Chytridiomycota: A phylum of fungi that was formerly considered a subdivision of Phycomycetes. They are the only fungi that produce motile spores (zoospores) at some stage in their life cycle. Most are saprobes but they also include examples of plant, animal, and fungal pathogens.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Oomycetes: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.Phytophthora infestans: A species of parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae that is the causative agent of late blight of potato.Phytophthora: A genus of destructive parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae, order Peronosporales, affecting numerous fruit, vegetable, and other crops. Differentiation of zoospores usually takes place in the sporangium and no vesicle is formed. It was previously considered a fungus.SculptureChoanoflagellata: An order of stalked, sessile, single-celled EUKARYOTES. They are considered the transitional link between the flagellated protozoa and the SPONGES, the most primitive metazoans.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Copepoda: A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)HandbooksHepatitis, Infectious Canine: A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.Manuals as Topic: Books designed to give factual information or instructions.Cartoons as Topic: Images used to comment on such things as contemporary events, social habits, or political trends; usually executed in a broad or abbreviated manner.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.2,6-Dichloroindophenol: A dye used as a reagent in the determination of vitamin C.Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Hyphae: Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.BerlinIctaluridae: A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.Peptide Initiation Factors: Protein factors uniquely required during the initiation phase of protein synthesis in GENETIC TRANSLATION.Sapotaceae: A plant family of the order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are tropical trees which have elongate latex cells. Several members bear sweet edible fruits and produce triterpenoid saponins.Zoology: The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.Apicomplexa: A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.RussiaEchinodermata: A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)Exhibits as Topic: Discussions, descriptions or catalogs of public displays or items representative of a given subject.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Exobiology: The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.Evolution, Chemical: Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.ChileArchaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.

Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines. (1/240)

We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations.  (+info)

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in a breeding colony of African clawed frogs (Xenopus tropicalis). (2/240)

More than 90% of a breeding colony of clawed frogs (Xenopus tropicalis) imported to the United States from western Africa died in an epizootic of chlamydiosis. Chlamydial inclusions were observed by light and electron microscopy in the liver of an infected frog. Chlamydia pneumoniae was isolated in cell cultures from four frogs. A cutaneous infection by a chytridiomycete fungus observed in two frogs could have been a cofactor in the die-off.ous Diseases  (+info)

PCR primers that amplify fungal rRNA genes from environmental samples. (3/240)

Two PCR primer pairs were designed to amplify rRNA genes (rDNA) from all four major phyla of fungi: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridomycota, and Zygomycota. PCRs performed with these primers showed that both pairs amplify DNA from organisms representing the major taxonomic groups of fungi but not from nonfungal sources. To test the ability of the primers to amplify fungal rDNA from environment samples, clone libraries from two avocado grove soils were constructed and analyzed. These soils possess different abilities to inhibit avocado root rot caused by Phythophthora cinnamomi. Analysis of the two rDNA clone libraries revealed differences in the two fungal communities. It also revealed a markedly different depiction of the soil fungal community than that generated by a culture-based analysis, confirming the value of rDNA-based approaches for identifying organisms that may not readily grow on agar media. Additional evidence of the usefulness of the primers was obtained by identifying fungi associated with avocado leaves. In both the soil and leaf analyses, no nonfungal rDNA sequences were identified, illustrating the selectivity of these PCR primers. This work demonstrates the ability of two newly developed PCR primer sets to amplify fungal rDNA from soil and plant tissue, thereby providing unique tools to examine this vast and mostly undescribed community of organisms.  (+info)

Double-hairpin elements in the mitochondrial DNA of allomyces: evidence for mobility. (4/240)

The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the chytridiomycete fungus Allomyces macrogynus contains 81 G+C-rich sequence elements that are 26-79 bases long and can be folded into a unique secondary structure consisting of two stem-loops. At the primary sequence level, the conservation of these double-hairpin elements (DHEs) is variable, ranging from marginal to complete identity. Forty of these DHEs are inserted in intergenic regions, 35 in introns, and 6 in variable regions of rRNA genes. Ten DHEs are inserted into other DHE elements (twins); two even form triplets. A comparison of DHE sequences shows that loop regions contain more sequence variation than helical regions and that the latter often contain compensatory base changes. This suggests a functional importance of the DHE secondary structure. We further identified nine DHEs in a 4-kb region of Allomyces arbusculus, a close relative of A. macrogynus. Eight of these DHEs are highly similar in sequence (90%-100%) to those in A. macrogynus, but only five are inserted at the same positions as in A. macrogynus. Interestingly, DHEs are also found in the mtDNAs of other chytridiomycetes, as well as certain zygomycete and ascomycete fungi. The overall distribution pattern of DHEs in fungal mtDNAs suggests that they are mobile elements.  (+info)

Production of polyclonal antibodies to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and their use in an immunoperoxidase test for chytridiomycosis in amphibians. (5/240)

Polyclonal antibodies were produced for diagnosing chytridiomycosis in amphibians. Two sheep and 4 rabbits were inoculated with homogenized whole culture of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Freund's complete adjuvant or triple adjuvant. Antisera from all animals reacted strongly with all stages of B. dendrobatidis and stained the walls, cytoplasm, rhizoids and zoospores in an indirect immunoperoxidase test. Significant cross-reactivity occurred only with some fungi in the Chytridiomycota, and there are no members of this phylum besides B. dendrobatidis that infect frogs. The immunoperoxidase stain is a useful screening test when combined with recognition of the morphology and infection site of B. dendrobatidis.  (+info)

Uptake of the glucose analogue 2-deoxyglucose by germinating mitospores of Allomyces macrogynus. (6/240)

Mitospores or cysts of Allomyces macrogynus do not take up the glucose analogue 2-deoxyglucose. Uptake of 2-deoxyglucose by germlings begins at 25 min into germination, the start of the rhizoid stage, and increases in rate by approximately 50-fold until 100 min into germination. The rate remains constant from 100 to 200 min, at which time germination is completed and hyphal formation begins. The presence of glucose in the germination medium blocks the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose. Of the other sugars tested, only galactose had any effect on 2-deoxyglucose uptake. Actinomycin D treatment during germination in a glucose-containing medium prevented the appearance of the uptake system, but actinomycin D was not effective after the transfer to a glucose-free medium. Cycloheximide treatment prevented the appearance of the uptake system if it was added at the time of the transfer to the glucose-free medium; it inhibited uptake only partially if the germlings were starved of glucose before its addition. It appears, therefore, that both ribonucleic acid synthesis during germination and protein synthesis after the removal of glucose are required for the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose.  (+info)

Spatial and cellular localization of calcium-dependent protease (CDP II) in Allomyces arbuscula. (7/240)

Immunogold labeling of calcium-dependent neutral protease II (CDPII) with specific antibodies in near median longitudinal ultrathin sections of Allomyces arbuscula showed that the enzyme is predominantly localized in the growing hyphal and rhizoidal apices. The tips in both cell type had more enzyme than the distal regions and showed a gradient distribution. Labeling of the ultrathin sections and western blot analysis of purified subcellular fractions showed that CDPII is mainly cytosolic. Catalytic activity of the enzyme measured with synthetic substrate (Bz-Arg-pNA) showed that 90% of its activity is present in the soluble fraction, although a small amount is associated with the nuclei (0.2%), plasma membranes (0.7%) and microsomes (3.9%). This association is discussed in the context of the functional role of the enzyme and its possible localized activation. Western blot analysis of the crude extract and indirect immunofluorescence of the fixed permeabilized hypahe after treatment with CDPII showed that the alpha-tubulin is a specific target of the enzyme.  (+info)

Evolution of monoblepharidalean fungi based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences. (8/240)

We have determined the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of three chytridiomycete fungi, Monoblepharella15, Harpochytrium94 and Harpochytrium105. Our phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated mitochondrial protein sequences confirms the placement of Mono blepharella15 together with Harpochytrium spp. and Hyaloraphidium curvatum within the taxonomic order Monoblepharidales, with overwhelming support. These four mtDNA sequences encode the standard fungal mitochondrial gene complement and, like certain other chytridiomycete fungi, encode a reduced complement of 7-9 tRNAs, some of which require 5'-tRNA editing to be functional. Highly conserved sequence elements were identified upstream of almost all protein-coding genes in the mtDNAs of Monoblepharella15 and both Harpochytrium species. Finally, a guanosine residue is conserved upstream of the predicted ATG or GTG start codons of almost every protein-coding gene in these genomes. The appearance of this G residue correlates with the presence of a non-canonical cytosine residue at position 37 in the anticodon loop of the mitochondrial initiator tRNAs. Based on the unorthodox features in these four genomes, we propose that a 4 bp interaction between the CAUC anticodon of these tRNAs and GAUG/GGUG codons is involved in translation initiation in monoblepharidalean mitochondria. Intriguingly, a similar interaction may also be involved in mitochondrial translation initiation in the sea anemone Metridium senile.  (+info)

*Chytridiomycota

... is a division of zoosporic organisms in the kingdom Fungi, informally known as chytrids. The name is derived ... Play media Chytridiomycota are unusual among the Fungi in that they reproduce with zoospores. For most members of ... The population of the Chytridiomycota species are able to be supported even though there is a lack of plant life in these ... Currently, taxonomy in Chytridiomycota is based on molecular data, zoospore ultrastructure and some aspects of thallus ...

*Hyphochytriomycetes

Cavalier-Smith, In: Green, Leadbeater, and Diver (eds.), The Chromophyte Algae: 385 (1989). "Chytridiomycota". Archived from ...

*Phylum

Holt, Jack R.; Iudica, Carlos A. (9 January 2014). "Chytridiomycota". Diversity of Life. Susquehanna University. Retrieved 29 ...

*Nowakowskiella

2009). "Cladochytriales - a new order in Chytridiomycota". Mycological Research. 113 (4): 498-507. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2008.12 ...

*Fungus

The Chytridiomycota are commonly known as chytrids. These fungi are distributed worldwide. Chytrids and their close relatives ... The Blastocladiomycota were previously considered a taxonomic clade within the Chytridiomycota. Recent molecular data and ... Currently, seven phyla are proposed: Microsporidia, Chytridiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Glomeromycota, ... Chytridiomycota) and description of a new phylum (Blastocladiomycota)". Mycologia. 98 (6): 860-71. doi:10.3852/mycologia.98.6. ...

*Rhizophydiales

Letcher, P.M.; Powell, M.J.; Davis, W.J. (2015). "A new family and four new genera in Rhizophydiales (Chytridiomycota)". ... Letcher, P.M.; Powell, M.J. (2005). "Kappamyces, a new genus in the Chytridiales (Chytridiomycota)". Nova Hedwigia. 80: 113-133 ... 2004). "Host parasite interactions between freshwater phytoplankton and chytrid fungi (Chytridiomycota)". J. Phycol. 40 (3): ... Chytridiomycota) isolates from North America and Argentina". Mycol. Res. 112 (Pt 7): 759-782. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2008.01.025 ...

*Synchytriaceae

... is a chytrid fungus family in the division Chytridiomycota. The family was described by German mycologist Joseph ...

*Blastocladiomycota

Similar to Chytridiomycota, members of Blastocladiomycota are capable of growing on refractory materials, such as pollen, ... Similar to Chytridiomycota, members of Blastocladiomycota produce asexual zoospores to colonize new substrates. In some species ... 2006). "A molecular phylogeny of the flagellated fungi (Chytridiomycota) and description of a new phylum (Blastocladiomycota ... Blastocladiomycota was originally the order Blastocladiales within the phylum Chytridiomycota until molecular and zoospore ...

*Ellobiopsis

This genus has been difficult to classify, being placed in several different taxa in the past (e.g., Chytridiomycota, ...

*Synchytrium

... is a large genus of plant pathogens within the phylum Chytridiomycota. Species are commonly known as false rust or ... As in other members of Chytridiomycota, dispersal through the zoospore is limited to the immediate environment of the host cell ... However, similar to other members of Chytridiomycota, all of these features exhibit considerable variation and often overlap ... They were sister to the Lobulomycetales, which suggests the genus likely represents a distinct order within Chytridiomycota. ...

*Naviculales

Chytridiomycota and Oomycota) infecting marine microphytobenthic diatoms - a methodological comparison". Journal of Phycology. ...

*Neocallimastigomycota

... and the Chytridiomycota. II. Cladistic analysis of structural data and description of Neocallimasticales ord. nov". Can. J. Bot ...

*Biological pest control

From Chytridiomycota, Synchytrium solstitiale is being considered as a control agent of the yellow star thistle (Centaurea ... Several members of Chytridiomycota and Blastocladiomycota have been explored as agents of biological control. ...

*Vector (epidemiology)

For example, the big-vein disease of lettuce was long thought to be caused by a member of the fungal division Chytridiomycota, ... Since then, many other fungi in the Chytridiomycota have been shown to vector plant viruses. Many plant pests that seriously ...

*Chytridiales

Chytridiomycota) and description of a new phylum (Blastocladiomycota)". Mycologia. 98 (6): 860-871. doi:10.3852/mycologia.98.6. ...

*Chytridiomycetes

... is the major class of the phylum Chytridiomycota, which contains a number of parasitic species. At least two ...

*Physoderma

2006). "A molecular phylogeny of the flagellated fungi (Chytridiomycota) and description of a new phylum (Blastocladiomycota ...

*Coenocyte

Some filamentous fungi (Such as Glomeromycota, Chytridiomycota and Neocalligomastigomycota) may contain multiple nuclei in a ...

*Mycovirus

Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Fungi are frequently infected with two or more unrelated viruses and ...

*Centaurea solstitialis

The fungus Synchytrium solstitiale (Synchytrium of phylum Chytridiomycota) is also being considered as an agent of biological ...

*Piromyces

E2 is an eukaryotic species belonging to the phylum Chytridiomycota, which comprises organisms that possess flagellated ...

*Zoospore

Posterior whiplash flagella, a characteristic of Chytridiomycota, and a proposed uniting trait of the Opisthokonts, a large ... Fungi portal Angiosperm Chytridiomycota Fern Flagellum Gametangium Webster, John; Weber, Roland (2007). Introduction to Fungi ( ...

*Zygomycota

The divisions Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota form the basal group of fungi and are polyphyletic while Basidiomycota and ...

*Wildlife of Antarctica

... are chytridiomycota. The myxomycota and oomycota make up 1% each, although they are not true fungi. The desert surface is ...

*Evolution of fungi

... mostly as Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota. At about this same time, approximately 400 Ma, the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota ...
Population genetics of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) show that isolates are highly related and globally homogenous, data that are consistent with the recent epidemic spread of a previously endemic organism. Highly related isolates are predicted to be functionally similar due to low levels of heritable genetic diversity. To test this hypothesis, we took a global panel of Bd isolates and measured (i) the genetic relatedness among isolates, (ii) proteomic profiles of isolates, (iii) the susceptibility of isolates to the antifungal drug caspofungin, (iv) the variation among isolates in growth and phenotypic characteristics, and (v) the virulence of isolates against the European common toad Bufo bufo. Our results show (i) genotypic differentiation among isolates, (ii) proteomic differentiation among isolates, (iii) no significant differences in susceptibility to caspofungin, (iv) differentiation in growth and phenotypic/morphological characters, and (v) differential ...
Chytrid Fungus (KIT-rid) (Batrachochytrium sp. - Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) is a fungal pathogen and a major contributor to the decline of amphibian populations around the world, threatening many species with extinction. This fungus is a global emerging amphibian pathogen which is proving to be one of the worst vertebrate infectious diseases found so far. It is causing a huge amount of extinction and disease within amphibian populations. More than 100 species of amphibians are known to be affected by the chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). Some are very susceptible and die quickly while others which are more resistant are carriers of the pathogen. The disease, called Chytridiomycosis, is already credited with wiping out frogs and toads in large numbers in Australia and South America. The aquarium hobbys main two species available from shops are the Dwarf African Frog (Hymenochirus boettgeri) and the African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis). These have shown to be infected in ...
by Vetscite. After a six-year effort, biologists say they have for the first time managed to rid a wild toad species of a lethal fungal disease that threatens amphibians around the world.. Midwife toads on the Spanish island of Mallorca are now free of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, says Jaime Bosch, an evolutionary biologist at Spains National Museum of Natural History in Madrid. His team reported their success in the journal Biology Letters on 18 November. But the successful treatment - which involved treating tadpoles with an antifungal drug and chemically cleansing their ponds - may not be widely applicable to the habitats of other amphibian species that are threatened by chytrid, the researchers and others say.. The fungal disease is one of the greatest threats amphibians face across the globe: chytrid has already wiped out hundreds of species of frogs. Bosch and his colleagues in Spain and the United Kingdom first set out to save isolated populations of vulnerable ...
The frog-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes the disease chytridiomycosis, has been blamed for about 100 amphibian extinctions around the globe since it was first observed in 1998, but clear information on exactly how it spreads has remained a mystery.. Now a team of scientists working in Belgium have come up with one potential clue: the chytrid fungus may sometimes be carried to new habitats on the toes of waterfowl such as geese.. According to research published April 13 in the journal PLoS One, geese are "potential environmental reservoirs" for the Bd fungus, because waterfowl and amphibians often co-occur in the same habitats. The team studied 497 wild geese-which had been rounded up from six wildlife areas in East Flanders as part of an invasive species eradication program-and found that the keratinous toe scales of 76 of the birds tested positive for Bd. The fungus was present on both species of geese that they tested: invasive Canada geese (Branta Canadensis) ...
From 1999 to 2006, we sampled ,1200 amphibians for the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) at 30 sites in the southeastern USA. Using histological techniques or PCR assays, we detected chytrid infection in 10 species of aquatic-breeding amphibians in 6 states. The prevalence of chytrid infection was 17.8% for samples of postmetamorphic amphibians examined using skin swab-PCR assays (n = 202 samples from 12 species at 4 sites). In this subset of samples, anurans had a much higher prevalence of infection than caudates (39.2% vs. 5.5%, respectively). Mean prevalence in ranid frogs was 40.7%. The only infected salamanders were Notophthalmus viridescens at 3 sites. We found infected amphibians from late winter through late spring and in 1 autumn sample. Although we encountered moribund or dead amphibians at 9 sites, most mortality events were not attributed to Bd. Chytridiomycosis was established as the probable cause of illness or death in fewer than 10 individuals. Our observations ...
Emerging diseases, such as the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, contribute to global population declines of amphibians. Virkon S is one of the most commonly used disinfectants to reduce risk of spreading such pathogens. Virkon S is classified as harmful to aquatic organisms, but until today no negative effects on tadpoles have been reported. We studied the effects of three concentrations of Virkon S on early life-stages (embryos and hatchlings) of the moor frog Rana anvils. Overall, Virkon S had no significant effects. However, hatching success was highest in the control treatment, suggesting that Virkon S may have weak negative effects on amphibian embryos. We suggest that further studies are needed to assess the negative effect of Virkon S on amphibians, and recommend that Virkon S is used with care and a minimized run-off into natural wetlands.. ...
The fungal disease chytridiomycosis, caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is enigmatic because it occurs globally in both declining and apparently healthy (non-declining) amphibian populations. This distribution has fueled debate concerning whether, in sites where it has recently been found, the pathogen was introduced or is endemic. In this study, we addressed the molecular population genetics of a global collection of fungal strains from both declining and healthy amphibian populations using DNA sequence variation from 17 nuclear loci and a large fragment from the mitochondrial genome. We found a low rate of DNA polymorphism, with only two sequence alleles detected at each locus, but a high diversity of diploid genotypes. Half of the loci displayed an excess of heterozygous genotypes, consistent with a primarily clonal mode of reproduction. Despite the absence of obvious sex, genotypic diversity was high (44 unique genotypes out of 59 strains). We provide evidence that the observed ...
Epidemiological theory generally suggests that pathogens will not cause host extinctions because the pathogen should fade out when the host population is driven below some threshold density. An emerging infectious disease, chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is directly linked to the recent extinction or serious decline of hundreds of amphibian species. Despite continued spread of this pathogen into uninfected areas, the dynamics of the host-pathogen interaction remain unknown. We use fine-scale spatiotemporal data to describe (i) the invasion and spread of Bd through three lake basins, each containing multiple populations of the mountain yellow-legged frog, and (ii) the accompanying host-pathogen dynamics. Despite intensive sampling, Bd was not detected on frogs in study basins until just before epidemics began. Following Bd arrival in a basin, the disease spread to neighboring populations at approximately 700 m/yr in a wave-like pattern until all ...
Global amphibian decline is an established problem, first noted over 40 years ago. Without an obvious cause beyond the natural factors, such as habitat loss, disease has risen as a reasonable explanation. Chytridiomycosis is an infectious disease targeting amphibians, namely frogs, in Central and South America. The fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, has been shown to be inhibited by natural mixes of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) found on the backs of susceptible and resistant frogs. A unique case, Atelopus zeteki, does not show the same use of AMPs. Rather, a heterocyclic diol, isosorbide, seems to be involved in their immunological response to B. dendrobatidis infection. Using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, gas chromatography mass spectrometry, flame ionization detection, and chytrid bioassays, isosorbide was determined and suggested to function in an antimicrobial manner in A. zeteki. The lowest concentration exhibiting antimicrobial properties was 250 mM isosorbide against chytrid
Adams, M.J., Galvan, S., Reinitz, D., Cole, R.A., Pyare, S., Hahr, M. et Govindarajulu, P. 2007. Incidence of the fungus batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibian populations along the northwest coast of North America. Herpetological Reviews 38:430-431.. Agence canadienne dinspection des aliments. 2009. Les maladies déclarables et les maladies à notification immédiate et annuelle : un guide pour les intervenants du milieu agro-alimentaire et les laboratoires [en ligne]. Agence canadienne dinspection des aliments, Gouvernement du Canada. (consulté le 23 Oct. 2009).. Agence de la santé publique du Canada. 2006. Maladie de Lyme - fiche de renseignements [en ligne]. Gouvernement du Canada. (consulté le 11 janvier 2009).. Alexander, D.J. 2000. Newcastle disease and other avian paramyxoviruses. Revue scientifique et technique (Office international des épizooties) 19:443-462.. Alford, R.A. et Richards, S.J. 1999. Global amphibian declines: a problem in applied ecology. Annual Review of ...
Identification of Chytrid Fungus in Native Toads and Frogs, administered by Dr. Kirk Suedmeyer, Director of Animal Health , to determine the incidence of chytrid fungus on Zoo grounds.. This one year study involves a team of staff and volunteers swabbing local amphibians for chytrid fungus. Geo tracking, species and gender determination and individual photo documentation will be performed on all toads and frogs caught. All animals tested will be released unharmed where they were found. Swabs obtained will be analyzed to determine the incidence and prevalence of this fungal organism on Zoo grounds.. In 2013 Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, discovered about a third of the ponds in their study are infected with chytrid, the notorious skin fungus that has sickened and killed amphibians in other parts of the world. In amphibians, chytrid infects and damages the skin, which amphibians use to breathe and absorb water. Once the fungus takes hold, it causes a disease called chytridiomycosis, ...
Berger, L., Speare, R., Daszak, P., Green, D.E., Cunningham, A.A., Goggin, C.L., Slocombe, R., Ragan, M.A., Hyatt, A.D., McDonald, K.R., Hines, H.B., Lips, K.R., Marantelli, G. & Parkes, H. (1998) Chytridiomycosis causes amphibian mortality associated with population declines in the rain forests of Australia and Central America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 95, 9031-9036 ...
Chytridiomycosis is a globally emerging disease of amphibians and the leading cause of population declines and extirpations at species-diverse montane sites in Central America. We continued long-term
Synonyms for Chytridiales in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Chytridiales. 1 synonym for Chytridiales: order Chytridiales. What are synonyms for Chytridiales?
Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. 0 Comments. ...
Activating genes for reprogramming factors for a short time transforms large numbers of differentiated cells into multipotent forms that could be useful for cell-based therapies.. 0 Comments. ...
Learn about chytrid fungus in Foothill Yellow-Legged Frogs (Rana boylii) in the Alameda Creek area of California. Chytridiomycosis research.
Literature Cited. Barr, D. J. S. 1971. Morphology and taxonomy of Entophlyctis confervae-glomeratae (Chytridiales) and related species. Can. J. Bot. 49: 2215_2222.. Barr, D. J. S. 1973. Six Rhizophydium species (Chytridiales) in culture. Can. J. Bot. 51: 967_975.. Barr, D. J. S. 1986. Allochytridium expandens rediscovered : morphology, physiology and zoospore ultrastructure. Mycologia 78(3): 439_448.. Berdan, H. B. 1939. Two new genera of operculate chytrids. Amer. J. Bot. 26(7): 459_463.. Berdan, H. B. 1941. A developmental study of three saprophytic chytrids. II. Catenochytridium carolinianum Berdan. Amer. J. Bot. 28: 439_448.. Canter, H. M. 1961. Studies on British Chytrids XVII. Species occurring on planktonic desmids. Trans. Brit. mycol. Soc. 44(2):163_176.. Fuller, M. S. and A. Jaworski. 1987. Zoosporic fungi in teaching and research. Southeastern Pub. Co., Athens, Georgia, 303 pp.. Hsu, M.-L. 1992. Morphological and taxonomic studies on Chytridiales in Yangmingshan National Park. Master ...
It is thought that the cause for the decline of the southern day frog was the same virulent disease which is the suspected cause of the extinction of the two species of gastric brooding frog. The southern day frog and southern gastric brooding frog disappeared from the same region within the same year, strengthening the theory that declines were most likely a result of an infection with the chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). These are just two of many species which are thought to have been affected by a chytrid epidemic that spread through Australian Frog populations from the late 1970s until the early 1990s ...
Emerging infectious diseases in wildlife are responsible for massive population declines. In amphibians, chytridiomycosis caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd, has severely affected many amphibian populations and species around the world. One promising management strategy is probiotic bioaugmentation of antifungal bacteria on amphibian skin. In vivo experimental trials using bioaugmentation strategies have had mixed results, and therefore a more informed strategy is needed to select successful probiotic candidates. Metagenomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic methods, colloquially called "omics," are approaches that can better inform probiotic selection and optimize selection protocols. The integration of multiple omic data using bioinformatic and statistical tools and in silico models that link bacterial community structure with bacterial defensive function can allow the identification of species involved in pathogen inhibition. We recommend using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and ...
...An international team of researchers has completed the first major sur...The disease chytridiomycosis caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium de...Asia is home to a highly diverse set of amphibian species and potenti... Thats why were excited about this first really big survey said Vr...,Researchers,complete,first,major,survey,of,amphibian,fungus,in,Asia,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
by Vetscite. Misty mountains, glistening forests and blue-green lakes make Cameroon, the wettest part of Africa, a tropical wonderland for amphibians.. The country holds more than half the species living on the continent, including dozens of endemic frogs - an animal that has been under attack across the world by the pervasive chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). Africa has been mostly spared from the deadly and rampant pathogen that wiped out entire species in Australia, Madagascar and Panama, until now.. University of Florida herpetologist David Blackburn and colleagues at the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin have documented declines in frog species on Cameroons Mount Oku and Mount Manengouba over a span of more than 12 years. The scientists link the decline of at least five species of frogs found only in these mountains to chytrid, which may have been exacerbated by habitat destruction, pollution and climate change resulting in weaker and more susceptible frogs, said Blackburn, ...
This chytrid fungus (Chytriodiomycota: Chytridiales) is the causative agent of chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease of amphibians. This fungus has been implicated as the cause of amphibian declines and extinctions of more than 250 species of frogs across six continents (the widespread distribution of this disease the likely consequence of anthropogenic effects). B. dendrobatidis can infect both larval and adult amphibians. Infections in larvae cause a reduction in grazing efficiency, food intake, and survival. Infections in adults cause thickening of the skin which might interfere with osmoregulation or ion balance. This fungus has two parts of its life cycle: one part in the host and one part outside of the host (a motile zoospore stage). Recent studies have shown that B. dendrobatidis can survive for long periods of time outside of the host, increasing its ability to drive host populations extinct. Although this fungus is believed to have originated in Africa, B. dendrobatidis was ...
We proposed to test the hypothesis that ecologically relevant concentrations of pesticide mixtures will increase susceptibility of metamorphic amphibians to a fungal pathogen known as Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, or Bd. Bd has received considerable attention as one of the causes of declining amphibian populations. We hypothesized that exposure to the contaminants in the larval stage would cause increased pathogen load, decreased growth, and increased mortality of amphibians. Our amphibians included 2 species of tree frogs (Spring Peepers and Pacific tree frogs), 1 toad species (Western Toads), and 2 true frog species (Leopard frogs and Cascades frogs). Each species of frog was split into five different pesticide treatments: high herbicide, low herbicide, high insecticide, low insecticide, and a control treatment. Half of the frogs in each pesticide treatment were exposed as tadpoles and half were exposed as metamorphs. In the end, three of the five species showed significant mortality rates. ...
A quick wrap-up of the animals discovered not to be extinct this week: Armoured mistfrog This Armoured Mistfrog, thought by many experts to be extinct due to the recent amphibian chytrid fungus epidemic, was rediscovered by my boss, enterprise search god, Chris Cleveland, while he should have been working, on CNN. And more specifically, in…. ...
Deforestation appears to be affecting some populations, but not others, presumably reflecting the fact that this is a complex of several species. Therefore, as currently understood, this species is generally not significantly threatened by habitat loss. Species in this genus have tested positive for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), however currently there have been no negative effects observed within amphibian populations in Madagascar suggesting the Bd strain has a low virulence level (Bletz et al. 2015 ...
Species in this genus have tested positive for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), however currently there have been no negative effects observed within amphibian populations in Madagascar suggesting the Bd strain has a low virulence level (Bletz et al. 2015 ...
The finding of tadpoles of Rhinella quechua (Huayramayu River, Carrasco National Park, Cochabamba, Bolivia) with oral abnormalities caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis constitutes the first record of this fungal infection reported for Bolivian amphibians ...
I am a research technician in the lab at UC Davis. I received my Masters in comparative pathology here at UC Davis in 2002 and then worked in Seattle for a year helping to identify an outbreak of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Seattle homeless shelters using PFGE. I took a few years break to have two children and then started back to work in Janets lab in 2009. My interests are in molecular and microbiology, mostly in infectious diseases. In addition to providing laboratory daily administrative and research needs, I manage several different projects from Anaplasma phagocytophilum to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. I particularly enjoy troubleshooting assays!. Click here to download Joys CV (PDF) ...
When we arrived at the seminar location, I was relieved to see that the area where we would be performing our amphibian disease testings at was a veterinary clinical lab. Here we had counter space, power outlets, and refrigerator space. However, the molecular testings take time to run (about 2.5 hours), and the real-time PCR machine I was utilizing could only manage 48 samples at once. I ran into time limitations of how long we had to be in the facility. We needed to make sure we ran all the samples given to us by the animal facilities before we went back to the US. I had to improvise and wound up turning my hotel room into a makeshift laboratory. I had an extraction area (bedside table), my re-agent master mix preparation area (the dressing table), and my DNA loading area and instrument area (another bedside table). But do I use to keep my re-agents cool? Why, a foam cooler and ice cubes purchased from a nearby market! I extracted my samples, set up the assay instrument, and went to sleep with ...
The Chytrid fungus, which has decimated global amphibian populations, is now found on every continent and it likely got there through trade.
Oomycota - Peronosporales - Phytophthora infestans. Monument to 187 Irish would-be immigrants to Canada, fleeing from the potato famine, who drowned just off the Gaspe Peninsula in 1847 ...
This page is a Tree of Life Branch Page.. Each ToL branch page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a branch of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a branch and a leaf of the Tree of Life is that each branch can be further subdivided into descendent branches, that is, subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.. For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.. close box ...
A method is provided for introducing a foreign gene into a plant cell by means of an Olpidium zoospore vector having associated with it a reassembled nucleoprotein complex comprising the foreign gene and reassociated coat protein of a zoospore-transmissable virus. The plant cell is contacted with the zoospore under conditions suitable for transmission of the nucleoprotein complex into the cell. The method can be conducted under nonsterile conditions, is applicable to all nucleic acids regardless of size, and is useful for introducing foreign genes into cells of both monocots and dicots.
NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - A new study suggests related, but previously undescribed, Ranavirus species are wreaking havoc on a range of amphibian hosts in Spain.
A University of Alberta scientist is part of a research team offering the first evidence that global warming is behind an infectious disease epidemic wiping out entire frog populations and forcing many species to extinction. The work is published in the journal Nature.
Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 184, provided a summary of taxonomy history, estimate of phylogenetic placement, and accepted the name of priority, which is Alytidae, for the taxon composed of Discoglossus and Alytes. See Dubois, 1984, Mem. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, A-Zool., 131: 1-64, and Dubois, 1987, Alytes, 6: 56-68, for discussion of family-group nomenclature (in the sense of including Bombinatoridae of this list). Lanza, Cei, and Crespo, 1975, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 9: 153-162, and Lanza, Cei, and Crespo, 1976, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 10: 311-314, considered, on the basis of immunological evidence, that Discoglossus should be maintained in Discoglossidae, while Alytes and Bombina should be placed in a new family, Bombinidae; Barbourula was not assigned to family. Estes and Sanchíz, 1982, J. Vert. ...
Litoria freycineti Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 77. Syntypes: MNHNP 246 (2 specimens), according to Guibé, 1950 1948, Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 20. Type locality: Nova Hollandia (= Australia). Given as Port-Jackson by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 505.. Lepthyla freycinetii - Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 504.. Litoria freycineti - Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 504.. Lepthyla freycineti - Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 504.. Pelobius freycineti - Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 31.. Hyla freycinetii - Keferstein, 1867, Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen, 18: 355.. Hyla (Litoria) freycinetii var. verruculata Keferstein, 1867, Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen, 18: 355. Syntypes: Not stated; presumed lost by Cogger, Cameron, and Cogger, 1983, Zool. Cat. Aust., Amph. Rept., 1: 43, and Böhme and Bischoff, 1984, Bonn. Zool. Monogr., 19: 168. Type locality: Australien.. Litoria copei Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, ...
Declines in amphibian populations There are recent reports of apparently drastic declines in amphibian populations and of extinctions of a number of the world s ...
ID A0A0L0H6G8_SPIPN Unreviewed; 111 AA. AC A0A0L0H6G8; DT 11-NOV-2015, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 11-NOV-2015, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 13. DE SubName: Full=Translation initiation factor SUI1 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KNC97060.1}; GN ORFNames=SPPG_07457 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KNC97060.1}; OS Spizellomyces punctatus DAOM BR117. OC Eukaryota; Fungi; Chytridiomycota; Chytridiomycetes; OC Spizellomycetales; Spizellomycetaceae; Spizellomyces. OX NCBI_TaxID=645134 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KNC97060.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000053201}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KNC97060.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000053201} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=DAOM BR117 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KNC97060.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000053201}; RG The Broad Institute Genome Sequencing Platform; RA Russ C., Cuomo C., Shea T., Young S.K., Zeng Q., Koehrsen M., Haas B., RA Borodovsky M., Guigo R., Alvarado L., Berlin A., Bochicchio J., RA Borenstein D., Chapman S., Chen Z., Engels R., ...
My research interests are in the fields of aquatic ecology and disease ecology. Specifically, I focus on diseases and parasites of amphibians and their interactions with the wider aquatic community. Specifically, I am investigating the transmission mode of trematode free-living stages to their amphibian hosts. My model parasite is Ribeiroia ondatrae, a species implicated in amphibian malformations. I am also interested in the ecological role of parasites in food webs and the interplay with transmission dynamics. I use a variety of research techniques including mathematical modeling, laboratory and mesocosm experiments, and field surveys ...
Both people types of Kaizen are abundant any kind of successful Lean enterprise, that are at really heart guys organizations. Working within an enterprise that needs help implementing Lean start to wear on your mind, Especially if happen to be the agent of transformation. For my entire professional career Ive had think about on this role. You push and push everyday for changes because you can see the waste sitting all during plant and office; in stacks of wasted inventory and DMRd materials to frivolous years of product development processes. Its tough to have a positive behavior.Bd is among the most number one suspect from the search for which is killing the frogs. Bd affects the keratin levels in frogs, causing their skin to become thicker. Many frogs find it difficult to absorb the actual and nutrients they be required to survive through this thicker skin, so that they die. The fungus shows the frogs an ailment known as chytridiomycosis. This disease is highly deadly and capable of wiping out ...
primary zoospore ii) Primary zoospores liberated a) Hole opens up at the end of the zoosporangium b) All the zoospores flow out iii) Primary zoospores swim and encyst a) Swim for a time b) Drop to the bottom (substrate) with flagella down c) Develop cellulose walls (encysting) d) Rests (remains in that situation for a while) iv) Release of secondary zoospore a) Secondary zoospore is formed out of the cytoplasm in the ...
Theres a fungus threatening the worlds amphibian populations. But, as Paige Doughty reports, one scientist may have found a homegrown cure for the fungal disease.
A quiet and deadly infection has been sweeping across amphibian populations for the past decade, utterly decimating some groups on a pandemic scale and utterly overlooking others. So whats going on here? Now researchers look to genetics for the answer.
Discover what is a frog with Cultures Ways, living on all the continents except Antarctica and the oldest fossil appeared 265 million years ago.
These results suggest that amphibians can acquire immunity to B. dendrobatidis that overcomes pathogen-induced immunosuppression and increases their survival." Emerging fungal pathogens pose a. ...
These results suggest that amphibians can acquire immunity to B. dendrobatidis that overcomes pathogen-induced immunosuppression and increases their survival." Emerging fungal pathogens pose a. ...
There are 19 thirteen-letter words containing A, P, S, U and Z: DEPUTIZATIONS DISPAUPERIZED DISPAUPERIZES ... UNSPECIALIZED ZINJANTHROPUS ZOOSPORANGIUM. Every word on this site can be played in scrabble. Build other lists, that start with or end with letters of your choice.
Az antidopping.hu még januárban tette közzé a Magyarországon forgalomban lévő, a hatályos szabályozás szerint doppinglistás hatóanyagoknak ill. az azokat tartalmazó készítményeknek a listáját.A lista a készítmény neveket "/" jel után a besorolás típusát (S1, S2 stb.) majd újabb "/" jel után a doppinglistán szereplő hatóanyagot tartalmazza. Nem rövid!. Mielőtt doppingszerhez nyúlnál, olvasd el ezt:. ...
To test the susceptibility of bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) to amphibian chytridiomycosis, groups of captive bred, recently metamorphosed bullfrogs were inoculated with zoospores of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the causative agent of chytridiomycosis, and assayed for clinical and pathological signs of infection. A novel technique for counting B. dendrobatidis zoospore inocula is described. Inoculation regimes varied from single exposures of 1-10 million zoospores per animal to inocula of 10 million zoospores per animal per day for a 31 day period. Twenty-five to fifty percent of each inoculated cohort was histologically positive for B. dendrobatidis on necropsy. However, lesions were focal, small with relatively little thickening of the keratinized epidermis and no clinical signs of chytridiomycosis were observed. Only one animal died during the experiment, due to cardiac puncture procedure. A fungal isolate used in these experiments was inoculated onto four metamorphosed poison dart frogs ...
During this year (2006), chytridiomycosis, sometimes referred to as "chytrid fungus" or "Bd" (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis), was found in Eastern Newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) from two well-known commercial vendors of amphibians. In two shipments received from a vendor in the southern portion of the United States, mortality from the disease exceeded 60% of over 400 animals. In another shipment from the East Coast, Eastern Newts tested positive for the disease but no mortality was experienced in over a month of quarantine. Although Bd is very widespread, this may be the first report of infection in a commercial source. The purpose of this note is to alert scientific users to the possibility of the fungus in shipments from these and other suppliers of amphibians. Many species of amphibians in addition to Eastern Newts are susceptible to the disease, so the concern extends beyond a single species. Bd infects epidermis where it is saprophytic on keratin and may interfere with respiration, gas ...
This book documents a major environmental crisis: rapidly declining amphibian populations and the developmental problems that are increasingly prevalent within many amphibian species. Horror stories on this topic have been featured in the scientific and popular press over the past fifteen years, invariably asking what amphibian declines are telling us about the state of the environment. Are declines harbingers of devastated ecosystems or simply weird reflections of a peculiar amphibian world? This compendium - presenting new data, reviews of current literature, and comprehensive species accounts - reinforces what scientists have begun to suspect: that amphibians are a lens through which the state of the environment can be viewed more clearly. And, that the view is alarming and presages serious concerns for all life, including that of our own species. The first part of this work consists of more than fifty essays covering topics from the causes of amphibian population declines to conservation, surveys
ABSTRACT: Highly virulent pathogens that cause host population declines confront the risk of fade-out, but if pathogen transmission dynamics are age-structured, pathogens can persist. Among other features of amphibian biology, variable larval developmental rates generate age-structured larval populations, which in theory can facilitate pathogen persistence. We investigated this possibility empirically in a population of Salamandra salamandra in Spain affected by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) at breeding sites that lacked alternative amphibian hosts. None of the adults presented infection by Bd. However, for the larvae, while environmental heterogeneity was the most important predictor of infection, the effect on infection dynamics was mediated by transmission from overwintered larvae to new larval recruits, which occurred only in permanent larval habitats. We suggest that interannual Bd maintenance in a host population that experiences mass mortality associated with infection can occur ...
The Buffalo Zoo offered members of the media the opportunity to photograph the Zoos hellbender rearing lab that is now officially open for public viewing on January 11th inside the Buffalo Zoo Reptile House. The eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) is the largest aquatic salamander species found in the Americas. Wildlife studies have shown that hellbender populations have declined dramatically, including those that inhabit some watersheds in New York State. Reasons for the decline of these amphibians are unknown. However, scientists are working to study the role of predators, disease (such as amphibian chytrid fungus), angler-related mortality, water quality and suitable habitat conditions and food sources to determine their contributions to the decline of hellbender populations. Although the eastern hellbender is listed as a species of "special concern" in New York, federal and state officials are also working to change their listing to "threatened" or "endangered." The Buffalo ...
Recent publications: OBryan C.J.; Gray M.J.; Brooks C.S. 2012. Presence of Ranavirus Infection in Amphibian Populations of Tennessee, USA. Herpetological Review 43(2), 293-295. - In this project, amphibians were collected from natural ponds and cattle ponds to compare the endemic nature of ranavirus. Hundreds of tadpoles and juvenal frogs were collected for tissue biopsy. The tissues were enzymatically digested and DNA preferentially purified. Spectral analysis revealed pure, good-quality DNA purification and ready for PCR. We performed some ranavirus-spiked controls to determine our minimum detection limits and tested for PCR-inhibition in all samples. Finally, a collection of samples were DNA sequenced for final confirmation that what we were seeing was the actual viral DNA. Chatfield, M. W. H., B. B. Rothermel, C. Brooks, and J. Kay. 2009. Detection of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibians from the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee, USA. Herpetological Review ...
To conduct this study, Dr Puschendorf must collect samples from a range of different frog species and test them to determine if they carry the chytrid fungus. This involves catching the frog, taking the sample (either a toe clipping or a skin swab), performing a PCR test on the sample and then returning the frog to its habitat. Issues arise with this method of testing when a behavioural study is the underlying aim of the research. If frogs are held in captivity for more than five minutes, their behaviour and responses to stimuli are altered. To ensure that behavioural observations arent adversely affected, the entire sampling process must be completed within a five minute window for each frog. This means ideally the frog should be swabbed as quickly as possible ...
Fig. 2. A communal wood frog (Rana sylvatica) deposition site in Concord (Middlesex County) Massachusetts from 1988 (A). Well over 100 egg masses are shown just on the surface, indicating a local population of over 200 breeding adults. Similar numbers bred at this site in the previous 2 years, but in this same time frame only two adults were ever seen outside of the breeding season. (B-F) Breeding sites for boreal toads (Bufo boreas) along Del Peurto Creek in Stanislaus County, California. B shows a pair of copulating toads with the strings of eggs wrapped around the pair. C and D show views of one ephemeral pool where a single clutch of eggs (which can be up to 10,000 individuals) has hatched in 1996. E and F show changes in a second nearby deposition site from 1995 (E) to 1999 (F). The breeding site is on the left in both panels with Del Peurto Creek on the right. Arrow in E shows the location of the small breeding pool shown in panels C and D. Because of anthropogenic activity, water flow has ...
Bibliografía. Altaba, C. R. (1997). Phylogeny and biogeography of midwife toads (Alytes, Discoglossidae): a reappraisal. Contributions to Zoology, 66: 257-262.. Angelier, M. L., Angelier, E. (1964). Etude dune population de Crapauds accoucheurs dans un lac de haute montagne. Comptes Rendus de lAcadémie des Sciences, 258: 701-703.. Araújo, M. B., Guilhaumon, F., Rodrigues Neto, D., Pozo Ortego, I., Gómez Calmaestra, R. (2011). Impactos, vulnerabilidad y adaptación de la biodiversidad española frente al cambio climático. 2. Fauna de vertebrados. Dirección general de medio Natural y Política Forestal. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, y Medio Rural y Marino, Madrid. 640 pp.. Arntzen, J. W., García-París, M. (1995). Morphological and allozyme studies of midwife toads (Genus Alytes), including the description of two new taxa from Spain. Contributions to Zoology, 65: 5-34.. Arntzen, J. W., García-París, M. (1997). Phylogeny and biogeography of midwife toads (Alytes, Discoglossidae): a ...
The African clawed frog is a carrier of Batrachochytrium dendrobatis (Bd), the fungus responsible for amphibian chytridiomycosis, which has devastated frog
Almost 300 people, including veterinarians, scientists and fish and wildlife managers, will meet Nov. 5-7 in Tempe, Ariz., at a conference on stopping the spread of a fungal-based amphibian disease. Hosted by the Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation (PARC)-a multilateral organization with members from the federal and state governments, zoos, the pet industry, conservation groups and others-the conference will include panels to discuss amphibian deaths related to the so-called Bd fungal disease, know …
The potential impact of chemical contaminants and conservation practices on amphibians in agricultural landscapes is a key research topic globally. Amphibians represent a common group in many freshwater systems and are currently experiencing worldwide population declines. Global amphibian declines may be attributed to a number of causes, including habitat loss, introduced species, global climate change, disease, and chemical contaminants; most species declines are not a function of only one factor, but a result of interacting factors and synergistic impacts. I analyzed the impact of field conservation efforts employed in the Calapooia watershed, located in the central Willamette Valley in Oregon, on amphibian species diversity using Simpsons Diversity Index. In the Calapooia watershed the value of this index increased when conservation efforts, such as retaining crop residue and riparian buffers, were present. This suggests that species diversity increased with increased conservation effort at ...
Amphibian population declines and sudden species extinctions began to be noted at the beginning of the 1980s. Understanding the causes of the losses is hampered by our poor knowledge of the amphibian fauna in many parts of the world. Amphibian taxa are still being described at a high rate, especially in the tropics, which means that even quantifying species lost as a percentage of the current fauna can be a misleading statistic in some parts of the globe. The number of species that have gone missing is only one measure of the loss of biodiversity. Long-term studies of single-species populations are needed, but this approach has its limits. Amphibian populations often show great annual variation in population size making it difficult, if not impossible, to use short-term studies as a basis for deciding if a population is increasing or decreasing in the long term. Aggregating single studies into databases and searching for patterns of variation is a way of overcoming this limitation. Several ...
Catalyzes the conversion of oxaloacetate (OAA) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), the rate-limiting step in the metabolic pathway that produces glucose from lactate and other precursors derived from the citric acid cycle.
Amphibians are a key indicator species of ecosystem health. Their presence or absence can tell us a lot about the general health of a wetland or riparian area in addition to giving us a sense of site water and habitat quality. When climatic and hydrologic changes occur in an ecosystem, amphibians are often the first to react. Their thin skin makes them vulnerable to temperature increases, chemical pollutants, disease, and radiation. The combinations of pollutants, habitat fragmentation and development in urban areas have had a negative impact on amphibian populations. In the Portland Metro area, everything from mutations of extra legs to complete absence of native amphibians has been documented.. read more. ...
Fungi can affect animals, including humans, in several ways. A mycosis is a fungal disease that results from infection and direct damage. Fungi attack animals directly by colonizing and destroying tissues. Mycotoxicosis is the poisoning of humans (and other animals) by foods contaminated by fungal toxins (mycotoxins). Mycetismus describes the ingestion of preformed toxins in poisonous mushrooms. In addition, individuals who display hypersensitivity to molds and spores develop strong and dangerous allergic reactions. Fungal infections are generally very difficult to treat because, unlike bacteria, fungi are eukaryotes. Antibiotics only target prokaryotic cells, whereas compounds that kill fungi also harm the eukaryotic animal host.. Many fungal infections are superficial; that is, they occur on the animals skin. Termed cutaneous ("skin") mycoses, they can have devastating effects. For example, the decline of the worlds frog population in recent years may be caused by the chytrid fungus ...
This directory includes experts in a wide range of fields related to captive amphibian programs. It is intended to benefit anyone who is involved with conservation programs for captive amphibians.. Please note: If you are not directly involved with captive conservation programs for amphibians, we ask that you consider searching for any information you need on our web site, or using an internet search engine rather than contacting the people below. Due to their existing workloads, these people are unable to answer emails that are not from people involved with captive amphibian programs. Please consider using these other resources to find the help you need: Amphibian Husbandry, Chytrid Fungus, AArk Documents, Amphibians on the Web.. ...
This directory includes experts in a wide range of fields related to captive amphibian programs. It is intended to benefit anyone who is involved with conservation programs for captive amphibians.. Please note: If you are not directly involved with captive conservation programs for amphibians, we ask that you consider searching for any information you need on our web site, or using an internet search engine rather than contacting the people below. Due to their existing workloads, these people are unable to answer emails that are not from people involved with captive amphibian programs. Please consider using these other resources to find the help you need: Amphibian Husbandry, Chytrid Fungus, AArk Documents, Amphibians on the Web.. ...
Frogs are amphibians in the order Anura (meaning "tail-less" from Greek an-, without + oura, tail). Adult frogs are characterised by long hind legs, a short body, webbed digits, protruding eyes and the absence of a tail. Most frogs have a semi-aquatic lifestyle, but move easily on land by jumping or climbing. They typically lay their eggs in puddles, ponds or lakes, and their larvae, called tadpoles, have gills and develop in water. Adult frogs follow a carnivorous diet, mostly of arthropods, annelids and gastropods. Frogs are most noticeable through their call, which can be widely heard during the mating season. The distribution of frogs ranges from tropic to subarctic regions, with most of the species found in tropical rainforests. With over 5,000 species described, they are among the most diverse groups of vertebrates. However the declining numbers of certain species of frogs are increasingly giving cause for concern caused by the Chytrid Fungus. ...
Whats the News: A fungus that his been wiping out frog species all over the world is creeping into the last area patch of tropical mountains in the Americas escape its scourge, the Darien National Park in Panama, and scientists are scrambling to save what species they can. Frogs have been taking a beating. over the last three decades, due in large part to a ruthless killer called chytrid fungus. . Identified in the late 90s. , the fungus is startlingly lethal, driving 50% of species into extinction and killing 80% of individuals within five months of appearing at one location in Panama. It spreads through water via spores, affecting even areas where humans have not penetrated. It is the worst infectious disease ever recorded among vertebrates in terms of the number of species impacted, and its propensity to drive them to extinction, wrote a team of scientists in a 2005 World Conservation Union report. [pdf]. How the Heck:. ...
Atelopus cruciger is diurnal. During breeding season (the dry season), this species lives near freshwater streams, typically found on rocks within the stream, or streamside vegetation climbing up to 1.5 m above the ground (Stuart et al. 2008). Adults feed on ants and other insects (Lötters 2006). Although Atelopus cruciger lacks a tympanum and middle ear structures, this species exhibits three types of distinct calls: pulsed ("buzzes"), pure-toned ("whistles"), rising in frequency, and short ("chirps" or "twitters"), descending in frequency. A short, quiet, partially pulsed call, descending in frequency, is the characteristic vocalization for male frogs in the vicinity of other "non-interacting" individuals, males placed in a collecting bag with other males, and males in amplexus. An amplexing male will increase his call rate when another male approaches or touches him. In addition to the three distinct call types, one male was observed to give a series of variable calls before a series of ...
Atelopus coynei is a relatively small harlequin frog, with females growing up to a length of 32 mm and males to 23 mm. The snout of A. coynei projects beyond the lower jaw, creating a sharp ninety-degree angle above the nostril when viewed in lateral profile. Atelopus coynei has a body wider than the head, its head is longer than wide. The laterally open nostrils are located along the line between the anterior margin of orbit to tip of snout, approximately a third of the distance from the snout. Viewed from above, the corner of the eyelids diverge from a point behind the nostrils to immediately anterior of the orbits after which they diverge more strongly. The canthus rostralis is roundish, with a subtle depression at the loreal region. The interorbital space in A. coynei is broader than the upper eyelid and the tympanum is obscured. The skin on A. coyneis head is smooth but can have sparse, fine granulations. The skin of the dorsum is granulated and exhibits twin ridges near the parotoid area. ...
Art on Tap Series. 5:30-7 p.m. Art therapist/counselor Trish Ebbert will talk about the benefits of art for ones good mental health.. "Amphibian Declines: Around the World and in Your Backyard." 7 p.m. Fish and wildlife biologist Michelle Christman will talk about amphibian biology, threats amphibians face and general amphibian declines, both around the world and locally. The recent decision to list the Jemez Mountains salamander as an endangered species will also be discussed. No advance registration required. Free. For more information, visit PajaritoEEC.org, call 662-0460, or email [email protected] Los Alamos County and the Los Alamos League of Women Voters presents back-to-back forums at Fuller Lodge. At 5:30 p.m., the forum on the Structure-of-Government Charter Amendments. At 6:45 p.m. the forum for candidates for the Third Congressional District, will feature Democratic Candidate Ben Ray Luján and Republican Candidate Jefferson Byrd.. Downtown Dogs. A weekly walking group for ...
Environmental contamination has been suspected of being partially responsible for recent declines in amphibian populations. It is often not feasible to identify all of the compounds in an environment, nor the concentrations in which they are present. SPMDs are passive sampling devices that uptake lipophilic compounds from the environment in a manner similar to aquatic organisms. The extracts from the SPMDs, therefore, contain a composite sample of the compounds that are present in the environment. In this paper, we outline the methods from studies in which we have used extracts from SPMDs in toxicity tests on amphibian larvae. Using SPMD extracts makes it possible to establish potential links between amphibian deformities and declines and environmental contamination by lipophilic compounds....
There is no way around demographic change: the future of many developed countries is characterized by shrinking and ageing population. This development implies many challenges for Europes urban and rural areas. Demographic change is getting on agenda of academics, policy makers and many other stakeholders. In particular, population decline is discovered as a relevant topic.. In their book*, Managing population Decline in Europes Urban and Rural Areas, Gert-Jan Hospers and Nol Reverda provide a valuable asset to the population decline discourse by discussing this phenomenon from demographical, geographical and sociological point of view. The focus of this book is on the population decline as a transformation process. More specifically they are interested in the way in which people connect with each other: in other words on the impact of this development on the social structures. Namely, so far population decline discussion has been primarily led by spatial planning and policy research. New ...
Biology Assignment Help, Question, Ask questiImagine you are studying a group of amphibian species that vary in their habitats-some living in dense, murky water, and others living in very clear ponds. What kind of communication problems exist in each environment? What sorts of differe
Background for educators ,,. Introduction. This section introduces students to some of the environmental issues that scientists believe may be contributing to the decline of amphibian populations. Students will examine the causes for such declines, and identify the sources that are responsible. Students will gain a greater understanding of global degradation, and hopefully develop an environmental ethic that will instill a more positive attitude in contributing to a cleaner earth.. Most environmental issues are controversial, and emotions run high when they are being discussed. Frequently, discussions end up as non-productive confrontations between students or the teacher. Such situations can be avoided, or at least alleviated by using a scheme that systematically offers to the students all aspects of the background knowledge that need in order to make rational decisions. The productivity of the discussion is further enhanced by having as its end product, the development and implementation of an ...
The classical method of treatment with a fungicide leaves animals open to re-infection, and its not a solution for use in the wild - its a solution for animals that can be kept isolated or quarantined," continues Church who advocates more research on amphibians who survive chytrid attack. "So I think this is definitely a line of research that could become a tool applied to saving species in the wild, but we would have to develop a whole set of criteria for deciding where and how to use it - we have had so many catastrophes in the past through introducing species, so we have to be very careful ...
Other than the defining difference in the type of gamete produced, differences between males and females in one lineage cannot always be predicted by differences in another. The concept is not limited to animals; egg cells are produced by chytrids, diatoms, water moulds and land plants, among others. In land plants, female and male designate not only the egg- and sperm-producing organisms and structures, but also the structures of the sporophytes that give rise to male and female plants. ...
10 new species of amphibians has been discovered, in Columbias mountainous Tacarcuna area of the Darien, during a recent rapid asesment program.
Scottish Dragon Finder are holding an evening amphibian survey training event where you can learn how to identify our native amphibian species undertaking 3 methods of pond survey. This session is based entirely outdoors and gives you the opportunity to get hands on and learn about netting, egg-searching and torching techniques. No previous knowledge / experience is required but booking is essential. Wellies and headtorch highly recommended but may be borrowed, please mention when contacting if you need either of these.. ...
The Central Provident Fund bucked the global decline in assets under management (AUM) last year, with its total assets growing 6.6 per cent to US$287 billion (S$399 billion), from US$269.1 billion in 2017.. Read more at straitstimes.com.
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2014 Amphibian Specialist Group (ASG) and Amphibian Survival Alliance (ASA). All Rights Reserved. The ASA is a Fiscally Sponsored Program of Global Wildlife Conservation a registered 501(c)(3). Tax ID #26-2887967 ...
Buy Sabes algo sobre anfibios? (Do You Know about Amphibians?) from Dymocks online BookStore. Find latest reader reviews and much more at Dymocks
I had to send my Xtone Back as when it arrived there was a Crack in the Body! (caused in transit)..however the dealer informed me that he wasnt sure if he could get another soon..he offered to repair it for free! of course for free it wasnt my fault!..I declined and found a cheaper one at Musikhaus Cyberstore, now Im not sure I want it ..because of the possibility of these ...
Amphibian populations are declining even in pristine areas in many parts of the world, and in the Neotropics most such enigmatic amphibian declines have occurred in mid- to high-elevation sites. However, amphibian populations have also declined at La Selva Biological Station in the lowlands of Costa Rica, and similar declines in populations of lizards have occurred at the site as well. To set the stage for describing amphibian declines at La Selva, I thoroughly review knowledge of amphibian decline and amphibian conservation in Central America: I describe general patterns in biodiversity, evaluate major patterns in and ecological correlates of threat status, review trends in basic and applied conservation literature, and recommend directions for future research. I then synthesize data on population densities of amphibians, as well as ecologically similar reptiles, over a 35-year periods using quantitative datasets from a range of studies. This synthesis identifies assemblage-wide declines of
Researchers from the Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory, Southern Illinois University and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) examined the chronic toxicity of two of the insecticides most commonly used in the Central Valley- chlorpyrifos and endosulfan, to larval Pacific treefrogs (Pseudacris regilla) and foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii), the amphibians with declining populations that live and breed in meadows surrounding the Sierra Nevada. The results are discussed in "Toxicity of Two Insecticides to California, USA, Anurans and Its Relevance to Declining Amphibian Populations." The study used laboratory testing to examine how the insecticides affected the two frogs at environmentally realistic concentrations. During testing, tadpoles were observed at various stages of development to see how the insecticides affected their growth and health.. The researchers found that endosulfan was more toxic than chlorpyrifos to both species, and tadpoles of both species developed abnormalities ...
Wildlife populations are affected by diseases of all types, every day. However, some diseases are of particular concern within units of the National Park System and are the focus of active monitoring, management and research. Some examples include: bat white-nose syndrome, rabies, plague, tularemia, bighorn sheep pneumonia complex, chronic wasting disease, bovine brucellosis, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, amphibian chytridiomycosis, avian botulism, and West Nile virus. The threat of introduction of diseases not currently in the United States, such as foot-and-mouth disease, are also of concern ...
The relationship between mosquitoes and their amphibian hosts is a unique, reciprocal trophic interaction. Instead of a one-way, predator-prey relationship, there is a cyclical dance of avoidance and attraction. This has prompted spatial and temporal synchrony between organisms, reflected in emergence time of mosquitoes in the spring and choice of habitat for oviposition. Frog-feeding mosquitoes also possess different sensory apparatuses than do their mammal-feeding counterparts. The reciprocal nature of this relationship is exploited by various blood parasites that use mechanical, salivary or trophic transmission to pass from mosquitoes to frogs. It is important to investigate the involvement of mosquitoes, frogs and parasites in this interaction in order to understand the consequences of anthropogenic actions, such as implementing biocontrol efforts against mosquitoes, and to determine potential causes of the global decline of amphibian species.
The relationship between mosquitoes and their amphibian hosts is a unique, reciprocal trophic interaction. Instead of a one-way, predator-prey relationship, there is a cyclical dance of avoidance and attraction. This has prompted spatial and temporal synchrony between organisms, reflected in emergence time of mosquitoes in the spring and choice of habitat for oviposition. Frog-feeding mosquitoes also possess different sensory apparatuses than do their mammal-feeding counterparts. The reciprocal nature of this relationship is exploited by various blood parasites that use mechanical, salivary or trophic transmission to pass from mosquitoes to frogs. It is important to investigate the involvement of mosquitoes, frogs and parasites in this interaction in order to understand the consequences of anthropogenic actions, such as implementing biocontrol efforts against mosquitoes, and to determine potential causes of the global decline of amphibian species.
BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE Alma Whiffen Barksdale (1916-1981) was born in Hammonton, New Jersey on October 25, 1916. She received her A.B. (1937) at Maryville College, Maryville, Tennessee, and her M.S. in botany (1939) and Ph.D. in botany and mycology (1941) at the University of North Carolina, where she was a Carnegie Fellow (1941-42). Dr. Barksdale conducted postdoctoral research under Dr. John N. Couch (1943) and became a National Research Council Fellow with Dr. William H. Weston at Harvard University (1942-43). Dr. Barksdales work falls into three periods. The first was her graduate and postdoctoral studies on the cytology, nutrition, and taxonomy of aquatic fungi (phyla Oomycota and Chytridiomycota). Her contributions included: (1) the development of methods for the isolation, purification, and culture of nine genera of lower aquatic fungi; (2) the determination of their nutritional requirements; and (3) the discovery of a new type of sexual life cycle in the Blastocladiales, an order composed of ...
My current research focuses on the behavioral and physiological ecology of vertebrate animals and amphibian conservation. My students and I are studying the complex interactions among amphibian skin secretions and their antimicrobial properties, epibiotic bacteria, and how these regulate and potentially inhibit growth of microbial pathogens such as chytrid fungus. We also are studying behavior and energetics of amphibians using techniques such as analysis of vocalizations, muscle biochemistry, and respirometry. Finally, I have been an active member of the research team investigating resiliance to development in the Belgrade Lakes Watershed ...
Little information on sponge longevity and resilience exists. Reproduction can be asexual (e.g. budding) or sexual (Naylor, 2011) and individual sponges are usually hermaphrodites (Hayward & Ryland, 1994). Short-lived ciliated larvae are released via the aquiferous system of the sponges and metamorphosis follows settlement. Growth and reproduction are generally seasonal (Hayward & Ryland, 1994). Rejuvenation from fragments is also considered an important form of reproduction (Fish & Fish, 1996). Some sponges are known to be highly resilience to physical damage with an ability to survive severe damage, regenerate and reorganize to function fully again, however, this recoverability varies between species (Wulff, 2006).. Marine sponges often harbour dense and diverse microbial communities, which can include bacteria, archaea and single-celled eukaryotes (fungi and microalgae), and can comprise up to 40% of sponge volume, which may have a profound impact on host biology (Webster & Taylor, 2012). ...
Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of Bsal to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of Bsal according to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV, and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to Bsal. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus was reached before, also at collective level. The output is composed of the categorical answer, and for the questions where no consensus was reached, the different supporting views are reported. Details on the methodology used for this assessment are explained in a separate opinion. According to the assessment performed, Bsal can be considered eligible to be listed for Union intervention as laid down in Article 5(3) of the ...
Janithobacterium lividum strain DSM 1522 is a gram-negative bacterium that has antimicrobial and antitumor properties. It is usually found on the skin of amphibians. Its a helpful bacterium because it protects against fungal pathogens. It was found that altering the amount of Janthinobacterium lividum produced on the skin of an amphibian allows for an increasingly higher chance of protection against chytridiomycosis, therefore allowing the survival rate to be much higher (Harris, 2009).. References:. Harris, R. N., Brucker, R. M., Walke, J. B., Becker, M. H., Schwantes, C. R., Flaherty, D. C., . . . Minbiole, KP. (2009, March 26). Skin microbes on frogs prevent morbidity and mortality caused by a lethal skin fungus. The ISME Journal 3, 818-824. Available from google scholar. Retrieved April 02, 2017, from http://www.nature.com/ismej/journal/v3/n7/abs/ismej200927a.html. Methods for isolation and identification:. ...
The main aim of this work was to identify local adaptation processes in amphibian populations, thereby improving the general understanding of genetics and mechanisms behind the evolution and maintenance of biological diversity. Phenotypic and genetic variation in life-history traits was studied within and between populations common frog (Rana temporaria) populations along a 1600 km transect from southern Sweden to northern Finland.. Embryonic and larval development and growth was investigated both under field and laboratory conditions. The results suggest ample genetic diversity in larval life-history traits among Fennoscandian common frog populations. Larval developmental rate along the gradient has evolved a countergradient variation pattern of genotypes and phenotypes as indicated by the positive relationship between developmental rate and latitude under laboratory conditions and the lack of such a relationship in the field. The data suggest that this pattern has evolved because of time ...
Frogs around the world have been plagued by Chytridiomycosis, but in the UK, the common frog, Rana temporaria, is facing another threat: The emerging Ranavirus.STRONG: 10 Strange New Frog Species
In animals, sex pheromones indicate the availability of the female for breeding. Male animals may also emit pheromones that convey information about their species and genotype.. At the microscopic level, a number of bacterial species (e.g. Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus) release specific chemicals into the surrounding media to induce the "competent" state in neighboring bacteria.[18] Competence is a physiological state that allows bacterial cells to take up DNA from other cells and incorporate this DNA into their own genome, a sexual process called transformation.. Among eukaryotic microorganisms, pheromones promote sexual interaction in numerous species.[19] These species include the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the filamentous fungi Neurospora crassa and Mucor mucedo, the water mold Achlya ambisexualis, the aquatic fungus Allomyces macrogynus, the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, the ciliate protozoan Blepharisma japonicum and the multicellular green algae ...
Skin bacteria could be the best defense that frogs and salamanders have for protection against dangerous diseases like chytrid fungus.. By culturing and sequencing the DNA of naturally occurring bacteria living on the skin of four amphibian species in Virginia, Virginia Tech researchers found samples that could be useful for developing probiotic treatments for amphibians.. "There is a lot of interest in using these beneficial bacteria as probiotics to protect amphibians from disease," said Jeni Walke, a postdoctoral researcher at Virginia Tech. "As with many applications of microbiology, using probiotics requires having bacteria that can be grown in the laboratory and then, in this case, applied to amphibians.". Specifically, Walke and her team found distinct microbial communities across amphibian species with many of the dominant bacteria represented by cultures, some of which are known to contribute to disease resistance in hosts. Some species of skin bacteria produce antifungals, which, with ...
Cellulosic ethanol produced by microbial fermentation from feedstocks has been proposed to replace fossil fuels in transportation. A key step in cellulosic ethanol production is to break down cellulose into glucose and hemicellulose into xylose, which can subsequently be converted into ethanol by fermentative microbes. Therefore, finding efficient cellulases is important to bioethanol production, as well as for hydrolyzing feedstocks into sugars in general. Neocallimastix species is one of the major anaerobic fungi in the rumen of water buffalo capable of efficiently digesting cellulosic biomass [1-4]. Such anaerobic fungi are potential sources for highly active cellulolytic enzymes that are useful for cellulose hydrolysis [5-7]. Plant cell wall degrading enzymes from rumen fungi such as Neocallimastix patriciarum may be used for the production of industrial materials from plant biomass. These enzymes may also improve the fiber properties of cotton for manufacturing or clothes. The simple sugars ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! We use the French Customs files, which provide an exhaustive account of the international tradetransactions carried out by firms across the period 1986-1992, to analyze the link between imports,exports, and the employment of manufacturing firms. Firms constantly involved in international tradethroughout the period experience higher job destruction rates, or lower job creation rates, than thosethat are not. The same firms also contribute massively to the observed decrease in the share ofproduction labor in overall employment, and to the decrease in the share of unskilled workers inproduction labor. However, the firms constantly involved in international trade through imports orexports turn out unsurprisingly to be the biggest firms. A simple analysis based on creation anddestruction rates therefore fails to disentangle the size and international trade effects.An analysis of variance of the link between changes in flows of international trade and changes in ourmeasures
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Subtle differences in pheromone components of sympatric species should be attractive only to the producing species and unattractive or repellent to the nonproducing species, and thereby maintain reproductive isolation and reduce competition between species. Bark beetles Dendroctonus brevicomis and D. frontalis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are known to have common pheromone components, except for exo-brevicomin, which is produced by D. brevicomis. We predicted that D. frontalis would not respond to exo-brevicomin outside of the zone of sympatry with D. brevicomis. We conducted a field experiment to determine the effect of e:w-brevicomin on attraction of D. frontalis and associated species in Mississippi. We determined whether D. frontalis pheromone production differed inside and outside the sympatric zone and compared the pheromone profiles with D. brevicomis within the sympatric zone. Trapping studies revealed that D. frontalis can perceive and respond positively to exo-brevicomin, an aggregation ...
Native trout and amphibian populations are declining in California and throughout the West. Scientists have shown a direct link between nonnative fish stocking and these declines, which are devastating such species as the golden trout, Lahontan cutthroat trout, mountain yellow-legged frog, Yosemite toad, arroyo toad, and Cascades frog. Most native trout in California - nearly all of which are threatened by fish stocking - are listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act, and a number of amphibians are listed as threatened or endangered or are candidates for listing in part because of fish stocking. Nonnative trout stocking may be the single biggest factor in the decline of native fish species in the Sierra Nevada.. Fish stocking creates several problems for Californias natural environment: Nonnative, stocked fish prey on and compete with native species for food and habitat, and stocked fish are altering the natural ecosystem to the detriment of native species; in ...

Chytridiomycota - WikipediaChytridiomycota - Wikipedia

Chytridiomycota is a division of zoosporic organisms in the kingdom Fungi, informally known as chytrids. The name is derived ... Play media Chytridiomycota are unusual among the Fungi in that they reproduce with zoospores. For most members of ... The population of the Chytridiomycota species are able to be supported even though there is a lack of plant life in these ... Currently, taxonomy in Chytridiomycota is based on molecular data, zoospore ultrastructure and some aspects of thallus ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chytridiomycota

ChytridiomycotaChytridiomycota

... Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... Chytridiomycota. Version 09 January 2008 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Chytridiomycota/20517/2008.01.09 in The Tree of Life ...
more infohttp://tolweb.org/Chytridiomycota/

Chytridiomycota, Oomycota - The Fifth Kingdom - Chapter 2bChytridiomycota, Oomycota - The Fifth Kingdom - Chapter 2b

Phyla Chytridiomycota (Kingdom Fungi). and Oomycota (Kingdom Chromista) (29 pictures). (the CD-ROM has full text and 45 ... Chytridiomycota - Chytridiales - Chytridium lagenaria: sporangium developing on a pollen grain of Pinus. Time lapse sequence. X ... Chytridiomycota - Chytridiales - sporangia of a eucarpic chytrid on the green alga, Spirogyra. X 100. ... Chytridiomycota - Chytridiales - sporangia of a chytrid on Ceratium, a planktonic dinoflagellate. X 200. ...
more infohttp://www.mycolog.com/chapter2b.htm

Introduction to the ChytridiomycotaIntroduction to the Chytridiomycota

... First among fungus. The oldest fossil fungi so far known are chytrid-like forms from the ...
more infohttps://ucmp.berkeley.edu/fungi/chytrids.html

Water Mold | Encyclopedia.comWater Mold | Encyclopedia.com

Chytridiomycota A phylum of microscopic organisms, the chytrids, that live in soil or fresh water and have affinities with true ... Chytridiomycota A Dictionary of Biology © A Dictionary of Biology 2004, originally published by Oxford University Press 2004. ... There are two important phyla (divisions) of water molds, the chytrids (Chytridiomycota) and the oomycetes (Oomycota). The ... www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/chytridiomycota ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/plants-and-animals/microbes-algae-and-fungi/moneran-and-protistan/water-mold

Introduction to FungiIntroduction to Fungi

Phylum Chytridiomycota. Chytrids are a small group of fungi with approximately 900 identified species occurring in a wide ... Consider the well-publicized frog killer, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a member of phylum Chytridiomycota (Berger et al. ... The fungal cell wall in the Kingdom Fungi is composed of chitin and glucans (in Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota) ... Zoospores are produced by one group of true Fungi (Chytridiomycota), and by fungal-like organisms in Kingdom Straminipila and ...
more infohttp://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/intropp/pathogengroups/pages/introfungi.aspx

Glive - Wikipedija, prosta enciklopedijaGlive - Wikipedija, prosta enciklopedija

Chytridiomycota[uredi , uredi kodo]. Chytridiomycota so razvite prave glive, ki oblikujejo zoospore z enim bičkom. Te glive so ... Chytridiomycota. Glomeromycota. Microsporidia. Neocallimastigomycota. Dikarya (inc. Deuteromycota). Ascomycota (zaprtotrosnice ... Molekularna filogenija, ki izhaja iz rRNA sekvenc v ribosomih, domneva da so Chytridiomycota bazalna skupina ločena od drugih ... Kot sorodne Chytridiomycota, tudi Neocallimastigomycota oblikujejo zoospore, ki imajo en ali več bičkov[2]. ...
more infohttps://sl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glive

Primer -- The FungiPrimer -- The Fungi

Chytridiomycota. The next divergence leads to the Phylum Chytridiomycota [13], which constitute , 1% of described fungi and, ... Although some Chytridiomycota have developed filamentous growth (hyphae), most have determinate development, and those living ... Chytriomyces hyalinus (Figure 2B) is the best studied Chytridiomycota species in terms of the morphology of sexual reproduction ... The hypothesis that internal spore formation by cytoplasmic cleavage seen in mitotic sporangia of Chytridiomycota or Zygomycota ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2913116/

Hyphochytriomycetes - WikipediaHyphochytriomycetes - Wikipedia

Cavalier-Smith, In: Green, Leadbeater, and Diver (eds.), The Chromophyte Algae: 385 (1989). "Chytridiomycota". Archived from ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyphochytriomycetes

Types of Fungi (Classification System)Types of Fungi (Classification System)

Fungi belonging to the phylum Chytridiomycota are called chytrids. They are one of the few groups of fungi with active motility ...
more infohttps://www.thoughtco.com/types-of-fungi-4132341

Fungi facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about FungiFungi facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Fungi

Chytridiomycota. The fact that chytrids alone among the Eumycota produce motile zoospores explains why their phylum is ... Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. All true fungi have a definite cell wall throughout all ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/plants-and-animals/microbes-algae-and-fungi/moneran-and-protistan/fungi

Handbook of the Protists | John M. Archibald | SpringerHandbook of the Protists | John M. Archibald | Springer

Explores the ecological, medical and economic importance of major groups of protists Covers protists morphology, molecular biology, biochemistry,
more infohttp://www.springer.com/la/book/9783319281476

ToL People for FungiToL People for Fungi

University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA (Chytridiomycota) * Karen Nakasone USDA Forest Service, Forest Products ... University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA (Chytridiomycota) * Huzefa A. Raja University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois, USA ... University of Maine, Orono, Maine, USA (Chytridiomycota) * Thorsten Lumbsch The Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois, USA ( ... Chytridiomycota) * 122GB19 (Alveolates, Animals, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Choanoflagellates, Eukaryotes, Glomeromycota, Green ...
more infohttp://tolweb.org/onlinecontributors/app?page=PeopleList&service=external&sp=2377&state:ImageGallery=ZH4sIAAAAAAAAAFvzloG1nJeBgYGJgYEtLz8l1TOluIiBLyuxLFEvJzEvXc8nPy%2FduvvJhDP9yveZGBi9GFjLEnNKUyuKGAQQivxKc5NSi9rWTJXlnvKgG2hURQEDGHB6lgswMPDmpqZkJjrnJBYXe%2BaVAM0XRGgFCqSmpxYJPVqw5HtjuwXQCk%2BYFYUMdQyMIFMA9RE3saUAAAA%3D

Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Nature/Fungi - Wikibooks, open books for an open worldAdventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Nature/Fungi - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Chytridiomycota. The phylum Chytridiomycota, the chytrids, represents a group of primitive aquatic fungi. They are ...
more infohttps://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Adventist_Youth_Honors_Answer_Book/Nature/Fungi

Fungi by Emma Ritcey on PreziFungi by Emma Ritcey on Prezi

Chytridiomycota. (2014, January 1). Retrieved November 19, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chytridiomycota. ...
more infohttps://prezi.com/5qt3qvlmxotp/fungi/

Fungi 18S ribosomal RNA genes, partial sequence.
 - PopSet - NCBIFungi 18S ribosomal RNA genes, partial sequence. - PopSet - NCBI

A molecular phylogeny of the flagellated fungi (Chytridiomycota) and description of a new phylum (Blastocladiomycota).. James,T ... A molecular phylogeny of the flagellated fungi (Chytridiomycota) and description of a new phylum (Blastocladiomycota). [ ... A molecular phylogeny of the flagellated fungi (Chytridiomycota) and description of a new phylum (Blastocladiomycota).. James ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/popset?LinkName=pubmed_popset&from_uid=17486963

Fungus - New World EncyclopediaFungus - New World Encyclopedia

The Chytridiomycota are commonly known as chytrids. These fungi produce zoospores that are capable of moving on their own by ...
more infohttps://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Fungus

Francois M. Lutzoni, Professor of Biology and Curator of Lichens, Duke HerbariumFrancois M. Lutzoni, Professor of Biology and Curator of Lichens, Duke Herbarium

Chytridiomycota • Classification • Cluster Analysis • Computational Biology • Cyanobacteria • Demography • DNA, Fungal • DNA, ...
more infohttps://fds.duke.edu/db/aas/Herbarium/francois.lutzoni

UniProt: A0A0L0H6G8 SPIPNUniProt: A0A0L0H6G8 SPIPN

OC Eukaryota; Fungi; Chytridiomycota; Chytridiomycetes; OC Spizellomycetales; Spizellomycetaceae; Spizellomyces. OX NCBI_TaxID= ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?uniprot:A0A0L0H6G8_SPIPN

Peltomyces - WikispeciesPeltomyces - Wikispecies

Chytridiomycota, Entomophthoromycota, Glomeromycota, Kickxellomycota, Monoblepharomycota, Mortierellomycota, Mucoromycota, ...
more infohttps://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Peltomyces

Protista - WikispeciesProtista - Wikispecies

Phylum Chytridiomycota Sparrow, 1959 (syn. Chytridiomycetes). *Genus Nephromyces (Saffo, 1981; Saffo & Nelson, 1983) [" ...
more infohttps://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Protista

Evolutionary, structural and functional analysis of the caleosin/peroxygenase gene family in the Fungi | Springer for Research ...Evolutionary, structural and functional analysis of the caleosin/peroxygenase gene family in the Fungi | Springer for Research ...

Chytridiomycota, Cryptomycota and Microsporidia). Even though the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota are the source of the major ... are available include eight phyla ranging from the relatively advanced Mucoromycota to more basal taxa such as Chytridiomycota ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs12864-018-5334-1

Different Types Of FungiDifferent Types Of Fungi

Chytridiomycota: It is the division of fungi which contains unreleased pores. These are the most primitive form of fungi. This ...
more infohttp://lifestyle.iloveindia.com/lounge/types-of-fungi-14042.html

Ophiuroidea - The World Ophiuroidea DatabaseOphiuroidea - The World Ophiuroidea Database

Margulis, L.; Schwartz, K.V. (1998). Five Kingdoms: an illustrated guide to the Phyla of life on earth. 3rd edition. Freeman: New York, NY (USA). ISBN 0-7167-3027-8. xx, 520 pp ...
more infohttp://www.marinespecies.org/Ophiuroidea/aphia.php?p=sourcedetails&id=3
  • Species of Chytridiomycota have traditionally been delineated and classified based on development, morphology, substrate, and method of zoospore discharge. (wikipedia.org)