Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The bridge between the inner and the outer segments of a retinal rod or a cone photoreceptor cell. Through it, proteins synthesized in the inner segment are transported to the outer segment.
A bundle of MICROTUBULES and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS forming the core of each CILIUM or FLAGELLUM. In most eukaryotic cilia or flagella, an axoneme shaft has 20 microtubules arranged in nine doublets and two singlets.
Conditions caused by abnormal CILIA movement in the body, usually causing KARTAGENER SYNDROME, chronic respiratory disorders, chronic SINUSITIS, and chronic OTITIS. Abnormal ciliary beating is likely due to defects in any of the 200 plus ciliary proteins, such as missing motor enzyme DYNEIN arms.
A heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders in which the KIDNEY contains one or more CYSTS unilaterally or bilaterally (KIDNEY, CYSTIC).
Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.
An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a triad of DEXTROCARDIA; INFERTILITY; and SINUSITIS. The syndrome is caused by mutations of DYNEIN genes encoding motility proteins which are components of sperm tails, and CILIA in the respiratory and the reproductive tracts.
Hereditary diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed CYSTS within the KIDNEYS. They include diseases with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance.
An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; POLYDACTYLY; OBESITY; MENTAL RETARDATION; hypogenitalism; renal dysplasia; and short stature. This syndrome has been distinguished as a separate entity from LAURENCE-MOON SYNDROME. (From J Med Genet 1997 Feb;34(2):92-8)
A subgroup of TRP cation channels that are widely expressed in various cell types. Defects are associated with POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.
Dyneins that are responsible for ciliary and flagellar beating.
A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.
A genus of ciliate protozoa that is often large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Paramecia are commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.
That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.
Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
A species of ciliate protozoa used extensively in genetic research.
A congenital abnormality in which organs in the THORAX and the ABDOMEN are opposite to their normal positions (situs solitus) due to lateral transposition. Normally the STOMACH and SPLEEN are on the left, LIVER on the right, the three-lobed right lung is on the right, and the two-lobed left lung on the left. Situs inversus has a familial pattern and has been associated with a number of genes related to microtubule-associated proteins.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A species of the family Ranidae which occurs primarily in Europe and is used widely in biomedical research.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A genus of ciliate protozoa commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.
Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.
A subcategory of chaperonins found in ARCHAEA and the CYTOSOL of eukaryotic cells. Group II chaperonins form a barrel-shaped macromolecular structure that is distinct from GROUP I CHAPERONINS in that it does not utilize a separate lid like structure to enclose proteins.
A condition in which closely related persons, usually in the same family, share the same delusions.
A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a another medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)
An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.
A rod-shaped bacterium surrounded by a sheath-like structure which protrudes balloon-like beyond the ends of the cell. It is thermophilic, with growth occurring at temperatures as high as 90 degrees C. It is isolated from geothermally heated marine sediments or hot springs. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
Historical term for a chronic, but fluctuating, disorder beginning in early life and characterized by recurrent and multiple somatic complaints not apparently due to physical illness. This diagnosis is not used in contemporary practice.
An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The hairs which project from the edges of the EYELIDS.
A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)
Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.

Interactions of membrane potential and cations in regulation of ciliary activity in Paramecium. (1/2505)

Ciliary activity in Paramecium was investigated in different external solutions using techniques of voltage clamp and high frequency cinematography. An increase in the external concentration of K, Ca or Mg ions decreased the resting potential. It had no effect on ciliary activity. When the membrane potential was fixed, an increase in external Ca or Mg and, to a lesser extent, an increase in K concentration, raised the frequency of normal beating or decreased the frequency of reversed beating of the cilia. Similar effects resulted from membrane hyperpolarization with constant ionic conditions. Increase in concentration of Ca, but not of Mg or K, enhanced hyperpolarization-induced augmentation of ciliary frequency. Increase in Ca concentration also specifically augmented the delayed increase in inward current during rapid hyperpolarizing clamp. The results support the view that [Ca]i regulates the frequency and direction of ciliary beating. It is suggested that the insensitivity of the ciliary motor system to elevations of the external concentrations of ions results from compensation of their effects on [Ca]i. Depolarization itself appears to increase [Ca]i while elevation of the external ion concentrations at a fixed membrane potential appears to decrease [Ca]i.  (+info)

Involvement of protein kinase C in 5-HT-stimulated ciliary activity in Helisoma trivolvis embryos. (2/2505)

1. During development, embryos of the pulmonate gastropod, Helisoma trivolvis, undergo a rotation behaviour due to the co-ordinated beating of three bands of ciliated epithelial cells. This behaviour is in part mediated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) released from a pair of identified embryonic neurons. Using time-lapse videomicroscopy to measure ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in response to pharmacological manipulations, we determined whether protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in mediating 5-HT-stimulated ciliary beating. 2. Diacylglycerol (DAG) analogues sn-1,2-dioctanoyl glycerol (DiC8; 100 microM) and 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG; 100 microM), partially mimicked the 5-HT-induced increase in CBF. In contrast, application of OAG in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ did not result in an increase in CBF. 3. 5-HT-stimulated CBF was effectively blocked by PKC inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide (10 and 100 nM) and calphostin C (10 nM). In addition, bisindolylmaleimide (100 nM) inhibited DiC8-induced increases in CBF. At a higher concentration (200 nM), bisindolylmaleimide did not significantly reduce 5-HT-stimulated cilio-excitation. 4. Two different phorbol esters, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA; 0.1, 10 or 1000 nM) and phorbol 12beta, 13alpha-dibenzoate (PDBn; 10 microM) did not alter basal CBF. TPA (1 microM) did not alter 5-HT-stimulated CBF. Likewise, the synthetic form of phosphatidylserine, N-(6-phenylhexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulphonamide (SC-9; 10 microM), did not increase CBF, whereas a strong increase in CBF was observed upon exposure to 5-HT. 5. The results suggest that a DAG-dependent, phorbol ester-insensitive isoform of PKC mediates 5-HT-stimulated CBF in ciliated epithelial cells from embryos of Helisoma trivolvis.  (+info)

Immunocytochemical and morphological evidence for intracellular self-repair as an important contributor to mammalian hair cell recovery. (3/2505)

Although recent studies have provided evidence for hair cell regeneration in mammalian inner ears, the mechanism underlying this regenerative process is still under debate. Here we report immunocytochemical, histological, electron microscopic, and autoradiographic evidence that, in cultured postnatal rat utricles, a substantial number of hair cells can survive gentamicin insult even their stereocilia are lost. These partially damaged hair cells can survive for a prolonged time and regrow the stereocilia. Although the number of stereocilia-bearing hair cells increases over time after gentamicin insult, hair cell and supporting cell numbers remain essentially unchanged. Tritiated thymidine autoradiography and bromodeoxyuridine immunocytochemistry of the cultures demonstrate that cell proliferation in the sensory epithelium is very limited and is far below the number of recovered hair cells. Furthermore, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end labeling analysis indicates that gentamicin-induced apoptosis in the sensory epithelium occurs mainly during a 2 d treatment period, and additional cell death is minimal 2-11 d after treatment. Considered together, intracellular repair of partially damaged hair cells can be an important contributor to spontaneous hair cell recovery in mammalian inner ears.  (+info)

Interplay between the NO pathway and elevated [Ca2+]i enhances ciliary activity in rabbit trachea. (4/2505)

1. Average intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and ciliary beat frequency (CBF) were simultaneously measured in rabbit airway ciliated cells in order to elucidate the molecular events that lead to ciliary activation by purinergic stimulation. 2. Extracellular ATP and extracellular UTP caused a rapid increase in both [Ca2+]i and CBF. These effects were practically abolished by a phospholipase C inhibitor (U-73122) or by suramin. 3. The effects of extracellular ATP were not altered: when protein kinase C (PKC) was inhibited by either GF 109203X or chelerythrine chloride, or when protein kinase A (PKA) was inhibited by RP-adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphothioate triethylamine (Rp-cAMPS). 4. Activation of PKC by phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (TPA) had little effect on CBF or on [Ca2+]i, while activation of PKA by forskolin or by dibutyryl-cAMP led to a small rise in CBF without affecting [Ca2+]i. 5. Direct activation of protein kinase G (PKG) with dibutyryl-cGMP had a negligible effect on CBF when [Ca2+]i was at basal level. However, dibutyryl-cGMP strongly elevated CBF when [Ca2+]i was elevated either by extracellular ATP or by ionomycin. 6. The findings suggest that the initial rise in [Ca2+]i induced by extracellular ATP activates the NO pathway, thus leading to PKG activation. In the continuous presence of elevated [Ca2+]i the stimulated PKG then induces a robust enhancement in CBF. In parallel, activated PKG plays a central role in Ca2+ influx via a still unidentified mechanism, and thus, through positive feedback, maintains CBF close to its maximal level in the continuous presence of ATP.  (+info)

Scanning electron microscopy of lithium-induced exogastrulae of Xenopus laevis. (5/2505)

Lithium-induced exogastrulae are abnormal embryos which fail to complete gastrulation and do not form normal neural structures. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to compare the surface structure of the ectoderm cells of exogastrulae with that of the ectoderm cells of normal embryos and has shown that the appearance of ciliated cells is delayed in exogastrulae. In addition, the structure of endoderm cells, which remain exposed in these embryos, has been studied.  (+info)

Use of tracheal organ cultures in toxicity testing. (6/2505)

Fragments of tracheal epithelium alone or in continuity with connective tissues, can be maintained in culture medium and used for short term or long term studies of toxicity of a variety of chemicals. Large numbers of uniform cultures are prepared with the aid of a slicing device or by application of simple method for dissecting sheets of epithelium free from underlying cartilage. The cultures may be placed in an exposure chamber-incubator mounted on a microscope stage and monitored continually for ciliostasis and exfoliation of cells. Morphology is further studied by fixation of selected specimens and preparation for light microscopy and electron microscopy. Synthetic functions are evaluated by autoradiographic measurement of incorporation of radioactive precursors into macromolecules and other dynamic features are indirectly assessed by histochemical and histoenzymatic methods. Short-term studies using these several techniques have shown that ciliostasis does not correlate with cell injury in all instances, and a long-term study has demonstrated dose dependence of a cytotoxic agent when duration of culture viability is measured. The method lends itself to a broad range of investigations in which dose, period of exposure, and role of cofactors must be independently and quantitatively assessed.  (+info)

Situs inversus and embryonic ciliary morphogenesis defects in mouse mutants lacking the KIF3A subunit of kinesin-II. (7/2505)

The embryonic cellular events that set the asymmetry of the genetic control circuit controlling left-right (L-R) axis determination in mammals are poorly understood. New insight into this problem was obtained by analyzing mouse mutants lacking the KIF3A motor subunit of the kinesin-II motor complex. Embryos lacking KIF3A die at 10 days postcoitum, exhibit randomized establishment of L-R asymmetry, and display numerous structural abnormalities. The earliest detectable abnormality in KIF3A mutant embryos is found at day 7.5, where scanning electron microscopy reveals loss of cilia ordinarily present on cells of the wild-type embryonic node, which is thought to play an important role in setting the initial L-R asymmetry. This cellular phenotype is observed before the earliest reported time of asymmetric expression of markers of the L-R signaling pathway. These observations demonstrate that the kinesin-based transport pathway needed for flagellar and ciliary morphogenesis is conserved from Chlamydomonas to mammals and support the view that embryonic cilia play a role in the earliest cellular determinative events establishing L-R asymmetry.  (+info)

Characterization and expression of the laminin gamma3 chain: a novel, non-basement membrane-associated, laminin chain. (8/2505)

Laminins are heterotrimeric molecules composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma chain; they have broad functional roles in development and in stabilizing epithelial structures. Here, we identified a novel laminin, composed of known alpha and beta chains but containing a novel gamma chain, gamma3. We have cloned gene encoding this chain, LAMC3, which maps to chromosome 9 at q31-34. Protein and cDNA analyses demonstrate that gamma3 contains all the expected domains of a gamma chain, including two consensus glycosylation sites and a putative nidogen-binding site. This suggests that gamma3-containing laminins are likely to exist in a stable matrix. Studies of the tissue distribution of gamma3 chain show that it is broadly expressed in: skin, heart, lung, and the reproductive tracts. In skin, gamma3 protein is seen within the basement membrane of the dermal-epidermal junction at points of nerve penetration. The gamma3 chain is also a prominent element of the apical surface of ciliated epithelial cells of: lung, oviduct, epididymis, ductus deferens, and seminiferous tubules. The distribution of gamma3-containing laminins on the apical surfaces of a variety of epithelial tissues is novel and suggests that they are not found within ultrastructurally defined basement membranes. It seems likely that these apical laminins are important in the morphogenesis and structural stability of the ciliated processes of these cells.  (+info)

The biogenesis maintenance and function of primary cilia are controlled through intraflagellar transport (IFT) driven by two kinesin-2 family members the heterotrimeric KIF3A/KIF3B/KAP complex and the homodimeric KIF17 engine1 2 How these motors and their cargoes gain access to the ciliary compartment is poorly understood. Consistent with this cytoplasmic manifestation of GTP-locked Ran(G19V) disrupts the gradient and abolishes ciliary access of KIF17. Furthermore KIF17 interacts with importin-β2 in a manner dependent on the CLS and inhibited by Ran-GTP. We propose that Ran plays a global part in regulating cellular compartmentalization by controlling the shuttling of cytoplasmic proteins into nuclear and ciliary compartments. The development of the primary cilium a Fructose microtubule-based organelle projecting from the surface of nearly all cells has been proposed to be a result of evolved engine protein-based trafficking unique to eukaryotic cells3. Main cilia play important tasks in ...
Primary cilia are sensory organelles which co-ordinate several developmental/repair pathways including hedgehog signalling. Studies of human renal allografts suffering acute tubular necrosis have shown that length of primary cilia borne by epithelial cells doubles throughout the nephron and collecting duct, and then normalises as renal function returns. Conversely the loss of primary cilia has been reported in chronic allograft rejection and linked to defective hedgehog signalling. We investigated the fate of primary cilia in renal allografts suffering acute rejection. Here we observed that in renal allografts undergoing acute rejection, primary cilia were retained, with their length increasing 1 week after transplantation and remaining elevated. We used a mouse model of acute renal injury to demonstrate that elongated renal primary cilia in the injured renal tubule show evidence of smoothened accumulation, a biomarker for activation of hedgehog signalling. We conclude that primary cilium-mediated
OBJECTIVES: Primary cilia are sensory organelles which co-ordinate several developmental/repair pathways including hedgehog signalling. Studies of human renal allografts suffering acute tubular necrosis have shown that length of primary cilia borne by epithelial cells doubles throughout the nephron and collecting duct, and then normalises as renal function returns. Conversely the loss of primary cilia has been reported in chronic allograft rejection and linked to defective hedgehog signalling. We investigated the fate of primary cilia in renal allografts suffering acute rejection. RESULTS: Here we observed that in renal allografts undergoing acute rejection, primary cilia were retained, with their length increasing 1 week after transplantation and remaining elevated. We used a mouse model of acute renal injury to demonstrate that elongated renal primary cilia in the injured renal tubule show evidence of smoothened accumulation, a biomarker for activation of hedgehog signalling. We conclude that primary
TY - JOUR. T1 - The IFT-A complex regulates Shh signaling through cilia structure and membrane protein trafficking. AU - Liem, Karel F.. AU - Ashe, Alyson. AU - He, Mu. AU - Satir, Peter. AU - Moran, Jennifer. AU - Beier, David. AU - Wicking, Carol. AU - Anderson, Kathryn V.. PY - 2012/6/11. Y1 - 2012/6/11. N2 - Two intraflagellar transport (IFT) complexes, IFT-A and IFT-B, build and maintain primary cilia and are required for activity of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway. A weak allele of the IFT-A gene, Ift144, caused subtle defects in cilia structure and ectopic activation of the Shh pathway. In contrast, strong loss of IFT-A, caused by either absence of Ift144 or mutations in two IFT-A genes, blocked normal ciliogenesis and decreased Shh signaling. In strong IFT-A mutants, the Shh pathway proteins Gli2, Sufu, and Kif7 localized correctly to cilia tips, suggesting that these pathway components were trafficked by IFT-B. In contrast, the membrane proteins Arl13b, ACIII, and Smo failed to ...
Primary cilia have been proposed to participate in the modulation of growth element signaling pathways. ongoing proliferation and could potentially become targeted pharmacologically. Intro Cilia are projections of ciliary axonemes consisting of nine doublet microtubules that are surrounded by ciliary membranes that either have (motile cilia) or do not have (nonmotile main and motile nodal cilia) a PP242 central pair of singlet microtubules. Main cilia are a ubiquitous feature of epithelial cells including those of breast prostate kidney liver and pancreas. These sensory organelles modulate mitogen and morphogen signaling sequester receptors for growth factors including platelet derived growth element (PDGF) and epidermal growth element (EGF) contain transcription factors and effect cytosolic calcium PP242 fluxes (1-5). Their assembly requires intraflagellar transport (IFT) is definitely templated by mother centrioles and is associated with interphase and cell cycle arrest (6-8). Conversely ...
Polycystic kidney disease is characterized by cardiovascular irregularities, including hypertension. Dopamine, a circulating hormone, is implicated in essential hypertension in humans and animal models. Vascular endothelial primary cilia are known to function as mechano-sensory organelles. Although both primary cilia and dopamine receptors play important roles in vascular hypertension, their relationship has never been explored. To determine the roles of the dopaminergic system and mechano-sensory cilia, we studied the effects of dopamine on ciliary length and function in wild-type and mechano-insensitive polycystic mutant cells (Pkd1−/− and Tg737orpk/orpk). We show for the first time that mouse vascular endothelia exhibit dopamine receptor-type 5 (DR5), which colocalizes to primary cilia in cultured cells and mouse arteries in vivo. DR5 activation increases cilia length in arteries and endothelial cells through cofilin and actin polymerization. DR5 activation also restores cilia function in ...
3-OST-5 controls cilia length through a pathway that controls the expression of two ciliogenic transcription factor genes in KV, foxj1a and rfx2, and the FGF response gene sef. Fgfr1 and 3-OST-5 have similar functions: they regulate DFC/KV expression of foxj1a and rfx2, cilia length and asymmetric fluid flow in KV, and are cell-autonomously required in KV cells for LR development (Neugebauer et al., 2009). In addition, they have similar phenotypes, such as curved body axis, that are common in morphants or mutants of ciliogenic genes such as polaris (ift88) and foxj1a (Bisgrove et al., 2005; Yu et al., 2008; Tian et al., 2009; Hellman et al., 2010). Thus, it is likely that 3-OST-5 and Fgfr1 signaling function in the same ciliogenic pathway to regulate LR development; this is further substantiated by dosage experiments with 3-OST-5 and the Fgf8 ligand (Fig. 3). We propose that 3-OST-5 in DFC/KV cells generates a glycocode necessary for FGF signaling at the cell surface, which then maintains the ...
The primary cilium is a small sensory organelle that is required for different aspects of embryonic development, including the formation of the heart. The structure and composition of cilia have been extensively studied, so that several markers of primary cilia have now been identified. However, the role of cilia in specific cell types remains poorly understood. We describe here a series of approaches to image primary cilia in the rodent heart or in primary cultures of cells dissociated from the heart. As the cilium is a marker of cell polarity, we also provide, for quantitative image analysis of cilium orientation, tools which are generally applicable to other types of tissues ...
Cilia are microtubule-based organelles that are expressed on the surface of most cells in the mammalian body. Intraflagellar transport (IFT), the process by which cilia are formed and maintained, was first described in Chlamydomonas, and proteins required for IFT concentrate at the base of cilia, where they assemble into large protein complexes called IFT particles (Kozminski et al., 1995; Piperno and Mead, 1997). The IFT particles are trafficked along the axoneme by a heterotrimeric kinesin-II and a cytoplasmic dynein in the anterograde and retrograde directions, respectively. Cilia and flagella have diverse functions ranging from fluid and cell movement to mechanosensation and sensory perception (Davenport and Yoder, 2005; Scholey, 2003).. In mammals, Kif3a is a component of the kinesin-II motor protein complex required for cilia assembly while Ift88 (also known as Tg737 or polaris) is a core component of the IFT particle (Cole et al., 1998; Pazour et al., 2000; Taulman et al., 2001). Mice ...
Purpose : Primary cilia are hair-like organelles that extend from the apical surface of most mammalian cells. Defects in primary cilia in the eye cause ciliopathies, including renal disease, cerebral anomalies and retinitis pigmentosa. Currently, it is well-known that the connecting cilium in rod and cone photoreceptors contribute to phototransduction. However, the role of cilia in non-photoreceptors in the retina remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to describe the distribution of primary cilia in other layers of retina in mouse and human during development. Methods : In this study, eyes were collected from the different developmental stages in Centrin2-GFP::Arl13b-mCherry transgenic mice, wildtype CD1 mice and C57BL/6J mice to study the distribution of primary cilia in vivo. Retinal sections were stained using Pax6, Sox9, and Chx10 antibodies to determine the fraction of ciliated cells that express these markers. In addition, wildtype CD1 and C57BL/6J mice eyes were used for whole ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sensory Signaling-Dependent Remodeling of Olfactory Cilia Architecture in C. elegans. AU - Mukhopadhyay, Saikat. AU - Lu, Yun. AU - Shaham, Shai. AU - Sengupta, Piali. PY - 2008/5/13. Y1 - 2008/5/13. N2 - Nonmotile primary cilia are sensory organelles composed of a microtubular axoneme and a surrounding membrane sheath that houses signaling molecules. Optimal cellular function requires the precise regulation of axoneme assembly, membrane biogenesis, and signaling protein targeting and localization via as yet poorly understood mechanisms. Here, we show that sensory signaling is required to maintain the architecture of the specialized AWB olfactory neuron cilia in C. elegans. Decreased sensory signaling results in alteration of axoneme length and expansion of a membraneous structure, thereby altering the topological distribution of a subset of ciliary transmembrane signaling molecules. Signaling-regulated alteration of ciliary structures can be bypassed by modulation of ...
Cilia are found on nearly every cell type in the mammalian body, and have been historically classified as either motile or immotile. Motile cilia are important for fluid and cellular movement; however, the roles of non-motile or primary cilia in most tissues remain unknown. Several genetic syndromes, called the ciliopathies, are associated with defects in cilia structure or function and have a wide range of clinical presentations. Much of what we know about the formation and maintenance of cilia comes from model systems like C. elegans and Chalmydomonas. Studies of mammalian cilia in live tissues have been hampered by difficulty visualizing them. To facilitate analyses of mammalian cilia function we generated an inducible CiliaGFP mouse by targeting mouse cDNA encoding a cilia-localized protein somatostatin receptor 3 fused to GFP (Sstr3::GFP) into the ROSA26 locus. In this system, Sstr3::GFP is expressed from the ubiquitous ROSA26 promoter after Cre mediated deletion of an upstream Neo cassette flanked
Mucus, however, traps smaller particles like pollen and smoke. This mucus is a gel-like substance that is composed mainly of mucins, glycoproteins, and carbohydrates. A â ¦ These cilia direct the movement of molecules in a particular direction aids the function of excretion and secretion. In motile cilia, such as on the multiciliated epidermis (trachea, oviduct, or Xenopus tadpole skin), dynein motors generate ciliary movement, which drives fluid flow. Air that is inhaled may not necessarily be free of dust particles. The cilia In the female reproductive system, the cilia assist the movement of the ovum through the fallopian tube towards the uterus. im sure it isnt options c, d, or e. but i could be wrong. The ciliary apparatus is connected to cell cycle progression and proliferation, and cilia play a vital part in human and animal development and in everyday life. Cilia are broadly divided into two types. The function of cilia in the trachea and bronchi is to protect the airways from being ...
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) are multipotent stem cells that show great potential as a cell source for osteogenic tissue replacements and it is critical to understand the underlying mechanisms of lineage specification. Here we explore the role of primary cilia in human ASC (hASC) differentiation. This study focuses on the chemosensitivity of the primary cilium and the action of its associated proteins: polycystin-1 (PC1), polycystin-2 (PC2) and intraflagellar transport protein-88 (IFT88), in hASC osteogenesis. To elucidate cilia-mediated mechanisms of hASC differentiation, siRNA knockdown of PC1, PC2 and IFT88 was performed to disrupt cilia-associated protein function. Immunostaining of the primary cilium structure indicated phenotypic-dependent changes in cilia morphology. hASC cultured in osteogenic differentiation media yielded cilia of a more elongated conformation than those cultured in expansion media, indicating cilia-sensitivity to the chemical environment and a relationship between the
Description: Glial cells maintain homeostasis that is essential to neuronal function. Injury to the nervous system leads to the activation and proliferation of glial cells and pericytes, which helps to wall off the damaged region and restore homeostatic conditions. Sonic hedgehog is a mitogen which is implicated in injury-induced proliferation of glial cells and pericytes. The mitogenic effects of sonic hedgehog require primary cilia, but the few reports on glial or pericyte primary cilia do not agree about their abundance and did not address effects of injury on these cilia. Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles that arise from the centrosome and are retracted before cells divide. Depending on cell type, proteins concentrated in cilia can transduce several mitotic, chemosensory, or mechanosensory stimuli. The present study investigated effects of stab wound injury on the incidence and length of glial and pericyte primary cilia in the area adjacent to the injury core. Astrocytes, ...
Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS) is a rare, congenital primordial microcephalic dwarfism disorder. MGS is caused by genetic variants of components of the origin recognition complex (ORC) consisting of ORC1-6 and the pre-replication complex, which together enable origin firing and hence genome replication. In addition, ORC1 has previously been shown to play a role in ciliogenesis. Here, we extend this work and investigate the function of ORC1 and two other members of the complex on cilia at an organismal level. Knockdown experiments in zebrafish confirmed the impact of ORC1 on cilia. ORC1-deficiency confers defects anticipated to arise from impaired cilia function such as formation of oedema, kidney cysts, curved bodies and left-right asymmetry defects. We found ORC1 furthermore required for cilium formation in zebrafish and demonstrate that ciliopathy phenotypes in ORC1-depleted zebrafish could not be rescued by reconstitution with ORC1 bearing a genetic variant previously identified in MGS patients. Loss-of
Cilia and flagella play important roles in human health by contributing to cellular motility as well as sensing and responding to environmental cues. Defects in ciliary assembly and/or function can lead to a range of human diseases, collectively known as the ciliopathies, including polycystic kidney, liver and pancreatic diseases, sterility, obesity, situs inversus, hydrocephalus and retinal degeneration. A basic understanding of how cilia form and function is essential for deciphering ciliopathies and generating therapeutic treatments. The cilium is a unique compartment that contains a distinct complement of protein and lipid. However, the molecular mechanisms by which soluble and membrane protein components are targeted to and trafficked into the cilium are not well understood. Cilia are generated and maintained by IFT (intraflagellar transport) in which IFT cargoes are transported along axonemal microtubules by kinesin and dynein motors. A variety of genetic, biochemical and cell biological ...
We have characterized the adenylyl cyclase activity in a newly developed preparation of isolated olfactory cilia from the bovine chemosensory neuroepithelium. Like its counterparts from frog and rat, the ciliary enzyme was stimulated by guanine nucleotides, by forskolin, and by a variety of odorants in the presence of GTP. The main difference between the bovine olfactory cilia preparation and the frog and rat olfactory cilia preparation is that odorant stimulation of the bovine olfactory adenylyl cyclase is strongly inhibited by submillimolar concentrations of dithiothreitol. This inhibition is a consequence of a concomitant increase in the GTP-stimulated level and the decrease of the odorant stimulation of the enzyme. Nasal respiratory cilia have a much lower level of adenylyl cyclase activity and show no odorant stimulation. Owing to the large quantities of material available, the bovine olfactory cilia preparation is advantageous for studies of the proteins involved in chemosensory
Almost all mammalian cells carry one primary cilium that functions as a biosensor for chemical and mechanical stimuli. Genetic damages that compromise cilia formation or function cause a spectrum of disorders referred to as ciliapathies. Recent studies have demonstrated that some pharmacological agents and extracellular environmental changes can alter primary cilium length. Renal injury is a well-known example of an environmental insult that triggers cilia length modification. Lithium treatment causes primary cilia to extend in several cell types including neuronal cells;this phenomenon is likely independent of glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibition. In renal epithelial cell lines, deflection of the primary cilia by fluid shear shortens them by reducing the intracellular cyclic AMP level, leading to a subsequent decrease in mechanosensitivity to fluid shear. Primary cilium length is also influenced by the dynamics of actin filaments and microtubules through the levels of soluble tubulin in the ...
Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles that extend from the surface of most vertebrate cells. Our lab showed that Hedgehog signaling in mammals depends on this organelle. We study how this organelle controls Hedgehog signaling and the mechanisms that control cilia formation
Cilia are small, microtubule-based protrusions important for development and homeostasis. We recently demonstrated that the planar cell polarity effector protein Fuz is a critical regulator of axonemal intraflagellar transport dynamics and localization. Here, we report our findings on the role of the small GTPase Rsg1, a known binding partner of Fuz, and its role in the dynamics and cytoplasmic localization of intraflagellar transport proteins. We find that Rsg1 loss of function leads to impaired axonemal IFT dynamics in multiciliated cells. We further show that Rsg1 is required for appropriate cytoplasmic localization of the retrograde IFT-A protein IFT43. Finally, we show that Rsg1 governs the apical localization of basal bodies, the anchoring structures of cilia. Our data suggest that Rsg1 is a regulator of multiple aspects of ciliogenesis, including apical trafficking of basal bodies and the localization and dynamics intraflagellar transport proteins ...
Cilia are microtubule-based organelles that are present on most cells and are required for normal tissue development and function. Defective cilia cause complex syndromes with multiple organ manifestations termed ciliopathies. A crucial step during ciliogenesis in multiciliated cells (MCCs) is the association of future basal bodies with the apical plasma membrane, followed by their correct spacing and planar orientation. Here, we report a novel role for ELMO-DOCK1, which is a bipartite guanine nucleotide exchange factor complex for the small GTPase Rac1, and for the membrane-cytoskeletal linker Ezrin, in regulating centriole/basal body migration, docking and spacing. Downregulation of each component results in ciliopathy-related phenotypes in zebrafish and disrupted ciliogenesis in Xenopus epidermal MCCs. Subcellular analysis revealed a striking impairment of basal body docking and spacing, which is likely to account for the observed phenotypes. These results are substantiated by showing a ...
A consensus has not been reached on the mechanism for how the nodal flow induces an asymmetric signal that ultimately results in asymmetric regions of left-specific gene expression (Tabin 2006). The main theories involve asymmetric bending of mechanosensory cilia on opposite sides of the node (McGrath et al. 2003; Tabin & Vogan 2003) or the directional transport of (i) morphogen proteins (Nonaka et al. 1998) or (ii) nodal vesicular parcels (NVPs) that are vesicles containing sonic hedgehog (SHH) and retinoic acid (RA; Tanaka et al. 2005). It was also not immediately obvious how whirling cilia could produce such a directional flow. The rotating motion appears to result from bending of the cilium close to its base. Although the base of the cilium is fixed and the cilium does not rotate about its centreline, the direction of bending near the base rotates continuously. As noted by both Nonaka et al. (2005) and Okada et al. (2005), the majority of cilia are not tilted to the degree that they make ...
Lien vers Pubmed [PMID] - 21501571. Biol Aujourdhui 2011;205(1):5-28. Cilia and flagella are ubiquitous organelles that protrude from the surfaces of many cells, and whose architecture is highly conserved from protists to humans. These complex organelles, composed of over 500 proteins, can be either immotile or motile. They are involved in a myriad of biological processes, including sensing (non-motile cilia) and/or cell motility or movement of extracellular fluids (motile cilia). The ever-expanding list of human diseases linked to defective cilia illustrates the functional importance of cilia and flagella. These ciliopathies are characterised by an impressive diversity of symptoms and an often complex genetic etiology. A precise knowledge of cilia and flagella biology is thus critical to better understand these pathologies. However, multi-ciliated cells are terminally differentiated and difficult to manipulate, and a primary cilium is assembled only when the cell exits from the cell cycle. In ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Linking early determinants and cilia-driven leftward flow in left-right axis specification of Xenopus laevis. T2 - A theoretical approach. AU - Schweickert, Axel. AU - Walentek, Peter. AU - Thumberger, Thomas. AU - Danilchik, Mike. PY - 2012/2/1. Y1 - 2012/2/1. N2 - In vertebrates, laterality - the asymmetric placement of the viscera including organs of the gastrointestinal system, heart and lungs - is under the genetic control of a conserved signaling pathway in the left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM). A key feature of this pathway, shared by embryos of all non-avian vertebrate classes analyzed to date (e.g. fish, amphibia and mammals) is the formation of a transitory midline epithelial structure. Remarkably, the motility of cilia projecting from this epithelium produce a leftward-directed movement of extracellular liquid. This leftward flow precedes any sign of asymmetry in gene expression. Numerous analyses have shown that this leftward flow is not only necessary, but indeed ...
Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are cellular structures familiar to schoolchildren everywhere for the elegant swath they cut as they propel protozoa through pond water. Less well recognized is the fact that a single immotile cilium is present on almost every type of vertebrate cell. These so-called primary cilia were discovered more than a century ago and, yet, their functions remain largely unexplored (Singla and Reiter, 2006).. It is now becoming clear that the primary cilium plays important roles in both development and disease. Perhaps its most dramatic function is in the kidney - ciliary defects cause polycystic kidney disease, the most common life-threatening monogenic illness. Primary cilia also have roles in sensing environmental information. Photoreceptors and odorant receptors function on primary cilia, and primary cilia are essential for sound reception. Therefore, it is not much of an exaggeration to say that we see, smell and hear through cilia.. Our work suggests that cilia also ...
Primary cilia are critical for Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in vertebrates, and defects in Hh signaling or cilium structure cause pleiotropic diseases known as ciliopathies in humans. Binding of a Hh ligand to the receptor Patched (Ptc) relieves Ptc-mediated inhibition of the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo). Through a mechanism that is not entirely clear, this leads to accumulation of Smo in the cilium and subsequent recruitment of Suppressor of Fused (SuFu) and the Gli transcription factors into the cilium. The Glis are then processed into active forms that translocate into the nucleus to mediate Hh signaling outputs. Mutations in the gene encoding Ellis-van Crevid syndrome protein 2 (Evc2) cause inherited ciliopathy syndromes in which cilia of various cell types appear normal yet show impaired Hh signaling. Dorn et al. report that the cilium-localized protein Evc2 was required for Sonic hedgehog (Shh)-induced transcription of GLI1 in cultured human fibroblasts but had no function in ...
Cilia are microtubule based structures that can be motile or immotile, the latter being referred to as primary cilia. In contrast to motile cilia, such as those found on epithelia of the trachea, the importance of the primary cilium is relatively undefined despite their presence on most mammalian cells. Cilia are extremely complex organelles which are devoid of ribosomes, thus, proteins required for cilia assembly, maintenance, and signaling must be imported into the cilium. This occurs through a microtubule-based transport system called intraflagellar transport (IFT). Proteins involved in IFT concentrate around the basal body at the base of the cilium and assemble into complexes (IFT particles) which are moved up the cilium by a kinesin and returned by a cytoplasmic dynein. The IFT particle is thought to mediate the transport of cargo into the cilium as well as to deliver signals initiated in the cilium to the cytosol. Although the primary cilium was once thought to be a vestigial organelle, ...
Fig. 1 The primary cilium is dynamically disassembled and reassembled during neuronal differentiation.. (A) Time-lapse sequence showing Arl13b+ particle retention following apical abscission (movie S1). White arrows indicate apical abscission, white arrowheads indicate the retained Arl13b+ particle, and yellow arrowheads indicate the abscised primary cilium. Dashed magenta lines indicate ventricular surface. Scale bar, 10 μm. Boxed regions are enlarged in right-hand panels. Primary cilium is highlighted by white dashed lines. Scale bar, 0.7 μm. (B) Time-lapse sequence of a cell undergoing primary cilium reassembly during apical process retraction (movie S2). Cyan dashed lines demarcate cell body of differentiating neuron, and white arrowheads indicate the reassembling primary cilium. Boxed regions are enlarged in right-hand panels. Scale bars, 5 and 0.7 μm (enlarged region). (C) Cell undergoing axonogenesis transfected with Arl13b-GFP to label the ciliary membrane (green), mKate2-GPI to label ...
Actin fibers and microtubules help cilia coordinate the direction and sequence of their beating, Werner et al. show.. At first, the multiple cilia on an embryonic cell are a bit like the musicians in a garage band, each doing its own thing. But over time the filaments turn so that they all beat in the same direction. They also coordinate their timing, so that the cilia at the front of the cell beat first and the ones at the back of the cell stroke last. The planar cell polarity signaling pathway and hydrodynamic forces on the cilia help set up this polarity. Using the cilia-coated epithelial cells of Xenopus embryos, Werner et al. investigated the roles of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons in the process.. Werner et al. observed actin fibers connecting neighboring cilia. These filaments were absent in the youngest cells that hadnt yet polarized. To determine the fibers function, the researchers disassembled them using the drug cytochalasin D. Without actin fibers, the cilia couldnt ...
In the kidney, primary cilia extend off the apical surface of the epithelium into the tubule lumen and are present on most cells of the nephron (Figure 1B). These cilia were thought to be of minimal importance for renal development. However, several studies in model organisms, some of which paradoxically lack kidneys, led to an increase in clinical and basic research directed at understanding the function of the renal cilium (reviewed in references [2,6,7]).. In one of these studies, Barr and Sternberg (46) revealed that the homologs of polycystin-1 and -2, which are involved in the dominant forms of PKD (ADPKD) in humans, localize to cilia of sensory neurons of C. elegans. This has also been shown for the human and mouse homologs (35,47). Loss of the polycystins in C. elegans did not disrupt cilia formation but rather altered behavioral responses that require cilia function. At approximately the same time, several groups that were working in Chlamydomonas, C. elegans, and mice uncovered that ...
Cilia are conserved organelles that have important motility, sensory and signalling roles. The transition zone (TZ) at the base of the cilium is critical for cilia function, and defects in several TZ proteins are associated with human congenital ciliopathies such as Nephronophthisis (NPHP) and Meckel Gruber syndrome (MKS). In several species, MKS and NPHP proteins form separate complexes that cooperate with Cep290 to assemble the TZ, but flies appear to lack core components of the NPHP module. We show that MKS proteins in flies are spatially separated from Cep290 at the TZ, and that flies mutant for individual MKS genes fail to recruit other MKS proteins to the TZ, while Cep290 appears to be recruited normally. Although there are abnormalities in microtubule and membrane organisation in developing MKS mutant cilia, these defects are less apparent in adults, where sensory cilia and sperm flagella appear to function quite normally. Thus, localising MKS proteins to the cilium or flagellum is not ...
This paper introduces a new design for individually controlled magnetic artificial cilia for use in fluid devices and specifically intended to improve the mixing in DNA microarray experiments. The design has been implemented using a low-cost prototype that can be fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and off-the-shelf parts and achieves large cilium deflections (59% of the cilium length). The devices performance is measured via a series of mixing experiments using different actuation patterns inspired by the blinking vortex theory. The experimental results, quantified using the relative standard deviation of the color when mixing two colored inks, show that exploiting the individual control leads to faster mixing (38% reduction in mixing time) than when operating the device in a simultaneous-actuation mode with the same average cilium beat frequency. Furthermore, the experimental results show an optimal beating pattern that minimizes the mixing time. The existence and character of this ...
Cilia and flagella are microtubule-based organelles present at the surface of most cells, ranging from protozoa to vertebrates, in which they are implicated in processes from morphogenesis to cell motility. In vertebrate neurons, microtubule-associated MAP6 proteins stabilize cold-resistant microtubules via their Mn and Mc modules, and play a role in synaptic plasticity. Although centrioles, cilia and flagella have cold-stable microtubules, MAP6 proteins have not been identified in these organelles, suggesting that additional proteins support this role in these structures. Here, we characterize HsSAXO1 (FAM154A) as the first human member of a widely conserved family of MAP6-related proteins specific to centrioles and cilia microtubules. Our data demonstrated that HsSAXO1 binds specifically to centriole and cilia microtubules. We identify, in vivo and in vitro, HsSAXO1 Mn modules as responsible for microtubule binding and stabilization as well as being necessary for cilia localization. Finally, ...
Investigator: Grant Turner. Mentor: Joseph Sisson, MD. Cilia are essential components of multiple organ systems. Inherited defects in ciliogenesis, the formation of cilia, are often lethal in utero, indicating a critical role for cilia in growth and development. Intraflagellar transport proteins (IFTs) are a diverse group of proteins that are essential for moving proteins on and off of the axoneme and found to have multiple important functions in the structure and function of cilia. For example, defects in IFT88 cause severe defects in the sensing cilia in the kidneys, resulting in polycystic kidney formation, and in the lung, where bronchiectasis results. While the role of IFTs in ciliogenesis has been established, the specific role IFT88 plays in airway cilia structure and function is unknown. We hypothesized that: 1) IFT88 is required for de novo ciliogenesis in vitro; and 2) IFT88 is required to translocate the methacholine receptor, which is part of a cilia motility regulator complex, from ...
Recent studies of the primary cilium have begun to provide further insights into ciliary ultrastructure, with an emerging picture of complex compartmentalization and molecular components that combine in functional modules. Many proteins that are mutated in ciliopathies are localized to the transition zone, a compartment of the proximal region of the cilium. The loss of these components can disrupt ciliary functions such as the control of protein entry and exit from the cilium, the possible trafficking of essential ciliary components, and the regulation of signaling cascades and control of the cell cycle. The discovery of functional modules within the primary cilium may help in understanding the variable phenotypes and pleiotropy in ciliopathies.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanism of transport of IFT particles in C. elegans cilia by the concerted action of kinesin-II and OSM-3 motors. AU - Pan, Xiaoyu. AU - Ou, Guangshuo. AU - Civelekoglu-Scholey, Gul. AU - Blacque, Oliver E.. AU - Endres, Nicholas F.. AU - Tao, Li. AU - Mogilner, Alex. AU - Leroux, Michel R.. AU - Vale, Ronald D.. AU - Scholey, Jonathan M.. PY - 2006/9/25. Y1 - 2006/9/25. N2 - The assembly and function of cilia on Caenorhabditis elegans neurons depends on the action of two kinesin-2 motors, heterotrimeric kinesin-II and homodimeric OSM-3-kinesin, which cooperate to move the same intraflagellar transport (IFT) particles along microtubule (MT) doublets. Using competitive in vitro MT gliding assays, we show that purified kinesin-II and OSM-3 cooperate to generate movement similar to that seen along the cilium in the absence of any additional regulatory factors. Quantitative modeling suggests that this could reflect an alternating action mechanism, in which the motors take turns to ...
ginkgo --focus=Runtime* -noColor -v -dryRun Running Suite: runtime ====================== Random Seed: 1516125117 Will run 42 of 164 specs ................ RuntimePolicyEnforcement Policy Enforcement Always Always to Never with policy /Users/ianvernon/go/src/github.com/cilium/cilium/test/runtime/Policies.go:258 • ------------------------------ RuntimePolicyEnforcement Policy Enforcement Always Always to Never without policy /Users/ianvernon/go/src/github.com/cilium/cilium/test/runtime/Policies.go:293 • ------------------------------ RuntimePolicyEnforcement Policy Enforcement Never Container creation /Users/ianvernon/go/src/github.com/cilium/cilium/test/runtime/Policies.go:332 • ------------------------------ RuntimePolicyEnforcement Policy Enforcement Never Never to default with policy /Users/ianvernon/go/src/github.com/cilium/cilium/test/runtime/Policies.go:349 ................. Ran 42 of 164 Specs in 0.002 seconds SUCCESS! -- 0 Passed , 0 Failed , 0 Pending , 122 Skipped PASS Ginkgo ...
kubectl -n kube-system get pods -l k8s-app=cilium NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE cilium-5ngzd 1/1 Running 0 3m19s $ kubectl -n kube-system exec cilium-1c2cz -- cilium endpoint list ENDPOINT POLICY (ingress) POLICY (egress) IDENTITY LABELS (source:key[=value]) IPv6 IPv4 STATUS ENFORCEMENT ENFORCEMENT 108 Disabled Disabled 104 k8s:io.cilium.k8s.policy.cluster=default ready k8s:io.cilium.k8s.policy.serviceaccount=coredns k8s:io.kubernetes.pod.namespace=kube-system k8s:k8s-app=kube-dns 1011 Disabled Disabled 104 k8s:io.cilium.k8s.policy.cluster=default ready k8s:io.cilium.k8s.policy.serviceaccount=coredns k8s:io.kubernetes.pod.namespace=kube-system k8s:k8s-app=kube-dns 2407 Disabled Disabled 22839 k8s:class=deathstar ready k8s:io.cilium.k8s.policy.cluster=default k8s:io.cilium.k8s.policy.serviceaccount=default k8s:io.kubernetes.pod.namespace=default k8s:org=empire 2607 Disabled Disabled 4 reserved:health ready 3339 Disabled Disabled 22839 ...
I love just wandering through all the ultrastructural data in our databases. This structure is called a cilium. With the exception of a few types of cells, (acinar cells, T lymphocytes and hepatocytes), every cell in your body has a cilia. In the vision community, we are used to seeing these structures in the distal portion of the photoreceptors. The reality is that every cell in the retina has a cilium and some cells use the cilia as a means to employ highly specialized functions like the photoreceptor outer segment or the hair cell or the respiratory epithelium of the lung.. Cilia were thought for a long time to be vestigal organelles that are formed in development, then left over after the developmental process ended. Prachee Avasthi @PracheeAC has noted that cilia are signaling centers capable of sensing a variety of extracellular stimuli: fluid flow in the kidney, odorants in olfactory neurons, and hormones in the satiety center of the brain. Motile cilia in the trachea and brain ...
The breaking of left-right symmetry in the mammalian embryo is believed to occur in a transient embryonic structure, the node, when cilia create a leftward flow of liquid. It has been widely confirmed that this nodal flow is the first sign of left-right differentiation; however, the mechanism through which embryonic cilia produce their movement and how the leftward flow confers laterality are still requiring investigation. The ciliary motility in the embryonic node involves complex dynein activations and the handed information is transmitted to the cells by the flow produced by cilia, either mechanically and/or by advection of a chemical species. In this paper, we present a computational model of ciliary ultrastructure (protein-structure model) and discuss the scenarios that incorporate this internal microtubule-dynein system with the external fluidic environment (fluid-structure-protein interaction model, FSPI). By employing computational fluid dynamics, deformable mesh computational techniques ...
Eukaryotic cilia/flagella are ancient organelles with motility and sensory functions. Cilia display significant ultrastructural conservation where present across the eukaryotic phylogeny; however, diversity in ciliary biology exists and the ability to produce cilia has been lost independently on a number of occasions. Land plants provide an excellent system for the investigation of cilia evolution and loss across a broad phylogeny, because early divergent land plant lineages produce cilia, whereas most seed plants do not. This review highlights the differences in cilia form and function across land plants and discusses how recent advances in genomics are providing novel insights into the evolutionary trajectory of ciliary proteins. We propose a renewed effort to adopt ciliated land plants as models to investigate the mechanisms underpinning complex ciliary processes, such as number control, the coordination of basal body placement and the regulation of beat patterns.
Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles that extend from the surface of most vertebrate cells. Our lab showed that Hedgehog signaling in mammals depends on this organelle. We study how this organelle controls Hedgehog signaling and the mechanisms that control cilia formation. ...
Cilia are antenna-like extensions of the plasma membrane found in nearly all cell types. In the retina of the eye, photoreceptors develop unique sensory cilia. Not much was known about the mechanisms underlying the formation and function of photoreceptor cilia, largely because of technical limitations and the specific structural and functional modifications that cannot be modeled in vitro. With recent advances in microscopy techniques and molecular and biochemical approaches, we are now beginning to understand the molecular basis of photoreceptor ciliary architecture, ciliary function and its involvement in human diseases. Here, I will discuss the studies that have revealed new knowledge of how photoreceptor cilia regulate their identity and function while coping with high metabolic and trafficking demands associated with processing light signal.
Cilia are evolutionarily conserved microtubule-based organelles that are crucial for diverse biological functions, including motility, cell signaling and sensory perception. In humans, alterations in the formation and function of cilia manifest clinically as ciliopathies, a growing class of pleiotro …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evidence for a self-organized compliant mechanism for the spontaneous steady beating of cilia. AU - Foster, Kenneth W.. AU - Vidyadharan, Jyothish. AU - Sangani, Ashok S.. PY - 2017/7. Y1 - 2017/7. N2 - Cilia or eukaryotic flagella are slender 200-nm-diameter organelles that move the immersing fluid relative to a cell and sense the environment. Their core structure is nine doublet microtubules (DMTs) arranged around a central-pair. When motile, thousands of tiny motors slide the DMTs relative to each other to facilitate traveling waves of bending along the ciliums length. These motors provide the energy to change the shape of the cilium and overcome the viscous forces of moving in the surrounding fluid. In planar beating, motors walk toward where the cilium is attached to the cell body. Traveling waves are initiated by motors bending the elastic cilium back and forth, a self-organized mechanical oscillator. We found remarkably that the energy in a wave is nearly constant over a ...
Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy, an autosomal recessive chondrodysplasia, often leads to death in infancy because of a severely constricted thoracic cage and respiratory insufficiency; retinal degeneration, cystic renal disease and polydactyly may be complicating features. We show that IFT80 mutations underlie a subset of Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy cases, establishing the first association of a defective intraflagellar transport (IFT) protein with human disease. Knockdown of ift80 in zebrafish resulted in cystic kidneys, and knockdown in Tetrahymena thermophila produced shortened or absent cilia. ...
The ctenophore swimming-plate has been examined with the electron microscope. It has been recognized as an association of long cilia in tight hexagonal packing. One of the directions of the hexagonal packing is parallel to the long edge of the swimming-plate and is perpendicular to the direction of the ciliary beat. All the cilia in the swimming-plate are identically oriented. The effective beat in the movement of the swimming-plate is directed towards the aboral pole of the animal, and this is also the side of the unpaired peripheral filament in all the cilia. The direction of the ciliary beat is fixed in relation to the position of the filaments of the cilia. The swimming-plate cilium differs from other types of cilia and flagella in having a filament arrangement that can be described as 9 + 3 as opposed to the conventional 9 + 2 pattern. The central filaments appear in a group of two tubular filaments and an associated compact filament. The compact filament might have a supporting function. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Particulate matter in cigarette smoke increases ciliary axoneme beating through mechanical stimulation. AU - Navarrette, Chelsea R.. AU - Sisson, Joseph H.. AU - Nance, Elizabeth. AU - Allen-Gipson, Diane. AU - Hanes, Justin. AU - Wyatt, Todd A.. PY - 2012/6/1. Y1 - 2012/6/1. N2 - Background: The lungs ability to trap and clear foreign particles via the mucociliary elevator is an important mechanism for protecting the lung against respirable irritants and microorganisms. Although cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and particulate inhalation are known to alter mucociliary clearance, little is known about how CS and nanoparticles (NPs) modify cilia beating at the cytoskeletal infrastructure, or axonemal, level. Methods: We used a cell-free model to introduce cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and NPs with variant size and surface chemistry to isolated axonemes and measured changes in ciliary motility. We hypothesized that CSE would alter cilia beating and that alterations in ciliary beat ...
Dysfunction of primary cilia is associated with tissue-specific or syndromic disorders. RPGR is a ciliary protein, mutations in which can lead to retinitis pigmentosa (RP), cone-rod degeneration, respiratory infections and hearing disorders. Though RPGR is implicated in ciliary transport, the pathogenicity of RPGR mutations and the mechanism of underlying phenotypic heterogeneity are still unclear. Here we have utilized genetic rescue studies in zebrafish to elucidate the effect of human disease-associated mutations on its function. We show that rpgr is expressed predominantly in the retina, brain and gut of zebrafish. In the retina, RPGR primarily localizes to the sensory cilium of photoreceptors. Antisense morpholino (MO)-mediated knockdown of rpgr function in zebrafish results in reduced length of Kupffers vesicle (KV) cilia and is associated with ciliary anomalies including shortened body-axis, kinked tail, hydrocephaly and edema but does not affect retinal development. These phenotypes can ...
We have examined thin sections and replicas of freeze-fractured cilia of Tetrahymena pyriformis. The ciliary necklace located at the base of all freeze-fractured oral and somatic cilia has been studied in thin sections. Since electron-dense linkers have been found to connect both microtubule doublets and triplets to the ciliary membrane at the level of the necklace, the linkers and the associated necklace seem to be related to the transition region between the doublets and triplets of a cilium. Plaque structures, consisting of small rectangular patches of particles located distal to the ciliary necklace, are found in strain GL, but are absent in other strains examined in this study. In freeze-cleaved material, additional structural differentiations are observed in the distal region of the ciliary membranes of somatic and oral cilia. Somatic cilia contain many randomly distributed particles within their membrane. Oral cilia can be divided into three categories on the basis of the morphology of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Kin5 knockdown in Tetrahymena thermophila using RNAi blocks cargo transport of Gef1. AU - Awan, Aashir. AU - Bell, Aaron J.. AU - Satir, Peter. PY - 2009/3/17. Y1 - 2009/3/17. N2 - A critical process that builds and maintains the eukaryotic cilium is intraflagellar transport (IFT). This process utilizes members of the kinesin-2 superfamily to transport cargo into the cilium (anterograde transport) and a dynein motor for the retrograde traffic. Using a novel RNAi knockdown method, we have analyzed the function of the homodimeric IFT kinesin-2, Kin5, in Tetrahymena ciliary transport. In RNAi transformants, Kin5 was severely downregulated and disappeared from the cilia, but cilia did not resorb, although tip structure was affected. After deciliation of the knockdown cell, cilia regrew and cells swam, which suggested that Kin5 is not responsible for the trafficking of axonemal precursors to build the cilium, but could be transporting molecules that act in ciliary signal transduction, ...
1. The activity of comb plates of Pleurobrachia was analysed from cine films.. 2. The interval between successive beats of a comb plate varied from several seconds to about 50 msec. in normal sea water; this variation in frequency was accompanied by a variation wave velocity. There was an almost linear relationship between wave velocity and frequency, ranging from a minimal wave velocity of about 20 mm./sec. at low frequencies to a maximal wave velocity of about 80 mm./sec. at the highest frequencies.. 3. The wave velocity was accelerated at low frequencies by increased Mg2+ concentrations, by ouabain and by curare, and the same substances decreased the wave velocity at high frequencies.. 4. The frequency of beat was accelerated by certain concentrations of adrenaline, serotonin, Mg2+, ouabain and curare. Decreases of frequency were found in acetylcholine (and eserine) and strychnine. These substances act on the excitability of the pacemaker.. 5. It is concluded that metachronal transmission is ...
Centrosome amplification is a hallmark of cancer, and centrosome clustering is essential for cancer cell survival. The mitotic kinesin HSET is an essential contributor to this process. Recent studies have highlighted novel functions for intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins in regulating motors and mitotic processes. Here, using siRNA knock-down of various IFT proteins or AID-inducible degradation of endogenous IFT88 in combination with small-molecule inhibition of HSET, we show that IFT proteins together with HSET are required for efficient centrosome clustering. We identify a direct interaction between the kinesin HSET and IFT proteins, and we define how IFT proteins contribute to clustering dynamics during mitosis using high-resolution live imaging of centrosomes. Finally, we demonstrate the requirement of IFT88 for efficient centrosome clustering in a variety of cancer cell lines naturally harboring supernumerary centrosomes and its importance for cancer cell proliferation. Overall, our ...
Cell biologists are becoming increasingly aware that cilia and flagella are important sensory organelles, which detect changes in the extracellular environment and convey these signals to the cell body. The biflagellate green alga, Chlamydomonas, is a model organism for the study of flagella function and has allowed researchers to link ciliary dysfunction to a range of human genetic disorders. We are using molecular, biochemical and cell physiological techniques to study signalling processes in Chlamydomonas flagella. We have developed techniques to image Ca2+ in both the cytosol and the flagella of Chlamydomonas and have recently demonstrated that intraflagellar Ca2+ elevations regulate the important process of intraflagellar transport (IFT) (Collingridge et al, 2013). This project aims to understand the mechanisms that generate Ca2+ signals in flagella and how they act to regulate the transport of flagellar proteins ...
Ciliary defects can lead to a number of human diseases. Genetic mutations compromising the proper functioning of cilia, ciliopathies, can cause chronic disorders such as primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), nephronophthisis or Senior-Loken syndrome. In addition, a defect of the primary cilium in the renal tube cells can lead to polycystic kidney disease (PKD). In another genetic disorder called Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS), the mutant gene products are the components in the basal body and cilia.[9]. Lack of functional cilia in female Fallopian tubes can cause ectopic pregnancy. A fertilized ovum may not reach the uterus if the cilia are unable to move it there. In such a case, the ovum will implant in the Fallopian tubes, causing a tubal pregnancy, the most common form of ectopic pregnancy.[28]. As noted above, epithelial sodium channels ENaC that are expressed along the length of cilia regulate fluid level surrounding the cilia. Mutations that decrease the activity of ENaC result in multisystem ...
Cilia are evolutionarily conserved organelles extending from surfaces of almost all eukaryotic cells, function in cell motility, sensory and signal transduction. Dysfunction of Cilia has been implicated in a wide spectrum of human diseases and disorders collectively known as ciliopathies. Recent work with the green alga Chlamydomonas and the nematode C.elegans demonstrated that cilia have secretion function. Ectosomes (one type of vesicles) can be released from the cilium, and can mediate the intercellular communication. However, the detailed mechanisms of ectosome released from cilia/flagella, as well as additional possible functions of ciliary ectosome, are currently unknown. Scientists from Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IHB) and Yale University, took advantage of the classic ciliary/flagellar research model, Chlamydomonas, to address the above issues. The cell body of Chlamydomonas is covered with a cell wall and the flagella provide the only membrane surface ...
Cilia are evolutionarily conserved organelles extending from surfaces of almost all eukaryotic cells, function in cell motility, sensory and signal transduction. Dysfunction of Cilia has been implicated in a wide spectrum of human diseases and disorders collectively known as ciliopathies. Recent work with the green alga Chlamydomonas and the nematode C.elegans demonstrated that cilia have secretion function. Ectosomes (one type of vesicles) can be released from the cilium, and can mediate the intercellular communication. However, the detailed mechanisms of ectosome released from cilia/flagella, as well as additional possible functions of ciliary ectosome, are currently unknown. Scientists from Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IHB) and Yale University, took advantage of the classic ciliary/flagellar research model, Chlamydomonas, to address the above issues. The cell body of Chlamydomonas is covered with a cell wall and the flagella provide the only membrane surface ...
While there is growing experimental evidence that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow induced by the beating of ependymal cilia is an important factor for neuronal guidance, the respective contribution of vascular pulsation-driven macroscale oscillatory CSF flow remains unclear. This work uses computational fluid dynamics to elucidate the interplay between macroscale and cilia-induced CSF flows and their relative impact on near-wall dynamics. Physiological macroscale CSF dynamics are simulated in the ventricular space using subject-specific anatomy, wall motion and choroid plexus pulsations derived from magnetic resonance imaging. Near-wall flow is quantified in two subdomains selected from the right lateral ventricle, for which dynamic boundary conditions are extracted from the macroscale simulations. When cilia are neglected, CSF pulsation leads to periodic flow reversals along the ventricular surface, resulting in close to zero time-averaged force on the ventricle wall. The cilia promote more ...
In retinal photoreceptors the connecting cilium constitutes a boundary between the inner and outer segments. In previous studies we demonstrated that, while opsin could be localized in abundance in the distal ciliary membrane, very little opsin was detected in the proximal ciliary plasma membrane. In the present study we extended our view of molecular specialization on the ciliary membrane with respect to glycoconjugates. Saccharide moieties of ciliary glycoconjugates were studied in immature and mature rat photoreceptors. Surface saccharides were detected and localized by means of ferritin-labeled lectins and electron microscopy. Dense labeling of the ciliary membrane surface with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) was observed. In immature photoreceptors the labeling was restricted to the proximal ciliary membrane, in a region where opsin molecules could not be detected. Neuraminidase digestion abolished WGA binding to the proximal ciliary membrane surface, indicating that sialic acids mediate WGA ...
Defects in the centrosome and cilium are associated with a set of human diseases having diverse phenotypes. To further characterize the components that define the function of these organelles we determined the transcriptional profile of multiciliated tracheal epithelial cells. Cultures of mouse tracheal epithelial cells undergoing differentiation in vitro were derived from mice expressing GFP from the ciliated-cell specific FOXJ1 promoter (FOXJ1:GFP). The transcriptional profile of ciliating GFP+ cells from these cultures was defined at an early and a late time point during differentiation and was refined by subtraction of the profile of the non-ciliated GFP- cells. We identified 649 genes upregulated early, when most cells were forming basal bodies, and 73 genes genes upregulated late, when most cells were fully ciliated. Most, but not all, of known centrosome proteins are transcriptionally upregulated early, particularly Plk4, a master regulator of centriole formation. We found that three genes
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of a class DHC1b dynein in retrograde transport of IFT motors and IFT raft particles along cilia, but not dendrites, in chemosensory neurons of living Caenorhabditis elegans. AU - Signor, Dawn. AU - Wedatman, Karen P.. AU - Orozco, Jose T.. AU - Dwyer, Noelle D.. AU - Bargmann, Cornelia I.. AU - Rose, Lesilee S.. AU - Scholey, Jonathan M.. PY - 1999/11/1. Y1 - 1999/11/1. N2 - The heterotrimeric motor protein, kinesin-II, and its presumptive cargo, can be observed moving anterogradely at 0.7 μm/s by intraflagellar transport (IFT) within sensory cilia of chemosensory neurons of living Caenorhabditis elegans, using a fluorescence microscope-based transport assay (Orozco, J.T, K.P. Wedaman, D. Signor, H. Brown, L. Rose, and J.M. Scholey. 1999. Nature. 398:674). Here, we report that kinesin-II, and two of its presumptive cargo molecules, OSM-1 and OSM-6, all move at ~1.1 μm/s in the retrograde direction along cilia and dendrites, which is consistent with the hypothesis that ...
Effect of Sample Storage Temperature on ciliary Beat Frequency of Flow Subjected Cilia. Sijumbila, Gibson; Mehta, Anil // Journal of Medical Science & Technology;Sep2015, Vol. 4 Issue 3, p196 The aim of this study was to determine the optimal temperature for storage and subsequent measurement of the ciliary beat frequency (CBF) of cells brushed from human nasal epithelium. In each case, human nasal epithelial cells were stored at 4, 20 or 32°C and CBF measured at 20 or 32°C.... ...
In this issue of the JCI, Burkhalter et al. (5) suggest a mechanism linking cilia and mitochondria in the development of multisystem heterotaxy syndromes. Using both pharmacological and genetic tools, they show that longer cilia are produced when mitochondrial function is impaired and shorter cilia are produced with enhanced mitochondrial function. Confirming human relevance, they show that patients with two different forms of mitochondrial disease, caused by mutations in MPV17 and NFU1 genes, have lengthened cilia. To check whether these defects in cilia length might link to defects in left-right patterning, they then used the zebrafish embryo, an unrivaled model for investigating left-right specification, to show that longer cilia disrupted nodal flow and randomized left-right patterning. Using genomic data, they also showed that people with heterotaxy have an increased incidence of damaging variants in mitochondrial-associated genes, and that recapitulation of these rare variants in zebrafish ...
1. The flexural rigidity of the large abfrontal cilia of Mytilus has been measured with a flexible glass micro-needle.. 2. The same cilium has similar values to the flexural rigidity irrespective of the phases of beat cycle (including the recovery phase) and of the direction of force applied.. 3. The values of 3-13 x 10-9 dyne. cm2 have been obtained for the flexural rigidity of compound cilia of various sizes; 2-3 x 10-10 dyne.cm2 for that of the component cilia.. 4. The Youngs modulus of the microtubule is estimated to be 5-9 x 1010 dyne/cm2 on the basis that the outer doublet microtubules are tightly connected with one another.. ...
Primary cilia are essential conveyors of signals underlying major cell functions. Cerebral cortical progenitors and neurons have a primary cilium. The significance of cilia function for brain development and function is evident in the plethora of developmental brain disorders associated with human c …
Over 90% of the particles contained in the air we breathe are retained in the mucosa which is continuously being renewed by the ciliary function.. Most of the high airway conditions, including sinus infections, allergies and environmental contamination, alter the mucociliary function either due to nasal cilia alterations or to changes in mucosa properties. If this function is affected, the movement of mucosa is slowed down and secretions are retained and contaminating elements become accumulated together with allergens and bacteria. All this causes nasal obstruction, inflammation and infection.. Nasal irrigation cleans the surface of the mucosa of the nose and paranasal sinuses, which assists the recovery of mucociliary clearing by eliminating both the substances that cause the dysfunction as well as the secretions that have a negative effect on the ciliary movement. ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant) The long-term goal of this project is to improve our understanding of the cellular and molecular regulation mechanisms of mucociliary clearance, an important host defense mechanism of the lung. Ciliary activity is an integral part of mucociliary transport and changes in ciliary beat frequency (CBF) are often associated with similar changes in transport rates. Two widely recognized second messengers in cell signaling, cAMP and calcium ([Ca2+]i), regulate CBF. cAMP has been shown to increase CBF through a cAMP-dependent kinase- mediated event, possibly by phosphorylating a ciliary protein designated p26. Increasing [Ca2+]i also stimulates CBF, likely through a ciliary Ca2+-binding protein. Because both second messengers increase CBF, the question arises whether these signaling pathways regulate CBF through independent signal transduction cascades or whether the pathways converge at some level to affect a common target prior to dynein/microtubule interaction. ...
Cilia and flagella are widespread cell organelles which have been highly conserved throughout development and play important functions in motility, sensory belief, and the life cycles of eukaryotes ranging from protists to humans. to miss many proteins that function in both the flagellum and cytoplasm. In contrast, such proteins can be readily recognized by a proteomics approach, which also can uniquely provide an indication of the abundance of a protein and its distribution in the flagellum. A preliminary proteomic analysis of detergent-extracted ciliary axonemes from cultured human being bronchial epithelial cells recognized 214 proteins (Ostrowski et al., 2002); however, this study was jeopardized by the presence of additional cellular constructions in PF 431396 IC50 the axonemal preparation, and by restrictions in the quantity of materials available and/or series data obtained, with the full total end result that only 89 from the proteins were identified by greater than a single peptide. ...
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling regulates cell proliferation and differentiation in various organs during embryogenesis. In the pancreas, the role of this pathway is complex. At early stages, Hh signaling is excluded from the pancreas and ectopic activation of the pathway impairs pancreas formation by disturbing mesenchymal-epithelial interactions. In contrast to this inhibitory role, our preliminary data suggest a positive, cell autonomous role for Hh signaling during endocrine cell formation and function. The exact nature of this novel, cell autonomous activity remains to be elucidated. Little information is also available about the upstream mechanisms that regulate Hh signaling in pancreatic epithelium. Recent results have revealed that primary cilia, cellular appendages found on many cell types, control the level of Hh signaling activity. Primary cilia are present on adult duct and endocrine cells within the pancreas, the same cell types that are marked by expression of Ptc, a transcriptional target ...
The DNAH5 gene provides instructions for making a protein that is part of a group (complex) of proteins called dynein. This complex functions within cell structures called cilia. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells. Coordinated back and forth movement of cilia can move the cell or the fluid surrounding the cell. Dynein produces the force needed for cilia to move.. Within the core of cilia (the axoneme), dynein complexes are part of structures known as inner dynein arms (IDAs) or outer dynein arms (ODAs) depending on their location. Coordinated movement of the dynein arms causes the entire axoneme to bend back and forth. IDAs and ODAs have different combinations of protein components (subunits) that are classified by weight as heavy, intermediate, or light chains. The DNAH5 gene provides instructions for making heavy chain 5, which is found in ODAs. Other subunits are produced from different genes. ...
A major focus of the lab is the study of the primary cilium, a once-obscure cellular organelle that has recently been re-discovered for its role in a number of signaling pathways (Hedgehog, Planar Cell Polarity, PDGF,..). Most fascinatingly, molecular defects in cilium biogenesis lead to a variety hereditary disorders (so-called ciliopathies) characterized by retinal degeneration, kidney cysts, obesity, polydactyly, randomization of left-right asymmetry, etc. Our goal is to characterize these ciliopathies at the molecular and cellular levels using state-of-the art proteomics and microscopy. Our approach has already proven successful in the case of Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (see figure) and led to the discovery of a protein complex involved in vesicular transport to the primary cilium. ,nonwikionly,,a href=http://www.openwetware.org,,img src=http://openwetware.org/images/9/96/02_JoinOpenWetWare.png border=0/,,/a,,/nonwikionly, ...
Cilia are antenna-like membrane-associated structures which play essential roles during development, and during the normal function of many cells throughout the body. Dysfunction of these organelles can lead to serious illnesses, involving deafness and blindness, as well as life-threatening complications such as kidney and liver disease, diabetes, respiratory problems, and obesity. These so-called ciliopathies are usually genetically inherited, and at present there are few, if any cures.. Following collaborations with Phil Beales (Institute of Child Health, UCL) on Bardet-Biedl Syndrome, and with Jan Marshall (Jackson Labs, USA) on Alström Syndrome, we are continuing to work in the field of human ciliary diseases. In collaboration with Colin Johnson (University of Leeds) we more recently characterized the role of the Meckel-Gruber Syndrome protein TMEM67 in the development of the cochlea.. In related public engagement projects I have worked with patient support groups such as Alström ...
Muco-ciliary transport in the human airway is a crucial defense mechanism for removing inhaled pathogens. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is well-suited to monitor functional dynamics of cilia and mucus on the airway epithelium. Here we demonstrate several OCT-based methods upon an actively transporting in vitro bronchial epithelial model and ex vivo mouse trachea. We show quantitative flow imaging of optically turbid mucus, semi-quantitative analysis of the ciliary beat frequency, and functional imaging of the periciliary layer. These may translate to clinical methods for endoscopic monitoring of muco-ciliary transport in diseases such as cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).. ©2012 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) by identification of dynein arm loss in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images can be confounded by high background noise due to random electron-dense material within the ciliary matrix, leading to diagnostic uncertainty even for experienced morphologists. to generate mechanical torque [5] by forced sliding of adjacent peripheral microtubular pairs [6]. Motile cilia without two-microtubule central complexes (9+0 architecture) move in a rotatory fashion, and are responsible for a fluid current at the embryonic node that determines sidedness in the developing embryo [7]. In contrast, motile cilia with two-microtubule central complexes (9+2 architecture) have an effective stroke in a single plane, such that synchronous (per cell) and metachronous (per surface) beating allows coordinated movement of surface fluid [8, 9]. Main ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) (main here indicates congenital, rather than acquired, and not involvement of main cilia) is a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Roles for IFT172 and primary cilia in cell migration, cell division and neocortex development. AU - Pruski, Michal. AU - Hu, Ling. AU - Yang, Cuiping. AU - Wang, Yubing AU - Zhang, Jin-Bao. AU - Zhang, Lei. AU - Huang, Ying. AU - Rajnicek, Ann M.. AU - St Clair, David. AU - McCaig, Colin D.. AU - Lang, Bing. AU - Ding, Yu-Qiang. N1 - This work is supported by the grants from National Natural Science Foundation of China (31528011, B.L.; 81571332, 91232724, Y.D.), Key Research and Development Program from Hunan Province (2018DK2011), Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Major Project (2018SHZDZX01) and ZJLab. We are grateful to Prof. Tamara Caspary for providing the WIM and WT cells. M.P. was funded by a Scottish Universities Life Sciences Alliance (SULSA) studentship to C.M. and a Scholarship from Chinese Scholarship Council (CSC). L. H. is also a Scholarship awardee of CSC. PY - 2019/11. Y1 - 2019/11. N2 - The cilium of a cell translates varied extracellular cues into ...
A new study demonstrates the dynamic role cilia play in guiding the migration of neurons in the embryonic brain. Cilia are tiny hair-like structures on the surfaces of cells, but in the brain they are acting more like radio antennae.
Involved in ciliogenesis. The function in an early step in cilia formation depends on its association with CEP290/NPHP6 (PubMed:21565611, PubMed:23446637). Involved in regulation of the BBSome complex integrity, specifically for presence of BBS2 and BBS5 in the complex, and in ciliary targeting of selected BBSome cargos. May play a role in controlling entry of the BBSome complex to cilia possibly implicating CEP290/NPHP6 (PubMed:25552655). This gene encodes a nephrocystin protein that interacts with calmodulin and the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator protein. The encoded protein has a central coiled-coil region and two calmodulin-binding IQ domains. It is localized to the primary cilia of renal epithelial cells and connecting cilia of photoreceptor cells. The protein is thought to play a role in ciliary function. Defects in this gene result in Senior-Loken syndrome type 5. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 6. [provided by
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glycerol models of ciliated epithelium of the bronchial mucosa and their use for the diagnosis of chronic nonspecific lung diseases. AU - Shanina, N. A.. AU - Gelfand, V. I.. AU - Dykhanov, I. I.. AU - Bronza, N. G.. AU - Rozinova, N. N.. AU - Kaganov, S. Yu. PY - 1986/1/1. Y1 - 1986/1/1. KW - bronchopulmonary pathology. KW - cell models. KW - ciliated epithelium. KW - membrane permeability. KW - mobility of cilia. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=34250123984&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=34250123984&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1007/BF00836091. DO - 10.1007/BF00836091. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:34250123984. VL - 101. SP - 105. EP - 107. JO - Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine. JF - Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine. SN - 0007-4888. IS - 1. ER - ...
Component of the centrioles that acts as a positive regulator of centriole elongation (PubMed:24997988). Promotes assembly of centriolar distal appendage, a structure at the distal end of the mother centriole that acts as an anchor of the cilium, and is required for recruitment of centriolar distal appendages proteins CEP83, SCLT1, CEP89, FBF1 and CEP164. Not required for centriolar satellite integrity or RAB8 activation. Required for primary cilium formation (PubMed:23769972). Required for sonic hedgehog/SHH signaling and for proteolytic processing of GLI3.
Joubert syndrome (JS) is a recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a distinctive mid-hindbrain malformation. JS is part of a group of disorders called ciliopathies based on their overlapping phenotypes and common underlying pathophysiology linked to primary cilium dysfunction. Biallelic mutations in one of 28 genes, all encoding proteins localizing to the primary cilium or basal body, can cause JS. Despite this large number of genes, the genetic cause can currently be determined in about 62% of individuals with JS. To identify novel JS genes, we performed whole exome sequencing on 35 individuals with JS and found biallelic rare deleterious variants (RDVs) in KIAA0586, encoding a centrosomal protein required for ciliogenesis, in one individual. Targeted next-generation sequencing in a large JS cohort identified biallelic RDVs in eight additional families for an estimated prevalence of 2.5% (9/366 JS families). All affected individuals displayed JS phenotypes toward the mild end of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The loss of Hh responsiveness by a non-ciliary Gli2 variant. AU - Liu, Jinling. AU - Zeng, Huiqing. AU - Liu, Aimin. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Hedgehog signaling is crucial for vertebrate development and physiology. Gli2, the primary effector of Hedgehog signaling, localizes to the tip of the primary cilium, but the importance of its ciliary localization remains unclear. We address the roles of Gli2 ciliary localization by replacing endogenous Gli2 with Gli2ΔCLR, a Gli2 variant not localizing to the cilium. The resulting Gli2ΔCLRKI and Gli2ΔCLRKI;Gli3 double mutants resemble Gli2-null and Gli2;Gli3 double mutants, respectively, suggesting the lack of Gli2ΔCLR activation in development. Significantly, Gli2ΔCLR cannot be activated either by pharmacochemical activation of Smo in vitro or by loss of Ptch1 in vivo. Finally,Gli2ΔCLR exhibits strong transcriptional activator activity in the absence of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Localization of protein kinase NDR2 to peroxisomes and its role in ciliogenesis. AU - Abe, Shoko. AU - Nagai, Tomoaki. AU - Masukawa, Moe. AU - Okumoto, Kanji. AU - Homma, Yuta. AU - Fujiki, Yukio. AU - Mizuno, Kensaku. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2017/3/10. Y1 - 2017/3/10. N2 - Nuclear Dbf2-related (NDR) kinases, comprising NDR1 and NDR2, are serine/threonine kinases that play crucial roles in the control of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and morphogenesis. We recently showed that NDR2, but not NDR1, is involved in primary cilium formation; however, the mechanism underlying their functional difference in ciliogenesis is unknown. To address this issue, we examined their subcellular localization. Despite their close sequence similarity, NDR2 exhibited punctate localization in the cytoplasm, whereas NDR1 was diffusely distributed within the ...
In our lab we are using a combination of biochemical, cell biological and genetic approaches in the nematode C. elegans to investigate the fundamental and conserved molecular mechanisms underlying centriole assembly and function. In previous work we have taken advantage of the availability of data from genome-wide RNAi-based screens to define the molecular requirements for centriole assembly. The six-protein molecular pathway we identified has since been found to be conserved from ciliates to vertebrates, and is thought to form the core of the centriole assembly machinery in all eukaryotes. We further identified the hydrolethalus syndrome protein HYLS-1 as a core centriolar protein that is incorporated into centrioles during their assembly to confer on them the ability to initiate cilia. The single amino acid missense mutation associated with hydrolethalus syndrome impairs HYLS-1 function in ciliogenesis, identifying this disorder as a severe (perinatal lethal) ciliopathy ...
Congratulations to Dr. Cecilia Lo and Dr. Michael Tsang on their recently funded NIH administrative supplement, Assaying Heterotaxy Patient Genes in a Cilia Motility and Left-Right Patterning. This project will examine whether expression of the RCV can rescue the HTX phenotype elicited by MO gene knockdown in the zebrafish embryo.
Posttranslational modifications of tubulin are thought to fine‐tune MT functions in specific cells and tissues. Modifications that take place on the C‐terminal tails of tubulin are involved in the regulation of interactions between MTs and associated proteins (reviewed in: Janke & Bulinski, 2011). The three principal modifications found in these tail domains are detyrosination, (poly)glutamylation and (poly)glycylation. While first insights into the molecular mechanisms that are controlled by detyrosination (Peris et al, 2006, 2009; Bieling et al, 2008) and polyglutamylation (Kubo et al, 2010; Lacroix et al, 2010) have been obtained, little is known about the roles and mechanisms of glycylation.. In contrast to other tubulin modifications, glycylation has so far only been detected in motile cilia and flagella in different organisms (Bré et al, 1996). In line with this rather restricted occurrence of glycylation, only three modifying enzymes are expressed in mammals (Rogowski et al, 2009), ...
Surface view of ciliated epithelium lining a section of a bronchus. The ciliated epithelium is broken up by several goblet cells and short microvilli. - Stock Image C005/8085
Two post-doc positions available to explore detailed aspects of the development of ciliated epithelia in Xenopus embryos. Project one will use quantitative imaging techniques to address the processes of centriole amplification in multiciliated cells of the embryonic skin. Project two will use quantitative imaging techniques to address the molecular regulation of cell migration and radial intercalation. Highly motivated and creative scientists will do well in this position. Interested applicants should send a CV and statement of research goals to Dr. Brian Mitchell ([email protected] ...
Abstract: A central question in Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is how evolutionarily conserved components of the pathway might use the primary cilium in mammals but not fly. We focus on Suppressor of fused (Sufu), a major Hh regulator in mammals, and reveal that Sufu controls protein levels of full-length Gli transcription factors, thus affecting the production of Gli activators and repressors essential for graded Hh responses. Surprisingly, despite ciliary localization of most Hh pathway components, regulation of Gli protein levels by Sufu is cilium-independent. We propose that Sufu-dependent processes in Hh signaling are evolutionarily conserved. Consistent with this, Sufu regulates Gli protein levels by antagonizing the activity of Spop, a conserved Gli-degrading factor. Furthermore, addition of zebrafish or fly Sufu restores Gli protein function in Sufu-deficient mammalian cells. In contrast, fly Smo is unable to translocate to the primary cilium and activate the mammalian Hh pathway. We also ...
The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. The protein anchors PKA in ciliary axonemes and, in this way, may play a role in regulating ciliary beat frequency. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized.
Central microtubule function in eukaryotic flagella and cilia - posted in Research Idea, Design and Collaboration: Hi! I am an undergrad student at U of C in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. I asked my professor a question about the function of the central pair of microtubules enclosed by the central sheath in eukaryotic cilia and flagella and he replied simply saying that it is not clearly understood. I am wondering if anyone can either direct me to a peer-reviewed journal article that...
From NCBI Gene:. This gene encodes a centrosomal protein required for ciliogenesis and for ciliary tip structural integrity. The mammalian protein contains three amino-terminal hydrophobic domains, two glycosylation sites, four cysteine-rich motifs, and two regions with homology to the glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1 protein. During ciliogenesis, the encoded protein translocates from the distal tips of the centrioles to the tip of the elongating cilium. Knockdown of the protein in human retinal pigment cells results in severe defects in ciliogenesis with structural deformities at the ciliary tips. Allelic variants of this gene are associated with the autosomal-recessive disorder Joubert syndrome, which is characterized by a distinctive mid-hindbrain and cerebellar malformation, oculomotor apraxia, irregular breathing, developmental delay, and ataxia. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2016]. From UniProt: ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a protein containing multiple ankyrin domains and two IQ calmodulin-binding domains. The encoded protein may function in renal tubular development and function, and in left-right axis determination. This protein interacts with nephrocystin and infers a connection between primary cilia function and left-right axis determination. A similar protein in mice interacts with calmodulin. Mutations in this gene have been associated with nephronophthisis type 2. Multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012 ...
Ectopic cilia[edit]. An ectopic cilia is a special type of distichia. It is usually found in younger dogs. Commonly affected ...
Cilia in metazoa[edit]. Knight-Jones[18] defines the types of metachronism in ciliary beat of metazoa depending on the relative ... while metachronal rhythm or metachronal wave usually refer to the movement of cilia;[2] metachronal coordination,[3] ...
Guichard P, Gönczy P (December 2016). "Basal body structure in Trichonympha". Cilia. 5 (1): 9. doi:10.1186/s13630-016-0031-7. ...
Human PDGFRA has a RVxP sequence and may localize to cilia thanks to it. Human PKD2 trafficking into cilia has been found in ... Proteins employed in the cilia are targeted there when they bear specific entry signals, whereas proteins not situated in cilia ... RVxP motif is a protein motif involved in localizing proteins into cilia. Cilia are sensory organelle of cells, whose ... Not all ciliary proteins use a RVxP motif for transport, however; VxPx and Ax(S/A)xQ have also been described as cilium- ...
... cilia grey. Townsville, Q.; in July and September; two specimens received from Mr. F. P. Dodd. - Original description by Turner ... cilia purplish-grey, irrorated with whitish. Hindwings with termen slightly rounded; veins 3 and 4 stalked; grey, a darker ...
... cilia grey, with some whitish irroration. Hindwings with vein 4 absent; grey; cilia grey. N.Q.: Townsville, in October and ...
... cilia metallic. Hindwings are grey, more whitish dorsally. The moth flies from May to September depending on the location. The ...
... cilia metallic. Hindwings are whitish,towards apex suffused with grey. Adults are on wing from June to July. Larvae have been ...
... cilia whitish, with a black line opposite apex only. Hindwings with veins 2, 3, and 5 absent ; whitish ; cilia whitish. This ...
... cilia barred. Hindwings light fuscous, with darker postmedian line and subterminal band. The moth flies from July to August ...
Cilia black. Hindwing is uniform in color. In the female, the head and forewings are reddish brown. The forewings have a black ... Cilia reddish brown. Hindwings are crimson with a black spot at end of cell and submarginal series of large spots. Savela, ...
... cilia whitish-brown. Hindwings with apex tolerably pointed, termen gently rounded, wavy; grey; cilia grey. Q., National Park ( ...
... cilia white. Hindwings are dark grey.The larva is pale greyish-yellowish ; spots black ; head black. Flight time ranges from ...
Cilia crenulate. Hindwings with crenulate cilia. Margin produced to slight points at veins 4 and 6. Larva with four pairs of ...
... cilia black. Hindwing: the transverse white band of the forewing is continued straight across and ends in a point on the outer ... cilia black, white below vein 5 and along outer side of basal half of tail, the latter tipped white. Underside similar, but the ...
A365 is the type strain (= CIP 105190T). Lambert, C.; Nicolas, J. L.; Cilia, V.; Corre, S. (1998). "Vibrio pectenicida sp. nov ...
Hingwings, ♂ whitish-grey, ♀ ochreous-grey-whitish, a very few small cloudy greyish flecks; cilia concolorous. The larvae feed ... cilia pale ochreous, two brownish lines more or less marked. ...
Cilia yellowish. Underside dark brown, with the veins and longitudinal streaks between them greyish green, the brown showing ...
Cilia white. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen black, the antennae speckled and tipped with white, the thorax clothed with ...
Hindwings grey ; cilia grey. The larvae possibly feed on the dead leaves of Vaccinium species. They live within a movable case ...
Cilia crenulate. Erygia antecedens (Walker, 1858) Erygia apicalis Guenée, 1852 Erygia plagifera (Walker, 1859) Erygia precedens ...
Cilia whitish, fuscous below apex. Hindwings with broad medial white band enclosing a speck at end of cell, and with a dark ... Cilia white. Ventral side with orange wing base. Female more irrorated with fuscous. Often suffused with rufous, and with pale ... Cilia fuscous. Ventral side with orange outer area and white blotches. Larva greenish, with dorsal and sublateral yellow ...
Hindwing white suffused with ochreous except on inner area; cilia white; the underside white, the costal area suffused with ...
Cilia similar. Underside like the underside of T. augias, the black markings more pronounced; the black spots on the hindwing ...
Cilia of forewings and hindwings conspicuously white. Underside; ground colour as in the male; markings slightly larger, more ... cilia white. Underside: pale grey. Forewing with the usual transverse discocellular and discal series of six white-encircled ...
Cilia white. Underside pale, dull ochreous-grey, bands pale ochreous-brown, all with some silvery scales down their centers, ...
... cilia pink. Adults are on wing from July to August. Larva dark brown; dorsal and subdorsal lines pale, lateral lines whitish; a ...
Cilia white. Underside: basal and discal areas of both forewings and hindwings bluish green, variously barred and spotted with ... cilia alternately black and white. Forewing: basal area ochraceous red, cell with transverse short bands of black and bluish ...
... cilia metallic. Hindwings are grey.. Adults are on wing from July to August in generation per year. The larvae feed on grasses ...
... cilia white. Underside. Forewing with similar black outer border, shaped as on upper-side, the apex being ochreous-yellow, and ... cilia white posteriorly. Hindwing with the basal and discal area greyish fuliginous-brown and the veins greyish-white lined, ...
... cilio[email protected] No te tomes NADA de lo que veas en el canal para mal. mira todo con un lado positivo que es para saca ... NOS ENCIERRAN EN EL SÓTANO SIN SALIDA !!! - ( El ladrón la serie #3 ) [ CILIO ] - Duration: 12 minutes.. CILIO ... USO LA PISTOLA PARA ATRAPAR AL LADRÓN - ( El ladrón la serie #5 ) [ CILIO ] - Duration: 13 minutes.. CILIO ... VEMOS AL LADRÓN EN EL SÓTANO - ( El ladron la serie #2 ) [ CILIO ] - Duration: 10 minutes.. CILIO ...
... Go to external page http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/UBERON_0013642 Copy ...
Cryo-electron tomography of motile cilia and flagella Cryo-electron tomography has been a valuable tool in the analysis of 3D ... Cilia Motility. Guest edited by Dr Hannah Mitchison, Dr David Mitchell, and Prof Heymut Omran ... Fifty years after the discovery of dyneins in motile cilia, much remains to be learned about the structure and mechanism of ... The motility of eukaryotic cilia and flagella is modulated in response to several extracellular stimuli. Ca2+ is the most ...
Cilia-a Missing Link. It has been interesting to note the absence of debate on the impact of cigarette smoke on the functioning ... Who is listening?Are there existing studies available that addresses the reduction in cilia performance as mentioned by Dr.Koop ... of the cilia in either the smoker or second-hand passive smoker, cancelling out its protective function. This was brought to my ...
... The roles of primary cilia in hearing. Summary. Cilia are antenna-like membrane-associated ... Alström Syndrome protein ALMS1 localizes to basal bodies of cochlear hair cells and regulates cilium-dependent planar cell ...
"Cilia Flores formalizó su inscripción para las parlamentarias". El Nacional. 5 August 2015. Retrieved 12 August 2015. "Cilia ... Cilia Adela Flores de Maduro (born 15 October 1956) is a Venezuelan lawyer and politician. She is married to the President of ... "Hijo de Cilia Flores pasa largas temporadas en los Estados Unidos". La Patilla. 12 January 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2017. Kay ... Maduro responded to his wifes sanctions, saying "You dont mess with Cilia. You dont mess with family. Dont be cowards! Her ...
Cilia is best known for his songwriting skills, and his membership in The Atlantics, where he performs on the guitar. Cilia ... Martin Cilia Official Website Martin Cilia MySpace Revenge of the Surf Guitar MySpace Fender Website. ... Cilia played at the gig and Bosco told the other members from The Atlantics about him, and Cilla has been an integral and ... Cilia is an avid collector of classic and unique electric guitars. Some of his most valuable guitars can be heard on Revenge of ...
Cilia cover the "foot" of a snail and are used to move the snail slowly along. Cilia are used for the slow locomotion of ... Within bivalves, cilia create a constant flow of water over various filtering and sorting surfaces and move and separate food ... Cilia are numerous short extensions of the plasma membrane used for locomotion and other purposes.[1] ... Most mucous membranes, such as those in the nose, are covered with cilia to create a constant flow of mucus. ...
This volume is the result of an explosion of molecular-based research on Cilia, which began with the discovery of the ... Practical and cutting-edge, Cilia: Methods and Protocols is broad and covers motile, sensory, and primary cells. It is a ... This volume is the result of an explosion of molecular-based research on Cilia, which began with the discovery of the ... Visualization and Manipulation of Cilia and Intraciliary Calcium in the Zebrafish Left-Right Organizer ...
Cilium definition is - a minute short hairlike process often forming part of a fringe; especially : one on a cell that is ... Examples of cilium in a Sentence. Recent Examples on the Web. Among their design concerns were methods for nurturing cilium and ... Comments on cilium. What made you want to look up cilium? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if ... Post the Definition of cilium to Facebook Share the Definition of cilium on Twitter ...
Cilium, plural cilia, short eyelashlike filament that is numerous on tissue cells of most animals and provides the means for ... Cilia may be fused in short transverse rows to form membranelles or in tufts to form cirri. Capable of beating in unison, cilia ... A cilium, like a flagellum, is composed of a central core (the axoneme), which contains two central microtubules that are ... In modified form, cilia trigger the discharge of stinging devices in jellyfish and give rise to the light-sensitive rods of the ...
Cilia may be fused in short transverse rows to form membranelles or in tufts to form cirri. Capable of beating in unison, cilia ... Cilium, short eyelashlike filament that is numerous on tissue cells of most animals and provides the means for locomotion of ... Alternative Titles: cilia, ciliums, undulipodia. Cilium, plural cilia, short eyelashlike filament that is numerous on tissue ... Cilia may be fused in short transverse rows to form membranelles or in tufts to form cirri. Capable of beating in unison, cilia ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Cilia Erens also works as a guest lecturer at institutes such as the Amsterdam Academy of Architecture and the Netherlands Film ... Formarly soundartist Cilia Erens is a town and countryplanner. In 1987 she introduced soundwalks in the Netherlands. In her ... Picture of the soundwalk in china called China Daily - Found on the website of Cilia Erens. ...
Mountview Academy of Theatre Arts (Full Time Acting Foundation For Stage and Screen) National Youth Theatre (Epic Stages). LAMDA - Grade 6, 7 and 8 Acting (with Distinction). ...
Presence of cilia in the neural tube at e10.5. Punctate expression of γ-tubulin (A) and cilia-like expression of acetylated α- ... 4B ). Cilia were present on the surface of the node in Dnchc2lln embryos, but they all had abnormal morphology: some cilia were ... Some specialized primary cilia monitor fluid flow: bending of cilia in cultured kidney epithelial cells or in the embryonic ... In support of a role for cilia in Hh responsiveness, we found that cilia were present on neural progenitors and other cell ...
Cilia Jaspers writing is filled with quirky hilarity that will make you laugh out loud and fall in love with the Tenshi Band. ... Once again, Cilia Jaspers has sucked me into another fantastic Idol romance that leaves me wondering who will be next! FIEND! ... Cilia Jaspers, a writing duo, has improved in her technique of managing the different author voices, making a more seamless ... The Tenshi series is co-authored by J. W. Ashley and April Oglesbee and will ultimately be published under the pen name Cilia ...
View Genevieve Fabienne Cilias genealogy family tree on Geni, with over 185 million profiles of ancestors and living relatives ... Genevieve Fabienne Cilia. Immediate Family: Daughter of Cilia Sauveur, Raphael André and Nicoline Cilia Wife of Private Mother ...
Cilia are wavy, hair-like structures that extend outward from the surfaces of various organisms such as human skin. People, ... The ability to engineer this cilia-like biosensor may give scientists an ability to, for example, test for the presence of ... Scientists long imagined what could be done if they could engineer cilia for other organic and nonorganic uses. But creating ... While the new material isnt exactly like cilia, it responds to thermal, chemical, and electromagnetic stimulation, allowing ...
Discover the meaning of the Cilia name on Ancestry®. Find your familys average life expectancy, most common occupation, and ... Cilia. Life Expectancy. What is the average Cilia lifespan?. Share. Between 1953 and 2003, in the United States, Cilia life ... Cilia. family records will you find?. Share. *. Census Record. There are 1,000 census records available for the last name Cilia ... The Cilia family name was found in the USA, the UK, and Canada between 1880 and 1920. The most Cilia families were found in the ...
This article will focus on the role of helical surface-attached appendages known as flagella or cilia, that are present on many ... Flagella versus Cilia. While flagella and cilia are structurally identical, they can be distinguished by their length, density ... The cilia play an instrumental role in the trachea where the beating motion, together with the overlying mucosa, clear the ... Co-ordinating Multiple Cilium. The positioning of basal bodies throughout the cytoskeleton limits, in turn, the number and ...
Joueur de cora, Cilia Sawadogo, provided by the National Film Board of Canada ...
... bryn cilio provides accommodation in Beddgelert with free WiFi and mountain views. The property has garden views. This holiday ... Boasting barbecue facilities, bryn cilio provides accommodation in Beddgelert with free WiFi and mountain views. The property ...
Whereas motile cilia are typically found in large bundles and beat synchronously to generate fluid flow, primary cilia (with ... Summary of factors that regulate the assembly or disassembly of cilia. Upon cilia formation and elongation (red arrow), IFT ... Assembling a primary cilium.. Kim S1, Dynlacht BD.. Author information. 1. Department of Pathology and Cancer Institute, Smilow ... Defects in the cilium, and the structure from which it arises, the basal body, have been shown to cause a spectrum of diseases ...
Cilia - Eyelashes; or, microscopic hair-like projections lining the nose and bronchi, is clearly explained in Medindia s ... Cilia - Glossary. Written & Compiled by Medindia Content Team. Medically Reviewed by The Medindia Medical Review Team on May 07 ... Medical Word - Cilia. Ans : Eyelashes; or, microscopic hair-like projections lining the nose and bronchi. ...
... also use cilia for sensory functions. Receptors concentrated on the surface of cilia allow cells to efficiently sample their ... These cells use sex-specific adhesion receptors on their flagella (flagella are essentially the same as cilia) during mating. ... You may think of cilia primarily as structures specialized to confer motility, but nonmotile cells (virtually all vertebrate ... Q. Wang, J. Pan, W. J. Snell, Intraflagellar transport particles participate directly in cilium-generated signaling in ...
Cilia can be divided into primary forms and motile forms.[5] Primary/Immotile cilia[edit]. In animals, primary cilia are found ... Motile cilia[edit]. Larger eukaryotes, such as mammals, have motile cilia as well. Motile cilia are usually present on a cells ... There are two types of cilia: motile cilia and non-motile, or primary, cilia, which typically serve as sensory organelles. In ... A cilium (from Latin, meaning eyelash;[1] the plural is cilia) is an organelle found on eukaryotic cells and are slender ...
Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are hair‐like cellular appendages composed of specialised microtubules and covered by a ... Cilia within a line of synchrony are all in the same phase of beat. In forward‐swimming cells, the firing order of cilia is ... Satir P (1968) Studies on cilia. III. Further studies on the cilium tip and a sliding filament model of ciliary motility. ... Fliegauf M , Benzing T and Omran H (2007) When cilia go bad: cilia defects and ciliopathies. Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell ...
Primary Cilia RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Human Primary Cilia RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes ... Primary Cilia RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Mouse Primary Cilia RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes ... Primary Cilia RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Rat Primary Cilia RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes ... The single primary cilium found on the surface of almost all mammalian cell types is a non-motile sensory organelle with a 9+0 ...
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  • The finding adds to our knowledge about ciliopathies, a class of genetic disorders that arise from defects in the structure or function of cilia. (nih.gov)
  • As the team investigated kur , they noted that the mutation also affected the function of cilia. (princeton.edu)
  • In addition, since the research looked at the structure and function of cilia, these discoveries might be useful for the development of nanotechnologies. (medgadget.com)
  • The rapid advancement of technologies such as next generation sequencing, high resolution microscopy and the development of novel in vitro analysis systems has led to an exponential growth of knowledge related to the assembly and function of cilia, production and secretion of mucus, and cilia-mucus interaction to promote productive mucociliary clearance. (grc.org)
  • Defects in the function of cilia lead to a class of diseases called ciliopathies, which include polycystic kidney disease, primary ciliary dyskinesia and Bardet-Biedl syndrome. (eurekalert.org)
  • This series in Cilia contains both reviews and research articles covering diverse topics, including recent advances in ciliary ultrastructure, physiologic and transcriptional mechanisms of motility regulation, and discoveries relating to the role of cilia in health and disease made through analysis of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia models and genetics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with defective structure and/or function of motile cilia/flagella, causing chronic upper and lower respiratory tract infections, fertilit. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This volume is the result of an explosion of molecular-based research on Cilia, which began with the discovery of the universality of intraflagellar transport (IFT) and ciliary genomics/proteomics. (springer.com)
  • The chapters in this book cover topics such as: high resolution imaging and functional characterization of sensory and primary cilia in mammalian cells and zebrafish, methods to study ciliary-mediated chemoresponse in Paramecium , and methods to study centrosomes and cilia in C. elegans and Drosophila . (springer.com)
  • ciliary outgrowth is controlled by the basal body that is located just inside the cell surface at the base of the cilium. (britannica.com)
  • [2] The current scientific understanding of primary cilia views them as "sensory cellular antennae that coordinate a large number of cellular signaling pathways, sometimes coupling the signaling to ciliary motility or alternatively to cell division and differentiation. (rug.nl)
  • The basal body, where the cilia originates, is located within the ciliary pocket. (rug.nl)
  • The Human Primary Cilia RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes important for ciliary organization and maintenance. (qiagen.com)
  • The Mouse Primary Cilia RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes important for ciliary organization and maintenance. (qiagen.com)
  • As a consequence, the full-length proteins of GLI2 and GLI3, which are bound to the ciliary tip organizer KIF7, are phosphorylated by PKA, CK1, and GSK3, and finally proteolytically processed by the cilia-regulated proteasome. (nih.gov)
  • In the presence of HH, the HH ligand binds to PTC1 and, in turn, the HH/PTC1 complex leaves the cilium allowing ciliary entry of SMO. (nih.gov)
  • Motile cilia of the lungs respond to environmental challenges by increasing their ciliary beat frequency in order to enhance mucociliary clearance as a fundamental tenant of innate defense. (mdpi.com)
  • Genetic defects in ciliary proteins responsible for cilia formation, maintenance, or function underlie a wide array of human diseases like deafness, anosmia, and retinal degeneration in sensory systems. (mdpi.com)
  • We recently discovered that the C. elegans NPHP genes modulate the length and shape of a cilium, enabling exploration of the mechanisms controlling ciliary morphogenesis. (bio.net)
  • This study confirms and extends previous work on the lateral cilia of the fresh-water mussel, Elliptio complanatus , in support of a "sliding filament" mechanism of ciliary motility wherein peripheral filaments (microtubules) do not change length during beat (see Satir, 1967). (rupress.org)
  • Although the major structural components of human cilia have been described, a complete understanding of cilia function and regulation will require identification and characterization of all ciliary components. (mcponline.org)
  • To identify all the components of human cilia, we have begun a comprehensive proteomic analysis of isolated ciliary axonemes. (mcponline.org)
  • The importance of this process is clearly illustrated by the disease primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), 1 in which genetic defects cause dysfunctional cilia and result in chronic otitis media, sinusitus, and bronchitis ( 2 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Emerging research has established a fundamental link between cytoskeletal structures such as centrioles and cilia in the regulation of DNA repair and genomic instability, highlighted by an increasing number of cancers/syndromes with clear ciliary connections such as Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome, Von Hippel-Lindau disease and Tuberous Sclerosis. (biochemistry.org)
  • Written and edited by experts in the field, Cilia , from Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, examines key aspects of ciliary biology--from the molecular to the organismal level--in normal physiology and disease. (cshlpress.com)
  • The contributors dissect the complex structures of motile and nonmotile (primary) cilia, discuss how the intraflagellar transport machinery moves cargo across the central axoneme, and review how the ciliary gate controls the composition of cilia and flagella. (cshlpress.com)
  • The interaction of cilia and mucus is an essential component of respiratory tract defense against pathogens and when dysfunctional, leads to diseases ranging from the common cold, asthma, rhinosinusitus, chronic obstructive lung disease and genetic diseases cystic fibrosis (CF) and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). (grc.org)
  • Their findings also explain the frequently observed misalignment of cilia in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a disease that impairs ciliary flow. (phys.org)
  • The polarity of the cilia is still biased towards the posterior, but without a detectable flow the process of refinement is disrupted and they can't reorient themselves properly," says Kintner and adds that, "this model explains why ciliary disorientation is so commonly associated with ciliary dysfunction in human PCD. (phys.org)
  • It opened a way to reconstruct 3D conformations of proteins in cilia at 3-nm resolu. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins Ift172/Wimple and Polaris/Ift88 and the anterograde IFT motor kinesin-II are required for the production and maintenance of cilia. (pnas.org)
  • Nor was it clear whether IFT proteins are required for a cytoplasmic transport process or in cilia for neural patterning. (pnas.org)
  • Mutations in genes encoding structural and functional proteins of cilia and flagella lead to innumerable diseases and disorders called ciliopathies. (els.net)
  • Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are estimated to have evolved roughly a billion years ago, following the appearance of the genes for tubulin (from bacteria) and proteins that establish the ninefold symmetry. (els.net)
  • Further study of how these proteins function could yield insights into the impact that cilia defects cause throughout the body. (nih.gov)
  • Though it remains unclear how three IFT proteins are required for Shh signaling in neural cells, the authors postulate that cilia could produce a signal that is required for Shh signaling. (sciencemag.org)
  • Motor proteins using ATP power the sliding of microtubules past each other, causing the cilium to wave back and forth. (gardenguides.com)
  • When cytochalasin D, a small molecule which permeates cells and inhibits cytoskeleton polymerization, was applied to one of the identified proteins, it repaired cilium formation in cells carrying mutations. (ucsd.edu)
  • Autophagy regulates the length of the cilia by removing proteins required for ciliogenesis, a phenomenon that is molecularly different if performed by basal autophagy or when autophagy is induced in response to various stressors. (nih.gov)
  • As an approach to validate the mass spectrometry results, additional studies examined the expression of several identified proteins (annexin I, sperm protein Sp17, retinitis pigmentosa protein RP1) in cilia or ciliated cells. (mcponline.org)
  • However, whereas the sequencing of the human genome has allowed the identification of homologs of these Chlamydomonas proteins, biochemical evidence is still necessary to demonstrate their axonemal nature in human cilia. (mcponline.org)
  • Researchers in Burdine's laboratory found that Kurly's role in cilia movement stems from its ability to ensure proteins called dynein arms are correctly located in the cilia. (princeton.edu)
  • Extracellular vesicles (EVs), membrane-bound carriers with complex cargos that include proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, function in long-distance cellular communication, but how cilia contribute to EV production was previously unclear to the scientific community. (eurekalert.org)
  • Previous work has shown that loss of exocyst complex component 5 (EXOC5), one of the eight proteins that make up the exocyst, causes very short or no cilia to be produced. (eurekalert.org)
  • The motility of eukaryotic cilia and flagella is modulated in response to several extracellular stimuli. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This article will focus on the role of helical surface-attached appendages known as flagella or cilia, that are present on many eukaryotic cells. (news-medical.net)
  • While flagella and cilia are structurally identical, they can be distinguished by their length, density, and motility patterns. (news-medical.net)
  • Whilst flagella feature predominantly on prokaryotic cells, numerous other species possess specialized cells that employ cilia to displace themselves across space. (news-medical.net)
  • This article will discuss how data from specific species have informed our understanding of cilia/ flagella dynamics. (news-medical.net)
  • For example, the alga C. reinhardtii , from which a significant understanding of cilia and flagella is derived. (news-medical.net)
  • These cells use sex-specific adhesion receptors on their flagella (flagella are essentially the same as cilia) during mating. (sciencemag.org)
  • In eukaryotes, motile cilia and flagella together make up a group of organelles known as undulipodia . (rug.nl)
  • [3] Eukaryotic cilia are structurally identical to eukaryotic flagella, although distinctions are sometimes made according to function and/or length. (rug.nl)
  • Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are hair‐like cellular appendages composed of specialised microtubules and covered by a specialised extension of the cellular membrane. (els.net)
  • Cilia and flagella have three, often interrelated functions: (1) As motile organelles beating like whips or oars, they propel cells through their environment or transport fluids along the surfaces of ciliated epithelia. (els.net)
  • Given these functions, cilia and flagella are micromachines and they act as cybernetic devices to receive, process and communicate information. (els.net)
  • The beating of cilia and flagella depends on many biochemical factors including the different effects of outer versus inner dynein arm motors, the DRC (dynein regulatory complex) and DRC-radial spoke interactions mediated by kinases. (els.net)
  • The waveform of beating cilia/flagella also depends on the precise geometric assemblage of the axoneme structures, the mechanical properties of those structures and principles of the Geometric Clutch hypothesis. (els.net)
  • c) and (d) Cross‐sectional EMs of a basal body and a flagellar 9 + 2 axoneme of protozoa, typical of most simple cilia and flagella (membrane removed and viewed from the proximal end looking towards the distal tip). (els.net)
  • Cilia are similar in many respects to flagella. (gardenguides.com)
  • Cilia and Flagella are organelles that are located in eukaryotes structurally built to help the cell move. (smore.com)
  • Both Cilia and Flagella are made of microtubules which are covered by plasma membranes. (smore.com)
  • The main purpose of Cilia is to help the cell move fluids, mucous, or other cells over their surface, while flagella are more important and helpful to move the cell around. (smore.com)
  • Cilia and flagella are highly conserved and important microtubule-based organelles that project from the surface of eukaryotic cells and act as antennae to sense extracellular signals. (mdpi.com)
  • Sperm flagella possess a 9 + 2 axoneme, and the photoreceptor cells of the retina contain a modified cilium. (mcponline.org)
  • Nearly every cell in the human body has one or more protrusive structures called cilia or flagella. (cshlpress.com)
  • Normally, cilia also called flagella are built and maintained by an internal bidirectional, escalator-like system that ferries molecules to and from the tips by a process called intraflagellar transport, or IFT. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Scattered throughout the cilia are goblet cells that secrete mucus which helps protect the lining of the bronchus and trap microorganisms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most mucous membranes, such as those in the nose , are covered with cilia to create a constant flow of mucus. (conservapedia.com)
  • In humans , for example, motile cilia are found in the lining of the trachea (windpipe), where they sweep mucus and dirt out of the lungs. (rug.nl)
  • For example, motile cilia are on cells that line the trachea, where their coordinated wave-like motions carry mucus-along with the inhaled dust, bacteria, and other small particles it contains-toward the mouth to be coughed or sneezed out of the body. (nih.gov)
  • Cilia perform a wide variety of functions in humans -- the cells lining your trachea, for example, use their cilia to sweep dust and mucus upwards out of the lungs. (gardenguides.com)
  • In humans, for example, epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract each have about 200 cilia that beat in synchrony to sweep mucus towards the throat for elimination. (arn.org)
  • Mutations impede the flow of chloride, causing the mucus to accumulate and impeding the hair-like particles called cilia from beating back and forth to clear out the mucus. (wordnik.com)
  • The continuous, coordinated beating of the cilia transports mucus and foreign material out of the airways to help maintain a sterile environment. (mcponline.org)
  • 2) How can we analyze the hydrodynamics and biophysical properties of cilia-mucus interactions in healthy and disease states with high resolution? (grc.org)
  • 3) What is the relationship between cilia, mucus and mucosal immunity? (grc.org)
  • This GRC will be held in conjunction with the "Cilia, Mucus and Mucociliary Interactions (GRS)" Gordon Research Seminar (GRS). (grc.org)
  • Cilia, tiny hair-like structures that propel mucus out of airways, have to agree on the direction of the fluid flow to get things moving. (phys.org)
  • Cilia are tiny hair-like projections from cells that line your respiratory tract and are responsible for moving mucus up to the throat, where it can be spat out or swallowed. (newcastle-hospitals.org.uk)
  • Cilia also keep our airways clean by removing mucus and dust from the nose and lungs. (alleydog.com)
  • A cilium, like a flagellum , is composed of a central core (the axoneme), which contains two central microtubules that are surrounded by an outer ring of nine pairs of microtubules. (britannica.com)
  • IFT involves bidirectional movement of IFT particles beneath the plasma membrane of cilia along the axonemal microtubules, which allows material to be transported to the distal tip of the cilium, where new components are incorporated into the axoneme. (pnas.org)
  • The cilium membrane and the basal body microtubules are connected by transition fibers. (rug.nl)
  • Their most prominent structural component is the axoneme which consists of nine doublet microtubules, with all motile cilia - except those at the embryonic node - containing an additional central pair of microtubules. (uniprot.org)
  • These studies have demonstrated the 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules, the inner and outer dynein arms, the radial spokes, and other features common to all motile cilia. (mcponline.org)
  • These results indicate that two components of the cytoskeleton perform different functions: actin fibers establish cell-wide coordination of cilia orientation and timing, whereas microtubules ensure that cilia are in harmony with their neighbors. (rupress.org)
  • Cilia movement is driven by an array of longitudinal microtubules arranged in 9 doublets around a central pair. (phys.org)
  • The bronchus in the lungs are lined with hair-like projections called cilia that move microbes and debris up and out of the airways. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cilia are evolutionarily conserved, membrane-bound, microtubular projections emanating from the cell surface. (nih.gov)
  • Cilia are hairlike projections from the cell body. (gardenguides.com)
  • Cilia, tail-like projections found on the surface of cells, are perhaps best known as molecular flippers that help cells move around. (innovations-report.com)
  • Hamada showed hair-like projections on the embryo called cilia produce a leftward flow of fluid outside the embryo, allowing the embryo to identify its left side. (wordnik.com)
  • Each breath passes through or over lymph tissue and millions of hair like projections called cilia that filter, re-filter and remove any particles that may damage the lungs. (wordnik.com)
  • A new study of a protein found in cilia - the hair-like projections on the cell surface - may help explain how genetic defects in cilia play a role in developmental abnormalities, kidney disease and a number of other disorders. (princeton.edu)
  • Caption: Staining of cilia (hair-like projections in green and nuclei in blue) in zebrafish kidney tubules show cilia are disorganized and oriented incorrectly in fish with mutated Kurly protein (bottom panel) versus normal Kurly (top panel). (princeton.edu)
  • The best candidate protein is TMEM16B (alias ANO2) ( 7 , 8 ), but it is not clear whether this protein is expressed in the sensory cilia. (pnas.org)
  • Cryo-electron tomography has been a valuable tool in the analysis of 3D structures of cilia at molecular and cellular levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cilia are antenna-like membrane-associated structures which play essential roles during development, and during the normal function of many cells throughout the body. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Cilia are wavy, hair-like structures that extend outward from the surfaces of various organisms such as human skin. (innovations-report.com)
  • Once centrioles have matured, they become basal bodies, and it is these structures that provide a template for cilia. (news-medical.net)
  • You may think of cilia primarily as structures specialized to confer motility, but nonmotile cells (virtually all vertebrate cells have a primary cilium) also use cilia for sensory functions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Receptors concentrated on the surface of cilia allow cells to efficiently sample their immediate environment, but it is unclear how such receptors function in the absence of structures that usually associate with them at the plasma membrane. (sciencemag.org)
  • Some single-celled creatures have structures called motile cilia that beat rhythmically to allow the cells to move. (nih.gov)
  • Looking closely at where the cilia should exist, the researchers saw that the supporting structures needed for cilia to grow were either completely missing or abnormal. (nih.gov)
  • Other experiments showed that CC2D2A is part of structures called subdistal appendages, which help anchor the basal body at the cell membrane to stabilize cilia and allow them to form. (nih.gov)
  • Johns Hopkins researchers and colleagues have found a previously unrecognized role for tiny hair-like cell structures known as cilia: They help form our sense of touch. (innovations-report.com)
  • In addition to their role in mucociliary clearance, cilia and other axonemal structures are clearly essential to many other specialized cell biological functions. (mcponline.org)
  • Cilia are microscopic, hair-like structures on the surface of cells that beat in unison to create movement. (alleydog.com)
  • Sensory cilia of olfactory receptor neurons have developed an unusual solution to this problem. (pnas.org)
  • Mammalian olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) present to the air a tuft of sensory cilia equipped with odorant receptors. (pnas.org)
  • Molecular mechanisms underlying olfactory signal amplification were investigated by monitoring cAMP dynamics in the intact sensory cilia. (jneurosci.org)
  • This is mainly attributable to the technical difficulties accompanied with the nano-scale structure of sensory cilia. (jneurosci.org)
  • To overcome the difficulty of monitoring the molecular dynamics within nano-scale sensory cilia, we used a combined technique of patch-clamp and photo-activated compounds. (jneurosci.org)
  • It's extremely exciting that we've found a single protein that is responsible for these two functions - orientation and motility - in cilia," said Rebecca Burdine , an associate professor of molecular biology at Princeton University. (princeton.edu)
  • Despite their importance in human disease, very little is known about how cilia motility and orientation are coordinated, so this protein will provide an important gateway into looking at this process. (princeton.edu)
  • On Spain-holiday.com you can search from a selection of holiday homes for rent in Santa Cilia de Jaca. (spain-holiday.com)
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  • The cilium is assembled from mature (mother) centrioles or basal bodies, which serve to nucleate growth of axonemes that give rise to two structurally distinct variants, motile and nonmotile cilia. (nih.gov)
  • 2) Both motile and nonmotile cilia act as antennae, sensing environmental cues and metabolic compounds and initiating specific cellular responses. (els.net)
  • Ciliates are microscopic organisms that possess motile cilia exclusively and use them for either locomotion or to simply move liquid over their surface. (rug.nl)
  • The structure of respiratory tract cilia has been the subject of many previous microscopic studies. (mcponline.org)
  • He and his team use the microscopic green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , which has two individual cilia. (medgadget.com)
  • By studying microscopic hairs called cilia on algae, researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have found that an internal structure that helps build cilia is also responsible for a cell's response to external signals. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Through a series of experiments, the researchers showed that oral groove cilia appear to have different molecular motors than the rest of a paramecium's cilia. (eurekalert.org)
  • Utilizing high-throughput screening, we were able view a wider array of the genes implicated in ciliopathies and enact systematic approaches, which enabled us to gain deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms of cilia formation," said Gleeson. (ucsd.edu)
  • Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles for sensing of the extracellular milieu and transducing this information into the cell through a variety of molecular signaling pathways. (nih.gov)
  • But before Kintner and his team could get to the bottom of cilia polarity, they had to enlist the help of electron microscopy expert Richard Jacobs, Ph.D., a research specialist in the lab of Howard Hughes Medical investigator Charles Stevens, a professor in the Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory. (phys.org)
  • Q. Wang, J. Pan, W. J. Snell, Intraflagellar transport particles participate directly in cilium-generated signaling in Chlamydomonas . (sciencemag.org)
  • Pathological mutations occur in genes necessary for cilia morphogenesis or maintenance via intraflagellar transport, disrupting primary cilia function. (qiagen.com)
  • They generated kidney cells that had lost expression of intraflagellar transport protein 88 (IFT88), a protein that is also required for proper cilium formation. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cilium , plural cilia , short eyelashlike filament that is numerous on tissue cells of most animals and provides the means for locomotion of protozoans of the phylum Ciliophora. (britannica.com)
  • [1] the plural is cilia ) is an organelle found on eukaryotic cells and are slender protuberances that project from the much larger cell body . (rug.nl)
  • 1715, from Latin cilia , plural of cilium "eyelid, eyelash," perhaps related to celare "to cover, hide," from PIE root *kel- "to conceal" (see cell ), but words for this part of the face can be tricky (see brow ). (thesaurus.com)
  • noun Plural of cilium . (wordnik.com)
  • noun Irregular plural form of cilium . (wordnik.com)
  • While the new material isn't exactly like cilia, it responds to thermal, chemical, and electromagnetic stimulation, allowing researchers to control it and opening unlimited possibilities for future use. (innovations-report.com)
  • Furthermore, the protein content of EVs is very different depending on the length of the cilia. (eurekalert.org)
  • Venezuela's President Nicolas Maduro, left, and first Lady Cilia Flores gesture to the media as they arrive for a session with the Constituent Assembly in Caracas, Venezuela, Thursday, May 24, 2018. (nationalpost.com)
  • Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro, First Lady Cilia Flores and. (gettyimages.com)
  • VENEZUELA, CARACAS - JUNE 24: Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro(C), First Lady Cilia Flores (R) and Diosdado Cabello, president of the Congress (L) attend the official acts at the National Pantheon in Caracas, Venezuela on June 24, 2015 to pay tribute to Venezuelan hero Pedro Camejo, a black officer in the army of Simon Bolivar who was killed on June 24, 1821 in the Battle of Carabobo. (gettyimages.com)
  • How is immotile cilia syndrome differentiated from acute sinusitis (sinus infection)? (medscape.com)
  • Immotile cilia syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with recurrent chest infections and/or pulmonary consolidation, sinusitis, bronchiectasis, and Kartagener syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Cilia cross section shows evidence of immotile cilia syndrome. (histology-world.com)
  • Cilia are microtubule-based cell surface protrusions that extend from the basal body (centriole), and nonmotile primary cilia are present on most vertebrate cells. (pnas.org)
  • The node cells of each mutant embryo lacked all nonmotile primary cilia. (sciencemag.org)
  • The meeting will culminate with talks aimed at the interplay between cilia, cytoskeleton and cancer and how these processes can be targeted therapeutically. (biochemistry.org)
  • Cilia, Cytoskeleton and Cancer has been approved for the purposes of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) by the Society of Biology. (biochemistry.org)
  • Approval signifies that the Society of Biology recognizes the Cilia, Cytoskeleton and Cancer event is of merit to the development needs of participants. (biochemistry.org)
  • Fifty years after the discovery of dyneins in motile cilia, much remains to be learned about the structure and mechanism of these complex organelles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because both anterograde and retrograde IFT are essential for positive and negative responses to Hh, and because cilia are present on Hh responsive cells, it is likely that cilia act as organelles that are required for all activity of the mouse Hh pathway. (pnas.org)
  • Whereas motile cilia are typically found in large bundles and beat synchronously to generate fluid flow, primary cilia (with the exception of those found at the embryonic node) are generally immotile and are found as solitary organelles. (nih.gov)
  • motile cilia and non-motile , or primary , cilia, which typically serve as sensory organelles. (rug.nl)
  • Cilia are hairlike organelles on the surfaces of many animal and lower plant cells that serve to move fluid over the cell's surface or to 'row' single cells through a fluid. (arn.org)
  • It is evident that cilia are sensory organelles, playing a pivotal role in both development and homeostasis, responding to both mechanical and chemical stimuli and are key regulators of multiple signalling pathways including Hedgehog, cAMP, MAPK, Wnt and calcium. (biochemistry.org)
  • Defects in genes that are involved in cilia development or function can cause complicated syndromes, called ciliopathies, that involve multiple organs and tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers have identified several genes that are essential to form and maintain cilia. (nih.gov)
  • A team of scientists at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have identified a network of genes that initiate and manage cilia formation. (ucsd.edu)
  • professor of neurosciences and pediatrics at UC San Diego and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator, and Joon Kim, a UC San Diego postdoctoral fellow, utilized a high-throughput, cell-based screen to evaluate the impact of more than 8,000 genes and their relation to cilia function and development. (ucsd.edu)
  • Mutations in genes that encode cilia can lead to disorders known as ciliopathies. (cshlpress.com)
  • This alga allows researchers to manipulate genes and study the resulting effects on cilia in a way that would be impossible in animals such as mice. (medgadget.com)
  • Epithelial sodium channels ENaC that are specifically expressed along the entire length of cilia apparently serve as sensors that regulate fluid level surrounding the cilia. (rug.nl)
  • Delicate, hair-like filaments, not unlike the pile on velvet, called cilia , spring from the epithelial lining of the air tubes. (wordnik.com)
  • Nodal cilia have been shown to be important for the determination of situs ( 3 ), and recently the primary cilium of renal epithelial cells has been demonstrated to be responsive to flow ( 4 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Using the cilia-coated epithelial cells of Xenopus embryos, Werner et al. (rupress.org)
  • Cilia is a slender organelle that extends above the free surface of an epithelial cell and generally undergoes cycles of movement. (blausen.com)
  • However, research over the past decade has established that the primary cilium is capable of transducing essential signaling information from the extracellular milieu. (nih.gov)
  • In mammalian and fish embryos, a cilia-driven leftward flow of extracellular fluid is required for initiation of the Nodal cascade. (nih.gov)
  • The discovery of Kurly's role in cilia movement and orientation stemmed from work in the Burdine lab on fetal organ development, specifically an investigation of mutations that alter the left-right asymmetric orientation of the heart. (princeton.edu)
  • Mutations in the gene DNAI1, which render cilia immotile, account for about 10 percent of all human cases of PCD, while the loss of functional Spag6 and TEKT2A/B, both essential components of cilia, cause a PCD-like disease in mice. (phys.org)
  • Summary of factors that regulate the assembly or disassembly of cilia. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, several factors, including components involved in the IFT-A complex, axonemal deacetylation, axonemal microtubule depolymerization, and actin polymerization negatively regulate cilium assembly. (nih.gov)
  • Recent studies suggest that primary cilia regulate the cell cycle, giving them a potential role in carcinogenesis. (qiagen.com)
  • Recently, it was shown that primary cilia regulate a special kind of proteasome which is essential for proper Hedgehog signalling. (nih.gov)
  • Not only do cilia normally regulate many of the cellular signalling pathways commonly perturbed in cancer, but the ability to form cilia is lost in many transformed cells and indeed primary cilium can both mediate and suppress Hedgehog pathway-dependent tumourigenesis. (biochemistry.org)
  • Here we describe the structure and distinct functional roles of cilia in sensory organs like the inner ear, the olfactory epithelium, and the retina of the mouse. (mdpi.com)
  • The roles of cilia in coordinating cellular responses to environmental stimuli via cell signaling pathways (e.g. (cshlpress.com)
  • Cilia genetic defects are linked to a number of human diseases, including polycystic kidney disease, respiratory distress, hearing loss, infertility, and left-right patterning disorders such as the one Burdine studies. (princeton.edu)
  • Defects in the cilium, and the structure from which it arises, the basal body, have been shown to cause a spectrum of diseases, ranging from developmental defects to obesity, diabetes, and cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Ciliopathies are a newly emerging group of genetic diseases caused by defects in the function or structure of cellular primary cilia. (ucsd.edu)
  • Genetic defects in cilia can cause people to develop debilitating kidney disease or to be born with learning disabilities, extra fingers or toes, or the inability to smell. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Practical and cutting-edge, Cilia: Methods and Protocols is broad and covers motile, sensory, and primary cells. (springer.com)
  • Researchers gained insights into a key protein involved in forming cilia-hair-like extensions found on cells throughout the body. (nih.gov)
  • Liver cells from wild-type embryos (left) and embryos lacking Cc2d2a (right) show cilia in green (arrowheads point to examples). (nih.gov)
  • Nitric oxide (NO)-mediated regulation of cGMP in ciliated cells is presented in the context of alcohol-induced cilia function and dysfunction. (mdpi.com)
  • Do Plant Cells Have Cilia? (gardenguides.com)
  • In animal cells, cilia perform a variety of functions. (gardenguides.com)
  • Animal cells have cilia, but plant cells typically do not. (gardenguides.com)
  • In general, however, plant cells do not have cilia. (gardenguides.com)
  • On the top we see the cilia, labeled (H). They are attached to columnar cells, labeled (I). The cilia sweep the mucous produced in the goblet cells, labeled (J) as well as mucous coming from deeper glands within the lungs and the particulate matter trapped in the mucous. (whyquit.com)
  • Not only is the smoker more prone to infection from the loss of the cleansing mechanism of the cilia, but these abnormal cells (O) are cancerous squamous cells. (whyquit.com)
  • Primary cilia are small, hair-like appendages attached to the surface of human cells. (ucsd.edu)
  • Motile cilia are also present in the oviduct, the epididymis, and the eppendymal cells of the brain. (mcponline.org)
  • The researchers at Princeton University and Northwestern University found that the protein, which goes by the name C21orf59 or "Kurly," is needed for cilia to undulate to keep fluid moving over the surface of cells. (princeton.edu)
  • In frogs, the cilia on skin cells help move fluid along the surface of the animal during its larval stage. (princeton.edu)
  • Analysis showed that the cilia signaling process was similar to that found in human cells, such as those in the nose involved in the sense of smell and those in the developing nervous system that sculpt our brains. (medgadget.com)
  • Immunogold labeling of Exoc5-myc (a component of the exocyst) in MDCK cells shows black dots along the primary cilium (arrowheads) and associated vesicles (arrows). (eurekalert.org)
  • Virtually every cell has a primary cilium that functions to senses fluid flow, transmits chemical signals to other cells and controls cell growth. (eurekalert.org)
  • New work from researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), published online on Nov. 6 by the Journal of Biological Chemistry , shows that primary cilia generate approximately 60% of the small EVs produced by renal tubule cells and that manipulation of cilium length affects the production of EVs. (eurekalert.org)
  • This is the first real demonstration in mammalian cells that ectosomes, EVs produced by primary cilia as opposed to exosomes, which are EVs that are similar in size but form in the multivesicular bodies of the cell, are so prominent. (eurekalert.org)
  • The cells that lost EXOC5 had very short or absent cilia and also produced fewer EVs. (eurekalert.org)
  • On the other hand, cells that made more EXOC5 had longer cilia and produced significantly more EVs. (eurekalert.org)
  • Two ciliated cells showing cilia (green) and basal bodies (red). (phys.org)
  • Each mature ciliated cell has up to 200 cilia, which have to co-ordinate their movements to orient their effective stroke in the same direction as their cellmates and all the cilia on neighboring cells. (phys.org)
  • In collaboration with the Kintner lab, Jacobs helped develop an assay that allowed postdoctoral researcher and first author Brian Mitchell, Ph.D., to determine the polarity of cilia by scoring the orientation of hundreds of basal feet in Xenopus larvae, whose skin is covered with multi-ciliated cells. (phys.org)
  • Analyzing skin explants taken during early embryonic development, Mitchell discovered that, early on, when ciliated cells begin to differentiate in the skin but have not yet generated a significant fluid flow, all cilia roughly point towards the back end of the frog larvae. (phys.org)
  • Although the cilia could move without IFT and bind to the molecules of the cilia of the opposite type, those cells were unable to respond to the signaling molecules. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Functioning of the primary cilium has been recently connected to autophagy, a pathway for degradation of cellular components in lysosomes. (nih.gov)
  • There will be structured sessions describing fundamental cellular processes in cilia, cytoskeletal and tumour biology and how dysregulation can initiate disease. (biochemistry.org)
  • With such a range of abilities, cilia serve as both motors and "cellular antennae," said Dr. William Snell, a professor of cell biology at UT Southwestern and senior author of new research on cilia published in the May 5 issue of Cell. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Capable of beating in unison, cilia move mammalian ova through oviducts, generate water currents to carry food and oxygen past the gills of clams, carry food through the digestive systems of snails, circulate cerebrospinal fluid of animals, and clean debris from the respiratory systems of mammals. (britannica.com)
  • Examples of cilia in action range from the unicellular spermatozoa, which oscillate their flagellum to propel themselves through fluid, and a complex cilia-based motion in the brain, which spatiotemporally regulates a complex network of distribution channels in the brain allowing for directed and controlled transport of substances through the ventricles. (news-medical.net)
  • The functioning of motile cilia is strongly dependent on the maintenance of optimal levels of fluid bathing the cilia. (rug.nl)
  • They also found that the protein is needed during development to properly orient the cilia so that they are facing the right direction to move the fluid. (princeton.edu)
  • In the zebrafish kidney, the researchers found that the Kurly protein enabled cilia to orient themselves in a uniform direction, and most importantly, in the proper direction to facilitate the flow of fluid along the narrow channels in the kidney. (princeton.edu)
  • In both cases, knocking out the gene for Kurly caused the cilia to orient incorrectly thereby losing their ability to move in the waving fashion that helps push fluid along. (princeton.edu)
  • It has been known for some time that cilia are important for a number of jobs, from sensing the environment to facilitating fluid flow, to ensuring that the lungs excrete inhaled contaminants. (princeton.edu)
  • All the cilia beat in the same direction to generate directed, fluid flow. (phys.org)
  • The protein is part of a complex structure called the basal body, from which cilia grow. (nih.gov)
  • it functions to sort, modify and permit entry of only membrane and protein constituents destined for transport and incorporation into the developing cilium. (els.net)
  • The CC2D2A protein was thought to be a structural protein needed for cilia growth, but its precise functions have been unclear. (nih.gov)
  • Protein which is involved in the formation, organization, maintenance and degradation of the cilium, a cell surface projection found at the surface of a large proportion of eukaryotic. (uniprot.org)
  • The scientists also identified protein groups that are key modulators between cilia and the endocytic recycling pathway. (ucsd.edu)
  • Cilia with a mutant form of the Kurly protein are wild and disorganized. (princeton.edu)
  • The researchers also found that the mutation they discovered rendered the Kurly protein sensitive to temperature, and used this trait to find that the Kurly protein may be involved in initiating movement rather than keeping the cilia moving once they've started. (princeton.edu)
  • One of the key components of ciliogenesis - the process of generating a cilium - is the exocyst, an eight-protein complex that is highly conserved and was first discovered in yeast. (eurekalert.org)
  • As the pivotal link between tumourigenesis and cilia function is emerging, this meeting will represent a timely opportunity to bring together researchers from the fields of cancer and cytoskeletal/cilia biology. (biochemistry.org)
  • Ciliopathy-associated gene Cc2d2a promotes assembly of subdistal appendages on the mother centriole during cilia biogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Although these models have provided a wealth of information, to understand the structure and regulation of human cilia it is clear that complementary studies of human material are required. (mcponline.org)
  • The gene for Kurly has also been detected in relation to human cilia disorders, so the work may have an impact on understanding the mechanisms of human disease, Grimes added. (princeton.edu)
  • To find out whether people with inherited conditions that affect cilia also had different sensation thresholds, the researchers recruited nine patients with BBS, an inherited disorder characterized by obesity, polydactyly and vision loss. (innovations-report.com)
  • Uncovering this series of reactions will make it possible to test, for instance, drugs that can affect cilia, in the hope of finding substances that would also be effective in higher animals, Dr. Snell said. (medgadget.com)
  • Martin Cilia (born December 1958) is an English-born Australian musician. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this work, a new microfluidic concept that utilizes a series of magnetically actuated artificial cilia integrated into a microchannel was employed to control the orientation of zebrafish larvae with a validated axial rotation capability. (springer.com)
  • Upon Maduro's tight victory in the 2013 presidential election over Henrique Capriles, Cilia Flores became Venezuela's First Lady, a position that had been vacant since 2003. (wikipedia.org)
  • [11] The primary non-motile cilia has a "9+0" axonemal structure and is divided into subdomains. (rug.nl)
  • Many of these diseases, or ciliopathies, are manifested as genetic syndromes, such as Joubert syndrome, Bardet-Biedel (BBS), Meckel-Gruber (MKS), and Nephronophthisis (NPHP), illustrating the importance of understanding cilium structure and function and the mechanisms required for its assembly. (nih.gov)
  • Recently, researchers like Nico Katsanis, Ph.D., associate professor at Johns Hopkins' McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, have found that cilia are important for many other biological processes, including three of our five senses: vision, hearing, and smell (ciliopathies are often characterized by loss or deficiency in these senses). (innovations-report.com)
  • Their study, published in Nature , reveals that during early embryonic development, cilia point more or less in the general direction of the body's back end and start creating a weak flow. (phys.org)
  • Postdoctoral Associates Barr Laboratory, Rutgers University We are looking for one or two postdocs to study neurogenetics or to model genetic diseases of cilia in C. elegans. (bio.net)
  • The latter encodes a subunit of a kinesin-II IFT motor required for nodal cilia formation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here we show that a cilia-driven leftward flow precedes asymmetric nodal expression in the frog Xenopus. (nih.gov)
  • The cilia play an instrumental role in the trachea where the beating motion, together with the overlying mucosa, clear the airways of obstruction. (news-medical.net)
  • For one, the trachea is lined with millions of tiny hairs called cilia that trap any gunk you might have breathed in. (wordnik.com)
  • Some of the signaling with these cilia occur through ligand binding such as Hedgehog signaling. (rug.nl)
  • Hedgehog Meets the Cilia? (sciencemag.org)
  • Control of Hedgehog Signalling by the Cilia-Regulated Proteasome. (nih.gov)
  • Today, it is known that tiny cell protrusions, known as primary cilia, are necessary to mediate Hedgehog signalling in vertebrates. (nih.gov)
  • One of these questions is: How do primary cilia control Hedgehog signalling in vertebrates? (nih.gov)
  • This review article will cover this novel cilia-proteasome association in embryonic Hedgehog signalling and discuss the possibilities provided by future investigations on this topic. (nih.gov)
  • The amount of water in the body generally decreases with age, which in turn decreases the action of tiny hairs, called cilia , in the nose that help wash it out. (wordnik.com)