Cichlids: Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.Perches: A common name for fish of the family Percidae, belonging to the suborder Percoidei, order PERCIFORMES.Africa, Eastern: The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Fish Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.NicaraguaGenetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Territoriality: Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Tilapia: A freshwater fish used as an experimental organism and for food. This genus of the family Cichlidae (CICHLIDS) inhabits Central and South America (one species extends north into Texas), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, and coastal India.Opsins: Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Mating Preference, Animal: The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Evolution, Planetary: Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.Microspectrophotometry: Analytical technique for studying substances present at enzyme concentrations in single cells, in situ, by measuring light absorption. Light from a tungsten strip lamp or xenon arc dispersed by a grating monochromator illuminates the optical system of a microscope. The absorbance of light is measured (in nanometers) by comparing the difference between the image of the sample and a reference image.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.AfricaSpecies Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Cone Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the CONE PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of cone photopigments. Cone opsins are classified by their peak absorption wavelengths.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)VenezuelaFishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.ColombiaRivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Caves: Geological formations consisting of underground enclosures with access from the surface.Central AmericaGuatemalaWood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Animal Fins: Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.Hobbies: Leisure activities engaged in for pleasure.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.ParaguaySympatry: In evolutionary theory, overlapping geographic distribution of diverging species. In sympatric GENETIC SPECIATION, genetic diversion occurs without geographic separation.South AmericaTurtlesIndians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.BrazilDielectric Spectroscopy: A technique of measuring the dielectric properties of materials, which vary over a range of frequencies depending on the physical properties of the material. The technique involves measuring, over a range of frequencies, ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE and phase shift of an electric field as it passes through the material.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Air Sacs: Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Vacuum: A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Spirurida: An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Characteristics include ventral or caudoventral papillae and an esophagus divided into anterior muscular and posterior glandular parts.Dracunculoidea: A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder CAMALLANINA. Its organisms possess a poorly developed buccal cavity and a rudimentary esophagus and intestine.Water Quality: A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.

Evaluating the use of ram and suction during prey capture by cichlid fishes. (1/403)

We characterized prey-capture strategies in seven species of cichlid fishes representing diverse trophic habits and anticipated feeding abilities. The species examined were Petenia splendida, Cichla ocellaris, Cichlasoma minckleyi, Astronotus ocellatus, Crenicichla geayi, Heros severus (formerly Cichlasoma severum) and Cyprichromis leptosoma. Three individuals per species were filmed with video at 500 Hz as they captured live adult Artemia sp. and Poecilia reticulata. For each feeding sequence, we measured the contribution of predator movement towards the prey (i.e. ram) and the movement of prey towards the predator due to suction. The use of ram differed significantly among prey types and predator species, varying as much as sixfold across predator species. High values of ram resulted in high attack velocities. Jaw protrusion contributed as much as 50% to overall ram values in some species, verifying its role in enhancing attack velocity. Suction distance did not vary significantly among species. Diversity in prey-capture behavior was therefore found to reflect differences among species in the strategy used to approach prey. Limited variation in the distance from which prey were sucked into the mouth is interpreted as the result of an expected exponential decline in water velocity with distance from the mouth of the suction-feeding predator. We propose that this relationship represents a major constraint on the distance over which suction feeding is effective for all aquatic-feeding predators.  (+info)

Spironucleus vortens, a possible cause of hole-in-the-head disease in cichlids. (2/403)

Hole-in-the-head disease is recorded in 11 discus Symphysodon discus Heckel, 1840 and 1 angelfish Pterophyllum scalare Lichtenstein, 1823 obtained from local aquarists within the Southwest of the UK. Spironucleus vortens Poynton et al. 1995, was isolated from the kidney, liver, spleen and head lesions of discus showing severe signs of the disease and from the intestines of all fish. The hexamitid was also recorded from the head lesions of the angelfish. The identity of these flagellates was confirmed as S. vortens on the basis of topographical features seen with the aid of SEM. A modified in vitro culture method was successfully developed for the detection, isolation and long-term maintenance of S. vortens. The flagellate was sub-cultured at 3 to 5 d intervals, new media being supplemented with fresh liver from Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757) free from infection. The results are discussed in relation to S. vortens as the causative agent for hole-in-the-head disease following systemic infection via the digestive tract.  (+info)

Phylogenetic relationships and ancient incomplete lineage sorting among cichlid fishes in Lake Tanganyika as revealed by analysis of the insertion of retroposons. (3/403)

Lake Tanganyika harbors numerous endemic species of extremely diverse cichlid fish that have been classified into 12 major taxonomic groups known as tribes. Analysis of short interspersed element (SINE) insertion data has been acknowledged to be a powerful tool for the elucidation of phylogenetic relationships, and we applied this method in an attempt to clarify such relationships among these cichlids. We studied insertion patterns of 38 SINEs in total, 24 of which supported the monophyly of three clades. The other 14 loci revealed extensive incongruence in terms of the patterns of SINE insertions. These incongruencies most likely stem from a period of adaptive radiation. One possible explanation for this phenomenon is the extensive incomplete lineage sorting of alleles for the presence or absence of a SINE during successive speciation events which took place about 5-10 MYA. The present study is the first to report the successful application of the SINE method in demonstrating the existence of such possible "ancient" incomplete lineage sorting. We discuss the possibility that it might potentially be very difficult to resolve the species phylogeny of a group that radiated explosively, even by resolving the genealogies of more than 10 nuclear loci, as a consequence of incomplete lineage sorting during speciation.  (+info)

History and timing of human impact on Lake Victoria, East Africa. (4/403)

Lake Victoria, the largest tropical lake in the world, suffers from severe eutrophication and the probable extinction of up to half of its 500+ species of endemic cichlid fishes. The continuing degradation of Lake Victoria's ecological functions has serious long-term consequences for the ecosystem services it provides, and may threaten social welfare in the countries bordering its shores. Evaluation of recent ecological changes in the context of aquatic food-web alterations, catchment disturbance and natural ecosystem variability has been hampered by the scarcity of historical monitoring data. Here, we present high-resolution palaeolimnological data, which show that increases in phytoplankton production developed from the 1930s onwards, which parallels human-population growth and agricultural activity in the Lake Victoria drainage basin. Dominance of bloom-forming cyanobacteria since the late 1980s coincided with a relative decline in diatom growth, which can be attributed to the seasonal depletion of dissolved silica resulting from 50 years of enhanced diatom growth and burial. Eutrophication-induced loss of deep-water oxygen started in the early 1960s, and may have contributed to the 1980s collapse of indigenous fish stocks by eliminating suitable habitat for certain deep-water cichlids. Conservation of Lake Victoria as a functioning ecosystem is contingent upon large-scale implementation of improved land-use practices.  (+info)

Iridovirus infections in farm-reared tropical ornamental fish. (5/403)

A systemic viral infection in both gourami Trichogaster spp. and swordtail Xiphophorus hellerii and an outbreak of lymphocystis in scalare Pterophyllum scalarae and gourami are reported to have occurred in fish reared in ornamental fish farms in Israel. The systemic infection developed in endothelial cells that became hypertrophic and their contents were modified. The presence of such cells in light-microscopically examined stained smears and sections provides an initial indication for this systemic viral infection. Infection in gourami caused hemorrhagic dropsy. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) images of iridovirus-like particles recovered from gouramies showed them to be 138 to 201 nm from vertex to vertex (v-v); those from swordtails were 170 to 188 nm v-v. TEM images of lymphocystis virions from scalare were 312 to 342 nm v-v and from gourami 292 to 341 nm v-v. Lymphocystis cells from the gourami were joined by a solid hyaline plate, which was lacking in the infection in scalare where the intercellular spaces between the lymphocystis cells consisted of loose connective tissue.  (+info)

Patterns in fish radiation are compatible with Pleistocene desiccation of Lake Victoria and 14,600 year history for its cichlid species flock. (6/403)

Geophysical data are currently being interpreted as evidence for a late Pleistocene desiccation of Lake Victoria and its refilling 14,600 years ago. This implies that between 500 and 1000 endemic cichlid fish species must have evolved in 14,600 years, the fastest large-scale species radiation known. A recent review concludes that biological evidence clearly rejects the postulated Pleistocene desiccation of the lake: a 14,600 year history would imply exceptionally high speciation rates across a range of unrelated fish taxa. To test this suggestion, I calculated speciation rates for all 41 phylogenetic lineages of fish in the lake. Except for one cichlid lineage, accepting a 14 600 year history does not require any speciation rates that fall outside the range observed in fishes in other young lakes around the world. The exceptional taxon is a lineage of haplochromine cichlids that is also known for its rapid speciation elsewhere. Moreover, since it is unknown how many founding species it has, it is not certain that its speciation rates are really outside the range observed in fishes in other young lakes. Fish speciation rates are generally faster in younger than in older lakes, and those in Lake Victoria, by far the largest of the young lakes of the world, are no exception. From the speciation rates and from biogeographical observations that Lake Victoria endemics, which lack close relatives within the lake basin, have such relatives in adjacent drainage systems that may have had Holocene connections to Lake Victoria, I conclude that the composition of the fish assemblage does not provide biological evidence against Pleistocene desiccation. It supports a hypothesis of recent colonization from outside the lake basin rather than survival of a diverse assemblage within the basin.  (+info)

What, if anything, is a Tilapia?-mitochondrial ND2 phylogeny of tilapiines and the evolution of parental care systems in the African cichlid fishes. (7/403)

We estimated a novel phylogeny of tilapiine cichlid fish (an assemblage endemic to Africa and the Near East) within the African cichlid fishes on the basis of complete mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) gene sequences. The ND2 (1,047 bp) gene was sequenced in 39 tilapiine cichlids (38 species and 1 subspecies) and in an additional 14 nontilapiine cichlid species in order to evaluate the traditional morphologically based hypothesis of the respective monophyly of the tilapiine and haplochromine cichlid fish assemblages. The analyses included many additional cichlid lineages, not only the so-called tilapiines, but also lineages from Lake Tanganyika, east Africa, the Neotropics and an out-group from Madagascar with a wide range of parental care and mating systems. Our results suggest, in contrast to the historical morphology-based hypotheses from Regan (1920, 1922 ), Trewavas (1983), and Stiassny (1991), that the tilapiines do not form a monophyletic group because there is strong evidence that the genus Tilapia is not monophyletic but divided into at least five distinct groups. In contrast to this finding, an allozyme analysis of Pouyaud and Agnese (1995), largely based on the same samples as used here, found a clustering of the Tilapia species into only two groups. This discrepancy is likely caused by the difference in resolution power of the two marker systems used. Our data suggest that only type species Tilapia sparrmanii Smith (1840) should retain the genus name TILAPIA: One particular group of tilapiines (composed of genera Sarotherodon, Oreochromis, Iranocichla, and Tristramella) is more closely related to an evolutionarily highly successful lineage, the haplochromine cichlids that compose the adaptive radiations of cichlid species flocks of east Africa. It appears that the highly adaptable biology of tilapiines is the ancestral state for all African cichlids and that the more stenotypic lifestyle of the haplochromine cichlids is derived from this condition. We reconstructed the evolution of the highly variable parental care systems on the basis of the most inclusive composite phylogeny to date of the African, Neotropical, and Madagascan cichlids with special emphasis on a group of tilapiines comprising the substrate-spawning genus Tilapia, and the mouthbrooding genera Sarotherodon and OREOCHROMIS: We demonstrate several independent origins of derived mouthbrooding behaviors in the family Cichlidae.  (+info)

Mosaic structure and retropositional dynamics during evolution of subfamilies of short interspersed elements in African cichlids. (8/403)

The African cichlid (AFC) family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) is found in the genomes of cichlid fish. The alignment of the sequences of 70 members of this family, isolated from such fish in Africa, revealed the presence of correlated changes in specific nucleotides (diagnostic nucleotides) that allowed us to categorize the various members into six subfamilies, which were designated Af1 through Af6. Dividing the SINE consensus sequence into a 5'-head and 3'-tail region, these subfamilies were defined by various combinations of four types of head region (A-D) and three types of tail region [X, Y, and (YX)], with each region of each type including unique diagnostic nucleotides. The observed structures of the subfamilies Af1 through Af6 were AX, AY, CY, A(YX), BY, and DX, respectively. The formation of such structures might have involved the shuffling of head or tail regions among preexisting and existing (or both) subfamilies of the AFC family (and, probably, even another SINE family or a pseudogene for a tRNA in the case of the Af6 subfamily) by recombination at the so-called core region during the course of evolution. By plotting the timing of the retroposition of individual members of each subfamily on a phylogenetic tree of AFCs, we found that the Af3 and Af6 subfamilies became active only recently in the evolutionary history of these fish. The integrity of the 3'-tails of SINEs, which are, apparently, recognized by reverse transcriptase, has been reported to be indispensable for retention of retropositional activity. Therefore, we postulate that recombination might have been involved in the apparent recent activation of the retroposition of the Af3 and Af6 subfamilies via introduction of active tails (types Y and X, respectively) into potential ancestral sequences that might have had inactive tails. If this hypothesis is correct, shuffling of tail regions among subfamilies by recombination at the core region might have played a role in the recycling of dead copies of AFC SINEs.  (+info)

Despite teleosts being the largest and most diverse group of vertebrates, fish models currently used to study photoperiodic effects on fish physiology have been limited to a few species, most of which are temperate seasonal breeders. The overall aim of this work was to expand our knowledge on circadian biology and environmental physiological effects in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus), a continuous breeding species of tropical-subtropical origin. The circadian light axis of Nile tilapia is described with regards to melatonin production. Circadian melatonin profiles of fish under 12L:12D photoperiods were observed to be low at day and high at night, suggesting melatonin to be an entraining signal as observed in all other vertebrates. When constant light (LL) was used, such day and night fluctuations where abolished. However when fish where exposed to constant darkness (DD) a strong robust endogenous melatonin rhythm was found, suggesting the presence of circadian oscillators in this ...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) produces a suite of virulence factors that are coordinated by Quorum Sensing (QS) contributing to its disease-causing ability in aquaculture. The present study is first of its kind to obtain information regarding the presence and distribution of five QS genes, three virulence genes viz: lasI, lasR, rhlI, rhlR, rhlAB, toxA, aprA and plcH and seven of the Extended-spectrum βlactamases (blaVEB, blaPER, blaTEM,, blaSHV, blaCTX-M1, blaCTX-M2 and blaCTX-M3) of Pseudomonas species isolated from fish meat by direct PCR. Bacterial identification was based mainly on conventional biochemical techniques using the Vitek 2, automated system. Phenotypic sensitivity of antibiotics was established by the agar disc diffusion technique through 16 various antimicrobial drugs. Quantification of their in vitro production of numerous virulence genes outside the cell that are QS dependent namely, pyocyanin, elastase, alkaline protease, biofilm and cytotoxicity of Vero cell was as
Sex chromosomes change more frequently in fish than in mammals or birds. However, certain chromosomes or genes are repeatedly used as sex determinants in different members of the teleostean lineage. East African cichlids are an enigmatic model system in evolutionary biology representing some of the most diverse extant vertebrate adaptive radiations. How sex is determined and if different sex-determining mechanisms contribute to speciation is unknown for almost all of the over 1,500 cichlid species of the Great Lakes. Here, we investigated the genetic basis of sex determination in a cichlid from Lake Tanganyika, Astatotilapia burtoni, a member of the most species-rich cichlid lineage, the haplochromines. We used RAD-sequencing of crosses for two populations of A. burtoni, a lab strain and fish caught at the south of Lake Tanganyika. Using association mapping and comparative genomics, we confirmed male heterogamety in A. burtoni and identified different sex chromosomes (LG5 and LG18) in the two
article{9cc27631-773b-4625-add5-aeb353c7d0cb, abstract = {,p,Parasite diversity and abundance (parasite load) vary greatly among host species. However, the influence of host traits on variation in parasitism remains poorly understood. Comparative studies of parasite load have largely examined measures of parasite species richness and are predominantly based on records obtained from published data. Consequently, little is known about the relationships between host traits and other aspects of parasite load, such as parasite abundance, prevalence and aggregation. Meanwhile, understanding of parasite species richness may be clouded by limitations associated with data collation from multiple independent sources. We conducted a field study of Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes and their helminth parasites. Using a Bayesian phylogenetic comparative framework, we tested evolutionary associations between five key host traits (body size, gut length, diet breadth, habitat complexity and number of sympatric ...
Cichlids are a diverse group of fish from the family Cichlidae. There are an estimated 1300 to 3000 species of cichlids. They come in a variety of shapes and sizes, ranging from 2.5 cm to 1 meter in length and can live for 4-10 years. Cichlids originated in Africa but can be found in South America as well; most notably, they are found in Lake Malawi, Lake Tanganyika and Lake Victoria. In Lake Malawi alone, there are an estimated 1,000 different types of cichlid species (Evolutionary Biology). They prefer fresh to brackish water and usually live near the waters surface. Many cichlids are herbivores that feed on algae, but some are predatory and consume other small fish or insect larvaes.. Why study Cichlids? Cichlids are great model organisms to study because they represent rapid and convergent evolutionary radiation in vertebrates. Also, there is a large variety of cichlids which makes it easier for scientists to study multiple phenotypic traits.. Cichlid Reproduction. Cichlids demonstrate four ...
The hundreds of endemic species of cichlid fishes in the East African Great Lakes Tanganyika, Malawi, and Victoria are a prime model system in evolutionary biology. With five genomes currently being sequenced, eastern African cichlids also represent a forthcoming genomic model for evolutionary studies of genotype-to-phenotype processes in adaptive radiations. Here we report the functional annotation and comparative analyses of transcriptome data sets for two eastern African cichlid species, Astatotilapia burtoni and Ophthalmotilapia ventralis, representatives of the modern haplochromines and ectodines, respectively. Nearly 647,000 expressed sequence tags were assembled in more than 46,000 contigs for each species using the 454 sequencing technology, largely expanding the current sequence data set publicly available for these cichlids. Total predicted coverage of their proteome diversity is approximately 50% for both species. Comparative qualitative and quantitative analyses show very similar ...
Our research program uses fishes, and specifically the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni (see Model System page), as models to study how the brain processes information, how sensory systems contribute to behavior, and how natural plasticity in an animals internal hormonal or nutritional state can influence neural function and behavioral outcomes. Fishes are the largest and most diverse group of vertebrates, which provides us with ideal organisms to study basic neuron and sensory function, and how it relates to proximate and ultimate behavioral mechanisms in comparative and evolutionary contexts. ...
Synonyms for Convict cichlid in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Convict cichlid. 3 synonyms for convict fish: convictfish, Oxylebius pictus, painted greenling. What are synonyms for Convict cichlid?
B chromosomes have a functional effect on sex determination in a species of cichlid fishes from Lake Victoria [...] The researchers found sex-ratio distortions caused by B chromosomes in the breeding line of the cichlids, as well as several protein-coding genes in the B chromosomes. The resultant ratio was female biased, suggesting a role for B chromosomes in female sex determination. [...] In the present study, the researchers performed an extensive analysis of B chromosomes in cichlid fishes from Lake Victoria to investigate their effect on cichlid evolution. Karyotype analysis of Lake Victoria cichlids suggested that, in one species, Lithochromis rubripinnis, there are female-specific B chromosomes. Crossbreeding experiments suggested that an effector of female sex determination in this species was the B chromosome. Furthermore, analyses of large-scale sequences of B chromosomes in Lake Victoria cichlids revealed multiple protein-coding genes in B chromosomes. The sex determination gene was ...
African Cichlids - Mbuna, Haps and Peacock Cichlids from African rift lakes, Lake Malawi, Victoria and Tanganyika. Hardy fish for specialty aquariums.
Cheers, Neale.,. Tank Mates?? Oscar comp./sys., Neotrop. cichlids period 08/28/08 Hello there, I have emailed you guys before about some of my tanks and ideas about new tanks and have received great advice! Now i have a question about my tiger Oscar cichlid who is about 8 inches long and pretty docile. I am soon moving him to a larger tank hopefully 75 gallons but maybe 55. And i was wondering about some tank mates for him. ,Not in the 55... too small, I am very interested in more South American cichlids. I have a particular interest in maybe getting a jack Dempsey? But i do know Jacks are pretty aggressive and territorial thats why i am consulting you guys. Another cichlid i was considering was a green terror but im not sure if the adult size of one could or would grow up to being as big as my Oscar because i have read that they only grow to be 8 inches in length. Lastly i was considering a blue Acara or a jaguar cichlid but my problem with these two are i have no idea how big they get. Could ...
Jewel Cichlid Acting Strange 1/2/07 Hi- I have a 55 gallon tank with 1 Kenyi cichlid, 1 Bumblebee cichlid, 1 hybrid cichlid, 1 orange cichlid (?), 1 red tip shark, 1 Pleco and a jewel cichlid. The jewel cichlid (which is a pearl color with blue dots) has been acting strange lately. She does not swim around only stays at the top of the tank. Her fins are all down and she curves her tailfin. She eats a little but not like she use to. She does not swim around although she has always kept to herself but now she is not acting normal. I have isolated her in a tank but I am at a loss as to what to do for her. Any advice would be appreciated. Thanks! Leslie , Clamped fins are a sign of a disease. Treat with Rid-Ich and salt for now. Crank the temp up to 82 F. If not better in three days then do a 50% water change and treat with Nitrofuranace and salt.-Chuck, Bumps on FW Fish - 1/22/07 A quick note for todays post Bumps on FW Fish in which Chuck suggested treating the fish with Nitrofurazone. The ...
Fish guide for Angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare, Freshwater Angelfish facts with fish pictures, description and information, types of freshwater angelfish, Silver Angelfish care, aquarium habitat and fish diseases, Angelfish tank mates, compatibility and breeding
Fish guide for Sardine Cichlid, Cyprichromis leptosoma profile with fish pictures, description and information, Slender Cichlid care, diet, habitat and fish diseases, tank mates, Slender Cichlid breeding, compatibility and keeping the Xenotilapia sp. Blue Flash cichlid aquarium, Slender Cyp, Neonback, Lepto Cichlid
Detail záznamu - Phylogeny of the Neotropical cichlid fish tribe Cichlasomatini (Teleostei: Cichlidae) based on morphological and molecular data, with the description of a new genus - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
Fish guide for Sexfasciatus, Neolamprologus sexfasciatus profile with fish pictures, description and information, Gold Sexfasciatus Cichlid care, diet, habitat and fish diseases, Sexfasciatus cichlid breeding, tank mates, compatibility and keeping the Sexfasciatus aquarium, Six-bar Lamprologus, Six Bar Cichlid
Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus is an aquaculture resource that represents one of the most popular crops in the world. However, species cultivation presents health proble..
Fish guide for White-Tailed Brichardi, Neolamprologus gracilis profile with fish pictures, description and information, Gracilis Cichlid care, diet, habitat and fish diseases, Neolamprologus gracilis breeding, tank mates, compatibility and keeping the Graceful Lamprologus aquarium, Blue-tail Brichardi
Oreochromis niloticus DMO protein: DMO - DM-domain gene in ovary; isolated from the fish Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank AF203490
The ram cichlid, Mikrogeophagus ramirezi, is a species of freshwater fish endemic to the Orinoco River basin, in the savannahs of Venezuela and Colombia in South America. The species has been examined in studies on fish behaviour and is a popular aquarium fish, traded under a variety of common names, including ram, blue ram, German blue ram, Asian ram, butterfly cichlid, Ramirezs dwarf cichlid, dwarf butterfly cichlid and Ramirezi. The species is a member of the family Cichlidae and subfamily Geophaginae. Wild ram cichlids are often more colorful than the tank-bred fish, which suffer from poor breeding and also being injected with hormones for more color, although this makes as many as one in four males infertile.[citation needed] Male specimens of the ram usually have the first few rays of the dorsal fin extended, but breeding has made some females also show this. When close to spawning, female rams have a pink or red blush on the abdomen. Females also have a blue sheen over the spot just ...
Utahs premier Freshwater African Cichlid breeder with several species of African cichlids for sale. Call 801-572-2009 to buy your Malawi Cichlids at Live Fish Direct
Utahs premier Freshwater African Cichlid breeder with several species of African cichlids for sale. Call 801-572-2009 to buy your Malawi Cichlids at Live Fish Direct
Many shell-dwelling species are adaptations of these cave spawners and include Neolamprologus ocellatus. Their caves are made up of the empty, calcified shells of Neothauma snails which are preserved by the hard alkaline water. Shell dwellers can be kept in small tanks and make fascinating residents.. Mouthbrooders. These are also very popular with hobbyists, with the rock dwelling, algae grazing Tropheus, the large sedate, predatory Frontosa and the slender, open water Sardine cichlids making up the bulk of all such fish sold. The three are very different in their requirements, despite inhabiting the same lake, so should not be kept together in the same tank.. Tropheus look and behave like Pseudotropheus from Lake Malawi. Their diet is poor, consisting of short algae strands growing from rocks and the odd invertebrate found within the algae. This growth is commonly referred to as aufwuch. Tropheus are aggressive and territorial in the aquarium, as in nature they fight to protect their algae and ...
Population boundaries are largely determined by local environment, the strength of barriers to migration, and the organisms inherent dispersal abilities. The interaction among these and genetic factors determines the potential for evolutionary divergence, and is at the heart of our understanding of ecological adaptation and ongoing speciation processes. When individuals can easily cross barriers between suitable habitat patches, gene flow acts to homogenize most neutral genetic diversity and may swamp the effects of any local phenotypic selection whereas low levels of migration may facilitate ecological divergence, even when selection is modest. Evolutionary divergence through fine-scale geographic isolation is believed to be one of the main mechanisms promoting speciation in the cichlid radiations of the African Great Lakes [1-3]. Many lake species are extreme local endemics, with distributions limited to small patches of ecologically distinct habitat. Many narrowly endemic cichlid species are ...
Background Cichlid fishes have radiated into hundreds of species in the Great Lakes of Africa. Brightly colored males display on leks and vie to be chosen by females as mates. Strong discrimination by females causes differential male mating success, rapid evolution of male color patterns and, possibly, speciation. In addition to differences in color pattern, Lake Malawi cichlids also show some of the largest known shifts in visual sensitivity among closely related species. These shifts result from modulated expression of seven cone opsin genes. However, the mechanisms for this modulated expression are unknown. Results In this work, we ask whether these differences might result from changes in developmental patterning of cone opsin genes. To test this, we compared the developmental pattern of cone opsin gene expression of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, with that of several cichlid species from Lake Malawi. In tilapia, quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that opsin gene ...
The proportion of assembled haplochromine cichlid sequences with and without BLAST matches compared to three databases (Takifugu rubripes, Danio rerio, and Onco
The firemouth cichlid (Thorichthys meeki) is a species of cichlid fish native to Central America. They occur in rivers of the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico, south through Belize and into northern Guatemala. Their natural habitat is typically shallow, slow-moving, often turbid, water with a pH of 6.5 - 8.0. It has also been reported to live in underground cave systems. As fish with a tropical distribution, firemouth cichlids live in warm water with a temperature range of 23-30 °C (75-86 °F). The common name, firemouth, is derived from the bright orange-red colouration on the underside of the jaw. Males in particular flare out their gills, exposing their red throats, in a threat display designed to ward off male rivals from their territory. Like most cichlids, brood care is highly developed; this species is an egg-layer. Firemouth cichlids form monogamous pairs and spawn on flattened surfaces of rocks, leaves or submerged wood. Breeding males are primarily responsible for territorial defense, while ...
Neotropical Cichlid Phylogeny - Tropical fish forum at the Age of Aquariums - dedicated to promoting responsible fish-keeping internationally.
Convict Cichlids is a kind of fish also known as Zebra Cichlids to aquarium enthusiasts. They are relatively easy to breed because they require minimal human supervision or intervention.
... Wardley Premium Cichlid Floating Pellets (Medium) provide a balanced diet for growth, superior coloration and survival of both herbivorous and carnivorous cichlids. Provides a balanced diet for growth Promtes superior colora...
In this study, we wanted to take the first step in understanding vision in cichlids and to know whether they have true color vision. Further studies are needed to dissect the cichlid visual system as well as its adaptations and limitations but, given our visual modeling and behavioral results, we can infer the physiological characteristics of the cichlid retina. Initially, based on previous fish-vision studies applying the RNL model, we assumed a Weber fraction of 0.05 (Champ et al., 2016; Cheney et al., 2009; Dalton et al., 2016; Wilkins et al., 2016) for the LWS channel. However, in order to better predict cichlid performance, we adjusted this to a higher Weber fraction of 0.1. We did this because, even though we are not evaluating color discrimination thresholds, increasing the Weber fraction, and hence lowering chromatic distance, would partially explain the mistakes fish made (Figs 2 and 3). In general, a Weber fraction of 0.05 is accepted for most animals (Vorobyev and Osorio, 1998) but it ...
Although it is widely assumed that the evolution of jaw kinesis in the ray-finned fishes was an innovation to enhance suction feeding performance, the lack of phylogenetic replication of this event across fishes has hindered direct tests of this hypothesis. Our results reveal that within the East African cichlid radiations, multiple transitions between biting and suction feeding have occurred, and that these functional transitions are accompanied by evolutionary reduction of jaw kinesis over short evolutionary timescales of 4 Myr or less (figure 3). These rapid and repeated shifts are consistent with the hypothesis that high jaw kinesis is selectively maintained in suction feeding fishes and provides evidence supporting upper jaw protrusion as a major evolutionary innovation for ray-finned fishes.. Our power to detect associations between jaw kinesis and transitions in feeding mode is directly connected to the sheer number of dietary transitions that have occurred in these cichlid radiations, ...
Among multigene families, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes are the most frequently studied and have been explored as cytogenetic markers to study the evolutionary history of karyotypes among animals and plants. In this report, we applied cytogenetic and genomic methods to investigate the organization of rRNA genes among cichlid fishes. Cichlids are a group of fishes that are of increasing scientific interest due to their rapid and convergent adaptive radiation, which has led to extensive ecological diversity. The present paper reports the cytogenetic mapping of the 5S rRNA genes from 18 South American, 22 African and one Asian species and the 18S rRNA genes from 3 African species. The data obtained were comparatively analyzed with previously published information related to the mapping of rRNA genes in cichlids. The number of 5S rRNA clusters per diploid genome ranged from 2 to 15, with the most common pattern being the presence of 2 chromosomes bearing a 5S rDNA cluster. Regarding 18S rDNA mapping, the
This study investigated the reproductive biology of Oreochromis niloticus broodstock of known age structure and spawning history with the aim of synchronising and controlling their spawning for mass fry production. Hatchery reared stock was subjected to a constant photoperiod of 12L:12D and maintained at 27 ± 1°C. All stock was fed on commercial trout pellets. The feeding frequency and protein content of the diet varied depending on fish size. Oocyte development was classified into 6 stages including that of atresia based on histology. In order to quantify ovarian maturity, three stereological methods were compared. The ovarian volume fractions of different oocyte stages estimated by the mass, graphical and intersection methods showed homogeneous results. The intersection method required less time (2.6 mins/sample) whereas the others needed 11-12 mins/sample. In addition, the numerical density technique employing the intersection method was used and yielded similar oocyte estimates to those ...
The Yellowfin Borleyi Cichlid, also known as Haplochromis barlowi, originates from the Southern part of Lake Malawi, Africa. The males have a blue body with striking yellow fins, and are one of the larger Copadichromis Cichlids reaching a maximum size of 7". When mature, the females remain brown to silver in color, and will be slightly smaller than the males. A large aquarium with plenty of caves and hiding places is ideal for the Yellowfin Borleyi Cichlid. Caves can be formed from limestone or any other type of inert rock, as well as African Driftwood. An aragonite-based substrate is recommended in order to maintain the necessary high pH and alkalinity. They do not like bright lighting, and the aragonite should ideally be either mixed with or covered by darker gravel to reduce the amount of glare in the aquarium. The Yellowfin Borleyi Cichlid requires a substrate deep enough to burrow in during breeding time. For best results in spawning, the males should be kept with at least three females. ...
Swim-up fry (average weight, 14 mg) were obtained from Oreochromis niloticus (Chitralada strain) held in concrete tanks. In experiment 1 (1985), fry were fed diets treated with 17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT) or progesterone at 60 mg/kg for 40 days. Control fish were fed untreated diet. Fingerlings (average weight, 2.86 g) were subsequently stocked at 1/square m. in earthen ponds receiving septic tank slurry at 150 kg COD/ha/day and fine rice bran as supplementary feed for about 5 months. In experiment 2 (1986), similar procedures were followed but the fry were fed MT at 40 mg/kg for 40 days and pond stocking rates of 1,3,5 and 7 fingerlings/sq. m were compared. Individual size, sex and stage of maturity were determined. In experiment 1, the average individual size was greatest in the MT-treated group (263 g), compared with the untreated (232 g) and progesterone-treated fish (189 g). The final size of fish in experiment 2 decreased significantly (P0.05) with density, from an average of 249 g at ...
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And flourish it did in the Rift Valley lakes. If you were to visit these lakes, snorkel or scuba in their waters, you would most likely notice a wide variety of fish. You would not be wrong in this assessment; however, you might be surprised to find that most of these types of fish are belonging to a group called the cichlids (SICK-lids), and that all 1,650 plus species of these cichlids descended from a common ancestor. While the dates of when the common ancestor of the various cichlids came to be trapped in their respective lakes, it has been estimated that the cichlids of Lake Malawi all evolved from a common ancestor trapped 700,000 years ago, and those of Lake Victoria around 12,000 years ago. Trapped in these growing lakes while they were being formed, this small group of fish quickly came to dominate their new home, exploding in biodiversity to adapt to the wide variety of niches left open to them ...
in the mid to late 1980s. Its parentage has been highly disputed, but the most commonly speculated pairings are Midas Cichlid (Amphilophus Citrinellus) with the Redhead Cichlid (Paratheraps Synspilum). One of the more wild theories is the Severum (Heros Severus) with the Red Devil Cichlid (Amphilophus Labiatus). Blood Parrots have a round body, a beak shaped head with an upside down triangle mouth. They are often seen in bright orange in coloration, but seen in other colors such as red, yellow, brown, and tan. A further developed variety is the Convict Parrot Cichlid, which is also called the Jellybean Parrot or Bubble Gum Parrot. This is actually a double hybrid fish. It is a cross between a female hybrid Blood Parrot and a pink male Convict Cichlid Archocentrus (Cichlasoma) nigrofasciatus. Blood Parrots have reportedly been crossed with other cichlid species such as the Severum and the Texas Cichlid. So there may be other new varieties showing up down the road ...
Gante, Hugo F; Matschiner, Michael; Malmstrøm, Martin; Jakobsen, Kjetill Sigurd; Jentoft, Sissel & Salzburger, Walter (2016). Genomics of speciation and introgression in Princess cichlid fishes from Lake Tanganyika. Molecular Ecology. ISSN 0962-1083. 25(24), s 6143- 6161 . doi: 10.1111/mec.13767 Show summary How variation in the genome translates into biological diversity and new species originate has endured as the mystery of mysteries in evolutionary biology. African cichlid fishes are prime model systems to address speciation-related questions for their remarkable taxonomic and phenotypic diversity, and the possible role of gene flow in this process. Here, we capitalize on genome sequencing and phylogenomic analyses to address the relative impacts of incomplete lineage sorting, introgression and hybrid speciation in the Neolamprologus savoryi-complex (the Princess cichlids) from Lake Tanganyika. We present a time-calibrated species tree based on whole-genome sequences and provide strong ...
Well, weve had cuckoo birds on this blog before, which most people would at least have heard of, but what about the cuckoo catfish? The cuckoo catfish, Synodontis multipunctatus, a popular ornamental fish that is somewhat well-known amongst aquarium enthusiasts. It is originally from Lake Tanganyika in Africa which is hotspot of cichlid fish biodiversity. The cuckoo catfish has a rather unusual breeding habit, it is a brood parasite of mouthbrooding cichlids found in Lake Tanganyika. Just like their bird namesake, the cuckoo catfish displaces the legitimate offspring of its host, forcing the cichlid to rear its young, and they have a rather clever way of accomplishing this. The catfish is attracted by the scent of the brooding cichlids, and as soon as they detect any such brooding cichlid in the vicinity, they race to the scene of the coupling. The catfish mob the pair of spawning cichlids and as soon as their eggs are fertilised, a mating pair of cuckoo catfish dash in, the female laying her ...
Dr. Russell Fernald is a neuroethologist at Stanford University. Neuroethology integrates brain science with the study of behavior in natural habitats. The goal is to illustrate the interaction among brain, behavior, and environment. Dr. Fernalds long-term work focuses on the African cichlid fish and how its social system regulates not only brain structures, but also bodily functions.. When a male cichlid fish recognizes an opportunity to become the dominant male, his body turns bright colors. The male fish then chases and attacks other male cichlid fish in an attempt to dominate and defend his territory. The physiological color change results from a response in the hypothalamus in the brain. In the cichlid fish, the signaling peptide cells grow eight times larger, sending the brain eight times the signal. The result is an enlargement of the fish gonads, physiologically preparing the fish to spawn with females.. When the cichlid fish loses control of the territory, he loses his bright coloring. ...
For the first time, scientists have directly linked social cues to an immediate genetic response in the brain, according to a new study in PloS Biology. Only minutes after subordinate male cichlid fish sense an opportunity to become socially dominant, they display dominant characteristics such as changes in color and behavior, and express egr-1, encoding a transcription factor that likely triggers enhanced fertility and other long-term dominance traits.. "People forget that social influences are pretty important," said study co-author Russell Fernald at Stanford University in California. "Heres the case where the social is everything. [It] regulates brain structure in a very direct way.". Characterized by a dynamic social hierarchy, the cichlid fish Astatotilapia (Haplochromis) burtoni can readily alter sexual capacities, and only dominant males are physiologically able to reproduce. "We were interested in understanding how this occurred at a mechanistic level, uncovering earliest steps that ...
The Albino Peacock Cichlid comes from the rocky, sandy shores of Lake Malawi, Africa. They are pale in coloration and their eyes are red. The coloration of the male and female are very similar, and the male displays the typical egg spots on the anal fin. The Albino Peacock Cichlid does well in an aquarium that is at least 50 gallons with plenty of rocks for territories and a sandy bottom. The males are usually only aggressive towards their own species unless their territory is invaded upon. Provide a ratio of 3 to 4 females to one male. Again, provide multiple females for the male, as it will take the stress off of the female carrying the eggs. Incubation is approximately three weeks, at which time the female will release the fry. Provide the fry with newly hatched brine shrimp and finely ground flake food. The Albino Peacock Cichlid should be fed a variety of both meaty and vegetable-based foods. Feed live and frozen brine shrimp along with Spirulina-based flake and pellet foods. Approximate ...
Phenotypic differences may have genetic and plastic components. Here, we investigated the contributions of both for differences in body shape in two species of Lake Malawi cichlids using wild-caught specimens and a common garden experiment. We further hybridized the two species to investigate the mode of gene action influencing body shape differences and to examine the potential for transgressive segregation. We found that body shape differences between the two species observed in the field are maintained after more than 10 generations in a standardized environment. Nonetheless, both species experienced similar changes in the laboratory environment. Our hybrid cross experiment confirmed that substantial variation in body shape appears to be genetically determined. The data further suggest that the underlying mode of gene action is complex and cannot be explained by simple additive or additive-dominance models. Transgressive phenotypes were found in the hybrid generations, as hybrids occupied ...
Accumulation of some heavy metals (copper, iron, manganese, nickel and zinc) and its effect on the hematological indices on the freshwater fish (Oreochromis niloticus) were studied. Fish Samples were collected from the River Nile near El- Kanater El-Khyria and contaminated water from Iron and Steel Basin in El-Safe Village near Helwan, south of Cairo. Results of this study showed that there was a significant difference between the water qualities indices among the two different locations. Meanwhile, fish samples that collected from polluted location showed high values for the hematological indices namely hemoglobin (Hb), red blood count (RBC), hematocrit (Hct), white blood cell count (WBC) and erythrocyte. Moreover, the concentrations of heavy metals were also high in the fish. However, the levels ofthe heavy metal accumulation were within the maximum permissible limit for human consumption (FAO, 1992). The order of bioaccumulation of such metals in the liver of fish were Fe | Zn| Cu | Mn | Ni. It was
Identifikasi bakteri patogen pada ikan Nila (Oreochromis niloticus) di lokasi budidaya ikan air tawar Kabupaten Kepulauan Sangihe
Researchers have discovered that a form of oxytocin-the hormone responsible for making humans fall in love-has a similar effect on fish, suggesting it is a key regulator of social behavior that has evolved and endured since ancient times.. The findings, published in the latest edition of the journal Animal Behaviour, help answer an important evolutionary question: why do some species develop complex social behaviors while others spend much of their lives alone?. "We know how this hormone affects humans," explains Adam Reddon, lead researcher and a graduate student in the Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour at McMaster University. "It is related to love, monogamy, even risky behaviour, but much less is known about its effects on fish.". Specifically, researchers examined the cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher, a highly social species found in Lake Tanganyika in Africa.. These cichlids are unusual because they form permanent hierarchical social groups made up of a dominant breeding ...
Lyretail Cichlid Photos, Neolamprologus brichardi Photos, Lyretail Cichlid Pictures and Photographs by Professional Natural History Photographer Phillip Colla / Oceanlight.com
Dopamine regulates reproduction in part by modulating neuronal activity within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Previous studies suggested numerous mechanisms by which dopamine exerts inhibitory control over the HPG axis, ultimately changing the levels of sex steroids that regulate reproductive behaviors. However, it is not known whether these mechanisms are conserved across vertebrate species. In particular, it is unknown whether mechanisms underlying dopaminergic control of reproduction are shared between mammals and teleost fish. In mammals, dopamine directly inhibits GnRH1 hypothalamic neurons, the gatekeepers for activation of the HPG axis. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time in teleost fish, dopaminergic control of GnRH1 neurons via direct dopamine receptor type-2 (D2R) mediated inhibition within the hypothalamus. These results suggest that direct dopaminergic control of GnRH1 neurons via interactions in the hypothalamus is not exclusive to tetrapod reproductive control, ...
Bumblebee Cichlids or Crabro Cichlids originate from Lake Malawi, where they are found in deeper waters live in caves or near large rocky formations. The Bumblebee Cichlid shares these caves with the Kampango Catfish, which is a large aggressive species. The two species have a partial symbiotic relationship in that the Bumblebee Cichlid will eat parasites off of the Kampango Catfish and in return the Kampango will not eat the Bumblebee Cichlid. In the dark watery caves, the Kampango Catfish uses the lighter gold and brown/black barred pattern of the Bumblebee Cichlid to identify it and not treat it as prey. However, the Bumblebee Cichlid can rapidly change their coloration to a very dark almost black coloration that they use to mimic the appearance of the Kampango in order to feed on their eggs during breeding season. After feeding on the Kampango eggs, the Bumblebee Cichlid is quick to adjust its coloration and pattern back to the gold and brown striped pattern so they can remain safe inside ...
در این تحقیق اثر خوراکی پوست سبز گردو بر رشد ماهی اسکار (Astronotus ocellatus) مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. تعداد 60 عدد ماهی اسکار آلبینو با میانگین وزن 18/0 ± 01/5 گرم و میانگین طول 23/2 ± 84/54 میلی متر در قالب 3 تیمار و یک شاهد و هر کدام با سه تکرار تقسیم شدند. تعداد 12 دستگاه آکواریوم در ابعاد 50 × 40 × 33 سانتی متر مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. گروه شاهد با غذای بدون افزودنی (غذای پایه) تغذیه گردید. تیمار اول با غذای حاوی 1/0 درصد ، تیمار دوم با غذای حاوی 2/0 درصد و تیمار سوم با غذای حاوی 3/0 درصد پوست سبز گردو تغذیه گردیدند. مدت 8 هفته (56 روز) دوره پرورش به طول انجامید. هر 20 روز یکبار زیست‎سنجی (Biometry)
but i mean cichlids from "cichla" species for example cichla occelaris and my question is about do they grow to 1m because some say that yes and some taht no i saw pictures of some cichla ande they seem to be larger than 70 ...
Can this fish be put in with other Cichlids -(Severum cichlids) Is this fish aggressive ? Peaceful ? Would you keep it itslef or in pairs?? All info would be great ! thumbs2:
Can this fish be put in with other Cichlids -(Severum cichlids) Is this fish aggressive ? Peaceful ? Would you keep it itslef or in pairs?? All info would be great ! thumbs2:
just a quick comment. While Ingos remark about competing scientists making things complicated sure had a kernel of truth, I am afraid that the situation isnt that simple. Central American cichlids, particularly the Vieja/Therpas and the "Cryptoheros" s.l. groups, have a quite complicated evolutionary history that has not been easy to elucidate. Scientists are using different methodologies in order to elucidate this evolutionary history (and ideally taxonomy will then reflect the consensus). In simple cases, different methods yield in the same or similar results, which then makes a stable taxonomy fairly easy. However, in the case of Vieja and some other neotropical cichlids, the different approaches have resulted in disparate, sometimes conflicting findings. This doesnt mean one is worse than the other, or one result is correct or not; it simply means that further work is needed to conclusively resolve the evolutionary history of the group. At this point, the results of the different studies ...
Malawi Cichlids - Hardy colorful mbuna and Peacock cichlids from the most popular of the African rift lakes, shipped directly from us to your front door.
Meyer, Britta S.; Matschiner, Michael & Salzburger, Walter (2016). Disentangling Incomplete Lineage Sorting and Introgression to Refine Species-Tree Estimates for Lake Tanganyika Cichlid Fishes. Systematic Biology. ISSN 1063-5157. 66(4), s 531- 550 . doi: 10.1093/sysbio/syw069 Show summary Adaptive radiation is thought to be responsible for the evolution of a great portion of the past and present diversity of life. Instances of adaptive radiation, characterized by the rapid emergence of an array of species as a consequence to their adaptation to distinct ecological niches, are important study systems in evolutionary biology. However, because of the rapid lineage formation in these groups, and occasional gene flow between the participating species, it is often difficult to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of species that underwent an adaptive radiation. In this study, we present a novel approach for species-tree estimation in rapidly diversifying lineages, where introgression is known to ...
Structure, Aggregate, Aquatic Plants & Equipment: Discuss anything related to rocks, caves, gravel, plants, filters, heaters, lighting, etc...
The secret to the unique diversity of Lake Malawis cichlid fish may be down to huge variations in climate and water levels over the years
A Splendid Introduction to this Diverse and Attractive Group of Tropical Freshwater Fishes. African Cichlids differ widely in their behaviour and maintenance requirements and encompass every reproductive method known to occur in the Family ... - 9781842860694 - QBD Books - Buy Online for Better Range and Value.
Cichlid fish of the East African Rift Lakes are renowned for their diversity: Owing to migrations of ancestor species out of Lake Tanganyika and into other lakes, such as Lake Malawi, it has been estimated that hundreds of new cichlid species have arisen in these lakes in the last 100,000 years. Thanks to the relatively recent colonization by these fish of different ecological niches, as well as the prominent role of nuptual coloring in the mating preferences of these species, the cichlids offer a unique opportunity to study how color vision can undergo change in rapidly evolving species. For example, because color plays a significant role in mate choice, differences in color vision could greatly influence and even drive cichlid speciation ...
The faunal diversity of Lake Tanganyika, with its fish species flocks and its importance as a cradle and reservoir of ancient fish lineages seeding other radiations, has generated a considerable scientific interest in the fields of evolution and biodiversity. The Tropheini, an endemic Tanganyikan cichlid tribe, fills a peculiar phylogenetic position, being closely related to the haplochromine radiations of Lakes Malawi and Victoria. Several problems remain regarding their genus-level classification. For example, the monotypic genus Interochromis is phylogenetically nested within Petrochromis; its only representative, I. loocki, has often been reclassified. As monogenean flatworms are useful markers for fish phylogeny and taxonomy, the monogenean fauna of Interochromis loocki was examined and compared to that of other tropheine cichlids. Three new monogenean species belonging to Cichlidogyrus are described from Interochromis loocki: Cichlidogyrus buescheri Pariselle and Vanhove, sp. nov., ...
Hi I have a blood red parrot and a red devil in my tank they are young fish less than 5 months old and are getting along okay. My question is, is it normal for your parrot or red devil to get weird black markings on their fins and faces and around their eyes. I first noticed it on the red devil and then the parrot came down with it. A week later the red devil lost its black markings and now the parrot seems to be getting better. They dont act ill, they eat like pigs, and are very active. I noticed in the picture gallery that there is fish with the same black markings.. is this a disease of these fish or is it the norm for growing cichlids of this type ...
I dunno if salt (NaCl) helps much. Sure it lowers the numbers of bacteria in the short term and reduces osmotic stress on damaged gills and skin ect but can have long term bad effects I think if over used. More usual to use Epsom salts (Magnesium sulphate) these days I think ...
In vertebrates, the early social environment can persistently influence behaviour and social competence later in life. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying variation in animal social competence are largely unknown. In rats, high-quality maternal care causes an upregulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors (gr) and reduces offspring stress responsiveness. This identifies gr regulation as a candidate mechanism for maintaining variation in animal social competence. We tested this hypothesis in a highly social cichlid fish, Neolamprologus pulcher, reared with or without caring parents. We find that the molecular pathway translating early social experience into later-life alterations of the stress axis is homologous across vertebrates: fish reared with parents expressed the glucocorticoid receptor gr1 more in the telencephalon. Furthermore, expression levels of the transcription factor egr-1 (early growth response 1) were associated with gr1 expression in the telencephalon and ...
The thousands of cichlid fishes in the lakes of East Africa are the most extraordinary example of speciation and adaptive radiation in living vertebrates. The close relationship of these species, and the many remarkable instances of parallel and convergent evolution, make this a premier system for studying the genetic basis of evolutionary change. The DOE/JGI Community Sequencing Program will soon produce more than 500Mb of shotgun sequence from several species of Lake Malawi cichlid, which will allow the identification of thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms across the genome. We thus stand at an important juncture in the study of these species flocks. The goal of this Catalysis Meeting is stimulate the imaginations of cichlid researchers about how their research can be transformed by this new resource. For example, SNP polymorphisms can be used to address questions about gene flow and hybridization among recent species, to reconstruct evolutionary histories in this potentially ...
Flower Horn and midas world - you like humpheads and other cichlids from America``and extreme Turtles than you are welcome!!!. Category: Freshwater / Cichlids / South American ...
... - aca 2013 denver - ACA 2012 Convention Indianapolis, IN July 11-15th 2012 - American Cichlid Association Conventio
cichlids - ok well i have finally aquired a stand for my tank so it is only a few days before i set it up. now my lfs has recently got in new cichlids and they...
Inhabit swamps or flooded grounds where the aquatic and riverine vegetation are dense and the water is either clear or silty. Its color is deeper in clear water (Ref. 35237). One of the most popular of all the tropical aquarium fish. Maximum length 15 cm TL (Ref. 7020). Aquarium keeping: in groups of 5 or more individuals; keep pairs in small tanks for breeding; minimum aquarium size 100 cm (Ref. 51539). ...
The faunal diversity of Lake Tanganyika, with its fish species flocks and its importance as a cradle and reservoir of ancient fish lineages seeding other radiations, has generated a considerable scientific interest in the fields of evolution and biodiversity. The Tropheini, an endemic Tanganyikan cichlid tribe, fills a peculiar phylogenetic position, being closely related to the haplochromine radiations of Lakes Malawi and Victoria. Several problems remain regarding their genus-level classification. For example, the monotypic genus Interochromis is phylogenetically nested within Petrochromis; its only representative, I. loocki, has often been reclassified. As monogenean flatworms are useful markers for fish phylogeny and taxonomy, the monogenean fauna of Interochromis loocki was examined and compared to that of other tropheine cichlids. Three new monogenean species belonging to Cichlidogyrus are described from Interochromis loocki: Cichlidogyrus buescheri Pariselle and Vanhove, sp. nov., ...
ID I3J7R3_ORENI Unreviewed; 5072 AA. AC I3J7R3; DT 11-JUL-2012, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 11-JUL-2012, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 39. DE SubName: Full=Ryanodine receptor 1b (skeletal) {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSONIP00000004903}; GN Name=LOC100709030 {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSONIP00000004903}; OS Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) (Tilapia nilotica). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; OC Actinopterygii; Neopterygii; Teleostei; Neoteleostei; Acanthomorphata; OC Ovalentaria; Cichlomorphae; Cichliformes; Cichlidae; African cichlids; OC Pseudocrenilabrinae; Oreochromini; Oreochromis. OX NCBI_TaxID=8128 {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSONIP00000004903, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000005207}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSONIP00000004903} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RG Broad Institute Genome Assembly Team; RG Broad Institute Sequencing Platform; RA Di Palma F., Johnson J., Lander E.S., Lindblad-Toh K.; RT "The Genome Sequence of ...
Kullander, S.O., 2003. Cichlidae (Cichlids). p. 605-654. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 36377 ...
Buy online Marc Weiss Rift Lake Vital 16oz is ideal for Tanganyika, Malawi, Victoria and other hard water cichlids, including Central Americans! Provides replenishment of the necessary biological trace compounds
Amado, Farias & Hrbek (2011) A molecular perspective on systematics, taxonomy and classification amazonian discus fishes of the genus Symphysodon. International Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 2011 doi: 10.4061/2011/360654 ...
International Journal of Evolutionary Biology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of evolutionary biology.
Discussion. Traditionally, Geophagus was a catch-all genus for large cichlids with an expanded anteroventral lamina on the first epibranchial, lined with gill-rakers as originally diagnosed by Heckel (1840) and in the revision by Regan (1906). In the most recent revision of the genus, Gosse (1976) recognized the three genera Geophagus, Biotodoma Eigenmann & Kennedy and Gymnogeophagus Miranda-Ribeiro. Kullander (1983; 1986) revalidated Satanoperca Günther and referred Geophagus steindachneri Eigenmann & Hildebrand and Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard) to new, still formally unnamed genera. At the time, the resultant Geophagus sensu strictocontained only the three species considered valid by Gosse (1976), viz. G. camopiensis, G. harreri, and G. surinamensis. Recent taxonomic revisions have resulted in revalidations of the synonyms and new species for a total of 19 species (Kullander, 1986; Kullander & Nijssen, 1989; Kullander, 1991; Kullander et al., 1992; López-Fernandez & Taphorn, 2004; ...
Gunter, H. M., Fan, S., Xiong, F., Franchini, P., Fruciano, C. and Meyer, A. (2013), Shaping development through mechanical strain: the transcriptional basis of diet-induced phenotypic plasticity in a cichlid fish. Molecular Ecology, 22: 4516-4531. doi: 10.1111/mec.12417 ...
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Cynotilapia roughly translates to Dogtooth Cichlid. This is due to the widely spaced, sharply pointed unicuspid teeth which are unique among the Lake Malawi flock. Trade names, such as Afra edwardi, are sometimes still seen. Other descriptive names are often seen, i.e. Afra White Top, Afra Red Top, Afra Orange Back. These descriptive names reflect the differing colouration patterns found within the various locational populations of this species. A much more accurate method for communication is to simply list the collection location. For example; instead of C. Afra orange back use C. Afra Cobue(Cobwe) ...
Males have dark blotches on a very colourful background where as females are less colourful, more piebald (black blotches on white ...
ماهیان زینتی پرورشی در شرایط پرورشی متراکم اغلب نسبت به ماهیان در محیط طبیعی کمرنگ تر می باشند. پژوهشهای زیادی نشان داده اند که افزودن جلبکها به جیره غذایی ماهی ، بدلیل دارا بودن رنگیزه های طبیعی می تواند رنگ ماهیان را بهبود دهد. از اینرو در بررسی حاضر اثر کاربرد جلبک اسپرولینا (Arthrospira maxima) به صورت خوراکی بر روی ماهی سیکلید مالاوی (ا Pseudotropheus zebra) مورد پژوهش قرار گرفت. تعداد 180 قطعه ماهی با وزن تقریبی4/1± 15گرم در 6 تیمار غذایی به تعداد 10 ماهی در هر تیمار و سه بار تکرار برای هر سطح آزمایشی و با درصدهای مختلف 0، 5 ، 10، 15، 20 و 25 درصد از پودر خشک اسپیرولینا در جیره غذایی
Electric Yellow Cichlid compatability - I was wondering if you can keep electric yellow chiclids with other tropical fish(non-chiclids) like you can with angelfish???
My 474 liter Cichlid - Tropical fish forum at the Age of Aquariums - dedicated to promoting responsible fish-keeping internationally.
Most cichlid movements are either threats or flirting. Telling the difference between the two is fairly difficult. Shimmying or shaking of the fins and tail are usually signs of flirtation. Ive also seen circular chasing and nipping or kissing (where the two fish grab each others mouths) prior to mating. Chasing across the tank is more often a sign of aggression. On the right a female Melanochromis chipokae and a male Maylandia crabro size each other up. These two fish are trying to determine which one "owns" the small rock structure in the background.. ...
The Cichlid tanks stand had an 2 inch tall raised edge that covered the thermocol and bottom of the tank.. looked neat and well designed.. unfortunately it was a moisture trap and allowed the wood to get waterlogged.. i only noticed it a month back when i saw this hideous fungus growing at the back…
Tank Size - l Fish Kept - Cyrtocara Moorii blue dolphin Labidochromis Caeruleus Aulonocara strawberry peacock Pseudotropheus Blue Cobalt Pseudotropheus Zebra Aulonocara Peacock Aulonocara Blotch Nimbochromis Venustus Giraffe Marylandia Lombardoi Filtration - BioFlow Filter M Lighting - Juwel HiLite T5 …. Your browser is out of date. Plus de conversations que sur nimporte quel autre site de rencontres. The new official Fish site: Two bioscience students at Swansea University won prizes last month, following the launch of a new award. Technological innovations Optoscale weighs up significance of Innovation Award 02 Aug Rocky Malawi tank fish site plenty of open swimming space. Pseudotropheus Elongatus Chewere Metriaclima sp. DENMARK - Scientists from Aarhus University and the industry have joined forces to improve feed for commercial fish farming in order to eintracht frankfurt sc freiburg protein digestibility. From front man with Marillion to solo artist and author. Shock and awe 04 Aug The ...
Kuusipalo, L. 1998a. Scale morphology in Malawian cichlids. Journal of Fish Biology 52: 771-781. The morphology of 24 endemic cichlid species from Lake Malawi was studied with scanning electron microscopy. Several structures possibly of value for taxonomic and evolutionary studies were discovered. Six types of scale shapes and three types of interradial denticles were detected. The spiny area in the exposed part of the scale varied from nonexistent to 148 degrees wide. Several regenerated scales with large focus and short radii were found. Various scale characters, which may prove valuable for phylogenetic purposes, are described and their use in phylogeny construction tested ...
Cichlid fishes from Lake Malawi offer the unprecedented opportunity to study the relationship between genotype and phenotype in wild vertebrates. Over the past ten years, with funding from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, NSF and NIH, weve pioneered genomic and molecular biology approaches in this natural system to solve problems difficult to address in traditional model organisms. Major projects include (i) tooth and taste bud patterning and regeneration; (ii) genomics of complex behavior; and (iii) developmental diversification of the cranial neural crest, placodal plate and neural plate. We analyze and manipulate genomes and development in multiple species of Malawi cichlids, spanning divergence in embryonic/adult phenotypes and behavior - and translate our findings to zebrafish and mouse models.. ...
Staeck, W. 1980: Ein neuer Cichlide vom Ostufer des Tanganjikasees: Lamprologus leleupi longior n. ssp. (Pisces, Cichlidae). Revue de Zoologie Africaine, 94 (1): 11-14 ...
Over a period of a few million years, which is a short time in evolution years, over 22 cichlid species developed with up to 500 individuals in a 50 square mile area. The large amount of different species of the same fish was a result of a process called speciation. Normally, this process occurs when there is only one species of fish, or other animal, in an area where there are many different habitats that can be lived in. In order to reduce competition, or the fight between individuals to get foot or shelter, a member of the species might change their normal preference to fill a new habitat in order to lessen competition. This change occurs over millions of years and eventually the species can no longer mate with the individual that it changed from. Essentially, this is a new species. The cichlid species in Lake Malawi live in an area called the littoral zone which is characterized by a rocky bottom, plant life, and shallow water. The interactions between species, also called interspecific ...
Some people like to say that men are always ready (and eager) for sex. Whether or not thats true for humans, Stanford University researchers have recently learned that it is the case for certain male fish. Downtrodden male African cichlids, whose reproductive systems are so suppressed that biologists thought the fish couldnt produce sperm, can successfully spawn within hours of rising to power, according to a new study published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B.. Like many other animal species, a single leader-the biggest, baddest male-runs each group of African cichlids. This alpha male, which often sports vibrant blue scales, monopolizes the females and beats down other, weaker males in the community. (High school, anyone?) Because of this sexual exclusion, subordinate males suffer a noticeable pallor, decreased levels of reproductive hormones, and severely shrunken testes. Essentially, the fish trade sperm production for growth spurts, in hopes of someday overtaking the ...
Scientists show how the selective expression of genes through epigenetics can regulate the social status of African cichlid fish. The work sheds light on how our genetic code might affect social relations.
Kullander, S.O., 2003. Cichlidae (Cichlids). p. 605-654. A R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander i C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil ...
Ciri-ciri lain spesies Symphysodon adalah penjagaan mereka akan larvanya. Proses mengawan akan mengambil masa sehingga dua minggu dan telur-telur akan mula menetas selepas dua atau tiga hari selepas telur jantan dan betina disenyawakan. Sepertimana kebanyakan ikan cichlid, penjagaan anak dilakukan oleh kedua-dua ikan betina dan jantan. Selain itu, discus dewasa mengeluarkan secretion melalui kulitnya, yang mana larva bergantung hidup pada beberapa hari pertamanya. Kelakuan ini juga dapat diperhatikan pada spesies Uaru. Walaubagaimanapun, bagi pembiakan di dalam kurungan, larva akan bergantung hidup pada ibu dan bapanya untuk beberapa minggu[8] ...
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Ive been experimenting for the last year with all kinds of different food. And I have to tell you that I FINALLY found the right food for my african cichlids. The ingredients in your food are FAR superior to ANY other food on the market...your fish food is everything you say it is and more. My fish are thriving, their color is better, and I only have to do my 25% water changes once a week. I feed my african cichlids your SUPER COLOR FLAKES in the morning, and I feed them your SUPER VEGGIE KELP FLAKES at night. They are growing bigger and thriving. I am DONE experimenting with different foods. Because I know that there cant be any better food than yours. Thank you very much for the GREAT product.. ...
Ive been experimenting for the last year with all kinds of different food. And I have to tell you that I FINALLY found the right food for my african cichlids. The ingredients in your food are FAR superior to ANY other food on the market...your fish food is everything you say it is and more. My fish are thriving, their color is better, and I only have to do my 25% water changes once a week. I feed my african cichlids your SUPER COLOR FLAKES in the morning, and I feed them your SUPER VEGGIE KELP FLAKES at night. They are growing bigger and thriving. I am DONE experimenting with different foods. Because I know that there cant be any better food than yours. Thank you very much for the GREAT product.. ...
In order to crack shellfish considerable force must be generated, which is why cichlids that feed on molluscs (e.g. the cichlid ... In Muschick, Moritz (ed.). Convergence and plasticity in the adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes (PhD thesis). University of ... An exception occurs with the parasitic scale-eating cichlid Perissodus microlepis. The jaws of this fish occur in two distinct ... Cichlids that specialise in algae (e.g. Pseudotropheus) tend to have small conical teeth. Species that feed on pods or seeds ...
African cichlids[edit]. African cichlids are known to be some of the most diverse fish and evolved extremely quickly. These ... 2003 tested this by crossing two species of African cichlids with very different mouth morphologies. The cross between ... "Directional selection has shaped the oral jaws of Lake Malawi cichlid fishes" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
GA Reassessment of Cichlid. Cichlid has been nominated for a good article reassessment. Please leave your comments and help us ...
Color variation in cichlid fish[edit]. The effects of evolutionary ecology and its consequences can be seen in the case of ... With over 2,000 species, cichlid fishes are very species-rich and capable of complex social interactions.[27] Polychromatism, ... the variation of color patterns within a population, occurs within cichlid fishes due to environmental adaptations and to ... "Functional diversity in the color vision of cichlid fishes". BMC Biology. BMC Biology, BioMed Central. 8: 133. doi:10.1186/ ...
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Konings, Ad (1990). Ad Konings' Book of Cichlids and all the other Fishes of Lake ... Recreating a Lake Malawi biotope to host cichlids became quite popular in the aquarium hobby.[57] Most Malawi cichlids are ... The vast majority of the fish species in the lake are cichlids. Among the non-cichlid native fish are several species of ... is the only substrate-spawning cichlid in the lake.[10][61] This large cichlid mainly feeds on macrophytes.[10][62] The ...
... along with rainbow cichlid and purple cichlid. The species is a popular cichlid for the aquarium. In the wild, male P. pulcher ... Robert J. Goldstein (1970). Cichlids. New Jersey: T.F.H. Publications. p. 59. Anton Lamboj (2004). The Cichlid Fishes of ... Wolfgang Staeck & Horst Linke (1994). African Cichlid I: Cichlids from West Africa : A Handbook for Their Identification, Care ... ISBN 3-923880-89-8. David A. Rubin (1985). "Effect of pH on sex ratio in cichlids and a poeciliid (Teleostei)". Copeia. 1985 (1 ...
Cichlidae (Cichlids). p. 605-654. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes ... Crenicichla reticulata is a species of cichlid native to South America. Johann Natterer's neue flussfische Brasilien's nach den ...
Cichlidae (Cichlids). p. 605-654. In: R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater ... Mikrogeophagus is a genus of small cichlids native to the Amazon and Orinoco basins in South America. Both species are popular ... These species spawn on flat rocks or leaves and not in caves like fishes from the closely related cichlid genus Apistogramma. ... ram cichlid) http://research.calacademy.org/redirect?url=http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/ ...
Konings, Ad (1988). Tanganyika Cichlids. Holland: Verduijn Cichlids & Lake Fish Movies. pp. 199-202. ... Lamprologus callipterus is a species of cichlid endemic to Lake Tanganyika where it very actively moves about in search of ... These schools roam around, leaving a trail of destruction as they feed on insect larvae, crustaceans, and juvenile cichlids. ... Ota, Kazutaka; Masanori Kohda; Tetsu Sato (4 October 2010). "Unusual allometry for sexual size dimorphism in a cichlid where ...
"Aethiomastacembelus ellipsiferA". African Cichlids. Retrieved 2010-06-07. ...
"Brichardi Cichlids". African Rift Lake Cichlids. Brough, Clarice. "Daffodil Cichlid". Animal-World. Balshine, Sigal; Brenda ... Like other Lamprologini cichlids, daffodil cichlids are highly variable and are found in all kinds of habitats. They are found ... Mixed parentage is not too uncommon in the daffodil cichlid. Genetic data collected in groups of daffodil cichlids from Lake ... Social status has significant effects on daffodil cichlid behavior. Within a group of breeding and helper cichlids, there ...
Cichlid fish, orange chromide (Pseudetroplus maculatus). Eats ectoparasites; preys on eggs, larvae. Cichlid fish, green ... Wyman, Richard L.; Ward, Jack A. (1972). "A cleaning symbiosis between the cichlid fishes Etroplus maculatus and Etroplus ... Loiselle, Paul V. (1995). The Cichlid Aquarium. Germany: Tetra Press. ISBN 1-56465-146-0.. ...
"Cyprichromis leptosoma". Cichlid-forum.com. Retrieved 15 October 2016. "Welcome Lake Tanganyika queen cichlid (Cyphotilapia ... Mark Smith (1998). Lake Tanganyikan Cichlids. Barron's Educational Series. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-7641-0615-6. Elieson, Marc. " ... are more sensitive to water conditions than some more popular Lake Tanganyikan aquarium cichlids, such as many Lamprologus, ...
Ochi, Haruki; Satoshi Awata (2009). "Resembling the Juvenile Colour of Host Cichlid Facilitates Access of the Guest Cichlid to ... "Differential Attack by a Cichlid Fish on Resident and Non-resident Fish of Another Cichlid Species". Behaviour. 149 (1): 99-109 ... Greater Chicago Cichlid Association, 11 Aug. 2011. Web. 20 Nov. 2013. . "Variabilichromis Moorii." Seriously Fish. N.p., n.d. ... N. mustax is the only other cichlid in V. moorii's habitat which is yellow. Experiments have shown that V. moorii are more ...
... (sometimes called the Seven-stripe Cichlid or Cutter's Cichlid) is a fish species in the cichlid ... doi:10.1111/j.1365-2435.2005.00987.x. Heijns, W. (1993). "Central American Cichlids". In Konings, A. Enjoying Cichlids. Cichlid ... Heijns, W. (July 2009). "Central American heroine cichlids, a phylogenetic approach". Cichlid News. pp. 14-22. Leibel, W. (1995 ... the Topaz Cichlid, and Cryptoheros cutteri (which also sometimes uses the common name "Cutter's Cichlid"). Prior to being ...
... is a genus of small freshwater cichlid fish endemic to South America. The genus is part of the Cichlasomatini tribe ... Boruchowitz, D. E. (2006). Guide to Cichlids. T.F.H. Publications. ISBN 0-7938-0584-8. Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. ( ... In the aquarium hobby, the fish is considered a dwarf cichlid along with Apistogramma, Mikrogeophagus, and Dicrossus species. ... Goldeneye cichlid) Nannacara aureocephalus Allgayer, 1983 Nannacara bimaculata C. H. Eigenmann, 1912 Nannacara quadrispinae ...
Like other cichlids, Bathybates ferox is a mouth-brooder. The eggs, with a diameter of 8.5 mm (0.33 in), are some of the ... The IUCN has assessed it as being a "least-concern species". Bathybates ferox is a fairly deep-bodied cichlid with a silvery ... Mark Smith (1998). Lake Tanganyikan Cichlids. Barron's Educational Series. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-7641-0615-6. "Bathybates ferox". ...
p. 286 Staeck, Wolfgang; Linke, Horst (1995). American Cichlids II: Large Cichlids: A Handbook for Their Identification, Care, ... velvet cichlid, and marble cichlid. In tropical South America, where the species naturally resides, A. ocellatus specimens are ... The oscar is one of the most popular cichlids in the aquarium hobby. Captive oscars may be fed prepared fish food designed for ... "Cichlids: Astronotus ocellatus". Swedish Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 2007-03-16. Kohler, CC; et al. "Aquaculture Crsp ...
Like the other cichlids of this genus, they are best kept in tanks harems with one male to many females. Like any cichlid you ... Maylandia estherae (the red zebra, or Esther Grant's zebra) is a Pseudotrophine cichlid. It is a rock dwelling fish, or mbuna, ... This fish, like most cichlids from Lake Malawi, is a mouthbrooder-females hold their fertilized eggs, then fry, in their mouth ... Smith, M. (2000). Lake Malawi Cichlids. Barron's Educational Series. p. 41. ISBN 0-7641-1525-1. Smith, P. "Evolution of Lake ...
Cichlids (Cichlidae: e.g. Texas cichlid) - freshwater fish that often tolerate brackish conditions ...
The cichlid pick up the eggs in their mouth as if they were their own. Once the catfish eggs hatch the young eat the cichlid ... Tanganyika cichlids are generally benthic (found at or near the bottom) and/or coastal. No Tanganyika cichlids are truly ... Tanganyika has the largest number of endemic cichlid genera of all African lakes. All Tanganyika cichlids are in the subfamily ... The lake holds at least 250 species of cichlid fish and undescribed species remain. Almost all (98%) of the Tanganyika cichlids ...
... , the Congo lionhead cichlid is a species of riverine cichlid which is widespread in the Congo River, it ... "Lamprologus congoensis SCHILTHUIS, 1891". African Cichlids (in Swedish). Ander Persson. Retrieved 3 November 2017. "Lamprologus ...
... is a species of cichlid native to tropical South America, where it is found in the rivers of the ... "Cichlids of the Americas: South American Eartheaters: The Honorary" Eartheaters". FishChannel.com. Retrieved 3 January 2016. ... Landim, M.I.; Moreira, C.R.; Figueiredo, C.A. (2015). "Retroculus acherontos, a new species of cichlid fish (Teleostei) from ... Goldstein, Robert J. (1973). Cichlids of the world. T.F.H. Publications. p. 158. "Retroculus lapidifer (Castelnau, 1855)". ...
... , the rusty cichlid, lavender mbuna or lavender cichlid, is a species of cichlid endemic to the Boadzulu ... the rusty cichlid is considered one of the least aggressive among the mbuna cichlids. This quality makes rusty cichlids an ... Rusty cichlids are mouthbrooders. Females hold their fertilized eggs and fry, in their mouth for a few weeks before releasing ... Rusty cichlids are omnivorous and will eat various kinds of food, but meaty food can often cause them serious digestive ...
Non-cichlids The vast majority of the fish species in the lake are cichlids. Among the non-cichlid native fish are several ... Cichlids Malawi cichlids Lake Malawi is noted for being the site of evolutionary radiations among several groups of animals, ... Recreating a Lake Malawi biotope to host cichlids became quite popular in the aquarium hobby. Most Malawi cichlids are found in ... most notably cichlid fish. There are at least 700 cichlid species in Lake Malawi, with some estimating that the actual figure ...
... butterfly cichlid, Ramirezs dwarf cichlid, dwarf butterfly cichlid and Ramirezi. The species is a member of the family ... The ram cichlid is popular in the tropical freshwater community aquarium. While most cichlids are not well suited for a ... Linke H, Staeck L (1994) American cichlids I: Dwarf Cichlids. A handbook for their identification, care and breeding. Tetra ... Parental ram cichlids have been observed to fan water over their eggs, which hatch in 40 hours at 29 °C (84 °F). The larvae are ...
Firemouth cichlid on FishBase Staeck, W., and H. Linke. (1995) American Cichlids II: Large Cichlids (revised edition in English ... The firemouth cichlid (Thorichthys meeki) is a species of cichlid fish native to Central America. They occur in rivers of the ... Like most cichlids, brood care is highly developed; this species is an egg-layer. Firemouth cichlids form monogamous pairs and ... Firemouth cichlids are omnivorous and opportunistic in their feeding strategies. Their ability to protrude their jaw 6% ...
... Rift lake cichlids have a rather complex behavior, primarily expressed through color and movement. Although ... Rift lake cichlids express timidness and dominance through color. A pale fish is a stressed or timid fish, whereas a very dark ... Most cichlids come to recognize who feeds them and often refuse to come out when unfamiliar people approach the tank. My 155 ... Most cichlid movements are either threats or flirting. Telling the difference between the two is fairly difficult. Shimmying or ...
The blood parrot cichlid (or more commonly and formally known as parrot cichlid; no binomial nomenclature) is a hybrid of the ... Because this hybrid cichlid has various anatomical deformities, controversy exists over the ethics of creating the blood parrot ... Blood parrots should not be confused with other parrot cichlids or salt water parrotfish (family Scaridae).[2] ... midas and the redhead cichlid. The fish was first created in Taiwan around 1986.[1][citation needed] ...
C. lepidota is a benthopelagic (ecological region at the lowest level of water body) and potamodromous (migrating within fresh water only) fish. Found in lagoons, larger rivers, small streams - if you are in the plains and there is water, it is likely you will find this species. It is a typical dweller of streams, lagoons and flooded areas ...
The Capital Cichlid Association is a Maryland-based club that meets to promote and educate local cichlid (freshwater fish) ...
Trying to cash in on the current trend in punk rock, disco label TK records signed The Cichlids, but sadly enough, internal ... Formed in early 1979, The Cichlids were composed of Debbie DeNeese on vocals and guitar, Bobby Tak on drums and vocals, Allan ... The Cichlids on Myspace Tourists Are Pink Video Search and Destroy Video Ubangi Stomp/Lets Go Menial Video These Boots Are ... The Cichlids made their debut in 1979 and became an overnight local sensation. ...
Listing in this category: Cichlids. Cichlid Research Home Page. Date Added: December 31, 1969 Hits: 326 Detail ... featuring extensive information about cichlids, plus the online science experiment known as the Cichlid Egg Project. ... The Cichlid Room Companion. Date Added: December 31, 1969 Hits: 286 Detail ... The most comprehensive cichlid site and community on the web. Hundreds of articles, thousands of photographs, hundreds of daily ...
... piscivorous cichlid that is native to large areas of tropical South America. Due to its desirability as a sport-fish, C.... ... C. ocellaris is a large cichlid that may reach 91 cm, though 50-60 cm is the typical adult size. C. kelberi, recognized by ... C. ocellaris is a large, piscivorous cichlid that is native to large areas of tropical South America. Due to its desirability ... C. ocellaris is a large, piscivorous cichlid that is native to large areas of tropical South America. Due to its desirability ...
Malawi Cichlids etc will especially appreciate feeding in this way. , eBay! ... SCREWCUMBER - VEGGIE WEIGHT, PLECOS, CLOWNS, BRISTLENOSE, MALAWI CICHLIDS, ETC Email to friends Share on Facebook - opens in a ... Details about SCREWCUMBER - VEGGIE WEIGHT, PLECOS, CLOWNS, BRISTLENOSE, MALAWI CICHLIDS, ETC. 4.9 average based on 55 product ...
Do you have cichlids in your aquarium? Would you like to become a pet-parent to some of these intelligent fish who are full of ... personality? - Add Color to Your Cichlid Tank - Fish at BellaOnline ... The firemouth is one of the more passive Cichlids as Cichlids go, so if mixing them with other Cichlids, you should introduce ... Add Color to Your Cichlid Tank. Some interesting Cichlids are Firemouths. These beautiful fish have a dark red throat and belly ...
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Web publication). Cichlid at Curlie (based on DMOZ) The Cichlid Fishes of Lake Malawi by Dr. Michael Oliver. Vision in Cichlids ... Cichlids are popular freshwater fish kept in the home aquarium. Cichlids span a wide range of body sizes, from species as small ... Cichlids /ˈsɪklɪdz/ are fish from the family Cichlidae in the order Perciformes. Cichlids are members of a suborder known as ... Many cichlids introduced into waters outside of their natural range have become nuisances. Cichlids share a single key trait: ...
Malawi Cichlids etc will especially appreciate feeding in this way. , eBay! ... SCREWCUMBER TWIN PACK, FEEDER - PLECS, LOACHES, MALAWI CICHLIDS, SNAILS etc Email to friends Share on Facebook - opens in a new ... Details about SCREWCUMBER TWIN PACK, FEEDER - PLECS, LOACHES, MALAWI CICHLIDS, SNAILS etc. ...
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Goin South: Cichlids of South America; Part 20: The Pike Cichlids. Aquarium Fish Magazine 7(1):68ff. *Leibel, W. S., 1992. The ... A Cichlid from Patagonia. Buntbarsche Bulletin, 85: 13-23. *Kullander, S. O. 1982. Cichlid Fishes from the La Plata Basin. Part ... A Cichlid from Patagonia. Buntbarsche Bulletin, 85: 13-23. *Kullander, S. O., 1981a. Cichlid Fishes from the La Plata Basin. ... Back to ==> Home / Pike Cichlid Articles / Pike references. Home. Pikes. Neotropicals. Collecting. Photography. Personal. Links ...
Flower Horn and midas world - you like humpheads and other cichlids from America``and extreme Turtles than you are welcome!!! ... Articles and links exclusively dedicated to Neotropical tanks and fish, especially cichlids. Join Suite101.com, its free! ... A site about tropicals: mainly Cories, Rams and other cichlids. Full of info and pictures. ...
... cichlid care, breeding, fish diseases, and cichlid pictures for Malawi Cichilds, Tanganyika Cichlids, West African and Dwarf ... African Cichlids at Animal-World.com has fish information, ... Zebra Cichlids Lake Malawi Cichlids known as Zebra Cichlids. ... Fish Information for South American Cichlids, Central American Cichlids, and Dwarf Cichlids including cichlid care, cichlid ... African Cichlids are grouped into Lake Malawi Cichlids, Lake Tanganyica Cichlids, and other types of cichlids like the Dwarf ...
3. Wolf cichlid (Parachromis dovii). Also known as Dows cichlid, this measures 75cm/30" in males, 60cm/24" in females and is ... Some cichlids are huge and many outsize species make great pets as they respond to their owner and show great interest in what ... In Features, Tropical fish Tags biggest, cichlids, pets, large, piscivore, Cichlasoma, Tilapia, Cichla, Boulengerochromis, ... All these big cichlids are a valuable food in their native lands - and thats a point worth bearing in mind if finding yourself ...
Jack Dempsey cichlids are a medium-sized fish which can be distinguished from other cichlids by the presence of two grey-black ... There are no other known naturalised populations of Jack Dempsey cichlids in Australia. Because Jack Dempsey cichlids are ... Jack Dempsey cichlids are one of about 30 aquarium fish species that have become established in Australian waterways, and have ... Follow up monitoring by the NSW DPI has found Jack Dempsey cichlids remain in the pool. It is possible that some fish survived ...
Cichlidae (Cichlids). p. 605-654. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes ... Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Cichlidae (Cichlids) > Cichlasomatinae. Etymology: ...
The pearl cichlid (Geophagus brasiliensis) is a species of fish in the cichlid family. It is native to southeastern Brazil ( ... The pearl cichlid has one dark spot which may visible on its body, located towards its tail; it also may display several black ...
The threadfin cichlid (Petrochromis trewavasae) is a species of cichlid endemic to Lake Tanganyika found in areas with rocky ...
Though dwarf cichlids are by definition small-sized cichlids, there is no accepted maximum length of a dwarf-sized cichlid. ... "dwarf cichlid group" a variety of small-sized cichlids from the alkaline African rift lakes. Dwarf cichlids prefer aquaria with ... List of freshwater aquarium fish species Linke H, Staeck L (1994) American cichlids I: Dwarf Cichlids. A handbook for their ... Dwarf cichlid is a term used by fishkeeping hobbyists to describe an arbitrary assemblage of small-sized fish from the family ...
... a South American cichlid Hypsophrys nicaraguensis, a Central American cichlid Blood parrot cichlid, a hybrid cichlid created in ... Parrot cichlid may refer to: Hoplarchus psittacus, ...
  • The convict cichlid displays significant color across its range. (wikipedia.org)
  • The common name convict cichlid is, like the species name, derived from the vertical black stripes on the body which are reminiscent of the striped prison uniforms of British convicts. (wikipedia.org)
  • At four natural habitats of the convict cichlid in Costa Rica, the pH was found to range from 6.6-7.8, while carbonate hardness (KH) ranged from 63 to 77 ppm CaCO 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • The convict cichlid can reach sexual maturity as young as 16 weeks, though sexual maturity more commonly occurs at 6 months. (wikipedia.org)
  • Convict Cichlid babies 03/04/2008 Hello I recently bought 2 convict cichlids and now a month later I have babies! (wetwebmedia.com)
  • In the study of Central American convict cichlid fish, CBN scientists Ryan L. Earley, Ph.D. and Matthew Grober, Ph.D. of Georgia State University, and Lawrence Blumer, Ph.D. of Morehouse College, compared bile retention and gall bladder size in dominant and subordinate males that had eaten equal amounts of food. (eurekalert.org)
  • Like cichlids from the genus Pterophyllum (angelfish), all Symphysodon species have a laterally compressed body shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like any cichlid you must put many other mbuna cichlids preferably 15. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although not entirely a peaceful fish, the rusty cichlid is considered one of the least aggressive among the mbuna cichlids. (wikipedia.org)
  • In marked contrast to the better known rocky shore 'mbuna' cichlids which are split into many geographically isolated populations on particular islands or rocky coastal regions, molecular studies indicate that there are few barriers to the movement and interbreeding of Diplotaxodon populations within the lake. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1995) American Cichlids II: Large Cichlids (revised edition in English). (wikipedia.org)
  • K. Takahashi, Y. Terai, M. Nishida, and N. Okada, "Phylogenetic relationships and ancient incomplete lineage sorting among cichlid fishes in lake Tanganyika as revealed by analysis of the insertion of retroposons," Molecular Biology and Evolution , vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 2057-2066, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • While most cichlids are not well suited for a community tank, if a male and female pair of this specific type are placed in a community tank, they generally will do well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most cichlids come to recognize who feeds them and often refuse to come out when unfamiliar people approach the tank. (mit.edu)
  • When introduced to a well-established community tank, the aggressiveness of the cichlid is toned down because of the lack of space that can be occupied territorially. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1899) Stub needs detail Hemichromis elongatus (Guichenot, 1861) (Banded jewel cichlid) Hemichromis exsul (Trewavas, 1933) (Turkana jewel cichlid) Hemichromis fasciatus W. K. H. Peters, 1857 (Banded jewelfish) Hemichromis frempongi Loiselle, 1979 Hemichromis guttatus Günther, 1862 Hemichromis letourneuxi Sauvage, 1880 Hemichromis lifalili Loiselle, 1979 Hemichromis stellifer Loiselle, 1979 Jewel cichlids are neither suited to beginners, nor the usual community tank. (wikipedia.org)
  • tank and was wonder if i could get cichlids. (fishlore.com)
  • tank is not big enough for most cichlids, but it would be a good size for some of the shell dweller species. (fishlore.com)
  • When I kept half a dozen of them, I did so in a 200 gallon tank with a similar number of Firemouths, a Jaguar cichlid, and a Red Devil. (wetwebmedia.com)
  • Butterfly is correct in saying that you need a bigger tank for your four cichlids. (fishlore.com)
  • I do want a Cichlid tank with labs and johnnies et al, but will wait until I have at least a 55 gallon. (fishlore.com)
  • ok well I'm off to buy a bigger tank for all my cichlids. (fishlore.com)
  • I've just had my water tested, my numbers are good, her only tank mates are a Tropheus and a Peacock cichlid, and they've all been together for years. (wetwebmedia.com)
  • When I got to the Gourami/Cichlid tank, I noticed a scattering of white-clear balls, each about the size of a ballpoint pen tip. (wetwebmedia.com)
  • I've got a lake Malawi cichlid tank going, in a 75? (wetwebmedia.com)
  • I was wanting to get yalls opinion on it, as this is my first cichlid tank. (wetwebmedia.com)
  • I have 2 Electric Yellow Cichlids in my tank with many other peaceful community fish. (liveaquaria.com)
  • I would recommend this fish to any one who is starting a cichlid tank. (liveaquaria.com)
  • I am going to join the hobby by getting a 105gl tank full of cichlids. (cichlidae.com)
  • This novelty is mechanically integrated with the upper jaw, appears to be under directional selection, and is found in one of the most ecologically successful cichlid lineages. (pnas.org)
  • This rapid evolution was facilitated by earlier hybridisation between two distantly related cichlid species from the Upper Nile and Congo drainage systems, scientists have discovered. (practicalfishkeeping.co.uk)