Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.
A common name for fish of the family Percidae, belonging to the suborder Percoidei, order PERCIFORMES.
The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.
Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.
Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nicaragua" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. Nicaragua is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordering Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. It has both Atlantic and Pacific coasts. The term you might be looking for is "Nicotine," which is a highly addictive stimulant found in tobacco leaves and is used as an ingredient in various products, including cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and some medications.
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
A freshwater fish used as an experimental organism and for food. This genus of the family Cichlidae (CICHLIDS) inhabits Central and South America (one species extends north into Texas), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, and coastal India.
Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.
Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.
Analytical technique for studying substances present at enzyme concentrations in single cells, in situ, by measuring light absorption. Light from a tungsten strip lamp or xenon arc dispersed by a grating monochromator illuminates the optical system of a microscope. The absorbance of light is measured (in nanometers) by comparing the difference between the image of the sample and a reference image.
Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
I'm afraid there seems to be a misunderstanding - "Africa" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, consisting of 54 countries with diverse cultures, peoples, languages, and landscapes. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help answer those for you!
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
Photosensitive proteins expressed in the CONE PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of cone photopigments. Cone opsins are classified by their peak absorption wavelengths.

Evaluating the use of ram and suction during prey capture by cichlid fishes. (1/403)

We characterized prey-capture strategies in seven species of cichlid fishes representing diverse trophic habits and anticipated feeding abilities. The species examined were Petenia splendida, Cichla ocellaris, Cichlasoma minckleyi, Astronotus ocellatus, Crenicichla geayi, Heros severus (formerly Cichlasoma severum) and Cyprichromis leptosoma. Three individuals per species were filmed with video at 500 Hz as they captured live adult Artemia sp. and Poecilia reticulata. For each feeding sequence, we measured the contribution of predator movement towards the prey (i.e. ram) and the movement of prey towards the predator due to suction. The use of ram differed significantly among prey types and predator species, varying as much as sixfold across predator species. High values of ram resulted in high attack velocities. Jaw protrusion contributed as much as 50% to overall ram values in some species, verifying its role in enhancing attack velocity. Suction distance did not vary significantly among species. Diversity in prey-capture behavior was therefore found to reflect differences among species in the strategy used to approach prey. Limited variation in the distance from which prey were sucked into the mouth is interpreted as the result of an expected exponential decline in water velocity with distance from the mouth of the suction-feeding predator. We propose that this relationship represents a major constraint on the distance over which suction feeding is effective for all aquatic-feeding predators.  (+info)

Spironucleus vortens, a possible cause of hole-in-the-head disease in cichlids. (2/403)

Hole-in-the-head disease is recorded in 11 discus Symphysodon discus Heckel, 1840 and 1 angelfish Pterophyllum scalare Lichtenstein, 1823 obtained from local aquarists within the Southwest of the UK. Spironucleus vortens Poynton et al. 1995, was isolated from the kidney, liver, spleen and head lesions of discus showing severe signs of the disease and from the intestines of all fish. The hexamitid was also recorded from the head lesions of the angelfish. The identity of these flagellates was confirmed as S. vortens on the basis of topographical features seen with the aid of SEM. A modified in vitro culture method was successfully developed for the detection, isolation and long-term maintenance of S. vortens. The flagellate was sub-cultured at 3 to 5 d intervals, new media being supplemented with fresh liver from Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757) free from infection. The results are discussed in relation to S. vortens as the causative agent for hole-in-the-head disease following systemic infection via the digestive tract.  (+info)

Phylogenetic relationships and ancient incomplete lineage sorting among cichlid fishes in Lake Tanganyika as revealed by analysis of the insertion of retroposons. (3/403)

Lake Tanganyika harbors numerous endemic species of extremely diverse cichlid fish that have been classified into 12 major taxonomic groups known as tribes. Analysis of short interspersed element (SINE) insertion data has been acknowledged to be a powerful tool for the elucidation of phylogenetic relationships, and we applied this method in an attempt to clarify such relationships among these cichlids. We studied insertion patterns of 38 SINEs in total, 24 of which supported the monophyly of three clades. The other 14 loci revealed extensive incongruence in terms of the patterns of SINE insertions. These incongruencies most likely stem from a period of adaptive radiation. One possible explanation for this phenomenon is the extensive incomplete lineage sorting of alleles for the presence or absence of a SINE during successive speciation events which took place about 5-10 MYA. The present study is the first to report the successful application of the SINE method in demonstrating the existence of such possible "ancient" incomplete lineage sorting. We discuss the possibility that it might potentially be very difficult to resolve the species phylogeny of a group that radiated explosively, even by resolving the genealogies of more than 10 nuclear loci, as a consequence of incomplete lineage sorting during speciation.  (+info)

History and timing of human impact on Lake Victoria, East Africa. (4/403)

Lake Victoria, the largest tropical lake in the world, suffers from severe eutrophication and the probable extinction of up to half of its 500+ species of endemic cichlid fishes. The continuing degradation of Lake Victoria's ecological functions has serious long-term consequences for the ecosystem services it provides, and may threaten social welfare in the countries bordering its shores. Evaluation of recent ecological changes in the context of aquatic food-web alterations, catchment disturbance and natural ecosystem variability has been hampered by the scarcity of historical monitoring data. Here, we present high-resolution palaeolimnological data, which show that increases in phytoplankton production developed from the 1930s onwards, which parallels human-population growth and agricultural activity in the Lake Victoria drainage basin. Dominance of bloom-forming cyanobacteria since the late 1980s coincided with a relative decline in diatom growth, which can be attributed to the seasonal depletion of dissolved silica resulting from 50 years of enhanced diatom growth and burial. Eutrophication-induced loss of deep-water oxygen started in the early 1960s, and may have contributed to the 1980s collapse of indigenous fish stocks by eliminating suitable habitat for certain deep-water cichlids. Conservation of Lake Victoria as a functioning ecosystem is contingent upon large-scale implementation of improved land-use practices.  (+info)

Iridovirus infections in farm-reared tropical ornamental fish. (5/403)

A systemic viral infection in both gourami Trichogaster spp. and swordtail Xiphophorus hellerii and an outbreak of lymphocystis in scalare Pterophyllum scalarae and gourami are reported to have occurred in fish reared in ornamental fish farms in Israel. The systemic infection developed in endothelial cells that became hypertrophic and their contents were modified. The presence of such cells in light-microscopically examined stained smears and sections provides an initial indication for this systemic viral infection. Infection in gourami caused hemorrhagic dropsy. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) images of iridovirus-like particles recovered from gouramies showed them to be 138 to 201 nm from vertex to vertex (v-v); those from swordtails were 170 to 188 nm v-v. TEM images of lymphocystis virions from scalare were 312 to 342 nm v-v and from gourami 292 to 341 nm v-v. Lymphocystis cells from the gourami were joined by a solid hyaline plate, which was lacking in the infection in scalare where the intercellular spaces between the lymphocystis cells consisted of loose connective tissue.  (+info)

Patterns in fish radiation are compatible with Pleistocene desiccation of Lake Victoria and 14,600 year history for its cichlid species flock. (6/403)

Geophysical data are currently being interpreted as evidence for a late Pleistocene desiccation of Lake Victoria and its refilling 14,600 years ago. This implies that between 500 and 1000 endemic cichlid fish species must have evolved in 14,600 years, the fastest large-scale species radiation known. A recent review concludes that biological evidence clearly rejects the postulated Pleistocene desiccation of the lake: a 14,600 year history would imply exceptionally high speciation rates across a range of unrelated fish taxa. To test this suggestion, I calculated speciation rates for all 41 phylogenetic lineages of fish in the lake. Except for one cichlid lineage, accepting a 14 600 year history does not require any speciation rates that fall outside the range observed in fishes in other young lakes around the world. The exceptional taxon is a lineage of haplochromine cichlids that is also known for its rapid speciation elsewhere. Moreover, since it is unknown how many founding species it has, it is not certain that its speciation rates are really outside the range observed in fishes in other young lakes. Fish speciation rates are generally faster in younger than in older lakes, and those in Lake Victoria, by far the largest of the young lakes of the world, are no exception. From the speciation rates and from biogeographical observations that Lake Victoria endemics, which lack close relatives within the lake basin, have such relatives in adjacent drainage systems that may have had Holocene connections to Lake Victoria, I conclude that the composition of the fish assemblage does not provide biological evidence against Pleistocene desiccation. It supports a hypothesis of recent colonization from outside the lake basin rather than survival of a diverse assemblage within the basin.  (+info)

What, if anything, is a Tilapia?-mitochondrial ND2 phylogeny of tilapiines and the evolution of parental care systems in the African cichlid fishes. (7/403)

We estimated a novel phylogeny of tilapiine cichlid fish (an assemblage endemic to Africa and the Near East) within the African cichlid fishes on the basis of complete mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) gene sequences. The ND2 (1,047 bp) gene was sequenced in 39 tilapiine cichlids (38 species and 1 subspecies) and in an additional 14 nontilapiine cichlid species in order to evaluate the traditional morphologically based hypothesis of the respective monophyly of the tilapiine and haplochromine cichlid fish assemblages. The analyses included many additional cichlid lineages, not only the so-called tilapiines, but also lineages from Lake Tanganyika, east Africa, the Neotropics and an out-group from Madagascar with a wide range of parental care and mating systems. Our results suggest, in contrast to the historical morphology-based hypotheses from Regan (1920, 1922 ), Trewavas (1983), and Stiassny (1991), that the tilapiines do not form a monophyletic group because there is strong evidence that the genus Tilapia is not monophyletic but divided into at least five distinct groups. In contrast to this finding, an allozyme analysis of Pouyaud and Agnese (1995), largely based on the same samples as used here, found a clustering of the Tilapia species into only two groups. This discrepancy is likely caused by the difference in resolution power of the two marker systems used. Our data suggest that only type species Tilapia sparrmanii Smith (1840) should retain the genus name TILAPIA: One particular group of tilapiines (composed of genera Sarotherodon, Oreochromis, Iranocichla, and Tristramella) is more closely related to an evolutionarily highly successful lineage, the haplochromine cichlids that compose the adaptive radiations of cichlid species flocks of east Africa. It appears that the highly adaptable biology of tilapiines is the ancestral state for all African cichlids and that the more stenotypic lifestyle of the haplochromine cichlids is derived from this condition. We reconstructed the evolution of the highly variable parental care systems on the basis of the most inclusive composite phylogeny to date of the African, Neotropical, and Madagascan cichlids with special emphasis on a group of tilapiines comprising the substrate-spawning genus Tilapia, and the mouthbrooding genera Sarotherodon and OREOCHROMIS: We demonstrate several independent origins of derived mouthbrooding behaviors in the family Cichlidae.  (+info)

Mosaic structure and retropositional dynamics during evolution of subfamilies of short interspersed elements in African cichlids. (8/403)

The African cichlid (AFC) family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) is found in the genomes of cichlid fish. The alignment of the sequences of 70 members of this family, isolated from such fish in Africa, revealed the presence of correlated changes in specific nucleotides (diagnostic nucleotides) that allowed us to categorize the various members into six subfamilies, which were designated Af1 through Af6. Dividing the SINE consensus sequence into a 5'-head and 3'-tail region, these subfamilies were defined by various combinations of four types of head region (A-D) and three types of tail region [X, Y, and (YX)], with each region of each type including unique diagnostic nucleotides. The observed structures of the subfamilies Af1 through Af6 were AX, AY, CY, A(YX), BY, and DX, respectively. The formation of such structures might have involved the shuffling of head or tail regions among preexisting and existing (or both) subfamilies of the AFC family (and, probably, even another SINE family or a pseudogene for a tRNA in the case of the Af6 subfamily) by recombination at the so-called core region during the course of evolution. By plotting the timing of the retroposition of individual members of each subfamily on a phylogenetic tree of AFCs, we found that the Af3 and Af6 subfamilies became active only recently in the evolutionary history of these fish. The integrity of the 3'-tails of SINEs, which are, apparently, recognized by reverse transcriptase, has been reported to be indispensable for retention of retropositional activity. Therefore, we postulate that recombination might have been involved in the apparent recent activation of the retroposition of the Af3 and Af6 subfamilies via introduction of active tails (types Y and X, respectively) into potential ancestral sequences that might have had inactive tails. If this hypothesis is correct, shuffling of tail regions among subfamilies by recombination at the core region might have played a role in the recycling of dead copies of AFC SINEs.  (+info)

Cichlids are a family (Cichlidae) of freshwater and brackish fish that include several well-known aquarium species. They are found primarily in tropical regions of Africa, Central America, and South America. Cichlids exhibit a wide range of body shapes, sizes, colors, and behaviors, making them popular among aquarists. Some cichlid species are also important sources of food in their native habitats. It is worth noting that cichlids are not typically classified as having medical relevance, but rather they are studied for their ecological, evolutionary, and ornamental significance.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "perches" is not a term commonly used in medical terminology. It is most often used to refer to a place where a bird or small animal perches, or in measurements of height (such as "perches above ground"). If you have any questions about a medical term or concept, I would be happy to help clarify!

"Eastern Africa" is a geographical term used to describe the eastern portion of the African continent. The United Nations defines Eastern Africa as consisting of the following countries: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Réunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

In a medical context, "Eastern Africa" may be used to describe the epidemiology, distribution, or prevalence of various diseases or health conditions in this region. However, it is important to note that there can be significant variation in health outcomes and healthcare systems within Eastern Africa due to factors such as socioeconomic status, infrastructure, and cultural practices. Therefore, any medical definition of "Eastern Africa" should be used with caution and may require further qualification or specification depending on the context.

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be some confusion in your question. "Lakes" is not a medical term that has a specific definition in the context of medicine or healthcare. It is a geographical term used to describe large bodies of water surrounded by land. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or healthcare, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

"Fish proteins" are not a recognized medical term or concept. However, fish is a source of protein that is often consumed in the human diet and has been studied in various medical and nutritional contexts. According to the USDA FoodData Central database, a 100-gram serving of cooked Atlantic salmon contains approximately 25 grams of protein.

Proteins from fish, like other animal proteins, are complete proteins, meaning they contain all nine essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. Fish proteins have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their role in muscle growth and repair, immune function, and cardiovascular health.

It's worth noting that some people may have allergies to fish or seafood, which can cause a range of symptoms from mild skin irritation to severe anaphylaxis. If you suspect you have a fish allergy, it's important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and management.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fresh Water" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe water that contains low concentrations of dissolved salts and other dissolved minerals. It is distinguished from saline water, which includes saltwater found in the ocean and brackish water found in estuaries. Fresh water is essential for many biological processes and is the primary source of water for human consumption, agriculture, and industrial use.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nicaragua" is not a medical term. It is the largest country in the Central American Isthmus, bordering Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. It has coastlines on both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean.

If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Genetic speciation is not a widely used term in the scientific literature, but it generally refers to the process by which new species arise due to genetic differences and reproductive isolation. This process can occur through various mechanisms such as mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, natural selection, or chromosomal changes that lead to the accumulation of genetic differences between populations. Over time, these genetic differences can result in the development of reproductive barriers that prevent interbreeding between the populations, leading to the formation of new species.

In other words, genetic speciation is a type of speciation that involves the evolution of genetic differences that ultimately lead to the formation of new species. It is an essential concept in the field of evolutionary biology and genetics, as it explains how biodiversity arises over time.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "territoriality" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a concept that is more commonly used in the fields of psychology, sociology, and animal behavior to refer to the tendency of an individual or group to defend a particular territory from intrusion by others.

In a medical context, the term "territory" may be used more broadly to refer to a specific area or region of the body that is associated with a particular medical condition or specialty. For example, a neurologist might refer to the "territory" of the brain that is affected by a stroke or other type of brain injury.

If you have any further questions about medical terminology or concepts, please don't hesitate to ask!

In medical terms, the jaw is referred to as the mandible (in humans and some other animals), which is the lower part of the face that holds the lower teeth in place. It's a large, horseshoe-shaped bone that forms the lower jaw and serves as a attachment point for several muscles that are involved in chewing and moving the lower jaw.

In addition to the mandible, the upper jaw is composed of two bones known as the maxillae, which fuse together at the midline of the face to form the upper jaw. The upper jaw holds the upper teeth in place and forms the roof of the mouth, as well as a portion of the eye sockets and nasal cavity.

Together, the mandible and maxillae allow for various functions such as speaking, eating, and breathing.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tilapia" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to various species of freshwater fish that belong to the cichlid family. They are often farmed and consumed as a food source due to their mild flavor and high protein content. If you have any questions about a medical condition or term, I'd be happy to help with those!

Opsins are a type of protein that are sensitive to light and play a crucial role in vision. They are found in the photoreceptor cells of the retina, which are the specialized cells in the eye that detect light. Opsins are activated by light, which triggers a series of chemical reactions that ultimately result in the transmission of a signal to the brain, allowing us to see.

There are several different types of opsins, including rhodopsin and the cone pigments, which are found in the rods and cones of the retina, respectively. Rhodopsin is responsible for dim-light vision, while the cone pigments are involved in color vision and bright-light vision.

Opsins belong to a larger family of proteins called G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are involved in many different physiological processes in the body. In addition to their role in vision, opsins have also been found to be involved in other light-dependent processes, such as the regulation of circadian rhythms and the entrainment of the biological clock.

Pigmentation, in a medical context, refers to the coloring of the skin, hair, or eyes due to the presence of pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. These cells produce a pigment called melanin, which determines the color of our skin, hair, and eyes.

There are two main types of melanin: eumelanin and pheomelanin. Eumelanin is responsible for brown or black coloration, while pheomelanin produces a red or yellow hue. The amount and type of melanin produced by melanocytes can vary from person to person, leading to differences in skin color and hair color.

Changes in pigmentation can occur due to various factors such as genetics, exposure to sunlight, hormonal changes, inflammation, or certain medical conditions. For example, hyperpigmentation refers to an excess production of melanin that results in darkened patches on the skin, while hypopigmentation is a condition where there is a decreased production of melanin leading to lighter or white patches on the skin.

Mating preference in animals refers to the selection of specific individuals as mates based on certain characteristics or traits. These preferences can be influenced by various factors such as genetic compatibility, physical attributes (e.g., size, color, health), behavioral traits (e.g., dominance, aggression), and environmental conditions.

Mating preferences play a crucial role in the process of sexual selection, which is one of the main mechanisms driving evolutionary change. They can lead to assortative mating, where similar individuals are more likely to mate with each other, or disassortative mating, where dissimilar individuals are more likely to mate.

Mating preferences can also contribute to reproductive isolation between different populations or species, ultimately leading to speciation. In some cases, these preferences may be hard-wired into an animal's behavior, while in others, they might be more flexible and influenced by learning and experience.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Planetary evolution is a field of study that focuses on the processes that have shaped the formation, development, and changes of planets and other celestial bodies over time. This encompasses various scientific disciplines, including astronomy, astrobiology, geology, and atmospheric science. The study of planetary evolution helps scientists understand how planets form, how they change over time, and the conditions that allow for the development of life.

The process of planetary evolution can be driven by a variety of factors, including:

1. Formation: Planets form from a protoplanetary disk, a rotating disk of gas and dust surrounding a young star. Over time, solid particles in the disk collide and stick together to form larger and larger bodies, eventually leading to the formation of planets.
2. Internal differentiation: As planets grow, their interiors differentiate into layers based on density, with heavier materials sinking towards the center and lighter materials rising towards the surface. This process can lead to the formation of a core, mantle, and crust.
3. Geological activity: Planetary evolution is also influenced by geological processes such as volcanism, tectonics, and erosion. These processes can shape the planet's surface, create mountain ranges, and carve out valleys and basins.
4. Atmospheric evolution: The evolution of a planet's atmosphere is closely tied to its geological activity and the presence of volatiles (gases that easily vaporize). Over time, the composition of a planet's atmosphere can change due to processes such as outgassing from the interior, chemical reactions, and interactions with the solar wind.
5. Climate evolution: The climate of a planet can also evolve over time due to changes in its orbit, axial tilt, and atmospheric composition. These factors can influence the amount of sunlight a planet receives and the greenhouse effect, which can lead to global warming or cooling.
6. Impact events: Collisions with other celestial bodies, such as asteroids and comets, can significantly impact a planet's evolution by causing large-scale changes to its surface and atmosphere.
7. Life: On planets where life emerges, biological processes can also play a role in shaping the planet's environment and influencing its evolution. For example, photosynthetic organisms can produce oxygen, which can alter the composition of a planet's atmosphere.

Understanding the various factors that contribute to a planet's evolution is crucial for understanding the formation and development of planetary systems and searching for potentially habitable exoplanets.

Microspectrophotometry (MSP) is a microanalytical technique that combines microspectroscopy and photometry to measure the absorption, reflection, or fluorescence spectra of extremely small samples, typically in the range of micrometers to sub-micrometers. This technique is often used in biomedical research and clinical settings for the analysis of cellular and subcellular structures, such as organelles, inclusion bodies, and single molecules.

MSP can provide detailed information about the chemical composition, molecular structure, and spatial distribution of biological samples, making it a valuable tool for studying various physiological and pathological processes, including gene expression, protein function, and cell-cell interactions. Additionally, MSP has been used in diagnostic applications to identify abnormalities in tissues and cells, such as cancerous or precancerous lesions, and to monitor the efficacy of therapeutic interventions.

The technique involves using a microscope equipped with a high-resolution objective lens and a spectrophotometer to measure the intensity of light transmitted through or reflected from a sample at different wavelengths. The resulting spectra can be used to identify specific chemical components or molecular structures based on their characteristic absorption, reflection, or fluorescence patterns.

MSP is a powerful tool for studying biological systems at the microscopic level and has contributed significantly to our understanding of cellular and molecular biology. However, it requires specialized equipment and expertise to perform and interpret the data, making it a relatively complex and sophisticated technique.

"Social dominance" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is a concept that is often used in the social sciences, including sociology, psychology, and anthropology. It refers to the degree of control, influence, or power that an individual or group has over others within a particular social context or hierarchy.

In some cases, social dominance may be associated with certain medical conditions or situations. For example, individuals with antisocial personality disorder or other psychiatric disorders may exhibit dominant behaviors as part of their symptoms. Similarly, social dominance can be a factor in the development and maintenance of certain types of relationships, such as those seen in abusive or coercive relationships.

However, it's important to note that social dominance is not a medical diagnosis or condition in and of itself. Rather, it is a social phenomenon that can intersect with various medical and psychological issues.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the DNA sequence or protein structure over time, driven by mechanisms such as mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection. It refers to the evolutionary study of changes in DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how these changes accumulate and lead to new species and diversity of life. Molecular evolution can be used to understand the history and relationships among different organisms, as well as the functional consequences of genetic changes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Malawi" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in southeastern Africa. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Africa" actually refers to a continent, not a medical condition or concept. Africa is the second-largest continent in the world, consisting of 54 countries and a wide range of diverse ethnic groups, cultures, languages, and landscapes. It is home to a vast array of wildlife, including many species that are not found anywhere else in the world. If you have any questions about Africa's geography, history, or culture, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

In the context of medical terminology, 'color' is not defined specifically with a unique meaning. Instead, it generally refers to the characteristic or appearance of something, particularly in relation to the color that a person may observe visually. For instance, doctors may describe the color of a patient's skin, eyes, hair, or bodily fluids to help diagnose medical conditions or monitor their progression.

For example, jaundice is a yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes that can indicate liver problems, while cyanosis refers to a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to insufficient oxygen in the blood. Similarly, doctors may describe the color of stool or urine to help diagnose digestive or kidney issues.

Therefore, 'color' is not a medical term with a specific definition but rather a general term used to describe various visual characteristics of the body and bodily fluids that can provide important diagnostic clues for healthcare professionals.

Cone opsins are a type of photopigment protein found in the cone cells of the retina, which are responsible for color vision. There are three types of cone opsins in humans, each sensitive to different wavelengths of light: short-wavelength (S) sensitive cone opsin (also known as blue cone opsin), medium-wavelength (M) sensitive cone opsin (also known as green cone opsin), and long-wavelength (L) sensitive cone opsin (also known as red cone opsin).

These cone opsins are activated by light, which triggers a chemical reaction that sends signals to the brain and enables us to perceive color. Differences in the genes that code for these cone opsins can result in variations in color perception and can contribute to individual differences in color vision. Certain genetic mutations can also lead to various forms of color blindness, including red-green color blindness and blue-yellow color blindness.

"Cichlids - be true to your school LP". "Hamhead's Cellar: My life in the record business 1979-2002 part 2 Record Haven stories ... Trying to cash in on the current trend in punk rock, disco label TK records signed The Cichlids, but sadly enough, internal ... Formed in early 1979, The Cichlids were composed of Debbie DeNeese on vocals and guitar, Bobby Tak on drums and vocals, Allan ... fans of female-fronted punk will not be disappointed!" "Blast From the Past: The Cichlids - Be True To Your School - Miami ...
Of the African cichlids, the West African or Lake Tanganyika cichlids are the most basal. Cichlids' common ancestor is believed ... Many cichlids introduced into waters outside of their natural range have become nuisances. All cichlids practice some form of ... Most adult male cichlids, specifically in the cichlid tribe Haplochromini, exhibit a unique pattern of oval-shaped color dots ... Cichlids /ˈsɪklɪdz/ are fish from the family Cichlidae in the order Cichliformes. Traditionally Cichlids were classed in a ...
Jack Dempsey cichlids are a medium-sized fish which can be distinguished from other cichlids by the presence of two grey-black ... There are no other known naturalised populations of Jack Dempsey cichlids in Australia. Because Jack Dempsey cichlids are ... Jack Dempsey cichlids are one of about 30 aquarium fish species that have become established in Australian waterways, and have ... Follow up monitoring by the NSW DPI has found Jack Dempsey cichlids remain in the pool. It is possible that some fish survived ...
The turquoise cichlid (Kronoheros umbriferus), also known as the umbee cichlid, is a species of cichlid fish found in ... Rapps, J. (10 June 2000). "Husbandry Of Caquetaia umbrifera, The Unsung King Of New World Cichlids". The Cichlid Room Companion ... and in the Americas only certain peacock bass and the wolf cichlid may reach a greater size. Females of the turquoise cichlid ... This cichlid was first scientifically described in 1913 based on specimens from the Cupe River, which is a part of the Tuira ...
... butterfly cichlid, Ramirez's dwarf cichlid, dwarf butterfly cichlid and Ramirezi. The species is a member of the family ... The ram cichlid is popular in the tropical freshwater community aquarium. While some larger cichlids are not well suited for a ... Linke H, Staeck L (1994) American cichlids I: Dwarf Cichlids. A handbook for their identification, care and breeding. Tetra ... Parental ram cichlids have been observed to fan water over their eggs, which hatch in 40 hours at 29 °C (84 °F). The larvae are ...
The pearl cichlid (Geophagus brasiliensis) is a species of fish in the cichlid family. It is native to southeastern Brazil ( ... The pearl cichlid has one dark spot which may visible on its body, located towards its tail; it also may display several black ...
The threadfin cichlid (Petrochromis trewavasae) is a species of cichlid endemic to Lake Tanganyika found in areas with rocky ... The specific name of this cichlid honours the British ichthyologist Ethelwynn Trewavas (1900-1993). List of freshwater aquarium ...
Though dwarf cichlids are by definition small-sized cichlids, there is no accepted maximum length of a dwarf-sized cichlid. ... "dwarf cichlid group" a variety of small-sized cichlids from the alkaline African rift lakes. Dwarf cichlids prefer aquaria with ... List of freshwater aquarium fish species Linke H, Staeck L (1994) American cichlids I: Dwarf Cichlids. A handbook for their ... Dwarf cichlid is a term used by fishkeeping hobbyists to describe an arbitrary assemblage of small-sized fish from the family ...
... a South American cichlid Hypsophrys nicaraguensis, a Central American cichlid Blood parrot cichlid, a hybrid cichlid created in ... Asia Parrotfish, a group of marine species This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Parrot cichlid. If ... Parrot cichlid may refer to: Hoplarchus psittacus, ...
The convict cichlids are more aggressive at 30 °C as opposed to 26 °C, which may be explained by the fact that convict cichlids ... Conkel, D. Cichlids of North and Central America. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., USA. 1993. Loiselle, P. V. (1995). The Cichlid ... Azas, J. M. A. (2002). Cryptoheros, The Small Central American Cichlids The Cichlid Room Companion Ed. J. M. A. Azas. McMahan, ... Ideal tank mates for convict cichlids consists of robust similar sized fish. Such fish include T-Bar cichlids, Honduran red ...
The Texas cichlid (Herichthys cyanoguttatus), also known as the Rio Grande cichlid, is a freshwater fish of the cichlid family ... This cichlid is recognized by its cream and turquoise spots. Adult males also develop a nuchal hump on their head. This cichlid ... The "red Texas cichlid" is not a genuine Texas cichlid but rather a common cross-genus hybrid of Herichthys and Amphilophus ... The Texas cichlid was originally part of the genus Cichlasoma until that group was restricted to South American cichlids. The ...
The Montecristo cichlid (Oscura heterospila) is a species of freshwater fish from the Atlantic slope of southern Mexico and ... This cichlid occurs in lagoons, creeks and rivers with slight to moderate current in the Grijalva-Usumacinta, Candelaria, ... Říčan, O.; Piálek, L.; Dragová, K. & Novák, J. (2016). "Diversity and evolution of the Middle American cichlid fishes ( ... The Montecristo cichlid reaches up to 24 cm (9.4 in) in standard length. Lyons, T.J. & Vega-Cendejas, M. (2019). "Oscura ...
... (Nosferatu bartoni) is a species of cichlid freshwater fish endemic to the Laguna Media Luna and headwaters of ... Barton's cichlid is endangered due to habitat loss, pollution and introduced species. The common and specific names of the ... Cichlid fish of Central America, Freshwater fish of Mexico, Endemic fish of Mexico, Pánuco River, Natural history of San Luis ... Barton's cichlid honours the author, Tarleton Hoffman Bean's brother, Barton Appler Bean (1860-1947), who was assistant curator ...
The emerald cichlid (Hypselecara temporalis) is a small species of fish in the family Cichlidae. It is native to South America ...
The Minckley's cichlid (Herichthys minckleyi) is a species of fish in the family Cichlidae. It is endemic to Cuatro Ciénegas in ... Cichlid fish of North America, Endangered fish, Endangered biota of Mexico, Fish described in 1983, Taxonomy articles created ...
The lionhead cichlid (Steatocranus casuarius), also known as African blockhead, buffalohead, humphead cichlid, lionhead or ... Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Steatocranus casuarius" in FishBase. April 2013 version. v t e ... lumphead is a species of rheophilic cichlid native to Pool Malebo and the Congo River. It uses caves for spawning. This species ...
... on FishBase Staeck, W.; H. Linke (1995). American Cichlids II: Large Cichlids (revised edition in English). ... The firemouth cichlid (Thorichthys meeki) is a species of cichlid fish native to Central America. They occur in rivers of the ... Like most cichlids, brood care is highly developed; this species is an egg-layer. Firemouth cichlids form monogamous pairs and ... Firemouth cichlids are omnivorous and opportunistic in their feeding strategies. Their ability to protrude their jaw 6% ...
... may refer to: Cyrtocara moorii, a fish Steatocranus casuarius, a fish This disambiguation page lists articles ... associated with the title Lumphead cichlid. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly ...
The goldeneye cichlid (Nannacara anomala) is a species of cichlid found in fresh water from the Aruka River in Guyana, to the ... The goldeneye cichlid lives on a diet of crustaceans, insects, and other small animals. In cichlids, males are larger and more ... Cichlids may use coloration as a means of transmitting information to opponents in order to signal cooperative behaviors. The ... It is possible to see changes in the way competing cichlids communicate with one another when they are in the presence of a ...
The giant cichlid (Boulengerochromis microlepis), also known as the emperor cichlid, is a species of fish in the family ... The giant cichlid is endemic to Lake Tanganyika, where it occurs in portions of the lake controlled by Burundi, the Democratic ... Meyer, Matchiner, Salburger, Britta, Michael, Walter (2015). "A tribal level phylogeny of Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes based ... The 10 biggest cichlids. Practical Fishkeeping. Retrieved 17 March 2017. Reis, P. (2015), Aspects of life history of Cichla ...
The fourspine cichlid (Neolamprologus tetracanthus) is a species of cichlid endemic to Lake Tanganyika where it lives in areas ...
Hemichromis is a genus of fishes from the cichlid family, known in the aquarium trade as jewel cichlids. Jewel cichlids are ... Like most cichlids, jewel cichlids have highly developed brood care. Hemichromis species typically form monogamous breeding ... Turkana jewel cichlid) Hemichromis fasciatus W. K. H. Peters, 1857 (Banded jewelfish, five-spot cichlid) Hemichromis frempongi ... Jewel cichlids are omnivorous and will eat both live foods and fish flakes. Here are some general guidelines for setting up a ...
The spangled cichlid (Limnochromis auritus) is a species of cichlid endemic to Lake Tanganyika where it is found in deep waters ...
The saddle cichlid (Aequidens tetramerus) is a species of cichlid from the tribe Cichlasomatini, part of the subfamily ... The maximum recorded length of the saddle cichlid is 162 millimetres (6.4 in). The saddle cichlid is the most widely ... "Saddle Cichlid Aequidens Tetramerus". The Tropical Fish Site. Retrieved 7 November 2018. "AEQUIDENS TETRAMERUS, SADDLE CICHLID ... The saddle cichlid is easy to obtain and relatively easy to keep and breed as an aquarium fish, although the males can be ...
The Salvin's cichlid (Trichromis salvini), also known as the yellow-belly cichlid or tricolored cichlid, is a species of the ... The Salvin's cichlid is oblong in shape and has a rather pointed mouth compared to other Central American cichlids. The body is ... The relationship of Salvin's cichlid to other Central American cichlid had long been debated. Genetic research by Říčan et al. ... Salvin's cichlid is a very hardy fish, preferring temperatures between 22-27 °C (72-81 °F). They prefer a higher pH of around ...
Like other cichlids, tilapiines exhibit complex reproductive behaviours and guard their eggs and fry. Broadly speaking, the ... The Tilapiini (occasionally Tilapini) are a tribe within the family Cichlidae commonly known as tilapiine cichlids. Formerly ... African cichlids). A small sample size-one to a mere handful of specimens per taxon-as is often used in molecular studies ... Mitochondrial ND2 Phylogeny of Tilapiines and the Evolution of Parental Care Systems in the African Cichlid Fishes. Molecular ...
There is no evidence that rainbow cichlids exhibit sexual dimorphism. This cichlid is native to both the Atlantic and Pacific ... also known as the rainbow cichlid is a Central American freshwater fish of the cichlid family. It is found on the Atlantic ... The rainbow cichlid prefers a pH range of 7.0-8.0, water hardness of 9-20 dGH and a temperature range of 21-36 °C. The rainbow ... The rainbow cichlid can reach 12-15 cm (4.7" - 6") in length, but most adults are around 7-8 cm. The fish is generally yellow, ...
Heros severus (previously known as Cichlasoma severum), is a species of tropical freshwater cichlid native to the upper Orinoco ... Leibel, W. (2016). The mouthbrooding Severum has a name! (And it's not Heros severus). Cichlid News Magazine 25(1): 23-26. " ...
The keyhole cichlid (Cleithracara maronii) is a cichlid fish endemic to tropical South America, occurring in the lower Orinoco ... 1994) The Cichlid Aquarium, Voyageur Press, ISBN 1-56465-146-0 Riehl, Rüdiger. Editor.; Baensch, HA (1996). Aquarium Atlas (5th ... This gives rise to the common name, keyhole cichlid, from which the genus name Cleithracara (meaning "lock acara") is derived. ... There has been a sighting of a keyhole cichlid laying 1000 eggs[citation needed]. The species feeds on crustaceans, insects and ...
The bluemouth cichlid (Wajpamheros nourissati) is a species of cichlid fish that is endemic to the Usumacinta River basin in ... The specific name honours the French cichlid specialist Jean Claude Nourissat (1942-2003), who collected type of this species. ... Říčan, O., Piálek, L., Dragová, K. & Novák, J. (2016): Diversity and evolution of the Middle American cichlid fishes (Teleostei ...
"Cichlids - be true to your school LP". "Hamheads Cellar: My life in the record business 1979-2002 part 2 Record Haven stories ... Trying to cash in on the current trend in punk rock, disco label TK records signed The Cichlids, but sadly enough, internal ... Formed in early 1979, The Cichlids were composed of Debbie DeNeese on vocals and guitar, Bobby Tak on drums and vocals, Allan ... fans of female-fronted punk will not be disappointed!" "Blast From the Past: The Cichlids - Be True To Your School - Miami ...
The turquoise cichlid (Kronoheros umbriferus), also known as the umbee cichlid, is a species of cichlid fish found in ... Rapps, J. (10 June 2000). "Husbandry Of Caquetaia umbrifera, The Unsung King Of New World Cichlids". The Cichlid Room Companion ... and in the Americas only certain peacock bass and the wolf cichlid may reach a greater size. Females of the turquoise cichlid ... This cichlid was first scientifically described in 1913 based on specimens from the Cupe River, which is a part of the Tuira ...
An article about Mbuna cichlids, their care and breeding. ... African cichlids or Assorted African cichlids. Most of the ... Central American Cichlids. Cichlids. Clownfish. Corals Corydoras Catfish Discus Fish Dwarf Cichlids Fish Diseases. Frogs and ... Lake Victoria Cichlids. Livebearers. Malawi Cichlids. Marine Aquariums. Marine Aquarium Fish. Other Fish. Pleco. Predatory Fish ... African Cichlids Algae Control. Aquarium Decoration Aquarium Resources. Aquatic Plants. Barb Fish Betta Fish. Breeding Fish. ...
Popular Tanganyika cichlids include Tropheus Cichlids, Frontosa, Goby Cichlids, Sardine Cichlids, shell-dwellers, featherfins, ... To learn more about all types of African Cichlids, see:. African Cichlids - Fish Information and Cichlid Care for African ... Goby Cichlids. The Goby Cichlids from Lake Tanganyika are also an intriguing and attractive group of fish. They are unique both ... Cichlid Types. The extreme diversity of the cichlids from Lake Tanganyika exceeds the limits ordinarily found in a family of ...
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Cichlid Identification, Cichlid Behavior, Cichlid Compatibility, Cichlid Selection, Cichlid Feeding, Cichlid Disease, Cichlid ... South American cichlids can get big although most are less aggressive than rift lake cichlids. The African cichlids can be ... Go over to scroll down to the Google search engine and type in cichlid and find your cichlid in the cichlid ... African Cichlids, Angelfishes, Discus, Chromides, Neotropical Cichlids, Oscars, Firemouths, Texas Cichlids, Flowerhorns, ...
If you love cichlids, make a date in your diary for Sunday, October 22, when the British Cichlid Association is holding a very ... Great day out for cichlid fans!. e65c456a-ab1b-40f0-b960-a25cd137a5ab Editors Picks. Features Post. The Best Places to Buy ...
Aquarium Water Buffer - Fritz Rift Lake Cichlid Probiotic Salt 3lb. $32.88. Read more ...
sub adult/ adult peacock cichlids. Description: We have a number of peacock cichlids for sale Electric blues O.b German reds ... Tropical Fish Aquariums & Equipment Marine Fish & Inverts Malawi Tanganyikan Discus Cichlids. Goldfish, Koi & Ponds By County ...
Send your cichlid-related news/events to the AN Editor at [email protected] and we will be happy to spread the word for you. ... Visit for more information.. Guess what? If you volunteer your time and effort to the ACA, you get to ... ACA members get access to "The Cichlid Room Companion" as part of their membership. ... The Cichlid Room Companion. Local Show Sanctioning. Speakers program. Guy Jordan Research Fund. ...
Greater Chicago Cichlid Associations a group of Chicago area cichlid hobbyists. Monthly meetings the second Sunday of each ... Our award-winning website which includes hundreds of articles, a cichlid classifieds allow you to find local fish for sale and ... Our award-winning website which includes hundreds of articles, a cichlid classifieds allow you to find local fish for sale and ... Our award-winning website which includes hundreds of articles, a cichlid classifieds allow you to find local fish for sale and ...
All Rights Reserved 2024, Ohio Cichlid Association - Admin Login , Website Development by Alt Media Studios ...
Buy Cichlid Gold Pellets - Mini - 8.8 oz. at the lowest prices every day at That Fish Place - That Pet Place. Call 1-888-THAT- ... tank with African Cichlids. This food is vantastic. I feed the bigger ones whole. When I break in 1/2 the pellets fall to ... Hikari Cichlid Gold contains special added ingredients to aid in the development of brilliant, natural coloration. High in ... An excellent diet for Cichlids and larger tropical fish, this floating pellet will not cloud your water when fed as directed. ...
Jonathan S. Ready, Sven O. Kullander, Stierhof T (2004). Apistogramma eremnopyge, a new species of cichlid fish (Teleostei: ... Jonathan S. Ready, Sven O. Kullander (2004): Apistogramma eremnopyge, a new species of cichlid fish (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from ... Apistogramma eremnopyge, a new species of cichlid fish (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Peru. Dataset homepage ... a new species of cichlid fish (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Peru. Zootaxa 564: 1-10, URL: ...
Cichliformes (Cichlids, convict blennies) > Cichlidae (Cichlids) > Cichlinae. Etymology: More on authors: Vaillant & Pellegrin ...
Data from: Incipient speciation driven by hypertrophied lips in Midas cichlids fish?. Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo, University ... crater lake cichlids). In this study, we disentangle the role of hypertrophied lips in the repeated adaptive radiations of ... Nicaraguan crater lake cichlid fish. We assessed the role of disruptive selection and assortative mating during the early ... 2017). Data from: Incipient speciation driven by hypertrophied lips in Midas cichlids fish? [Dataset]. Dryad. ...
Home > All Categories > Tanganyika Cichlids. Show: All , New , Ending Today , Ending Soon , Hot , Buy It Now , Thumbnails , ... Auctions for Tanganyika Cichlids Category - Sat Apr 13 20:25:21 2024. ...
My 55g Cichlid Tank - Fish Kept - Cichlids , Ropefish , Peacock Eels, ghost knife fish , tiger oscar , angel fish , mollies , ... Fish Kept: Cichlids , Ropefish , Peacock Eels, ghost knife fish , tiger oscar , angel fish , mollies , clown loaches , upside ... 55 gallons freshwater fish tank (mostly fish and non-living decorations) - My 10g With Baby Bumblebee Cichlids ...
Dno plánujem 4-6 cm koralový piesok, veľa ulít a obyvateľmi bude primeraný počet shell dwelling cichlids obávam sa že max. ... Re: 180 pre shell dwelling cichlids. od majtan.miso » 24 Dec 2016 01:32 am ... Re: 180 pre shell dwelling cichlids. od loksik.lubos » 15 Feb 2021 13:37 pm ... Re: 180 pre shell dwelling cichlids. od noiz » 23 Dec 2016 16:29 pm ...
As a tank mate for Discus and Wild Discus, the Festivum Flag Cichlid is one of the most active and amazing cichlids. They will ... The Festivum Flag Cichlid is uniquely striped and wonderfully active. ... As a tank mate for Discus and Wild Discus, the Festivum Flag Cichlid is one of the most active and amazing cichlids. They will ... The Festivum Flag Cichlid is uniquely striped and wonderfully active. ...
... calcium and prolactin on growth and differentiation of the epidermal cells of the cichlid teleost Sarother ... Van Eys, G.J. 1980: Structural changes in the pars intermedia of the cichlid teleost Sarotherodon mossambicus as a result of ... Van Eys, G.J.J.M. 1980: Structural changes in the pars intermedia of the cichlid teleost sarotherodon mossambicus as a result ... 1980: Structural changes in the pars intermedia of the cichlid teleost Sarotherodon mossambicus as a result of background ...
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The Rio Grande cichlid is a member of the cichlid and tilapia family. It is deep-bodied and compressed in shape. The head, body ... The Rio Grande cichlid can be found in creeks, springs, drainage ditches, canals and lakes. This species is usually found near ... This Rio Grande cichlid was collected in Pinellas County, Florida in 1995. It is now part of the Florida Museum ichthyology ...
Bruintjes R, Bonfils D, Heg D, Taborsky M. Paternity of subordinates raises cooperative effort in cichlids. PLoS ONE. 2011 Oct ... Paternity of subordinates raises cooperative effort in cichlids. / Bruintjes, Rick; Bonfils, Danielle; Heg, Dik et al. In: PLoS ... Bruintjes, R, Bonfils, D, Heg, D & Taborsky, M 2011, Paternity of subordinates raises cooperative effort in cichlids, PLoS ... Bruintjes, R., Bonfils, D., Heg, D., & Taborsky, M. (2011). Paternity of subordinates raises cooperative effort in cichlids. ...
Cichlid fish exhibit a high frequency of variation across species. This study focused on a particular asymmetry in the jaws of ... Cichlid fish exhibit a high frequency of variation across species. This study focused on a particular asymmetry in the jaws of ... Williams, Bianca, "Asymmetric Jaw Morphology in an Herbivorous Cichlid from Lake Malawi" (2008). Honors Capstone Projects - All ...
We have a wide variety of colorful Cichlids. Electric Blue Hap Ahli. Electric Blue Hap Ahli. Electric Blue Hap Ahli. ... Mbuna is the common name for a large group of African cichlids. ...
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  • When most people think of African cichlids they are thinking of mbunas. (
  • African cichlids from Lake Tanganyika sport a high variance in body shape and fascinating behaviors. (
  • But my general advice with identifying Mbuna is this: if your Mbuna was wild caught, from a dedicated breeder, or an expensive fish from a store specialising in African cichlids, then it will likely be the species it was sold as. (
  • The quality of Mbuna at the low-end of the market is absolutely rotten, and the majority (probably vast majority) of hobbyists make no attempt whatsoever to prevent hybridisation in their tanks, so the fish they bring in to pet stores as 'mixed African cichlids' are almost always Pseudotropheus hybrids of one sort or another. (
  • tank with African Cichlids. (
  • TDO Chroma Boost™ ( SM , MD , LG ) is one of the best choices for african cichlids. (
  • Another great choice for feeding african cichlids is Mysis-Feast® , a concentrate of PE Mysis shrimp that are high in omega fatty acids. (
  • Below, find all our recommendations for african cichlids food. (
  • Reef Nutrition has the best food for African cichlids for superior health and vibrant color including TDO Chroma Boost™ (multiple sizes of nutritionally dense pellets, top-dressed with Haematococcus pluvialis), and Mysis-Feast® (concentrate of PE Mysis shrimp high in omega fatty acids). (
  • In fact, the extreme diversity of these cichlids greatly exceeds what is normally found in other families of fishes. (
  • The extreme diversity of the cichlids from Lake Tanganyika exceeds the limits ordinarily found in a family of fishes. (
  • Dominant status gives priority for reproduction in male cichlid fishes. (
  • However, we have not found any information regarding what the word cichlid (or its Latin family name Cichlidae) stand for. (
  • Apistogramma eremnopyge, a new species of cichlid fish (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Peru. (
  • This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Jonathan S. Ready, Sven O. Kullander (2004): Apistogramma eremnopyge, a new species of cichlid fish (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Peru. (
  • Jonathan S. Ready, Sven O. Kullander (2004): Apistogramma eremnopyge, a new species of cichlid fish (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Peru. (
  • The turquoise cichlid (Kronoheros umbriferus), also known as the umbee cichlid, is a species of cichlid fish found in freshwater habitats of eastern Panama and central and western Colombia. (
  • While Lake Malawi is renown for having some of the most colorful cichlids in the world, Lake Tanganyika has a much greater diversity of cichlid species. (
  • The Frontosa C. frontosa is still another very popular cichlid species. (
  • 250 different species of cichlids from Lake Tanganyika, and over 150 species of other fish. (
  • No. Cichlids tend to hybridise only with closely related species. (
  • Based on our travellers' observations, we've estimated the likelihood of seeing these species during the Red Zebra Cichlid Safari. (
  • This book gives detailed profiles for the 220 cichlid species that occur in Lake Malawi National Park. (
  • Males may thus choose females according to size and not according to rank, as occurs in other cichlid species. (
  • Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), is a cichlid species with social dominance hierarchies and a polygynic-polyandric mating system, in which dominant males have priority for mating (Gonçalves-de-Freitas & Nishida, 1998). (
  • Social dominance allows mating priority for females of other cichlid species, but dominant females in such species are also the biggest females in the group (Brandtman et al. (
  • Mercury accumulation profile and their modification by interaction with cadmium and lead in the soft tissues of the cichlid Oreochromis aureus . (
  • Lake Tanganyika is home to some of the most unique types of cichlids found around the globe, and includes some of the most expensive freshwater fish. (
  • This robust fish is the largest cichlid native to its range, up to 12 kg (26 lb) in weight and 80 cm (2.6 ft) long, and in the Americas only certain peacock bass and the wolf cichlid may reach a greater size. (
  • The scope of Lake Tanganyika cichlids includes the most unique and most costly fish in the world! (
  • These characteristics have made them some of the most popular fish for enthusiasts seeking uniqueness in the cichlid world. (
  • Tropheus Cichlids are rock-dwelling fish like the Mbuna of Lake Malawi, but a single group won’t swim much more than about 3 feet away from the particular rock island they have designated as their home. (
  • The Goby Cichlids from are also an intriguing and attractive group of fish. (
  • I have a few cichlid fish and would love some help with identification of type and sex. (
  • Data -- Incipient speciation driven by hypertrophied lips in Midas cichlids fish? (
  • In this study, we disentangle the role of hypertrophied lips in the repeated adaptive radiations of Nicaraguan crater lake cichlid fish. (
  • From zero to ossified: Larval skeletal ontogeny of the Neotropical Cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus. (
  • Dopamine induces optical changes in the cichlid fish lens. (
  • Optical plasticity in the crystalline lenses of the cichlid fish Aequidens pulcher. (
  • As a tank mate for Discus and Wild Discus, the Festivum Flag Cichlid is one of the most active and amazing cichlids. (
  • The cichlid lake salt I used had a dose for Lake Malawi of one tablespoon per forty gallons. (
  • Females of the turquoise cichlid remain significantly smaller than males. (
  • Tanganyika cichlids adapted, evolving with different feeding specializations to take advantage of each region, giving rise to so very much diversity with the family. (
  • To provide the trace elements, minerals, and salts characteristic of their native water there are commercial cichlid lake salts. (
  • Yet there is no real conclusive linking of the word cichlid to a specific characteristic. (
  • If you love cichlids, make a date in your diary for Sunday, October 22, when the British Cichlid Association is holding a very special event at The Oak Hotel in Hockley Heath, Warwickshire. (
  • This month's meeting will be the first about a series of expositions about cichlids, starting with our native central American cichlids. (
  • It is the "true" turquoise cichlid (although if split, the scientific name Kronoheros umbriferus belongs to the Panama population) and it is also known as the blue umbee. (
  • I think he/she is a Chocolate Cichlid scientific name: Hypselecara temporalis (male? (
  • Mbunas are a group of cichlids endemic to Lake Malawi, one of the lakes in the Great Rift Valley in East Africa. (
  • A great example is the upside down catfish Cuckoo Synodontis Synodontis multipunctatus , which takes the eggs of spawning cichlids into its own mouth,and mingles them with its eggs. (
  • Great day out for cichlid fans! (
  • Other unique body forms and unique behaviors of this group extends into the Sardine Cichlids, featherfins and shell-dwellers, to the so-called sand cichlids. (
  • There are no segregations, no special sections reserved for anyone or any type of person, just a rather large group of different people united by this strange obsession with cichlids. (
  • The regions that cichlids inhabit include rocky areas, sandy areas, midwater areas, or they can be a combination of two or all three of these types. (
  • it would be nice to start of the first club meeting on cichlids with some basic technical stuff. (
  • The Festivum Flag Cichlid is uniquely striped and wonderfully active. (
  • Hikari Cichlid Gold contains special added ingredients to aid in the development of brilliant, natural coloration. (
  • As the story goes, The Cichlids made their debut in 1979 and became an overnight local sensation. (
  • Yet the cichlids were not alone in adapting to local conditions to feed. (
  • Like most cichlids, they will try and breed while still relatively small, and yours may well be showing signs of breeding behaviour even now. (