries.. helicine arteries 1. small arteries that for their entire ... ciliary arteries, anterior origin, ophthalmic and lacrimal arteries; branches, episcleral and anterior conjunctival arteries; ... The anterior ciliary arteries are derived from the arteries to the four recti muscles and they anasto-mose in the ciliary ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Caudal+artery

Sample Preparation for Mass-spectrometry-based Proteomics Analysis of Ocular Microvessels | ProtocolSample Preparation for Mass-spectrometry-based Proteomics Analysis of Ocular Microvessels | Protocol

2. Isolation of Short Posterior Ciliary Arteries. NOTE: The porcine eye is basically divided into the anterior (Figure 2A) and ... First insight into the proteome landscape of the porcine short posterior ciliary arteries: Key signalling pathways maintaining ... Pool arteries from two eyes to obtain one biological replicate, transfer them into 1.5 mL microcentrifuge tubes, and weigh the ... Zeitz, O., et al. Glaucoma progression is associated with decreased blood flow velocities in the short posterior ciliary artery ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/video/59140/sample-preparation-for-mass-spectrometry-based-proteomics-analysis

Structural Considerations of the Sclera | Springer for Research & DevelopmentStructural Considerations of the Sclera | Springer for Research & Development

I. Hemodynamics in the anterior ciliary arteries. Acta Soc Ophthalmol Jpn 78: 39, 1974.Google Scholar ... Talusan ED, Swartz B: Fluorescein angiography: demonstration of flow pattern of anterior ciliary arteries. Arch Ophthalmol 99: ... Collagen Fibril Trabecular Meshwork Lamina Cribrosa Structural Consideration Posterior Ciliary Artery These keywords were added ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-2343-4_1

12 Ophthalmology Quizzes Online, Trivia, Questions & Answers - ProProfs Quizzes12 Ophthalmology Quizzes Online, Trivia, Questions & Answers - ProProfs Quizzes

1. The cilioretinal arteries: A) originate from the central retinal artery;. B) originate from the posterior ciliary arteries; ...
more infohttps://www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/topic/ophthalmology

Ischemic Optic NeuritisIschemic Optic Neuritis

Arteriolar sclerosis causing gradual Occlusion of posterior ciliary arteries. III. Types * Arteritic Ischemic Optic Neuropathy ...
more infohttps://fpnotebook.com/Eye/Neuro/IschmcOptcNrts.htm

Capsula vasculosa lentis definition | Drugs.comCapsula vasculosa lentis definition | Drugs.com

... those of the superficial part are derived from the anterior ciliary arteries; normally all the vessels are atrophied by the end ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/capsula-vasculosa-lentis.html
  • Conclusion and Clinical Relevance-It is found that in two-dimentional Doppler method, these arteries could be easily identified in ultrasonography and had the most repeatability rate in all experimented eyes and these two arteries could be used as a reference to diagnose optic diseases in future studies. (ivsajournals.com)
  • Ciliary Arteries" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • 12 ] explained this protection with the reduced ability of esterification and accumulation of cholesterol in the arteries G6PDH deficient subjects. (hindawi.com)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Ciliary Arteries" by people in this website by year, and whether "Ciliary Arteries" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)