Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Photoreceptor Connecting Cilium: The bridge between the inner and the outer segments of a retinal rod or a cone photoreceptor cell. Through it, proteins synthesized in the inner segment are transported to the outer segment.Axoneme: A bundle of MICROTUBULES and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS forming the core of each CILIUM or FLAGELLUM. In most eukaryotic cilia or flagella, an axoneme shaft has 20 microtubules arranged in nine doublets and two singlets.Ciliary Motility Disorders: Conditions caused by abnormal CILIA movement in the body, usually causing KARTAGENER SYNDROME, chronic respiratory disorders, chronic SINUSITIS, and chronic OTITIS. Abnormal ciliary beating is likely due to defects in any of the 200 plus ciliary proteins, such as missing motor enzyme DYNEIN arms.Kidney Diseases, Cystic: A heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders in which the KIDNEY contains one or more CYSTS unilaterally or bilaterally (KIDNEY, CYSTIC).Centrioles: Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.Kartagener Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a triad of DEXTROCARDIA; INFERTILITY; and SINUSITIS. The syndrome is caused by mutations of DYNEIN genes encoding motility proteins which are components of sperm tails, and CILIA in the respiratory and the reproductive tracts.Polycystic Kidney Diseases: Hereditary diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed CYSTS within the KIDNEYS. They include diseases with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance.Bardet-Biedl Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; POLYDACTYLY; OBESITY; MENTAL RETARDATION; hypogenitalism; renal dysplasia; and short stature. This syndrome has been distinguished as a separate entity from LAURENCE-MOON SYNDROME. (From J Med Genet 1997 Feb;34(2):92-8)TRPP Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels that are widely expressed in various cell types. Defects are associated with POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Ependyma: A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.Axonemal Dyneins: Dyneins that are responsible for ciliary and flagellar beating.Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Paramecium: A genus of ciliate protozoa that is often large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Paramecia are commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.Olfactory Mucosa: That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.Tetrahymena pyriformis: A species of ciliate protozoa used extensively in genetic research.Situs Inversus: A congenital abnormality in which organs in the THORAX and the ABDOMEN are opposite to their normal positions (situs solitus) due to lateral transposition. Normally the STOMACH and SPLEEN are on the left, LIVER on the right, the three-lobed right lung is on the right, and the two-lobed left lung on the left. Situs inversus has a familial pattern and has been associated with a number of genes related to microtubule-associated proteins.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Mechanotransduction, Cellular: The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Rana ridibunda: A species of the family Ranidae which occurs primarily in Europe and is used widely in biomedical research.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Tetrahymena: A genus of ciliate protozoa commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.Encephalocele: Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.Group II Chaperonins: A subcategory of chaperonins found in ARCHAEA and the CYTOSOL of eukaryotic cells. Group II chaperonins form a barrel-shaped macromolecular structure that is distinct from GROUP I CHAPERONINS in that it does not utilize a separate lid like structure to enclose proteins.Cell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Love: Affection; in psychiatry commonly refers to pleasure, particularly as it applies to gratifying experiences between individuals.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Shared Paranoid Disorder: A condition in which closely related persons, usually in the same family, share the same delusions.Tourette Syndrome: A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a another medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Thermotoga maritima: A rod-shaped bacterium surrounded by a sheath-like structure which protrudes balloon-like beyond the ends of the cell. It is thermophilic, with growth occurring at temperatures as high as 90 degrees C. It is isolated from geothermally heated marine sediments or hot springs. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Hysteria: Historical term for a chronic, but fluctuating, disorder beginning in early life and characterized by recurrent and multiple somatic complaints not apparently due to physical illness. This diagnosis is not used in contemporary practice.Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous: An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.
Interactions of membrane potential and cations in regulation of ciliary activity in Paramecium. (1/2505)Ciliary activity in Paramecium was investigated in different external solutions using techniques of voltage clamp and high frequency cinematography. An increase in the external concentration of K, Ca or Mg ions decreased the resting potential. It had no effect on ciliary activity. When the membrane potential was fixed, an increase in external Ca or Mg and, to a lesser extent, an increase in K concentration, raised the frequency of normal beating or decreased the frequency of reversed beating of the cilia. Similar effects resulted from membrane hyperpolarization with constant ionic conditions. Increase in concentration of Ca, but not of Mg or K, enhanced hyperpolarization-induced augmentation of ciliary frequency. Increase in Ca concentration also specifically augmented the delayed increase in inward current during rapid hyperpolarizing clamp. The results support the view that [Ca]i regulates the frequency and direction of ciliary beating. It is suggested that the insensitivity of the ciliary motor system to elevations of the external concentrations of ions results from compensation of their effects on [Ca]i. Depolarization itself appears to increase [Ca]i while elevation of the external ion concentrations at a fixed membrane potential appears to decrease [Ca]i. (+info)
Involvement of protein kinase C in 5-HT-stimulated ciliary activity in Helisoma trivolvis embryos. (2/2505)1. During development, embryos of the pulmonate gastropod, Helisoma trivolvis, undergo a rotation behaviour due to the co-ordinated beating of three bands of ciliated epithelial cells. This behaviour is in part mediated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) released from a pair of identified embryonic neurons. Using time-lapse videomicroscopy to measure ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in response to pharmacological manipulations, we determined whether protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in mediating 5-HT-stimulated ciliary beating. 2. Diacylglycerol (DAG) analogues sn-1,2-dioctanoyl glycerol (DiC8; 100 microM) and 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG; 100 microM), partially mimicked the 5-HT-induced increase in CBF. In contrast, application of OAG in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ did not result in an increase in CBF. 3. 5-HT-stimulated CBF was effectively blocked by PKC inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide (10 and 100 nM) and calphostin C (10 nM). In addition, bisindolylmaleimide (100 nM) inhibited DiC8-induced increases in CBF. At a higher concentration (200 nM), bisindolylmaleimide did not significantly reduce 5-HT-stimulated cilio-excitation. 4. Two different phorbol esters, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA; 0.1, 10 or 1000 nM) and phorbol 12beta, 13alpha-dibenzoate (PDBn; 10 microM) did not alter basal CBF. TPA (1 microM) did not alter 5-HT-stimulated CBF. Likewise, the synthetic form of phosphatidylserine, N-(6-phenylhexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulphonamide (SC-9; 10 microM), did not increase CBF, whereas a strong increase in CBF was observed upon exposure to 5-HT. 5. The results suggest that a DAG-dependent, phorbol ester-insensitive isoform of PKC mediates 5-HT-stimulated CBF in ciliated epithelial cells from embryos of Helisoma trivolvis. (+info)
Immunocytochemical and morphological evidence for intracellular self-repair as an important contributor to mammalian hair cell recovery. (3/2505)Although recent studies have provided evidence for hair cell regeneration in mammalian inner ears, the mechanism underlying this regenerative process is still under debate. Here we report immunocytochemical, histological, electron microscopic, and autoradiographic evidence that, in cultured postnatal rat utricles, a substantial number of hair cells can survive gentamicin insult even their stereocilia are lost. These partially damaged hair cells can survive for a prolonged time and regrow the stereocilia. Although the number of stereocilia-bearing hair cells increases over time after gentamicin insult, hair cell and supporting cell numbers remain essentially unchanged. Tritiated thymidine autoradiography and bromodeoxyuridine immunocytochemistry of the cultures demonstrate that cell proliferation in the sensory epithelium is very limited and is far below the number of recovered hair cells. Furthermore, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end labeling analysis indicates that gentamicin-induced apoptosis in the sensory epithelium occurs mainly during a 2 d treatment period, and additional cell death is minimal 2-11 d after treatment. Considered together, intracellular repair of partially damaged hair cells can be an important contributor to spontaneous hair cell recovery in mammalian inner ears. (+info)
Interplay between the NO pathway and elevated [Ca2+]i enhances ciliary activity in rabbit trachea. (4/2505)1. Average intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and ciliary beat frequency (CBF) were simultaneously measured in rabbit airway ciliated cells in order to elucidate the molecular events that lead to ciliary activation by purinergic stimulation. 2. Extracellular ATP and extracellular UTP caused a rapid increase in both [Ca2+]i and CBF. These effects were practically abolished by a phospholipase C inhibitor (U-73122) or by suramin. 3. The effects of extracellular ATP were not altered: when protein kinase C (PKC) was inhibited by either GF 109203X or chelerythrine chloride, or when protein kinase A (PKA) was inhibited by RP-adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphothioate triethylamine (Rp-cAMPS). 4. Activation of PKC by phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (TPA) had little effect on CBF or on [Ca2+]i, while activation of PKA by forskolin or by dibutyryl-cAMP led to a small rise in CBF without affecting [Ca2+]i. 5. Direct activation of protein kinase G (PKG) with dibutyryl-cGMP had a negligible effect on CBF when [Ca2+]i was at basal level. However, dibutyryl-cGMP strongly elevated CBF when [Ca2+]i was elevated either by extracellular ATP or by ionomycin. 6. The findings suggest that the initial rise in [Ca2+]i induced by extracellular ATP activates the NO pathway, thus leading to PKG activation. In the continuous presence of elevated [Ca2+]i the stimulated PKG then induces a robust enhancement in CBF. In parallel, activated PKG plays a central role in Ca2+ influx via a still unidentified mechanism, and thus, through positive feedback, maintains CBF close to its maximal level in the continuous presence of ATP. (+info)
Scanning electron microscopy of lithium-induced exogastrulae of Xenopus laevis. (5/2505)Lithium-induced exogastrulae are abnormal embryos which fail to complete gastrulation and do not form normal neural structures. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to compare the surface structure of the ectoderm cells of exogastrulae with that of the ectoderm cells of normal embryos and has shown that the appearance of ciliated cells is delayed in exogastrulae. In addition, the structure of endoderm cells, which remain exposed in these embryos, has been studied. (+info)
Use of tracheal organ cultures in toxicity testing. (6/2505)Fragments of tracheal epithelium alone or in continuity with connective tissues, can be maintained in culture medium and used for short term or long term studies of toxicity of a variety of chemicals. Large numbers of uniform cultures are prepared with the aid of a slicing device or by application of simple method for dissecting sheets of epithelium free from underlying cartilage. The cultures may be placed in an exposure chamber-incubator mounted on a microscope stage and monitored continually for ciliostasis and exfoliation of cells. Morphology is further studied by fixation of selected specimens and preparation for light microscopy and electron microscopy. Synthetic functions are evaluated by autoradiographic measurement of incorporation of radioactive precursors into macromolecules and other dynamic features are indirectly assessed by histochemical and histoenzymatic methods. Short-term studies using these several techniques have shown that ciliostasis does not correlate with cell injury in all instances, and a long-term study has demonstrated dose dependence of a cytotoxic agent when duration of culture viability is measured. The method lends itself to a broad range of investigations in which dose, period of exposure, and role of cofactors must be independently and quantitatively assessed. (+info)
Situs inversus and embryonic ciliary morphogenesis defects in mouse mutants lacking the KIF3A subunit of kinesin-II. (7/2505)The embryonic cellular events that set the asymmetry of the genetic control circuit controlling left-right (L-R) axis determination in mammals are poorly understood. New insight into this problem was obtained by analyzing mouse mutants lacking the KIF3A motor subunit of the kinesin-II motor complex. Embryos lacking KIF3A die at 10 days postcoitum, exhibit randomized establishment of L-R asymmetry, and display numerous structural abnormalities. The earliest detectable abnormality in KIF3A mutant embryos is found at day 7.5, where scanning electron microscopy reveals loss of cilia ordinarily present on cells of the wild-type embryonic node, which is thought to play an important role in setting the initial L-R asymmetry. This cellular phenotype is observed before the earliest reported time of asymmetric expression of markers of the L-R signaling pathway. These observations demonstrate that the kinesin-based transport pathway needed for flagellar and ciliary morphogenesis is conserved from Chlamydomonas to mammals and support the view that embryonic cilia play a role in the earliest cellular determinative events establishing L-R asymmetry. (+info)
Characterization and expression of the laminin gamma3 chain: a novel, non-basement membrane-associated, laminin chain. (8/2505)Laminins are heterotrimeric molecules composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma chain; they have broad functional roles in development and in stabilizing epithelial structures. Here, we identified a novel laminin, composed of known alpha and beta chains but containing a novel gamma chain, gamma3. We have cloned gene encoding this chain, LAMC3, which maps to chromosome 9 at q31-34. Protein and cDNA analyses demonstrate that gamma3 contains all the expected domains of a gamma chain, including two consensus glycosylation sites and a putative nidogen-binding site. This suggests that gamma3-containing laminins are likely to exist in a stable matrix. Studies of the tissue distribution of gamma3 chain show that it is broadly expressed in: skin, heart, lung, and the reproductive tracts. In skin, gamma3 protein is seen within the basement membrane of the dermal-epidermal junction at points of nerve penetration. The gamma3 chain is also a prominent element of the apical surface of ciliated epithelial cells of: lung, oviduct, epididymis, ductus deferens, and seminiferous tubules. The distribution of gamma3-containing laminins on the apical surfaces of a variety of epithelial tissues is novel and suggests that they are not found within ultrastructurally defined basement membranes. It seems likely that these apical laminins are important in the morphogenesis and structural stability of the ciliated processes of these cells. (+info)
Renal epithelial cells retain primary cilia during human acute renal allograft rejection injury | Garvan Institute of Medical...
OBJECTIVES: Primary cilia are sensory organelles which co-ordinate several developmental/repair pathways including hedgehog signalling. Studies of human renal allografts suffering acute tubular necrosis have shown that length of primary cilia borne by epithelial cells doubles throughout the nephron and collecting duct, and then normalises as renal function returns. Conversely the loss of primary cilia has been reported in chronic allograft rejection and linked to defective hedgehog signalling. We investigated the fate of primary cilia in renal allografts suffering acute rejection. RESULTS: Here we observed that in renal allografts undergoing acute rejection, primary cilia were retained, with their length increasing 1 week after transplantation and remaining elevated. We used a mouse model of acute renal injury to demonstrate that elongated renal primary cilia in the injured renal tubule show evidence of smoothened accumulation, a biomarker for activation of hedgehog signalling. We conclude that primary
The IFT-A complex regulates Shh signaling through cilia structure and membrane protein trafficking<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The IFT-A complex regulates Shh signaling through cilia structure and membrane protein trafficking. AU - Liem, Karel F.. AU - Ashe, Alyson. AU - He, Mu. AU - Satir, Peter. AU - Moran, Jennifer. AU - Beier, David. AU - Wicking, Carol. AU - Anderson, Kathryn V.. PY - 2012/6/11. Y1 - 2012/6/11. N2 - Two intraflagellar transport (IFT) complexes, IFT-A and IFT-B, build and maintain primary cilia and are required for activity of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway. A weak allele of the IFT-A gene, Ift144, caused subtle defects in cilia structure and ectopic activation of the Shh pathway. In contrast, strong loss of IFT-A, caused by either absence of Ift144 or mutations in two IFT-A genes, blocked normal ciliogenesis and decreased Shh signaling. In strong IFT-A mutants, the Shh pathway proteins Gli2, Sufu, and Kif7 localized correctly to cilia tips, suggesting that these pathway components were trafficked by IFT-B. In contrast, the membrane proteins Arl13b, ACIII, and Smo failed to ...
Dopamine Receptor Type 5 in the Primary Cilia Has Dual Chemo- and Mechano-Sensory Roles | Hypertension
Polycystic kidney disease is characterized by cardiovascular irregularities, including hypertension. Dopamine, a circulating hormone, is implicated in essential hypertension in humans and animal models. Vascular endothelial primary cilia are known to function as mechano-sensory organelles. Although both primary cilia and dopamine receptors play important roles in vascular hypertension, their relationship has never been explored. To determine the roles of the dopaminergic system and mechano-sensory cilia, we studied the effects of dopamine on ciliary length and function in wild-type and mechano-insensitive polycystic mutant cells (Pkd1−/− and Tg737orpk/orpk). We show for the first time that mouse vascular endothelia exhibit dopamine receptor-type 5 (DR5), which colocalizes to primary cilia in cultured cells and mouse arteries in vivo. DR5 activation increases cilia length in arteries and endothelial cells through cofilin and actin polymerization. DR5 activation also restores cilia function in ...
Differential roles for 3-OSTs in the regulation of cilia length and motility | Development
3-OST-5 controls cilia length through a pathway that controls the expression of two ciliogenic transcription factor genes in KV, foxj1a and rfx2, and the FGF response gene sef. Fgfr1 and 3-OST-5 have similar functions: they regulate DFC/KV expression of foxj1a and rfx2, cilia length and asymmetric fluid flow in KV, and are cell-autonomously required in KV cells for LR development (Neugebauer et al., 2009). In addition, they have similar phenotypes, such as curved body axis, that are common in morphants or mutants of ciliogenic genes such as polaris (ift88) and foxj1a (Bisgrove et al., 2005; Yu et al., 2008; Tian et al., 2009; Hellman et al., 2010). Thus, it is likely that 3-OST-5 and Fgfr1 signaling function in the same ciliogenic pathway to regulate LR development; this is further substantiated by dosage experiments with 3-OST-5 and the Fgf8 ligand (Fig. 3). We propose that 3-OST-5 in DFC/KV cells generates a glycocode necessary for FGF signaling at the cell surface, which then maintains the ...
Intraflagellar transport is essential for endochondral bone formation | Development
Cilia are microtubule-based organelles that are expressed on the surface of most cells in the mammalian body. Intraflagellar transport (IFT), the process by which cilia are formed and maintained, was first described in Chlamydomonas, and proteins required for IFT concentrate at the base of cilia, where they assemble into large protein complexes called IFT particles (Kozminski et al., 1995; Piperno and Mead, 1997). The IFT particles are trafficked along the axoneme by a heterotrimeric kinesin-II and a cytoplasmic dynein in the anterograde and retrograde directions, respectively. Cilia and flagella have diverse functions ranging from fluid and cell movement to mechanosensation and sensory perception (Davenport and Yoder, 2005; Scholey, 2003).. In mammals, Kif3a is a component of the kinesin-II motor protein complex required for cilia assembly while Ift88 (also known as Tg737 or polaris) is a core component of the IFT particle (Cole et al., 1998; Pazour et al., 2000; Taulman et al., 2001). Mice ...
Characterization of primary cilia in mouse retina during retinal development | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Purpose : Primary cilia are hair-like organelles that extend from the apical surface of most mammalian cells. Defects in primary cilia in the eye cause ciliopathies, including renal disease, cerebral anomalies and retinitis pigmentosa. Currently, it is well-known that the connecting cilium in rod and cone photoreceptors contribute to phototransduction. However, the role of cilia in non-photoreceptors in the retina remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to describe the distribution of primary cilia in other layers of retina in mouse and human during development. Methods : In this study, eyes were collected from the different developmental stages in Centrin2-GFP::Arl13b-mCherry transgenic mice, wildtype CD1 mice and C57BL/6J mice to study the distribution of primary cilia in vivo. Retinal sections were stained using Pax6, Sox9, and Chx10 antibodies to determine the fraction of ciliated cells that express these markers. In addition, wildtype CD1 and C57BL/6J mice eyes were used for whole ...
Sensory Signaling-Dependent Remodeling of Olfactory Cilia Architecture in C. elegans<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sensory Signaling-Dependent Remodeling of Olfactory Cilia Architecture in C. elegans. AU - Mukhopadhyay, Saikat. AU - Lu, Yun. AU - Shaham, Shai. AU - Sengupta, Piali. PY - 2008/5/13. Y1 - 2008/5/13. N2 - Nonmotile primary cilia are sensory organelles composed of a microtubular axoneme and a surrounding membrane sheath that houses signaling molecules. Optimal cellular function requires the precise regulation of axoneme assembly, membrane biogenesis, and signaling protein targeting and localization via as yet poorly understood mechanisms. Here, we show that sensory signaling is required to maintain the architecture of the specialized AWB olfactory neuron cilia in C. elegans. Decreased sensory signaling results in alteration of axoneme length and expansion of a membraneous structure, thereby altering the topological distribution of a subset of ciliary transmembrane signaling molecules. Signaling-regulated alteration of ciliary structures can be bypassed by modulation of ...
Primary Cilia: The Chemical Antenna Regulating Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Osteogenesis - Semantic Scholar
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) are multipotent stem cells that show great potential as a cell source for osteogenic tissue replacements and it is critical to understand the underlying mechanisms of lineage specification. Here we explore the role of primary cilia in human ASC (hASC) differentiation. This study focuses on the chemosensitivity of the primary cilium and the action of its associated proteins: polycystin-1 (PC1), polycystin-2 (PC2) and intraflagellar transport protein-88 (IFT88), in hASC osteogenesis. To elucidate cilia-mediated mechanisms of hASC differentiation, siRNA knockdown of PC1, PC2 and IFT88 was performed to disrupt cilia-associated protein function. Immunostaining of the primary cilium structure indicated phenotypic-dependent changes in cilia morphology. hASC cultured in osteogenic differentiation media yielded cilia of a more elongated conformation than those cultured in expansion media, indicating cilia-sensitivity to the chemical environment and a relationship between the
Search Results - - 3,321 Results - Digital Library
Description: Glial cells maintain homeostasis that is essential to neuronal function. Injury to the nervous system leads to the activation and proliferation of glial cells and pericytes, which helps to wall off the damaged region and restore homeostatic conditions. Sonic hedgehog is a mitogen which is implicated in injury-induced proliferation of glial cells and pericytes. The mitogenic effects of sonic hedgehog require primary cilia, but the few reports on glial or pericyte primary cilia do not agree about their abundance and did not address effects of injury on these cilia. Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles that arise from the centrosome and are retracted before cells divide. Depending on cell type, proteins concentrated in cilia can transduce several mitotic, chemosensory, or mechanosensory stimuli. The present study investigated effects of stab wound injury on the incidence and length of glial and pericyte primary cilia in the area adjacent to the injury core. Astrocytes, ...
Bovine olfactory cilia preparation: thiol-modulated odorant-sensitive" by D Lazard, Y Barak et al.
We have characterized the adenylyl cyclase activity in a newly developed preparation of isolated olfactory cilia from the bovine chemosensory neuroepithelium. Like its counterparts from frog and rat, the ciliary enzyme was stimulated by guanine nucleotides, by forskolin, and by a variety of odorants in the presence of GTP. The main difference between the bovine olfactory cilia preparation and the frog and rat olfactory cilia preparation is that odorant stimulation of the bovine olfactory adenylyl cyclase is strongly inhibited by submillimolar concentrations of dithiothreitol. This inhibition is a consequence of a concomitant increase in the GTP-stimulated level and the decrease of the odorant stimulation of the enzyme. Nasal respiratory cilia have a much lower level of adenylyl cyclase activity and show no odorant stimulation. Owing to the large quantities of material available, the bovine olfactory cilia preparation is advantageous for studies of the proteins involved in chemosensory
Miyoshi, Ko - OU Author List - OKAYAMA UNIVERSITY SCIENTIFIC ACHIEVEMENT REPOSITORY
Almost all mammalian cells carry one primary cilium that functions as a biosensor for chemical and mechanical stimuli. Genetic damages that compromise cilia formation or function cause a spectrum of disorders referred to as ciliapathies. Recent studies have demonstrated that some pharmacological agents and extracellular environmental changes can alter primary cilium length. Renal injury is a well-known example of an environmental insult that triggers cilia length modification. Lithium treatment causes primary cilia to extend in several cell types including neuronal cells;this phenomenon is likely independent of glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibition. In renal epithelial cell lines, deflection of the primary cilia by fluid shear shortens them by reducing the intracellular cyclic AMP level, leading to a subsequent decrease in mechanosensitivity to fluid shear. Primary cilium length is also influenced by the dynamics of actin filaments and microtubules through the levels of soluble tubulin in the ...
The Kathryn Anderson Lab: Cilia and Hedgehog Signaling | Gerstner Sloan Kettering Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
Brooks ER and Wallingford JB (2013), The Small GTPase Rsg1 is important for the cyto... - Xenbase Paper
Cilia are small, microtubule-based protrusions important for development and homeostasis. We recently demonstrated that the planar cell polarity effector protein Fuz is a critical regulator of axonemal intraflagellar transport dynamics and localization. Here, we report our findings on the role of the small GTPase Rsg1, a known binding partner of Fuz, and its role in the dynamics and cytoplasmic localization of intraflagellar transport proteins. We find that Rsg1 loss of function leads to impaired axonemal IFT dynamics in multiciliated cells. We further show that Rsg1 is required for appropriate cytoplasmic localization of the retrograde IFT-A protein IFT43. Finally, we show that Rsg1 governs the apical localization of basal bodies, the anchoring structures of cilia. Our data suggest that Rsg1 is a regulator of multiple aspects of ciliogenesis, including apical trafficking of basal bodies and the localization and dynamics intraflagellar transport proteins ...
Fluid mechanics of nodal flow due to embryonic primary cilia | Journal of The Royal Society Interface
A consensus has not been reached on the mechanism for how the nodal flow induces an asymmetric signal that ultimately results in asymmetric regions of left-specific gene expression (Tabin 2006). The main theories involve asymmetric bending of mechanosensory cilia on opposite sides of the node (McGrath et al. 2003; Tabin & Vogan 2003) or the directional transport of (i) morphogen proteins (Nonaka et al. 1998) or (ii) nodal vesicular parcels (NVPs) that are vesicles containing sonic hedgehog (SHH) and retinoic acid (RA; Tanaka et al. 2005). It was also not immediately obvious how whirling cilia could produce such a directional flow. The rotating motion appears to result from bending of the cilium close to its base. Although the base of the cilium is fixed and the cilium does not rotate about its centreline, the direction of bending near the base rotates continuously. As noted by both Nonaka et al. (2005) and Okada et al. (2005), the majority of cilia are not tilted to the degree that they make ...
Permalien vers [The importance of model organisms to study cilia and flagella biology]
Lien vers Pubmed [PMID] - 21501571. Biol Aujourdhui 2011;205(1):5-28. Cilia and flagella are ubiquitous organelles that protrude from the surfaces of many cells, and whose architecture is highly conserved from protists to humans. These complex organelles, composed of over 500 proteins, can be either immotile or motile. They are involved in a myriad of biological processes, including sensing (non-motile cilia) and/or cell motility or movement of extracellular fluids (motile cilia). The ever-expanding list of human diseases linked to defective cilia illustrates the functional importance of cilia and flagella. These ciliopathies are characterised by an impressive diversity of symptoms and an often complex genetic etiology. A precise knowledge of cilia and flagella biology is thus critical to better understand these pathologies. However, multi-ciliated cells are terminally differentiated and difficult to manipulate, and a primary cilium is assembled only when the cell exits from the cell cycle. In ...
Linking early determinants and cilia-driven leftward flow in left-right axis specification of Xenopus laevis: A theoretical...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Linking early determinants and cilia-driven leftward flow in left-right axis specification of Xenopus laevis. T2 - A theoretical approach. AU - Schweickert, Axel. AU - Walentek, Peter. AU - Thumberger, Thomas. AU - Danilchik, Mike. PY - 2012/2/1. Y1 - 2012/2/1. N2 - In vertebrates, laterality - the asymmetric placement of the viscera including organs of the gastrointestinal system, heart and lungs - is under the genetic control of a conserved signaling pathway in the left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM). A key feature of this pathway, shared by embryos of all non-avian vertebrate classes analyzed to date (e.g. fish, amphibia and mammals) is the formation of a transitory midline epithelial structure. Remarkably, the motility of cilia projecting from this epithelium produce a leftward-directed movement of extracellular liquid. This leftward flow precedes any sign of asymmetry in gene expression. Numerous analyses have shown that this leftward flow is not only necessary, but indeed ...
Jeremy Reiter, MD, PhD | Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program
Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are cellular structures familiar to schoolchildren everywhere for the elegant swath they cut as they propel protozoa through pond water. Less well recognized is the fact that a single immotile cilium is present on almost every type of vertebrate cell. These so-called primary cilia were discovered more than a century ago and, yet, their functions remain largely unexplored (Singla and Reiter, 2006).. It is now becoming clear that the primary cilium plays important roles in both development and disease. Perhaps its most dramatic function is in the kidney - ciliary defects cause polycystic kidney disease, the most common life-threatening monogenic illness. Primary cilia also have roles in sensing environmental information. Photoreceptors and odorant receptors function on primary cilia, and primary cilia are essential for sound reception. Therefore, it is not much of an exaggeration to say that we see, smell and hear through cilia.. Our work suggests that cilia also ...
A Partner for Smoothened in Cilia | Science Signaling
Primary cilia are critical for Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in vertebrates, and defects in Hh signaling or cilium structure cause pleiotropic diseases known as ciliopathies in humans. Binding of a Hh ligand to the receptor Patched (Ptc) relieves Ptc-mediated inhibition of the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo). Through a mechanism that is not entirely clear, this leads to accumulation of Smo in the cilium and subsequent recruitment of Suppressor of Fused (SuFu) and the Gli transcription factors into the cilium. The Glis are then processed into active forms that translocate into the nucleus to mediate Hh signaling outputs. Mutations in the gene encoding Ellis-van Crevid syndrome protein 2 (Evc2) cause inherited ciliopathy syndromes in which cilia of various cell types appear normal yet show impaired Hh signaling. Dorn et al. report that the cilium-localized protein Evc2 was required for Sonic hedgehog (Shh)-induced transcription of GLI1 in cultured human fibroblasts but had no function in ...
Bradley Yoder, PhD | Nutrition & Obesity Research Center
Cilia are microtubule based structures that can be motile or immotile, the latter being referred to as primary cilia. In contrast to motile cilia, such as those found on epithelia of the trachea, the importance of the primary cilium is relatively undefined despite their presence on most mammalian cells. Cilia are extremely complex organelles which are devoid of ribosomes, thus, proteins required for cilia assembly, maintenance, and signaling must be imported into the cilium. This occurs through a microtubule-based transport system called intraflagellar transport (IFT). Proteins involved in IFT concentrate around the basal body at the base of the cilium and assemble into complexes (IFT particles) which are moved up the cilium by a kinesin and returned by a cytoplasmic dynein. The IFT particle is thought to mediate the transport of cargo into the cilium as well as to deliver signals initiated in the cilium to the cytosol. Although the primary cilium was once thought to be a vestigial organelle, ...
Primary cilium remodeling mediates a cell signaling switch in differentiating neurons | Science Advances
Fig. 1 The primary cilium is dynamically disassembled and reassembled during neuronal differentiation.. (A) Time-lapse sequence showing Arl13b+ particle retention following apical abscission (movie S1). White arrows indicate apical abscission, white arrowheads indicate the retained Arl13b+ particle, and yellow arrowheads indicate the abscised primary cilium. Dashed magenta lines indicate ventricular surface. Scale bar, 10 μm. Boxed regions are enlarged in right-hand panels. Primary cilium is highlighted by white dashed lines. Scale bar, 0.7 μm. (B) Time-lapse sequence of a cell undergoing primary cilium reassembly during apical process retraction (movie S2). Cyan dashed lines demarcate cell body of differentiating neuron, and white arrowheads indicate the reassembling primary cilium. Boxed regions are enlarged in right-hand panels. Scale bars, 5 and 0.7 μm (enlarged region). (C) Cell undergoing axonogenesis transfected with Arl13b-GFP to label the ciliary membrane (green), mKate2-GPI to label ...
Fibers keep cilia regular | JCB
Actin fibers and microtubules help cilia coordinate the direction and sequence of their beating, Werner et al. show.. At first, the multiple cilia on an embryonic cell are a bit like the musicians in a garage band, each doing its own thing. But over time the filaments turn so that they all beat in the same direction. They also coordinate their timing, so that the cilia at the front of the cell beat first and the ones at the back of the cell stroke last. The planar cell polarity signaling pathway and hydrodynamic forces on the cilia help set up this polarity. Using the cilia-coated epithelial cells of Xenopus embryos, Werner et al. investigated the roles of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons in the process.. Werner et al. observed actin fibers connecting neighboring cilia. These filaments were absent in the youngest cells that hadnt yet polarized. To determine the fibers function, the researchers disassembled them using the drug cytochalasin D. Without actin fibers, the cilia couldnt ...
Role of Primary Cilia in the Pathogenesis of Polycystic Kidney Disease | American Society of Nephrology
In the kidney, primary cilia extend off the apical surface of the epithelium into the tubule lumen and are present on most cells of the nephron (Figure 1B). These cilia were thought to be of minimal importance for renal development. However, several studies in model organisms, some of which paradoxically lack kidneys, led to an increase in clinical and basic research directed at understanding the function of the renal cilium (reviewed in references [2,6,7]).. In one of these studies, Barr and Sternberg (46) revealed that the homologs of polycystin-1 and -2, which are involved in the dominant forms of PKD (ADPKD) in humans, localize to cilia of sensory neurons of C. elegans. This has also been shown for the human and mouse homologs (35,47). Loss of the polycystins in C. elegans did not disrupt cilia formation but rather altered behavioral responses that require cilia function. At approximately the same time, several groups that were working in Chlamydomonas, C. elegans, and mice uncovered that ...
Drosophila sensory cilia lacking MKS-proteins exhibit striking defects in development but only subtle defects in adults |...
Cilia are conserved organelles that have important motility, sensory and signalling roles. The transition zone (TZ) at the base of the cilium is critical for cilia function, and defects in several TZ proteins are associated with human congenital ciliopathies such as Nephronophthisis (NPHP) and Meckel Gruber syndrome (MKS). In several species, MKS and NPHP proteins form separate complexes that cooperate with Cep290 to assemble the TZ, but flies appear to lack core components of the NPHP module. We show that MKS proteins in flies are spatially separated from Cep290 at the TZ, and that flies mutant for individual MKS genes fail to recruit other MKS proteins to the TZ, while Cep290 appears to be recruited normally. Although there are abnormalities in microtubule and membrane organisation in developing MKS mutant cilia, these defects are less apparent in adults, where sensory cilia and sperm flagella appear to function quite normally. Thus, localising MKS proteins to the cilium or flagellum is not ...
Individually Controllable Magnetic Cilia: Mixing Application | Journal of Medical Devices | ASME DC
This paper introduces a new design for individually controlled magnetic artificial cilia for use in fluid devices and specifically intended to improve the mixing in DNA microarray experiments. The design has been implemented using a low-cost prototype that can be fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and off-the-shelf parts and achieves large cilium deflections (59% of the cilium length). The devices performance is measured via a series of mixing experiments using different actuation patterns inspired by the blinking vortex theory. The experimental results, quantified using the relative standard deviation of the color when mixing two colored inks, show that exploiting the individual control leads to faster mixing (38% reduction in mixing time) than when operating the device in a simultaneous-actuation mode with the same average cilium beat frequency. Furthermore, the experimental results show an optimal beating pattern that minimizes the mixing time. The existence and character of this ...
Human SAXO1 (FAM154A) is a microtubule-stabilizing protein specific to cilia and related structures | Journal of Cell Science
Cilia and flagella are microtubule-based organelles present at the surface of most cells, ranging from protozoa to vertebrates, in which they are implicated in processes from morphogenesis to cell motility. In vertebrate neurons, microtubule-associated MAP6 proteins stabilize cold-resistant microtubules via their Mn and Mc modules, and play a role in synaptic plasticity. Although centrioles, cilia and flagella have cold-stable microtubules, MAP6 proteins have not been identified in these organelles, suggesting that additional proteins support this role in these structures. Here, we characterize HsSAXO1 (FAM154A) as the first human member of a widely conserved family of MAP6-related proteins specific to centrioles and cilia microtubules. Our data demonstrated that HsSAXO1 binds specifically to centriole and cilia microtubules. We identify, in vivo and in vitro, HsSAXO1 Mn modules as responsible for microtubule binding and stabilization as well as being necessary for cilia localization. Finally, ...
Alpha Omega Alpha - 2014 Research Abstract
Investigator: Grant Turner. Mentor: Joseph Sisson, MD. Cilia are essential components of multiple organ systems. Inherited defects in ciliogenesis, the formation of cilia, are often lethal in utero, indicating a critical role for cilia in growth and development. Intraflagellar transport proteins (IFTs) are a diverse group of proteins that are essential for moving proteins on and off of the axoneme and found to have multiple important functions in the structure and function of cilia. For example, defects in IFT88 cause severe defects in the sensing cilia in the kidneys, resulting in polycystic kidney formation, and in the lung, where bronchiectasis results. While the role of IFTs in ciliogenesis has been established, the specific role IFT88 plays in airway cilia structure and function is unknown. We hypothesized that: 1) IFT88 is required for de novo ciliogenesis in vitro; and 2) IFT88 is required to translocate the methacholine receptor, which is part of a cilia motility regulator complex, from ...
The transition zone: an essential functional compartment of cilia | Cilia | Full Text
Recent studies of the primary cilium have begun to provide further insights into ciliary ultrastructure, with an emerging picture of complex compartmentalization and molecular components that combine in functional modules. Many proteins that are mutated in ciliopathies are localized to the transition zone, a compartment of the proximal region of the cilium. The loss of these components can disrupt ciliary functions such as the control of protein entry and exit from the cilium, the possible trafficking of essential ciliary components, and the regulation of signaling cascades and control of the cell cycle. The discovery of functional modules within the primary cilium may help in understanding the variable phenotypes and pleiotropy in ciliopathies.
Mechanism of transport of IFT particles in C. elegans cilia by the concerted action of kinesin-II and OSM-3 motors<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanism of transport of IFT particles in C. elegans cilia by the concerted action of kinesin-II and OSM-3 motors. AU - Pan, Xiaoyu. AU - Ou, Guangshuo. AU - Civelekoglu-Scholey, Gul. AU - Blacque, Oliver E.. AU - Endres, Nicholas F.. AU - Tao, Li. AU - Mogilner, Alex. AU - Leroux, Michel R.. AU - Vale, Ronald D.. AU - Scholey, Jonathan M.. PY - 2006/9/25. Y1 - 2006/9/25. N2 - The assembly and function of cilia on Caenorhabditis elegans neurons depends on the action of two kinesin-2 motors, heterotrimeric kinesin-II and homodimeric OSM-3-kinesin, which cooperate to move the same intraflagellar transport (IFT) particles along microtubule (MT) doublets. Using competitive in vitro MT gliding assays, we show that purified kinesin-II and OSM-3 cooperate to generate movement similar to that seen along the cilium in the absence of any additional regulatory factors. Quantitative modeling suggests that this could reflect an alternating action mechanism, in which the motors take turns to ...
End-To-End Testing Framework - Cilium 1.7.2 documentation
ginkgo --focus=Runtime* -noColor -v -dryRun Running Suite: runtime ====================== Random Seed: 1516125117 Will run 42 of 164 specs ................ RuntimePolicyEnforcement Policy Enforcement Always Always to Never with policy /Users/ianvernon/go/src/github.com/cilium/cilium/test/runtime/Policies.go:258 • ------------------------------ RuntimePolicyEnforcement Policy Enforcement Always Always to Never without policy /Users/ianvernon/go/src/github.com/cilium/cilium/test/runtime/Policies.go:293 • ------------------------------ RuntimePolicyEnforcement Policy Enforcement Never Container creation /Users/ianvernon/go/src/github.com/cilium/cilium/test/runtime/Policies.go:332 • ------------------------------ RuntimePolicyEnforcement Policy Enforcement Never Never to default with policy /Users/ianvernon/go/src/github.com/cilium/cilium/test/runtime/Policies.go:349 ................. Ran 42 of 164 Specs in 0.002 seconds SUCCESS! -- 0 Passed , 0 Failed , 0 Pending , 122 Skipped PASS Ginkgo ...
Identity-Aware and HTTP-Aware Policy Enforcement - Cilium 1.8.90 documentation
kubectl -n kube-system get pods -l k8s-app=cilium NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE cilium-5ngzd 1/1 Running 0 3m19s $ kubectl -n kube-system exec cilium-1c2cz -- cilium endpoint list ENDPOINT POLICY (ingress) POLICY (egress) IDENTITY LABELS (source:key[=value]) IPv6 IPv4 STATUS ENFORCEMENT ENFORCEMENT 108 Disabled Disabled 104 k8s:io.cilium.k8s.policy.cluster=default 10.15.233.139 ready k8s:io.cilium.k8s.policy.serviceaccount=coredns k8s:io.kubernetes.pod.namespace=kube-system k8s:k8s-app=kube-dns 1011 Disabled Disabled 104 k8s:io.cilium.k8s.policy.cluster=default 10.15.96.117 ready k8s:io.cilium.k8s.policy.serviceaccount=coredns k8s:io.kubernetes.pod.namespace=kube-system k8s:k8s-app=kube-dns 2407 Disabled Disabled 22839 k8s:class=deathstar 10.15.129.95 ready k8s:io.cilium.k8s.policy.cluster=default k8s:io.cilium.k8s.policy.serviceaccount=default k8s:io.kubernetes.pod.namespace=default k8s:org=empire 2607 Disabled Disabled 4 reserved:health 10.15.28.196 ready 3339 Disabled Disabled 22839 ...
The Cilium - Jonesblog
I love just wandering through all the ultrastructural data in our databases. This structure is called a cilium. With the exception of a few types of cells, (acinar cells, T lymphocytes and hepatocytes), every cell in your body has a cilia. In the vision community, we are used to seeing these structures in the distal portion of the photoreceptors. The reality is that every cell in the retina has a cilium and some cells use the cilia as a means to employ highly specialized functions like the photoreceptor outer segment or the hair cell or the respiratory epithelium of the lung.. Cilia were thought for a long time to be vestigal organelles that are formed in development, then left over after the developmental process ended. Prachee Avasthi @PracheeAC has noted that "cilia are signaling centers capable of sensing a variety of extracellular stimuli: fluid flow in the kidney, odorants in olfactory neurons, and hormones in the satiety center of the brain. Motile cilia in the trachea and brain ...
Brunel University Research Archive: Cilia-mediated signalling in the embryonic nodes: A computational fluid-structure-protein...
The breaking of left-right symmetry in the mammalian embryo is believed to occur in a transient embryonic structure, the node, when cilia create a leftward flow of liquid. It has been widely confirmed that this nodal flow is the first sign of left-right differentiation; however, the mechanism through which embryonic cilia produce their movement and how the leftward flow confers laterality are still requiring investigation. The ciliary motility in the embryonic node involves complex dynein activations and the handed information is transmitted to the cells by the flow produced by cilia, either mechanically and/or by advection of a chemical species. In this paper, we present a computational model of ciliary ultrastructure (protein-structure model) and discuss the scenarios that incorporate this internal microtubule-dynein system with the external fluidic environment (fluid-structure-protein interaction model, FSPI). By employing computational fluid dynamics, deformable mesh computational techniques ...
The Kathryn Anderson Lab: Projects | Gerstner Sloan Kettering Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
Cells | Free Full-Text | Photoreceptor Sensory Cilium: Traversing the Ciliary Gate
Cilia are antenna-like extensions of the plasma membrane found in nearly all cell types. In the retina of the eye, photoreceptors develop unique sensory cilia. Not much was known about the mechanisms underlying the formation and function of photoreceptor cilia, largely because of technical limitations and the specific structural and functional modifications that cannot be modeled in vitro. With recent advances in microscopy techniques and molecular and biochemical approaches, we are now beginning to understand the molecular basis of photoreceptor ciliary architecture, ciliary function and its involvement in human diseases. Here, I will discuss the studies that have revealed new knowledge of how photoreceptor cilia regulate their identity and function while coping with high metabolic and trafficking demands associated with processing light signal.
Evidence for a self-organized compliant mechanism for the spontaneous steady beating of cilia<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evidence for a self-organized compliant mechanism for the spontaneous steady beating of cilia. AU - Foster, Kenneth W.. AU - Vidyadharan, Jyothish. AU - Sangani, Ashok S.. PY - 2017/7. Y1 - 2017/7. N2 - Cilia or eukaryotic flagella are slender 200-nm-diameter organelles that move the immersing fluid relative to a cell and sense the environment. Their core structure is nine doublet microtubules (DMTs) arranged around a central-pair. When motile, thousands of tiny motors slide the DMTs relative to each other to facilitate traveling waves of bending along the ciliums length. These motors provide the energy to change the shape of the cilium and overcome the viscous forces of moving in the surrounding fluid. In planar beating, motors walk toward where the cilium is attached to the cell body. Traveling waves are initiated by motors bending the elastic cilium back and forth, a self-organized mechanical oscillator. We found remarkably that the energy in a wave is nearly constant over a ...
IFT80, which encodes a conserved intraflagellar transport protein, is mutated in Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy | AVESİS
Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy, an autosomal recessive chondrodysplasia, often leads to death in infancy because of a severely constricted thoracic cage and respiratory insufficiency; retinal degeneration, cystic renal disease and polydactyly may be complicating features. We show that IFT80 mutations underlie a subset of Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy cases, establishing the first association of a defective intraflagellar transport (IFT) protein with human disease. Knockdown of ift80 in zebrafish resulted in cystic kidneys, and knockdown in Tetrahymena thermophila produced shortened or absent cilia. ...
THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE CILIA FROM CTENOPHORE SWIMMING-PLATES | Journal of Cell Biology | Rockefeller University Press
The ctenophore swimming-plate has been examined with the electron microscope. It has been recognized as an association of long cilia in tight hexagonal packing. One of the directions of the hexagonal packing is parallel to the long edge of the swimming-plate and is perpendicular to the direction of the ciliary beat. All the cilia in the swimming-plate are identically oriented. The effective beat in the movement of the swimming-plate is directed towards the aboral pole of the animal, and this is also the side of the unpaired peripheral filament in all the cilia. The direction of the ciliary beat is fixed in relation to the position of the filaments of the cilia. The swimming-plate cilium differs from other types of cilia and flagella in having a filament arrangement that can be described as 9 + 3 as opposed to the conventional 9 + 2 pattern. The central filaments appear in a group of two "tubular" filaments and an associated compact filament. The compact filament might have a supporting function. ...
Line Santa Cilia vs WhatsChat Santa Cilia. Ontdek die groot verskille tussen Line Santa Cilia en WhatsChat Santa Cilia.
10th Meeting on Cilia, Flagella and Centrosomes » • SBCF
We are happy to welcome you to the 10th Meeting on Cilia, Flagella and Centrosomes, held from the 10th to the 12th of October 2017 at the Séminaire Le Saint Paul (http://lesaintpaul-hotel.fr/).. The CFC conference is a biennial meeting organized in alternation with the European Cilia meeting to bring together around 80 participants working on the biology of cilia, flagella and centrosomes in France and all over Europe. It is an excellent place for lively exchanges between researchers at all stages of their career, from internationally renowned keynote speakers to early stage students.. http://univ-cotedazur.fr/events/cfc2017. ...
Reference - RRC(Research Resource Circulation)
The individual role of the outer dynein arm light chains in the molecular mechanisms of ciliary movements in response to second messengers, such as Ca(2+) and cyclic nucleotides, is unclear. We examined the role of the gene termed the outer dynein arm light chain 1 (LC1) gene of Paramecium tetraurelia (ODAL1), a homologue of the outer dynein arm LC1 gene of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, in ciliary movements by RNA interference (RNAi) using a feeding method. The ODAL1-silenced (ODAL1-RNAi) cells swam slowly, and their swimming velocity did not increase in response to membrane-hyperpolarizing stimuli. Ciliary movements on the cortical sheets of ODAL1-RNAi cells revealed that the ciliary beat frequency was significantly lower than that of control cells in the presence of ≥ 1 mM Mg(2+)-ATP. In addition, the ciliary orientation of ODAL1-RNAi cells did not change in response to cyclic AMP (cAMP). A 29-kDa protein phosphorylated in a cAMP-dependent manner in the control cells disappeared in the axoneme ...
Cilium integration with Flannel (beta) - Cilium 1.5.13 documentation
Interface to be used when running Cilium on top of a CNI plugin. # For flannel, use cni0 flannel-master-device: cni0 # When running Cilium with policy enforcement enabled on top of a CNI plugin # the BPF programs will be installed on the network interface specified in # flannel-master-device and on all network interfaces belonging to # a container. When the Cilium DaemonSet is removed, the BPF programs will # be kept in the interfaces unless this option is set to true. flannel-uninstall-on-exit: false # Installs a BPF program to allow for policy enforcement in already running # containers managed by Flannel. # NOTE: This requires Cilium DaemonSet to be running in the hostPID. # To run in this mode in Kubernetes change the value of the hostPID from # false to true. Can be found under the path `spec.spec.hostPID` flannel-manage-existing-containers: false ...
Identification of ciliogenic compounds using pancreatic cancer cells as a screening model | Springer for Research & Development
A screening platform was developed by culturing cancer cells in a 96-well plates followed by immunostaining for cilia. Quantification of cilia was accomplished by analyzing images captured by INCell Analyzer, an automated machine used for image acquisition. Ciliogenic compounds were identified based on percentage of ciliated cells. The hits were further assessed in cancer cells. Their ability to decrease the proliferation of cancer cells was analyzed by spheroid assay. Western Blots were performed to identify the pathways through which ciliogenesis was induced by these compounds. ...
Physics and Physiology of Motile Cilia conference - Chlamydomonas Resource Center
Across the animal and plant kingdom, motile cilia and flagella serve many important biological functions, including cellular propulsion, fluid transport, and sensory signaling - to name only a few. Unraveling the physiology of these integral cell organelles is an interdisciplinary endeavor at the interface of physics and biology. This research field involves studies of ciliary structure, self-organized dynamics of the ciliary beat, collective dynamics at the cellular and multicellular level, and the pathophysiology of impaired cilia function in ciliopathies. The aim of this seminar is to bring together scientists from different disciplines to address the physical, biological, and medical aspects of motile cilia.. The main topics of the seminar are:. ...
Centrosomal protein of 290 kDa
Involved in early and late steps in cilia formation. Its association with CCP110 is required for inhibition of primary cilia formation by CCP110 (PubMed:18694559). May play a role in early ciliogenesis in the disappearance of centriolar satellites and in the transition of primary ciliar vesicles (PCVs) to capped ciliary vesicles (CCVs). Required for the centrosomal recruitment of RAB8A and for the targeting of centriole satellite proteins to centrosomes such as of PCM1 (PubMed:24421332). Required for the correct localization of ciliary and phototransduction proteins in retinal photoreceptor cells; may play a role in ciliary transport processes (By similarity). Required for efficient recruitment of RAB8A to primary cilium (PubMed:17705300). In the ciliary transition zone is part of the tectonic-like complex which is required for tissue-specific ciliogenesis and may regulate ciliary membrane composition (By similarity). Involved in regulation of the BBSome complex integrity, specifically for ...
The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans
Recent studies in several organisms have contributed to an effort to amalgamate a complete list of ciliary proteins, or ciliome. Comparative genomic studies were performed in Chlamydomonas (Li et al., 2004) and Drosophila (Avidor-Reiss et al., 2004), taking advantage of the fact that subtracting the genomes of ciliated organisms (including C. elegans) from those lacking cilia (e.g., Arabidopsis thaliana) provides considerable enrichment for ciliary genes. Other more direct approaches aimed at identifying ciliary proteins, in the form of proteomic analyses, were performed using Chlamydomonas (Pazour et al., 2005), human airway cells (Ostrowski et al., 2002), Tetrahymena (Smith et al., 2005) and Trypanosoma brucei (Broadhead et al., 2006). Of note, all of the above studies were accomplished using experimental systems or cells that possess motile cilia (with the exception of Drosophila, which also has non-motile cilia). Helping to address this shortfall, C. elegans has been used to assemble a ...
Abnormal Hedgehog (Hh) pathway activity has been reported in many cancers including basal cell carcinomas, medulloblastomas, rhabdomyosarcomas, glioblastomas, breast and prostate cancers. For this reason the Hh pathway is a flourishing area for development of anti-cancer drugs such as Hh ligand antagonists (e.g. 5E1, robotnikinin), Smo inhibitors (e.g. GDC-0449, IPI-926) and Gli transcriptional activity inhibitors (e.g. GANT58, GANT61). In vertebrate cells it is now clear that primary cilia are required for activation of the Hh pathway in normal cells. It is in the primary cilium that both positive and negative effectors of the Hh pathway are processed by post-translational modifications. In many cancers, preliminary results suggest that primary cilia are lost. As drugs are developed that inhibit different steps of the Hh pathway, it is important to consider how these drugs will function in the context of primary cilia in the tumor environment. We will discuss why some of the Hh inhibitors may ...
Situs inversus and ciliary abnormalities: 20 years later, what is the connection? | Cilia | Full Text
At this time it also emerged that cilia function played a role during LR-axis development, and both the iv and the inv mouse mutants were important in this respect. First described in 1956 , iv was mapped to mouse chromosome 12 in 1989  and identified by a positional cloning approach in 1997 as an axonemal dynein heavy-chain gene named left/right-dynein (Lrd, currently known as dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 11; Dnah11) . Lrd was shown to be expressed in the node of the embryo at E7.5, consistent with having a role in LR-development . Based on the observation that the asymmetric expression patterns of Nodal and Lefty were randomized in iv/iv embryos, it was suggested that iv functions early in the genetic hierarchy of LR-specification. Nevertheless, the connection between Lrd and cilia at the node was considered unlikely; at that time, it had been supposed that cilia at the node were immotile monocilia lacking dynein arms  even though ciliary motility at the node, despite no ...
Human retinopathy-associated ciliary protein retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator mediates cilia-dependent vertebrate...
Dysfunction of primary cilia is associated with tissue-specific or syndromic disorders. RPGR is a ciliary protein, mutations in which can lead to retinitis pigmentosa (RP), cone-rod degeneration, respiratory infections and hearing disorders. Though RPGR is implicated in ciliary transport, the pathogenicity of RPGR mutations and the mechanism of underlying phenotypic heterogeneity are still unclear. Here we have utilized genetic rescue studies in zebrafish to elucidate the effect of human disease-associated mutations on its function. We show that rpgr is expressed predominantly in the retina, brain and gut of zebrafish. In the retina, RPGR primarily localizes to the sensory cilium of photoreceptors. Antisense morpholino (MO)-mediated knockdown of rpgr function in zebrafish results in reduced length of Kupffers vesicle (KV) cilia and is associated with ciliary anomalies including shortened body-axis, kinked tail, hydrocephaly and edema but does not affect retinal development. These phenotypes can ...
CILIARY MEMBRANE DIFFERENTIATIONS IN TETRAHYMENA PYRIFORMIS | Journal of Cell Biology | Rockefeller University Press
We have examined thin sections and replicas of freeze-fractured cilia of Tetrahymena pyriformis. The ciliary necklace located at the base of all freeze-fractured oral and somatic cilia has been studied in thin sections. Since electron-dense linkers have been found to connect both microtubule doublets and triplets to the ciliary membrane at the level of the necklace, the linkers and the associated necklace seem to be related to the transition region between the doublets and triplets of a cilium. Plaque structures, consisting of small rectangular patches of particles located distal to the ciliary necklace, are found in strain GL, but are absent in other strains examined in this study. In freeze-cleaved material, additional structural differentiations are observed in the distal region of the ciliary membranes of somatic and oral cilia. Somatic cilia contain many randomly distributed particles within their membrane. Oral cilia can be divided into three categories on the basis of the morphology of ...
Kin5 knockdown in Tetrahymena thermophila using RNAi blocks cargo transport of Gef1<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Kin5 knockdown in Tetrahymena thermophila using RNAi blocks cargo transport of Gef1. AU - Awan, Aashir. AU - Bell, Aaron J.. AU - Satir, Peter. PY - 2009/3/17. Y1 - 2009/3/17. N2 - A critical process that builds and maintains the eukaryotic cilium is intraflagellar transport (IFT). This process utilizes members of the kinesin-2 superfamily to transport cargo into the cilium (anterograde transport) and a dynein motor for the retrograde traffic. Using a novel RNAi knockdown method, we have analyzed the function of the homodimeric IFT kinesin-2, Kin5, in Tetrahymena ciliary transport. In RNAi transformants, Kin5 was severely downregulated and disappeared from the cilia, but cilia did not resorb, although tip structure was affected. After deciliation of the knockdown cell, cilia regrew and cells swam, which suggested that Kin5 is not responsible for the trafficking of axonemal precursors to build the cilium, but could be transporting molecules that act in ciliary signal transduction, ...
Metachronal Co-ordination of the Comb Plates of the Ctenophore Pleurobrachia | Journal of Experimental Biology
1. The activity of comb plates of Pleurobrachia was analysed from cine films.. 2. The interval between successive beats of a comb plate varied from several seconds to about 50 msec. in normal sea water; this variation in frequency was accompanied by a variation wave velocity. There was an almost linear relationship between wave velocity and frequency, ranging from a minimal wave velocity of about 20 mm./sec. at low frequencies to a maximal wave velocity of about 80 mm./sec. at the highest frequencies.. 3. The wave velocity was accelerated at low frequencies by increased Mg2+ concentrations, by ouabain and by curare, and the same substances decreased the wave velocity at high frequencies.. 4. The frequency of beat was accelerated by certain concentrations of adrenaline, serotonin, Mg2+, ouabain and curare. Decreases of frequency were found in acetylcholine (and eserine) and strychnine. These substances act on the excitability of the pacemaker.. 5. It is concluded that metachronal transmission is ...
IFT proteins interact with HSET to promote supernumerary centrosome clustering in mitosis - Research - Aarhus University
Centrosome amplification is a hallmark of cancer, and centrosome clustering is essential for cancer cell survival. The mitotic kinesin HSET is an essential contributor to this process. Recent studies have highlighted novel functions for intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins in regulating motors and mitotic processes. Here, using siRNA knock-down of various IFT proteins or AID-inducible degradation of endogenous IFT88 in combination with small-molecule inhibition of HSET, we show that IFT proteins together with HSET are required for efficient centrosome clustering. We identify a direct interaction between the kinesin HSET and IFT proteins, and we define how IFT proteins contribute to clustering dynamics during mitosis using high-resolution live imaging of centrosomes. Finally, we demonstrate the requirement of IFT88 for efficient centrosome clustering in a variety of cancer cell lines naturally harboring supernumerary centrosomes and its importance for cancer cell proliferation. Overall, our ...
The role of ciliary calcium signalling in the regulation of intraflagellar transport | Marine Biological Association
Cell biologists are becoming increasingly aware that cilia and flagella are important sensory organelles, which detect changes in the extracellular environment and convey these signals to the cell body. The biflagellate green alga, Chlamydomonas, is a model organism for the study of flagella function and has allowed researchers to link ciliary dysfunction to a range of human genetic disorders. We are using molecular, biochemical and cell physiological techniques to study signalling processes in Chlamydomonas flagella. We have developed techniques to image Ca2+ in both the cytosol and the flagella of Chlamydomonas and have recently demonstrated that intraflagellar Ca2+ elevations regulate the important process of intraflagellar transport (IFT) (Collingridge et al, 2013). This project aims to understand the mechanisms that generate Ca2+ signals in flagella and how they act to regulate the transport of flagellar proteins ...
Cilium - The Web Video Encyclopedia
Ciliary defects can lead to a number of human diseases. Genetic mutations compromising the proper functioning of cilia, ciliopathies, can cause chronic disorders such as primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), nephronophthisis or Senior-Loken syndrome. In addition, a defect of the primary cilium in the renal tube cells can lead to polycystic kidney disease (PKD). In another genetic disorder called Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS), the mutant gene products are the components in the basal body and cilia.. Lack of functional cilia in female Fallopian tubes can cause ectopic pregnancy. A fertilized ovum may not reach the uterus if the cilia are unable to move it there. In such a case, the ovum will implant in the Fallopian tubes, causing a tubal pregnancy, the most common form of ectopic pregnancy.. As noted above, epithelial sodium channels ENaC that are expressed along the length of cilia regulate fluid level surrounding the cilia. Mutations that decrease the activity of ENaC result in multisystem ...
Formation and Functions of Ectosomes Released from Cilia/Flagella----Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Cilia are evolutionarily conserved organelles extending from surfaces of almost all eukaryotic cells, function in cell motility, sensory and signal transduction. Dysfunction of Cilia has been implicated in a wide spectrum of human diseases and disorders collectively known as ciliopathies. Recent work with the green alga Chlamydomonas and the nematode C.elegans demonstrated that cilia have "secretion" function. Ectosomes (one type of vesicles) can be released from the cilium, and can mediate the intercellular communication. However, the detailed mechanisms of ectosome released from cilia/flagella, as well as additional possible functions of ciliary ectosome, are currently unknown. Scientists from Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IHB) and Yale University, took advantage of the classic ciliary/flagellar research model, Chlamydomonas, to address the above issues. The cell body of Chlamydomonas is covered with a cell wall and the flagella provide the only membrane surface ...
Formation and Functions of Ectosomes Released from Cilia/Flagella----Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Cilia are evolutionarily conserved organelles extending from surfaces of almost all eukaryotic cells, function in cell motility, sensory and signal transduction. Dysfunction of Cilia has been implicated in a wide spectrum of human diseases and disorders collectively known as ciliopathies. Recent work with the green alga Chlamydomonas and the nematode C.elegans demonstrated that cilia have "secretion" function. Ectosomes (one type of vesicles) can be released from the cilium, and can mediate the intercellular communication. However, the detailed mechanisms of ectosome released from cilia/flagella, as well as additional possible functions of ciliary ectosome, are currently unknown. Scientists from Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IHB) and Yale University, took advantage of the classic ciliary/flagellar research model, Chlamydomonas, to address the above issues. The cell body of Chlamydomonas is covered with a cell wall and the flagella provide the only membrane surface ...
Flow induced by ependymal cilia dominates near-wall cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in the lateral ventricles. | The Interface...
While there is growing experimental evidence that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow induced by the beating of ependymal cilia is an important factor for neuronal guidance, the respective contribution of vascular pulsation-driven macroscale oscillatory CSF flow remains unclear. This work uses computational fluid dynamics to elucidate the interplay between macroscale and cilia-induced CSF flows and their relative impact on near-wall dynamics. Physiological macroscale CSF dynamics are simulated in the ventricular space using subject-specific anatomy, wall motion and choroid plexus pulsations derived from magnetic resonance imaging. Near-wall flow is quantified in two subdomains selected from the right lateral ventricle, for which dynamic boundary conditions are extracted from the macroscale simulations. When cilia are neglected, CSF pulsation leads to periodic flow reversals along the ventricular surface, resulting in close to zero time-averaged force on the ventricle wall. The cilia promote more ...
Surface glycoconjugates on rat photoreceptor cilium. Effect of neuraminidase digestion. | IOVS | ARVO Journals
In retinal photoreceptors the connecting cilium constitutes a boundary between the inner and outer segments. In previous studies we demonstrated that, while opsin could be localized in abundance in the distal ciliary membrane, very little opsin was detected in the proximal ciliary plasma membrane. In the present study we extended our view of molecular specialization on the ciliary membrane with respect to glycoconjugates. Saccharide moieties of ciliary glycoconjugates were studied in immature and mature rat photoreceptors. Surface saccharides were detected and localized by means of ferritin-labeled lectins and electron microscopy. Dense labeling of the ciliary membrane surface with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) was observed. In immature photoreceptors the labeling was restricted to the proximal ciliary membrane, in a region where opsin molecules could not be detected. Neuraminidase digestion abolished WGA binding to the proximal ciliary membrane surface, indicating that sialic acids mediate WGA ...
Transcriptional Program of Ciliated Epithelial Cells Reveals New Cilium and Centrosome Components and Links to Human Disease
Defects in the centrosome and cilium are associated with a set of human diseases having diverse phenotypes. To further characterize the components that define the function of these organelles we determined the transcriptional profile of multiciliated tracheal epithelial cells. Cultures of mouse tracheal epithelial cells undergoing differentiation in vitro were derived from mice expressing GFP from the ciliated-cell specific FOXJ1 promoter (FOXJ1:GFP). The transcriptional profile of ciliating GFP+ cells from these cultures was defined at an early and a late time point during differentiation and was refined by subtraction of the profile of the non-ciliated GFP- cells. We identified 649 genes upregulated early, when most cells were forming basal bodies, and 73 genes genes upregulated late, when most cells were fully ciliated. Most, but not all, of known centrosome proteins are transcriptionally upregulated early, particularly Plk4, a master regulator of centriole formation. We found that three genes
Effect of Sample Storage Temperature on ciliary Beat Frequency of Flow Subjected Cilia. Sijumbila, Gibson; Mehta, Anil // Journal of Medical Science & Technology;Sep2015, Vol. 4 Issue 3, p196 The aim of this study was to determine the optimal temperature for storage and subsequent measurement of the ciliary beat frequency (CBF) of cells brushed from human nasal epithelium. In each case, human nasal epithelial cells were stored at 4, 20 or 32Â°C and CBF measured at 20 or 32Â°C.... ...
JCI - Cilia, mitochondria, and cardiac development
In this issue of the JCI, Burkhalter et al. (5) suggest a mechanism linking cilia and mitochondria in the development of multisystem heterotaxy syndromes. Using both pharmacological and genetic tools, they show that longer cilia are produced when mitochondrial function is impaired and shorter cilia are produced with enhanced mitochondrial function. Confirming human relevance, they show that patients with two different forms of mitochondrial disease, caused by mutations in MPV17 and NFU1 genes, have lengthened cilia. To check whether these defects in cilia length might link to defects in left-right patterning, they then used the zebrafish embryo, an unrivaled model for investigating left-right specification, to show that longer cilia disrupted nodal flow and randomized left-right patterning. Using genomic data, they also showed that people with heterotaxy have an increased incidence of damaging variants in mitochondrial-associated genes, and that recapitulation of these rare variants in zebrafish ...
Flexural Rigidity and Elastic Constant of Cilia | Journal of Experimental Biology
1. The flexural rigidity of the large abfrontal cilia of Mytilus has been measured with a flexible glass micro-needle.. 2. The same cilium has similar values to the flexural rigidity irrespective of the phases of beat cycle (including the recovery phase) and of the direction of force applied.. 3. The values of 3-13 x 10-9 dyne. cm2 have been obtained for the flexural rigidity of compound cilia of various sizes; 2-3 x 10-10 dyne.cm2 for that of the component cilia.. 4. The Youngs modulus of the microtubule is estimated to be 5-9 x 1010 dyne/cm2 on the basis that the outer doublet microtubules are tightly connected with one another.. ...
Developmental Disruptions Underlying Brain Abnormalities in Ciliopathies
Primary cilia are essential conveyors of signals underlying major cell functions. Cerebral cortical progenitors and neurons have a primary cilium. The significance of cilia function for brain development and function is evident in the plethora of developmental brain disorders associated with human c …
Effect on the ciliary function - Inmunotek
Over 90% of the particles contained in the air we breathe are retained in the mucosa which is continuously being renewed by the ciliary function.. Most of the high airway conditions, including sinus infections, allergies and environmental contamination, alter the mucociliary function either due to nasal cilia alterations or to changes in mucosa properties. If this function is affected, the movement of mucosa is slowed down and secretions are retained and contaminating elements become accumulated together with allergens and bacteria. All this causes nasal obstruction, inflammation and infection.. Nasal irrigation cleans the surface of the mucosa of the nose and paranasal sinuses, which assists the recovery of mucociliary clearing by eliminating both the substances that cause the dysfunction as well as the secretions that have a negative effect on the ciliary movement. ...
CILIARY FUNCTION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF AIRWAY EPITHELIA - University of Miami's Research Profiles
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant) The long-term goal of this project is to improve our understanding of the cellular and molecular regulation mechanisms of mucociliary clearance, an important host defense mechanism of the lung. Ciliary activity is an integral part of mucociliary transport and changes in ciliary beat frequency (CBF) are often associated with similar changes in transport rates. Two widely recognized second messengers in cell signaling, cAMP and calcium ([Ca2+]i), regulate CBF. cAMP has been shown to increase CBF through a cAMP-dependent kinase- mediated event, possibly by phosphorylating a ciliary protein designated p26. Increasing [Ca2+]i also stimulates CBF, likely through a ciliary Ca2+-binding protein. Because both second messengers increase CBF, the question arises whether these signaling pathways regulate CBF through independent signal transduction cascades or whether the pathways converge at some level to affect a common target prior to dynein/microtubule interaction. ...
Cilia and flagella are widespread cell organelles which have been highly | EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Activate Autophagy
Cilia and flagella are widespread cell organelles which have been highly conserved throughout development and play important functions in motility, sensory belief, and the life cycles of eukaryotes ranging from protists to humans. to miss many proteins that function in both the flagellum and cytoplasm. In contrast, such proteins can be readily recognized by a proteomics approach, which also can uniquely provide an indication of the abundance of a protein and its distribution in the flagellum. A preliminary proteomic analysis of detergent-extracted ciliary axonemes from cultured human being bronchial epithelial cells recognized 214 proteins (Ostrowski et al., 2002); however, this study was jeopardized by the presence of additional cellular constructions in PF 431396 IC50 the axonemal preparation, and by restrictions in the quantity of materials available and/or series data obtained, with the full total end result that only 89 from the proteins were identified by greater than a single peptide. ...
Effects of Hedhehog Signaling on Pancreas Organogenesis | Global Research Projects
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling regulates cell proliferation and differentiation in various organs during embryogenesis. In the pancreas, the role of this pathway is complex. At early stages, Hh signaling is excluded from the pancreas and ectopic activation of the pathway impairs pancreas formation by disturbing mesenchymal-epithelial interactions. In contrast to this inhibitory role, our preliminary data suggest a positive, cell autonomous role for Hh signaling during endocrine cell formation and function. The exact nature of this novel, cell autonomous activity remains to be elucidated. Little information is also available about the upstream mechanisms that regulate Hh signaling in pancreatic epithelium. Recent results have revealed that primary cilia, cellular appendages found on many cell types, control the level of Hh signaling activity. Primary cilia are present on adult duct and endocrine cells within the pancreas, the same cell types that are marked by expression of Ptc, a transcriptional target ...
DNAH5 gene - Genetics Home Reference - NIH
The DNAH5 gene provides instructions for making a protein that is part of a group (complex) of proteins called dynein. This complex functions within cell structures called cilia. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells. Coordinated back and forth movement of cilia can move the cell or the fluid surrounding the cell. Dynein produces the force needed for cilia to move.. Within the core of cilia (the axoneme), dynein complexes are part of structures known as inner dynein arms (IDAs) or outer dynein arms (ODAs) depending on their location. Coordinated movement of the dynein arms causes the entire axoneme to bend back and forth. IDAs and ODAs have different combinations of protein components (subunits) that are classified by weight as heavy, intermediate, or light chains. The DNAH5 gene provides instructions for making heavy chain 5, which is found in ODAs. Other subunits are produced from different genes. ...
Difference between revisions of "Nachury" - OpenWetWare
A major focus of the lab is the study of the primary cilium, a once-obscure cellular organelle that has recently been "re-discovered" for its role in a number of signaling pathways (Hedgehog, Planar Cell Polarity, PDGF,..). Most fascinatingly, molecular defects in cilium biogenesis lead to a variety hereditary disorders (so-called "ciliopathies") characterized by retinal degeneration, kidney cysts, obesity, polydactyly, randomization of left-right asymmetry, etc. Our goal is to characterize these ciliopathies at the molecular and cellular levels using state-of-the art proteomics and microscopy. Our approach has already proven successful in the case of Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (see figure) and led to the discovery of a protein complex involved in vesicular transport to the primary cilium. ,nonwikionly,,a href="http://www.openwetware.org",,img src="http://openwetware.org/images/9/96/02_JoinOpenWetWare.png" border=0/,,/a,,/nonwikionly, ...
Roles of primary cilia in hearing
Cilia are antenna-like membrane-associated structures which play essential roles during development, and during the normal function of many cells throughout the body. Dysfunction of these organelles can lead to serious illnesses, involving deafness and blindness, as well as life-threatening complications such as kidney and liver disease, diabetes, respiratory problems, and obesity. These so-called "ciliopathies" are usually genetically inherited, and at present there are few, if any cures.. Following collaborations with Phil Beales (Institute of Child Health, UCL) on Bardet-Biedl Syndrome, and with Jan Marshall (Jackson Labs, USA) on Alström Syndrome, we are continuing to work in the field of human ciliary diseases. In collaboration with Colin Johnson (University of Leeds) we more recently characterized the role of the Meckel-Gruber Syndrome protein TMEM67 in the development of the cochlea.. In related public engagement projects I have worked with patient support groups such as Alström ...
OSA | Monitoring airway mucus flow and ciliary activity with optical coherence tomography
Muco-ciliary transport in the human airway is a crucial defense mechanism for removing inhaled pathogens. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is well-suited to monitor functional dynamics of cilia and mucus on the airway epithelium. Here we demonstrate several OCT-based methods upon an actively transporting in vitro bronchial epithelial model and ex vivo mouse trachea. We show quantitative flow imaging of optically turbid mucus, semi-quantitative analysis of the ciliary beat frequency, and functional imaging of the periciliary layer. These may translate to clinical methods for endoscopic monitoring of muco-ciliary transport in diseases such as cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).. ©2012 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
KU-60019 | healthweblognews.info
Diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) by identification of dynein arm loss in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images can be confounded by high background noise due to random electron-dense material within the ciliary matrix, leading to diagnostic uncertainty even for experienced morphologists. to generate mechanical torque  by forced sliding of adjacent peripheral microtubular pairs . Motile cilia without two-microtubule central complexes (9+0 architecture) move in a rotatory fashion, and are responsible for a fluid current at the embryonic node that determines sidedness in the developing embryo . In contrast, motile cilia with two-microtubule central complexes (9+2 architecture) have an effective stroke in a single plane, such that synchronous (per cell) and metachronous (per surface) beating allows coordinated movement of surface fluid [8, 9]. Main ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) (main here indicates congenital, rather than acquired, and not involvement of main cilia) is a ...
Roles for IFT172 and primary cilia in cell migration, cell division and neocortex development<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Roles for IFT172 and primary cilia in cell migration, cell division and neocortex development. AU - Pruski, Michal. AU - Hu, Ling. AU - Yang, Cuiping. AU - Wang, Yubing AU - Zhang, Jin-Bao. AU - Zhang, Lei. AU - Huang, Ying. AU - Rajnicek, Ann M.. AU - St Clair, David. AU - McCaig, Colin D.. AU - Lang, Bing. AU - Ding, Yu-Qiang. N1 - This work is supported by the grants from National Natural Science Foundation of China (31528011, B.L.; 81571332, 91232724, Y.D.), Key Research and Development Program from Hunan Province (2018DK2011), Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Major Project (2018SHZDZX01) and ZJLab. We are grateful to Prof. Tamara Caspary for providing the WIM and WT cells. M.P. was funded by a Scottish Universities Life Sciences Alliance (SULSA) studentship to C.M. and a Scholarship from Chinese Scholarship Council (CSC). L. H. is also a Scholarship awardee of CSC. PY - 2019/11. Y1 - 2019/11. N2 - The cilium of a cell translates varied extracellular cues into ...
Cilia guide neuronal migration in developing brain | Emory University | Atlanta, GA
Ciliary proteins Bbs8 and Ift20 promote planar cell polarity in the cochlea
Primary cilia have been implicated in the generation of planar cell polarity (PCP). However, variations in the severity of polarity defects in different cilia mutants, coupled with recent demonstrations of non-cilia-related actions of some cilia genes, make it difficult to determine the basis of the …
C2CD3 - C2 domain-containing protein 3 - Homo sapiens (Human) - C2CD3 gene & protein
Component of the centrioles that acts as a positive regulator of centriole elongation (PubMed:24997988). Promotes assembly of centriolar distal appendage, a structure at the distal end of the mother centriole that acts as an anchor of the cilium, and is required for recruitment of centriolar distal appendages proteins CEP83, SCLT1, CEP89, FBF1 and CEP164. Not required for centriolar satellite integrity or RAB8 activation. Required for primary cilium formation (PubMed:23769972). Required for sonic hedgehog/SHH signaling and for proteolytic processing of GLI3.
KIAA0586 is mutated in Joubert syndrome - Zurich Open Repository and Archive
Joubert syndrome (JS) is a recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a distinctive mid-hindbrain malformation. JS is part of a group of disorders called ciliopathies based on their overlapping phenotypes and common underlying pathophysiology linked to primary cilium dysfunction. Biallelic mutations in one of 28 genes, all encoding proteins localizing to the primary cilium or basal body, can cause JS. Despite this large number of genes, the genetic cause can currently be determined in about 62% of individuals with JS. To identify novel JS genes, we performed whole exome sequencing on 35 individuals with JS and found biallelic rare deleterious variants (RDVs) in KIAA0586, encoding a centrosomal protein required for ciliogenesis, in one individual. Targeted next-generation sequencing in a large JS cohort identified biallelic RDVs in eight additional families for an estimated prevalence of 2.5% (9/366 JS families). All affected individuals displayed JS phenotypes toward the mild end of ...
Centriole assembly and function - DK Chromosome Dynamics
In our lab we are using a combination of biochemical, cell biological and genetic approaches in the nematode C. elegans to investigate the fundamental and conserved molecular mechanisms underlying centriole assembly and function. In previous work we have taken advantage of the availability of data from genome-wide RNAi-based screens to define the molecular requirements for centriole assembly. The six-protein molecular pathway we identified has since been found to be conserved from ciliates to vertebrates, and is thought to form the core of the centriole assembly machinery in all eukaryotes. We further identified the hydrolethalus syndrome protein HYLS-1 as a core centriolar protein that is incorporated into centrioles during their assembly to confer on them the ability to initiate cilia. The single amino acid missense mutation associated with hydrolethalus syndrome impairs HYLS-1 function in ciliogenesis, identifying this disorder as a severe (perinatal lethal) ciliopathy ...
NIH Funds Cilia Motility Study | Integrative Systems Biology | University of Pittsburgh
Congratulations to Dr. Cecilia Lo and Dr. Michael Tsang on their recently funded NIH administrative supplement, Assaying Heterotaxy Patient Genes in a Cilia Motility and Left-Right Patterning. This project will examine whether expression of the RCV can rescue the HTX phenotype elicited by MO gene knockdown in the zebrafish embryo.
Tubulin glycylases are required for primary cilia, control of cell proliferation and tumor development in colon | The EMBO...
Posttranslational modifications of tubulin are thought to fine‐tune MT functions in specific cells and tissues. Modifications that take place on the C‐terminal tails of tubulin are involved in the regulation of interactions between MTs and associated proteins (reviewed in: Janke & Bulinski, 2011). The three principal modifications found in these tail domains are detyrosination, (poly)glutamylation and (poly)glycylation. While first insights into the molecular mechanisms that are controlled by detyrosination (Peris et al, 2006, 2009; Bieling et al, 2008) and polyglutamylation (Kubo et al, 2010; Lacroix et al, 2010) have been obtained, little is known about the roles and mechanisms of glycylation.. In contrast to other tubulin modifications, glycylation has so far only been detected in motile cilia and flagella in different organisms (Bré et al, 1996). In line with this rather restricted occurrence of glycylation, only three modifying enzymes are expressed in mammals (Rogowski et al, 2009), ...
Ciliated epithelium lining, bronchus - Stock Image C005/8085 - Science Photo Library
Postdoc - Xenbase Job Page
Two post-doc positions available to explore detailed aspects of the development of ciliated epithelia in Xenopus embryos. Project one will use quantitative imaging techniques to address the processes of centriole amplification in multiciliated cells of the embryonic skin. Project two will use quantitative imaging techniques to address the molecular regulation of cell migration and radial intercalation. Highly motivated and creative scientists will do well in this position. Interested applicants should send a CV and statement of research goals to Dr. Brian Mitchell ([email protected] ...
Cilium-independent regulation of Gli protein function by Sufu in Hedgehog signaling is evolutionarily conserved
Abstract: A central question in Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is how evolutionarily conserved components of the pathway might use the primary cilium in mammals but not fly. We focus on Suppressor of fused (Sufu), a major Hh regulator in mammals, and reveal that Sufu controls protein levels of full-length Gli transcription factors, thus affecting the production of Gli activators and repressors essential for graded Hh responses. Surprisingly, despite ciliary localization of most Hh pathway components, regulation of Gli protein levels by Sufu is cilium-independent. We propose that Sufu-dependent processes in Hh signaling are evolutionarily conserved. Consistent with this, Sufu regulates Gli protein levels by antagonizing the activity of Spop, a conserved Gli-degrading factor. Furthermore, addition of zebrafish or fly Sufu restores Gli protein function in Sufu-deficient mammalian cells. In contrast, fly Smo is unable to translocate to the primary cilium and activate the mammalian Hh pathway. We also ...
Central microtubule function in eukaryotic flagella and cilia: post #1
Central microtubule function in eukaryotic flagella and cilia - posted in Research Idea, Design and Collaboration: Hi! I am an undergrad student at U of C in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. I asked my professor a question about the function of the central pair of microtubules enclosed by the central sheath in eukaryotic cilia and flagella and he replied simply saying that it is not clearly understood. I am wondering if anyone can either direct me to a peer-reviewed journal article that...
CEP104 gene - Genetics Home Reference
From NCBI Gene:. This gene encodes a centrosomal protein required for ciliogenesis and for ciliary tip structural integrity. The mammalian protein contains three amino-terminal hydrophobic domains, two glycosylation sites, four cysteine-rich motifs, and two regions with homology to the glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1 protein. During ciliogenesis, the encoded protein translocates from the distal tips of the centrioles to the tip of the elongating cilium. Knockdown of the protein in human retinal pigment cells results in severe defects in ciliogenesis with structural deformities at the ciliary tips. Allelic variants of this gene are associated with the autosomal-recessive disorder Joubert syndrome, which is characterized by a distinctive mid-hindbrain and cerebellar malformation, oculomotor apraxia, irregular breathing, developmental delay, and ataxia. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2016]. From UniProt: ...
Mutagenetix > Incidental...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a protein containing multiple ankyrin domains and two IQ calmodulin-binding domains. The encoded protein may function in renal tubular development and function, and in left-right axis determination. This protein interacts with nephrocystin and infers a connection between primary cilia function and left-right axis determination. A similar protein in mice interacts with calmodulin. Mutations in this gene have been associated with nephronophthisis type 2. Multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012 ...
The Division of Biology & Biomedical Sciences
The focus of research in our laboratory is to understand how two essential organelles, the centrosome and cilium, organize signaling pathways that control diverse cellular functions. These highly conserved organelles act as signaling hubs that regulate various aspects of cell-cycle progression, cell differentiation, polarity, and migration. At the core of the centrosome is a pair of microtubule-based structures called centrioles, which are surrounded by an amorphous mix of proteins called the pericentriolar matrix. Centrioles play a critical role in cells by serving as basal bodies that nucleate the formation of the primary cilium. Except for a few specialized cell types, almost every cell in the human body contains a primary cilium. Defects in the structure and function of centrosomes and cilia lead to a range of human disease phenotypes known collectively as "Ciliopathies". These include developmental defects such as polycystic kidney disease, nephronophthisis, polydactyly, infertility, ...
REGULATION OF MICROTUBULES IN TETRAHYMENA | JCB
The coupled resorption and redifferentiation of oral structures which occurs in Tetrahymena pyriformis under conditions of amino acid deprivation has been studied by transmission electron microscopy. Two patterns of ciliary resorption have been found, (a) in situ, and (b) after withdrawal into the cytoplasm. No autophagic vacuoles containing cilia or ciliary axonemes have been seen. Stomatogenic field basal bodies arise by a process of rapid sequential nucleation, with new ones always appearing next to more mature ones, even though the latter may not be fully differentiated. Accessory radial ribbons of microtubules develop immediately adjacent to oral field basal bodies as a late step in their maturation. It can be seen that the formation of basal bodies and their orientation within the oral complex are separate processes. This is true for about 130 of the approximately 170 oral basal bodies; the remaining 40 or so form within the patterned groups of ciliary units as a later event. Clusters of ...
Shortsightedness in Intelligent Design
One of the examples of irreducible complexity Behe uses is the cilium - a structure used most often for movement by small cells. Cilia are composed of long chains of microtubules bundled together to make a whip-like structure. I remember studying the cilium in my biochemistry class in college. It is very complex. But to be honest, I dont remember all the details. So, Ill borrow a lot here from Kenneth Miller who is a cellular biologist.(5) Dr. Miller was actually amused at Behes suggestion that the complexity of the cilium is irreducible (remember, even if it was irreducible it could have evolved). Since the cilium is a complex structure and the 9+2 microtubule structure is found everywhere in nature from algae to human sperm cells, it may easily be assumed that this is the only pattern that worked - hence irreducible complexity. But an appeal to any biologist with a knowledge of cilia would have informed Behe that such is not the case. Sperm from the caddis fly have a 9+7 microtubule ...
Articles that mention Michael A. Choma -Optical Coherence Tomography News
Background and Objective Cilia-driven mucociliary clearance is an important self-defense mechanism of great clinical importance in pulmonary research. Conventional light microscopy possesses the capability to visualize individual cilia and its beating pattern but lacks the throughput to assess the global ciliary activities and flow dynamics. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), which provides depth-resolved cross-sectional images, was recently introduced to this area. Materials and Methods Fourteen de-identified human tracheobronchial tissues are directly ...
"Bioenergetics and dynamics of ciliary responses and systems biology of" by Suphatra Adulrattananuwat
The goal of this dissertation is to understand how a eukaryotic cell makes decisions. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a biciliated unicellular green alga, is used as our model organism. This organism has the ability to track the light using its photoreceptor called rhodopsin, which overlays the eyespot. The organism makes decisions to swim toward, away from, perpendicular to or to ignore the light using its slender arm-like structures called cilia. It can integrate several external inputs such as ion concentration and light intensity, and then process this information to adjust the steering of its cilia corresponding to its environment. We investigated how red light (670 nm) influences cell behavior. Most studies were done with a single cell held on a micropipette making it possible to observe the cilia behavior over a long time. The cell is illuminated with near-infrared light (peak at 870 nm) to avoid photoreceptor excitation. Ciliary movement is monitored using a quadrant photodiode detector (Chapter 2).
Asian Science Citation Index - Articles written by C. c Hui
A central question in Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is how evolutionarily conserved components of the pathway might use the primary cilium in mammals but not fly. We focus on Suppressor of fused (Sufu), a major Hh regulator in mammals, and reveal that Sufu controls protein levels of full-length Gli transcription factors, thus affecting the production of Gli activators and repressors essential for graded Hh responses. Surprisingly, despite ciliary localization of most Hh pathway components, regulation of Gli protein levels by Sufu is cilium-independent. We propose that Sufu-dependent processes in Hh signaling are evolutionarily conserved. Consistent with this, Sufu regulates Gli protein levels by antagonizing the activity of Spop, a conserved Gli-degrading factor. Furthermore, addition of zebrafish or fly Sufu restores Gli protein function in Sufu-deficient mammalian cells. In contrast, fly Smo is unable to translocate to the primary cilium and activate the mammalian Hh pathway. We also uncover a novel ...
Primary cilia, once considered vestigial organelles are now revealing themselves as crucial cellular components for cellular signalling and are capable of sensing their enivronment. A number of developmental pathways including Hedgehog and Wnt signalling require an intact cilium. Dysfunction of this signalling process can result in diseases of the retina, kidney, endocrine system, skeleton and nervous system. Many long described syndromes are now being ascribed to cilia pathogenetic lesions are are grouped as the ciliopathies. Many of these syndromes manifest cognitive impairment as well as disordered peripheral nervous system and sensory reception. We have been focussing on several of these diseaes and one in particular, Bardet-Biedl syndrome has been informing us of novel roles for the primary cilium. For example by generating animal models we have determined there are defects in olfactory responses, nociception, satiety (leading to gross obesity) and mental retardation. One of our key goals ...
Cilia whitish, fuscous below apex. Hind wings with broad medial white band enclosing a speck at end of cell, and with a dark ... Cilia white. Ventral side with orange wing base. Female more irrorated with fuscous. Often suffused with rufous, and with pale ... Cilia fuscous. Ventral side with orange outer area and white blotches. Larva greenish, with dorsal and sublateral yellow ...
Cilia whitish. Larva dark purplish grey with a few whitish specks. Somites 4th to 6th with small yellowish sub-dorsal spots, ... Cilia non-crenulate. Head and collar plum fruit colored. Thorax greenish with tufts on metathorax. Abdomen orange. Fore wings ... A black marginal band with cilia whitish spots runs from costa to vein 2. Ventral side of fore wings fuscous, with orange at ...
... cilia on the underside white. Hindwing: also with the following black markings: a minute spot at base, followed by two larger ... terminal markings and cilia as on the forewing. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen black, the antenna ringed with white and a ... cilia black. Hindwing: costa and apex broadly, termen narrowly, bordered with black; a subterminal series of small round black ... spots that merge anteriorly into the black at apex j cilia black, tipped with white. Underside: opaque chalk white. Forewing: ...
Glossary of gastropod terms
CILIO - YouTube
... cilio[email protected] No te tomes NADA de lo que veas en el canal para mal. mira todo con un lado positivo que es para saca ... NOS ENCIERRAN EN EL SÓTANO SIN SALIDA !!! - ( El ladrón la serie #3 ) [ CILIO ] - Duration: 12 minutes.. CILIO ... USO LA PISTOLA PARA ATRAPAR AL LADRÓN - ( El ladrón la serie #5 ) [ CILIO ] - Duration: 13 minutes.. CILIO ... VEMOS AL LADRÓN EN EL SÓTANO - ( El ladron la serie #2 ) [ CILIO ] - Duration: 10 minutes.. CILIO ...
Cryo-electron tomography of motile cilia and flagella Cryo-electron tomography has been a valuable tool in the analysis of 3D ... Cilia Motility. Guest edited by Dr Hannah Mitchison, Dr David Mitchell, and Prof Heymut Omran ... Fifty years after the discovery of dyneins in motile cilia, much remains to be learned about the structure and mechanism of ... The motility of eukaryotic cilia and flagella is modulated in response to several extracellular stimuli. Ca2+ is the most ...
Cilia-a Missing Link | The BMJ
Cilia-a Missing Link. It has been interesting to note the absence of debate on the impact of cigarette smoke on the functioning ... Who is listening?Are there existing studies available that addresses the reduction in cilia performance as mentioned by Dr.Koop ... of the cilia in either the smoker or second-hand passive smoker, cancelling out its protective function. This was brought to my ...
Roles of primary cilia in hearing
Cilia - Conservapedia
Cilia cover the "foot" of a snail and are used to move the snail slowly along. Cilia are used for the slow locomotion of ... Within bivalves, cilia create a constant flow of water over various filtering and sorting surfaces and move and separate food ... Cilia are numerous short extensions of the plasma membrane used for locomotion and other purposes. ... Most mucous membranes, such as those in the nose, are covered with cilia to create a constant flow of mucus. ...
... The Green Hornet M.ROOS at AUCKLAND.AC.NZ Wed Nov 16 15:39:06 EST 1994 *Previous message: q:Vitronectin rec. ... IF YOU HAVE ANY HYPOTHESES REGARDING PRIMARY CILIA FUNCTION I WOULD LOVE TO HEAR THEM. REGARDS, GEORGE...... *Previous message ... I AM INVESTIGATING POSSIBLE ROLES OF PRIMARY CILIA USING CONFOCAL LASER MICROSCOPY WITH ANTIBODY LABELLING. ...
Cilia - Methods and Protocols | Peter Satir | Springer
This volume is the result of an explosion of molecular-based research on Cilia, which began with the discovery of the ... Practical and cutting-edge, Cilia: Methods and Protocols is broad and covers motile, sensory, and primary cells. It is a ... This volume is the result of an explosion of molecular-based research on Cilia, which began with the discovery of the ... Visualization and Manipulation of Cilia and Intraciliary Calcium in the Zebrafish Left-Right Organizer ...
Cilia | Definition of Cilia by Merriam-Webster
Cilium definition is - a minute short hairlike process often forming part of a fringe; especially : one on a cell that is ... Examples of cilium in a Sentence. Recent Examples on the Web. Among their design concerns were methods for nurturing cilium and ... Comments on cilium. What made you want to look up cilium? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if ... Post the Definition of cilium to Facebook Share the Definition of cilium on Twitter ...
Cilium -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia
Cilium, plural cilia, short eyelashlike filament that is numerous on tissue cells of most animals and provides the means for ... Cilia may be fused in short transverse rows to form membranelles or in tufts to form cirri. Capable of beating in unison, cilia ... A cilium, like a flagellum, is composed of a central core (the axoneme), which contains two central microtubules that are ... In modified form, cilia trigger the discharge of stinging devices in jellyfish and give rise to the light-sensitive rods of the ...
Cilium | biology | Britannica.com
Cilia may be fused in short transverse rows to form membranelles or in tufts to form cirri. Capable of beating in unison, cilia ... Cilium, short eyelashlike filament that is numerous on tissue cells of most animals and provides the means for locomotion of ... Alternative Titles: cilia, ciliums, undulipodia. Cilium, plural cilia, short eyelashlike filament that is numerous on tissue ... Cilia may be fused in short transverse rows to form membranelles or in tufts to form cirri. Capable of beating in unison, cilia ...
Respiratory Cilia | Science
European Cilia Conference
Promega Corporation is a worldwide leader in applying biochemistry and molecular biology to the development of innovative, high-value products for the life sciences. The Promega mission statement is: To be the most responsive supplier of biological reagents and reagent systems used in research and applied technology applications worldwide.
Cilia Erens - Mediamatic
Cilia Erens also works as a guest lecturer at institutes such as the Amsterdam Academy of Architecture and the Netherlands Film ... Formarly soundartist Cilia Erens is a town and countryplanner. In 1987 she introduced soundwalks in the Netherlands. In her ... Picture of the soundwalk in china called China Daily - Found on the website of Cilia Erens. ...
Spotlight: ANJA CILIA
Cilia (entomology) - Wikipedia
Trevor Cilia - Wikipedia
In 2015, Cilia was signed by Hamrun Spartans F.C.. Trevor Cilia at MaltaFootball.com Trevor Cilia at National-Football-Teams. ... Cilia won his first ever Premier League title in 2010 when, on 5 May he had the joy of lifting the cup for the first time. In ... Trevor Cilia was part of the 2009-2010 team for Birkirkara, where Birkirkara were crowned champions of the Maltese Premier ... Season 2009-2010 was a special one for Cilia as he was one of the most dangerous strikers of the season. With his daring runs ...
Cilia and Hedgehog responsiveness in the mouse | PNAS
Presence of cilia in the neural tube at e10.5. Punctate expression of γ-tubulin (A) and cilia-like expression of acetylated α- ... 4B ). Cilia were present on the surface of the node in Dnchc2lln embryos, but they all had abnormal morphology: some cilia were ... Some specialized primary cilia monitor fluid flow: bending of cilia in cultured kidney epithelial cells or in the embryonic ... In support of a role for cilia in Hh responsiveness, we found that cilia were present on neural progenitors and other cell ...
An Idol Husband by Cilia Jaspers
Cilia Jaspers writing is filled with quirky hilarity that will make you laugh out loud and fall in love with the Tenshi Band. ... Once again, Cilia Jaspers has sucked me into another fantastic Idol romance that leaves me wondering who will be next! FIEND! ... Cilia Jaspers, a writing duo, has improved in her technique of managing the different author voices, making a more seamless ... The Tenshi series is co-authored by J. W. Ashley and April Oglesbee and will ultimately be published under the pen name Cilia ...
Meaning and Origin of Cilia - FamilyEducation
Genevieve Fabienne Cilia - Genealogy
Cilia revolution - Innovations Report
Cilia are wavy, hair-like structures that extend outward from the surfaces of various organisms such as human skin. People, ... The ability to engineer this cilia-like biosensor may give scientists an ability to, for example, test for the presence of ... Scientists long imagined what could be done if they could engineer cilia for other organic and nonorganic uses. But creating ... While the new material isnt exactly like cilia, it responds to thermal, chemical, and electromagnetic stimulation, allowing ...
Cilia Name Meaning & Cilia Family History at Ancestry.com®
Discover the meaning of the Cilia name on Ancestry®. Find your familys average life expectancy, most common occupation, and ... Cilia. Life Expectancy. What is the average Cilia lifespan?. Share. Between 1953 and 2003, in the United States, Cilia life ... Cilia. family records will you find?. Share. *. Census Record. There are 1,000 census records available for the last name Cilia ... The Cilia family name was found in the USA, the UK, and Canada between 1880 and 1920. The most Cilia families were found in the ...
Eukaryotic Cilia and Flagella Organization and Utility
This article will focus on the role of helical surface-attached appendages known as flagella or cilia, that are present on many ... Flagella versus Cilia. While flagella and cilia are structurally identical, they can be distinguished by their length, density ... The cilia play an instrumental role in the trachea where the beating motion, together with the overlying mucosa, clear the ... Co-ordinating Multiple Cilium. The positioning of basal bodies throughout the cytoskeleton limits, in turn, the number and ...
Joueur de cora by Cilia Sawadogo - NFB
bryn cilio | Beddgelert, Wales - Lonely Planet
Assembling a primary cilium. - PubMed - NCBI
Whereas motile cilia are typically found in large bundles and beat synchronously to generate fluid flow, primary cilia (with ... Summary of factors that regulate the assembly or disassembly of cilia. Upon cilia formation and elongation (red arrow), IFT ... Assembling a primary cilium.. Kim S1, Dynlacht BD.. Author information. 1. Department of Pathology and Cancer Institute, Smilow ... Defects in the cilium, and the structure from which it arises, the basal body, have been shown to cause a spectrum of diseases ...
Cilia - Medical Dictionary / Glossary | Medindia
Cilia - Eyelashes; or, microscopic hair-like projections lining the nose and bronchi, is clearly explained in Medindia s ... Cilia - Glossary. Written & Compiled by Medindia Content Team. Medically Reviewed by The Medindia Medical Review Team on May 07 ... Medical Word - Cilia. Ans : Eyelashes; or, microscopic hair-like projections lining the nose and bronchi. ...
Signaling Cilia Structures | Science Signaling
... also use cilia for sensory functions. Receptors concentrated on the surface of cilia allow cells to efficiently sample their ... These cells use sex-specific adhesion receptors on their flagella (flagella are essentially the same as cilia) during mating. ... You may think of cilia primarily as structures specialized to confer motility, but nonmotile cells (virtually all vertebrate ... Q. Wang, J. Pan, W. J. Snell, Intraflagellar transport particles participate directly in cilium-generated signaling in ...
View the content page [c]
Cilia can be divided into primary forms and motile forms. Primary/Immotile cilia. In animals, primary cilia are found ... Motile cilia. Larger eukaryotes, such as mammals, have motile cilia as well. Motile cilia are usually present on a cells ... There are two types of cilia: motile cilia and non-motile, or primary, cilia, which typically serve as sensory organelles. In ... A cilium (from Latin, meaning eyelash; the plural is cilia) is an organelle found on eukaryotic cells and are slender ...
Cilia and Flagella
Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are hair‐like cellular appendages composed of specialised microtubules and covered by a ... Cilia within a line of synchrony are all in the same phase of beat. In forward‐swimming cells, the firing order of cilia is ... Satir P (1968) Studies on cilia. III. Further studies on the cilium tip and a sliding filament model of ciliary motility. ... Fliegauf M , Benzing T and Omran H (2007) When cilia go bad: cilia defects and ciliopathies. Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell ...
Function of ciliaCiliaryMucusProteinsFlagellaMicrotubulesProjectionsExpressed in the sensory ciliaSensory ciliaAllowing researchersStructuresRole of cilia in acquiredMotile and nonmotile ciliaOrganellesMolecularIntraflagellarPluralRegulateEukaryoticMucociliary clearanceImmotile cilia syNonmotile primary ciliaCytoskeleton and cancerGenesEpithelialHedgehogCellularMotilityMutationsBiologyFluid flowRoles of ciliaPolycystic kidneyDefectsMicroscopicStructuralEmbryosCellsGeneticProteinBasalZebrafishHuman ciliaAffect ciliaDefective ciliaDysfunctional ciliaAxonemalExtracellularBiogenesisEmbryonic DevelopmentNodalVertebrateHairs called
Function of cilia5
- The finding adds to our knowledge about ciliopathies, a class of genetic disorders that arise from defects in the structure or function of cilia. (nih.gov)
- As the team investigated kur , they noted that the mutation also affected the function of cilia. (princeton.edu)
- In addition, since the research looked at the structure and function of cilia, these discoveries might be useful for the development of nanotechnologies. (medgadget.com)
- The rapid advancement of technologies such as next generation sequencing, high resolution microscopy and the development of novel in vitro analysis systems has led to an exponential growth of knowledge related to the assembly and function of cilia, production and secretion of mucus, and cilia-mucus interaction to promote productive mucociliary clearance. (grc.org)
- Defects in the function of cilia lead to a class of diseases called ciliopathies, which include polycystic kidney disease, primary ciliary dyskinesia and Bardet-Biedl syndrome. (eurekalert.org)
- This series in Cilia contains both reviews and research articles covering diverse topics, including recent advances in ciliary ultrastructure, physiologic and transcriptional mechanisms of motility regulation, and discoveries relating to the role of cilia in health and disease made through analysis of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia models and genetics. (biomedcentral.com)
- Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with defective structure and/or function of motile cilia/flagella, causing chronic upper and lower respiratory tract infections, fertilit. (biomedcentral.com)
- This volume is the result of an explosion of molecular-based research on Cilia, which began with the discovery of the universality of intraflagellar transport (IFT) and ciliary genomics/proteomics. (springer.com)
- The chapters in this book cover topics such as: high resolution imaging and functional characterization of sensory and primary cilia in mammalian cells and zebrafish, methods to study ciliary-mediated chemoresponse in Paramecium , and methods to study centrosomes and cilia in C. elegans and Drosophila . (springer.com)
- ciliary outgrowth is controlled by the basal body that is located just inside the cell surface at the base of the cilium. (britannica.com)
- The current scientific understanding of primary cilia views them as "sensory cellular antennae that coordinate a large number of cellular signaling pathways, sometimes coupling the signaling to ciliary motility or alternatively to cell division and differentiation. (rug.nl)
- The basal body, where the cilia originates, is located within the ciliary pocket. (rug.nl)
- The Human Primary Cilia RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes important for ciliary organization and maintenance. (qiagen.com)
- The Mouse Primary Cilia RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes important for ciliary organization and maintenance. (qiagen.com)
- As a consequence, the full-length proteins of GLI2 and GLI3, which are bound to the ciliary tip organizer KIF7, are phosphorylated by PKA, CK1, and GSK3, and finally proteolytically processed by the cilia-regulated proteasome. (nih.gov)
- In the presence of HH, the HH ligand binds to PTC1 and, in turn, the HH/PTC1 complex leaves the cilium allowing ciliary entry of SMO. (nih.gov)
- Genetic defects in ciliary proteins responsible for cilia formation, maintenance, or function underlie a wide array of human diseases like deafness, anosmia, and retinal degeneration in sensory systems. (mdpi.com)
- We recently discovered that the C. elegans NPHP genes modulate the length and shape of a cilium, enabling exploration of the mechanisms controlling ciliary morphogenesis. (bio.net)
- This study confirms and extends previous work on the lateral cilia of the fresh-water mussel, Elliptio complanatus , in support of a "sliding filament" mechanism of ciliary motility wherein peripheral filaments (microtubules) do not change length during beat (see Satir, 1967). (rupress.org)
- Although the major structural components of human cilia have been described, a complete understanding of cilia function and regulation will require identification and characterization of all ciliary components. (mcponline.org)
- To identify all the components of human cilia, we have begun a comprehensive proteomic analysis of isolated ciliary axonemes. (mcponline.org)
- The importance of this process is clearly illustrated by the disease primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), 1 in which genetic defects cause dysfunctional cilia and result in chronic otitis media, sinusitus, and bronchitis ( 2 ). (mcponline.org)
- Emerging research has established a fundamental link between cytoskeletal structures such as centrioles and cilia in the regulation of DNA repair and genomic instability, highlighted by an increasing number of cancers/syndromes with clear ciliary connections such as Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome, Von Hippel-Lindau disease and Tuberous Sclerosis. (biochemistry.org)
- Written and edited by experts in the field, Cilia , from Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, examines key aspects of ciliary biology--from the molecular to the organismal level--in normal physiology and disease. (cshlpress.com)
- The interaction of cilia and mucus is an essential component of respiratory tract defense against pathogens and when dysfunctional, leads to diseases ranging from the common cold, asthma, rhinosinusitus, chronic obstructive lung disease and genetic diseases cystic fibrosis (CF) and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). (grc.org)
- Their findings also explain the frequently observed misalignment of cilia in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a disease that impairs ciliary flow. (phys.org)
- The polarity of the cilia is still biased towards the posterior, but without a detectable flow the process of refinement is disrupted and they can't reorient themselves properly," says Kintner and adds that, "this model explains why ciliary disorientation is so commonly associated with ciliary dysfunction in human PCD. (phys.org)
- Fig. 1: Body curvature correlates with impaired cilia-driven CSF flow in ciliary mutants. (nature.com)
- Scattered throughout the cilia are goblet cells that secrete mucus which helps protect the lining of the bronchus and trap microorganisms. (medlineplus.gov)
- Most mucous membranes, such as those in the nose , are covered with cilia to create a constant flow of mucus. (conservapedia.com)
- In humans , for example, motile cilia are found in the lining of the trachea (windpipe), where they sweep mucus and dirt out of the lungs. (rug.nl)
- For example, motile cilia are on cells that line the trachea, where their coordinated wave-like motions carry mucus-along with the inhaled dust, bacteria, and other small particles it contains-toward the mouth to be coughed or sneezed out of the body. (nih.gov)
- Cilia perform a wide variety of functions in humans -- the cells lining your trachea, for example, use their cilia to sweep dust and mucus upwards out of the lungs. (gardenguides.com)
- In humans, for example, epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract each have about 200 cilia that beat in synchrony to sweep mucus towards the throat for elimination. (arn.org)
- Mutations impede the flow of chloride, causing the mucus to accumulate and impeding the hair-like particles called cilia from beating back and forth to clear out the mucus. (wordnik.com)
- The continuous, coordinated beating of the cilia transports mucus and foreign material out of the airways to help maintain a sterile environment. (mcponline.org)
- 2) How can we analyze the hydrodynamics and biophysical properties of cilia-mucus interactions in healthy and disease states with high resolution? (grc.org)
- 3) What is the relationship between cilia, mucus and mucosal immunity? (grc.org)
- This GRC will be held in conjunction with the "Cilia, Mucus and Mucociliary Interactions (GRS)" Gordon Research Seminar (GRS). (grc.org)
- Cilia, tiny hair-like structures that propel mucus out of airways, have to agree on the direction of the fluid flow to get things moving. (phys.org)
- Cilia are tiny hair-like projections from cells that line your respiratory tract and are responsible for moving mucus up to the throat, where it can be spat out or swallowed. (newcastle-hospitals.org.uk)
- This book details advances in research regarding cilia, mucus, and mucociliary clearance, examining changes in mucus expression and goblet cell metaplasia, and assessing the ability of the mucociliary system to respond to abnormalities. (foyles.co.uk)
- It opened a way to reconstruct 3D conformations of proteins in cilia at 3-nm resolu. (biomedcentral.com)
- The intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins Ift172/Wimple and Polaris/Ift88 and the anterograde IFT motor kinesin-II are required for the production and maintenance of cilia. (pnas.org)
- Nor was it clear whether IFT proteins are required for a cytoplasmic transport process or in cilia for neural patterning. (pnas.org)
- Mutations in genes encoding structural and functional proteins of cilia and flagella lead to innumerable diseases and disorders called ciliopathies. (els.net)
- Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are estimated to have evolved roughly a billion years ago, following the appearance of the genes for tubulin (from bacteria) and proteins that establish the ninefold symmetry. (els.net)
- Further study of how these proteins function could yield insights into the impact that cilia defects cause throughout the body. (nih.gov)
- Though it remains unclear how three IFT proteins are required for Shh signaling in neural cells, the authors postulate that cilia could produce a signal that is required for Shh signaling. (sciencemag.org)
- Motor proteins using ATP power the sliding of microtubules past each other, causing the cilium to wave back and forth. (gardenguides.com)
- When cytochalasin D, a small molecule which permeates cells and inhibits cytoskeleton polymerization, was applied to one of the identified proteins, it repaired cilium formation in cells carrying mutations. (ucsd.edu)
- As an approach to validate the mass spectrometry results, additional studies examined the expression of several identified proteins (annexin I, sperm protein Sp17, retinitis pigmentosa protein RP1) in cilia or ciliated cells. (mcponline.org)
- However, whereas the sequencing of the human genome has allowed the identification of homologs of these Chlamydomonas proteins, biochemical evidence is still necessary to demonstrate their axonemal nature in human cilia. (mcponline.org)
- Researchers in Burdine's laboratory found that Kurly's role in cilia movement stems from its ability to ensure proteins called dynein arms are correctly located in the cilia. (princeton.edu)
- Extracellular vesicles (EVs), membrane-bound carriers with complex cargos that include proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, function in long-distance cellular communication, but how cilia contribute to EV production was previously unclear to the scientific community. (eurekalert.org)
- Previous work has shown that loss of exocyst complex component 5 (EXOC5), one of the eight proteins that make up the exocyst, causes very short or no cilia to be produced. (eurekalert.org)
- These studies have led to the identification of candidate proteins that have been implicated, directly or indirectly, in transport mechanisms and structural components of the cilium, and in cilia-associated human disorders. (biologists.org)
- The motility of eukaryotic cilia and flagella is modulated in response to several extracellular stimuli. (biomedcentral.com)
- These cells use sex-specific adhesion receptors on their flagella (flagella are essentially the same as cilia) during mating. (sciencemag.org)
- In eukaryotes, motile cilia and flagella together make up a group of organelles known as undulipodia . (rug.nl)
- Eukaryotic cilia are structurally identical to eukaryotic flagella, although distinctions are sometimes made according to function and/or length. (rug.nl)
- Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are hair‐like cellular appendages composed of specialised microtubules and covered by a specialised extension of the cellular membrane. (els.net)
- Cilia and flagella have three, often interrelated functions: (1) As motile organelles beating like whips or oars, they propel cells through their environment or transport fluids along the surfaces of ciliated epithelia. (els.net)
- Given these functions, cilia and flagella are micromachines and they act as cybernetic devices to receive, process and communicate information. (els.net)
- The beating of cilia and flagella depends on many biochemical factors including the different effects of outer versus inner dynein arm motors, the DRC (dynein regulatory complex) and DRC-radial spoke interactions mediated by kinases. (els.net)
- The waveform of beating cilia/flagella also depends on the precise geometric assemblage of the axoneme structures, the mechanical properties of those structures and principles of the Geometric Clutch hypothesis. (els.net)
- c) and (d) Cross‐sectional EMs of a basal body and a flagellar 9 + 2 axoneme of protozoa, typical of most simple cilia and flagella (membrane removed and viewed from the proximal end looking towards the distal tip). (els.net)
- Cilia are similar in many respects to flagella. (gardenguides.com)
- Cilia and Flagella are organelles that are located in eukaryotes structurally built to help the cell move. (smore.com)
- Both Cilia and Flagella are made of microtubules which are covered by plasma membranes. (smore.com)
- The main purpose of Cilia is to help the cell move fluids, mucous, or other cells over their surface, while flagella are more important and helpful to move the cell around. (smore.com)
- Cilia and flagella are highly conserved and important microtubule-based organelles that project from the surface of eukaryotic cells and act as antennae to sense extracellular signals. (mdpi.com)
- Sperm flagella possess a 9 + 2 axoneme, and the photoreceptor cells of the retina contain a modified cilium. (mcponline.org)
- Nearly every cell in the human body has one or more protrusive structures called cilia or flagella. (cshlpress.com)
- Normally, cilia also called flagella are built and maintained by an internal bidirectional, escalator-like system that ferries molecules to and from the tips by a process called intraflagellar transport, or IFT. (rxpgnews.com)
- A cilium, like a flagellum , is composed of a central core (the axoneme), which contains two central microtubules that are surrounded by an outer ring of nine pairs of microtubules. (britannica.com)
- IFT involves bidirectional movement of IFT particles beneath the plasma membrane of cilia along the axonemal microtubules, which allows material to be transported to the distal tip of the cilium, where new components are incorporated into the axoneme. (pnas.org)
- The cilium membrane and the basal body microtubules are connected by transition fibers. (rug.nl)
- Their most prominent structural component is the axoneme which consists of nine doublet microtubules, with all motile cilia - except those at the embryonic node - containing an additional central pair of microtubules. (uniprot.org)
- These studies have demonstrated the 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules, the inner and outer dynein arms, the radial spokes, and other features common to all motile cilia. (mcponline.org)
- These results indicate that two components of the cytoskeleton perform different functions: actin fibers establish cell-wide coordination of cilia orientation and timing, whereas microtubules ensure that cilia are in harmony with their neighbors. (rupress.org)
- Cilia movement is driven by an array of longitudinal microtubules arranged in 9 doublets around a central pair. (phys.org)
- The bronchus in the lungs are lined with hair-like projections called cilia that move microbes and debris up and out of the airways. (medlineplus.gov)
- Cilia are evolutionarily conserved, membrane-bound, microtubular projections emanating from the cell surface. (nih.gov)
- Cilia are hairlike projections from the cell body. (gardenguides.com)
- Cilia, tail-like projections found on the surface of cells, are perhaps best known as molecular flippers that help cells move around. (innovations-report.com)
- Hamada showed hair-like projections on the embryo called cilia produce a leftward flow of fluid outside the embryo, allowing the embryo to identify its left side. (wordnik.com)
- Each breath passes through or over lymph tissue and millions of hair like projections called cilia that filter, re-filter and remove any particles that may damage the lungs. (wordnik.com)
- A new study of a protein found in cilia - the hair-like projections on the cell surface - may help explain how genetic defects in cilia play a role in developmental abnormalities, kidney disease and a number of other disorders. (princeton.edu)
- Caption: Staining of cilia (hair-like projections in green and nuclei in blue) in zebrafish kidney tubules show cilia are disorganized and oriented incorrectly in fish with mutated Kurly protein (bottom panel) versus normal Kurly (top panel). (princeton.edu)
Expressed in the sensory cilia1
- Sensory cilia of olfactory receptor neurons have developed an unusual solution to this problem. (pnas.org)
- Mammalian olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) present to the air a tuft of sensory cilia equipped with odorant receptors. (pnas.org)
- Molecular mechanisms underlying olfactory signal amplification were investigated by monitoring cAMP dynamics in the intact sensory cilia. (jneurosci.org)
- This is mainly attributable to the technical difficulties accompanied with the nano-scale structure of sensory cilia. (jneurosci.org)
- To overcome the difficulty of monitoring the molecular dynamics within nano-scale sensory cilia, we used a combined technique of patch-clamp and photo-activated compounds. (jneurosci.org)
- Cryo-electron tomography has been a valuable tool in the analysis of 3D structures of cilia at molecular and cellular levels. (biomedcentral.com)
- Cilia are antenna-like membrane-associated structures which play essential roles during development, and during the normal function of many cells throughout the body. (ucl.ac.uk)
- Cilia are wavy, hair-like structures that extend outward from the surfaces of various organisms such as human skin. (innovations-report.com)
- You may think of cilia primarily as structures specialized to confer motility, but nonmotile cells (virtually all vertebrate cells have a primary cilium) also use cilia for sensory functions. (sciencemag.org)
- Receptors concentrated on the surface of cilia allow cells to efficiently sample their immediate environment, but it is unclear how such receptors function in the absence of structures that usually associate with them at the plasma membrane. (sciencemag.org)
- Some single-celled creatures have structures called motile cilia that beat rhythmically to allow the cells to move. (nih.gov)
- Looking closely at where the cilia should exist, the researchers saw that the supporting structures needed for cilia to grow were either completely missing or abnormal. (nih.gov)
- Other experiments showed that CC2D2A is part of structures called subdistal appendages, which help anchor the basal body at the cell membrane to stabilize cilia and allow them to form. (nih.gov)
- Johns Hopkins researchers and colleagues have found a previously unrecognized role for tiny hair-like cell structures known as cilia: They help form our sense of touch. (innovations-report.com)
- In addition to their role in mucociliary clearance, cilia and other axonemal structures are clearly essential to many other specialized cell biological functions. (mcponline.org)
- Once considered to be vestigial organelles, cilia are microtubule-based structures found in unicellular flagellates and in multicellular organisms and have recently been discovered to have a profound influence on tissue development and homeostasis. (biologists.org)
- Olsen, 2005 ), cilia are microtubule-based structures that can be classified as immotile 9+0 primary cilia or motile 9+2 cilia, depending on the presence of a central microtubule pair that is surrounded by nine pairs of microtubule doublets ( Satir and Christensen, 2007 ). (biologists.org)
Role of cilia in acquired1
Motile and nonmotile cilia2
- The cilium is assembled from mature (mother) centrioles or basal bodies, which serve to nucleate growth of axonemes that give rise to two structurally distinct variants, motile and nonmotile cilia. (nih.gov)
- 2) Both motile and nonmotile cilia act as antennae, sensing environmental cues and metabolic compounds and initiating specific cellular responses. (els.net)
- Fifty years after the discovery of dyneins in motile cilia, much remains to be learned about the structure and mechanism of these complex organelles. (biomedcentral.com)
- Because both anterograde and retrograde IFT are essential for positive and negative responses to Hh, and because cilia are present on Hh responsive cells, it is likely that cilia act as organelles that are required for all activity of the mouse Hh pathway. (pnas.org)
- Whereas motile cilia are typically found in large bundles and beat synchronously to generate fluid flow, primary cilia (with the exception of those found at the embryonic node) are generally immotile and are found as solitary organelles. (nih.gov)
- motile cilia and non-motile , or primary , cilia, which typically serve as sensory organelles. (rug.nl)
- Cilia are hairlike organelles on the surfaces of many animal and lower plant cells that serve to move fluid over the cell's surface or to 'row' single cells through a fluid. (arn.org)
- It is evident that cilia are sensory organelles, playing a pivotal role in both development and homeostasis, responding to both mechanical and chemical stimuli and are key regulators of multiple signalling pathways including Hedgehog, cAMP, MAPK, Wnt and calcium. (biochemistry.org)
- Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles that detect mechanical and chemical stimuli. (nih.gov)
- Through a series of experiments, the researchers showed that oral groove cilia appear to have different molecular motors than the rest of a paramecium's cilia. (eurekalert.org)
- Utilizing high-throughput screening, we were able view a wider array of the genes implicated in ciliopathies and enact systematic approaches, which enabled us to gain deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms of cilia formation," said Gleeson. (ucsd.edu)
- It's extremely exciting that we've found a single protein that is responsible for these two functions - orientation and motility - in cilia," said Rebecca Burdine , an associate professor of molecular biology at Princeton University. (princeton.edu)
- But before Kintner and his team could get to the bottom of cilia polarity, they had to enlist the help of electron microscopy expert Richard Jacobs, Ph.D., a research specialist in the lab of Howard Hughes Medical investigator Charles Stevens, a professor in the Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory. (phys.org)
- Changes in ciliation seem to be linked to differences in the molecular composition of cilia and result in enhanced Hedgehog pathway activation. (nih.gov)
- Q. Wang, J. Pan, W. J. Snell, Intraflagellar transport particles participate directly in cilium-generated signaling in Chlamydomonas . (sciencemag.org)
- Pathological mutations occur in genes necessary for cilia morphogenesis or maintenance via intraflagellar transport, disrupting primary cilia function. (qiagen.com)
- They generated kidney cells that had lost expression of intraflagellar transport protein 88 (IFT88), a protein that is also required for proper cilium formation. (eurekalert.org)
- Cilium , plural cilia , short eyelashlike filament that is numerous on tissue cells of most animals and provides the means for locomotion of protozoans of the phylum Ciliophora. (britannica.com)
- the plural is cilia ) is an organelle found on eukaryotic cells and are slender protuberances that project from the much larger cell body . (rug.nl)
- 1715, from Latin cilia , plural of cilium "eyelid, eyelash," perhaps related to celare "to cover, hide," from PIE root *kel- "to conceal" (see cell ), but words for this part of the face can be tricky (see brow ). (thesaurus.com)
- noun Plural of cilium . (wordnik.com)
- noun Irregular plural form of cilium . (wordnik.com)
- Summary of factors that regulate the assembly or disassembly of cilia. (nih.gov)
- Additionally, several factors, including components involved in the IFT-A complex, axonemal deacetylation, axonemal microtubule depolymerization, and actin polymerization negatively regulate cilium assembly. (nih.gov)
- Epithelial sodium channels ENaC that are specifically expressed along the entire length of cilia apparently serve as sensors that regulate fluid level surrounding the cilia. (rug.nl)
- Recent studies suggest that primary cilia regulate the cell cycle, giving them a potential role in carcinogenesis. (qiagen.com)
- Recently, it was shown that primary cilia regulate a special kind of proteasome which is essential for proper Hedgehog signalling. (nih.gov)
- Not only do cilia normally regulate many of the cellular signalling pathways commonly perturbed in cancer, but the ability to form cilia is lost in many transformed cells and indeed primary cilium can both mediate and suppress Hedgehog pathway-dependent tumourigenesis. (biochemistry.org)
- Fig. 2: Urp1 functions downstream of motile cilia and CSF flow to regulate body-axis straightening. (nature.com)
Immotile cilia sy3
- How is immotile cilia syndrome differentiated from acute sinusitis (sinus infection)? (medscape.com)
- Immotile cilia syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with recurrent chest infections and/or pulmonary consolidation, sinusitis, bronchiectasis, and Kartagener syndrome. (medscape.com)
- Cilia cross section shows evidence of immotile cilia syndrome. (histology-world.com)
Nonmotile primary cilia2
Cytoskeleton and cancer3
- The meeting will culminate with talks aimed at the interplay between cilia, cytoskeleton and cancer and how these processes can be targeted therapeutically. (biochemistry.org)
- Cilia, Cytoskeleton and Cancer has been approved for the purposes of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) by the Society of Biology. (biochemistry.org)
- Approval signifies that the Society of Biology recognizes the Cilia, Cytoskeleton and Cancer event is of merit to the development needs of participants. (biochemistry.org)
- Defects in genes that are involved in cilia development or function can cause complicated syndromes, called ciliopathies, that involve multiple organs and tissues. (nih.gov)
- Researchers have identified several genes that are essential to form and maintain cilia. (nih.gov)
- A team of scientists at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have identified a network of genes that initiate and manage cilia formation. (ucsd.edu)
- professor of neurosciences and pediatrics at UC San Diego and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator, and Joon Kim, a UC San Diego postdoctoral fellow, utilized a high-throughput, cell-based screen to evaluate the impact of more than 8,000 genes and their relation to cilia function and development. (ucsd.edu)
- Mutations in genes that encode cilia can lead to disorders known as ciliopathies. (cshlpress.com)
- This alga allows researchers to manipulate genes and study the resulting effects on cilia in a way that would be impossible in animals such as mice. (medgadget.com)
- Delicate, hair-like filaments, not unlike the pile on velvet, called cilia , spring from the epithelial lining of the air tubes. (wordnik.com)
- Nodal cilia have been shown to be important for the determination of situs ( 3 ), and recently the primary cilium of renal epithelial cells has been demonstrated to be responsive to flow ( 4 ). (mcponline.org)
- Using the cilia-coated epithelial cells of Xenopus embryos, Werner et al. (rupress.org)
- Cilia is a slender organelle that extends above the free surface of an epithelial cell and generally undergoes cycles of movement. (blausen.com)
- Some of the signaling with these cilia occur through ligand binding such as Hedgehog signaling. (rug.nl)
- Hedgehog Meets the Cilia? (sciencemag.org)
- Control of Hedgehog Signalling by the Cilia-Regulated Proteasome. (nih.gov)
- Today, it is known that tiny cell protrusions, known as primary cilia, are necessary to mediate Hedgehog signalling in vertebrates. (nih.gov)
- One of these questions is: How do primary cilia control Hedgehog signalling in vertebrates? (nih.gov)
- This review article will cover this novel cilia-proteasome association in embryonic Hedgehog signalling and discuss the possibilities provided by future investigations on this topic. (nih.gov)
- Ciliopathies are a newly emerging group of genetic diseases caused by defects in the function or structure of cellular primary cilia. (ucsd.edu)
- There will be structured sessions describing fundamental cellular processes in cilia, cytoskeletal and tumour biology and how dysregulation can initiate disease. (biochemistry.org)
- The roles of cilia in coordinating cellular responses to environmental stimuli via cell signaling pathways (e.g. (cshlpress.com)
- With such a range of abilities, cilia serve as both motors and "cellular antennae," said Dr. William Snell, a professor of cell biology at UT Southwestern and senior author of new research on cilia published in the May 5 issue of Cell. (rxpgnews.com)
- The primary cilium is an organelle that can act as a master regulator of cellular signaling. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The discovery of Kurly's role in cilia movement and orientation stemmed from work in the Burdine lab on fetal organ development, specifically an investigation of mutations that alter the left-right asymmetric orientation of the heart. (princeton.edu)
- Mutations in the gene DNAI1, which render cilia immotile, account for about 10 percent of all human cases of PCD, while the loss of functional Spag6 and TEKT2A/B, both essential components of cilia, cause a PCD-like disease in mice. (phys.org)
- As the pivotal link between tumourigenesis and cilia function is emerging, this meeting will represent a timely opportunity to bring together researchers from the fields of cancer and cytoskeletal/cilia biology. (biochemistry.org)
- Through the combined study of model organisms, cell biology, cell signaling and medical genetics we have significantly increased our understanding of the structure and functions of the vertebrate cilium. (biologists.org)
- It has been known for some time that cilia are important for a number of jobs, from sensing the environment to facilitating fluid flow, to ensuring that the lungs excrete inhaled contaminants. (princeton.edu)
- Virtually every cell has a primary cilium that functions to senses fluid flow, transmits chemical signals to other cells and controls cell growth. (eurekalert.org)
- All the cilia beat in the same direction to generate directed, fluid flow. (phys.org)
- Analyzing skin explants taken during early embryonic development, Mitchell discovered that, early on, when ciliated cells begin to differentiate in the skin but have not yet generated a significant fluid flow, all cilia roughly point towards the back end of the frog larvae. (phys.org)
- Cilia-driven fluid flow in the zebrafish pronephros, brain and Kupffer's vesicle is required for normal organogenesis. (nature.com)
Roles of cilia1
- Defects in the cilium, and the structure from which it arises, the basal body, have been shown to cause a spectrum of diseases, ranging from developmental defects to obesity, diabetes, and cancer. (nih.gov)
- Genetic defects in cilia can cause people to develop debilitating kidney disease or to be born with learning disabilities, extra fingers or toes, or the inability to smell. (rxpgnews.com)
- Ciliates are microscopic organisms that possess motile cilia exclusively and use them for either locomotion or to simply move liquid over their surface. (rug.nl)
- The structure of respiratory tract cilia has been the subject of many previous microscopic studies. (mcponline.org)
- He and his team use the microscopic green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , which has two individual cilia. (medgadget.com)
- By studying microscopic hairs called cilia on algae, researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have found that an internal structure that helps build cilia is also responsible for a cell's response to external signals. (rxpgnews.com)
- The CC2D2A protein was thought to be a structural protein needed for cilia growth, but its precise functions have been unclear. (nih.gov)
- This gene appears to play a key role in building structural support for the development of the cilia. (nih.gov)
- Over the past decade, intensive research has focused on the cytoskeleton and primary cilium at a structural and functional level. (biochemistry.org)
- And although a lot is known about the structural details of cilia, the mechanism through which ciliated epithelia coordinate the direction of their strokes remained unknown. (phys.org)
- Liver cells from wild-type embryos (left) and embryos lacking Cc2d2a (right) show cilia in green (arrowheads point to examples). (nih.gov)
- Cilia were underdeveloped or absent in embryos without Cc2d2a. (nih.gov)
- In mammalian and fish embryos, a cilia-driven leftward flow of extracellular fluid is required for initiation of the Nodal cascade. (nih.gov)
- Here we show that, in zebrafish embryos, cilia-driven CSF flow transports adrenergic signals that induce urotensin neuropeptides in CSF-contacting neurons along the spinal cord. (nature.com)
- Recognizes that cilia and dynein arms play pivotal roles in developing mammalian embryos! (foyles.co.uk)
- Practical and cutting-edge, Cilia: Methods and Protocols is broad and covers motile, sensory, and primary cells. (springer.com)
- Researchers gained insights into a key protein involved in forming cilia-hair-like extensions found on cells throughout the body. (nih.gov)
- Do Plant Cells Have Cilia? (gardenguides.com)
- In animal cells, cilia perform a variety of functions. (gardenguides.com)
- Animal cells have cilia, but plant cells typically do not. (gardenguides.com)
- In general, however, plant cells do not have cilia. (gardenguides.com)
- On the top we see the cilia, labeled (H). They are attached to columnar cells, labeled (I). The cilia sweep the mucous produced in the goblet cells, labeled (J) as well as mucous coming from deeper glands within the lungs and the particulate matter trapped in the mucous. (whyquit.com)
- Not only is the smoker more prone to infection from the loss of the cleansing mechanism of the cilia, but these abnormal cells (O) are cancerous squamous cells. (whyquit.com)
- Primary cilia are small, hair-like appendages attached to the surface of human cells. (ucsd.edu)
- Motile cilia are also present in the oviduct, the epididymis, and the eppendymal cells of the brain. (mcponline.org)
- The researchers at Princeton University and Northwestern University found that the protein, which goes by the name C21orf59 or "Kurly," is needed for cilia to undulate to keep fluid moving over the surface of cells. (princeton.edu)
- In frogs, the cilia on skin cells help move fluid along the surface of the animal during its larval stage. (princeton.edu)
- Analysis showed that the cilia signaling process was similar to that found in human cells, such as those in the nose involved in the sense of smell and those in the developing nervous system that sculpt our brains. (medgadget.com)
- Immunogold labeling of Exoc5-myc (a component of the exocyst) in MDCK cells shows black dots along the primary cilium (arrowheads) and associated vesicles (arrows). (eurekalert.org)
- New work from researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), published online on Nov. 6 by the Journal of Biological Chemistry , shows that primary cilia generate approximately 60% of the small EVs produced by renal tubule cells and that manipulation of cilium length affects the production of EVs. (eurekalert.org)
- This is the first real demonstration in mammalian cells that ectosomes, EVs produced by primary cilia as opposed to exosomes, which are EVs that are similar in size but form in the multivesicular bodies of the cell, are so prominent. (eurekalert.org)
- The cells that lost EXOC5 had very short or absent cilia and also produced fewer EVs. (eurekalert.org)
- On the other hand, cells that made more EXOC5 had longer cilia and produced significantly more EVs. (eurekalert.org)
- Two ciliated cells showing cilia (green) and basal bodies (red). (phys.org)
- Each mature ciliated cell has up to 200 cilia, which have to co-ordinate their movements to orient their effective stroke in the same direction as their cellmates and all the cilia on neighboring cells. (phys.org)
- In collaboration with the Kintner lab, Jacobs helped develop an assay that allowed postdoctoral researcher and first author Brian Mitchell, Ph.D., to determine the polarity of cilia by scoring the orientation of hundreds of basal feet in Xenopus larvae, whose skin is covered with multi-ciliated cells. (phys.org)
- Although the cilia could move without IFT and bind to the molecules of the cilia of the opposite type, those cells were unable to respond to the signaling molecules. (rxpgnews.com)
- Notably, manipulating cilia length via Kif7 knockdown is sufficient to confer drug resistance in drug-sensitive cells. (nih.gov)
- A Cell Reports study from Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) researchers and colleagues identified cilia on tumor cells as a new, potentially universal target for sensitizing drug-resistant cells to kinase inhibitors. (biocentury.com)
- Many of these diseases, or ciliopathies, are manifested as genetic syndromes, such as Joubert syndrome, Bardet-Biedel (BBS), Meckel-Gruber (MKS), and Nephronophthisis (NPHP), illustrating the importance of understanding cilium structure and function and the mechanisms required for its assembly. (nih.gov)
- Recently, researchers like Nico Katsanis, Ph.D., associate professor at Johns Hopkins' McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, have found that cilia are important for many other biological processes, including three of our five senses: vision, hearing, and smell (ciliopathies are often characterized by loss or deficiency in these senses). (innovations-report.com)
- Postdoctoral Associates Barr Laboratory, Rutgers University We are looking for one or two postdocs to study neurogenetics or to model genetic diseases of cilia in C. elegans. (bio.net)
- Conversely, targeting of cilia length or integrity through genetic and pharmacological approaches overcomes kinase inhibitor resistance. (nih.gov)
- it functions to sort, modify and permit entry of only membrane and protein constituents destined for transport and incorporation into the developing cilium. (els.net)
- The protein is part of a complex structure called the basal body, from which cilia grow. (nih.gov)
- The scientists also identified protein groups that are key modulators between cilia and the endocytic recycling pathway. (ucsd.edu)
- Cilia with a mutant form of the Kurly protein are wild and disorganized. (princeton.edu)
- They also found that the protein is needed during development to properly orient the cilia so that they are facing the right direction to move the fluid. (princeton.edu)
- In the zebrafish kidney, the researchers found that the Kurly protein enabled cilia to orient themselves in a uniform direction, and most importantly, in the proper direction to facilitate the flow of fluid along the narrow channels in the kidney. (princeton.edu)
- The researchers also found that the mutation they discovered rendered the Kurly protein sensitive to temperature, and used this trait to find that the Kurly protein may be involved in initiating movement rather than keeping the cilia moving once they've started. (princeton.edu)
- Furthermore, the protein content of EVs is very different depending on the length of the cilia. (eurekalert.org)
- One of the key components of ciliogenesis - the process of generating a cilium - is the exocyst, an eight-protein complex that is highly conserved and was first discovered in yeast. (eurekalert.org)
- Although these models have provided a wealth of information, to understand the structure and regulation of human cilia it is clear that complementary studies of human material are required. (mcponline.org)
- The gene for Kurly has also been detected in relation to human cilia disorders, so the work may have an impact on understanding the mechanisms of human disease, Grimes added. (princeton.edu)
- To find out whether people with inherited conditions that affect cilia also had different sensation thresholds, the researchers recruited nine patients with BBS, an inherited disorder characterized by obesity, polydactyly and vision loss. (innovations-report.com)
- Uncovering this series of reactions will make it possible to test, for instance, drugs that can affect cilia, in the hope of finding substances that would also be effective in higher animals, Dr. Snell said. (medgadget.com)
- Norimasa Mitsuma, Ph.D., a postdoctoral student in Katsanis's lab, also demonstrated that the defective cilia weren't hindering brain function. (innovations-report.com)
- Goetz, S. C. & Anderson, K. V. The primary cilium: a signalling centre during vertebrate development. (nature.com)
- Here, we provide a snapshot of the structure, function and distribution of the vertebrate cilium and of the pathologies that are associated with its dysfunction. (biologists.org)
- Although the presence of cilia is restricted to specific cell types in invertebrates, their near ubiquitous localization on the apical surface of most vertebrate cell types suggests that this ancient organelle has evolved to facilitate a broad range of functions. (biologists.org)
- For one, the trachea is lined with millions of tiny hairs called cilia that trap any gunk you might have breathed in. (wordnik.com)
- The amount of water in the body generally decreases with age, which in turn decreases the action of tiny hairs, called cilia , in the nose that help wash it out. (wordnik.com)