A family of neutral serine proteases with CHYMOTRYPSIN-like activity. Chymases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.
A family of neutral serine proteases with TRYPSIN-like activity. Tryptases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Endopeptidases that are specific for AMYLOID PROTEIN PRECURSOR. Three secretase subtypes referred to as alpha, beta, and gamma have been identified based upon the region of amyloid protein precursor they cleave.
A sub-subclass of endopeptidases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.
Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.
A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.
A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.
Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The morning glory family of flowering plants, of the order Solanales, which includes about 50 genera and at least 1,400 species. Leaves are alternate and flowers are funnel-shaped. Most are twining and erect herbs, with a few woody vines, trees, and shrubs.
Individuals licensed to practice medicine.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Exogenous or endogenous compounds which inhibit SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.
Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.
Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.
Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Cellulose derivative used in chromatography, as ion-exchange material, and for various industrial applications.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.
Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.
A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A member of the family of TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASES. It is a N-glycosylated protein, molecular weight 28 kD, produced by a vast range of cell types and found in a variety of tissues and body fluids. It has been shown to suppress metastasis and inhibit tumor invasion in vitro.
Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.
A genus of short-tailed OPOSSUMS in the family Didelphidae found in South American, chiefly Brazil. They are opossums least well-adapted to arboreal life.
A serine protease found in the azurophil granules of NEUTROPHILS. It has an enzyme specificity similar to that of chymotrypsin C.
New World marsupials of the family Didelphidae. Opossums are omnivorous, largely nocturnal and arboreal MAMMALS, grow to about three feet in length, including the scaly prehensile tail, and have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried at birth.
A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.

Tranilast suppresses vascular chymase expression and neointima formation in balloon-injured dog carotid artery. (1/553)

BACKGROUND: Activation of vascular chymase plays a major role in myointimal hypertrophy after vascular injury by augmenting the production of angiotensin (ANG) II. Because chymase is synthesized mainly in mast cells, we assumed that the chymase-dependent ANG II formation could be downregulated by tranilast, a mast cell-stabilizing antiallergic agent. We have assessed inhibitory effects of tranilast on neointima formation after balloon injury in the carotid artery of dogs, which share a similar ANG II-forming chymase with humans, and further explored the pathophysiological significance of vascular chymase. METHODS AND RESULTS: Either tranilast (50 mg/kg BID) or vehicle was orally administered to beagles for 2 weeks before and 4 weeks after balloon injury. Four weeks after the injury, remarkable neointima was formed in the carotid arteries of vehicle-treated dogs. Chymase mRNA levels and chymaselike activity of vehicle-treated injured arteries were increased 10.2- and 4.8-fold, respectively, those of uninjured arteries. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was slightly increased in the injured arteries, whereas ACE mRNA levels were not. Tranilast treatment completely prevented the increase in chymaselike activity, reduced the chymase mRNA levels by 43%, and decreased the carotid intima/media ratio by 63%. In vehicle-treated injured arteries, mast cell count in the adventitia showed a great increase, which was completely prevented by the tranilast treatment. Vascular ACE activity and mRNA levels were unaffected by tranilast. CONCLUSIONS: Tranilast suppressed chymase gene expression, which was specifically activated in the injured arteries, and prevented neointima formation. Suppression of the chymase-dependent ANG II-forming pathway may contribute to the beneficial effects of tranilast.  (+info)

Lack of effect of carbohydrate depletion on some properties of human mast cell chymase. (2/553)

Human chymase from vascular tissues was purified to homogeneity by heparin affinity and gel filtration chromatography. Treatment of human chymase with endoglycosidase F resulted in cleavage of the carbohydrate moiety yielding a deglycosylation product that did not lose its catalytic activity. This enzymatic deglycosylation product was enough to explore possibilities that N-glycan might modify some properties of human chymase. Substrate specificity, optimum pH and the elution profile from the heparin affinity gel were not affected by the deglycosylation. Only a slight but significant difference was observed in the Km value for conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Other kinetic constants such as kcat were not influenced. The kinetics of conversion of big endothelin-1 to endothelin-1(1-31) were not significantly affected. The deglycosylated human chymase was more susceptible to deactivation under alkaline pH and thermal stress. Even at physiological temperature and pH, the activity of glycosylated human chymase was more stable. From these results, it appears that the N-glycan of human chymase contributes to the stability of this enzyme but not to its functional properties.  (+info)

Induction of atherosclerosis in Brown Norway rats by immunization with ovalbumin. (3/553)

A study was carried out to establish an animal model that would be suitable for evaluating the role of the diet in immune cell-mediated atherogenesis. Brown Norway rats were initially treated with hypervitamin D2 for 4 days and then fed on an atherogenic diet for 3 months, during which period the rats were either immunized with ovalubumin plus Al(OH)3 (OVA group) or with Al(OH)3 alone (control group) every 3 weeks. Aortic lesions were mainly composed of foam cells, the lesions evaluated by the intimal thickness of the ascending aorta being more severe in the OVA group than in the control group. The OVA group, in comparison with the control group, showed prominently increased serum levels of OVA-specific IgG and rat chymase, an indicator of mast cell degranulation. The intimal thickness was positively correlated with the level of chymase. Immunization had no effect on the serum lipid levels. These results support the hypothesis that mast cells play a role in the early stage of atherosclerosis and suggest that this animal model could be useful for evaluating the role of the diet in immune-related atherogenesis.  (+info)

Fibroproliferation and mast cells in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. (4/553)

BACKGROUND: Mast cells (MCs), which are a major source of cytokines and growth factors, have been implicated in various fibrotic disorders. To clarify the contribution of MCs to fibrogenesis, lung tissue from patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was examined during exudative through to fibroproliferative stages. METHODS: Lung tissue was obtained from 17 patients with ARDS who had pathological features of the early exudative stage (n = 6) or the later reparative stages (n = 11), from four patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and from three patients with normal lung tissue. Immunohistochemical localisation of tryptase (found in all human MCs), chymase (found in a subset of human MCs), alpha-smooth muscle actin (identifies myofibroblasts), and procollagen type I was performed. RESULTS: Normal lung tissue exhibited myofibroblast and procollagen type I immunolocalisation scores each of < 5 and MC scores of 1. Increased scores were defined as myofibroblast and procollagen type I scores of > 10 and MC scores of > or = 2. Eighty percent of lung tissue samples from the early exudative stage of ARDS exhibited increased numbers of myofibroblasts, 50% had increased numbers of procollagen type I producing cells, while only 17% had increased numbers of MCs compared with control samples. All samples from the later reparative stages of ARDS had increased numbers of myofibroblasts and procollagen type I producing cells. Increased numbers of MCs were seen in 55% of samples from the reparative stages. There was no significant shift in MC phenotype in the ARDS samples. CONCLUSIONS: Increased numbers of myofibroblasts and procollagen type I producing cells were frequently found early in the course of ARDS. MC hyperplasia was unusual during this stage, but was often a feature of the later reparative stages. MCs do not appear to initiate fibroproliferation in ARDS.  (+info)

Depletion of pre beta 1LpA1 and LpA4 particles by mast cell chymase reduces cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells induced by plasma. (5/553)

Exposure of the LpA1-containing particles present in HDL3 and plasma to a minimal degree of proteolysis by the neutral protease chymase from exocytosed rat mast cell granules (granule remnants) leads to a reduction in the high-affinity component of cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time, a role for mast cell chymase in the depletion of the lipid-poor minor components of HDL that are specifically involved in reverse cholesterol transport as initial acceptors of cellular cholesterol. Thus, addition of proteolytically active granule remnants or human skin chymase to cholesterol-loaded macrophages of mouse or human origin incubated with human apoA1, ie, a system in which prebeta1LpA1 is generated, resulted in a sharp reduction in the high-affinity cholesterol efflux promoted by apoA1. As determined by nondenaturing 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis, the granule remnants effectively depleted the prebeta1LpA1, but not the alphaLpA1, in HDL3 and in plasma during incubation at 37 degrees C for <1 hour. Incubation of plasma with granule remnants for 1 hour also led to near disappearance of the LpA4-1 and LpA4-2 particles, but did not affect the distribution of the apoA2-containing lipoproteins present in the plasma. We conclude that the reduced ability of granule remnant-treated HDL3 and granule remnant-treated plasma to induce cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells is caused by selective depletion by mast cell chymase of quantitatively minor A1- and A4-containing subpopulations of HDL. Because these particles, ie, prebeta1LpA1 and LpA4, are efficient acceptors of cholesterol from cell surfaces, their depletion by mast cells may block the initiation of reverse cholesterol transport in vivo and thereby favor foam cell formation in the arterial intima, the site of atherogenesis.  (+info)

Mast cell expression of gelatinases A and B is regulated by kit ligand and TGF-beta. (6/553)

Our prior work shows that cultured BR cells derived from dog mastocytomas secrete the 92-kDa proenzyme form of gelatinase B. We provided a possible link between mast cell activation and metalloproteinase-mediated matrix degradation by demonstrating that alpha-chymase, a serine protease released from secretory granules by degranulating mast cells, converts progelatinase B to an enzymatically active form. The current work shows that these cells also secrete gelatinase A. Furthermore, gelatinases A and B both colocalize to alpha-chymase-expressing cells of canine airway, suggesting that normal mast cells are a source of gelatinases in the lung. In BR cells, gelatinase B and alpha-chymase expression are regulated, whereas gelatinase A expression is constitutive. Progelatinase B mRNA and enzyme expression are strongly induced by the critical mast cell growth factor, kit ligand, which is produced by fibroblasts and other stromal cells. Induction of progelatinase B is blocked by U-73122, Ro31-8220, and thapsigargin, implicating phospholipase C, protein kinase C, and Ca2+, respectively, in the kit ligand effect. The profibrotic cytokine TGF-beta virtually abolishes the gelatinase B mRNA signal and also attenuates kit ligand-mediated induction of gelatinase B expression, suggesting that an excess of TGF-beta in inflamed or injured tissues may alter mast cell expression of gelatinase B, which is implicated in extracellular matrix degradation, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. In summary, these data provide the first evidence that normal mast cells express gelatinases A and B and suggest pathways by which their regulated expression by mast cells can influence matrix remodeling and fibrosis.  (+info)

A novel function for transforming growth factor-beta1: upregulation of the expression and the IgE-independent extracellular release of a mucosal mast cell granule-specific beta-chymase, mouse mast cell protease-1. (7/553)

Intestinal mucosal mast cells (IMMC) express granule neutral proteases that are regulated by T-cell-derived cytokines, including interleukin-3 (IL-3) and IL-9, and by stem cell factor (SCF). The IMMC-specific chymase, mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1), is released in substantial quantities into the blood stream during gastrointestinal allergic responses. We used cultured bone marrow-derived mast cells (mBMMC) to identify cytokines that regulate the expression and extracellular release of mMCP-1. When grown in IL-3-rich WEHI (15% vol/vol) and 50 ng/mL recombinant rat SCF (rrSCF) bone marrow cells supplemented with IL-9 (5 ng/mL) differentiated into mBMMC that expressed a maximum of less than 250 ng mMCP-1/10(6) cells and 189 ng mMCP-1/mL of culture supernatant. Supplementation of the same three cytokines with transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1; 1 ng/mL) resulted in substantially enhanced expression (6 micrograms/10(6) mBMMC) and extracellular release (2 micrograms/mL of culture supernatant) of mMCP-1. The response to TGF-beta1 was dose-dependent, with maximal effect at 1 ng/mL, and was associated with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural changes in the secretory granules. IL-9-induced expression of mMCP-1 may be due to endogenously expressed TGF-beta1, because it was blocked by anti-TGF-beta antibodies. In conclusion, the expression and extracellular release of the IMMC-specific chymase, mMCP-1, is strictly regulated by TGF-beta1.  (+info)

Evidence for angiotensin-converting enzyme- and chymase-mediated angiotensin II formation in the interstitial fluid space of the dog heart in vivo. (8/553)

BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that angiotensin II (Ang II) levels in the interstitial fluid (ISF) space of the heart are higher than in the blood plasma and do not change after systemic infusion of Ang I. In this study, we assess the enzymatic mechanisms (chymase versus ACE) by which Ang II is generated in the ISF space of the dog heart in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cardiac microdialysis probes were implanted in the left ventricular (LV) myocardium (3 to 4 probes per dog) of 12 anesthetized open-chest normal dogs. ISF Ang I and II levels were measured at baseline and during ISF infusion of Ang I (15 micromol/L, n=12), Ang I+the ACE inhibitor captopril (cap) (2.5 mmol/L, n=4), Ang I+the chymase inhibitor chymostatin (chy) (1 mmol/L, n=4), and Ang I+cap+chy (n=4). ISF infusion of Ang I increased ISF Ang II levels 100-fold (P<0.01), whereas aortic and coronary sinus plasma Ang I and II levels were unaffected and were 100-fold lower than ISF levels. Compared with ISF infusion of Ang I alone, Ang I+cap (n=4) produced a greater reduction in ISF Ang II levels than did Ang I+chy (n=4) (71% versus 43%, P<0.01), whereas Ang I+cap+chy produced a 100% decrease in ISF Ang II levels. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates for the first time a very high capacity for conversion of Ang I to Ang II mediated by both ACE and chymase in the ISF space of the dog heart in vivo.  (+info)

Immune cells like NK cells, T cells, neutrophils and mast cells store high amounts of granule serine proteases, graspases. Graspases are encoded from the mast cell chymase locus. The human locus holds four genes: α-chymase, cathepsin G, and granzymes H and B. In contrast, the mouse locus contains at least 14 genes. Many of these belong to subfamilies not found in human, e.g. the Mcpt8-family. These differences hamper functional comparisons of graspases and of immune cells in the two species. Studies of the mast cell chymase locus are therefore important to better understand the mammalian immune system. In this thesis, the evolution of the mast cell chymase locus was analysed by mapping the locus in all available mammalian genome sequences. It was revealed that one single ancestral gene founded this locus probably over 215 million years ago. This ancestor was duplicated more than 185 million years ago. One copy evolved into the α-chymases, whereas the second copy founded the families of ...
At baseline, human chymase gene expression in heart was significantly higher but chymase activity is similar between WT and Tg mice. Treatment with LPS Tg mice showed cardiac hypertrophy, and heart chymase activity tended to show higher than in WT mice but these changes were not statistically significant. Previous studies showed that sepsis is associated with cardiovascular dysfunction [3]. We therefore speculate that LPS-induced cardiovascular dysfunction may be augmented, at least in part, by over-expression of the human chymase gene. This concept is consistent with a recent study by Koga et al. [9] that showed human chymase expression in mice induces mild hypertension with left ventricular hypertrophy, characterized by cardiomyocyte hyperplasia and increased fibrosis in the left ventricle. From this data it is difficult to explain about the role of human chymase in LPS-induced increase mortality is due to cardiovascular dysfunction. Because of the low prevalence of survival of LPS induced Tg ...
In the injured arteries, chymaselike activity and chymase mRNA level were remarkably increased, whereas a slight increase in ACE activity and no increase in ACE mRNA expression were detected. The current study demonstrated for the first time that tranilast prevented vascular chymase expression and effectively inhibited neointima formation and luminal stenosis. Our previous study showed that the vascular ANG II content doubled in the injured arteries compared with that in the uninjured arteries and that an ANG II receptor antagonist but not an ACE inhibitor prevented the neointima formation.15 In the current study, tranilast treatment did not affect plasma ANG II concentration, plasma ACE activity, or PRA. Vascular ANG II-forming activity of chymase increased 4.8-fold in vehicle-treated dogs, whereas tranilast treatment completely prevented the increase in chymase activity. Therefore, the ANG II-forming rate in local vascular tissues supposedly increased after vascular injury but returned to the ...
To gain insight into the biological role of mast cell chymase we have generated a mouse strain with a targeted deletion in the gene for mast cell protease 4 (mMCP-4), the mouse chymase that has the closest relationship to the human chymase in terms of tissue localization and functional properties. reactions (22), and angiogenesis in hamster sponge granulomas (23). It is important to stress that although the reports described above provide evidence for an involvement of chymases in various pathological conditions, the exact mode of action for chymase has not been determined, i.e., the in vivo substrates for chymases have not been identified. Further, limited knowledge is available as regards the individual contribution of the various MC chymases. To gain further insight into the biological role of MC chymase we have here inactivated the gene for mMCP-4. Materials and Methods Reagents. The chromogenic peptide substrates S-2586, S-2238 and S-2288 were from Chromogenix. The CPA substrate M-2245 ...
This work reveals that an active form of human chymase can be captured by α2M, in which form it can cleave small peptide substrates, including angiotensin I, and is protected from irreversible inactivation by serpins and other antipeptidases in biological fluids. We exploited α2M binding to develop a sensitive and specific assay for chymase activity in the serum of subjects with mastocytosis. These studies reveal that chymase, after secretion by mast cells and capture by α2M, can cleave small peptides for longer than once thought possible. Extravascular chymase captured and protected by α2M may be an important source of non-ACE-generated angiotensin II near tissue sites of mast cell degranulation. The portion of α2M-caged chymase making its way to the bloodstream provides the basis of our serum assay and may be a mobile source of angiotensin II-generating chymase in blood and tissues remote from original sites of mast cell degranulation. The half-life of peptidase-bound α2M in blood in ...
The acidic granules of natural killer (NK) cells, T cells, mast cells, and neutrophils store large amounts of serine proteases. Functionally, these proteases are involved, e.g., in the induction of apoptosis, the recruitment of inflammatory cells, and the remodeling of extra-cellular matrix. Among the granule proteases are the phylogenetically related mast cell chymases, neutrophil cathepsin G, and T-cell granzymes (Gzm B to H and Gzm N), which share the characteristic absence of a Cys191-Cys220 bridge. The genes of these proteases are clustered in one locus, the mast cell chymase locus, in all previously investigated mammals. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the chymase locus in cattle (Bos taurus) and opossum (Monodelphis domestica). The gained information delineates the evolution of the chymase locus over more than 200 million years. Surprisingly, the cattle chymase locus contains two α-chymase and two cathepsin G genes where all other studied chymase loci have single genes. ...
Mouse mast cell protease-4 (mMCP-4) has been associated with autoimmune and inflammatory illnesses although the precise systems underlying its function in these pathological circumstances remain unclear. impaired in cultured mMCP-4?/? MCs and in your skin of pathogenic IgG-injected mMCP-4?/? mice. MMP-9 activation had not been AS-252424 completely restored by regional reconstitution with WT or mMCP-4?/? PMNs. Local reconstitution with mMCP-4+/+ MCs but not with mMCP-4?/? MCs restored blistering MMP-9 activation and PMN recruitment in mMCP-4?/? mice. mMCP-4 also degraded the hemidesmosomal transmembrane protein BP180 AS-252424 both in the skin and (1% 1 cm) = 13.6). The titers of anti-murine BP180 antibodies in both the unfractionated rabbit serum and in the purified IgG portion were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) using mouse pores and skin cryosections as substrate. The antibody preparations were also tested by immunoblotting against the GST-mBP180ABC fusion protein. The IF and ...
The most significant findings of this study are that chymase inhibition reduced myocardial infarct size, MMP-9 activation, neutrophil infiltration, MMP-9 containing mast cell accumulation, and inflammatory gene expression after AMI-R. In addition, chymase inhibition was associated with higher levels of total and active eNOS.. Because chymase not only generates Ang II, but also cleaves and activates a variety of physiological substrates including MMPs, procollagen, precursor of interleukin-1β, and stem cell factor, chymase inhibition leads to a variety of effects (Fang et al., 1996, 1997; Kofford et al., 1997; Longley et al., 1997; Patella et al., 1998; Libby, 2002; Tchougounova et al., 2005; Kumar et al., 2009; Pejler et al., 2010). This study demonstrated that chymase inhibition caused myocardial protection after AMI-R through potential multiple mechanisms. A study has demonstrated that MMP-9 knockout mice have increased myocardial protection and attenuated remodeling after experimental AMI ...
MONOSAN item MON8101 Mouse anti Mast Cell Chymase, clone CC1 (Monoclonal), 100 ug. Contact us for more information about item MON8101.
In this study, we examined total Ang II-forming activities by analyzing the responsible enzymes in several organs from several species and compared the results with those in humans. Our results suggest that each organ in each species has an unique profile with regard to tissue Ang II formation. The present results suggest that it is difficult to specify an appropriate animal model for studying tissue Ang II formation in humans. None of the organs from any of the species examined had a profile that was identical to those for human tissues. However, chymase-like enzyme predominance in cardiac and aortic Ang II formation was seen not only in human tissue but also in that of most of the other species, except for rabbits and pigs.. In addition, pulmonary chymase-like enzymatic activity was highest in human samples, indicating that chymase-like enzyme in the lung may have a greater physiological role in humans than in other species. Interesting findings in the aorta and heart were that chymase-like ...
Mast cell chymase antibody [CC1] (chymase 1, mast cell) for ELISA, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Mast cell chymase mAb (GTX75583) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Mast Cell chymase antibody (chymase 1, mast cell) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-Mast Cell chymase pAb (GTX105829) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
BACKGROUND: The left ventricular (LV) dilatation of isolated mitral regurgitation (MR) is associated with an increase in chymase and a decrease in interstitial collagen and extracellular matrix. In addition to profibrotic effects, chymase has significant antifibrotic actions because it activates matrix metalloproteinases and kallikrein and degrades fibronectin. Thus, we hypothesize that chymase inhibitor (CI) will attenuate extracellular matrix loss and LV remodeling in MR. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied dogs with 4 months of untreated MR (MR; n=9) or MR treated with CI (MR+CI; n=8). Cine MRI demonstrated a |40% increase in LV end-diastolic volume in both groups, consistent with a failure of CI to improve a 25% decrease in interstitial collagen in MR. However, LV cardiomyocyte fractional shortening was decreased in MR versus normal dogs (3.71±0.24% versus 4.81±0.31%; P CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that chymase disrupts cell surface-fibronectin connections and FAK phosphorylation that can
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a mouse model that reproduces cardinal signs of clinical, histopathological, and immunological features found in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Mast cells are suggested to be involved in the main inflammatory phases occurring during EAE development, possibly by secreting several autacoids and proteases. Among the latter, the chymase mouse mast cell protease 4 (mMCP-4) can contribute to the inflammatory response by producing endothelin-1 (ET-1). The aim of this study was to determine the impact of mMCP-4 on acute inflammatory stages in EAE. C57BL/6 wild type (WT) or mMCP-4 knockout (KO) mice were immunized with MOG(35-55) plus complete Freunds adjuvant followed by pertussis toxin. Immunized WT mice presented an initial acute phase characterized by progressive increases in clinical score, which were significantly reduced in mMCP-4 KO mice. In addition, higher levels of spinal myelin were found in mMCP-4 KO as compared with WT mice. Finally, whereas EAE ...
hi. Check this pdf. Authors proclaim it to be a specific chymase inhibitor but the full text article is not accessible. Check If you can access the same and figure out its availability.. http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/304/2/841.abstract. ...
Chymases (EC 3.4.21.39) are mast cell serine proteinases that are variably expressed in different species and, in most cases, display either chymotryptic or elastolytic substrate specificity. Given that chymase inhibitors have emerged as potential therapeutic agents for treating various inflammatory, allergic, and cardiovascular disorders, it is important to understand interspecies differences of the enzymes as well as the behavior of inhibitors with them. We have expressed chymases from humans, macaques, dogs, sheep (MCP2 and MCP3), guinea pigs, and hamsters (HAM1 and HAM2) in baculovirus-infected insect cells. The enzymes were purified and characterized with kinetic constants by using chromogenic substrates. We evaluated in vitro the potency of five nonpeptide inhibitors, originally targeted against human chymase. The inhibitors exhibited remarkable cross-species variation of sensitivity, with the greatest potency observed against human and macaque chymases, with K(i) values ranging from ...
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Other names: mast cell protease I; skeletal muscle protease; skin chymotryptic proteinase; mast cell serine proteinase, chymase; skeletal muscle (SK) protease. Comments: In mast cell granules. In peptidase family S1 (trypsin family). Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MEROPS, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 97501-92-3. References 1. Woodbury, R.G., Everitt, M. and Neurath, H. Mast cell proteases. Methods Enzymol. 80 (1981) 588-609. [PMID: 7043202]. 2. Powers, J.C., Tanaka, T., Harper, J.W., Minematsu, Y., Barker, L., Lincoln, D., Crumley, K.V., Fraki, J.E., Schechter, N.M., Lazarus, G.G., Nakajima, K., Nakashino, K., Neurath, H. and Woodbury, R.G. Mammalian chymotrypsin-like enzymes. Comparative reactivities of rat mast cell proteases, human and dog skin chymases, and human cathepsin G with peptide 4-nitroanilide substrates and with peptide chloromethyl ketone and sulfonyl fluoride inhibitors. Biochemistry 24 (1985) 2048-2058. [PMID: 3893542]. 3. Johnson, L.A., Moon, K.E. and ...
Expulsion of gastrointestinal nematodes is associated with pronounced mucosal mast cell (MMC) hyperplasia, differentiation, and activation, accompanied by the s
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Purification and identification of two serine class proteinases from dog mast cells biochemically and immunologically similar to human proteinases tryptase and chymase. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
2015. Background: Previous work has identified mast cells as the major source of chymase largely associated with a profibrotic phenotype. We recently reported increased fibroblast autophagic procollagen degradation in a rat model of pure volume overload (VO). Here we demonstrate a connection between increased fibroblast chymase production and autophagic digestion of procollagen in the pure VO of aortocaval fistula (ACF) in the rat. Methods and results: Isolated LV fibroblasts taken from 4 and 12 week ACF Sprague-Dawley rats have significant increases in chymase mRNA and chymase activity. Increased intracellular chymase protein is documented by immunocytochemistry in the ACF fibroblasts compared to cells obtained from age-matched sham rats. To implicate VO as a stimulus for chymase production, we show that isolated adult rat LV fibroblasts subjected to 24 h of 20% cyclical stretch induces chymase mRNA and protein production. Exogenous chymase treatment of control isolated adult cardiac ...
During the first 30 years at Tokushima University, Professor Katunumas main research was about the enzymes involved in vitamin B6 metabolism and their intracellular protein turnover. Together with his colleague Mitsuko Okada, he discovered mitochondrial glutamicoxalacetic transaminase and the urea cycle glutaminase isoenzymes. Later on, with his colleague Yasuhiro Kuroda, he established the enzymes functions in the hepatocarcinogenesis. In 1971, he discovered the acceleration of pyridoxal enzyme turnover in animals with vitamin B6 deficiency and the enzymes participate in proteolysis of the apoproteins. These discoveries suggested that protein degradation can be initiated by the apoprotein formation in proteolysis process. This idea provoke further research into the initiation of various biochemical pathways by limited proteolysis, such as prothrombin activation by mast cell tryptase histamine release by mast cell chymase, and initiation of influenza virus entry by tryptase Clara. In his later ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [The enhanced activity of chymotrypsin-like proteinases in the blood plasma of patients with hereditary hypercholesterolemia and the means for its correction]. by O. G. Ogloblina et al.
1PJP: The 2.2 A crystal structure of human chymase in complex with succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-chloromethylketone: structural explanation for its dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase specificity.
Endothelin is the most potent constrictor of human blood vessels known to man. In mammals, there are three structurally and pharmacologically separate ET isopeptides: ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3 (Volpe 46). Endothelin-1 is the primary isoform in the human cardiovascular system and is a 21-amino acid peptide produced chiefly by endothelial cells (Lüscher 2434). Endothelin-converting enzymes (ECE), chymases, and non-ECE metalloproteases are responsible for the synthesis of ET-1 by means of autocrine regulation (Lüscher 2434). ET-1 operates through the initiation of two G-protein coupled receptors: ETA and ETB. Located on vascular smooth muscle cells, ETA receptors regulate vasoconstriction and cell proliferation. ETB receptors, situated on endothelial cells, mediate endothelium-dependent vasodilation through the release of nitric oxide and prostacyclin (Haapaniemi 721). In addition to its cardiovascular and mitogenic effects, endothelin-1 is involved in gastrointestinal and endocrine function, ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Regulation of skeletal muscle development and organization is a complex process that is not fully understood. Here, we focused on amphiphysin 2 (BIN1, also known as bridging integrator-1) and dynamin 2 (DNM2), two ubiquitous proteins implicated in membrane remodeling and mutated in centronuclear myopathies (CNMs). We generated Bin1-/- Dnm2+/- mice to decipher the physiological interplay between BIN1 and DNM2. While Bin1-/- mice die perinatally from a skeletal muscle defect, Bin1-/- Dnm2+/- mice survived at least 18 months, and had normal muscle force and intracellular organization of muscle fibers, supporting BIN1 as a negative regulator of DNM2. We next characterized muscle-specific isoforms of BIN1 and DNM2. While BIN1 colocalized with and partially inhibited DNM2 activity during muscle maturation, BIN1 had no effect on the isoform of DNM2 found in adult muscle. Together, these results indicate that BIN1 and DNM2 regulate muscle development and organization, function through a common pathway, ...
Chymostatin (N-(Nα -Carbonyl-Cpd-X-Phe-al)-Phe (Cpd = capreomycidine) (capreomycidine = [S,S]-α -(2-Iminohexahydro-4-pyrimidyl)glycine)); microbial No;
In this study the diversity of mast cell proteases and some of the factors regulating mast cell growth and protease expression were examined in rodents. Five proteases were isolated from mouse small intestinal mucosa and their substrate specificities defined. The isolated proteases were all of mast cell origin and were chymotrypsin-like in their substrate specificities. The proteases were all identified as variants of mouse mast cell protease-1 which differed only in their carbohydrate moieties. Despite the fact that these enzymes shared a common core polypeptide they all differed significantly in the rate at which they hydrolysed synthetic substrates and in the rates at which they were inhibited by α1-proteinase inhibitor. A related, but distinct protease was isolated from peritoneal cavity mast cells of mice. This enzyme, also a chymase, had N-terminal sequence identity with mouse mast cell protease-4. This enzyme was not inhibited by α1-proteinase inhibitor. Factors which regulate mast cell ...
The acidic granules of natural killer (NK) cells, T cells, mast cells, and neutrophils store large amounts of serine proteases. Functionally, these proteases are involved, e.g., in the induction of apoptosis, the recruitment of inflammatory cells, and the remodeling of extra-cellular matrix. Among the granule proteases are the phylogenetically related mast cell chymases, neutrophil cathepsin G, and T-cell granzymes (Gzm B to H and Gzm N), which share the characteristic absence of a Cys191-Cys220 bridge. The genes of these proteases are clustered in one locus, the mast cell chymase locus, in all previously investigated mammals. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the chymase locus in cattle (Bos taurus) and opossum (Monodelphis domestica). The gained information delineates the evolution of the chymase locus over more than 200 million years. Surprisingly, the cattle chymase locus contains two α-chymase and two cathepsin G genes where all other studied chymase loci have single genes. ...
Tryptase (EC 3.4.21.59, ) is the most abundant secretory granule-derived serine proteinase contained in mast cells and has been used as a marker for mast cell activation. Club cells contain tryptase which is believed to be responsible for cleaving the hemagglutinin surface protein of influenza A virus, thereby activating it and causing the symptoms of flu. Tryptase is also known by mast cell tryptase, mast cell protease II, skin tryptase, lung tryptase, pituitary tryptase, mast cell neutral proteinase, mast cell serine proteinase II, mast cell proteinase II, mast cell serine proteinase tryptase, rat mast cell protease II, and tryptase M. Serum levels are normally less than 11.5 ng/mL. Elevated levels of serum tryptase occur in both anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions, but a negative test does not exclude anaphylaxis. Tryptase is less likely to be elevated in food allergy reactions as opposed to other causes of anaphylaxis. Serum typtase levels are also elevated in and used as one indication ...
The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) mediates the efflux of cellular unesterified cholesterol and phospholipid to lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I. Chymase, a protease secreted by mast cells, selectively cleaves pre-β-migrating particles from high density lipoprotein (HDL)3 and reduces the efflux of cholesterol from macrophages. To evaluate whether this effect is the result of reduction of ABCA1-dependent or -independent pathways of cholesterol efflux, in this study we examined the efflux of cholesterol to preparations of chymase-treated HDL3 in two types of cell: 1) in J774 murine macrophages endogenously expressing low levels of scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI), and high levels of ABCA1 upon treatment with cAMP; and 2) in Fu5AH rat hepatoma cells endogenously expressing high levels of the SR-BI and low levels of ABCA1. Treatment of HDL3 with the human chymase resulted in rapid depletion of pre-β-HDL and a concomitant decrease in the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipid ...
Peptides , Angiotensins and Related Peptides , Angiotensin II, human; The octapeptide angiotensin II (Ang II) exerts a wide range of effects on the cardiovascular system. It is also implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation, fibrosis and apoptosis. Ang II is formed by cleavage of Ang I by the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) or chymases. Human heart chymase, a chymotrypsin-like serine proteinase, hydrolyzes the Phe8-His9 bond to yield the octapeptide hormone angiotensin II and His-Leu.; DRVYIHPF; H-Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe-OH
Expression of Mast Cell Proteases Correlates with Mast Cell Maturation and Angiogenesis during Tumor Progression. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
1NC6: Potent, Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Human Mast Cell Tryptase. Antiasthmatic Action of a Dipeptide-Based Transition-State Analogue Containing a Benzothiazole Ketone.
Given that 80% of angiotensin II-forming activity in kidney, coronary heart and blood vessels is dependent on chymase, a single may suppose that chymase
Background: We hypothesized that food allergy causes a state of non-specific jejunal dysmotility. This was tested in a mouse model. Methods: Balb/c mice were epicutaneously sensitized with ovalbumin and challenged with 10 intragastric ovalbumin administrations every second day. Smooth muscle contractility of isolated circular jejunal sections was studied in organ bath with increasing concentrations of carbamylcholine chloride (carbachol). Smooth muscle layer thickness and mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1) positive cell density were assayed histologically. Serum MMCP-1 and immunoglobulins were quantified by ELISA, and mRNA expressions of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-6 and TGFβ-1 from jejunal and ileal tissue segments were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR. Results: Ovalbumin-specific serum IgE correlated with jejunal MMCP-1+ cell density. In the allergic mice, higher concentrations of carbachol were required to reach submaximal muscular stimulation, particularly in preparations derived from mice with ...
A study from Emory University School of Medicine hints that dying cardiac muscle cells could be saved, past the time when this is usually thought possible.
マウス・モノクローナル抗体 ab2378 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu 適用: WB,ELISA,IHC-P,ICC,IHC-R,ICC/IF…Mast Cell Tryptase抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの…
YFP and Cre are expressed from the basophil-specific |i|Mcpt8|/i| (mast cell protease 8; also known as Basoph8) promoter in this targeted mutation strain. This strain is useful for labeling, sorting and deleting basophil cell populations.
천식의 기도염증 측면에서 경증-중등증 천식과 다른 중증 천식만의 고유한 특징에 대해서는 명확히 알려져 있지 않다. 천식의 병태생리적 특징에 대한 연구를 수행하고 있는 SARP에서는 기관지내시경을 통하여 기관지생검과 기관지폐포세척을 통한 샘플을 수집하고 있으며, 중증 천식에서도 기관지 내시경이 안전하게 시행될 수 있음을 보여주었다[23]. 염증세포 중에서 비반세포는 IgE 매개반응을 통하여 히스타민을 분비하는 등 염증과정에 관여하는데, 중증 천식환자의 기도에서 chymase 양성 비반세포의 침윤이 높은 것으로 나타났고, 특히 상피세포내에 높게 존재하였다[24]. 또한 객담 염증세포 분석을 통해서 염증세포의 특성을 살펴보았을 때 호산구와 함께 중성구가 높은 그룹에서 폐기능의 저하와 낮은 천식조절 상태를 보였다[25]. 이러한 결과들은 중증 ...
network provider has been approved by a MMCP to deliver specific.. SSI - CDC. Jan 1, 2019 … January 2019. 9-1 … Review of medical records or surgery clinic patient ...
"Entrez Gene: CMA1 chymase 1, mast cell". Urata H, Nishimura H, Ganten D (1996). "Chymase-dependent angiotensin II forming ... Chymase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CMA1 gene. This gene product is a chymotryptic serine proteinase that ... Jenne DE, Tschopp J (1991). "Angiotensin II-forming heart chymase is a mast-cell-specific enzyme". Biochem. J. 276 (2): 567-8. ... Mellon MB, Frank BT, Fang KC (2002). "Mast cell alpha-chymase reduces IgE recognition of birch pollen profilin by cleaving ...
Caughey, George H. (1 June 2007). "Mast cell tryptases and chymases in inflammation and host defense". Immunological Reviews. ...
One counter example is the protein chymase, which directly binds to heparin. Dermatan sulfate is one example of a compound that ...
Mellon MB, Frank BT, Fang KC (2002). "Mast cell alpha-chymase reduces IgE recognition of birch pollen profilin by cleaving ...
... functions together with endopeptidases secreted from mast cells such as chymases and tryptases to degrade proteins and ... Sequential degradation of apolipoprotein B by granule chymase and carboxypeptidase A". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 261 ... the chymases, and tryptases are released in complexes with heparin proteoglycan. The parasitic nematode Ascaris produces CPA3 ... "Cooperation between mast cell carboxypeptidase A and the chymase mouse mast cell protease 4 in the formation and degradation of ...
... inhibits human leukocyte elastase, human cathepsin G, human trypsin, neutrophil elastase, and mast cell chymase. X-ray ...
... and heterogeneity of mast cells with particular regard to the mast cell-specific proteases chymase and tryptase". Journal of ...
1999). "Tryptase-chymase double-positive human mast cells express the eotaxin receptor CCR3 and are attracted by CCR3-binding ... 1995). "Quantitation of tryptase, chymase, Fc epsilon RI alpha, and Fc epsilon RI gamma mRNAs in human mast cells and basophils ... 1997). "Effect of recombinant human IL-4 on tryptase, chymase, and Fc epsilon receptor type I expression in recombinant human ...
... cell carcinoma antigen 2 is a novel serpin that inhibits the chymotrypsin-like proteinases cathepsin G and mast cell chymase". ...
"Selective conversion of big endothelins to tracheal smooth muscle-constricting 31-amino acid-length endothelins by chymase from ...
... chymase or other enzymes can transform it into angiotensin II. This process can be intracellular or interstitial. In the ...
Wang ZM, Rubin H, Schechter NM (Nov 1995). "Production of active recombinant human chymase from a construct containing the ...
2002). "Mast cell chymase degrades apoE and apoA-II in apoA-I-knockout mouse plasma and reduces its ability to promote cellular ...
... and chymases found in mast cells, by cleaving them into a different shape or conformation. This activity protects some tissues ...
... chymase) activity and is taken up into cytoplasmic vesicles reminiscent of granzyme B-containing endosomes". J. Biol. Chem. 274 ...
... including the serine protease chymase. The activity of local renin-angiotensin systems and alternative pathways of angiotensin ...
... chymase, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), TNF, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and ...
... such as elastase and cathepsin G in neutrophils cells and chymase and tryptase in mast cells. In many inflammatory diseases, ...
... enzyme also known as chymase MCP (disambiguation) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the same title formed ...
... chymase, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), TNF, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and ... such as tryptase and chymase histamine (2-5 picograms per mast cell) serotonin proteoglycans, mainly heparin (active as ...
... chymase EC 3.4.21.40: Deleted entry: submandibular proteinase A EC 3.4.21.41: complement subcomponent C1r EC 3.4.21.42: ...
... such as chymase. In cyclophosamide (CYP)-induced rodent models of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/PBS), CYP ...
... encoding enzyme Chymase CNIH: encoding protein Protein cornichon homolog COCH: coagulation factor C homolog, cochlin (Limulus ...
... alpha chymase mcpt8). They show broad peptidolytic activity and are involved in a variety of functions. For example, chymases ... Chymases (EC 3.4.21.39, mast cell protease 1, skeletal muscle protease, skin chymotryptic proteinase, mast cell serine ... May 2005). "A novel, potent dual inhibitor of the leukocyte proteases cathepsin G and chymase: molecular mechanisms and anti- ... Caughey GH (June 2007). "Mast cell tryptases and chymases in inflammation and host defense". Immunological Reviews. 217: 141-54 ...
... a is the activated form of the coagulation factor thrombokinase, known eponymously as Stuart-Prower factor. Factor X is an enzyme, a serine endopeptidase, which plays a key role at several stages of the coagulation system. Factor X is synthesized in the liver. The most commonly used anticoagulants in clinical practice, warfarin and the heparin series of anticoagulants and fondaparinux, act to inhibit the action of Factor Xa in various degrees. Traditional models of coagulation developed in the 1960s envisaged two separate cascades, the extrinsic (tissue factor (TF)) pathway and the intrinsic pathway. These pathways converge to a common point, the formation of the Factor Xa/Va complex which together with calcium and bound on a phospholipids surface generate thrombin (Factor IIa) from prothrombin (Factor II). A new model, the cell-based model of anticoagulation appears to explain more fully the steps in coagulation. This model has three stages: 1) initiation of coagulation on TF-bearing ...
Luo C, Thielens NM, Gagnon J, Gal P, Sarvari M, Tseng Y, Tosi M, Zavodszky P, Arlaud GJ, Schumaker VN (May 1992). "Recombinant human complement subcomponent C1s lacking beta-hydroxyasparagine, sialic acid, and one of its two carbohydrate chains still reassembles with C1q and C1r to form a functional C1 complex". Biochemistry. 31 (17): 4254-62. doi:10.1021/bi00132a015. PMID 1533159 ...
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Protein HtrA2, also known as Omi, is a mitochondrially-located serine protease. The human protein Serine protease HTRA2, mitochondrial is 49kDa in size and composed of 458 amino acids. The peptide fragment of 1-31 amino acid is the mitochondrial transition sequence, fragment 32-133 amino acid is propertied, and 134-458 is the mature protein Serine protease HTRA2, mitochondrial, and its theoretical pI of this protein is 6.12.[10] HtrA2 shows similarities with DegS, a bacterial protease present in the periplasm of gram-negative bacteria. Structurally, HtrA2 is a trimeric molecule with central protease domains and a carboxy-terminal PDZ domain, which is characteristic of the HtrA family. The PDZ domain preferentially binds C-terminus of the protein substrate and modulate the proteolytic activity of the trypsin-like protease domain.[11] ...
Seol JH, Woo SK, Jung EM, Yoo SJ, Lee CS, Kim KJ, Tanaka K, Ichihara A, Ha DB, Chung CH (April 1991). "Protease Do is essential for survival of Escherichia coli at high temperatures: its identity with the htrA gene product". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 176 (2): 730-6. doi:10.1016/s0006-291x(05)80245-1. PMID 2025286 ...
A trypsin inhibitor (TI) is a protein and a type of serine protease inhibitor (serpin) that reduces the biological activity of trypsin by controlling the activation and catalytic reactions of proteins.[1] Trypsin is an enzyme involved in the breakdown of many different proteins, primarily as part of digestion in humans and other animals such as monogastrics and young ruminants. When trypsin inhibitor is consumed it acts as an irreversible and competitive substrate.[2] It competes with proteins to bind to trypsin and therefore renders it unavailable to bind with proteins for the digestion process.[1] As a result, protease inhibitors that interfere with digestion activity have an antinutritional effect. Therefore, trypsin inhibitor is considered an anti-nutritional factor or ANF.[3] Additionally, trypsin inhibitor partially interferes with chymotrypsin function. Trypsinogen is an inactive form of trypsin, its inactive form ensures protein aspects of the body, such as the pancreas and muscles, are ...
... alpha chymase mcpt8). They show broad peptidolytic activity and are involved in a variety of functions. For example, chymases ... Chymases (EC 3.4.21.39, mast cell protease 1, skeletal muscle protease, skin chymotryptic proteinase, mast cell serine ... May 2005). "A novel, potent dual inhibitor of the leukocyte proteases cathepsin G and chymase: molecular mechanisms and anti- ... Caughey GH (June 2007). "Mast cell tryptases and chymases in inflammation and host defense". Immunological Reviews. 217: 141-54 ...
The side chains of residues Phe191 and Lys192 of pro-chymase fill the Ile16 binding pocket and the base of the S1 binding ... Human chymase is a protease involved in physiological processes ranging from inflammation to hypertension. As are all proteases ... Human chymase is a protease involved in physiological processes ranging from inflammation to hypertension. As are all proteases ... The 1.8 A structure of pro-chymase, reported here, is the first zymogen with a dipeptide pro region (glycine-glutamate) to be ...
sp,P21844,CMA1_MOUSE Chymase OS=Mus musculus GN=Cma1 PE=1 SV=2 MHLLTLHLLLLLLGSSTKAGEIIGGTECIPHSRPYMAYLEIVTSENYLSACSGFLIRRNF ...
Chymase (EC:3.4.21.39*Search proteins in UniProtKB for this EC number. ... "Identification of a highly specific chymase as the major angiotensin II-forming enzyme in the human heart.". Urata H., ... "Structure, chromosomal assignment, and deduced amino acid sequence of a human gene for mast cell chymase.". Caughey G.H., ... "Functional evidence for a role of vascular chymase in the production of angiotensin II in isolated human arteries.". Richard V. ...
Mouse monoclonal Mast Cell Chymase antibody [CC1]. Validated in IHC and tested in Human. Cited in 26 publication(s). ... All lanes : Anti-Mast Cell Chymase antibody [CC1] (ab2377) at 1 µg/ml. Lane 1 : Recombinant Human Chymase Protein. Lane 2 : ... Anti-Mast Cell Chymase antibody [CC1]. See all Mast Cell Chymase primary antibodies. ... mast cell chymase. Would it be possible to have the immunogen sequence so that I can assess whether this would be suitable for ...
GAPDH-normalized chymase 1, chymase 2, chymase 4, and chymase 5 mRNA levels in aortae from vehicle- or captopril-treated MC+/+ ... Involvement of chymase-mediated angiotensin II generation in blood pressure regulation.. Li M1, Liu K, Michalicek J, Angus JA, ... Chymase, a human mast cell protease, has recently been proposed to play a role in blood pressure regulation because of its Ang ... Involvement of chymase-mediated angiotensin II generation in blood pressure regulation. J Clin Invest. 2004 Jul 1;114(1):112- ...
Relationship of small airway chymase-positive mast cells and lung function in severe asthma.. Balzar S1, Chu HW, Strand M, ... Chymase-positive mast cells: a double-edged sword in asthma? [Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005] ... In contrast, mast cell number, percentage, and the chymase-positive phenotype increased in small airway regions. After the ... tryptase and chymase). Specific cell distributions were determined and correlated with lung function measures. The number of ...
Invitrogen Anti-Mast Cell Chymase Monoclonal (CC1), Catalog # MA5-11717. Tested in Western Blot (WB) and Immunohistochemistry ( ... Protein Aliases: Alpha-chymase; Chymase; chymase 1 preproprotein transcript E; chymase 1 preproprotein transcript I; chymase 1 ... Cite Mast Cell Chymase Monoclonal Antibody (CC1). The following antibody was used in this experiment: Mast Cell Chymase ... mast cell; chymase, heart; chymase, mast cell; mast cell; Mast cell protease I ...
Synonyms: Alpha-chymase, Chymase, MMCP-5, Mast cell chymase 1, Mast cell protease 5, ... ... Mast cell chymase degrades apoE and apoA-II in apoA-I-knockout mouse plasma and reduces its ability to promote cellular ... The chymase, mouse mast cell protease 4, constitutes the major chymotrypsin-like activity in peritoneum and ear tissue. A role ... Gene expression of cardiac mast cell chymase and tryptase in a murine model of heart failure caused by viral myocarditis. ...
Invitrogen Anti-Mast Cell Chymase Recombinant Monoclonal (JB74-32), Catalog # MA5-34663. Tested in Western Blot (WB) and ... Protein Aliases: Alpha-chymase; Chymase; chymase 1 preproprotein transcript E; chymase 1 preproprotein transcript I; chymase 1 ... Mast Cell Chymase Recombinant Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody (JB74-32). View all (29) Mast Cell Chymase antibodies ... mast cell; chymase, heart; chymase, mast cell; mast cell; Mast cell protease I ...
Chymase mediates endothelial activation. The Preeclampsia Foundation does not necessarily endorse any research or news found in ... We speculate that activation of endothelial CLP/chymase may directly relate to the increased inflammatory phenotypic changes in ... These observations suggest that placental-derived CLP/chymase is responsible for inducing endothelial inflammatory phenotypic ...
role of chymase in heart remodeling. Finally, while. chymostatine has long been known to selectively inhibit chymase. activity ... chymase.. e.g., TEI-E-548, which was shown to increase survival; and finally NK-3201, which was shown toin vivo role of ... of chymase mRNA into the heart and other tissues with. selective overexpression by a promotor-fusion gene had excessive. AngII ... molecular weight chymase inhibitors has recently become. available,. of hamsters with myocardial infarction despite having no. ...
ACE and Chymase mRNA Levels of Carotid Arteries. The chymase mRNA level of vehicle-treated injured arteries exhibited an ... Because chymase is synthesized mainly in mast cells, we assumed that the chymase-dependent ANG II formation could be ... The direct inhibitory effect of tranilast on the catalytic activity of chymase was analyzed with purified human chymase (from ... 20 The PCR primers for dog chymase were selected according to the dog chymase cDNA sequence22 (sense primer: 5′- ...
Crystal structure of a complex of human chymase with its benzimidazole derived inhibitor.. [Yoshiyuki Matsumoto, Shinji Kakuda ... The crystal structure of human chymase complexed with a novel benzimidazole inhibitor, TJK002, was determined at 2.8 Å ... study shows that the benzimidazole inhibitor forms a non-covalent interaction with the catalytic domain of human chymase. The ...
... Kazi Rafiq1 , Yu-Yan Fan1, Shamshad J. ... Chymase activity in the heart and skin was evaluated in mice treated with LPS (0.03 or 0.1 mg). Heart chymase activity was not ... At baseline, human chymase gene expression in heart was significantly higher but chymase activity is similar between WT and Tg ... Keywords: human chymase transgenic mice, chymase activity and lipopolysaccharide, endotoxemia Introduction. Sepsis is a common ...
... chymase 1, mast cell) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-Mast Cell chymase pAb (GTX105829) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab- ... "chymase, heart antibody", alpha-chymase antibody, "chymase, mast cell antibody", chymase 1 preproprotein transcript I antibody ... chymase 1 preproprotein transcript E antibody, "chymase 1, mast cell antibody". ... chymase 1, mast cell. Background. This gene product is a chymotryptic serine proteinase that belongs to the peptidase family S1 ...
In noninfected mice, most jejunal MCs reside in the submucosa and express mMCP-6 and mMCP-7, but not mMCP-9 or the chymase mMCP ... Reversible Expression of Tryptases and Chymases in the Jejunal Mast Cells of Mice Infected with Trichinella spiralis. Daniel S ... Nevertheless, it remained to be determined whether these immune cells could modify their expression of other chymases and the ... Reversible Expression of Tryptases and Chymases in the Jejunal Mast Cells of Mice Infected with Trichinella spiralis ...
Compound was evaluated for its inhibitory activity against human Serine protease chymase. ...
A Dual Inhibitor of the Leukocyte Proteases Cathepsin G and Chymase with Therapeutic Efficacy in Animals Models of Inflammation ... Ligand 1 occupies the S(1) and S(2) subsites of cathepsin G and chymase similarly, with the 2-naphthyl in S(1), the 1-naphthyl ... In cathepsin G, this group occupies the hydrophobic S(3)/S(4) subsites, whereas in chymase, it does not; rather, it folds onto ... These findings demonstrate that it is possible to inhibit both cathepsin G and chymase with a single molecule and suggest an ...
... chymase 1, mast cell) for ELISA, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Mast cell chymase mAb (GTX75583) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab- ... chymase 1, mast cell. Background. This gene encodes a chymotryptic serine proteinase that belongs to the peptidase family S1. ... Specifications: Mast cell chymase antibody [CC1]. Full Name. ... Mast cell chymase antibody [CC1] See all Mast cell chymase ...
Chymase, a potent secretagogue for airway gland serous cells, is stored in secretory granules and released from mast cells ... Chymase released together with proteoglycans from activated mast cells caused secretion comparable to that caused by purified ... Mast cell proteoglycans modulate the secretagogue, proteoglycanase, and amidolytic activities of dog mast cell chymase.. C P ... Although the secretagogue and proteoglycanase activities of chymase are inhibited by most classes of mast cell granule- ...
Chymase and CPA digestion. Lipid-free apoA-I and HDL3 were incubated with human skin MC chymase (Elastin Products Company) and ... Lipid-free apoA-I treated with chymase and chymase/CPA for 4 h were also analysed by MALDI-TOF-MS. Two groups of peaks with m/z ... Immunohistochemical identification of chymase and CPA. To assess the presence of chymase and MC-CPA in advanced atherosclerotic ... Chymase and MC-CPA act cooperatively as follows: chymase cleaves a protein at the carboxyl side of aromatic amino acids, ...
... and Fukuoka University in Japan have shown that another enzyme present in the heart called chymase is, like ACE (angiotensin- ... To test whether chymase makes a difference in recovery after a heart attack, Wei, Husain and colleagues compared the effects of ... C.C. Wei et al Mast cell chymase limits the cardiac efficacy of Ang I-converting enzyme therapy in rodents J. Clin. Invest. 120 ... Wei, Husain and colleagues showed that chymase in the heart comes from mast cells, inflammatory cells that play a central role ...
Role of mast cells and chymase-like proteases. These studies determined whether perivascular mast cells and chymase-like ... 1990) Mast cell chymase potentiates histamine-induced wheal formation in the skin of ragweed-allergic dogs. J Clin Invest 86: ... We suggest that inhibitors of mast cell chymase-like protease(s) could be beneficial in the treatment of early-phase E. coli ... This response is modulated by E. coli LPS stimulation of perivascular mast cells to release an AT II-producing chymase-like ...
Human mast cells are classified into two groups: tryptase- and chymase-positive mast cells, and tryptase-positive and chymase- ... Measurement of PCNA-positive cells, chymase-positive cells, and mast cells. We counted PCNA-positive cells, chymase-positive ... We also reported that chymase promoted cell proliferation of fibroblasts using canine Tenons capsule, while chymase inhibitor ... a chymase inhibitor suppressed the proliferation of the fibroblasts [17]. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that chymase ...
Chymase Inhibition in Acute Myocardial Ischemia. Shizu Oyamada, Cesario Bianchi, Shinji Takai, Louis M. Chu and Frank W. Sellke ... Chymase Inhibition in Acute Myocardial Ischemia. Shizu Oyamada, Cesario Bianchi, Shinji Takai, Louis M. Chu and Frank W. Sellke ... Chymase Inhibition Reduces Infarction and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Activation and Attenuates Inflammation and Fibrosis after ... Chymase Inhibition Reduces Infarction and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Activation and Attenuates Inflammation and Fibrosis after ...
Surprisingly, the cattle chymase locus contains two α-chymase and two cathepsin G genes where all other studied chymase loci ... Phylogenetic analyses place one of the opossum genes firmly with mast cell α-chymases, which indicates that the α-chymase had ... These proteases belong to the chymase or the tryptase family, which are encoded from the mast cell chymase and the multigene ... Graspases are encoded from the mast cell chymase locus. The human locus holds four genes: α-chymase, cathepsin G, and granzymes ...
Mast Cell Chymase antibody LS-C396424 is a biotin-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to human Mast Cell Chymase (CMA1). ... Mast Cell Chymase antibody LS-C396424 is a biotin-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to human Mast Cell Chymase (CMA1). ... Mast Cell Chymase antibody LS-C396424 is a biotin-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to human Mast Cell Chymase (CMA1). ...
Severity of DENV-induced disease in humans is linked to the MC product chymase.. (A) Graph depicts the chymase concentration in ... 3E: What is/are the point/s to make from the data of Figure 6C that show the difference between chymase levels in primary DHF ... 3C: In order to make a statement that blood chymase levels can predict the development of DHF at early phase of the disease, ... 3D: Figure 6B: the data should be presented as individual chymase blood levels in each patient rather than the average of fold ...
... to compare plasma chymase levels in various cardiovascular diseases, 5) to determine the association between plasma chymase ... to determine clinical significance of plasma chymase measurement, 3) to develop RIA method for human chymase to handle massive ... Plasma chymase levels significantly increased in systemic inflammatory diseases (pneumonia autoimmune disease and etc.) Mild ... Publications] Pfeufer et al.: Chymase gene locus is not associated with myocardial infarction and is not linked to heart size ...
  • Chymases (EC 3.4.21.39, mast cell protease 1, skeletal muscle protease, skin chymotryptic proteinase, mast cell serine proteinase, skeletal muscle protease) are a family of serine proteases found primarily in mast cells, though also present in basophil granulocytes (e.g. alpha chymase mcpt8). (wikipedia.org)
  • Human chymase is a protease involved in physiological processes ranging from inflammation to hypertension. (rcsb.org)
  • Chymase, a human mast cell protease, has recently been proposed to play a role in blood pressure regulation because of its Ang II-forming activity. (nih.gov)
  • These observations suggest that placental-derived CLP/chymase is responsible for inducing endothelial inflammatory phenotypic changes possibly by upregulation of cell adhesion molecule expressions, activation of cellular protease, and induction of ERK phosphorylation. (preeclampsia.org)
  • 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 In contrast, rat chymase (rat mast cell protease I [RMCP-1]) hydrolyzes the Tyr 4 -Ile 5 bond to yield inactive fragments. (ahajournals.org)
  • It is has been established that mouse mast cells (MCs) can reversibly alter their expression of serglycin proteoglycans and the homologous granule chymases that have been designated mouse MC protease (mMCP)-1, mMCP-2, and mMCP-5 in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • CPA (carboxypeptidase A) is another MC protease, co-localized with chymase in severe atherosclerotic lesions. (portlandpress.com)
  • On balance, these data indicate that E. coli LPS stimulates perivascular mast cells in the in situ hamster spinotrapezius muscle to release an AT II-producing chymase-like protease(s). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Chymase is a chymotrypsin-like serine protease contained in the secretory granules of mast cells. (molvis.org)
  • Human chymase (HC) constitutes a major granule protease in one of the two human mast cell (MC) types. (diva-portal.org)
  • Hints about this possibility came from studying mice lacking the enzyme MMCP-4 (mouse mast cell protease 4 or chymase), which experience less damage to their hearts after an artificial heart attack. (emory.edu)
  • Chymase, a serine protease found in mast cell granules, is released into the interstitium following injury or inflammation. (northwestern.edu)
  • Chymase is a serine protease contained in the secretory granules of mast cells that has been thought to contribute to Ang II production as a pathway independent of ACE. (ahajournals.org)
  • Chymase inhibitor-sensitive synthesis of endothelin-1 (1-31) by recombinant mouse mast cell protease 4 and human chymase. (scienceexchange.com)
  • We compared in this study the catalytic efficiencies of recombinant human chymase (rCMA1) and its functional murine homologue recombinant mouse mast cell protease-4 (rmMCP-4) toward a fluorogenic chymase substrate (Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (AMC) and by their ability to convert Big-endothelin (ET)-1 into ET-1 (1-31) using a LC/MS/MS system. (scienceexchange.com)
  • The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) mediates the efflux of cellular unesterified cholesterol and phospholipid to lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I. Chymase, a protease secreted by mast cells, selectively cleaves pre-β-migrating particles from high density lipoprotein (HDL)3 and reduces the efflux of cholesterol from macrophages. (unimi.it)
  • Mast Cell Chymase antibody LS-C396424 is a biotin-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to human Mast Cell Chymase (CMA1). (lsbio.com)
  • Mast Cell Chymase antibody LS-B12242 is an unconjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to human Mast Cell Chymase (CMA1). (lsbio.com)
  • This study aimed to examine the association between chymase 1 gene (CMA1) polymorphisms and atrial fibrillation (AF) in a Chinese Han population. (cdc.gov)
  • Chymase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CMA1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: Mast Cell Chymase Monoclonal Antibody (CC1) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MA5-11717, RRID AB_10984248. (thermofisher.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human hepatoma, using Mast Cell Chymase(GTX105829) antibody at 1:500 dilution. (genetex.com)
  • Among these objectives, objectives 1 and 2 were completed within the first project year, but objectives 3 has been suspended because the iodinated recombinant h-chymase did not bind with the specific antibody. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Binding of this antibody to chymase is not reduced in the presence of heparin, suggesting that the antibody does not bind to the heparin-binding domain of chymase. (lsbio.com)
  • We developed an improved immunohistochemical technique for distinguishing human mast cells of the MCT (tryptase-positive, chymase-negative) and MCTC (tryptase-positive, chymase-positive) types utilizing a biotinylated murine anti-chymase monoclonal antibody (MAb), termed B7, and an alkaline phosphatase-conjugated murine anti-tryptase MAb, termed G3. (uncg.edu)
  • In tissues known to contain predominantly mature mast cells, there were no quantitative differences between the two techniques, although the staining intensity achieved with the anti-chymase MAb was greater and without development of high background, compared to results achieved with the polyclonal antibody. (uncg.edu)
  • However, in newborn foreskin tissue which contains predominantly immature forms of mast cells, 75% of all mast cells were stained uniformly and intensely with B7, whereas only 43% were stained with the polyclonal anti-chymase antibody. (uncg.edu)
  • 1999) The detection of mast cell subpopulations in formalin-fixed human tissues using a new monoclonal antibody specific for chymase. (monosan.com)
  • Be the first to review "Mast Cell Chymase [CC1] Antibody (cGMP). (enquirebio.com)
  • Mouse anti Human Mast Cell Chymase antibody, clone CC1 binds to human mast cell chymase, an important marker of mast cells and also an important mediator of inflammation. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Mouse anti Human Mast Cell Chymase antibody, clone CC1 may be used to detect mast cells in routinely fixed tissues, and has been used to study the distribution of mast cells in skin, synovium, lung and heart. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • The Mast Cell Chymase antibody from Proteintech is a rabbit polyclonal antibody to a recombinant protein of human Mast Cell Chymase. (thomassci.com)
  • The Mast Cell Chymase antibody has been validated for the following applications: ELISA, WB, IP analysis. (thomassci.com)
  • Thus, mast cells are the source of the vascular ACE-independent pathway, and the antihypertensive benefit of combining ACE inhibitor therapy with AT(1) receptor antagonist therapy is most likely due to negation of chymase-catalyzed Ang II generation. (nih.gov)
  • looking for chymase, not trypsin inhibitor. (scientistsolutions.com)
  • Authors proclaim it to be a specific chymase inhibitor but the full text article is not accessible. (scientistsolutions.com)
  • Balloon injury remarkably activated canine vascular chymase, 10 and an ANG II receptor antagonist substantially prevented neointima formation, whereas an ACE inhibitor did so only modestly. (ahajournals.org)
  • Crystal structure of a complex of human chymase with its benzimidazole derived inhibitor. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The crystal structure of human chymase complexed with a novel benzimidazole inhibitor, TJK002, was determined at 2.8 Å resolution. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The X-ray crystallographic study shows that the benzimidazole inhibitor forms a non-covalent interaction with the catalytic domain of human chymase. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • RWJ-355871) as a novel, potent dual inhibitor of neutrophil cathepsin G (K(i) = 38 nm) and mast cell chymase (K(i) = 2.3 nm). (rcsb.org)
  • To test whether chymase makes a difference in recovery after a heart attack, Wei, Husain and colleagues compared the effects of an experimental chymase inhibitor (provided by Teijin Pharma) to a standard ACE inhibitor on hamsters that had a simulated heart attack. (emory.edu)
  • Combining the ACE inhibitor and the chymase inhibitor improved ejection fraction, a measure of heart function, and reduced the amount of dead tissue and scarring more than either drug by itself. (emory.edu)
  • Chymase inhibitor drugs would work by allowing IGF-1, produced by the injured heart, to last longer. (emory.edu)
  • A clinical trial using a chymase inhibitor in heart failure patients is underway in Europe. (emory.edu)
  • Because lethal arrhythmias are generally believed to contribute to sudden cardiac death, we assessed whether inhibition of cardiac chymase would provide an antiarrhythmic effect during the 8-h ischemic period after 2-[4-(5-fluoro-3-methylbenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)sulfonamide-3-methanesulfonylphenyl]oxazole-4-carboxylicacid (TY51184) (a specific chymase inhibitor, 1 mg/kg i.v.) treatment by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) in dogs. (spotidoc.com)
  • Thus, we hypothesize that chymase inhibitor (CI) will attenuate extracellular matrix loss and LV remodeling in MR. (lvhn.org)
  • U0126 (the inhibitor for MAP/ERK kinase) suppressed chymase-induced migration of EoL-1 cells and mouse eosinophils. (wroc.pl)
  • The specificity of these activities was assessed with the chymase inhibitor TY-51469 (2-[4-(5-fluoro-3-methylbenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)sulfonamido-3-methanesulfonyl-phenyl]thiazole-4-carboxylic acid). (scienceexchange.com)
  • A decreased cholesterol efflux to untreated HDL3 but not to chymase-treated HDL3 was observed in ABCA1-expressing J774 with probucol, an inhibitor of cholesterol efflux to lipid-poor apoA-I. Similar results were obtained using brefeldin and gliburide, two inhibitors of ABCA1-mediated efflux. (unimi.it)
  • X-ray structure of human chymase in complex with small molecule inhibitor. (proteopedia.org)
  • Three segments of the pro-chymase structure differ from that of the activated enzyme: the N-terminus (Gly14-Gly19), the autolysis loop (Gly142-Thr154), and the 180s loop (Pro185A-Asp194). (rcsb.org)
  • Nevertheless, the catalytic triad (Asp102-His57-Ser195) is arrayed in a geometry close to that seen in activated chymase (all atom rmsd of 0.52 A). The 180s loop of pro-chymase is, on average, 4 A removed from its conformation in the activated enzyme. (rcsb.org)
  • Identification of a highly specific chymase as the major angiotensin II-forming enzyme in the human heart. (uniprot.org)
  • Scientists at Emory University, University of Alabama, Birmingham, and Fukuoka University in Japan have shown that another enzyme present in the heart called chymase is also capable of processing angiotensin II. (emory.edu)
  • Moreover, levels of an enzyme called chymase, another mast cell product, are higher in human patients with DHF than in those with dengue fever. (elifesciences.org)
  • Since chymase release occurs early in infection, tests for the presence of this enzyme could be used to predict which patients are likely to develop DHF. (elifesciences.org)
  • Although it is well recognized that an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-dependent AngII-generating system is a major source of intrarenal AngII production, it is here reported that the chymase-dependent AngII-generating system is upregulated in the human diabetic kidney. (asnjournals.org)
  • In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that chymase, as an alternative AngII-generating enzyme, is markedly upregulated in the diabetic kidney and may be associated with the development of diabetic/hypertensive nephropathy. (asnjournals.org)
  • The enzyme MMCP-4 or chymase appears to limit the beneficial effects of IGF-1. (emory.edu)
  • MMCP-4, known as chymase in humans, was already known to act as an "angiotensin converting enzyme. (emory.edu)
  • accepted December 31, 2003 Recently, chymase, in addition to the traditional angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), have been shown to play important roles in the regulation of local angiotensin (Ang) II formation in cardiovascular tissues in monkeys, dogs, hamsters, and especially humans (Miyazaki and Takai, 2000, 2001). (spotidoc.com)
  • Considering the importance of cardiac chymase to the generation of Ang II, we had previously performed experimental studies to define a timedependent change of cardiac chymase and the functional roles of this enzyme after MI in hamsters (Jin et al. (spotidoc.com)
  • Chymase is the major angiotensin II (Ang II)-forming enzyme in cardiovascular tissue, with an important role in atrial remodeling. (cdc.gov)
  • Objective Heart chymase instead of angiotensin converting enzyme offers higher specificity for angiotensin (Ang) We transformation into Ang II in human beings. (researchassistantresume.com)
  • Chymases (EC 3.4.21.39) are mast cell serine proteinases that are variably expressed in different species and, in most cases, display either chymotryptic or elastolytic substrate specificity. (proteopedia.org)
  • Among the granule proteases are the phylogenetically related mast cell chymases, neutrophil cathepsin G, and T-cell granzymes (Gzm B to H and Gzm N), which share the characteristic absence of a Cys 191 -Cys 220 bridge. (diva-portal.org)
  • The genes of these proteases are clustered in one locus, the mast cell chymase locus, in all previously investigated mammals. (diva-portal.org)
  • This previously published "granzyme" does not cluster clearly with any of the chymase locus gene families, but shares the absence of the Cys 191 -Cys 220 bridge with the other chymase locus proteases. (diva-portal.org)
  • Comparative reactivities of rat mast cell proteases, human and dog skin chymases, and human cathepsin G with peptide 4-nitroanilide substrates and with peptide chloromethyl ketone and sulfonyl fluoride inhibitors. (genome.jp)
  • METHODS AND RESULTS Specimens of normal and atherosclerotic human coronary intima from 32 autopsy cases with ages ranging from 13 to 67 years were stained with monoclonal antibodies against the two major proteases of mast cells, tryptase and chymase. (ahajournals.org)
  • Structure, chromosomal assignment, and deduced amino acid sequence of a human gene for mast cell chymase. (rcsb.org)
  • Conclusions -Tranilast suppressed chymase gene expression, which was specifically activated in the injured arteries, and prevented neointima formation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Therefore, survival rate and chymase activity in the heart and skin were measured in transgenic mice carrying the human chymase gene [ 9 ]. (medsci.org)
  • The experiment was performed in male transgenic mice (18-20 weeks of age) carrying the human chymase gene (Tg) [ 9 ] and male wild-type C57BL/6 mice (WT). (medsci.org)
  • Phylogenetic analyses place one of the opossum genes firmly with mast cell α-chymases, which indicates that the α-chymase had already evolved as a separate, clearly identifiable gene before the separation of marsupials and placental mammals. (diva-portal.org)
  • Chymase gene locus is not associated with myocardial infarction and is not linked to heart size or blood pressure'Am J Cardiol. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Association between chymase gene polymorphisms and atrial fibrillation in Chinese Han population. (cdc.gov)
  • A chymase gene variant is associated with atherosclerosis in venous coronary artery bypass grafts. (cdc.gov)
  • To gain further insight into the biological role of MC chymase we have here inactivated the gene for mMCP-4. (capecodmushroom.org)
  • Therefore, we establish a double sandwich ELISA using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies for recombinant human chymase. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This observation illustrates the potential role of chymase in heart remodeling. (scientistsolutions.com)
  • Studies in humans support the pathologic role of chymase in diabetic nephropathy, while animal studies form the basis for the importance of increased chymase-dependent angiotensin II formation in progressive hypertensive, diabetic and inflammatory nephropathies. (northwestern.edu)
  • The x-ray crystal structures of 1 complexed with human cathepsin G (1.85 A) and human chymase (1.90 A) reveal the molecular basis of the dual inhibition. (rcsb.org)
  • Despite partial inhibition by exocytosed proteoglycans, the secretagogue activity of chymase remains substantial compared to that of histamine. (jimmunol.org)
  • PA-angiotensin I increased interstitial angiotensin II less efficiently than angiotensin I. Separate inhibition of ACE (with captopril) and chymase (with C41 or chymostatin) shifted the angiotensin I concentration-response curve approximately 5-fold to the right, whereas a 10-fold shift occurred during combined ACE and chymase inhibition. (eur.nl)
  • In chronic heart failure and coronary heart disease, both ACE-dependent and ACE-independent (chymase) pathways exist and full blockade of RAS requires both ACE and chymase inhibition ( 14 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • These findings demonstrate that chymase inhibition can provide an antiarrhythmic effect after MI, and the reduction of Ang II by TY51184 may be mainly responsible for this beneficial effect. (spotidoc.com)
  • Chymase inhibition by treatment with the specific chymase inhibitors significantly improved cardiac function and survival rate during the acute phase after MI, and the extent of this benefit was very similar to that observed for treatment with an AT1 receptor antagonist. (spotidoc.com)
  • Chymase Inhibition Prevents Fibronectin and Myofibrillar Loss and Impr" by Betty Pat, Yuanwen Chen et al. (lvhn.org)
  • Chymase Inhibition Prevents Fibronectin and Myofibrillar Loss and Improves Cardiomyocyte Function and LV Torsion Angle in Dogs with Isolated Mitral Regurgitation. (lvhn.org)
  • Because chymase is synthesized mainly in mast cells, we assumed that the chymase-dependent ANG II formation could be downregulated by tranilast, a mast cell-stabilizing antiallergic agent. (ahajournals.org)
  • Graspases are encoded from the mast cell chymase locus. (diva-portal.org)
  • Studies of the mast cell chymase locus are therefore important to better understand the mammalian immune system. (diva-portal.org)
  • In this thesis, the evolution of the mast cell chymase locus was analysed by mapping the locus in all available mammalian genome sequences. (diva-portal.org)
  • We have assessed inhibitory effects of tranilast on neointima formation after balloon injury in the carotid artery of dogs, which share a similar ANG II-forming chymase with humans, and further explored the pathophysiological significance of vascular chymase. (ahajournals.org)
  • Now, cardiovascular studies of chymase inhibitors in humans need to be done," Husain says. (emory.edu)
  • In humans, the MC-specific product, chymase, is a predictive biomarker distinguishing dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). (elifesciences.org)
  • Dogs, like humans, have only one chymase. (diva-portal.org)
  • Moreover, humans with kidney disease express chymase in diseased blood vessels in concordance with significantly elevated plasma chymase levels. (northwestern.edu)
  • 2001, 2002, 2003), which possesses both chymase and ACE-dependent Ang II-forming pathways like in humans, as mentioned above. (spotidoc.com)
  • We have expressed chymases from humans, macaques, dogs, sheep (MCP2 and MCP3), guinea pigs, and hamsters (HAM1 and HAM2) in baculovirus-infected insect cells. (proteopedia.org)
  • Comparison of the extended specificity results to a panel of mammalian mast cell chymases show, in almost all aspects, the same cleavage characteristics. (usda.gov)
  • Subtle variations in the residues in the active site that are already known to influence chymase substrate specificity can also strongly affect the compound potency. (proteopedia.org)
  • Ligand 1 occupies the S(1) and S(2) subsites of cathepsin G and chymase similarly, with the 2-naphthyl in S(1), the 1-naphthyl in S(2), and the phosphonate group in a complex network of hydrogen bonds. (rcsb.org)
  • These findings demonstrate that it is possible to inhibit both cathepsin G and chymase with a single molecule and suggest an exciting opportunity in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (rcsb.org)
  • 15 These results indicate that chymase contributes to the pathogenesis of intimal hyperplasia by augmenting the local ANG II production to a greater extent than does ACE. (ahajournals.org)
  • These results indicate that chymase treatment of HDL3 specifically impairs the ABCA1-dependent pathway without influencing either aqueous or SR-BI-facilitated diffusion and that this effect is caused by depletion of lipid-poor pre-β-migrating particles in HDL3. (unimi.it)
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: HCA rings were mounted in organ baths, and concentration-response curves to angiotensin II, angiotensin I, and the chymase-specific substrate Pro(11)-D-Ala(12)-angiotensin I (PA-angiotensin I) were constructed. (eur.nl)
  • Furthermore, extracts from mouse peritoneal mast cells, LUVA cells and human aorta homogenates contained processing activities toward the fluorogenic chymase substrate as well as Big ET-1, all of which were sensitive to TY-51469. (scienceexchange.com)
  • The original objectives of the project was 1) to develop Westernblot analysis and biochemical assay for plasma human chymase, 2) to determine clinical significance of plasma chymase measurement, 3) to develop RIA method for human chymase to handle massive clinical samples, 4) to compare plasma chymase levels in various cardiovascular diseases, 5) to determine the association between plasma chymase level and various cardiovascular diseases. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Plasma chymase levels significantly increased in systemic inflammatory diseases (pneumonia autoimmune disease and etc. (nii.ac.jp)
  • However, proteoglycans virtually abolished chymase-induced degradation of the products of serous cell secretion. (jimmunol.org)
  • 490 Downloaded from jpet.aspetjournals.org by guest on June 9, 2014 ABSTRACT Chymase plays an important role in the regulation of local angiotensin (Ang) II formation in the cardiac tissue. (spotidoc.com)
  • The findings suggest that chymase inhibitors could achieve effects similar to those seen in mice lacking MMCP-4. (emory.edu)
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that chymase disrupts cell surface-fibronectin connections and FAK phosphorylation that can adversely affect cardiomyocyte myofibrillar structure and function. (lvhn.org)
  • Here we show that the predominant chymase mRNA species in the mouse aorta are those for types 4 and 5 isoforms, and that both are efficient Ang II-forming enzymes. (nih.gov)
  • 7 8 9 10 11 Chymases of these species cleave the Phe 8 -His 9 bond of ANG I and produce ANG II efficiently. (ahajournals.org)
  • To better understand mast cell functions in these species, one member of the mouse Mcpt8-family, mMCP-8, and human and dog chymase were studied. (diva-portal.org)
  • 1990). Therefore, cardiac chymase may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the Ang II-related heart diseases in such species. (spotidoc.com)
  • The inhibitors exhibited remarkable cross-species variation of sensitivity, with the greatest potency observed against human and macaque chymases, with K(i) values ranging from approximately 0.4 to 72nM. (proteopedia.org)
  • Compounds were 10-300-fold less potent, and in some instances ineffective, against chymases from the other species. (proteopedia.org)
  • Potency variation of small-molecule chymase inhibitors across species. (proteopedia.org)
  • Histochemical analysis of the spinotrapezius muscle reveals abundant perivascular mast cells with chymostatin-inhibitable chymase-like activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Using antipain and chymostatin, inhibitors for tryptase and chymase, respectively, it was demonstrated that both pMMP-1 and pMMP-3 were effectively processed and activated by the chymase component. (wiley.com)
  • MA5-11717 targets Mast Cell Chymase in IHC (P) and WB applications and shows reactivity with Human samples. (thermofisher.com)
  • Here, we describe the generation and characterization of transgenic mouse lines expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the baboon alpha-chymase promoter, designated Chm:Cre, in order to direct Cre expression specifically to mouse mast cells. (meta.org)
  • No Cre-expression and Cre-mediated recombination was induced in in vitro generated bone marrow derived mast cells or mast cells isolated from the peritoneal cavity indicating that Cre-expression under the control of the alpha-chymase promoter is solely activated in tissue resident mast cells. (meta.org)
  • Similar results were obtained in the experiments using mouse chymase and eosinophils. (wroc.pl)
  • A decrease in plasma Ang II levels after TY51184 treatment occurred concomitantly with suppression of cardiac chymase activity. (spotidoc.com)
  • We recently found that cardiac chymase was activated significantly and survival rate markedly improved by treatment with chymase inhibitors after myocardial infarction (MI) in hamsters. (spotidoc.com)
  • these associations, with the exception of cardiac chymase A AA polymorphism (p = 0.06), remained significant in multivariate analysis. (bmj.com)
  • Evaluation of ACE-dependent and ACE-independent Ang II-forming pathways in mast cell-deficient (Kit(w)/Kit(w-v)) mice and their mast cell-sufficient littermate (MC(+/+)) controls revealed that, in contrast to the latter, Kit(w)/Kit(w-v) mice fail to express chymase mRNAs in the vasculature and have almost no ACE-independent Ang II-forming activity in either isolated blood vessels or homogenates. (nih.gov)
  • Background -Activation of vascular chymase plays a major role in myointimal hypertrophy after vascular injury by augmenting the production of angiotensin (ANG) II. (ahajournals.org)
  • Recombinant human Chymase protein. (lsbio.com)
  • 8 ] showed that suffusion of LPS on the in situ hamster spinotrapezius muscle for 60 min elicits an immediate, reversible biphasic vasomotor response, vasoconstriction followed by vasodilatation, and increased accumulation of perivascular mast cells having chymase-like activity. (medsci.org)
  • After the analysis was adjusted for multiple comparisons, only chymase-positive mast cells significantly and positively correlated with lung function. (nih.gov)
  • LPS-induced increases in chymase activity in the heart and skin were significantly greater in Tg than WT mice. (medsci.org)
  • Adding drugs that interfere with chymase to ACE inhibitors significantly boosted recovery of heart function in animals after heart attack, the researchers found. (emory.edu)
  • Densities of proliferative cell nuclear antigen-positive cells, chymase-positive cells, and areas of collagen fiber in conjunctival and scleral lesions were significantly decreased in MMC-treated eyes, compared with placebo-treated eyes (p=0.034, 0.034, 0.049, respectively). (molvis.org)
  • In the diabetic kidney, while ACE expression was significantly upregulated (1 to 3-fold) by tubular epithelial cells (TEC) and infiltrating mononuclear cells, there was also markedly increased chymase expression (10 to 15-fold) by both MC and VSMC, with strong deposition in the collagen-rich extracellular matrix including both diffuse and nodular glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and vascular sclerosis. (asnjournals.org)
  • Total Ang II-forming activity and chymase activity in the infarcted heart were increased significantly 8 h after LAD ligation. (spotidoc.com)
  • In contrast, rats possess only an ACE-dependent Ang II-forming pathway, because in cardiovascular tissues in rat, chymase acts as an This study was supported by Grant-in-Aid 13670102 (C) for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Japan. (spotidoc.com)
  • Given that chymase inhibitors have emerged as potential therapeutic agents for treating various inflammatory, allergic, and cardiovascular disorders, it is important to understand interspecies differences of the enzymes as well as the behavior of inhibitors with them. (proteopedia.org)
  • Human mast cells are classified into two groups: tryptase- and chymase-positive mast cells, and tryptase-positive and chymase-negative mast cells. (molvis.org)
  • Suppression of the chymase-dependent ANG II-forming pathway may contribute to the beneficial effects of tranilast. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, it remains completely unknown whether the chymase pathway is activated in diabetic nephropathy. (asnjournals.org)
  • Chymase is the primary ACE-independent pathway of angiotensin II formation, and also functions to activate TGF-beta and other promoters of extracellular matrix degradation, thereby playing a role in tissue remodeling. (northwestern.edu)
  • Eosinophil migration induced by mast cell chymase is mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. (wroc.pl)
  • Nevertheless, it remained to be determined whether these immune cells could modify their expression of other chymases and the granule tryptases mMCP-6 and mMCP-7. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although the secretagogue and proteoglycanase activities of chymase are inhibited by most classes of mast cell granule-associated glycans, the amidolytic activity of chymase toward tripeptide 4-nitroanilide substrates is augmented. (jimmunol.org)
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human Mast Cell Chymase. (genetex.com)
  • MC chymase cleaves apoA-I (apolipoprotein A-I), the main protein component of HDL (high-density lipoprotein). (portlandpress.com)
  • There was a significant positive correlation between plasma chymase level and plasma c-reactive protein or fibrinogen. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The amino acid sequence of human skin chymase was established by protein methods and by analysis of PCR amplification products obtained with cDNA-derived from urticaria pigmentosa (UP) lesions. (duke.edu)
  • This sequence, along with that established for the purified protein, constituted 99% of the heart chymase primary structure, strongly indicating that human skin and heart chymases have identical primary structures. (duke.edu)
  • Mast cells contain a number of preformed chemicals mediators such as histamine, chymase, carboxypeptidase and proteolytic tryptase. (abcam.com)
  • In contrast, mast cell number, percentage, and the chymase-positive phenotype increased in small airway regions. (nih.gov)
  • The human locus holds four genes: α-chymase, cathepsin G, and granzymes H and B. In contrast, the mouse locus contains at least 14 genes. (diva-portal.org)
  • In contrast to the human, mouse, hamster and opossum chymases that show a relatively strong preference for negatively charged amino acids in the P2′position, the sheep MCP2, however, lacked that preference. (usda.gov)
  • In contrast, efflux of free cholesterol from Fu5AH to chymase-treated and to untreated HDL 3 was similar. (unimi.it)
  • Plasma levels of mast cell carboxypeptidase and chymase were measured using ELISA . (bvsalud.org)
  • GAPDH-normalized chymase 1, chymase 2, chymase 4, and chymase 5 mRNA levels in aortae from vehicle- or captopril-treated MC +/+ and Kit w /Kit w-v mice. (nih.gov)
  • Chymase mRNA levels and chymaselike activity of vehicle-treated injured arteries were increased 10.2- and 4.8-fold, respectively, those of uninjured arteries. (ahajournals.org)
  • To evaluate the roles of plasma mast cell carboxypeptidase and chymase in the diagnosis of allergic diseases by measuring the contents of both in children . (bvsalud.org)
  • Plasma levels of mast cell carboxypeptidase and chymase increase in children with allergic diseases , suggesting that mast cell carboxypeptidase and chymase may serve as the indexes for the diagnosis of allergic diseases . (bvsalud.org)
  • In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the chymase locus in cattle ( Bos taurus ) and opossum ( Monodelphis domestica ). (diva-portal.org)
  • The gained information delineates the evolution of the chymase locus over more than 200 million years. (diva-portal.org)
  • Surprisingly, the cattle chymase locus contains two α-chymase and two cathepsin G genes where all other studied chymase loci have single genes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Moreover, the cattle locus holds at least four genes for duodenases, which are not found in other chymase loci. (diva-portal.org)
  • In opossum, on the other hand, only two chymase locus-related genes have been identified. (diva-portal.org)
  • In platypus, only one chymase locus-like sequence could be identified. (diva-portal.org)
  • These findings indicate that all chymase locus genes are derived from a single ancestor that was present more than 200 million years ago. (diva-portal.org)
  • A) Genomic organization of the mouse MC chymase locus. (capecodmushroom.org)
  • The side chains of residues Phe191 and Lys192 of pro-chymase fill the Ile16 binding pocket and the base of the S1 binding pocket, respectively. (rcsb.org)
  • CPA, in vitro , further cleaved C-terminal Phe 225 and Phe 229 residues newly exposed by chymase, but did not cleave Tyr 192 . (portlandpress.com)
  • The amino acid sequences for these peptides combined with the sequence obtained for the protein's NH2-terminal region (35 residues) accounted for 137 residues of the human skin chymase sequence. (duke.edu)
  • The amino acid sequence (135 residues) deduced from this product was identical to that of heart chymase in the region between the primers. (duke.edu)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Both ACE and chymase contribute to the generation of functionally active angiotensin II in HCAs. (eur.nl)
  • For example, chymases are released by mucosal mast cells upon challenge with parasites and parasite antigens promoting an inflammatory response, and chymase mcp1 and mcp2 are used for marker for mast cell degranulation in parasite infection such as Nematode, Trichuris muris Chymases are also known to convert angiotensin I to angiotensin II and thus play a role in hypertension and atherosclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effects of candesartan (an Ang II type 1 receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg i.v.) in Chymase and Arrhythmias after Myocardial Infarction diac ACE after MI. (spotidoc.com)
  • In addition, differential expression of ACE and chymase in the diabetic kidney indicates that both ACE and chymase may be of equal importance for AngII-mediated diabetic nephropathy and vascular disease. (asnjournals.org)