A phylum of fungi that was formerly considered a subdivision of Phycomycetes. They are the only fungi that produce motile spores (zoospores) at some stage in their life cycle. Most are saprobes but they also include examples of plant, animal, and fungal pathogens.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between TRANSVERSE COLON and the SIGMOID COLON.
Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.
A species of parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae that is the causative agent of late blight of potato.
A genus of destructive parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae, order Peronosporales, affecting numerous fruit, vegetable, and other crops. Differentiation of zoospores usually takes place in the sporangium and no vesicle is formed. It was previously considered a fungus.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
An order of stalked, sessile, single-celled EUKARYOTES. They are considered the transitional link between the flagellated protozoa and the SPONGES, the most primitive metazoans.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.
The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)
A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.
Books designed to give factual information or instructions.
Images used to comment on such things as contemporary events, social habits, or political trends; usually executed in a broad or abbreviated manner.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Constituent of the 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 120 nucleotides and 34 proteins. It is also a constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A dye used as a reagent in the determination of vitamin C.
The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.
Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.
Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
A genus of European newts in the Salamandridae family. The two species of this genus are Salamandra salamandra (European "fire" salamander) and Salamandra atra (European alpine salamander).
A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.
Protein factors uniquely required during the initiation phase of protein synthesis in GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A plant family of the order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are tropical trees which have elongate latex cells. Several members bear sweet edible fruits and produce triterpenoid saponins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.

Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines. (1/240)

We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations.  (+info)

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in a breeding colony of African clawed frogs (Xenopus tropicalis). (2/240)

More than 90% of a breeding colony of clawed frogs (Xenopus tropicalis) imported to the United States from western Africa died in an epizootic of chlamydiosis. Chlamydial inclusions were observed by light and electron microscopy in the liver of an infected frog. Chlamydia pneumoniae was isolated in cell cultures from four frogs. A cutaneous infection by a chytridiomycete fungus observed in two frogs could have been a cofactor in the die-off.ous Diseases  (+info)

PCR primers that amplify fungal rRNA genes from environmental samples. (3/240)

Two PCR primer pairs were designed to amplify rRNA genes (rDNA) from all four major phyla of fungi: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridomycota, and Zygomycota. PCRs performed with these primers showed that both pairs amplify DNA from organisms representing the major taxonomic groups of fungi but not from nonfungal sources. To test the ability of the primers to amplify fungal rDNA from environment samples, clone libraries from two avocado grove soils were constructed and analyzed. These soils possess different abilities to inhibit avocado root rot caused by Phythophthora cinnamomi. Analysis of the two rDNA clone libraries revealed differences in the two fungal communities. It also revealed a markedly different depiction of the soil fungal community than that generated by a culture-based analysis, confirming the value of rDNA-based approaches for identifying organisms that may not readily grow on agar media. Additional evidence of the usefulness of the primers was obtained by identifying fungi associated with avocado leaves. In both the soil and leaf analyses, no nonfungal rDNA sequences were identified, illustrating the selectivity of these PCR primers. This work demonstrates the ability of two newly developed PCR primer sets to amplify fungal rDNA from soil and plant tissue, thereby providing unique tools to examine this vast and mostly undescribed community of organisms.  (+info)

Double-hairpin elements in the mitochondrial DNA of allomyces: evidence for mobility. (4/240)

The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the chytridiomycete fungus Allomyces macrogynus contains 81 G+C-rich sequence elements that are 26-79 bases long and can be folded into a unique secondary structure consisting of two stem-loops. At the primary sequence level, the conservation of these double-hairpin elements (DHEs) is variable, ranging from marginal to complete identity. Forty of these DHEs are inserted in intergenic regions, 35 in introns, and 6 in variable regions of rRNA genes. Ten DHEs are inserted into other DHE elements (twins); two even form triplets. A comparison of DHE sequences shows that loop regions contain more sequence variation than helical regions and that the latter often contain compensatory base changes. This suggests a functional importance of the DHE secondary structure. We further identified nine DHEs in a 4-kb region of Allomyces arbusculus, a close relative of A. macrogynus. Eight of these DHEs are highly similar in sequence (90%-100%) to those in A. macrogynus, but only five are inserted at the same positions as in A. macrogynus. Interestingly, DHEs are also found in the mtDNAs of other chytridiomycetes, as well as certain zygomycete and ascomycete fungi. The overall distribution pattern of DHEs in fungal mtDNAs suggests that they are mobile elements.  (+info)

Production of polyclonal antibodies to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and their use in an immunoperoxidase test for chytridiomycosis in amphibians. (5/240)

Polyclonal antibodies were produced for diagnosing chytridiomycosis in amphibians. Two sheep and 4 rabbits were inoculated with homogenized whole culture of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Freund's complete adjuvant or triple adjuvant. Antisera from all animals reacted strongly with all stages of B. dendrobatidis and stained the walls, cytoplasm, rhizoids and zoospores in an indirect immunoperoxidase test. Significant cross-reactivity occurred only with some fungi in the Chytridiomycota, and there are no members of this phylum besides B. dendrobatidis that infect frogs. The immunoperoxidase stain is a useful screening test when combined with recognition of the morphology and infection site of B. dendrobatidis.  (+info)

Uptake of the glucose analogue 2-deoxyglucose by germinating mitospores of Allomyces macrogynus. (6/240)

Mitospores or cysts of Allomyces macrogynus do not take up the glucose analogue 2-deoxyglucose. Uptake of 2-deoxyglucose by germlings begins at 25 min into germination, the start of the rhizoid stage, and increases in rate by approximately 50-fold until 100 min into germination. The rate remains constant from 100 to 200 min, at which time germination is completed and hyphal formation begins. The presence of glucose in the germination medium blocks the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose. Of the other sugars tested, only galactose had any effect on 2-deoxyglucose uptake. Actinomycin D treatment during germination in a glucose-containing medium prevented the appearance of the uptake system, but actinomycin D was not effective after the transfer to a glucose-free medium. Cycloheximide treatment prevented the appearance of the uptake system if it was added at the time of the transfer to the glucose-free medium; it inhibited uptake only partially if the germlings were starved of glucose before its addition. It appears, therefore, that both ribonucleic acid synthesis during germination and protein synthesis after the removal of glucose are required for the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose.  (+info)

Spatial and cellular localization of calcium-dependent protease (CDP II) in Allomyces arbuscula. (7/240)

Immunogold labeling of calcium-dependent neutral protease II (CDPII) with specific antibodies in near median longitudinal ultrathin sections of Allomyces arbuscula showed that the enzyme is predominantly localized in the growing hyphal and rhizoidal apices. The tips in both cell type had more enzyme than the distal regions and showed a gradient distribution. Labeling of the ultrathin sections and western blot analysis of purified subcellular fractions showed that CDPII is mainly cytosolic. Catalytic activity of the enzyme measured with synthetic substrate (Bz-Arg-pNA) showed that 90% of its activity is present in the soluble fraction, although a small amount is associated with the nuclei (0.2%), plasma membranes (0.7%) and microsomes (3.9%). This association is discussed in the context of the functional role of the enzyme and its possible localized activation. Western blot analysis of the crude extract and indirect immunofluorescence of the fixed permeabilized hypahe after treatment with CDPII showed that the alpha-tubulin is a specific target of the enzyme.  (+info)

Evolution of monoblepharidalean fungi based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences. (8/240)

We have determined the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of three chytridiomycete fungi, Monoblepharella15, Harpochytrium94 and Harpochytrium105. Our phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated mitochondrial protein sequences confirms the placement of Mono blepharella15 together with Harpochytrium spp. and Hyaloraphidium curvatum within the taxonomic order Monoblepharidales, with overwhelming support. These four mtDNA sequences encode the standard fungal mitochondrial gene complement and, like certain other chytridiomycete fungi, encode a reduced complement of 7-9 tRNAs, some of which require 5'-tRNA editing to be functional. Highly conserved sequence elements were identified upstream of almost all protein-coding genes in the mtDNAs of Monoblepharella15 and both Harpochytrium species. Finally, a guanosine residue is conserved upstream of the predicted ATG or GTG start codons of almost every protein-coding gene in these genomes. The appearance of this G residue correlates with the presence of a non-canonical cytosine residue at position 37 in the anticodon loop of the mitochondrial initiator tRNAs. Based on the unorthodox features in these four genomes, we propose that a 4 bp interaction between the CAUC anticodon of these tRNAs and GAUG/GGUG codons is involved in translation initiation in monoblepharidalean mitochondria. Intriguingly, a similar interaction may also be involved in mitochondrial translation initiation in the sea anemone Metridium senile.  (+info)

Population genetics of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) show that isolates are highly related and globally homogenous, data that are consistent with the recent epidemic spread of a previously endemic organism. Highly related isolates are predicted to be functionally similar due to low levels of heritable genetic diversity. To test this hypothesis, we took a global panel of Bd isolates and measured (i) the genetic relatedness among isolates, (ii) proteomic profiles of isolates, (iii) the susceptibility of isolates to the antifungal drug caspofungin, (iv) the variation among isolates in growth and phenotypic characteristics, and (v) the virulence of isolates against the European common toad Bufo bufo. Our results show (i) genotypic differentiation among isolates, (ii) proteomic differentiation among isolates, (iii) no significant differences in susceptibility to caspofungin, (iv) differentiation in growth and phenotypic/morphological characters, and (v) differential ...
Global amphibian declines and extinction events are occurring at an unprecedented rate. While several factors are responsible for declines and extinction, the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been cited as a major constituent in these events. While the effects of this chytrid fungus have been shown to cause broad scale population declines and extinctions, certain individuals and relict populations have shown resistance. This resistance has been attributed in part to the cutaneous bacterial microbiome. Here, we present the first study characterizing anti-Bd bacterial isolates from amphibian populations in Costa Rica, including the characterization of two strains of Serratia marcescens presenting strong anti-Bd activity. Transcriptome sequencing was utilized for delineation of shifts in gene expression of the two previously uncharacterized strains of S. marcescens grown in three different treatments comprising Bd, heat-killed Bd, and a no Bd control. These results revealed ...
Chytrid Fungus (KIT-rid) (Batrachochytrium sp. - Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) is a fungal pathogen and a major contributor to the decline of amphibian populations around the world, threatening many species with extinction. This fungus is a global emerging amphibian pathogen which is proving to be one of the worst vertebrate infectious diseases found so far. It is causing a huge amount of extinction and disease within amphibian populations. More than 100 species of amphibians are known to be affected by the chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). Some are very susceptible and die quickly while others which are more resistant are carriers of the pathogen. The disease, called Chytridiomycosis, is already credited with wiping out frogs and toads in large numbers in Australia and South America. The aquarium hobbys main two species available from shops are the Dwarf African Frog (Hymenochirus boettgeri) and the African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis). These have shown to be infected in ...
by Vetscite. After a six-year effort, biologists say they have for the first time managed to rid a wild toad species of a lethal fungal disease that threatens amphibians around the world.. Midwife toads on the Spanish island of Mallorca are now free of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, says Jaime Bosch, an evolutionary biologist at Spains National Museum of Natural History in Madrid. His team reported their success in the journal Biology Letters on 18 November. But the successful treatment - which involved treating tadpoles with an antifungal drug and chemically cleansing their ponds - may not be widely applicable to the habitats of other amphibian species that are threatened by chytrid, the researchers and others say.. The fungal disease is one of the greatest threats amphibians face across the globe: chytrid has already wiped out hundreds of species of frogs. Bosch and his colleagues in Spain and the United Kingdom first set out to save isolated populations of vulnerable ...
USGS scientists and their colleagues have developed a new method to detect the presence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in water and sediment samples
The frog-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes the disease chytridiomycosis, has been blamed for about 100 amphibian extinctions around the globe since it was first observed in 1998, but clear information on exactly how it spreads has remained a mystery.. Now a team of scientists working in Belgium have come up with one potential clue: the chytrid fungus may sometimes be carried to new habitats on the toes of waterfowl such as geese.. According to research published April 13 in the journal PLoS One, geese are potential environmental reservoirs for the Bd fungus, because waterfowl and amphibians often co-occur in the same habitats. The team studied 497 wild geese-which had been rounded up from six wildlife areas in East Flanders as part of an invasive species eradication program-and found that the keratinous toe scales of 76 of the birds tested positive for Bd. The fungus was present on both species of geese that they tested: invasive Canada geese (Branta Canadensis) ...
From 1999 to 2006, we sampled ,1200 amphibians for the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) at 30 sites in the southeastern USA. Using histological techniques or PCR assays, we detected chytrid infection in 10 species of aquatic-breeding amphibians in 6 states. The prevalence of chytrid infection was 17.8% for samples of postmetamorphic amphibians examined using skin swab-PCR assays (n = 202 samples from 12 species at 4 sites). In this subset of samples, anurans had a much higher prevalence of infection than caudates (39.2% vs. 5.5%, respectively). Mean prevalence in ranid frogs was 40.7%. The only infected salamanders were Notophthalmus viridescens at 3 sites. We found infected amphibians from late winter through late spring and in 1 autumn sample. Although we encountered moribund or dead amphibians at 9 sites, most mortality events were not attributed to Bd. Chytridiomycosis was established as the probable cause of illness or death in fewer than 10 individuals. Our observations ...
Emerging diseases, such as the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, contribute to global population declines of amphibians. Virkon S is one of the most commonly used disinfectants to reduce risk of spreading such pathogens. Virkon S is classified as harmful to aquatic organisms, but until today no negative effects on tadpoles have been reported. We studied the effects of three concentrations of Virkon S on early life-stages (embryos and hatchlings) of the moor frog Rana anvils. Overall, Virkon S had no significant effects. However, hatching success was highest in the control treatment, suggesting that Virkon S may have weak negative effects on amphibian embryos. We suggest that further studies are needed to assess the negative effect of Virkon S on amphibians, and recommend that Virkon S is used with care and a minimized run-off into natural wetlands.. ...
The fungal disease chytridiomycosis, caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is enigmatic because it occurs globally in both declining and apparently healthy (non-declining) amphibian populations. This distribution has fueled debate concerning whether, in sites where it has recently been found, the pathogen was introduced or is endemic. In this study, we addressed the molecular population genetics of a global collection of fungal strains from both declining and healthy amphibian populations using DNA sequence variation from 17 nuclear loci and a large fragment from the mitochondrial genome. We found a low rate of DNA polymorphism, with only two sequence alleles detected at each locus, but a high diversity of diploid genotypes. Half of the loci displayed an excess of heterozygous genotypes, consistent with a primarily clonal mode of reproduction. Despite the absence of obvious sex, genotypic diversity was high (44 unique genotypes out of 59 strains). We provide evidence that the observed ...
Epidemiological theory generally suggests that pathogens will not cause host extinctions because the pathogen should fade out when the host population is driven below some threshold density. An emerging infectious disease, chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is directly linked to the recent extinction or serious decline of hundreds of amphibian species. Despite continued spread of this pathogen into uninfected areas, the dynamics of the host-pathogen interaction remain unknown. We use fine-scale spatiotemporal data to describe (i) the invasion and spread of Bd through three lake basins, each containing multiple populations of the mountain yellow-legged frog, and (ii) the accompanying host-pathogen dynamics. Despite intensive sampling, Bd was not detected on frogs in study basins until just before epidemics began. Following Bd arrival in a basin, the disease spread to neighboring populations at approximately 700 m/yr in a wave-like pattern until all ...
Hertz, A, Ponce, M, Madani, G, Bland, A, Petchey, A, Andrén, C and Eisenberg, T 2018, Low Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis prevalence in two persisting post-decline populations of endangered hylid frogs in western Panama , Salamandra, 54 (1) , pp. 83-86. Full text not available from this repository ...
The chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, causes chytridiomycosis and is a major contributor to global amphibian declines. Although amphibians have robust immune defenses, clearance of this pathogen is impaired. Because inhibition of host immunity is a common survival strategy of pathogenic fungi, we hypothesized that B. dendrobatidis evades clearance by inhibiting immune functions. We found that B. dendrobatidis cells and supernatants impaired lymphocyte proliferation and induced apoptosis; however, fungal recognition and phagocytosis by macrophages and neutrophils was not impaired. Fungal inhibitory factors were resistant to heat, acid, and protease. Their production was absent in zoospores and reduced by nikkomycin Z, suggesting that they may be components of the cell wall. Evasion of host immunity may explain why this pathogen has devastated amphibian populations worldwide.
Global amphibian decline is an established problem, first noted over 40 years ago. Without an obvious cause beyond the natural factors, such as habitat loss, disease has risen as a reasonable explanation. Chytridiomycosis is an infectious disease targeting amphibians, namely frogs, in Central and South America. The fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, has been shown to be inhibited by natural mixes of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) found on the backs of susceptible and resistant frogs. A unique case, Atelopus zeteki, does not show the same use of AMPs. Rather, a heterocyclic diol, isosorbide, seems to be involved in their immunological response to B. dendrobatidis infection. Using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, gas chromatography mass spectrometry, flame ionization detection, and chytrid bioassays, isosorbide was determined and suggested to function in an antimicrobial manner in A. zeteki. The lowest concentration exhibiting antimicrobial properties was 250 mM isosorbide against chytrid
Adams, M.J., Galvan, S., Reinitz, D., Cole, R.A., Pyare, S., Hahr, M. et Govindarajulu, P. 2007. Incidence of the fungus batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibian populations along the northwest coast of North America. Herpetological Reviews 38:430-431.. Agence canadienne dinspection des aliments. 2009. Les maladies déclarables et les maladies à notification immédiate et annuelle : un guide pour les intervenants du milieu agro-alimentaire et les laboratoires [en ligne]. Agence canadienne dinspection des aliments, Gouvernement du Canada. (consulté le 23 Oct. 2009).. Agence de la santé publique du Canada. 2006. Maladie de Lyme - fiche de renseignements [en ligne]. Gouvernement du Canada. (consulté le 11 janvier 2009).. Alexander, D.J. 2000. Newcastle disease and other avian paramyxoviruses. Revue scientifique et technique (Office international des épizooties) 19:443-462.. Alford, R.A. et Richards, S.J. 1999. Global amphibian declines: a problem in applied ecology. Annual Review of ...
The fungal skin disease, chytridiomycosis (caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and B. salamandrivorans), has caused amphibian declines and extinctions globally since its emergence. Characterizing the host immune response to chytridiomycosis has been a focus of study with the aim of disease mitigation. However, many aspects of the innate and adaptive arms of this response are still poorly understood, likely due to the wide range of species responses to infection. In this paper we provide an overview of expected immunological responses (with inference based on amphibian and mammalian immunology), together with a synthesis of current knowledge about these responses for the amphibian-chytridiomycosis system. We structure our review around four key immune stages: (1) the naïve immunocompetent state, (2) immune defenses that are always present (constitutive defenses), (3) mechanisms for recognition of a pathogen threat and innate immune defenses, and (4) adaptive immune responses. We also evaluate the
Amphibian conservation has received increasing attention following the 2005 global declaration of the Amphibian Conservation Action Plan (ACAP), with placed a high premium on amongst other increasing the capacity of conservation research required to combat this global crisis. It is within this research field of amphibian conservation that I have established my research activities within the geographical bounds of sub-Saharan Africa and adjacent island of Madagascar. The majority of my work effort is focused, but not limited to the disease chytridiomycosis caused by a fungal skin pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Studying wildlife pathogens from the perspective of gaining insight on how to better conserve the host species being affected by disease requires trans-boundary collaboration between wildlife ecologists, veterinarians, and conservation organizations. For this reason my work on amphibian diseases has involved international collaboration on papers with authors from various ...
Identification of Chytrid Fungus in Native Toads and Frogs, administered by Dr. Kirk Suedmeyer, Director of Animal Health , to determine the incidence of chytrid fungus on Zoo grounds.. This one year study involves a team of staff and volunteers swabbing local amphibians for chytrid fungus. Geo tracking, species and gender determination and individual photo documentation will be performed on all toads and frogs caught. All animals tested will be released unharmed where they were found. Swabs obtained will be analyzed to determine the incidence and prevalence of this fungal organism on Zoo grounds.. In 2013 Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, discovered about a third of the ponds in their study are infected with chytrid, the notorious skin fungus that has sickened and killed amphibians in other parts of the world. In amphibians, chytrid infects and damages the skin, which amphibians use to breathe and absorb water. Once the fungus takes hold, it causes a disease called chytridiomycosis, ...
The following year, when frog chytrid showed up at the National Zoo, pathologists Allan Pessier and Donald Nichols, and mycologist Joyce Longcore, determined that it was Bd, a chytrid fungus.. Around the world, scientists puzzled over the sudden loss.. The changes have been nothing short of dramatic, from very abundant populations to seeing tens of thousands of dead carcasses on lake shorelines, says biologist Vance Vredenburg, assistant professor at San Francisco State University and AAAS member, whos worked with yellow-legged frogs in the Sierra Nevada mountains in California for more than 15 years.. These frogs - which have lived in the area for some 5 million years - dwell in highly protected, pristine habitats with roadless areas, Vredenburg explains. Soon after publishing studies that showed that frog populations would rebound if invasive species were removed, the chytrid appeared.. It was 2004 when chytrid hit Sixty Lake Basin in the Sierra Nevada mountains, where Vredenburg was ...
Berger, L., Speare, R., Daszak, P., Green, D.E., Cunningham, A.A., Goggin, C.L., Slocombe, R., Ragan, M.A., Hyatt, A.D., McDonald, K.R., Hines, H.B., Lips, K.R., Marantelli, G. & Parkes, H. (1998) Chytridiomycosis causes amphibian mortality associated with population declines in the rain forests of Australia and Central America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 95, 9031-9036 ...
Chytridiomycosis is a globally emerging disease of amphibians and the leading cause of population declines and extirpations at species-diverse montane sites in Central America. We continued long-term
Synonyms for Chytridiales in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Chytridiales. 1 synonym for Chytridiales: order Chytridiales. What are synonyms for Chytridiales?
Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. 0 Comments. ...
Activating genes for reprogramming factors for a short time transforms large numbers of differentiated cells into multipotent forms that could be useful for cell-based therapies.. 0 Comments. ...
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is the particular fungus responsible for chytrid in frogs, and while hundreds of amphibian populations (and species!) have already been lost to this pathogen, there are many other populations that are doing just fine*.. So chytrid is a big problem, but predicting susceptibility to chytrid in natural populations is tricky business. A major focus of this effort is understanding how immunity is conferred to amphibians populations, and this process starts with the heroic genes that are most responsible for fighting chytrid: those of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).. Conservation biologists hope that immunity to Bd is being selected for quickly, but the evolution of host resistance has only been recently addressed. Most recently, Anna Savage and Kelly Zamudio took a big step by taking measurements of positive selection for immunity out of the laboratory and into the field by analyzing MHC genes in wild populations of frogs with ongoing chytrid ...
Learn about chytrid fungus in Foothill Yellow-Legged Frogs (Rana boylii) in the Alameda Creek area of California. Chytridiomycosis research.
Literature Cited. Barr, D. J. S. 1971. Morphology and taxonomy of Entophlyctis confervae-glomeratae (Chytridiales) and related species. Can. J. Bot. 49: 2215_2222.. Barr, D. J. S. 1973. Six Rhizophydium species (Chytridiales) in culture. Can. J. Bot. 51: 967_975.. Barr, D. J. S. 1986. Allochytridium expandens rediscovered : morphology, physiology and zoospore ultrastructure. Mycologia 78(3): 439_448.. Berdan, H. B. 1939. Two new genera of operculate chytrids. Amer. J. Bot. 26(7): 459_463.. Berdan, H. B. 1941. A developmental study of three saprophytic chytrids. II. Catenochytridium carolinianum Berdan. Amer. J. Bot. 28: 439_448.. Canter, H. M. 1961. Studies on British Chytrids XVII. Species occurring on planktonic desmids. Trans. Brit. mycol. Soc. 44(2):163_176.. Fuller, M. S. and A. Jaworski. 1987. Zoosporic fungi in teaching and research. Southeastern Pub. Co., Athens, Georgia, 303 pp.. Hsu, M.-L. 1992. Morphological and taxonomic studies on Chytridiales in Yangmingshan National Park. Master ...
It is thought that the cause for the decline of the southern day frog was the same virulent disease which is the suspected cause of the extinction of the two species of gastric brooding frog. The southern day frog and southern gastric brooding frog disappeared from the same region within the same year, strengthening the theory that declines were most likely a result of an infection with the chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). These are just two of many species which are thought to have been affected by a chytrid epidemic that spread through Australian Frog populations from the late 1970s until the early 1990s ...
Chytridiomycosis is a fatal disease of post-metamorphic frogs and can be carried by healthy tadpoles. Here we describe methods for preparing and interpreting histologic sections from adults and tadpoles for the diagnosis of chytridiomycosis.. ...
Emerging infectious diseases in wildlife are responsible for massive population declines. In amphibians, chytridiomycosis caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd, has severely affected many amphibian populations and species around the world. One promising management strategy is probiotic bioaugmentation of antifungal bacteria on amphibian skin. In vivo experimental trials using bioaugmentation strategies have had mixed results, and therefore a more informed strategy is needed to select successful probiotic candidates. Metagenomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic methods, colloquially called omics, are approaches that can better inform probiotic selection and optimize selection protocols. The integration of multiple omic data using bioinformatic and statistical tools and in silico models that link bacterial community structure with bacterial defensive function can allow the identification of species involved in pathogen inhibition. We recommend using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and ...
...An international team of researchers has completed the first major sur...The disease chytridiomycosis caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium de...Asia is home to a highly diverse set of amphibian species and potenti... Thats why were excited about this first really big survey said Vr...,Researchers,complete,first,major,survey,of,amphibian,fungus,in,Asia,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
by Vetscite. Misty mountains, glistening forests and blue-green lakes make Cameroon, the wettest part of Africa, a tropical wonderland for amphibians.. The country holds more than half the species living on the continent, including dozens of endemic frogs - an animal that has been under attack across the world by the pervasive chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). Africa has been mostly spared from the deadly and rampant pathogen that wiped out entire species in Australia, Madagascar and Panama, until now.. University of Florida herpetologist David Blackburn and colleagues at the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin have documented declines in frog species on Cameroons Mount Oku and Mount Manengouba over a span of more than 12 years. The scientists link the decline of at least five species of frogs found only in these mountains to chytrid, which may have been exacerbated by habitat destruction, pollution and climate change resulting in weaker and more susceptible frogs, said Blackburn, ...
This chytrid fungus (Chytriodiomycota: Chytridiales) is the causative agent of chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease of amphibians. This fungus has been implicated as the cause of amphibian declines and extinctions of more than 250 species of frogs across six continents (the widespread distribution of this disease the likely consequence of anthropogenic effects). B. dendrobatidis can infect both larval and adult amphibians. Infections in larvae cause a reduction in grazing efficiency, food intake, and survival. Infections in adults cause thickening of the skin which might interfere with osmoregulation or ion balance. This fungus has two parts of its life cycle: one part in the host and one part outside of the host (a motile zoospore stage). Recent studies have shown that B. dendrobatidis can survive for long periods of time outside of the host, increasing its ability to drive host populations extinct. Although this fungus is believed to have originated in Africa, B. dendrobatidis was ...
There isnt one conclusive answer. Those animals that are immunosuppressed, however, tend to be more vulnerable to fungal infection. But why are these animals so unhealthy? The answers are complex and may have to do with many different causes, perhaps a perfect storm of causes: the overall decrease of biodiversity, use of pesticides, climate change, clear cutting of forests and habitat destruction and degradation, and other issues.. Readers of Frogs Are Green are familiar with the the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which has wiped out hundreds of species of amphibians.. In 2006 the white-nose syndrome, an infection caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans killed a few bats in New York; since then it has killed more than 5 million bats in 21 states and four Canadian provinces.. Recently honey bee populations have been devastated. There is evidence that co-infection with multiple pathogens, including fungi, is one cause.. A fungus called Cryptococcus neoformans ravages humans ...
We proposed to test the hypothesis that ecologically relevant concentrations of pesticide mixtures will increase susceptibility of metamorphic amphibians to a fungal pathogen known as Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, or Bd. Bd has received considerable attention as one of the causes of declining amphibian populations. We hypothesized that exposure to the contaminants in the larval stage would cause increased pathogen load, decreased growth, and increased mortality of amphibians. Our amphibians included 2 species of tree frogs (Spring Peepers and Pacific tree frogs), 1 toad species (Western Toads), and 2 true frog species (Leopard frogs and Cascades frogs). Each species of frog was split into five different pesticide treatments: high herbicide, low herbicide, high insecticide, low insecticide, and a control treatment. Half of the frogs in each pesticide treatment were exposed as tadpoles and half were exposed as metamorphs. In the end, three of the five species showed significant mortality rates. ...
A quick wrap-up of the animals discovered not to be extinct this week: Armoured mistfrog This Armoured Mistfrog, thought by many experts to be extinct due to the recent amphibian chytrid fungus epidemic, was rediscovered by my boss, enterprise search god, Chris Cleveland, while he should have been working, on CNN. And more specifically, in…. ...
Deforestation appears to be affecting some populations, but not others, presumably reflecting the fact that this is a complex of several species. Therefore, as currently understood, this species is generally not significantly threatened by habitat loss. Species in this genus have tested positive for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), however currently there have been no negative effects observed within amphibian populations in Madagascar suggesting the Bd strain has a low virulence level (Bletz et al. 2015 ...
Species in this genus have tested positive for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), however currently there have been no negative effects observed within amphibian populations in Madagascar suggesting the Bd strain has a low virulence level (Bletz et al. 2015 ...
The finding of tadpoles of Rhinella quechua (Huayramayu River, Carrasco National Park, Cochabamba, Bolivia) with oral abnormalities caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis constitutes the first record of this fungal infection reported for Bolivian amphibians ...
I am a research technician in the lab at UC Davis. I received my Masters in comparative pathology here at UC Davis in 2002 and then worked in Seattle for a year helping to identify an outbreak of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Seattle homeless shelters using PFGE. I took a few years break to have two children and then started back to work in Janets lab in 2009. My interests are in molecular and microbiology, mostly in infectious diseases. In addition to providing laboratory daily administrative and research needs, I manage several different projects from Anaplasma phagocytophilum to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. I particularly enjoy troubleshooting assays!. Click here to download Joys CV (PDF) ...
Google Scholar ResearchGate Publications Christiansen JL, Davis DR, Jacobson ER, LaDuc TJ. 2020. A potential new shell disease process revealed by a long-term field study of the yellow mud turtle, Kinosternon flavescens, in Texas. Journal of Herpetology 54:1-8. [PDF] Smith SN*, Watters JL, Ellsworth ED, Davis DR, Siler CD. 2019. Assessment of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and ranavirus…
In research that could lead to protective probiotics to fight the chytrid fungus that has been decimating amphibian populations worldwide, Jenifer Walke, PhD, a postdoctoral researcher at... Read more ...
When we arrived at the seminar location, I was relieved to see that the area where we would be performing our amphibian disease testings at was a veterinary clinical lab. Here we had counter space, power outlets, and refrigerator space. However, the molecular testings take time to run (about 2.5 hours), and the real-time PCR machine I was utilizing could only manage 48 samples at once. I ran into time limitations of how long we had to be in the facility. We needed to make sure we ran all the samples given to us by the animal facilities before we went back to the US. I had to improvise and wound up turning my hotel room into a makeshift laboratory. I had an extraction area (bedside table), my re-agent master mix preparation area (the dressing table), and my DNA loading area and instrument area (another bedside table). But do I use to keep my re-agents cool? Why, a foam cooler and ice cubes purchased from a nearby market! I extracted my samples, set up the assay instrument, and went to sleep with ...
The Chytrid fungus, which has decimated global amphibian populations, is now found on every continent and it likely got there through trade.
Oomycota - Peronosporales - Phytophthora infestans. Monument to 187 Irish would-be immigrants to Canada, fleeing from the potato famine, who drowned just off the Gaspe Peninsula in 1847 ...
This page is a Tree of Life Branch Page.. Each ToL branch page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a branch of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a branch and a leaf of the Tree of Life is that each branch can be further subdivided into descendent branches, that is, subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.. For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.. close box ...
A method is provided for introducing a foreign gene into a plant cell by means of an Olpidium zoospore vector having associated with it a reassembled nucleoprotein complex comprising the foreign gene and reassociated coat protein of a zoospore-transmissable virus. The plant cell is contacted with the zoospore under conditions suitable for transmission of the nucleoprotein complex into the cell. The method can be conducted under nonsterile conditions, is applicable to all nucleic acids regardless of size, and is useful for introducing foreign genes into cells of both monocots and dicots.
NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - A new study suggests related, but previously undescribed, Ranavirus species are wreaking havoc on a range of amphibian hosts in Spain.
Leiopelma archeyi, commonly known as Archeys Frog, is listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species as Critically Endangered. Archeys Frog is a small green-brown frog found only in New Zealand, where it lives on the North Island in the Coromandel Peninsula and the Whareorino Forest. This frog prefers moist forest at altitudes of 400 - 1000 m. It is the smallest of the four remaining endemic Leiopelma species and is one of the worlds most primitive species of frog. Archeys Frog is a nocturnal species that lives under stones and logs during the day and is a terrestrial breeder. The larvae of Archeys Frog hatch from eggs with small arms and legs already developed, thereby skipping the free-swimming tadpole stage.. Between 1996 and 2001 there was an 88% decrease in the Archeys Frog population at monitored locations. Chytrid fungus was confirmed from wild frogs in 2001 and is implicated in the observed decline but several other factors may have been involved.. The New Zealand Department ...
A University of Alberta scientist is part of a research team offering the first evidence that global warming is behind an infectious disease epidemic wiping out entire frog populations and forcing many species to extinction. The work is published in the journal Nature.
To test the susceptibility of bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) to amphibian chytridiomycosis, groups of captive bred, recently metamorphosed bullfrogs were inoculated with zoospores of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the causative agent of chytridiomycosis, and assayed for clinical and pathological signs of infection. A novel technique for counting B. dendrobatidis zoospore inocula is described. Inoculation regimes varied from single exposures of 1-10 million zoospores per animal to inocula of 10 million zoospores per animal per day for a 31 day period. Twenty-five to fifty percent of each inoculated cohort was histologically positive for B. dendrobatidis on necropsy. However, lesions were focal, small with relatively little thickening of the keratinized epidermis and no clinical signs of chytridiomycosis were observed. Only one animal died during the experiment, due to cardiac puncture procedure. A fungal isolate used in these experiments was inoculated onto four metamorphosed poison dart frogs ...
The emerging fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) is responsible for the catastrophic decline of European salamanders and poses a threat to amphibians globally. The amphibian skin microbiome can influence disease outcome for several host-pathogen systems, yet little is known of its role in Bsal infection. In addition, many experimental in-vivo amphibian disease studies to date have relied on specimens that have been kept in captivity for long periods without considering the influence of environment on the microbiome and how this may impact the host response to pathogen exposure. We characterized the impact of captivity and exposure to Bsal on the skin bacterial and fungal communities of two co-occurring European newt species, the smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris and the great-crested newt, Triturus cristatus. We show that captivity led to significant losses in bacterial and fungal diversity of amphibian skin, which may be indicative of a decline in microbe-mediated protection. We
Anaerobic chytridiomycete fungi possess hydrogenosomes, which generate hydrogen and ATP, but also acetate and formate as end-products of a prokaryotic-type mixed-acid fermentation. Notably, the anaerobic chytrids Piromyces and Neocallimastix use pyruvate:formate lyase (PFL) for the catabolism of pyr …
The first response to reports of declining amphibian populations was the formation of the Declining Amphibian Population Task Force (DAPTF) in 1990. DAPFT led efforts for increased amphibian population monitoring in order to establish the extent of the problem, and established working groups to look at different issues.[42] Results were communicated through the newsletter Froglog. Much of this research went into the production of the first Global Amphibian Assessment (GAA), which was published in 2004 and assessed every known amphibian species against the IUCN Red List criteria. This found that approximately one third of amphibian species were threatened with extinction.[43] As a result of these shocking findings an Amphibian Conservation Summit was held in 2005, because it was considered morally irresponsible to document amphibian declines and extinctions without also designing and promoting a response to this global crisis.[44]. Outputs from the Amphibian Conservation Summit included the ...
During this year (2006), chytridiomycosis, sometimes referred to as chytrid fungus or Bd (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis), was found in Eastern Newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) from two well-known commercial vendors of amphibians. In two shipments received from a vendor in the southern portion of the United States, mortality from the disease exceeded 60% of over 400 animals. In another shipment from the East Coast, Eastern Newts tested positive for the disease but no mortality was experienced in over a month of quarantine. Although Bd is very widespread, this may be the first report of infection in a commercial source. The purpose of this note is to alert scientific users to the possibility of the fungus in shipments from these and other suppliers of amphibians. Many species of amphibians in addition to Eastern Newts are susceptible to the disease, so the concern extends beyond a single species. Bd infects epidermis where it is saprophytic on keratin and may interfere with respiration, gas ...
Buy Extinction in Our Times (9780195316940): Global Amphibian Decline: NHBS - James P Collins and Martha L Crump, Oxford University Press
This book documents a major environmental crisis: rapidly declining amphibian populations and the developmental problems that are increasingly prevalent within many amphibian species. Horror stories on this topic have been featured in the scientific and popular press over the past fifteen years, invariably asking what amphibian declines are telling us about the state of the environment. Are declines harbingers of devastated ecosystems or simply weird reflections of a peculiar amphibian world? This compendium - presenting new data, reviews of current literature, and comprehensive species accounts - reinforces what scientists have begun to suspect: that amphibians are a lens through which the state of the environment can be viewed more clearly. And, that the view is alarming and presages serious concerns for all life, including that of our own species. The first part of this work consists of more than fifty essays covering topics from the causes of amphibian population declines to conservation, surveys
ABSTRACT: Highly virulent pathogens that cause host population declines confront the risk of fade-out, but if pathogen transmission dynamics are age-structured, pathogens can persist. Among other features of amphibian biology, variable larval developmental rates generate age-structured larval populations, which in theory can facilitate pathogen persistence. We investigated this possibility empirically in a population of Salamandra salamandra in Spain affected by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) at breeding sites that lacked alternative amphibian hosts. None of the adults presented infection by Bd. However, for the larvae, while environmental heterogeneity was the most important predictor of infection, the effect on infection dynamics was mediated by transmission from overwintered larvae to new larval recruits, which occurred only in permanent larval habitats. We suggest that interannual Bd maintenance in a host population that experiences mass mortality associated with infection can occur ...
The Buffalo Zoo offered members of the media the opportunity to photograph the Zoos hellbender rearing lab that is now officially open for public viewing on January 11th inside the Buffalo Zoo Reptile House. The eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) is the largest aquatic salamander species found in the Americas. Wildlife studies have shown that hellbender populations have declined dramatically, including those that inhabit some watersheds in New York State. Reasons for the decline of these amphibians are unknown. However, scientists are working to study the role of predators, disease (such as amphibian chytrid fungus), angler-related mortality, water quality and suitable habitat conditions and food sources to determine their contributions to the decline of hellbender populations. Although the eastern hellbender is listed as a species of special concern in New York, federal and state officials are also working to change their listing to threatened or endangered. The Buffalo ...
Recent publications: OBryan C.J.; Gray M.J.; Brooks C.S. 2012. Presence of Ranavirus Infection in Amphibian Populations of Tennessee, USA. Herpetological Review 43(2), 293-295. - In this project, amphibians were collected from natural ponds and cattle ponds to compare the endemic nature of ranavirus. Hundreds of tadpoles and juvenal frogs were collected for tissue biopsy. The tissues were enzymatically digested and DNA preferentially purified. Spectral analysis revealed pure, good-quality DNA purification and ready for PCR. We performed some ranavirus-spiked controls to determine our minimum detection limits and tested for PCR-inhibition in all samples. Finally, a collection of samples were DNA sequenced for final confirmation that what we were seeing was the actual viral DNA. Chatfield, M. W. H., B. B. Rothermel, C. Brooks, and J. Kay. 2009. Detection of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibians from the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee, USA. Herpetological Review ...
Although El Niño seems to be the ultimate climatic phenomenon affecting Atelopus declines, we further sought to differentiate among several climate-based factors associated with El Niño events that have been proposed as proximate drivers of enigmatic amphibian declines (26). The chytrid-thermal-optimum hypothesis proposes that increased cloud cover due to warmer oceanic temperatures leads to convergence of daytime and nighttime temperatures (i.e., a reduced diurnal temperature range) on the optimum temperature for Bd growth (11). Several mean-climate hypotheses have also been proposed for amphibian declines. These include predictions that mean temperature, mean precipitation, or an interaction between the two will be significant predictors of amphibian losses, either by directly causing declines, accelerating decomposition of leaf litter habitat, or altering interactions with natural enemies (27-31).. Finally, there is the climate-variability hypothesis, which proposes that temporal ...
To conduct this study, Dr Puschendorf must collect samples from a range of different frog species and test them to determine if they carry the chytrid fungus. This involves catching the frog, taking the sample (either a toe clipping or a skin swab), performing a PCR test on the sample and then returning the frog to its habitat. Issues arise with this method of testing when a behavioural study is the underlying aim of the research. If frogs are held in captivity for more than five minutes, their behaviour and responses to stimuli are altered. To ensure that behavioural observations arent adversely affected, the entire sampling process must be completed within a five minute window for each frog. This means ideally the frog should be swabbed as quickly as possible ...
CORVALLIS, Ore. - Amphibian declines around the world have forced many species to the brink of extinction, are much more complex than realized and have multiple causes that are still not fully understood, researchers conclude in a new report.. The search for a single causative factor is often missing the larger picture, they said, and approaches to address the crisis may fail if they dont consider the totality of causes - or could even make things worse.. No one issue can explain all of the population declines that are occurring at an unprecedented rate, and much faster in amphibians than most other animals, the scientists conclude in a study just published in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.. The amphibian declines are linked to natural forces such as competition, predation, reproduction and disease, as well as human-induced stresses such as habitat destruction, environmental contamination, invasive species and climate change, researchers said.. An enormous rate of change has ...
The Clean Air and Urban Landscapes Hub acknowledges the traditional owners of the lands on which we operate. Unless otherwise indicated, all text and images on this website are subject to copyright and may not be reused without permission. All data produced by the Clean Air and Urban Landscapes Hub will be made publicly available under the NESP Data Accessibility Guidelines except where subject to privacy considerations or pre-existing licensing agreements. The Clean Air and Urban Landscapes Hub is funded by the Australian Governments National Environmental Science Program.. ...
Lawson, T.L.**, M.L. Jones, O. Komar and A.M. Welch. 2011. Prevalence of ﻽Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis﻽ in Agalychnis moreletii (Hylidae) of El Salvador and association with larval jaw sheath depigmentation. ﻽Journal of Wildlife Diseases 47(3): 544-554. **graduate student ...
Fig. 2. A communal wood frog (Rana sylvatica) deposition site in Concord (Middlesex County) Massachusetts from 1988 (A). Well over 100 egg masses are shown just on the surface, indicating a local population of over 200 breeding adults. Similar numbers bred at this site in the previous 2 years, but in this same time frame only two adults were ever seen outside of the breeding season. (B-F) Breeding sites for boreal toads (Bufo boreas) along Del Peurto Creek in Stanislaus County, California. B shows a pair of copulating toads with the strings of eggs wrapped around the pair. C and D show views of one ephemeral pool where a single clutch of eggs (which can be up to 10,000 individuals) has hatched in 1996. E and F show changes in a second nearby deposition site from 1995 (E) to 1999 (F). The breeding site is on the left in both panels with Del Peurto Creek on the right. Arrow in E shows the location of the small breeding pool shown in panels C and D. Because of anthropogenic activity, water flow has ...
Bibliografía. Altaba, C. R. (1997). Phylogeny and biogeography of midwife toads (Alytes, Discoglossidae): a reappraisal. Contributions to Zoology, 66: 257-262.. Angelier, M. L., Angelier, E. (1964). Etude dune population de Crapauds accoucheurs dans un lac de haute montagne. Comptes Rendus de lAcadémie des Sciences, 258: 701-703.. Araújo, M. B., Guilhaumon, F., Rodrigues Neto, D., Pozo Ortego, I., Gómez Calmaestra, R. (2011). Impactos, vulnerabilidad y adaptación de la biodiversidad española frente al cambio climático. 2. Fauna de vertebrados. Dirección general de medio Natural y Política Forestal. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, y Medio Rural y Marino, Madrid. 640 pp.. Arntzen, J. W., García-París, M. (1995). Morphological and allozyme studies of midwife toads (Genus Alytes), including the description of two new taxa from Spain. Contributions to Zoology, 65: 5-34.. Arntzen, J. W., García-París, M. (1997). Phylogeny and biogeography of midwife toads (Alytes, Discoglossidae): a ...
The African clawed frog is a carrier of Batrachochytrium dendrobatis (Bd), the fungus responsible for amphibian chytridiomycosis, which has devastated frog
Almost 300 people, including veterinarians, scientists and fish and wildlife managers, will meet Nov. 5-7 in Tempe, Ariz., at a conference on stopping the spread of a fungal-based amphibian disease. Hosted by the Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation (PARC)-a multilateral organization with members from the federal and state governments, zoos, the pet industry, conservation groups and others-the conference will include panels to discuss amphibian deaths related to the so-called Bd fungal disease, know …
The potential impact of chemical contaminants and conservation practices on amphibians in agricultural landscapes is a key research topic globally. Amphibians represent a common group in many freshwater systems and are currently experiencing worldwide population declines. Global amphibian declines may be attributed to a number of causes, including habitat loss, introduced species, global climate change, disease, and chemical contaminants; most species declines are not a function of only one factor, but a result of interacting factors and synergistic impacts. I analyzed the impact of field conservation efforts employed in the Calapooia watershed, located in the central Willamette Valley in Oregon, on amphibian species diversity using Simpsons Diversity Index. In the Calapooia watershed the value of this index increased when conservation efforts, such as retaining crop residue and riparian buffers, were present. This suggests that species diversity increased with increased conservation effort at ...
Organisers: Frank Pasmans (Ghent University), Matthew Gray (University of Tennessee), An Martel (Ghent University), Molly Bletz (University of Massachusetts-Boston and Amphibian Survival Alliance), Andrew Cunningham (Zoological Society of London), and Debra Miller (University of Tennessee and Wildlife Disease Association). Outline: Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) is a recently discovered fungal pathogen that causes a necrotizing skin disease in susceptible amphibian species and is currently emerging on the European continent. Bsal is believed to be from Asia and was probably introduced to Europe through international trade of amphibians. Its presence on other continents remains unknown but several nations have begun surveillance programs due to Bsals potential to devastate amphibian biodiversity. Initial susceptibility trials suggest that over two-thirds of North American salamander species are susceptible to infection and about one-third have low infection tolerance and develop the ...
Atelopus spumarius andinus Rivero, 1968, Caribb. J. Sci., 8: 23. Holotype: AMNH 43200 (erroneously cited as 4300 in the original publication, according to Lötters, 1996, Neotrop. Toad Genus Atelopus: 49). Type locality: Upper Biabo Valley, Perú.. Atelopus pulcher andinus - Peters, 1973, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 145: 42.. Atelopus andinus - Lötters and De la Riva, 1998, J. Herpetol., 32: 481-488.. ...
Amphibian population declines and sudden species extinctions began to be noted at the beginning of the 1980s. Understanding the causes of the losses is hampered by our poor knowledge of the amphibian fauna in many parts of the world. Amphibian taxa are still being described at a high rate, especially in the tropics, which means that even quantifying species lost as a percentage of the current fauna can be a misleading statistic in some parts of the globe. The number of species that have gone missing is only one measure of the loss of biodiversity. Long-term studies of single-species populations are needed, but this approach has its limits. Amphibian populations often show great annual variation in population size making it difficult, if not impossible, to use short-term studies as a basis for deciding if a population is increasing or decreasing in the long term. Aggregating single studies into databases and searching for patterns of variation is a way of overcoming this limitation. Several ...
Survey and consolidate information on amphibian populations, their range and abundance within the forest fragments comprising the Taita Hills and Mount Kasigau as a barometer of environmental health. Working thorough local counterparts, this project will train local field assistants with a view to developing a sustainable long-term monitoring program.. ...
Catalyzes the conversion of oxaloacetate (OAA) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), the rate-limiting step in the metabolic pathway that produces glucose from lactate and other precursors derived from the citric acid cycle.
Hydrogenosomes are organelles that produce ATP and hydrogen, and are found in various unrelated eukaryotes, such as anaerobic flagellates, chytridiomycete fungi and ciliates. Although all of these organelles generate hydrogen, the hydrogenosomes from these organisms are structurally and metabolically quite different, just like mitochondria where large differences also exist. These differences have led to a continuing debate about the evolutionary origin of hydrogenosomes. Here we show that the hydrogenosomes of the anaerobic ciliate Nyctotherus ovalis, which thrives in the hindgut of cockroaches, have retained a rudimentary genome encoding components of a mitochondrial electron transport chain. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that those proteins cluster with their homologues from aerobic ciliates. In addition, several nucleus-encoded components of the mitochondrial proteome, such as pyruvate dehydrogenase and complex II, were identified. The N. ovalis hydrogenosome is sensitive to inhibitors of
Copeia publishes work on the biology of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles, or work using those organisms as models for testing hypotheses of broad significance.
Interprets this as Lithobates AND pipiens so will return all records that have the character string Lithobates pipiens anywhere within a record: e.g., all members of the Lithobates pipiens complex ...
Amphibians are a key indicator species of ecosystem health. Their presence or absence can tell us a lot about the general health of a wetland or riparian area in addition to giving us a sense of site water and habitat quality. When climatic and hydrologic changes occur in an ecosystem, amphibians are often the first to react. Their thin skin makes them vulnerable to temperature increases, chemical pollutants, disease, and radiation. The combinations of pollutants, habitat fragmentation and development in urban areas have had a negative impact on amphibian populations. In the Portland Metro area, everything from mutations of extra legs to complete absence of native amphibians has been documented.. read more. ...
Fungi can affect animals, including humans, in several ways. A mycosis is a fungal disease that results from infection and direct damage. Fungi attack animals directly by colonizing and destroying tissues. Mycotoxicosis is the poisoning of humans (and other animals) by foods contaminated by fungal toxins (mycotoxins). Mycetismus describes the ingestion of preformed toxins in poisonous mushrooms. In addition, individuals who display hypersensitivity to molds and spores develop strong and dangerous allergic reactions. Fungal infections are generally very difficult to treat because, unlike bacteria, fungi are eukaryotes. Antibiotics only target prokaryotic cells, whereas compounds that kill fungi also harm the eukaryotic animal host.. Many fungal infections are superficial; that is, they occur on the animals skin. Termed cutaneous (skin) mycoses, they can have devastating effects. For example, the decline of the worlds frog population in recent years may be caused by the chytrid fungus ...
Data Source ID: 99 This is a checklist of Amphibian Species in the Kihansi Gorge in the Udzungwa Tanzania. It is an important information on Biodiversity status of the Udzungwa Mountains as a Mega Biodiverse Hotspot of the Eastern Arc Mountains. It contains endemic and species with the risk of extinction (endangered, critically endangered, extinct in the wild). The studies on amphibian species commenced with the discovery of the Kihansi Spray Toad (KST) (Nectophrynoides asperginis) in December 1996 and its description in 1998 (Poynton et al., 1998). To date several species of amphibians in the Order Anura in Five different Families have been identified to exist in the Kihansi Gorge. Unfortunately Nectophrynoides asperginis went extinct in the wild mainly due to habitat alteration by the Kihansi River water abstraction where water is used for Hydro power project. Further studies are underway to establish the exact cause of the population crash of KST in the Kihansi Gorge as one of the effort to ...
This directory includes experts in a wide range of fields related to captive amphibian programs. It is intended to benefit anyone who is involved with conservation programs for captive amphibians.. Please note: If you are not directly involved with captive conservation programs for amphibians, we ask that you consider searching for any information you need on our web site, or using an internet search engine rather than contacting the people below. Due to their existing workloads, these people are unable to answer emails that are not from people involved with captive amphibian programs. Please consider using these other resources to find the help you need: Amphibian Husbandry, Chytrid Fungus, AArk Documents, Amphibians on the Web.. ...
This directory includes experts in a wide range of fields related to captive amphibian programs. It is intended to benefit anyone who is involved with conservation programs for captive amphibians.. Please note: If you are not directly involved with captive conservation programs for amphibians, we ask that you consider searching for any information you need on our web site, or using an internet search engine rather than contacting the people below. Due to their existing workloads, these people are unable to answer emails that are not from people involved with captive amphibian programs. Please consider using these other resources to find the help you need: Amphibian Husbandry, Chytrid Fungus, AArk Documents, Amphibians on the Web.. ...
Why are Amphibians Important. Amphibians are found worldwide and are an important link in the food chain of many ecosystems, acting as both predator and prey. Amphibians have thin and highly permeable skin that allows oxygen, water, and other chemicals to be absorbed. This means that pollutants and toxins may pass directly into the body. Consequently, environmental pollution can cause the death of amphibians directly, or have other impacts such as developmental abnormalities, altered behaviour and increased vulnerability to disease and predators.. These characteristics make amphibians, as a group, particularly sensitive to human activities that impact and result in changes in climate, habitat, and air and water quality. For this reason, amphibians are often referred to as biological indicator species and may reflect the ecological health of our waterways, wetlands and adjacent uplands.. Global Decline. Over recent decades an alarming decline in amphibian populations around the world has ...
Frogs are amphibians in the order Anura (meaning tail-less from Greek an-, without + oura, tail). Adult frogs are characterised by long hind legs, a short body, webbed digits, protruding eyes and the absence of a tail. Most frogs have a semi-aquatic lifestyle, but move easily on land by jumping or climbing. They typically lay their eggs in puddles, ponds or lakes, and their larvae, called tadpoles, have gills and develop in water. Adult frogs follow a carnivorous diet, mostly of arthropods, annelids and gastropods. Frogs are most noticeable through their call, which can be widely heard during the mating season. The distribution of frogs ranges from tropic to subarctic regions, with most of the species found in tropical rainforests. With over 5,000 species described, they are among the most diverse groups of vertebrates. However the declining numbers of certain species of frogs are increasingly giving cause for concern caused by the Chytrid Fungus. ...
Whats the News: A fungus that his been wiping out frog species all over the world is creeping into the last area patch of tropical mountains in the Americas escape its scourge, the Darien National Park in Panama, and scientists are scrambling to save what species they can. Frogs have been taking a beating. over the last three decades, due in large part to a ruthless killer called chytrid fungus. . Identified in the late 90s. , the fungus is startlingly lethal, driving 50% of species into extinction and killing 80% of individuals within five months of appearing at one location in Panama. It spreads through water via spores, affecting even areas where humans have not penetrated. It is the worst infectious disease ever recorded among vertebrates in terms of the number of species impacted, and its propensity to drive them to extinction, wrote a team of scientists in a 2005 World Conservation Union report. [pdf]. How the Heck:. ...
Atelopus cruciger is diurnal. During breeding season (the dry season), this species lives near freshwater streams, typically found on rocks within the stream, or streamside vegetation climbing up to 1.5 m above the ground (Stuart et al. 2008). Adults feed on ants and other insects (Lötters 2006). Although Atelopus cruciger lacks a tympanum and middle ear structures, this species exhibits three types of distinct calls: pulsed (buzzes), pure-toned (whistles), rising in frequency, and short (chirps or twitters), descending in frequency. A short, quiet, partially pulsed call, descending in frequency, is the characteristic vocalization for male frogs in the vicinity of other non-interacting individuals, males placed in a collecting bag with other males, and males in amplexus. An amplexing male will increase his call rate when another male approaches or touches him. In addition to the three distinct call types, one male was observed to give a series of variable calls before a series of ...
Atelopus coynei is a relatively small harlequin frog, with females growing up to a length of 32 mm and males to 23 mm. The snout of A. coynei projects beyond the lower jaw, creating a sharp ninety-degree angle above the nostril when viewed in lateral profile. Atelopus coynei has a body wider than the head, its head is longer than wide. The laterally open nostrils are located along the line between the anterior margin of orbit to tip of snout, approximately a third of the distance from the snout. Viewed from above, the corner of the eyelids diverge from a point behind the nostrils to immediately anterior of the orbits after which they diverge more strongly. The canthus rostralis is roundish, with a subtle depression at the loreal region. The interorbital space in A. coynei is broader than the upper eyelid and the tympanum is obscured. The skin on A. coyneis head is smooth but can have sparse, fine granulations. The skin of the dorsum is granulated and exhibits twin ridges near the parotoid area. ...
Art on Tap Series. 5:30-7 p.m. Art therapist/counselor Trish Ebbert will talk about the benefits of art for ones good mental health.. Amphibian Declines: Around the World and in Your Backyard. 7 p.m. Fish and wildlife biologist Michelle Christman will talk about amphibian biology, threats amphibians face and general amphibian declines, both around the world and locally. The recent decision to list the Jemez Mountains salamander as an endangered species will also be discussed. No advance registration required. Free. For more information, visit PajaritoEEC.org, call 662-0460, or email [email protected] Los Alamos County and the Los Alamos League of Women Voters presents back-to-back forums at Fuller Lodge. At 5:30 p.m., the forum on the Structure-of-Government Charter Amendments. At 6:45 p.m. the forum for candidates for the Third Congressional District, will feature Democratic Candidate Ben Ray Luján and Republican Candidate Jefferson Byrd.. Downtown Dogs. A weekly walking group for ...
New US Geological Survey-led research suggests that even though amphibians are severely declining worldwide, there is no smoking gun -- and thus no simple solution -- to halting or reversing these declines.
Environmental contamination has been suspected of being partially responsible for recent declines in amphibian populations. It is often not feasible to identify all of the compounds in an environment, nor the concentrations in which they are present. SPMDs are passive sampling devices that uptake lipophilic compounds from the environment in a manner similar to aquatic organisms. The extracts from the SPMDs, therefore, contain a composite sample of the compounds that are present in the environment. In this paper, we outline the methods from studies in which we have used extracts from SPMDs in toxicity tests on amphibian larvae. Using SPMD extracts makes it possible to establish potential links between amphibian deformities and declines and environmental contamination by lipophilic compounds....
There is no way around demographic change: the future of many developed countries is characterized by shrinking and ageing population. This development implies many challenges for Europes urban and rural areas. Demographic change is getting on agenda of academics, policy makers and many other stakeholders. In particular, population decline is discovered as a relevant topic.. In their book*, Managing population Decline in Europes Urban and Rural Areas, Gert-Jan Hospers and Nol Reverda provide a valuable asset to the population decline discourse by discussing this phenomenon from demographical, geographical and sociological point of view. The focus of this book is on the population decline as a transformation process. More specifically they are interested in the way in which people connect with each other: in other words on the impact of this development on the social structures. Namely, so far population decline discussion has been primarily led by spatial planning and policy research. New ...
Biology Assignment Help, Question, Ask questiImagine you are studying a group of amphibian species that vary in their habitats-some living in dense, murky water, and others living in very clear ponds. What kind of communication problems exist in each environment? What sorts of differe
This award-winning documentary featuring our race to find a cure for a deadly amphibian disease and to build an amphibian ark in Panama is now available for FREE. Watch the trailer below and download the full feature if you would like to see more on the itunes store for a limited time only ...
Cavalier-Smith, In: Green, Leadbeater, and Diver (eds.), The Chromophyte Algae: 385 (1989). "Chytridiomycota". Archived from ...
Holt, Jack R.; Iudica, Carlos A. (9 January 2014). "Chytridiomycota". Diversity of Life. Susquehanna University. Retrieved 29 ...
Chytridiomycota[uredi , uredi kodo]. Chytridiomycota so razvite prave glive, ki oblikujejo zoospore z enim bičkom. Te glive so ... Chytridiomycota. Glomeromycota. Microsporidia. Neocallimastigomycota. Dikarya (inc. Deuteromycota). Ascomycota (zaprtotrosnice ... Molekularna filogenija, ki izhaja iz rRNA sekvenc v ribosomih, domneva da so Chytridiomycota bazalna skupina ločena od drugih ... Kot sorodne Chytridiomycota, tudi Neocallimastigomycota oblikujejo zoospore, ki imajo en ali več bičkov[2]. ...
2009). "Cladochytriales - a new order in Chytridiomycota". Mycological Research. 113 (4): 498-507. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2008.12 ...
The Chytridiomycota are commonly known as chytrids. These fungi are distributed worldwide. Chytrids and their close relatives ... The Blastocladiomycota were previously considered a taxonomic clade within the Chytridiomycota. Recent molecular data and ... Currently, seven phyla are proposed: Microsporidia, Chytridiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Glomeromycota, ... Chytridiomycota) and description of a new phylum (Blastocladiomycota)". Mycologia. 98 (6): 860-71. doi:10.3852/mycologia.98.6. ...
Letcher, P.M.; Powell, M.J.; Davis, W.J. (2015). "A new family and four new genera in Rhizophydiales (Chytridiomycota)". ... Letcher, P.M.; Powell, M.J. (2005). "Kappamyces, a new genus in the Chytridiales (Chytridiomycota)". Nova Hedwigia. 80: 113-133 ... 2004). "Host parasite interactions between freshwater phytoplankton and chytrid fungi (Chytridiomycota)". J. Phycol. 40 (3): ... Chytridiomycota) isolates from North America and Argentina". Mycol. Res. 112 (Pt 7): 759-782. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2008.01.025 ...
... is a chytrid fungus family in the division Chytridiomycota. The family was described by German mycologist Joseph ...
Similar to Chytridiomycota, members of Blastocladiomycota are capable of growing on refractory materials, such as pollen, ... Similar to Chytridiomycota, members of Blastocladiomycota produce asexual zoospores to colonize new substrates. In some species ... 2006). "A molecular phylogeny of the flagellated fungi (Chytridiomycota) and description of a new phylum (Blastocladiomycota ... Blastocladiomycota was originally the order Blastocladiales within the phylum Chytridiomycota until molecular and zoospore ...
This genus has been difficult to classify, being placed in several different taxa in the past (e.g., Chytridiomycota, ...
... is a large genus of plant pathogens within the phylum Chytridiomycota. Species are commonly known as false rust or ... As in other members of Chytridiomycota, dispersal through the zoospore is limited to the immediate environment of the host cell ... However, similar to other members of Chytridiomycota, all of these features exhibit considerable variation and often overlap ... They were sister to the Lobulomycetales, which suggests the genus likely represents a distinct order within Chytridiomycota. ...
Chytridiomycota and Oomycota) infecting marine microphytobenthic diatoms - a methodological comparison". Journal of Phycology. ...
Chytridiomycota M. J. Powell w Hibbett i inni, 2007. *Blastocladiales Petersen, 1909 ...
... and the Chytridiomycota. II. Cladistic analysis of structural data and description of Neocallimasticales ord. nov". Can. J. Bot ...
From Chytridiomycota, Synchytrium solstitiale is being considered as a control agent of the yellow star thistle (Centaurea ... Several members of Chytridiomycota and Blastocladiomycota have been explored as agents of biological control. ...
Viburseened Chytridiomycota. Jõnksviburseened Blastocladiomycota. Neocallimastigomycota. Krohmseened Glomeromycota. Ikkesseened ...
For example, the big-vein disease of lettuce was long thought to be caused by a member of the fungal division Chytridiomycota, ... Since then, many other fungi in the Chytridiomycota have been shown to vector plant viruses. Many plant pests that seriously ...
Chytridiomycota) and description of a new phylum (Blastocladiomycota)". Mycologia. 98 (6): 860-871. doi:10.3852/mycologia.98.6. ...
... is the major class of the phylum Chytridiomycota, which contains a number of parasitic species. At least two ...
2006). "A molecular phylogeny of the flagellated fungi (Chytridiomycota) and description of a new phylum (Blastocladiomycota ...
Some filamentous fungi (Such as Glomeromycota, Chytridiomycota and Neocalligomastigomycota) may contain multiple nuclei in a ...
Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Fungi are frequently infected with two or more unrelated viruses and ...
The fungus Synchytrium solstitiale (Synchytrium of phylum Chytridiomycota) is also being considered as an agent of biological ...
E2 is an eukaryotic species belonging to the phylum Chytridiomycota, which comprises organisms that possess flagellated ...
Posterior whiplash flagella, a characteristic of Chytridiomycota, and a proposed uniting trait of the Opisthokonts, a large ... Fungi portal Angiosperm Chytridiomycota Fern Flagellum Gametangium Webster, John; Weber, Roland (2007). Introduction to Fungi ( ...
The divisions Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota form the basal group of fungi and are polyphyletic while Basidiomycota and ...
... are chytridiomycota. The myxomycota and oomycota make up 1% each, although they are not true fungi. The desert surface is ...
In the Chytridiomycota, the entire fungus may become enclosed in the cell, and it is arguable whether this should be considered ...
... mostly as Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota. At about this same time, approximately 400 Ma, the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota ...
Mycobionta Chytridiomycota [Part 1/1] Blastocladiomycetes Chytridiomycetes Monoblepharidomycetes Neocallimastigomycetes ...
Chytridiomycota, Glomeromycota and Zygomycota). The number of fungal species known very probably exceeds 10,000. There is ...
... Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... Chytridiomycota. Version 09 January 2008 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Chytridiomycota/20517/2008.01.09 in The Tree of Life ...
Phyla Chytridiomycota (Kingdom Fungi). and Oomycota (Kingdom Chromista) (29 pictures). (the CD-ROM has full text and 45 ... Chytridiomycota - Chytridiales - Chytridium lagenaria: sporangium developing on a pollen grain of Pinus. Time lapse sequence. X ... Chytridiomycota - Chytridiales - sporangia of a eucarpic chytrid on the green alga, Spirogyra. X 100. ... Chytridiomycota - Chytridiales - sporangia of a chytrid on Ceratium, a planktonic dinoflagellate. X 200. ...
Chapter 5: Chytridiomycota. In: McLaughlin DJ, McLaughlin EG, Lemke PA, editors. The Mycota, A comprehesive treatise on fungi ... The Chytridiomycota are a phylum of microscopic predominantly saprobic fungi with a biphasic life-cycle consisting of motile ... flagellated zoospores and reproductive zoosporangium (36). Two species within the Chytridiomycota have been well characterized ...
OC Eukaryota; Fungi; Chytridiomycota; Chytridiomycetes; OC Spizellomycetales; Spizellomycetaceae; Spizellomyces. OX NCBI_TaxID= ...
This is the first report of parasitism of a vertebrate by a member of the phylum Chytridiomycota. Experimental data support the ... Epidermal changes caused by a chytridiomycete fungus (Chytridiomycota; Chytridiales) were found in sick and dead adult anurans ... Chytridiomycota, Cell Proliferation, Apoptosis, Animals, Amphibians, pharmacology, Aminoglycosides ... Chytridiomycota, Cell Proliferation, Apoptosis, Animals, Amphibians, pharmacology, Aminoglycosides ...
Chytridiomycota and its lifecycle. *BBC Report. *Lethal amphibian fungus in the UK ...
Synonyms for Chytridiales in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Chytridiales. 1 synonym for Chytridiales: order Chytridiales. What are synonyms for Chytridiales?
Chytridiomycota is a division of zoosporic organisms in the kingdom Fungi, informally known as chytrids. The name is derived ... Play media Chytridiomycota are unusual among the Fungi in that they reproduce with zoospores. For most members of ... The population of the Chytridiomycota species are able to be supported even though there is a lack of plant life in these ... Currently, taxonomy in Chytridiomycota is based on molecular data, zoospore ultrastructure and some aspects of thallus ...
Chytridiomycota: Chytridiomycota, a phylum of fungi (kingdom Fungi) distinguished by having zoospores (motile cells) with a ... Chytridiomycota: Chytridiomycota, a phylum of fungi (kingdom Fungi) distinguished by having zoospores (motile cells) with a ... Chytridiomycota have one or two flagella. Asexually, Chytridiomycota reproduce through the use of zoospores. In asexual ... A Microbial Biorealm page on the phylum Chytridiomycota. Chytridiomycota are the smallest and simplest fungi. ...
... First among fungus. The oldest fossil fungi so far known are chytrid-like forms from the ...
Chytridiomycota A phylum of microscopic organisms, the chytrids, that live in soil or fresh water and have affinities with true ... Chytridiomycota A Dictionary of Biology © A Dictionary of Biology 2004, originally published by Oxford University Press 2004. ... There are two important phyla (divisions) of water molds, the chytrids (Chytridiomycota) and the oomycetes (Oomycota). The ... www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/chytridiomycota ...
The only class in the Phylum Chytridiomycota is the Chytridiomycetes. The chytrids are the simplest and most primitive Eumycota ...
Phylum Chytridiomycota. Chytrids are a small group of fungi with approximately 900 identified species occurring in a wide ... Consider the well-publicized frog killer, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a member of phylum Chytridiomycota (Berger et al. ... The fungal cell wall in the Kingdom Fungi is composed of chitin and glucans (in Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota) ... Zoospores are produced by one group of true Fungi (Chytridiomycota), and by fungal-like organisms in Kingdom Straminipila and ...
We will start with the most primitive members of the kingdom, the Chytridiomycota. Many Chytrids are aquatic, which is why they ... Fungal Diversity and the Phylum Chytridiomycota. Modern fungal systematists have divided the fungal kingdom into six major ... Although they are mostly nonmotile (some members of the Chytridiomycota produce flagellated spores), spores (produced by the ...
Chytridiomycota[uredi , uredi kodo]. Chytridiomycota so razvite prave glive, ki oblikujejo zoospore z enim bičkom. Te glive so ... Chytridiomycota. Glomeromycota. Microsporidia. Neocallimastigomycota. Dikarya (inc. Deuteromycota). Ascomycota (zaprtotrosnice ... Molekularna filogenija, ki izhaja iz rRNA sekvenc v ribosomih, domneva da so Chytridiomycota bazalna skupina ločena od drugih ... Kot sorodne Chytridiomycota, tudi Neocallimastigomycota oblikujejo zoospore, ki imajo en ali več bičkov[2]. ...
Chytridiomycota. The fact that chytrids alone among the Eumycota produce motile zoospores explains why their phylum is ... Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. All true fungi have a definite cell wall throughout all ...
Chytridiomycota. The next divergence leads to the Phylum Chytridiomycota [13], which constitute , 1% of described fungi and, ... Although some Chytridiomycota have developed filamentous growth (hyphae), most have determinate development, and those living ... Chytriomyces hyalinus (Figure 2B) is the best studied Chytridiomycota species in terms of the morphology of sexual reproduction ... The hypothesis that internal spore formation by cytoplasmic cleavage seen in mitotic sporangia of Chytridiomycota or Zygomycota ...
Explores the ecological, medical and economic importance of major groups of protists Covers protists morphology, molecular biology, biochemistry,
Fungi belonging to the phylum Chytridiomycota are called chytrids. They are one of the few groups of fungi with active motility ...
A molecular phylogeny of the flagellated fungi (Chytridiomycota) and description of a new phylum (Blastocladiomycota).. James,T ... A molecular phylogeny of the flagellated fungi (Chytridiomycota) and description of a new phylum (Blastocladiomycota). [ ... A molecular phylogeny of the flagellated fungi (Chytridiomycota) and description of a new phylum (Blastocladiomycota).. James ...
University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA (Chytridiomycota) * Karen Nakasone USDA Forest Service, Forest Products ... University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA (Chytridiomycota) * Huzefa A. Raja University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois, USA ... University of Maine, Orono, Maine, USA (Chytridiomycota) * Thorsten Lumbsch The Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois, USA ( ... Chytridiomycota) * 122GB19 (Alveolates, Animals, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Choanoflagellates, Eukaryotes, Glomeromycota, Green ...
Chytridiomycota. The phylum Chytridiomycota, the chytrids, represents a group of primitive aquatic fungi. They are ...
Chytridiomycota. (2014, January 1). Retrieved November 19, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chytridiomycota. ...
Cavalier-Smith, In: Green, Leadbeater, and Diver (eds.), The Chromophyte Algae: 385 (1989). "Chytridiomycota". Archived from ...
The Chytridiomycota are commonly known as chytrids. These fungi produce zoospores that are capable of moving on their own by ...
Chytridiomycota • Classification • Cluster Analysis • Computational Biology • Cyanobacteria • Demography • DNA, Fungal • DNA, ...
Chytridiomycota); RefSeq: NP_012193.1, SC protein Hop1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ascomycota); GenBank: GAA98305 (Mixia ...
Chytridiomycota, Entomophthoromycota, Glomeromycota, Kickxellomycota, Monoblepharomycota, Mortierellomycota, Mucoromycota, ...
Chytridiomycota, and Mucoromycotina). Evolutionarily, the T-box family is highly dynamic, with multiple secondary losses along ... Chytridiomycota), Pyromices sp. (Neocallimastigomycota), and Mortierella verticillata (Mucoromycotina), all of which have a ...
S1c). Other phyla (i.e., Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Glomeromycota) appeared at the foraging bee stage. Samples from the ... Chytridiomycota (0.20%), and Zygomycota (0.05%), and 373 fungal sequences (0.35%) were not assigned using the UNITE database ( ...
Phylum Chytridiomycota Sparrow, 1959 (syn. Chytridiomycetes). *Genus Nephromyces (Saffo, 1981; Saffo & Nelson, 1983) [" ...
The Chytridiomycota is retained but in a restricted sense. One of Chytridiomycotas traditional orders, the Blastocladiales, ... Improved understanding of relationships of fungi traditionally placed in the phyla Chytridiomycota and Zygomycota has resulted ... The Chytridiomycota is retained but in a restricted sense. One of Chytridiomycotas traditional orders, the Blastocladiales, ... Improved understanding of relationships of fungi traditionally placed in the phyla Chytridiomycota and Zygomycota has resulted ...
  • This is the first report of parasitism of a vertebrate by a member of the phylum Chytridiomycota. (scienceopen.com)
  • The interesting conundrum is that, based on the sequence of the genes used in this study, the Chytridiomycota group is in up to six different clades, including the Zygomycota and the even more (supposedly) ancient microsporidia (obligately parasitic fungal-like organisms). (answersingenesis.org)
  • By the end of this tutorial you should have a fundamental understanding of: Performance Objectives(these are the same for Tutorials 16 and 17): Microsporidians Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Glomeromycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota. (pearltrees.com)
  • however, this mycobiome is generally predominated by three phyla: the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Chytridiomycota. (degruyter.com)
  • Classification of marine Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota. (marinespecies.org)
  • 6 authors) (2015) Classification of marine Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota. (gbif.org)
  • Phylum Chytridiomycota V. Phylum Glomeromycota - form symbiotic associations with 80% of plants ( endomycorrhizae ) VI. (coursehero.com)
  • There are two important phyla (divisions) of water molds, the chytrids (Chytridiomycota) and the oomycetes (Oomycota). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Chytridiomycota are commonly known as chytrids. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The Phylum Chytridiomycota (chytrids) is an early diverging lineage in the fungal kingdom. (umaine.edu)
  • Molecular phylogenetics, and other techniques such as ultrastructure analysis, has greatly increased the understanding of chytrid phylogeny, and led to the formation of several new zoosporic fungal phyla: The order Blastocladiales, originally within the Chytridiomycota, are now classified as a separate phylum, the Blastocladiomycota. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the Chytridiomycota, the bibliography contains new taxa in the Blastocladiomycota and Cryptomycota. (umaine.edu)
  • A Microbial Biorealm page on the phylum Chytridiomycota grows, meiotic divisions occur, and a cell wall forms around the original zoospore. (postalrates.info)
  • A Microbial Biorealm page on the phylum Chytridiomycota. (postalrates.info)
  • The only class in the Phylum Chytridiomycota is the Chytridiomycetes. (chromoscience.com)
  • There are three orders within Chytridiomycota: Chytridiales, Blastocadiales, and Monoblepharidales. (postalrates.info)
  • In the Chytridiomycota , the entire fungus may become enclosed in the cell, and it is arguable whether this should be considered analogous to a haustorium. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many different species within the classification of Chytridiomycota, and all have different genomes. (postalrates.info)
  • Rozella species are basal to the Chytridiomycota and are classified in the Phylum Cryptomycota (Rozellida). (umaine.edu)
  • Species of Chytridiomycota have traditionally been delineated and classified based on development, morphology, substrate, and method of zoospore discharge. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, taxonomy in Chytridiomycota is based on molecular data, zoospore ultrastructure and some aspects of thallus morphology and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ultrastructure of the zoospore is a definitve characteristic of Chytridiomycota. (postalrates.info)
  • While this is an important function, Chytridiomycota can also have a negative impact on human produce, particularly Synchytrium endobioticumthe species that causes potato wart. (postalrates.info)
  • Gonapodya prolifera was included among the flagellated, predominantly aquatic fungal species in Chytridiomycota. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Until recently, all zoosporic eufungi were classified in the Chytridiomycota, however, advances in molecular phylogenetics supported the elevation of the Order Blastocladiales (e.g. (umaine.edu)
  • 5 standard deviations from the global mean: Red Sea, Baltic Sea, sea ice) hosted higher proportions of the Chytridiomycota, relative to open oceans that are dominated by Dikarya. (degruyter.com)
  • This implies that 750 million years, the estimated maximum age of origin of the pectin-containing streptophytes represents a maximum age for the divergence of Chytridiomycota from the lineage including Dikarya. (oregonstate.edu)
  • However, Chytridiomycota often dwell within host organisms, which can be plants or animals. (postalrates.info)
  • Because Chytridiomycota often feed on decaying organisms, they are important decomposers. (postalrates.info)
  • Asexually, Chytridiomycota reproduce through the use of zoospores. (postalrates.info)
  • For example, the big-vein disease of lettuce was long thought to be caused by a member of the fungal division Chytridiomycota , namely Olpidium brassicae . (wikipedia.org)
  • The first three phyla theoretically diverged from the last one (Chytridiomycota) approximately 550 million years ago [ 1 , 7 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, the term "chytrid" refers to all members of Chytridiomycota. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chytridiomycota is a division of the Fungi kingdom and contains only one class , Chytridiomycetes . (academickids.com)
  • Kingdom Fungi - Division (Phylum) Chytridiomycota - Class Chytridiomycetes. (cakebake.az)
  • In the M2F treatment the abundance of Ascomycota and Zygomycota increased on day 30, but the abundances of Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, Ciliophora and Rozellomycota decreased. (blomunbloemcher.de)