Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Photoreceptor Connecting Cilium: The bridge between the inner and the outer segments of a retinal rod or a cone photoreceptor cell. Through it, proteins synthesized in the inner segment are transported to the outer segment.Axoneme: A bundle of MICROTUBULES and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS forming the core of each CILIUM or FLAGELLUM. In most eukaryotic cilia or flagella, an axoneme shaft has 20 microtubules arranged in nine doublets and two singlets.Ciliary Motility Disorders: Conditions caused by abnormal CILIA movement in the body, usually causing KARTAGENER SYNDROME, chronic respiratory disorders, chronic SINUSITIS, and chronic OTITIS. Abnormal ciliary beating is likely due to defects in any of the 200 plus ciliary proteins, such as missing motor enzyme DYNEIN arms.Kidney Diseases, Cystic: A heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders in which the KIDNEY contains one or more CYSTS unilaterally or bilaterally (KIDNEY, CYSTIC).Centrioles: Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.Kartagener Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a triad of DEXTROCARDIA; INFERTILITY; and SINUSITIS. The syndrome is caused by mutations of DYNEIN genes encoding motility proteins which are components of sperm tails, and CILIA in the respiratory and the reproductive tracts.Polycystic Kidney Diseases: Hereditary diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed CYSTS within the KIDNEYS. They include diseases with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance.Bardet-Biedl Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; POLYDACTYLY; OBESITY; MENTAL RETARDATION; hypogenitalism; renal dysplasia; and short stature. This syndrome has been distinguished as a separate entity from LAURENCE-MOON SYNDROME. (From J Med Genet 1997 Feb;34(2):92-8)TRPP Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels that are widely expressed in various cell types. Defects are associated with POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Ependyma: A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.Axonemal Dyneins: Dyneins that are responsible for ciliary and flagellar beating.Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Paramecium: A genus of ciliate protozoa that is often large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Paramecia are commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.Olfactory Mucosa: That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.Tetrahymena pyriformis: A species of ciliate protozoa used extensively in genetic research.Situs Inversus: A congenital abnormality in which organs in the THORAX and the ABDOMEN are opposite to their normal positions (situs solitus) due to lateral transposition. Normally the STOMACH and SPLEEN are on the left, LIVER on the right, the three-lobed right lung is on the right, and the two-lobed left lung on the left. Situs inversus has a familial pattern and has been associated with a number of genes related to microtubule-associated proteins.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Mechanotransduction, Cellular: The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Rana ridibunda: A species of the family Ranidae which occurs primarily in Europe and is used widely in biomedical research.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Tetrahymena: A genus of ciliate protozoa commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.Encephalocele: Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.Group II Chaperonins: A subcategory of chaperonins found in ARCHAEA and the CYTOSOL of eukaryotic cells. Group II chaperonins form a barrel-shaped macromolecular structure that is distinct from GROUP I CHAPERONINS in that it does not utilize a separate lid like structure to enclose proteins.Cell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Love: Affection; in psychiatry commonly refers to pleasure, particularly as it applies to gratifying experiences between individuals.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Shared Paranoid Disorder: A condition in which closely related persons, usually in the same family, share the same delusions.Tourette Syndrome: A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a another medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Thermotoga maritima: A rod-shaped bacterium surrounded by a sheath-like structure which protrudes balloon-like beyond the ends of the cell. It is thermophilic, with growth occurring at temperatures as high as 90 degrees C. It is isolated from geothermally heated marine sediments or hot springs. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Hysteria: Historical term for a chronic, but fluctuating, disorder beginning in early life and characterized by recurrent and multiple somatic complaints not apparently due to physical illness. This diagnosis is not used in contemporary practice.Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous: An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.

Interactions of membrane potential and cations in regulation of ciliary activity in Paramecium. (1/2505)

Ciliary activity in Paramecium was investigated in different external solutions using techniques of voltage clamp and high frequency cinematography. An increase in the external concentration of K, Ca or Mg ions decreased the resting potential. It had no effect on ciliary activity. When the membrane potential was fixed, an increase in external Ca or Mg and, to a lesser extent, an increase in K concentration, raised the frequency of normal beating or decreased the frequency of reversed beating of the cilia. Similar effects resulted from membrane hyperpolarization with constant ionic conditions. Increase in concentration of Ca, but not of Mg or K, enhanced hyperpolarization-induced augmentation of ciliary frequency. Increase in Ca concentration also specifically augmented the delayed increase in inward current during rapid hyperpolarizing clamp. The results support the view that [Ca]i regulates the frequency and direction of ciliary beating. It is suggested that the insensitivity of the ciliary motor system to elevations of the external concentrations of ions results from compensation of their effects on [Ca]i. Depolarization itself appears to increase [Ca]i while elevation of the external ion concentrations at a fixed membrane potential appears to decrease [Ca]i.  (+info)

Involvement of protein kinase C in 5-HT-stimulated ciliary activity in Helisoma trivolvis embryos. (2/2505)

1. During development, embryos of the pulmonate gastropod, Helisoma trivolvis, undergo a rotation behaviour due to the co-ordinated beating of three bands of ciliated epithelial cells. This behaviour is in part mediated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) released from a pair of identified embryonic neurons. Using time-lapse videomicroscopy to measure ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in response to pharmacological manipulations, we determined whether protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in mediating 5-HT-stimulated ciliary beating. 2. Diacylglycerol (DAG) analogues sn-1,2-dioctanoyl glycerol (DiC8; 100 microM) and 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG; 100 microM), partially mimicked the 5-HT-induced increase in CBF. In contrast, application of OAG in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ did not result in an increase in CBF. 3. 5-HT-stimulated CBF was effectively blocked by PKC inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide (10 and 100 nM) and calphostin C (10 nM). In addition, bisindolylmaleimide (100 nM) inhibited DiC8-induced increases in CBF. At a higher concentration (200 nM), bisindolylmaleimide did not significantly reduce 5-HT-stimulated cilio-excitation. 4. Two different phorbol esters, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA; 0.1, 10 or 1000 nM) and phorbol 12beta, 13alpha-dibenzoate (PDBn; 10 microM) did not alter basal CBF. TPA (1 microM) did not alter 5-HT-stimulated CBF. Likewise, the synthetic form of phosphatidylserine, N-(6-phenylhexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulphonamide (SC-9; 10 microM), did not increase CBF, whereas a strong increase in CBF was observed upon exposure to 5-HT. 5. The results suggest that a DAG-dependent, phorbol ester-insensitive isoform of PKC mediates 5-HT-stimulated CBF in ciliated epithelial cells from embryos of Helisoma trivolvis.  (+info)

Immunocytochemical and morphological evidence for intracellular self-repair as an important contributor to mammalian hair cell recovery. (3/2505)

Although recent studies have provided evidence for hair cell regeneration in mammalian inner ears, the mechanism underlying this regenerative process is still under debate. Here we report immunocytochemical, histological, electron microscopic, and autoradiographic evidence that, in cultured postnatal rat utricles, a substantial number of hair cells can survive gentamicin insult even their stereocilia are lost. These partially damaged hair cells can survive for a prolonged time and regrow the stereocilia. Although the number of stereocilia-bearing hair cells increases over time after gentamicin insult, hair cell and supporting cell numbers remain essentially unchanged. Tritiated thymidine autoradiography and bromodeoxyuridine immunocytochemistry of the cultures demonstrate that cell proliferation in the sensory epithelium is very limited and is far below the number of recovered hair cells. Furthermore, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end labeling analysis indicates that gentamicin-induced apoptosis in the sensory epithelium occurs mainly during a 2 d treatment period, and additional cell death is minimal 2-11 d after treatment. Considered together, intracellular repair of partially damaged hair cells can be an important contributor to spontaneous hair cell recovery in mammalian inner ears.  (+info)

Interplay between the NO pathway and elevated [Ca2+]i enhances ciliary activity in rabbit trachea. (4/2505)

1. Average intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and ciliary beat frequency (CBF) were simultaneously measured in rabbit airway ciliated cells in order to elucidate the molecular events that lead to ciliary activation by purinergic stimulation. 2. Extracellular ATP and extracellular UTP caused a rapid increase in both [Ca2+]i and CBF. These effects were practically abolished by a phospholipase C inhibitor (U-73122) or by suramin. 3. The effects of extracellular ATP were not altered: when protein kinase C (PKC) was inhibited by either GF 109203X or chelerythrine chloride, or when protein kinase A (PKA) was inhibited by RP-adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphothioate triethylamine (Rp-cAMPS). 4. Activation of PKC by phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (TPA) had little effect on CBF or on [Ca2+]i, while activation of PKA by forskolin or by dibutyryl-cAMP led to a small rise in CBF without affecting [Ca2+]i. 5. Direct activation of protein kinase G (PKG) with dibutyryl-cGMP had a negligible effect on CBF when [Ca2+]i was at basal level. However, dibutyryl-cGMP strongly elevated CBF when [Ca2+]i was elevated either by extracellular ATP or by ionomycin. 6. The findings suggest that the initial rise in [Ca2+]i induced by extracellular ATP activates the NO pathway, thus leading to PKG activation. In the continuous presence of elevated [Ca2+]i the stimulated PKG then induces a robust enhancement in CBF. In parallel, activated PKG plays a central role in Ca2+ influx via a still unidentified mechanism, and thus, through positive feedback, maintains CBF close to its maximal level in the continuous presence of ATP.  (+info)

Scanning electron microscopy of lithium-induced exogastrulae of Xenopus laevis. (5/2505)

Lithium-induced exogastrulae are abnormal embryos which fail to complete gastrulation and do not form normal neural structures. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to compare the surface structure of the ectoderm cells of exogastrulae with that of the ectoderm cells of normal embryos and has shown that the appearance of ciliated cells is delayed in exogastrulae. In addition, the structure of endoderm cells, which remain exposed in these embryos, has been studied.  (+info)

Use of tracheal organ cultures in toxicity testing. (6/2505)

Fragments of tracheal epithelium alone or in continuity with connective tissues, can be maintained in culture medium and used for short term or long term studies of toxicity of a variety of chemicals. Large numbers of uniform cultures are prepared with the aid of a slicing device or by application of simple method for dissecting sheets of epithelium free from underlying cartilage. The cultures may be placed in an exposure chamber-incubator mounted on a microscope stage and monitored continually for ciliostasis and exfoliation of cells. Morphology is further studied by fixation of selected specimens and preparation for light microscopy and electron microscopy. Synthetic functions are evaluated by autoradiographic measurement of incorporation of radioactive precursors into macromolecules and other dynamic features are indirectly assessed by histochemical and histoenzymatic methods. Short-term studies using these several techniques have shown that ciliostasis does not correlate with cell injury in all instances, and a long-term study has demonstrated dose dependence of a cytotoxic agent when duration of culture viability is measured. The method lends itself to a broad range of investigations in which dose, period of exposure, and role of cofactors must be independently and quantitatively assessed.  (+info)

Situs inversus and embryonic ciliary morphogenesis defects in mouse mutants lacking the KIF3A subunit of kinesin-II. (7/2505)

The embryonic cellular events that set the asymmetry of the genetic control circuit controlling left-right (L-R) axis determination in mammals are poorly understood. New insight into this problem was obtained by analyzing mouse mutants lacking the KIF3A motor subunit of the kinesin-II motor complex. Embryos lacking KIF3A die at 10 days postcoitum, exhibit randomized establishment of L-R asymmetry, and display numerous structural abnormalities. The earliest detectable abnormality in KIF3A mutant embryos is found at day 7.5, where scanning electron microscopy reveals loss of cilia ordinarily present on cells of the wild-type embryonic node, which is thought to play an important role in setting the initial L-R asymmetry. This cellular phenotype is observed before the earliest reported time of asymmetric expression of markers of the L-R signaling pathway. These observations demonstrate that the kinesin-based transport pathway needed for flagellar and ciliary morphogenesis is conserved from Chlamydomonas to mammals and support the view that embryonic cilia play a role in the earliest cellular determinative events establishing L-R asymmetry.  (+info)

Characterization and expression of the laminin gamma3 chain: a novel, non-basement membrane-associated, laminin chain. (8/2505)

Laminins are heterotrimeric molecules composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma chain; they have broad functional roles in development and in stabilizing epithelial structures. Here, we identified a novel laminin, composed of known alpha and beta chains but containing a novel gamma chain, gamma3. We have cloned gene encoding this chain, LAMC3, which maps to chromosome 9 at q31-34. Protein and cDNA analyses demonstrate that gamma3 contains all the expected domains of a gamma chain, including two consensus glycosylation sites and a putative nidogen-binding site. This suggests that gamma3-containing laminins are likely to exist in a stable matrix. Studies of the tissue distribution of gamma3 chain show that it is broadly expressed in: skin, heart, lung, and the reproductive tracts. In skin, gamma3 protein is seen within the basement membrane of the dermal-epidermal junction at points of nerve penetration. The gamma3 chain is also a prominent element of the apical surface of ciliated epithelial cells of: lung, oviduct, epididymis, ductus deferens, and seminiferous tubules. The distribution of gamma3-containing laminins on the apical surfaces of a variety of epithelial tissues is novel and suggests that they are not found within ultrastructurally defined basement membranes. It seems likely that these apical laminins are important in the morphogenesis and structural stability of the ciliated processes of these cells.  (+info)

  • The finding adds to our knowledge about ciliopathies, a class of genetic disorders that arise from defects in the structure or function of cilia. (nih.gov)
  • As the team investigated kur , they noted that the mutation also affected the function of cilia. (princeton.edu)
  • In addition, since the research looked at the structure and function of cilia, these discoveries might be useful for the development of nanotechnologies. (medgadget.com)
  • The rapid advancement of technologies such as next generation sequencing, high resolution microscopy and the development of novel in vitro analysis systems has led to an exponential growth of knowledge related to the assembly and function of cilia, production and secretion of mucus, and cilia-mucus interaction to promote productive mucociliary clearance. (grc.org)
  • Defects in the function of cilia lead to a class of diseases called ciliopathies, which include polycystic kidney disease, primary ciliary dyskinesia and Bardet-Biedl syndrome. (eurekalert.org)
  • This series in Cilia contains both reviews and research articles covering diverse topics, including recent advances in ciliary ultrastructure, physiologic and transcriptional mechanisms of motility regulation, and discoveries relating to the role of cilia in health and disease made through analysis of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia models and genetics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with defective structure and/or function of motile cilia/flagella, causing chronic upper and lower respiratory tract infections, fertilit. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This volume is the result of an explosion of molecular-based research on Cilia, which began with the discovery of the universality of intraflagellar transport (IFT) and ciliary genomics/proteomics. (springer.com)
  • The chapters in this book cover topics such as: high resolution imaging and functional characterization of sensory and primary cilia in mammalian cells and zebrafish, methods to study ciliary-mediated chemoresponse in Paramecium , and methods to study centrosomes and cilia in C. elegans and Drosophila . (springer.com)
  • ciliary outgrowth is controlled by the basal body that is located just inside the cell surface at the base of the cilium. (britannica.com)
  • The current scientific understanding of primary cilia views them as "sensory cellular antennae that coordinate a large number of cellular signaling pathways, sometimes coupling the signaling to ciliary motility or alternatively to cell division and differentiation. (rug.nl)
  • The basal body, where the cilia originates, is located within the ciliary pocket. (rug.nl)
  • The Human Primary Cilia RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes important for ciliary organization and maintenance. (qiagen.com)
  • The Mouse Primary Cilia RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes important for ciliary organization and maintenance. (qiagen.com)
  • As a consequence, the full-length proteins of GLI2 and GLI3, which are bound to the ciliary tip organizer KIF7, are phosphorylated by PKA, CK1, and GSK3, and finally proteolytically processed by the cilia-regulated proteasome. (nih.gov)
  • In the presence of HH, the HH ligand binds to PTC1 and, in turn, the HH/PTC1 complex leaves the cilium allowing ciliary entry of SMO. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic defects in ciliary proteins responsible for cilia formation, maintenance, or function underlie a wide array of human diseases like deafness, anosmia, and retinal degeneration in sensory systems. (mdpi.com)
  • We recently discovered that the C. elegans NPHP genes modulate the length and shape of a cilium, enabling exploration of the mechanisms controlling ciliary morphogenesis. (bio.net)
  • This study confirms and extends previous work on the lateral cilia of the fresh-water mussel, Elliptio complanatus , in support of a "sliding filament" mechanism of ciliary motility wherein peripheral filaments (microtubules) do not change length during beat (see Satir, 1967). (rupress.org)
  • Although the major structural components of human cilia have been described, a complete understanding of cilia function and regulation will require identification and characterization of all ciliary components. (mcponline.org)
  • To identify all the components of human cilia, we have begun a comprehensive proteomic analysis of isolated ciliary axonemes. (mcponline.org)
  • The importance of this process is clearly illustrated by the disease primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), 1 in which genetic defects cause dysfunctional cilia and result in chronic otitis media, sinusitus, and bronchitis ( 2 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Emerging research has established a fundamental link between cytoskeletal structures such as centrioles and cilia in the regulation of DNA repair and genomic instability, highlighted by an increasing number of cancers/syndromes with clear ciliary connections such as Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome, Von Hippel-Lindau disease and Tuberous Sclerosis. (biochemistry.org)
  • Written and edited by experts in the field, Cilia , from Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, examines key aspects of ciliary biology--from the molecular to the organismal level--in normal physiology and disease. (cshlpress.com)
  • (cshlpress.com)
  • The interaction of cilia and mucus is an essential component of respiratory tract defense against pathogens and when dysfunctional, leads to diseases ranging from the common cold, asthma, rhinosinusitus, chronic obstructive lung disease and genetic diseases cystic fibrosis (CF) and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). (grc.org)
  • Their findings also explain the frequently observed misalignment of cilia in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a disease that impairs ciliary flow. (phys.org)
  • The polarity of the cilia is still biased towards the posterior, but without a detectable flow the process of refinement is disrupted and they can't reorient themselves properly," says Kintner and adds that, "this model explains why ciliary disorientation is so commonly associated with ciliary dysfunction in human PCD. (phys.org)
  • Fig. 1: Body curvature correlates with impaired cilia-driven CSF flow in ciliary mutants. (nature.com)
  • Scattered throughout the cilia are goblet cells that secrete mucus which helps protect the lining of the bronchus and trap microorganisms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most mucous membranes, such as those in the nose , are covered with cilia to create a constant flow of mucus. (conservapedia.com)
  • In humans , for example, motile cilia are found in the lining of the trachea (windpipe), where they sweep mucus and dirt out of the lungs. (rug.nl)
  • For example, motile cilia are on cells that line the trachea, where their coordinated wave-like motions carry mucus-along with the inhaled dust, bacteria, and other small particles it contains-toward the mouth to be coughed or sneezed out of the body. (nih.gov)
  • Cilia perform a wide variety of functions in humans -- the cells lining your trachea, for example, use their cilia to sweep dust and mucus upwards out of the lungs. (gardenguides.com)
  • In humans, for example, epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract each have about 200 cilia that beat in synchrony to sweep mucus towards the throat for elimination. (arn.org)
  • Mutations impede the flow of chloride, causing the mucus to accumulate and impeding the hair-like particles called cilia from beating back and forth to clear out the mucus. (wordnik.com)
  • The continuous, coordinated beating of the cilia transports mucus and foreign material out of the airways to help maintain a sterile environment. (mcponline.org)
  • 2) How can we analyze the hydrodynamics and biophysical properties of cilia-mucus interactions in healthy and disease states with high resolution? (grc.org)
  • 3) What is the relationship between cilia, mucus and mucosal immunity? (grc.org)
  • This GRC will be held in conjunction with the "Cilia, Mucus and Mucociliary Interactions (GRS)" Gordon Research Seminar (GRS). (grc.org)
  • Cilia, tiny hair-like structures that propel mucus out of airways, have to agree on the direction of the fluid flow to get things moving. (phys.org)
  • Cilia are tiny hair-like projections from cells that line your respiratory tract and are responsible for moving mucus up to the throat, where it can be spat out or swallowed. (newcastle-hospitals.org.uk)
  • This book details advances in research regarding cilia, mucus, and mucociliary clearance, examining changes in mucus expression and goblet cell metaplasia, and assessing the ability of the mucociliary system to respond to abnormalities. (foyles.co.uk)
  • It opened a way to reconstruct 3D conformations of proteins in cilia at 3-nm resolu. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins Ift172/Wimple and Polaris/Ift88 and the anterograde IFT motor kinesin-II are required for the production and maintenance of cilia. (pnas.org)
  • Nor was it clear whether IFT proteins are required for a cytoplasmic transport process or in cilia for neural patterning. (pnas.org)
  • Mutations in genes encoding structural and functional proteins of cilia and flagella lead to innumerable diseases and disorders called ciliopathies. (els.net)
  • Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are estimated to have evolved roughly a billion years ago, following the appearance of the genes for tubulin (from bacteria) and proteins that establish the ninefold symmetry. (els.net)
  • Further study of how these proteins function could yield insights into the impact that cilia defects cause throughout the body. (nih.gov)
  • Though it remains unclear how three IFT proteins are required for Shh signaling in neural cells, the authors postulate that cilia could produce a signal that is required for Shh signaling. (sciencemag.org)
  • Motor proteins using ATP power the sliding of microtubules past each other, causing the cilium to wave back and forth. (gardenguides.com)
  • When cytochalasin D, a small molecule which permeates cells and inhibits cytoskeleton polymerization, was applied to one of the identified proteins, it repaired cilium formation in cells carrying mutations. (ucsd.edu)
  • As an approach to validate the mass spectrometry results, additional studies examined the expression of several identified proteins (annexin I, sperm protein Sp17, retinitis pigmentosa protein RP1) in cilia or ciliated cells. (mcponline.org)
  • However, whereas the sequencing of the human genome has allowed the identification of homologs of these Chlamydomonas proteins, biochemical evidence is still necessary to demonstrate their axonemal nature in human cilia. (mcponline.org)
  • Researchers in Burdine's laboratory found that Kurly's role in cilia movement stems from its ability to ensure proteins called dynein arms are correctly located in the cilia. (princeton.edu)
  • Extracellular vesicles (EVs), membrane-bound carriers with complex cargos that include proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, function in long-distance cellular communication, but how cilia contribute to EV production was previously unclear to the scientific community. (eurekalert.org)
  • Previous work has shown that loss of exocyst complex component 5 (EXOC5), one of the eight proteins that make up the exocyst, causes very short or no cilia to be produced. (eurekalert.org)
  • These studies have led to the identification of candidate proteins that have been implicated, directly or indirectly, in transport mechanisms and structural components of the cilium, and in cilia-associated human disorders. (biologists.org)
  • A cilium, like a flagellum , is composed of a central core (the axoneme), which contains two central microtubules that are surrounded by an outer ring of nine pairs of microtubules. (britannica.com)
  • IFT involves bidirectional movement of IFT particles beneath the plasma membrane of cilia along the axonemal microtubules, which allows material to be transported to the distal tip of the cilium, where new components are incorporated into the axoneme. (pnas.org)
  • The cilium membrane and the basal body microtubules are connected by transition fibers. (rug.nl)
  • Their most prominent structural component is the axoneme which consists of nine doublet microtubules, with all motile cilia - except those at the embryonic node - containing an additional central pair of microtubules. (uniprot.org)
  • These studies have demonstrated the 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules, the inner and outer dynein arms, the radial spokes, and other features common to all motile cilia. (mcponline.org)
  • These results indicate that two components of the cytoskeleton perform different functions: actin fibers establish cell-wide coordination of cilia orientation and timing, whereas microtubules ensure that cilia are in harmony with their neighbors. (rupress.org)
  • Cilia movement is driven by an array of longitudinal microtubules arranged in 9 doublets around a central pair. (phys.org)
  • While the new material isn't exactly like cilia, it responds to thermal, chemical, and electromagnetic stimulation, allowing researchers to control it and opening unlimited possibilities for future use. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cryo-electron tomography has been a valuable tool in the analysis of 3D structures of cilia at molecular and cellular levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cilia are antenna-like membrane-associated structures which play essential roles during development, and during the normal function of many cells throughout the body. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Cilia are wavy, hair-like structures that extend outward from the surfaces of various organisms such as human skin. (innovations-report.com)
  • You may think of cilia primarily as structures specialized to confer motility, but nonmotile cells (virtually all vertebrate cells have a primary cilium) also use cilia for sensory functions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Receptors concentrated on the surface of cilia allow cells to efficiently sample their immediate environment, but it is unclear how such receptors function in the absence of structures that usually associate with them at the plasma membrane. (sciencemag.org)
  • Some single-celled creatures have structures called motile cilia that beat rhythmically to allow the cells to move. (nih.gov)
  • Looking closely at where the cilia should exist, the researchers saw that the supporting structures needed for cilia to grow were either completely missing or abnormal. (nih.gov)
  • Other experiments showed that CC2D2A is part of structures called subdistal appendages, which help anchor the basal body at the cell membrane to stabilize cilia and allow them to form. (nih.gov)
  • Johns Hopkins researchers and colleagues have found a previously unrecognized role for tiny hair-like cell structures known as cilia: They help form our sense of touch. (innovations-report.com)
  • In addition to their role in mucociliary clearance, cilia and other axonemal structures are clearly essential to many other specialized cell biological functions. (mcponline.org)
  • Once considered to be vestigial organelles, cilia are microtubule-based structures found in unicellular flagellates and in multicellular organisms and have recently been discovered to have a profound influence on tissue development and homeostasis. (biologists.org)
  • Olsen, 2005 ), cilia are microtubule-based structures that can be classified as immotile 9+0 primary cilia or motile 9+2 cilia, depending on the presence of a central microtubule pair that is surrounded by nine pairs of microtubule doublets ( Satir and Christensen, 2007 ). (biologists.org)
  • We have interrogated the role of cilia in acquired and de novo resistance to a variety of kinase inhibitors, and found that, in several examples, resistant cells are distinctly characterized by an increase in the number and/or length of cilia with altered structural features. (nih.gov)
  • Through a series of experiments, the researchers showed that oral groove cilia appear to have different molecular motors than the rest of a paramecium's cilia. (eurekalert.org)
  • Utilizing high-throughput screening, we were able view a wider array of the genes implicated in ciliopathies and enact systematic approaches, which enabled us to gain deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms of cilia formation," said Gleeson. (ucsd.edu)
  • It's extremely exciting that we've found a single protein that is responsible for these two functions - orientation and motility - in cilia," said Rebecca Burdine , an associate professor of molecular biology at Princeton University. (princeton.edu)
  • But before Kintner and his team could get to the bottom of cilia polarity, they had to enlist the help of electron microscopy expert Richard Jacobs, Ph.D., a research specialist in the lab of Howard Hughes Medical investigator Charles Stevens, a professor in the Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory. (phys.org)
  • Changes in ciliation seem to be linked to differences in the molecular composition of cilia and result in enhanced Hedgehog pathway activation. (nih.gov)
  • Summary of factors that regulate the assembly or disassembly of cilia. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, several factors, including components involved in the IFT-A complex, axonemal deacetylation, axonemal microtubule depolymerization, and actin polymerization negatively regulate cilium assembly. (nih.gov)
  • Epithelial sodium channels ENaC that are specifically expressed along the entire length of cilia apparently serve as sensors that regulate fluid level surrounding the cilia. (rug.nl)
  • Recent studies suggest that primary cilia regulate the cell cycle, giving them a potential role in carcinogenesis. (qiagen.com)
  • Recently, it was shown that primary cilia regulate a special kind of proteasome which is essential for proper Hedgehog signalling. (nih.gov)
  • Not only do cilia normally regulate many of the cellular signalling pathways commonly perturbed in cancer, but the ability to form cilia is lost in many transformed cells and indeed primary cilium can both mediate and suppress Hedgehog pathway-dependent tumourigenesis. (biochemistry.org)
  • Fig. 2: Urp1 functions downstream of motile cilia and CSF flow to regulate body-axis straightening. (nature.com)
  • Defects in genes that are involved in cilia development or function can cause complicated syndromes, called ciliopathies, that involve multiple organs and tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers have identified several genes that are essential to form and maintain cilia. (nih.gov)
  • A team of scientists at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have identified a network of genes that initiate and manage cilia formation. (ucsd.edu)
  • professor of neurosciences and pediatrics at UC San Diego and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator, and Joon Kim, a UC San Diego postdoctoral fellow, utilized a high-throughput, cell-based screen to evaluate the impact of more than 8,000 genes and their relation to cilia function and development. (ucsd.edu)
  • Mutations in genes that encode cilia can lead to disorders known as ciliopathies. (cshlpress.com)
  • This alga allows researchers to manipulate genes and study the resulting effects on cilia in a way that would be impossible in animals such as mice. (medgadget.com)
  • Delicate, hair-like filaments, not unlike the pile on velvet, called cilia , spring from the epithelial lining of the air tubes. (wordnik.com)
  • Nodal cilia have been shown to be important for the determination of situs ( 3 ), and recently the primary cilium of renal epithelial cells has been demonstrated to be responsive to flow ( 4 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Using the cilia-coated epithelial cells of Xenopus embryos, Werner et al. (rupress.org)
  • Cilia is a slender organelle that extends above the free surface of an epithelial cell and generally undergoes cycles of movement. (blausen.com)
  • Ciliopathies are a newly emerging group of genetic diseases caused by defects in the function or structure of cellular primary cilia. (ucsd.edu)
  • There will be structured sessions describing fundamental cellular processes in cilia, cytoskeletal and tumour biology and how dysregulation can initiate disease. (biochemistry.org)
  • The roles of cilia in coordinating cellular responses to environmental stimuli via cell signaling pathways (e.g. (cshlpress.com)
  • With such a range of abilities, cilia serve as both motors and "cellular antennae," said Dr. William Snell, a professor of cell biology at UT Southwestern and senior author of new research on cilia published in the May 5 issue of Cell. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The primary cilium is an organelle that can act as a master regulator of cellular signaling. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Despite their importance in human disease, very little is known about how cilia motility and orientation are coordinated, so this protein will provide an important gateway into looking at this process. (princeton.edu)
  • The discovery of Kurly's role in cilia movement and orientation stemmed from work in the Burdine lab on fetal organ development, specifically an investigation of mutations that alter the left-right asymmetric orientation of the heart. (princeton.edu)
  • Mutations in the gene DNAI1, which render cilia immotile, account for about 10 percent of all human cases of PCD, while the loss of functional Spag6 and TEKT2A/B, both essential components of cilia, cause a PCD-like disease in mice. (phys.org)
  • As the pivotal link between tumourigenesis and cilia function is emerging, this meeting will represent a timely opportunity to bring together researchers from the fields of cancer and cytoskeletal/cilia biology. (biochemistry.org)
  • Through the combined study of model organisms, cell biology, cell signaling and medical genetics we have significantly increased our understanding of the structure and functions of the vertebrate cilium. (biologists.org)
  • It has been known for some time that cilia are important for a number of jobs, from sensing the environment to facilitating fluid flow, to ensuring that the lungs excrete inhaled contaminants. (princeton.edu)
  • Virtually every cell has a primary cilium that functions to senses fluid flow, transmits chemical signals to other cells and controls cell growth. (eurekalert.org)
  • All the cilia beat in the same direction to generate directed, fluid flow. (phys.org)
  • Analyzing skin explants taken during early embryonic development, Mitchell discovered that, early on, when ciliated cells begin to differentiate in the skin but have not yet generated a significant fluid flow, all cilia roughly point towards the back end of the frog larvae. (phys.org)
  • Cilia-driven fluid flow in the zebrafish pronephros, brain and Kupffer's vesicle is required for normal organogenesis. (nature.com)
  • Here we describe the structure and distinct functional roles of cilia in sensory organs like the inner ear, the olfactory epithelium, and the retina of the mouse. (mdpi.com)
  • Cilia genetic defects are linked to a number of human diseases, including polycystic kidney disease, respiratory distress, hearing loss, infertility, and left-right patterning disorders such as the one Burdine studies. (princeton.edu)
  • Defects in the cilium, and the structure from which it arises, the basal body, have been shown to cause a spectrum of diseases, ranging from developmental defects to obesity, diabetes, and cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic defects in cilia can cause people to develop debilitating kidney disease or to be born with learning disabilities, extra fingers or toes, or the inability to smell. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The CC2D2A protein was thought to be a structural protein needed for cilia growth, but its precise functions have been unclear. (nih.gov)
  • This gene appears to play a key role in building structural support for the development of the cilia. (nih.gov)
  • Over the past decade, intensive research has focused on the cytoskeleton and primary cilium at a structural and functional level. (biochemistry.org)
  • And although a lot is known about the structural details of cilia, the mechanism through which ciliated epithelia coordinate the direction of their strokes remained unknown. (phys.org)
  • Liver cells from wild-type embryos (left) and embryos lacking Cc2d2a (right) show cilia in green (arrowheads point to examples). (nih.gov)
  • Cilia were underdeveloped or absent in embryos without Cc2d2a. (nih.gov)
  • In mammalian and fish embryos, a cilia-driven leftward flow of extracellular fluid is required for initiation of the Nodal cascade. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show that, in zebrafish embryos, cilia-driven CSF flow transports adrenergic signals that induce urotensin neuropeptides in CSF-contacting neurons along the spinal cord. (nature.com)
  • Recognizes that cilia and dynein arms play pivotal roles in developing mammalian embryos! (foyles.co.uk)
  • Practical and cutting-edge, Cilia: Methods and Protocols is broad and covers motile, sensory, and primary cells. (springer.com)
  • Researchers gained insights into a key protein involved in forming cilia-hair-like extensions found on cells throughout the body. (nih.gov)
  • Do Plant Cells Have Cilia? (gardenguides.com)
  • In animal cells, cilia perform a variety of functions. (gardenguides.com)
  • Animal cells have cilia, but plant cells typically do not. (gardenguides.com)
  • In general, however, plant cells do not have cilia. (gardenguides.com)
  • On the top we see the cilia, labeled (H). They are attached to columnar cells, labeled (I). The cilia sweep the mucous produced in the goblet cells, labeled (J) as well as mucous coming from deeper glands within the lungs and the particulate matter trapped in the mucous. (whyquit.com)
  • Not only is the smoker more prone to infection from the loss of the cleansing mechanism of the cilia, but these abnormal cells (O) are cancerous squamous cells. (whyquit.com)
  • Primary cilia are small, hair-like appendages attached to the surface of human cells. (ucsd.edu)
  • Motile cilia are also present in the oviduct, the epididymis, and the eppendymal cells of the brain. (mcponline.org)
  • The researchers at Princeton University and Northwestern University found that the protein, which goes by the name C21orf59 or "Kurly," is needed for cilia to undulate to keep fluid moving over the surface of cells. (princeton.edu)
  • In frogs, the cilia on skin cells help move fluid along the surface of the animal during its larval stage. (princeton.edu)
  • Analysis showed that the cilia signaling process was similar to that found in human cells, such as those in the nose involved in the sense of smell and those in the developing nervous system that sculpt our brains. (medgadget.com)
  • Immunogold labeling of Exoc5-myc (a component of the exocyst) in MDCK cells shows black dots along the primary cilium (arrowheads) and associated vesicles (arrows). (eurekalert.org)
  • New work from researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), published online on Nov. 6 by the Journal of Biological Chemistry , shows that primary cilia generate approximately 60% of the small EVs produced by renal tubule cells and that manipulation of cilium length affects the production of EVs. (eurekalert.org)
  • This is the first real demonstration in mammalian cells that ectosomes, EVs produced by primary cilia as opposed to exosomes, which are EVs that are similar in size but form in the multivesicular bodies of the cell, are so prominent. (eurekalert.org)
  • The cells that lost EXOC5 had very short or absent cilia and also produced fewer EVs. (eurekalert.org)
  • On the other hand, cells that made more EXOC5 had longer cilia and produced significantly more EVs. (eurekalert.org)
  • Two ciliated cells showing cilia (green) and basal bodies (red). (phys.org)
  • Each mature ciliated cell has up to 200 cilia, which have to co-ordinate their movements to orient their effective stroke in the same direction as their cellmates and all the cilia on neighboring cells. (phys.org)
  • In collaboration with the Kintner lab, Jacobs helped develop an assay that allowed postdoctoral researcher and first author Brian Mitchell, Ph.D., to determine the polarity of cilia by scoring the orientation of hundreds of basal feet in Xenopus larvae, whose skin is covered with multi-ciliated cells. (phys.org)
  • Although the cilia could move without IFT and bind to the molecules of the cilia of the opposite type, those cells were unable to respond to the signaling molecules. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Notably, manipulating cilia length via Kif7 knockdown is sufficient to confer drug resistance in drug-sensitive cells. (nih.gov)
  • A Cell Reports study from Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) researchers and colleagues identified cilia on tumor cells as a new, potentially universal target for sensitizing drug-resistant cells to kinase inhibitors. (biocentury.com)
  • Many of these diseases, or ciliopathies, are manifested as genetic syndromes, such as Joubert syndrome, Bardet-Biedel (BBS), Meckel-Gruber (MKS), and Nephronophthisis (NPHP), illustrating the importance of understanding cilium structure and function and the mechanisms required for its assembly. (nih.gov)
  • Recently, researchers like Nico Katsanis, Ph.D., associate professor at Johns Hopkins' McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, have found that cilia are important for many other biological processes, including three of our five senses: vision, hearing, and smell (ciliopathies are often characterized by loss or deficiency in these senses). (innovations-report.com)
  • Postdoctoral Associates Barr Laboratory, Rutgers University We are looking for one or two postdocs to study neurogenetics or to model genetic diseases of cilia in C. elegans. (bio.net)
  • Conversely, targeting of cilia length or integrity through genetic and pharmacological approaches overcomes kinase inhibitor resistance. (nih.gov)
  • it functions to sort, modify and permit entry of only membrane and protein constituents destined for transport and incorporation into the developing cilium. (els.net)
  • The protein is part of a complex structure called the basal body, from which cilia grow. (nih.gov)
  • The scientists also identified protein groups that are key modulators between cilia and the endocytic recycling pathway. (ucsd.edu)
  • Cilia with a mutant form of the Kurly protein are wild and disorganized. (princeton.edu)
  • They also found that the protein is needed during development to properly orient the cilia so that they are facing the right direction to move the fluid. (princeton.edu)
  • In the zebrafish kidney, the researchers found that the Kurly protein enabled cilia to orient themselves in a uniform direction, and most importantly, in the proper direction to facilitate the flow of fluid along the narrow channels in the kidney. (princeton.edu)
  • The researchers also found that the mutation they discovered rendered the Kurly protein sensitive to temperature, and used this trait to find that the Kurly protein may be involved in initiating movement rather than keeping the cilia moving once they've started. (princeton.edu)
  • Furthermore, the protein content of EVs is very different depending on the length of the cilia. (eurekalert.org)
  • One of the key components of ciliogenesis - the process of generating a cilium - is the exocyst, an eight-protein complex that is highly conserved and was first discovered in yeast. (eurekalert.org)
  • A so-called basal foot, which invariably points in the direction of the effective stroke, juts out at the base of each cilium. (phys.org)
  • In this work, a new microfluidic concept that utilizes a series of magnetically actuated artificial cilia integrated into a microchannel was employed to control the orientation of zebrafish larvae with a validated axial rotation capability. (springer.com)
  • Although these models have provided a wealth of information, to understand the structure and regulation of human cilia it is clear that complementary studies of human material are required. (mcponline.org)
  • The gene for Kurly has also been detected in relation to human cilia disorders, so the work may have an impact on understanding the mechanisms of human disease, Grimes added. (princeton.edu)
  • To find out whether people with inherited conditions that affect cilia also had different sensation thresholds, the researchers recruited nine patients with BBS, an inherited disorder characterized by obesity, polydactyly and vision loss. (innovations-report.com)
  • Uncovering this series of reactions will make it possible to test, for instance, drugs that can affect cilia, in the hope of finding substances that would also be effective in higher animals, Dr. Snell said. (medgadget.com)
  • Norimasa Mitsuma, Ph.D., a postdoctoral student in Katsanis's lab, also demonstrated that the defective cilia weren't hindering brain function. (innovations-report.com)
  • and based on the diverse range of cell types that can form a cilium, the clinical features of several human disorders have been attributed to dysfunctional cilia. (biologists.org)
  • However, research over the past decade has established that the primary cilium is capable of transducing essential signaling information from the extracellular milieu. (nih.gov)
  • Ciliopathy-associated gene Cc2d2a promotes assembly of subdistal appendages on the mother centriole during cilia biogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Their study, published in Nature , reveals that during early embryonic development, cilia point more or less in the general direction of the body's back end and start creating a weak flow. (phys.org)
  • The latter encodes a subunit of a kinesin-II IFT motor required for nodal cilia formation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here we show that a cilia-driven leftward flow precedes asymmetric nodal expression in the frog Xenopus. (nih.gov)
  • Goetz, S. C. & Anderson, K. V. The primary cilium: a signalling centre during vertebrate development. (nature.com)
  • Here, we provide a snapshot of the structure, function and distribution of the vertebrate cilium and of the pathologies that are associated with its dysfunction. (biologists.org)
  • Although the presence of cilia is restricted to specific cell types in invertebrates, their near ubiquitous localization on the apical surface of most vertebrate cell types suggests that this ancient organelle has evolved to facilitate a broad range of functions. (biologists.org)
  • For one, the trachea is lined with millions of tiny hairs called cilia that trap any gunk you might have breathed in. (wordnik.com)
  • The amount of water in the body generally decreases with age, which in turn decreases the action of tiny hairs, called cilia , in the nose that help wash it out. (wordnik.com)