One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS (ACE inhibitors) used for hypertension. It is a prodrug that is hydrolyzed after absorption to its main metabolite cilazaprilat.
**Pyridazine** is a heterocyclic organic compound, consisting of a six-membered ring containing two nitrogen atoms, which is a basic structure found in certain pharmaceuticals and natural compounds, though it does not have a specific medical definition itself as a component or condition.
A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
A form of cutaneous tuberculosis. It is seen predominantly in women and typically involves the NASAL MUCOSA; BUCCAL MUCOSA; and conjunctival mucosa.
A class Ia antiarrhythmic drug that is structurally-related to PROCAINE.
A chronic form of cutaneous lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, CUTANEOUS) in which the skin lesions mimic those of the systemic form but in which systemic signs are rare. It is characterized by the presence of discoid skin plaques showing varying degrees of edema, erythema, scaliness, follicular plugging, and skin atrophy. Lesions are surrounded by an elevated erythematous border. The condition typically involves the face and scalp, but widespread dissemination may occur.
A form of lupus erythematosus in which the skin may be the only organ involved or in which skin involvement precedes the spread into other body systems. It has been classified into three forms - acute (= LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC with skin lesions), subacute, and chronic (= LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, DISCOID).
Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.

Blocking angiotensin II ameliorates proteinuria and glomerular lesions in progressive mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis. (1/98)

BACKGROUND: The renin-angiotensin system is thought to be involved in the progression of glomerulonephritis (GN) into end-stage renal failure (ESRF) because of the observed renoprotective effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). However, ACEIs have pharmacological effects other than ACE inhibition that may help lower blood pressure and preserve glomerular structure. We previously reported a new animal model of progressive glomerulosclerosis induced by a single intravenous injection of an anti-Thy-1 monoclonal antibody, MoAb 1-22-3, in uninephrectomized rats. Using this new model of progressive GN, we examined the hypothesis that ACEIs prevent the progression to ESRF by modulating the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) on the production of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and extracellular matrix components. METHODS: We studied the effect of an ACEI (cilazapril) and an Ang II type 1 receptor antagonist (candesartan) on the clinical features and morphological lesions in the rat model previously reported. After 10 weeks of treatment with equihypotensive doses of cilazapril, cilazapril plus Hoe 140 (a bradykinin receptor B2 antagonist), candesartan, and hydralazine, we examined systolic blood pressure, urinary protein excretion, creatinine clearance, the glomerulosclerosis index, and the tubulointerstitial lesion index. We performed a semiquantitative evaluation of glomerular immunostaining for TGF-beta and collagen types I and III by immunofluorescence study and of these cortical mRNA levels by Northern blot analysis. RESULTS: Untreated rats developed massive proteinuria, renal dysfunction, and severe glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury, whereas uninephrectomized control rats did not. There was a significant increase in the levels of glomerular protein and cortical mRNA for TGF-beta and collagen types I and III in untreated rats. Cilazapril and candesartan prevented massive proteinuria, increased creatinine clearance, and ameliorated glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury. These drugs also reduced levels of glomerular protein and cortical mRNA for TGF-beta and collagen types I and III. Hoe 140 failed to blunt the renoprotective effect of cilazapril. Hydralazine did not exhibit a renoprotective effect. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that ACEIs prevent the progression to ESRF by modulating the effects of Ang II via Ang II type 1 receptor on the production of TGF-beta and collagen types I and III, as well as on intrarenal hemodynamics, but not by either increasing bradykinin activity or reducing blood pressure in this rat model of mesangial proliferative GN.  (+info)

Quality of life in chronic heart failure: cilazapril and captopril versus placebo. Cilazapril-Captopril Multicentre Group. (2/98)

OBJECTIVE: To measure quality of life (QOL) in patients with mild to moderate heart failure treated with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors cilazapril or captopril. DESIGN: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel groups trial. SUBJECTS: 367 patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) heart failure class II (62%), III (36%) or IV (1%). METHODS: Patients were randomised to receive cilazapril 1 mg daily (n = 191) or captopril 25 mg three times daily (n = 90) for 24 weeks, or placebo for 12 weeks followed by cilazapril 1 mg daily for a further 12 weeks (n = 86). If patients had not responded after four weeks cilazapril was increased to 2.5 mg daily and captopril to 50 mg three times daily. QOL was assessed at baseline, 12, and 24 weeks using the sickness impact profile (SIP), the profile of mood states (POMS), the Mahler index of dyspnoea-fatigue, and a health status index (HSI). RESULTS: The physical dimension of the SIP averaged 7 units at baseline and improved after 12 weeks by 2.24 units in the cilazapril group, 2.38 units in the captopril group, and 1.51 units in the placebo group. The difference between drug and placebo was therefore 0.73 units (95% CI -0.86 to 2.32) for cilazapril, and 0.87 units (95% CI -0.96 to 2.70) for captopril, with small non-significant effect sizes (a statistical method for estimating the importance of a treatment related change) of 0.12 and 0.14. Similar results were observed for the total POMS and HSI scores. Although QOL improved more on the ACE inhibitors than on placebo, the effect sizes were not significant (< or = 0.26). CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in QOL in mild to moderate heart failure were small when treated with cilazapril or captopril compared with placebo.  (+info)

Effects of candesartan and cilazapril on rats with myocardial infarction assessed by echocardiography. (3/98)

The purpose of this study was to compare the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist candesartan cilexitil (candesartan) and the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor cilazapril on cardiac function, assessed by Doppler echocardiography and cardiac gene expression associated with cardiac remodeling, in rats with myocardial infarction. Candesartan or cilazapril was administered after myocardial infarction. At 1 and 4 weeks after myocardial infarction, cardiac function and mRNA expression in noninfarcted myocardium were analyzed. Candesartan and cilazapril equally prevented increases in hypertrophy in noninfarcted myocardium, left ventricular dilatation, and ejection fraction at 4 weeks. The E-wave/A-wave velocity ratio and the rate of E-wave deceleration, measures of diastolic function, increased to 9.2+/-0.6 and 26.3+/-2. 6 m/s2 at 1 week after myocardial infarction. Candesartan and cilazapril, administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg per day, prevented increases in E-wave/A-wave velocity ratio and E-wave deceleration at 1 and 4 weeks. Candesartan and cilazapril significantly suppressed increased mRNA expression of beta-myosin heavy chain, alpha-skeletal actin, and atrial natriuretic peptide in noninfarcted ventricle at 1 and 4 weeks and expression of collagen I and III at 4 weeks to a similar extent. When given at a dose of 10 mg/kg per day, both candesartan and cilazapril prevented cardiac dysfunction and gene expression to the same extent as when given at 1 mg/kg per day. In conclusion, Doppler echocardiography showed that candesartan and cilazapril equally improved systolic and diastolic function and that ventricular remodeling accompanied modulation of cardiac gene expression.  (+info)

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and AT1 receptor blockade modify the pressure-natriuresis relationship by additive mechanisms in rats with human renin and angiotensinogen genes. (4/98)

The intrarenal factors responsible for hypertension in double-transgenic rats (dTGR) harboring human renin and human angiotensinogen genes are unclear. The pressure-natriuresis and -diuresis relationships in response to chronic angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and AT1 receptor blockade were evaluated. Renal renin-angiotensin and nitric oxide (NO) system gene expression was also investigated. Six-week-old dTGR were treated for 3 wk with submaximal doses of cilazapril (10 mg/kg, orally) or losartan (10 mg/kg, orally) or with the drug combination. In untreated dTGR, pressure-natriuresis relationships were maximally shifted rightward by approximately 70 to 80 mmHg, and both renal blood flow (RBF) and GFR were markedly decreased. Submaximal cilazapril and losartan dosages both decreased systolic BP by 30 mmHg and shifted the pressure-natriuresis curves leftward by 25 to 30 mmHg. Cilazapril increased RBF and GFR to values observed in normotensive control animals but did not significantly affect fractional sodium excretion (FENa) or fractional water excretion (FEH2O) curves. In contrast, losartan had no significant effect on RBF or GFR but shifted the FENa and FEH2O curves leftward. The cilazapril and losartan combination completely normalized BP and shifted the pressure-natriuresis curves leftward more than did either drug alone. When cilazapril and losartan were administered at higher doses (30 mg/kg, orally), the two drugs equally shifted the pressure-natriuresis curves leftward, by 50 mmHg. Both drugs increased RBF and GFR; however, only losartan shifted FENa and FEH2O curves leftward. Human and rat renin and angiotensinogen genes were downregulated in dTGR and were increased by losartan and cilazapril treatments, whereas no changes in the expression of rat ACE and AT1A receptor genes were observed. Endothelial NO synthase expression was increased by cilazapril but not by losartan. Neither inducible NO synthase nor neural NO synthase gene expression was affected by drug treatments. Therefore, submaximal ACE inhibition enhanced sodium excretion mainly by increasing RBF and GFR, whereas submaximal AT1 receptor blockade decreased tubular sodium and water reabsorption. The combination of the two drugs produced an additive effect. The ACE inhibitor effects may involve increased endothelial NO synthase expression, perhaps related to the inhibition of bradykinin degradation.  (+info)

Prevention of renal damage by angiotensin II blockade, accompanied by increased renal hepatocyte growth factor in experimental hypertensive rats. (5/98)

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a unique growth factor that has many protective functions against renal damage. Our previous study demonstrated that HGF stimulated the growth of endothelial and epithelial cells without the replication of mesangial cells. Moreover, angiotensin (Ang) II significantly decreased local HGF production in mesangial cells. Therefore, we examined the effects of Ang II blockade on renal HGF expression and renal damage in experimental hypertensive rats. An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (cilazapril; 10 mg. kg(-1). d(-1)), an Ang II type 1 receptor antagonist (E-4177; 30 mg. kg(-1). d(-1)), hydralazine (8 mg. kg(-1). d(-1)), and vehicle were administered to 16-week-old stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP) for 3 weeks. Renal damage was evaluated with a computer analysis system, and renal HGF mRNA was measured by Northern blot analysis. Blood pressure of SHR-SP was significantly decreased by all drug treatments compared with vehicle. Moreover, cilazapril, E-4177, and hydralazine significantly decreased the thickening and necrosis of blood vessels compared with vehicle. Similarly, degeneration and necrosis of glomeruli were also markedly improved by cilazapril and E-4177 (P<0.01). We next examined the effects of Ang II blockade on renal HGF expression in SHR-SP. Renal HGF mRNA was markedly decreased in SHR-SP compared with Wistar-Kyoto rats, although Ang II blockade by cilazapril and E-4177 but not hydralazine significantly increased renal HGF mRNA in SHR-SP. Ang II blockade significantly increased renal HGF (a protective growth factor for tubular epithelial cells); thus, we examined tubular histological appearance. Degeneration and necrosis of tubules were significantly improved by cilazapril and E-4177 treatment (P<0.01). In addition, cell infiltration into the glomeruli and hemorrhage were also significantly reduced in SHR-SP treated with cilazapril or E-4177. The present data demonstrated the prevention of renal damage by Ang II blockade in SHR-SP, which was accompanied by a significant increase in renal HGF mRNA. Given the strong mitogenic activity and antiapoptotic actions of HGF on endothelial and epithelial cells, we believe that increased local HGF production by the blockade of Ang II may improve renal function in hypertension.  (+info)

Zonal heterogeneity in action of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor on renal microcirculation: role of intrarenal bradykinin. (6/98)

The present study examined the role of intrarenal bradykinin in angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)-induced dilation of renal afferent (AFF) and efferent arterioles (EFF) in vivo, and further evaluated whether ACEI-stimulated bradykinin activity differed in superficial (SP) and juxtamedullary nephrons (JM). Arterioles of canine kidneys were visualized with an intravital charge-coupled device camera microscope. E4177 (an angiotensin receptor antagonist, 30 microg/kg) dilated AFF and EFF in SP (15 +/- 3% and 19 +/- 5%) and JM (15 +/- 3% and 18 +/- 4%). Subsequently, cilazaprilat (30 microg/kg) caused further dilation of both AFF (29 +/- 4%) and EFF (36 +/- 4%) in JM, whereas in SP it dilated only EFF (29 +/-3%). Similarly, in the presence of E4177, cilazaprilat caused further increases in sodium excretion. This cilazaprilat-induced vasodilation and natriuresis was abolished by a bradykinin antagonist (N(alpha)-adamantaneacetyl-D-Arg-[Hyp3,Thi5,8,D-Phe7]b radykinin). In parallel with these results, cilazaprilat increased renal bradykinin content, more greatly in the medulla than in the cortex (5.7 +/- 0.4 versus 4.6 +/- 0.1 ng/g). Similarly, cilazaprilat elicited greater bradykinin-dependent increases of nitrite/nitrate in the medulla. In conclusion, zonal heterogeneity in renal bradykinin/nitric oxide levels and segmental differences in reactivity to bradykinin contribute to the diverse responsiveness of renal AFF and EFF to ACEI. ACEI-enhanced kinin action would participate in the amelioration of glomerular hemodynamics and renal sodium excretion by ACEI.  (+info)

Normal blood pressure and plasma renin activity in mice lacking the renin-binding protein, a cellular renin inhibitor. (7/98)

In renal extracts, some renin is present as "high molecular weight renin," a heterodimeric complex of renin with the 46-kDa renin-binding protein (RnBP), also known as N-acyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase. Because RnBP specifically inhibits renin activity, the protein was proposed to play an important role in the regulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Using gene targeting, we have generated mice lacking RnBP and tested this hypothesis in vivo. In particular, we analyzed biosynthesis, secretion, and activity of renin and other components of the RAS in mice lacking RnBP. Despite extensive investigations, we were unable to detect any major effects of RnBP deficiency on the plasma and renal RAS or on blood pressure regulation. Contrary to previous hypotheses, we conclude that RnBP does not play a significant role in the regulation of renin activity in plasma or kidney. However, RnBP knockout mice excrete an abnormal pattern of carbohydrates in the urine, indicating a role of the protein in renal carbohydrate metabolism.  (+info)

Long-term effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in volume overloaded heart during growth: a controlled pilot study. (8/98)

OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether long-term therapy with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor reduces excessive increases in left ventricular (LV) mass as well as volume in growing children with aortic regurgitation or mitral regurgitation. BACKGROUND: The ACE inhibitor reduces volume overload and LV hypertrophy in adults with aortic or mitral regurgitation. METHODS: This study included 24 patients whose ages ranged from 0.3 to 16 years at entry to the study. On echocardiography, we measured LV size, systolic function and mass. After obtaining baseline data, patients were allocated into two groups. Twelve patients were given an ACE inhibitor (ACE inhibitor group), and 12 patients were not (control group). Echo parameters were again assessed after an average 3.4 years of follow-up. RESULTS: Left ventricular parameters at baseline in the two groups were similar. The Z value of LV end-diastolic dimensions decreased from +0.82 +/- 0.55 to +0.57 +/- 0.58 in the ACE inhibitor group, whereas it increased from +0.73 +/- 0.85 to +1.14 +/- 1.04 in the control group (mean change -0.25 +/- 0.33 for the ACE inhibitor group vs. +0.42 +/- 0.48 for the control group, p = 0.0007). The mass normalized to growth also reduced from 221 +/- 93% to 149 +/- 44% of normal in the ACE inhibitor group and increased from 167 +/- 46% to 204 +/-59% of normal in the control group (mean change -72 +/- 89% of normal for the ACE inhibitor group vs. +37 +/- 35% of normal for the control group, p = 0.0007). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term treatment with ACE inhibitors is effective in reducing not only LV volume overload but also LV hypertrophy in the hearts of growing children with LV volume overload.  (+info)

Cilazapril is an oral antihypertensive drug, which belongs to the class of medications known as ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors. It works by blocking the action of a chemical in the body called angiotensin II that causes blood vessels to narrow, thereby helping to relax and widen blood vessels, and lower blood pressure.

Cilazapril is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), and can also be used to improve survival after a heart attack and to manage chronic heart failure. It is available under the brand name Inhibace and in generic form as well. As with any medication, it should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider, who will consider the individual's medical history, current medications, and other factors before prescribing it.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Pyridazines" is not a medical term. It is a chemical term that refers to a class of heterocyclic organic compounds which contain a six-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms. These types of compounds are often used in the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, but "Pyridazines" itself is not a medical concept or diagnosis. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are a class of medications that are commonly used to treat various cardiovascular conditions, such as hypertension (high blood pressure), heart failure, and diabetic nephropathy (kidney damage in people with diabetes).

ACE inhibitors work by blocking the action of angiotensin-converting enzyme, an enzyme that converts the hormone angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a potent vasoconstrictor, meaning it narrows blood vessels and increases blood pressure. By inhibiting the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, ACE inhibitors cause blood vessels to relax and widen, which lowers blood pressure and reduces the workload on the heart.

Some examples of ACE inhibitors include captopril, enalapril, lisinopril, ramipril, and fosinopril. These medications are generally well-tolerated, but they can cause side effects such as cough, dizziness, headache, and elevated potassium levels in the blood. It is important for patients to follow their healthcare provider's instructions carefully when taking ACE inhibitors and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease that can affect almost any organ or system in the body. In SLE, the immune system produces an exaggerated response, leading to the production of autoantibodies that attack the body's own cells and tissues, causing inflammation and damage. The symptoms and severity of SLE can vary widely from person to person, but common features include fatigue, joint pain, skin rashes (particularly a "butterfly" rash across the nose and cheeks), fever, hair loss, and sensitivity to sunlight.

Systemic lupus erythematosus can also affect the kidneys, heart, lungs, brain, blood vessels, and other organs, leading to a wide range of symptoms such as kidney dysfunction, chest pain, shortness of breath, seizures, and anemia. The exact cause of SLE is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors. Treatment typically involves medications to suppress the immune system and manage symptoms, and may require long-term management by a team of healthcare professionals.

Lupus vulgaris is not related to systemic lupus erythematosus, which is an autoimmune disease. Instead, it's a specific form of cutaneous tuberculosis, a bacterial infection that affects the skin. It's caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, the same organism responsible for pulmonary tuberculosis and other forms of tuberculosis.

Lupus vulgaris typically occurs in people who have had prior tuberculous infection or those with a weakened immune system. The condition is characterized by slowly growing, reddish-brown or violaceous papules, nodules, and plaques that may ulcerate and form scars. Lesions often have an apple jelly appearance when a glass slide is pressed against them and examined under a dermatoscope.

Lupus vulgaris lesions usually occur on the face, especially the nose, cheeks, and ears, but they can appear on other parts of the body as well. The condition can lead to significant disfigurement if left untreated. Diagnosis typically involves skin biopsy and culture or PCR for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Treatment usually consists of a combination of multiple antituberculous drugs, such as isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide, along with local therapies like surgical excision or laser treatment.

Procainamide is an antiarrhythmic medication used to treat various types of irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias), such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and ventricular tachycardia. It works by prolonging the duration of the cardiac action potential and decreasing the slope of the phase 0 depolarization, which helps to stabilize the heart's electrical activity and restore a normal rhythm.

Procainamide is classified as a Class Ia antiarrhythmic drug, according to the Vaughan Williams classification system. It primarily affects the fast sodium channels in the heart muscle cells, reducing their availability during depolarization. This results in a decreased rate of impulse generation and conduction velocity, which can help to suppress abnormal rhythms.

The medication is available as an oral formulation (procainamide hydrochloride) and as an injectable solution for intravenous use. Common side effects of procainamide include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, and dizziness. Procainamide can also cause a lupus-like syndrome, characterized by joint pain, skin rashes, and other autoimmune symptoms, in some patients who take the medication for an extended period.

It is essential to monitor procainamide levels in the blood during treatment to ensure that the drug is within the therapeutic range and to minimize the risk of adverse effects. Healthcare providers should also regularly assess patients' renal function, as procainamide and its active metabolite, N-acetylprocainamide (NAPA), are primarily excreted by the kidneys.

Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease that primarily affects the skin. It is a subtype of Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (CLE). DLE is characterized by coin-shaped, disc-like rashes on the face, scalp, and other sun-exposed areas of the body. These lesions are often red, scaly, and may cause scarring and pigmentation changes. Unlike Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), DLE typically does not affect internal organs, but in some cases, it can progress to SLE. The exact cause of DLE is unknown, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors that trigger an abnormal immune response. Treatment for DLE may include topical creams, oral medications, and avoidance of sun exposure.

Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (CLE) is a skin manifestation of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease, but it can also occur without systemic involvement. It is characterized by various skin lesions that differ in appearance and distribution. The three main subtypes of CLE are:

1. Acute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (ACLE): This form is typically associated with SLE and is characterized by a classic malar or "butterfly" rash on the face, which is often photosensitive and can be accompanied by discoid lesions. The rash may also appear on other sun-exposed areas of the body.

2. Chronic Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (CCLE): This subtype includes Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE) and other less common forms such as lupus panniculitis and chilblain lupus. DLE is characterized by well-circumscribed, erythematous, scaly plaques that can cause scarring and pigmentation changes, often found on the face, scalp, and ears. Lupus panniculitis presents as deep subcutaneous nodules or indurated plaques, typically located on the trunk and proximal extremities. Chilblain lupus is characterized by violaceous, tender, and swollen lesions on acral areas, often triggered by cold exposure.

3. Subacute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (SCLE): This form of CLE presents as non-scarring, papulosquamous or annular polycyclic rashes, often located on the trunk and proximal extremities. The lesions are typically photosensitive and may appear in patients with SLE or those with isolated cutaneous disease.

The diagnosis of Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus is based on clinical presentation, histopathological findings, and sometimes direct immunofluorescence. Treatment depends on the severity and extent of skin involvement and may include topical therapies, antimalarials, corticosteroids, immunomodulatory agents, or photoprotection measures.

Lupus nephritis is a type of kidney inflammation (nephritis) that can occur in people with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease. In lupus nephritis, the immune system produces abnormal antibodies that attack the tissues of the kidneys, leading to inflammation and damage. The condition can cause a range of symptoms, including proteinuria (protein in the urine), hematuria (blood in the urine), hypertension (high blood pressure), and eventually kidney failure if left untreated. Lupus nephritis is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment may include medications to suppress the immune system and control inflammation, such as corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs.

Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are a type of autoantibody that target structures found in the nucleus of a cell. These antibodies are produced by the immune system and attack the body's own cells and tissues, leading to inflammation and damage. The presence of ANA is often used as a marker for certain autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjogren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, and polymyositis.

ANA can be detected through a blood test called the antinuclear antibody test. A positive result indicates the presence of ANA in the blood, but it does not necessarily mean that a person has an autoimmune disease. Further testing is usually needed to confirm a diagnosis and determine the specific type of autoantibodies present.

It's important to note that ANA can also be found in healthy individuals, particularly as they age. Therefore, the test results should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and symptoms.

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Drug-induced pemphigus is a well-established variant of pemphigus. Since the 1950s, evidence has grown that drugs may cause or exacerbate pemphigus.
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... and cilazapril-treated group (n=5, 1 mg/ml cilazapril, 10 ml/kg daily). The drugs were intragastrically administered once daily ...
Effects of cilazapril on Na+ retention and ANP resistance in IDDM hypertensives. 1-gen-1993 Nosadini, R.; Fioretto, P.; Carraro ... Effects of cilazapril on Na+ retention and ANP resistance in IDDM hypertensives.. ...
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Hyperbaric oxygen treatment augments the efficacy of cilazapril and simvastatin regimens in an experimental nephrotic syndrome ...
Cilazapril was considered the least difficult medicine to substitute in the past 10 years and omeprazole the most difficult. ... Cilazapril was the least difficult medicine to substitute, while omeprazole and salbutamol changes were the most difficult. ...
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