Chymases: A family of neutral serine proteases with CHYMOTRYPSIN-like activity. Chymases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.Tryptases: A family of neutral serine proteases with TRYPSIN-like activity. Tryptases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases: Endopeptidases that are specific for AMYLOID PROTEIN PRECURSOR. Three secretase subtypes referred to as alpha, beta, and gamma have been identified based upon the region of amyloid protein precursor they cleave.Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases: A sub-subclass of endopeptidases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Muridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.DEAE-Cellulose: Cellulose derivative used in chromatography, as ion-exchange material, and for various industrial applications.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Convolvulaceae: The morning glory family of flowering plants, of the order Solanales, which includes about 50 genera and at least 1,400 species. Leaves are alternate and flowers are funnel-shaped. Most are twining and erect herbs, with a few woody vines, trees, and shrubs.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Serine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous or endogenous compounds which inhibit SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A: A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.ortho-Aminobenzoates: Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cell Degranulation: The process of losing secretory granules (SECRETORY VESICLES). This occurs, for example, in mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets when secretory products are released from the granules by EXOCYTOSIS.Mastocytosis: A heterogenous group of disorders characterized by the abnormal increase of MAST CELLS in only the skin (MASTOCYTOSIS, CUTANEOUS), in extracutaneous tissues involving multiple organs (MASTOCYTOSIS, SYSTEMIC), or in solid tumors (MASTOCYTOMA).Patella: The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Procollagen: A biosynthetic precursor of collagen containing additional amino acid sequences at the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal ends of the polypeptide chains.Heart Arrest, Induced: A procedure to stop the contraction of MYOCARDIUM during HEART SURGERY. It is usually achieved with the use of chemicals (CARDIOPLEGIC SOLUTIONS) or cold temperature (such as chilled perfusate).Monodelphis: A genus of short-tailed OPOSSUMS in the family Didelphidae found in South American, chiefly Brazil. They are opossums least well-adapted to arboreal life.Cathepsin G: A serine protease found in the azurophil granules of NEUTROPHILS. It has an enzyme specificity similar to that of chymotrypsin C.Opossums: New World marsupials of the family Didelphidae. Opossums are omnivorous, largely nocturnal and arboreal MAMMALS, grow to about three feet in length, including the scaly prehensile tail, and have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried at birth.Cathepsins: A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Matrix Metalloproteinase 9: An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.Matrix Metalloproteinase 2: A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1: A member of the family of TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASES. It is a N-glycosylated protein, molecular weight 28 kD, produced by a vast range of cell types and found in a variety of tissues and body fluids. It has been shown to suppress metastasis and inhibit tumor invasion in vitro.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.

Tranilast suppresses vascular chymase expression and neointima formation in balloon-injured dog carotid artery. (1/553)

BACKGROUND: Activation of vascular chymase plays a major role in myointimal hypertrophy after vascular injury by augmenting the production of angiotensin (ANG) II. Because chymase is synthesized mainly in mast cells, we assumed that the chymase-dependent ANG II formation could be downregulated by tranilast, a mast cell-stabilizing antiallergic agent. We have assessed inhibitory effects of tranilast on neointima formation after balloon injury in the carotid artery of dogs, which share a similar ANG II-forming chymase with humans, and further explored the pathophysiological significance of vascular chymase. METHODS AND RESULTS: Either tranilast (50 mg/kg BID) or vehicle was orally administered to beagles for 2 weeks before and 4 weeks after balloon injury. Four weeks after the injury, remarkable neointima was formed in the carotid arteries of vehicle-treated dogs. Chymase mRNA levels and chymaselike activity of vehicle-treated injured arteries were increased 10.2- and 4.8-fold, respectively, those of uninjured arteries. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was slightly increased in the injured arteries, whereas ACE mRNA levels were not. Tranilast treatment completely prevented the increase in chymaselike activity, reduced the chymase mRNA levels by 43%, and decreased the carotid intima/media ratio by 63%. In vehicle-treated injured arteries, mast cell count in the adventitia showed a great increase, which was completely prevented by the tranilast treatment. Vascular ACE activity and mRNA levels were unaffected by tranilast. CONCLUSIONS: Tranilast suppressed chymase gene expression, which was specifically activated in the injured arteries, and prevented neointima formation. Suppression of the chymase-dependent ANG II-forming pathway may contribute to the beneficial effects of tranilast.  (+info)

Lack of effect of carbohydrate depletion on some properties of human mast cell chymase. (2/553)

Human chymase from vascular tissues was purified to homogeneity by heparin affinity and gel filtration chromatography. Treatment of human chymase with endoglycosidase F resulted in cleavage of the carbohydrate moiety yielding a deglycosylation product that did not lose its catalytic activity. This enzymatic deglycosylation product was enough to explore possibilities that N-glycan might modify some properties of human chymase. Substrate specificity, optimum pH and the elution profile from the heparin affinity gel were not affected by the deglycosylation. Only a slight but significant difference was observed in the Km value for conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Other kinetic constants such as kcat were not influenced. The kinetics of conversion of big endothelin-1 to endothelin-1(1-31) were not significantly affected. The deglycosylated human chymase was more susceptible to deactivation under alkaline pH and thermal stress. Even at physiological temperature and pH, the activity of glycosylated human chymase was more stable. From these results, it appears that the N-glycan of human chymase contributes to the stability of this enzyme but not to its functional properties.  (+info)

Induction of atherosclerosis in Brown Norway rats by immunization with ovalbumin. (3/553)

A study was carried out to establish an animal model that would be suitable for evaluating the role of the diet in immune cell-mediated atherogenesis. Brown Norway rats were initially treated with hypervitamin D2 for 4 days and then fed on an atherogenic diet for 3 months, during which period the rats were either immunized with ovalubumin plus Al(OH)3 (OVA group) or with Al(OH)3 alone (control group) every 3 weeks. Aortic lesions were mainly composed of foam cells, the lesions evaluated by the intimal thickness of the ascending aorta being more severe in the OVA group than in the control group. The OVA group, in comparison with the control group, showed prominently increased serum levels of OVA-specific IgG and rat chymase, an indicator of mast cell degranulation. The intimal thickness was positively correlated with the level of chymase. Immunization had no effect on the serum lipid levels. These results support the hypothesis that mast cells play a role in the early stage of atherosclerosis and suggest that this animal model could be useful for evaluating the role of the diet in immune-related atherogenesis.  (+info)

Fibroproliferation and mast cells in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. (4/553)

BACKGROUND: Mast cells (MCs), which are a major source of cytokines and growth factors, have been implicated in various fibrotic disorders. To clarify the contribution of MCs to fibrogenesis, lung tissue from patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was examined during exudative through to fibroproliferative stages. METHODS: Lung tissue was obtained from 17 patients with ARDS who had pathological features of the early exudative stage (n = 6) or the later reparative stages (n = 11), from four patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and from three patients with normal lung tissue. Immunohistochemical localisation of tryptase (found in all human MCs), chymase (found in a subset of human MCs), alpha-smooth muscle actin (identifies myofibroblasts), and procollagen type I was performed. RESULTS: Normal lung tissue exhibited myofibroblast and procollagen type I immunolocalisation scores each of < 5 and MC scores of 1. Increased scores were defined as myofibroblast and procollagen type I scores of > 10 and MC scores of > or = 2. Eighty percent of lung tissue samples from the early exudative stage of ARDS exhibited increased numbers of myofibroblasts, 50% had increased numbers of procollagen type I producing cells, while only 17% had increased numbers of MCs compared with control samples. All samples from the later reparative stages of ARDS had increased numbers of myofibroblasts and procollagen type I producing cells. Increased numbers of MCs were seen in 55% of samples from the reparative stages. There was no significant shift in MC phenotype in the ARDS samples. CONCLUSIONS: Increased numbers of myofibroblasts and procollagen type I producing cells were frequently found early in the course of ARDS. MC hyperplasia was unusual during this stage, but was often a feature of the later reparative stages. MCs do not appear to initiate fibroproliferation in ARDS.  (+info)

Depletion of pre beta 1LpA1 and LpA4 particles by mast cell chymase reduces cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells induced by plasma. (5/553)

Exposure of the LpA1-containing particles present in HDL3 and plasma to a minimal degree of proteolysis by the neutral protease chymase from exocytosed rat mast cell granules (granule remnants) leads to a reduction in the high-affinity component of cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time, a role for mast cell chymase in the depletion of the lipid-poor minor components of HDL that are specifically involved in reverse cholesterol transport as initial acceptors of cellular cholesterol. Thus, addition of proteolytically active granule remnants or human skin chymase to cholesterol-loaded macrophages of mouse or human origin incubated with human apoA1, ie, a system in which prebeta1LpA1 is generated, resulted in a sharp reduction in the high-affinity cholesterol efflux promoted by apoA1. As determined by nondenaturing 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis, the granule remnants effectively depleted the prebeta1LpA1, but not the alphaLpA1, in HDL3 and in plasma during incubation at 37 degrees C for <1 hour. Incubation of plasma with granule remnants for 1 hour also led to near disappearance of the LpA4-1 and LpA4-2 particles, but did not affect the distribution of the apoA2-containing lipoproteins present in the plasma. We conclude that the reduced ability of granule remnant-treated HDL3 and granule remnant-treated plasma to induce cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells is caused by selective depletion by mast cell chymase of quantitatively minor A1- and A4-containing subpopulations of HDL. Because these particles, ie, prebeta1LpA1 and LpA4, are efficient acceptors of cholesterol from cell surfaces, their depletion by mast cells may block the initiation of reverse cholesterol transport in vivo and thereby favor foam cell formation in the arterial intima, the site of atherogenesis.  (+info)

Mast cell expression of gelatinases A and B is regulated by kit ligand and TGF-beta. (6/553)

Our prior work shows that cultured BR cells derived from dog mastocytomas secrete the 92-kDa proenzyme form of gelatinase B. We provided a possible link between mast cell activation and metalloproteinase-mediated matrix degradation by demonstrating that alpha-chymase, a serine protease released from secretory granules by degranulating mast cells, converts progelatinase B to an enzymatically active form. The current work shows that these cells also secrete gelatinase A. Furthermore, gelatinases A and B both colocalize to alpha-chymase-expressing cells of canine airway, suggesting that normal mast cells are a source of gelatinases in the lung. In BR cells, gelatinase B and alpha-chymase expression are regulated, whereas gelatinase A expression is constitutive. Progelatinase B mRNA and enzyme expression are strongly induced by the critical mast cell growth factor, kit ligand, which is produced by fibroblasts and other stromal cells. Induction of progelatinase B is blocked by U-73122, Ro31-8220, and thapsigargin, implicating phospholipase C, protein kinase C, and Ca2+, respectively, in the kit ligand effect. The profibrotic cytokine TGF-beta virtually abolishes the gelatinase B mRNA signal and also attenuates kit ligand-mediated induction of gelatinase B expression, suggesting that an excess of TGF-beta in inflamed or injured tissues may alter mast cell expression of gelatinase B, which is implicated in extracellular matrix degradation, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. In summary, these data provide the first evidence that normal mast cells express gelatinases A and B and suggest pathways by which their regulated expression by mast cells can influence matrix remodeling and fibrosis.  (+info)

A novel function for transforming growth factor-beta1: upregulation of the expression and the IgE-independent extracellular release of a mucosal mast cell granule-specific beta-chymase, mouse mast cell protease-1. (7/553)

Intestinal mucosal mast cells (IMMC) express granule neutral proteases that are regulated by T-cell-derived cytokines, including interleukin-3 (IL-3) and IL-9, and by stem cell factor (SCF). The IMMC-specific chymase, mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1), is released in substantial quantities into the blood stream during gastrointestinal allergic responses. We used cultured bone marrow-derived mast cells (mBMMC) to identify cytokines that regulate the expression and extracellular release of mMCP-1. When grown in IL-3-rich WEHI (15% vol/vol) and 50 ng/mL recombinant rat SCF (rrSCF) bone marrow cells supplemented with IL-9 (5 ng/mL) differentiated into mBMMC that expressed a maximum of less than 250 ng mMCP-1/10(6) cells and 189 ng mMCP-1/mL of culture supernatant. Supplementation of the same three cytokines with transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1; 1 ng/mL) resulted in substantially enhanced expression (6 micrograms/10(6) mBMMC) and extracellular release (2 micrograms/mL of culture supernatant) of mMCP-1. The response to TGF-beta1 was dose-dependent, with maximal effect at 1 ng/mL, and was associated with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural changes in the secretory granules. IL-9-induced expression of mMCP-1 may be due to endogenously expressed TGF-beta1, because it was blocked by anti-TGF-beta antibodies. In conclusion, the expression and extracellular release of the IMMC-specific chymase, mMCP-1, is strictly regulated by TGF-beta1.  (+info)

Evidence for angiotensin-converting enzyme- and chymase-mediated angiotensin II formation in the interstitial fluid space of the dog heart in vivo. (8/553)

BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that angiotensin II (Ang II) levels in the interstitial fluid (ISF) space of the heart are higher than in the blood plasma and do not change after systemic infusion of Ang I. In this study, we assess the enzymatic mechanisms (chymase versus ACE) by which Ang II is generated in the ISF space of the dog heart in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cardiac microdialysis probes were implanted in the left ventricular (LV) myocardium (3 to 4 probes per dog) of 12 anesthetized open-chest normal dogs. ISF Ang I and II levels were measured at baseline and during ISF infusion of Ang I (15 micromol/L, n=12), Ang I+the ACE inhibitor captopril (cap) (2.5 mmol/L, n=4), Ang I+the chymase inhibitor chymostatin (chy) (1 mmol/L, n=4), and Ang I+cap+chy (n=4). ISF infusion of Ang I increased ISF Ang II levels 100-fold (P<0.01), whereas aortic and coronary sinus plasma Ang I and II levels were unaffected and were 100-fold lower than ISF levels. Compared with ISF infusion of Ang I alone, Ang I+cap (n=4) produced a greater reduction in ISF Ang II levels than did Ang I+chy (n=4) (71% versus 43%, P<0.01), whereas Ang I+cap+chy produced a 100% decrease in ISF Ang II levels. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates for the first time a very high capacity for conversion of Ang I to Ang II mediated by both ACE and chymase in the ISF space of the dog heart in vivo.  (+info)

*CMA1

Chymase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CMA1 gene. This gene product is a chymotryptic serine proteinase that ... "Entrez Gene: CMA1 chymase 1, mast cell". Human CMA1 genome location and CMA1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... Jenne DE, Tschopp J (1991). "Angiotensin II-forming heart chymase is a mast-cell-specific enzyme". Biochem. J. 276 (2): 567-8. ... Mellon MB, Frank BT, Fang KC (2002). "Mast cell alpha-chymase reduces IgE recognition of birch pollen profilin by cleaving ...

*Inflammation

Caughey, George H. (2007-06-01). "Mast cell tryptases and chymases in inflammation and host defense". Immunological Reviews. ...

*Heparinoid

One counter example is the protein chymase, which directly binds to heparin. Dermatan sulfate is one example of a compound that ...

*Profilin 1

Mellon MB, Frank BT, Fang KC (2002). "Mast cell alpha-chymase reduces IgE recognition of birch pollen profilin by cleaving ...

*CPA3

... functions together with endopeptidases secreted from mast cells such as chymases and tryptases to degrade proteins and ... Upon mast cell activation and degranulation, CPA3, the chymases, and tryptases are released in complexes with heparin ... Sequential degradation of apolipoprotein B by granule chymase and carboxypeptidase A". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 261 ... "Cooperation between mast cell carboxypeptidase A and the chymase mouse mast cell protease 4 in the formation and degradation of ...

*SLPI

... inhibits human leukocyte elastase, human cathepsin G, human trypsin, neutrophil elastase, and mast cell chymase. X-ray ...

*TPSAB1

1999). "Tryptase-chymase double-positive human mast cells express the eotaxin receptor CCR3 and are attracted by CCR3-binding ... 1995). "Quantitation of tryptase, chymase, Fc epsilon RI alpha, and Fc epsilon RI gamma mRNAs in human mast cells and basophils ... 1997). "Effect of recombinant human IL-4 on tryptase, chymase, and Fc epsilon receptor type I expression in recombinant human ...

*Serpin

... cell carcinoma antigen 2 is a novel serpin that inhibits the chymotrypsin-like proteinases cathepsin G and mast cell chymase". ...

*Endothelin 3

"Selective conversion of big endothelins to tracheal smooth muscle-constricting 31-amino acid-length endothelins by chymase from ...

*Renin-angiotensin system

... chymase or other enzymes can transform it into angiotensin II. This process can be intracellular or interstitial. In the ...

*Enteropeptidase

Wang ZM, Rubin H, Schechter NM (Nov 1995). "Production of active recombinant human chymase from a construct containing the ...

*CTRL (gene)

2002). "Mast cell chymase degrades apoE and apoA-II in apoA-I-knockout mouse plasma and reduces its ability to promote cellular ...

*Alpha 1-antichymotrypsin

... and chymases found in mast cells, by cleaving them into a different shape or conformation. This activity protects some tissues ...

*GZMH

... chymase) activity and is taken up into cytoplasmic vesicles reminiscent of granzyme B-containing endosomes". J. Biol. Chem. 274 ...

*Pathophysiology of hypertension

... including the serine protease chymase. The activity of local renin-angiotensin systems and alternative pathways of angiotensin ...

*Granulocyte

... chymase, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), TNF, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and ...

*Chromosome 14 (human)

... encoding enzyme Chymase CNIH: encoding protein Protein cornichon homolog COCH: coagulation factor C homolog, cochlin (Limulus ...

*Irritable bowel syndrome

... tryptase and chymase (PAR2), serotonin (5-HT3), PGD2 (DP1). Histamine also causes epithelial secretion of chloride ions and ...

*Cathepsin C

... such as elastase and cathepsin G in neutrophils cells and chymase and tryptase in mast cells. In many inflammatory diseases, ...

*Mast cell

... chymase, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), TNF, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and ... such as tryptase and chymase histamine (2-5 picograms per mast cell) serotonin proteoglycans, mainly heparin (active as ...

*List of EC numbers (EC 3)

... chymase EC 3.4.21.40: Deleted entry: submandibular proteinase A EC 3.4.21.41: complement subcomponent C1r EC 3.4.21.42: ...

*Adelmidrol

... such as chymase. Adelmidrol seems suitable for topical application, as it exhibits both hydrophilic and lipophilic features, ...

*Chymase

... alpha chymase mcpt8). They show broad peptidolytic activity and are involved in a variety of functions. For example, chymases ... Chymases are also known to convert angiotensin I to angiotensin II and thus play a role in hypertension and atherosclerosis. ... Chymases (EC 3.4.21.39, mast cell protease 1, skeletal muscle protease, skin chymotryptic proteinase, mast cell serine ... Mast cell tryptases and chymases in inflammation and host defense. Immu Revs 2007 (217): 141-154. PMID 17498057 de Garavilla et ...

*Factor X

... a is the activated form of the coagulation factor thrombokinase, known eponymously as Stuart-Prower factor. Factor X is an enzyme, a serine endopeptidase, which plays a key role at several stages of the coagulation system. Factor X is synthesized in the liver. The most commonly used anticoagulants in clinical practice, warfarin and the heparin series of anticoagulants and fondaparinux, act to inhibit the action of Factor Xa in various degrees. Traditional models of coagulation developed in the 1960s envisaged two separate cascades, the extrinsic (tissue factor (TF)) pathway and the intrinsic pathway. These pathways converge to a common point, the formation of the Factor Xa/Va complex which together with calcium and bound on a phospholipids surface generate thrombin (Factor IIa) from prothrombin (Factor II). A new model, the cell-based model of anticoagulation appears to explain more fully the steps in coagulation. This model has three stages: 1) initiation of coagulation on TF-bearing ...

*Complement component 1s

Luo C, Thielens NM, Gagnon J, Gal P, Sarvari M, Tseng Y, Tosi M, Zavodszky P, Arlaud GJ, Schumaker VN (May 1992). "Recombinant human complement subcomponent C1s lacking beta-hydroxyasparagine, sialic acid, and one of its two carbohydrate chains still reassembles with C1q and C1r to form a functional C1 complex". Biochemistry. 31 (17): 4254-62. doi:10.1021/bi00132a015. PMID 1533159 ...
Immune cells like NK cells, T cells, neutrophils and mast cells store high amounts of granule serine proteases, graspases. Graspases are encoded from the mast cell chymase locus. The human locus holds four genes: α-chymase, cathepsin G, and granzymes H and B. In contrast, the mouse locus contains at least 14 genes. Many of these belong to subfamilies not found in human, e.g. the Mcpt8-family. These differences hamper functional comparisons of graspases and of immune cells in the two species. Studies of the mast cell chymase locus are therefore important to better understand the mammalian immune system. In this thesis, the evolution of the mast cell chymase locus was analysed by mapping the locus in all available mammalian genome sequences. It was revealed that one single ancestral gene founded this locus probably over 215 million years ago. This ancestor was duplicated more than 185 million years ago. One copy evolved into the α-chymases, whereas the second copy founded the families of ...
At baseline, human chymase gene expression in heart was significantly higher but chymase activity is similar between WT and Tg mice. Treatment with LPS Tg mice showed cardiac hypertrophy, and heart chymase activity tended to show higher than in WT mice but these changes were not statistically significant. Previous studies showed that sepsis is associated with cardiovascular dysfunction [3]. We therefore speculate that LPS-induced cardiovascular dysfunction may be augmented, at least in part, by over-expression of the human chymase gene. This concept is consistent with a recent study by Koga et al. [9] that showed human chymase expression in mice induces mild hypertension with left ventricular hypertrophy, characterized by cardiomyocyte hyperplasia and increased fibrosis in the left ventricle. From this data it is difficult to explain about the role of human chymase in LPS-induced increase mortality is due to cardiovascular dysfunction. Because of the low prevalence of survival of LPS induced Tg ...
In the injured arteries, chymaselike activity and chymase mRNA level were remarkably increased, whereas a slight increase in ACE activity and no increase in ACE mRNA expression were detected. The current study demonstrated for the first time that tranilast prevented vascular chymase expression and effectively inhibited neointima formation and luminal stenosis. Our previous study showed that the vascular ANG II content doubled in the injured arteries compared with that in the uninjured arteries and that an ANG II receptor antagonist but not an ACE inhibitor prevented the neointima formation.15 In the current study, tranilast treatment did not affect plasma ANG II concentration, plasma ACE activity, or PRA. Vascular ANG II-forming activity of chymase increased 4.8-fold in vehicle-treated dogs, whereas tranilast treatment completely prevented the increase in chymase activity. Therefore, the ANG II-forming rate in local vascular tissues supposedly increased after vascular injury but returned to the ...
This work reveals that an active form of human chymase can be captured by α2M, in which form it can cleave small peptide substrates, including angiotensin I, and is protected from irreversible inactivation by serpins and other antipeptidases in biological fluids. We exploited α2M binding to develop a sensitive and specific assay for chymase activity in the serum of subjects with mastocytosis. These studies reveal that chymase, after secretion by mast cells and capture by α2M, can cleave small peptides for longer than once thought possible. Extravascular chymase captured and protected by α2M may be an important source of non-ACE-generated angiotensin II near tissue sites of mast cell degranulation. The portion of α2M-caged chymase making its way to the bloodstream provides the basis of our serum assay and may be a mobile source of angiotensin II-generating chymase in blood and tissues remote from original sites of mast cell degranulation. The half-life of peptidase-bound α2M in blood in ...
The acidic granules of natural killer (NK) cells, T cells, mast cells, and neutrophils store large amounts of serine proteases. Functionally, these proteases are involved, e.g., in the induction of apoptosis, the recruitment of inflammatory cells, and the remodeling of extra-cellular matrix. Among the granule proteases are the phylogenetically related mast cell chymases, neutrophil cathepsin G, and T-cell granzymes (Gzm B to H and Gzm N), which share the characteristic absence of a Cys191-Cys220 bridge. The genes of these proteases are clustered in one locus, the mast cell chymase locus, in all previously investigated mammals. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the chymase locus in cattle (Bos taurus) and opossum (Monodelphis domestica). The gained information delineates the evolution of the chymase locus over more than 200 million years. Surprisingly, the cattle chymase locus contains two α-chymase and two cathepsin G genes where all other studied chymase loci have single genes. ...
The most significant findings of this study are that chymase inhibition reduced myocardial infarct size, MMP-9 activation, neutrophil infiltration, MMP-9 containing mast cell accumulation, and inflammatory gene expression after AMI-R. In addition, chymase inhibition was associated with higher levels of total and active eNOS.. Because chymase not only generates Ang II, but also cleaves and activates a variety of physiological substrates including MMPs, procollagen, precursor of interleukin-1β, and stem cell factor, chymase inhibition leads to a variety of effects (Fang et al., 1996, 1997; Kofford et al., 1997; Longley et al., 1997; Patella et al., 1998; Libby, 2002; Tchougounova et al., 2005; Kumar et al., 2009; Pejler et al., 2010). This study demonstrated that chymase inhibition caused myocardial protection after AMI-R through potential multiple mechanisms. A study has demonstrated that MMP-9 knockout mice have increased myocardial protection and attenuated remodeling after experimental AMI ...
In this study, we examined total Ang II-forming activities by analyzing the responsible enzymes in several organs from several species and compared the results with those in humans. Our results suggest that each organ in each species has an unique profile with regard to tissue Ang II formation. The present results suggest that it is difficult to specify an appropriate animal model for studying tissue Ang II formation in humans. None of the organs from any of the species examined had a profile that was identical to those for human tissues. However, chymase-like enzyme predominance in cardiac and aortic Ang II formation was seen not only in human tissue but also in that of most of the other species, except for rabbits and pigs.. In addition, pulmonary chymase-like enzymatic activity was highest in human samples, indicating that chymase-like enzyme in the lung may have a greater physiological role in humans than in other species. Interesting findings in the aorta and heart were that chymase-like ...
Mast cell chymase antibody [CC1] (chymase 1, mast cell) for ELISA, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Mast cell chymase mAb (GTX75583) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Mast Cell chymase antibody (chymase 1, mast cell) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-Mast Cell chymase pAb (GTX105829) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
BACKGROUND: The left ventricular (LV) dilatation of isolated mitral regurgitation (MR) is associated with an increase in chymase and a decrease in interstitial collagen and extracellular matrix. In addition to profibrotic effects, chymase has significant antifibrotic actions because it activates matrix metalloproteinases and kallikrein and degrades fibronectin. Thus, we hypothesize that chymase inhibitor (CI) will attenuate extracellular matrix loss and LV remodeling in MR. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied dogs with 4 months of untreated MR (MR; n=9) or MR treated with CI (MR+CI; n=8). Cine MRI demonstrated a |40% increase in LV end-diastolic volume in both groups, consistent with a failure of CI to improve a 25% decrease in interstitial collagen in MR. However, LV cardiomyocyte fractional shortening was decreased in MR versus normal dogs (3.71±0.24% versus 4.81±0.31%; P CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that chymase disrupts cell surface-fibronectin connections and FAK phosphorylation that can
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a mouse model that reproduces cardinal signs of clinical, histopathological, and immunological features found in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Mast cells are suggested to be involved in the main inflammatory phases occurring during EAE development, possibly by secreting several autacoids and proteases. Among the latter, the chymase mouse mast cell protease 4 (mMCP-4) can contribute to the inflammatory response by producing endothelin-1 (ET-1). The aim of this study was to determine the impact of mMCP-4 on acute inflammatory stages in EAE. C57BL/6 wild type (WT) or mMCP-4 knockout (KO) mice were immunized with MOG(35-55) plus complete Freunds adjuvant followed by pertussis toxin. Immunized WT mice presented an initial acute phase characterized by progressive increases in clinical score, which were significantly reduced in mMCP-4 KO mice. In addition, higher levels of spinal myelin were found in mMCP-4 KO as compared with WT mice. Finally, whereas EAE ...
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Other names: mast cell protease I; skeletal muscle protease; skin chymotryptic proteinase; mast cell serine proteinase, chymase; skeletal muscle (SK) protease. Comments: In mast cell granules. In peptidase family S1 (trypsin family). Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MEROPS, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 97501-92-3. References 1. Woodbury, R.G., Everitt, M. and Neurath, H. Mast cell proteases. Methods Enzymol. 80 (1981) 588-609. [PMID: 7043202]. 2. Powers, J.C., Tanaka, T., Harper, J.W., Minematsu, Y., Barker, L., Lincoln, D., Crumley, K.V., Fraki, J.E., Schechter, N.M., Lazarus, G.G., Nakajima, K., Nakashino, K., Neurath, H. and Woodbury, R.G. Mammalian chymotrypsin-like enzymes. Comparative reactivities of rat mast cell proteases, human and dog skin chymases, and human cathepsin G with peptide 4-nitroanilide substrates and with peptide chloromethyl ketone and sulfonyl fluoride inhibitors. Biochemistry 24 (1985) 2048-2058. [PMID: 3893542]. 3. Johnson, L.A., Moon, K.E. and ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [The enhanced activity of chymotrypsin-like proteinases in the blood plasma of patients with hereditary hypercholesterolemia and the means for its correction]. by O. G. Ogloblina et al.
1PJP: The 2.2 A crystal structure of human chymase in complex with succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-chloromethylketone: structural explanation for its dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase specificity.
Endothelin is the most potent constrictor of human blood vessels known to man. In mammals, there are three structurally and pharmacologically separate ET isopeptides: ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3 (Volpe 46). Endothelin-1 is the primary isoform in the human cardiovascular system and is a 21-amino acid peptide produced chiefly by endothelial cells (Lüscher 2434). Endothelin-converting enzymes (ECE), chymases, and non-ECE metalloproteases are responsible for the synthesis of ET-1 by means of autocrine regulation (Lüscher 2434). ET-1 operates through the initiation of two G-protein coupled receptors: ETA and ETB. Located on vascular smooth muscle cells, ETA receptors regulate vasoconstriction and cell proliferation. ETB receptors, situated on endothelial cells, mediate endothelium-dependent vasodilation through the release of nitric oxide and prostacyclin (Haapaniemi 721). In addition to its cardiovascular and mitogenic effects, endothelin-1 is involved in gastrointestinal and endocrine function, ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13-enhanced contraction, with no ...
Regulation of skeletal muscle development and organization is a complex process that is not fully understood. Here, we focused on amphiphysin 2 (BIN1, also known as bridging integrator-1) and dynamin 2 (DNM2), two ubiquitous proteins implicated in membrane remodeling and mutated in centronuclear myopathies (CNMs). We generated Bin1-/- Dnm2+/- mice to decipher the physiological interplay between BIN1 and DNM2. While Bin1-/- mice die perinatally from a skeletal muscle defect, Bin1-/- Dnm2+/- mice survived at least 18 months, and had normal muscle force and intracellular organization of muscle fibers, supporting BIN1 as a negative regulator of DNM2. We next characterized muscle-specific isoforms of BIN1 and DNM2. While BIN1 colocalized with and partially inhibited DNM2 activity during muscle maturation, BIN1 had no effect on the isoform of DNM2 found in adult muscle. Together, these results indicate that BIN1 and DNM2 regulate muscle development and organization, function through a common pathway, ...
In this study the diversity of mast cell proteases and some of the factors regulating mast cell growth and protease expression were examined in rodents. Five proteases were isolated from mouse small intestinal mucosa and their substrate specificities defined. The isolated proteases were all of mast cell origin and were chymotrypsin-like in their substrate specificities. The proteases were all identified as variants of mouse mast cell protease-1 which differed only in their carbohydrate moieties. Despite the fact that these enzymes shared a common core polypeptide they all differed significantly in the rate at which they hydrolysed synthetic substrates and in the rates at which they were inhibited by α1-proteinase inhibitor. A related, but distinct protease was isolated from peritoneal cavity mast cells of mice. This enzyme, also a chymase, had N-terminal sequence identity with mouse mast cell protease-4. This enzyme was not inhibited by α1-proteinase inhibitor. Factors which regulate mast cell ...
The acidic granules of natural killer (NK) cells, T cells, mast cells, and neutrophils store large amounts of serine proteases. Functionally, these proteases are involved, e.g., in the induction of apoptosis, the recruitment of inflammatory cells, and the remodeling of extra-cellular matrix. Among the granule proteases are the phylogenetically related mast cell chymases, neutrophil cathepsin G, and T-cell granzymes (Gzm B to H and Gzm N), which share the characteristic absence of a Cys191-Cys220 bridge. The genes of these proteases are clustered in one locus, the mast cell chymase locus, in all previously investigated mammals. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the chymase locus in cattle (Bos taurus) and opossum (Monodelphis domestica). The gained information delineates the evolution of the chymase locus over more than 200 million years. Surprisingly, the cattle chymase locus contains two α-chymase and two cathepsin G genes where all other studied chymase loci have single genes. ...
Tryptase (EC 3.4.21.59, ) is the most abundant secretory granule-derived serine proteinase contained in mast cells and has been used as a marker for mast cell activation. Club cells contain tryptase which is believed to be responsible for cleaving the hemagglutinin surface protein of influenza A virus, thereby activating it and causing the symptoms of flu. Tryptase is also known by mast cell tryptase, mast cell protease II, skin tryptase, lung tryptase, pituitary tryptase, mast cell neutral proteinase, mast cell serine proteinase II, mast cell proteinase II, mast cell serine proteinase tryptase, rat mast cell protease II, and tryptase M. Serum levels are normally less than 11.5 ng/mL. Elevated levels of serum tryptase occur in both anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions, but a negative test does not exclude anaphylaxis. Tryptase is less likely to be elevated in food allergy reactions as opposed to other causes of anaphylaxis. Serum typtase levels are also elevated in and used as one indication ...
The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) mediates the efflux of cellular unesterified cholesterol and phospholipid to lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I. Chymase, a protease secreted by mast cells, selectively cleaves pre-β-migrating particles from high density lipoprotein (HDL)3 and reduces the efflux of cholesterol from macrophages. To evaluate whether this effect is the result of reduction of ABCA1-dependent or -independent pathways of cholesterol efflux, in this study we examined the efflux of cholesterol to preparations of chymase-treated HDL3 in two types of cell: 1) in J774 murine macrophages endogenously expressing low levels of scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI), and high levels of ABCA1 upon treatment with cAMP; and 2) in Fu5AH rat hepatoma cells endogenously expressing high levels of the SR-BI and low levels of ABCA1. Treatment of HDL3 with the human chymase resulted in rapid depletion of pre-β-HDL and a concomitant decrease in the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipid ...
Peptides , Angiotensins and Related Peptides , Angiotensin II, human; The octapeptide angiotensin II (Ang II) exerts a wide range of effects on the cardiovascular system. It is also implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation, fibrosis and apoptosis. Ang II is formed by cleavage of Ang I by the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) or chymases. Human heart chymase, a chymotrypsin-like serine proteinase, hydrolyzes the Phe8-His9 bond to yield the octapeptide hormone angiotensin II and His-Leu.; DRVYIHPF; H-Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe-OH
Expression of Mast Cell Proteases Correlates with Mast Cell Maturation and Angiogenesis during Tumor Progression. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
1NC6: Potent, Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Human Mast Cell Tryptase. Antiasthmatic Action of a Dipeptide-Based Transition-State Analogue Containing a Benzothiazole Ketone.
A study from Emory University School of Medicine hints that dying cardiac muscle cells could be saved, past the time when this is usually thought possible.
マウス・モノクローナル抗体 ab2378 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu 適用: WB,ELISA,IHC-P,ICC,IHC-R,ICC/IF…Mast Cell Tryptase抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの…
천식의 기도염증 측면에서 경증-중등증 천식과 다른 중증 천식만의 고유한 특징에 대해서는 명확히 알려져 있지 않다. 천식의 병태생리적 특징에 대한 연구를 수행하고 있는 SARP에서는 기관지내시경을 통하여 기관지생검과 기관지폐포세척을 통한 샘플을 수집하고 있으며, 중증 천식에서도 기관지 내시경이 안전하게 시행될 수 있음을 보여주었다[23]. 염증세포 중에서 비반세포는 IgE 매개반응을 통하여 히스타민을 분비하는 등 염증과정에 관여하는데, 중증 천식환자의 기도에서 chymase 양성 비반세포의 침윤이 높은 것으로 나타났고, 특히 상피세포내에 높게 존재하였다[24]. 또한 객담 염증세포 분석을 통해서 염증세포의 특성을 살펴보았을 때 호산구와 함께 중성구가 높은 그룹에서 폐기능의 저하와 낮은 천식조절 상태를 보였다[25]. 이러한 결과들은 중증 ...
T cell mediated immune responses in the gut can produce enteropathy and malabsorption. We have investigated the relevance of mucosal mast cells (MMC) to the mechanisms of this enteropathy by using graft-versus-host reaction (GvHR) in the rat as a model of mucosal delayed type hypersensitivity. Measurements of mucosal architecture, intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) and MMC counts were performed in control and experimental rats, and release of rat mast cell protease II (RMCPII) into the bloodstream was used as an index of MMC activation. In unirradiated rats, jejunal MMC count was increased on day 14 of the GvHR (mean 272/mm2 v 182 in controls, p less than 0.01), as was serum RMCPII (p less than 0.01). Irradiated rats (4.5 Gy, reconstituted with isogeneic spleen cells) had low counts of IEL and crypt hyperplasia seven to 14 days after irradiation. Irradiated rats with GvHR (induced by ip injection of parental strain spleen cells) and studied on days 7, 10 and 14, had significant enteropathy with ...
Shop Leech-derived tryptase inhibitor ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Leech-derived tryptase inhibitor Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
phdthesis{d683936c-1726-4ede-86a7-193f0162cd84, abstract = {Mast cell are found throughout the body, but are especially prominent in tissues that have direct contact with the external milieu such as the skin, gastrointestinal tract and lungs. Mast cells are commonly recognized for their detrimental role in allergic reactions and can, upon activation through the high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI), rapidly produce and secrete many of the mediators responsible for the typical symptoms in urticaria, asthma and rhinitis. However, increasing amount of data show that mast cells have important, even vital, roles in host defence against bacteria, viruses, parasites and venoms. Mast cells exist as two different subtypes, MCT (mucosal mast cells) and MCTC (connective tissue mast cells). These two subtypes differ in their molecular expression and distribution in the body. MCT are for example the dominating subtype in the lungs, while MCTC are most common in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. ...
Tryptase is a member of the serine protease S1 family. It is the predominant neutral protease of the mast cell granules. Within the mast cell granule it exists as a hepar
Peptides , Angiotensins and Related Peptides , ClearPoint Angiotensin I, human, 13C and 15N labeled; This peptide is angiontensin I (Ang I) with valine and isoleucine universally labeled with 13C and N. Ang I is a precursor to Ang II, which has been implicated in cardiovascular functions, cell proliferation, fibrosis, and apoptosis. The 10-mer Ang I peptide is converted to Ang II through the cleavage of the Phe8-His9 bond of Ang I by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) or human chymase.; DR-V*-Y-I*-HPFHL [Val* = Val(U-13C5,15N); Ile* = Ile(U-13C6,15N)]; H-Asp-Arg-Val*-Tyr-Ile*-His-Pro-Phe-His-Leu-OH [Val* = Val(U-13C5,15N); Ile* = Ile(U-13C6,15N)]
Analytical Enzyme Tryptase products offered by Sigma-Aldrich online. Tryptase is a tetrameric glycoprotein and a member of the serine protease S1 family. It is the predominant neutral protease of the mast cell granules.
Major secreted protease of mast cells with suspected roles in vasoactive peptide generation, extracellular matrix degradation, and regulation of gland secretion.
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By using the combination of reverse-transcription PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods, a cDNA encoding mast cell tryptase was successfully cloned from the small intestine of Mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus, infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. The cDNA was 1219 bp long including 810 bp of an open reading frame. Based on the deduced amino acid sequences of known mast cell tryptases of other species, the gerbil mast cell tryptase (gMCT) was highly similar to mouse mast cell protease (mMCP)-7, and seems to be translated as a prepro-enzyme with 25 amino acids of signal and activation peptides and 245 amino acids of mature enzyme. The gMCT mRNA was preferentially transcribed in the intestinal mucosa and to a far lesser extent in the connective tissue such as skin and tongue. Moreover, kinetic study after infection revealed that the amount of gMCT mRNA in the small intestine correlated well with the degree of intestinal mastocytosis. Throughout the course of infection, ...
Most recent works on chymotrypsins have been focused on marine animals and insects. However, no study was reported in chelicerate. Scorpion chymotrypsin-like protease (SCP) was purified to homogeneity from delipidated hepatopancreases. The protease NH2-terminal sequence exhibited more than 60% monoacids identity with those of insect putative peptidases. The protease displayed no sequence homology with classical proteases. From this point of view, the protease recalls the case of the scorpion lipase which displayed no sequence homology with known lipases. The scorpion amylase purified and characterized by our time, has an amino-acids sequence similar to those of mammalian amylases. The enzyme was characterized with respect its biochemical properties: it was active on a chymotrypsin substrate and had an apparent molecular mass of 25 kDa, like the classically known chymotrypsins. The dependence of the SCP activity and stability on pH and temperature was similar to that of mammalian chymotrypsin proteases.
Most recent works on chymotrypsins have been focused on marine animals and insects. However, no study was reported in chelicerate. Scorpion chymotrypsin-like protease (SCP) was purified to homogeneity from delipidated hepatopancreases. The protease NH2-terminal sequence exhibited more than 60% monoacids identity with those of insect putative peptidases. The protease displayed no sequence homology with classical proteases. From this point of view, the protease recalls the case of the scorpion lipase which displayed no sequence homology with known lipases. The scorpion amylase purified and characterized by our time, has an amino-acids sequence similar to those of mammalian amylases. The enzyme was characterized with respect its biochemical properties: it was active on a chymotrypsin substrate and had an apparent molecular mass of 25 kDa, like the classically known chymotrypsins. The dependence of the SCP activity and stability on pH and temperature was similar to that of mammalian chymotrypsin proteases.
Exposure to monomeric IgE in vitro markedly upregulated the ability of mature mouse peritoneal mast cells or mouse BMCMCs or cloned mast cells to bind IgE. Two separate lines of evidence indicate that this response largely, if not entirely, reflected the increased surface expression of FcεRI. First, while mouse mast cells also express FcγRII/ III ((17), (18)), which can bind IgE immune complexes ((18)), virtually all of the binding of monomeric IgE to mouse mast cells that is detectable under the conditions used in our experiments reflects binding of the ligand to a single class of high affinity binding sites, i.e., FcεRI ((18)). Second, we used anti-IgE to immunoprecipitate surface-bound IgE, and associated IgE receptors, from lysates of BMCMCs that had been first incubated with or without IgE at 5 μg/ml for 21 h and then exposed briefly to excess IgE just before recovery for flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. We found that, in comparison to aliquots of the same mast cell population ...
It is now firmly established that inhibition of ACE does have a markedly beneficial effect in the treatment of heart failure. ACE inhibitor therapy, however, does not completely block angiotensin II production, and in some patients, angiotensin II levels remain elevated, in part, because of the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II by chymase activity.29 Thus, continued AT2 receptor stimulation could occur. This hypothesis is indirectly supported by the relative upregulation of the AT2 receptor in human heart failure,30 31 although this finding is controversial.32 33 Currently, no therapeutic agents that specifically act on the AT2 receptor are approved for clinical trials. However, numerous AT1 receptor blockers are available that could hypothetically shunt the activity of the cardiac RAS toward stimulation of the beneficial AT2 receptor.. Two separate clinical approaches evaluate this hypothesis. First, ACE inhibitor therapy was directly compared with AT1 receptor antagonist therapy in ...
Tryptase gamma, also known as serine protease 31 or transmembrane tryptase, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TPSG1 gene. Tryptases comprise a family of trypsin-like serine proteases, the peptidase family S1. Tryptases are enzymatically active only as heparin-stabilized tetramers, and they are resistant to all known endogenous proteinase inhibitors. Several tryptase genes are clustered on chromosome 16p13.3. There is uncertainty regarding the number of genes in this cluster. Currently four functional genes - alpha I, beta I, beta II and gamma I - have been identified. And beta I has an allelic variant named alpha II, beta II has an allelic variant beta III, also gamma I has an allelic variant gamma II. Beta tryptases appear to be the main isoenzymes expressed in mast cells; whereas in basophils, alpha-tryptases predominant. This gene differs from other members of the tryptase gene family in that it has C-terminal hydrophobic domain, which may serve as a membrane anchor. Tryptases ...
In response to antigen-mediated crosslinking of cell-surface IgE receptors (IgE-FcεRI), mast cells undergo a series of intracellular signaling events that result in fusion of secretory granules with the plasma membrane to release a number of inflammatory mediators including histamine, proteoglycans, proteases and lysosomal hydrolases, which trigger allergic and inflammatory reactions that can have systemic effects (Blank and Rivera, 2004; Gilfillan and Tkaczyk, 2006). In this process, stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of FcεRI leads to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) production by phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ), which causes Ca2+ depletion from endoplasmic reticulum stores to induce store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) (Di Capite and Parekh, 2009). Activation of SOCE elicits oscillatory cytosolic Ca2+ elevations that, together with activated protein kinase C, trigger granule exocytosis (Kim et al., 1997; Ma and Beaven, 2009).. Although the early biochemical events of mast cell activation have been ...
Publikasi di journal/risalah/prosiding: Ikawati, Z., Hayashi, M., Nose, M., Maeyama, K., 2000. The lack of compound 48/80-induced contraction on isolated trachea of mast cell-deficient Ws/Ws rats in vitro: The role of connective tissue mast cells. Eur. J. Pharmacol 402, 297-306 Ikawati, Z., Nose, M., Maeyama, K., 2001. Do mucosal mast cells contribute to the immediate…
Dr. Tilo Brunnee (tilo at brunnee.IN-Berlin.DE) wrote: : Hallo! : I attempt to isolate human mast cell heparin proteoglycan from human lungs. : So far I enzymatically and mechanically prepare a single cell suspension : from human lung, add 4 M Guanidine HCl and sonicate to disrupt the cells : and dialyze against 1M NaCl/10mM Phosphate, pH 6.0 and apply this soup on a : Dowex 1x2-200 ion exchange column equilibrated with the same buffer, elute : with 3M NaCl/10mM Phosphate, dialyze against H2O and speedvac to dryness. : I do have some questions regarding heparin: : - Are there more efficient/more gentle ways to prepare highly sulfated : proteoglycans? : - Are ther any contaminants (that bind to strong ion exchange at pH 6 in : the presence of 1 M NaCl?) to expect from crude human lung? : - Is it true that heparin side chains are bound to a protein core in human : mast cells? : - If so, is the heprain sidechain cleaved from the protein core during or : before degranulation? : - Is there any ...
Background and objective:Gingival bleeding reduction in smokers has been associated with decreased blood vessel density. The mechanism of suppressive effect of cigarette smoking on blood vessel density is not precisely defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of smoking on angiogenesis by assessing mast cells density and VEGF expression in chronic periodontitis. Materials& Methods: 52 paraffin embedded block of gingiva tissues with periodontitis obtained from 30 nonsmokers and 22 smokers undergoing flap surgery were examined immunohistochemically for VEGF expression. Mast cell counts was completed on toluidine blue stained slides. Exposure to cigarette smoking was calculated by the number of packs × year. Patients were classified into 4 groups based on the number of smoked cigarettes. The correlation between VEGF expression and mast cell counts was evaluated and compared in nonsmokers and smokers. Results: The mean number of mast cells (p=0.004) and average value of VEGF expression (p
Airway Smooth Muscle Contraction Hyperresponsiveness to mast cell-derived mediators (eg, histamine) is a distinctive feature of asthma, but its etiology is
The renin-angiotensin system plays a central role in the pathophysiology of HF. ACE inhibitors improve symptoms and reduce mortality in HF, and it is believed that these benefits can be attributed to decreased angiotensin II formation as well as to bradykinin potentiation and resultant vasodilatory and endothelial protective actions. The Evaluation of Losartan in the Elderly (ELITE) trial is a long-term, moderately sized trial. In this trial, a trend existed toward a reduction in death or hospitalization (or both) for patients with HF receiving losartan. Patients receiving losartan also had fewer adverse effects that required drug discontinuation; primarily, these patients had a lower incidence of cough. These data and another preliminary report of improved survival with losartan compared with placebo suggest a role for angiotensin-receptor blockers in HF and bring into question the mechanism by which ACE inhibitors effect clinical improvements (1). Alternate pathways of angiotensin II formation ...
Descripci n Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc, United States, 2011. Hardback. Condición: New. Language: English . This book usually ship within 10-15 business days and we will endeavor to dispatch orders quicker than this where possible. Brand New Book. Serpins are a group of proteins with similar structures that were first identified as a set of proteins able to inhibit proteases. The acronym serpin was originally coined because many serpins inhibit chymotrypsin-like serine proteases. This volume of Methods in Ezymology is split into 2 parts and comprehensively covers the subject. N de ref. del art culo: EOD9780123864710. M s informaci n sobre este vendedor , Contactar al vendedor ...
Affiliation:徳島大学,病院,助教, Research Field:Orthopaedic surgery,Radiation science, Keywords:protease activated receptor,CT,人工股関節,IL-8,mast cell tryptase,rheumatoid arthritis,synovial fibroblast-like cell,CT,滑膜,関節液, # of Research Projects:2, # of Research Products:5
TY - JOUR. T1 - Novel Site-Specific Mast Cell Subpopulations in the Human Lung.. AU - Andersson, Cecilia K. AU - Mori, Michiko. AU - Bjermer, Leif. AU - Löfdahl, Claes-Göran. AU - Erjefält, Jonas. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - BACKGROUND: Lung mast cells are stereotypically divided into connective tissue (MCTC) and mucosal (MCT) mast cells. This study tests the hypothesis that each of these subtypes can be divided further into site-specific populations created by the microenvironment within each anatomic lung compartment. METHODS: To study mast cells under non-inflamed conditions surgical resections and bronchial and transbronchial biopsies from non-smoking individuals were obtained to investigate morphometric and molecular characteristics of mast cell populations in multiple lung structures by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. RESULTS: MCT and MCTC coexisted at all compartments with MCT being the prevailing type in bronchi, bronchioles and the alveolar parenchyma. MCTC were more ...
This second part of our review about vascular proliferations summarizes the clinicopathologic features of the cutaneous vascular hyperplasias and benign neoplasms. Hyperplasias com..
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research aims to publish findings of doctors at grass root level and post graduate students, so that all unique medical experiences are recorded in literature.
Die in dieser Arbeit isolierten und hochaufgereinigten, humanen dermalen Mastzellen wurden mit UVB, UVA-1 und PUVA-1 bestrahlt und anschließend entweder mit Substanz P oder anti-IgE stimuliert. Dadurch sollten Einblicke in die unterschiedlichen Wirkmechanismen der bei zahlreichen mastzellassoziierten Erkrankungen eingesetzten UV Licht Therapie gewonnen werden. Ein Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit lag in der Erforschung der Histamin-, Tryptase- und Zytokinfreisetzung von menschlichen Mastzellen. Zusätzlich wurde die Expression von Lysosomen-assoziierten Membran Proteinen (LAMPs) auf der Oberfläche dieser Zellen untersucht. Im Gegensatz zu der durch UV Licht induzierbaren spontanen Histaminfreisetzung zeigte sich die anti-IgE stimulierte Histaminausschüttung durch UVB, UVA-1 und PUVA-1 signifikant und dosisabhängig inhibierbar. Auch die durch Substanz P stimulierten Mastzellen gaben nach UVA-1 Bestrahlung deutlich weniger Histamin ab. Demgegenüber blieb die sezernierte Menge des Mediators nach UVB ...
View mouse Cela2a Chr4:141814954-141826005 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Five experiments were conducted comparing differential intestinal immune responses to two isolates of Eimeria acervulina (EA), EA1 and EA2. In three experiments, broiler chicks were divided into control (non-challenged), EA1, or EA2 challenged (14 days of age) groups. On day 6 post-challenge (PC), changes in body weight were determined, intestinal lesions were scored, and duodenal tissue was evaluated for morphometric alterations and mucosal mast cell responses. EA1 produced duodenal lesions and reduced villus height to crypt depth ratios when compared to controls; however, no differences were found in mast cell counts. EA2 produced differing results, and observed data were suggestive of an intestinal secretory response when compared to EA1 or controls. In Experiment 4, tissues were analyzed from day 2 through day 6 PC. Villus atrophy and crypt hyperplasia were heightened on day 5 PC in both challenged groups. Mast cell counts were significantly greater on days 3 and 4 PC in EA1 birds. In ...
Our results demonstrate that in vitro blockade of ACE is insufficient to prevent the contraction of human subcutaneous resistance arteries to Ang I. Because our preliminary experiments showed that this response is completely blocked by losartan, we assume that contraction to Ang I represents the effect of Ang II generated locally and acting on the Ang II type I receptor. Thus, treatment with an ACEI appears to be unable to prevent conversion of Ang I to Ang II in human resistance arteries. In the rabbit, in contrast, ACEI administration fully prevented Ang I-induced contraction.. Because ACE is identical to kininase II, the enzyme responsible for the degradation of kinins, it has been suggested that potentiation of BK may be partly responsible for the actions of ACEI. Thus, plasma kinin concentrations are increased in humans by quinapril, and ACEI-induced coronary artery vasodilation in dogs and humans has been shown to be mediated by BK.16 17 18 We investigated the effect of enalaprilat on the ...
The á2â1 integrin is expressed on many cell types throughout the immune system. Expression of the á2â1 integrin on mast cells is required for the early innate immune response to Listeria monocytogenes. Interaction between the á2â1 integrin and Listeria occurs through C1q within a Listeria immune complex, but is not sufficient for activation suggesting an additional co-receptor is required for activation. We demonstrate that Listeria immune complex activation of mast cells occurs through crosstalk between the á2â1 integrin and c-met. The best described mechanism of mast cell activation is IgE-mediated degranulation. We examined the mechanism of mediator release by mast cells following activation by Listeria immune complex. Activation by Listeria immune complex results in á2â1 integrin-dependent release of IL-6 from a granule pool that is distinct from known mast cell granules, identifying a novel population of mast cell granules. The á2â1 integrin-dependent early innate immune ...
Vol 9: PGE2 Promotes Apoptosis Induced by Cytokine Deprivation through EP3 Receptor and Induces Bim in Mouse Mast Cells.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Leflunomide inhibits PDK1/Akt pathway and induces apoptosis of human mast cells. AU - Sawamukai, Norifumi. AU - Saito, Kazuyoshi. AU - Yamaoka, Kunihiro. AU - Nakayamada, Shingo. AU - Ra, Chisei. AU - Tanaka, Yoshiya. PY - 2007/11/15. Y1 - 2007/11/15. N2 - Mast cells release many inflammatory mediators that play an important role not only in allergic diseases but also in chronic inflammatory diseases, autoimmune diseases, and others. A lot of mast cells exist in synovium of rheumatoid arthritis, and it is known that synovitis does not occur in mast cell-deficient mice. Thus, it is thought that mast cells play a very important role in rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis. Leflunomide is a drug used clinically in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. We used clinical doses of 2-cyano-3-hydroxy-N-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-butenamide (A77 1726), which is an active metabolite of leflunomide, and decreased the number of viable human primary mast cells in a concentration-dependent manner. ...
In this study, previous reports of eosinophilia and eosinophil activation in the airways as shared features of asthma and COPD have been confirmed. Contrary to the hypothesis the current authors sought to test, it has been shown that a subset of COPD patients with eosinophil counts above the normal range have raised levels of mast cell tryptase, a feature which has until now been viewed as a hallmark of asthma and other allergic diseases 14. This study would indicate the existence of a phenotype, which could be called eosinophilic COPD and is characterised by concomitant mast cell and eosinophilic inflammation, the pathophysiological consequences of which remain to be elucidated. The association between mast-cell activation and eosinophilia found in this study in some subjects with COPD is similar to observations of the Wenzel et al. 22 in a subset of severe, corticosteroid-dependent asthmatics characterised by persistently raised eosinophil counts in bronchial biopsies.. Whilst many clinicians ...
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Previous histochemical and chemical studies indicated that the granules of the connective tissue mast cells contain a sulfuric mucopolysaccharide. This substance is closely related to heparin and hyaluronic acid without being identical with either.. Stripping-film autoradiography of connective tissue in experimental skin tumors in mice injected intraperitoneally with S35, with sodium sulfate as carrier, showed that the majority of the mast cells take up sulfur. This uptake manifests itself as a blackening of a stripping film.. ...
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Effect of ANG I co-infused with A. gangetica on the SBP (a), DBP (b), MAP (c), and HR (d). Values are presented as mean ± SEM. * indicates statistical signific
Interactions between products of the mouse W locus, which encodes the c-kit tyrosine kinase receptor, and the Sl locus, which encodes a ligand for c-kit receptor, which we have designated stem cell factor (SCF), have a critical role in the development of mast cells. Mice homozygous for mutations at either locus exhibit several phenotypic abnormalities including a virtual absence of mast cells. Moreover, the c-kit ligand SCF can induce the proliferation and maturation of normal mast cells in vitro or in vivo, and also can result in repair of the mast cell deficiency of Sl/Sld mice in vivo. We now report that administration of SCF intradermally in vivo results in dermal mast cell activation and a mast cell-dependent acute inflammatory response. This effect is c-kit receptor dependent, in that it is not observed when SCF is administered to mice containing dermal mast cells expressing functionally inactive c-kit receptors, is observed with both glycosylated and nonglycosylated forms of SCF, and ...
... ::= { assay descr { aid { id 832, version 2 }, aid-source db { name "PCMD", source-id str "CAT_G_IC50" }, name "Cathepsin G dose-response confirmation", description { "Screening Center: Penn Center for Molecular Discovery", "Center Affiliation: University of Pennsylvania", "Network: Molecular Library Screening Center Network (MLSCN)", "Assay Provider: Scott Diamond, University of Pennsylvania", "Grant number: MH076406-01", "", "Cathepsin G (EC 3.4.21.20) is a chymotrypsin-like serine protease that is secreted from neutrophils. Disregulated cathepsin G activity is implicated in the progression of various chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma and chronic pulmonary obstructive disease. Thus cathepsin G inhibitors represent useful probes to further elucidate the role of this enzyme in inflammation and may provide a starting point for the development of novel therapeutic agents.", "", "A high-throughput screen for cathepsin G inhibitors was designed as an end-point assay ...
The existence of the intrinsic brain RAS (RASB) is well documented. According to Bunnemann et al. (1993; cited in Ref. 4), all steps, from precursor synthesis to ANG II formation, are accomplished by neuroglial elements, including the synaptic release of ANG II as a neuropeptide, and ANG II histochemistry and ANG II receptor autoradiography have shown that "angiotensinergic" neurons and their target cells constitute a network extending throughout the entire brain stem. In CVOs, RAS and RASB may interact, since brain enzymes analogous to ACE may locally generate ANG II from circulating ANG I. Indeed, ANG II and ANG I infused intravenously are similarly dipsogenic in the rat, and even in an in vitro slice preparation of the rat SFO, ANG II and ANG I are equally effective in exciting the same SFO neuron (Fig. 1C⇑), both actions being equally inhibited by losartan, a specific blocker of the AT1 receptor (10).. According to microinjections of ANG II analogs and blockers on the brain side of the ...
In addition to their central role in allergy, mast cells are involved in a wide variety of cellular interactions during homeostasis and disease. In this review, we discuss the ability of mast cells to extend their mechanisms for intercellular communication beyond the release of soluble mediators. These include formation of mast cell synapses on antigen presenting surfaces, as well as cell-cell contacts with dendritic cells and T cells. Release of membrane bound exosomes also provide for the transfer of antigen, mast cell proteins, and RNA to other leukocytes. With the recognition of the extended role mast cells have during immune modulation, further investigation of the processes in which mast cells are involved is necessary. This reopens mast cell research to exciting possibilities, demonstrating it to be an immunological frontier ...
Mast cell hyperplasia can be seen within the spleen of rodents. This lesion is characterized by loose aggregates of well-differentiated mast cells within the splenic red pulp that are not associated with inflammation. Mast cells are relatively large cells with abundant cytoplasm and typically have numerous densely basophilic intracytoplasmic granules that may obscure the nucleus ( Figure ...
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Mast cell activation initiated by antigen-mediated crosslinking of IgE receptors results in stimulated exocytosis of secretory lysosomes in the process known as degranulation. Much has been learned about the molecular mechanisms important for this process, including the critical role of Ca2+ mobilization, but spatio-temporal relationships between stimulated Ca2+ mobilization and granule exocytosis are incompletely understood. Here we use a novel imaging-based method that utilizes fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran as a reporter for granule exocytosis in RBL mast cells and takes advantage of the pH sensitivity of FITC. We demonstrate the selectivity of FITC-dextran, accumulated by fluid phase uptake, as a marker for secretory lysosomes, and we characterize its capacity to delineate different exocytotic events, including full fusion, kiss-and-run transient fusion, and compound exocytosis. Using this method, we find strong dependence of degranulation kinetics on the duration of ...
OBJECTIVE: Mechanical joint loading is critical for the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Although once regarded as a disease of cartilage attrition, OA is now known to be controlled by the expression and activity of key proteases, such as ADAMTS-5, that drive matrix degradation. This study was undertaken to investigate the link between protease expression and mechanical joint loading in vivo. METHODS: We performed a microarray analysis of genes expressed in the whole joint following surgical induction of murine OA (by cutting the medial meniscotibial ligament). Gene expression changes were validated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in whole joints and microdissected tissues of the joint, including the articular cartilage, meniscus, and epiphysis. Following surgery, mouse joints were immobilized, either by prolonged anesthesia or by sciatic neurectomy. RESULTS: Many genes were regulated in the whole joint within 6 hours of surgical induction of OA in the mouse. These included Arg1,
9 Case scenario*. A 63-year-old man experienced sudden cardiovascular collapse at 02:00 in his home. This had been preceded by urticaria and a desire to open his bowels. He was hypotensive, but responded to treatment by paramedics (two 0.5 mg doses of intramuscular adrenaline into the lateral thigh, 5 minutes apart, and rapid intravenous infusion of 2 L saline).. Earlier that evening, he had eaten a buffet meal consisting of bread, various meats, vegetables, salads, sauces and alcohol, had been dancing, and had taken ibuprofen for a headache before retiring to bed at midnight. Concurrent medical problems included ischaemic heart disease (treated daily with a β-blocker).. The patient was observed in the emergency department for 24 hours. There were no ECG changes, and there was no melaena or rise in troponin level. His serum mast cell tryptase level was later reported as 25 μg/L on arrival in the emergency department, falling to 15 μg/L at the time of discharge, confirming the diagnosis of ...
Mast cells are present in limited numbers in normal human synovium, but in rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory joint diseases this population can expand to constitute 5% or more of all synovial cells. Recent investigations in a murine model have demonstrated that mast cells can have a critical role in the generation of inflammation within the joint. This finding highlights the results of more than 20 years of research indicating that mast cells are frequent participants in non-allergic immune responses as well as in allergy. Equipped with a diversity of surface receptors and effector capabilities, mast cells are sentinels of the immune system, detecting and delivering a first response to invading bacteria and other insults. Accumulating within inflamed tissues, mast cells produce cytokines and other mediators that may contribute vitally to ongoing inflammation. Here we review some of the non-allergic functions of mast cells and focus on the potential role of these cells in murine and human
Organ Culture Studies of Murine Oral Mucosa with Particular Emphasis on Epithelial Proliferation and Connective Tissue Mast Cells in the Presence and Absence of Oestrogen ...
Identification of Man alpha1-3Man alpha1-2Man and Man-linked phosphate on O-mannosylated recombinant leech-derived tryptase inhibitor produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and determination of the solution conformation of the mannosylated polypeptide ...
Zimmerberg J, Curran M, Cohen FS, Brodwick M. Simultaneous electrical and optical measurements show that membrane fusion precedes secretory granule swelling during exocytosis of beige mouse mast cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Mar; 84(6):1585-9 ...
mast cells - more links http://geneticgenie.org/blog/2013/01/31/mast-cell-activation-disorder-mcad-chronic-illness-and-its-role-in-methylation/ Ally
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and erratic bowel habits. A diet low in fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) can reduce symptoms of IBS, possibly by reducing microbial fermentation products. We investigated whether ingestion of FODMAPs can induce IBS-like visceral hypersensitivity mediated by fermentation products of intestinal microbes in mice ...
Mast cells are best known for their function in hypersensitive reactions, where aggregation of FcRI leads to the release of mast cell mediators leading to hypersensitive symptoms. although activation-induced success is certainly suffered, suggesting a minimal function for Bcl-XL, Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and Bcl-w. Reducing but not really amounts by siRNA inhibited activation-induced mast cell success. We also demonstrate that mast cell phrase of Bfl-1 is certainly raised in birch-pollen-provocated epidermis and in lesions of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis sufferers. Used jointly, our outcomes high light Bfl-1 as a main effector in activation-induced individual mast cell success. Launch Mast cells are known to end up being central regulators and effectors in allergic illnesses. When a multivalent antigen binds to IgE occupying the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcRI), receptor aggregation and following mast cell account activation takes place. This total result in mast cell degranulation, adjustments in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - IL-32 is increased along with tryptase in lesional psoriatic skin and is up-regulated by substance P in human mast cells. AU - Kempuraj, Duraisamy. AU - Conti, Pio. AU - Vasiadi, Magdalini. AU - Alysandratos, Konstantinos Dionysios. AU - Tagen, Michael. AU - Kalogeromitros, Dimitrios. AU - Kourelis, Taxiarchis. AU - Gregoriou, Stamatios. AU - Makris, Michael. AU - Stavrianeas, Nikolaos G.. AU - Theoharides, Theoharis C.. PY - 2010/11/1. Y1 - 2010/11/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=78649866448&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=78649866448&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1684/ejd.2010.1110. DO - 10.1684/ejd.2010.1110. M3 - Letter. C2 - 21047723. AN - SCOPUS:78649866448. VL - 20. SP - 865. EP - 867. JO - European Journal of Dermatology. JF - European Journal of Dermatology. SN - 1167-1122. IS - 6. ER - ...
Nature Article abstract: Mast cells are primary effectors in allergic reactions, and may have important roles in disease by secreting histamine and various inflammatory and immunomodulatory substances. Although they are classically activated by immunoglobulin (Ig)E antibodies, a unique property of mast cells is their antibody-independent responsiveness to a range of cationic substances, collectively called basic secretagogues, including inflammatory peptides and drugs associated with allergic-type reactions. The pathogenic roles of these substances have prompted a decades-long search for their receptor(s). Here we report that basic secretagogues activate mouse mast cells in vitroand in vivo through a single receptor, Mrgprb2, the orthologue of the human G-protein-coupled receptor MRGPRX2. Secretagogue-induced histamine release, inflammation and airway contraction are abolished in Mrgprb2-null mutant mice. Furthermore, we show that most classes of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved ...
Contains the #1 Pediatrician Prescribed Allergy Medicine†. *Total nasal symptom relief vs. 10 mg single ingredient loratadine.. ** Mechanism vs. most OTC allergy pills. Flonase® acts on multiple inflammatory substances (histmaine, prostaglandins, cytokines, tryptases, chemokines and leukotrienes). The exact number and precise mechanism are unknown.. †Based on Cumulative IMS Prescription Data 2003 - 2014. 1-844-FLONASE. Shake gently before each use. Use this product only once a day. Do not use more than directed. Adults and Children 12 Years of Age and Older. ...
Mast cells are ubiquitous mediators of inflammation and have been studied for a number of years for their role in asthma, allergies, and anaphylaxis. However, i...
Mastocytosis is a condition in which there are too many mast cells in the body, Another disorder involves mast cells that are more active than normal.
The cytotoxic cell granule secretory pathway is essential for immune defence. How the pore-forming protein perforin (PFN) facilitates the cytosolic delivery of granule-associated proteases (granzymes) remains enigmatic. Here we show that PFN is able to induce invaginations and formation of complete ...
Rabbit polyclonal Granzyme K antibody validated for WB, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide
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TY - JOUR. T1 - The Langerhans cell granule is an adsorptive endocytic organelle. AU - Takigawa, M.. AU - Iwatsuki, K.. AU - Yamada, M.. AU - Okamoto, H.. AU - Imamura, S.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - The role of Langerhans cell granules (LCG) in adsorptive endocytosis was studied by using concanavalin A (Con A) and heterologous anti-epidermal cell serum (AES) as ligands. Isolated epidermal cells were obtained by trypsinization of guinea pig skin fragments and exposed to ferritin-conjugated Con A or AES followed by ferritin-conjugated second antibody at 37°C for various times up to 30 min. Langerhans cells among the treated epidermal cells were observed by electron microscopy. Shortly after the incubation, a few LCG in the cell periphery were filled with ferritin particles in the bulb portion. After prolonged incubation, ferritin-containing LCG increased in number and seemed to move to the juxtanuclear area. The granules were derived from plasma membrane invaginations that collected ferritin ...

Chymase Activities and Survival in Endotoxin-Induced Human Chymase Transgenic MiceChymase Activities and Survival in Endotoxin-Induced Human Chymase Transgenic Mice

... Kazi Rafiq1 , Yu-Yan Fan1, Shamshad J. ... Chymase activity in the heart and skin was evaluated in mice treated with LPS (0.03 or 0.1 mg). Heart chymase activity was not ... At baseline, human chymase gene expression in heart was significantly higher but chymase activity is similar between WT and Tg ... Keywords: human chymase transgenic mice, chymase activity and lipopolysaccharide, endotoxemia Introduction. Sepsis is a common ...
more infohttps://www.medsci.org/v11p0222.htm

Tranilast Suppresses Vascular Chymase Expression and Neointima Formation in Balloon-Injured Dog Carotid Artery | CirculationTranilast Suppresses Vascular Chymase Expression and Neointima Formation in Balloon-Injured Dog Carotid Artery | Circulation

ACE and Chymase mRNA Levels of Carotid Arteries. The chymase mRNA level of vehicle-treated injured arteries exhibited an ... Because chymase is synthesized mainly in mast cells, we assumed that the chymase-dependent ANG II formation could be ... The direct inhibitory effect of tranilast on the catalytic activity of chymase was analyzed with purified human chymase (from ... 20 The PCR primers for dog chymase were selected according to the dog chymase cDNA sequence22 (sense primer: 5′- ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/99/8/1084

The extended substrate recognition profile of the dog mast cell chymase reveals similarities and differences to the human...The extended substrate recognition profile of the dog mast cell chymase reveals similarities and differences to the human...

Graspases are encoded from the mast cell chymase locus. The human locus holds four genes: α-chymase, cathepsin G, and granzymes ... These two chymases may have coevolved with an in vivo substrate that is conserved only in the positions with a common ... Human chymase (HC) constitutes a major granule protease in one of the two human mast cell (MC) types. The main biological role ... 1. Sculpted through Time: Evolution and Function of Serine Proteases from the Mast Cell Chymase Locus. Open this publication in ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:169384

Chymase - WikipediaChymase - Wikipedia

... alpha chymase mcpt8). They show broad peptidolytic activity and are involved in a variety of functions. For example, chymases ... Chymases are also known to convert angiotensin I to angiotensin II and thus play a role in hypertension and atherosclerosis. ... Chymases (EC 3.4.21.39, mast cell protease 1, skeletal muscle protease, skin chymotryptic proteinase, mast cell serine ... Mast cell tryptases and chymases in inflammation and host defense. Immu Revs 2007 (217): 141-154. PMID 17498057 de Garavilla et ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chymase

RCSB PDB - 1NN6: Human Pro-ChymaseRCSB PDB - 1NN6: Human Pro-Chymase

The side chains of residues Phe191 and Lys192 of pro-chymase fill the Ile16 binding pocket and the base of the S1 binding ... Human chymase is a protease involved in physiological processes ranging from inflammation to hypertension. As are all proteases ... Human chymase is a protease involved in physiological processes ranging from inflammation to hypertension. As are all proteases ... The 1.8 A structure of pro-chymase, reported here, is the first zymogen with a dipeptide pro region (glycine-glutamate) to be ...
more infohttps://www.rcsb.org/structure/1NN6

Cma1 - Chymase precursor - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Cma1 gene & proteinCma1 - Chymase precursor - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Cma1 gene & protein

sp,P21844,CMA1_MOUSE Chymase OS=Mus musculus GN=Cma1 PE=1 SV=2 MHLLTLHLLLLLLGSSTKAGEIIGGTECIPHSRPYMAYLEIVTSENYLSACSGFLIRRNF ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P21844

anti-Mast Cell chymase antibody  | GeneTexanti-Mast Cell chymase antibody | GeneTex

... chymase 1, mast cell) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-Mast Cell chymase pAb (GTX105829) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab- ... "chymase, heart antibody", alpha-chymase antibody, "chymase, mast cell antibody", chymase 1 preproprotein transcript I antibody ... chymase 1 preproprotein transcript E antibody, "chymase 1, mast cell antibody". ... chymase 1, mast cell. Background. This gene product is a chymotryptic serine proteinase that belongs to the peptidase family S1 ...
more infohttp://www.genetex.com/Mast-Cell-chymase-antibody-GTX105829.html

Chymase mediates endothelial activation - Welcome to the Preeclampsia FoundationChymase mediates endothelial activation - Welcome to the Preeclampsia Foundation

Chymase mediates endothelial activation. The Preeclampsia Foundation does not necessarily endorse any research or news found in ... We speculate that activation of endothelial CLP/chymase may directly relate to the increased inflammatory phenotypic changes in ... These observations suggest that placental-derived CLP/chymase is responsible for inducing endothelial inflammatory phenotypic ...
more infohttp://preeclampsia.org/forum/viewtopic.php?f=28&t=35242

Involvement of chymase-mediated angiotensin II generation in blood pressure regulation.  - PubMed - NCBIInvolvement of chymase-mediated angiotensin II generation in blood pressure regulation. - PubMed - NCBI

GAPDH-normalized chymase 1, chymase 2, chymase 4, and chymase 5 mRNA levels in aortae from vehicle- or captopril-treated MC+/+ ... Involvement of chymase-mediated angiotensin II generation in blood pressure regulation.. Li M1, Liu K, Michalicek J, Angus JA, ... Chymase, a human mast cell protease, has recently been proposed to play a role in blood pressure regulation because of its Ang ... Involvement of chymase-mediated angiotensin II generation in blood pressure regulation. J Clin Invest. 2004 Jul 1;114(1):112- ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15232618?dopt=Abstract

anti-Mast cell chymase antibody [CC1]  | GeneTexanti-Mast cell chymase antibody [CC1] | GeneTex

... chymase 1, mast cell) for ELISA, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Mast cell chymase mAb (GTX75583) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab- ... chymase 1, mast cell. Background. This gene encodes a chymotryptic serine proteinase that belongs to the peptidase family S1. ... Specifications: Mast cell chymase antibody [CC1]. Full Name. ... Mast cell chymase antibody [CC1] See all Mast cell chymase ...
more infohttp://www.genetex.com/Mast-cell-chymase-antibody-CC1-GTX75583.html

Relationship of small airway chymase-positive mast cells and lung function in severe asthma.  - PubMed - NCBIRelationship of small airway chymase-positive mast cells and lung function in severe asthma. - PubMed - NCBI

Relationship of small airway chymase-positive mast cells and lung function in severe asthma.. Balzar S1, Chu HW, Strand M, ... Chymase-positive mast cells: a double-edged sword in asthma? [Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005] ... In contrast, mast cell number, percentage, and the chymase-positive phenotype increased in small airway regions. After the ... tryptase and chymase). Specific cell distributions were determined and correlated with lung function measures. The number of ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15563633?dopt=Abstract

Reversible Expression of Tryptases and Chymases in the Jejunal Mast Cells of Mice Infected with Trichinella spiralis | The...Reversible Expression of Tryptases and Chymases in the Jejunal Mast Cells of Mice Infected with Trichinella spiralis | The...

In noninfected mice, most jejunal MCs reside in the submucosa and express mMCP-6 and mMCP-7, but not mMCP-9 or the chymase mMCP ... Reversible Expression of Tryptases and Chymases in the Jejunal Mast Cells of Mice Infected with Trichinella spiralis. Daniel S ... Nevertheless, it remained to be determined whether these immune cells could modify their expression of other chymases and the ... Reversible Expression of Tryptases and Chymases in the Jejunal Mast Cells of Mice Infected with Trichinella spiralis ...
more infohttps://www.jimmunol.org/content/160/11/5537.abstract

CMA1 / Mast Cell Chymase Antibody (Biotin) for ELISA LS-C396424CMA1 / Mast Cell Chymase Antibody (Biotin) for ELISA LS-C396424

Mast Cell Chymase antibody LS-C396424 is a biotin-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to human Mast Cell Chymase (CMA1). ... Mast Cell Chymase antibody LS-C396424 is a biotin-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to human Mast Cell Chymase (CMA1). ... Mast Cell Chymase antibody LS-C396424 is a biotin-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to human Mast Cell Chymase (CMA1). ...
more infohttps://www.lsbio.com/antibodies/cma1-antibody-mast-cell-chymase-antibody-biotin-elisa-ls-c396424/408669

Identification of sites in apolipoprotein A-I susceptible to chymase and carboxypeptidase A digestion | Bioscience Reports |...Identification of sites in apolipoprotein A-I susceptible to chymase and carboxypeptidase A digestion | Bioscience Reports |...

Chymase and CPA digestion. Lipid-free apoA-I and HDL3 were incubated with human skin MC chymase (Elastin Products Company) and ... Lipid-free apoA-I treated with chymase and chymase/CPA for 4 h were also analysed by MALDI-TOF-MS. Two groups of peaks with m/z ... Immunohistochemical identification of chymase and CPA. To assess the presence of chymase and MC-CPA in advanced atherosclerotic ... Chymase and MC-CPA act cooperatively as follows: chymase cleaves a protein at the carboxyl side of aromatic amino acids, ...
more infohttps://portlandpress.com/bioscirep/article/33/1/e00005/82101/Identification-of-sites-in-apolipoprotein-A-I

RCSB PDB 









- 1PJP: THE 2.2 A CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF HUMAN CHYMASE IN COMPLEX WITH SUCCINYL-ALA-ALA-PRO-PHE...RCSB PDB - 1PJP: THE 2.2 A CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF HUMAN CHYMASE IN COMPLEX WITH SUCCINYL-ALA-ALA-PRO-PHE...

The 2.2 A crystal structure of human chymase in complex with succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-chloromethylketone: structural ... THE 2.2 A CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF HUMAN CHYMASE IN COMPLEX WITH SUCCINYL-ALA-ALA-PRO-PHE-CHLOROMETHYLKETONE. ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/materialsAndMethods.do?structureId=1PJP

KAKEN - Research Projects | Development of clinical assay method for human chymase (KAKENHI-PROJECT-10670690)KAKEN - Research Projects | Development of clinical assay method for human chymase (KAKENHI-PROJECT-10670690)

... to compare plasma chymase levels in various cardiovascular diseases, 5) to determine the association between plasma chymase ... to determine clinical significance of plasma chymase measurement, 3) to develop RIA method for human chymase to handle massive ... Plasma chymase levels significantly increased in systemic inflammatory diseases (pneumonia autoimmune disease and etc.) Mild ... Publications] Pfeufer et al.: Chymase gene locus is not associated with myocardial infarction and is not linked to heart size ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-10670690/

α2-Macroglobulin Capture Allows Detection of Mast Cell Chymase in Serum and Creates a Reservoir of Angiotensin II-Generating...α2-Macroglobulin Capture Allows Detection of Mast Cell Chymase in Serum and Creates a Reservoir of Angiotensin II-Generating...

... chymase plus α1ACT, chymase plus α2M, or chymase plus the combination of α1ACT and α2M. Absorbance of the eluate was monitored ... Chymase activity in serum co-elutes with α2M. As shown in Fig. 4⇓, the vast majority of activity of chymase, when the enzyme is ... To verify the reaction of chymase with α2M, 1 pmol of chymase was first incubated in PBS at 37°C for 15 min with 5 pmol of α2M ... Serum stabilizes chymase and cathepsin G activity. As shown in Fig. 3⇓, chymase activity in serum is remarkably stable to assay ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/182/9/5770.long

CMA1 / Mast Cell Chymase Antibody for IHC, WB/Western IHC-plus™ LS-B12242CMA1 / Mast Cell Chymase Antibody for IHC, WB/Western IHC-plus™ LS-B12242

Mast Cell Chymase antibody LS-B12242 is an unconjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to human Mast Cell Chymase (CMA1). Validated ... Mast Cell Chymase antibody LS-B12242 is an unconjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to human Mast Cell Chymase (CMA1). Validated ... Mast Cell Chymase antibody LS-B12242 is an unconjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to human Mast Cell Chymase (CMA1). Validated ... Binding of this antibody to chymase is not reduced in the presence of heparin, suggesting that the antibody does not bind to ...
more infohttps://www.lsbio.com/antibodies/cma1-antibody-mast-cell-chymase-antibody-ihc-wb-western-ihc-plus-ls-b12242/359721

Plus itPlus it

... low-dose chymase (n = 4), high-dose chymase (n = 4), or high-dose chymase plus chymase inhibitor (n = 4). Infarct size (V, 41 ... low-dose human purified chymase (10 ng/ml), high-dose chymase (30 ng/ml), or high-dose chymase plus chymase inhibitor (10 μM). ... Purified human chymase induced fibroblast proliferation, which was blocked by chymase inhibition. Indeed, chymase inhibition ... Chymase Activity.. Chymase activity (mU/mg protein) in both AAR (V, 9.7 ± 2.6; CM, 1.1 ± 0.3; P = 0.01) and NLV (V, 18.7 ± 6.1 ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/339/1/143

Expansion of the mast cell chymase locus over the past 200 million years of mammalian evolutionExpansion of the mast cell chymase locus over the past 200 million years of mammalian evolution

Surprisingly, the cattle chymase locus contains two α-chymase and two cathepsin G genes where all other studied chymase loci ... Phylogenetic analyses place one of the opossum genes firmly with mast cell α-chymases, which indicates that the α-chymase had ... These proteases belong to the chymase or the tryptase family, which are encoded from the mast cell chymase and the multigene ... Graspases are encoded from the mast cell chymase locus. The human locus holds four genes: α-chymase, cathepsin G, and granzymes ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:169381

Chymase Inhibition Reduces Infarction and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Activation and Attenuates Inflammation and Fibrosis after...Chymase Inhibition Reduces Infarction and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Activation and Attenuates Inflammation and Fibrosis after...

Chymase Inhibition in Acute Myocardial Ischemia. Shizu Oyamada, Cesario Bianchi, Shinji Takai, Louis M. Chu and Frank W. Sellke ... Chymase Inhibition in Acute Myocardial Ischemia. Shizu Oyamada, Cesario Bianchi, Shinji Takai, Louis M. Chu and Frank W. Sellke ... Chymase Inhibition Reduces Infarction and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Activation and Attenuates Inflammation and Fibrosis after ... Chymase Inhibition Reduces Infarction and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Activation and Attenuates Inflammation and Fibrosis after ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/339/1/143/tab-figures-data

Molecular Vision: Effects of mitomycin C on the expression of chymase and mast cells in the conjunctival scar of a monkey...Molecular Vision: Effects of mitomycin C on the expression of chymase and mast cells in the conjunctival scar of a monkey...

Human mast cells are classified into two groups: tryptase- and chymase-positive mast cells, and tryptase-positive and chymase- ... Measurement of PCNA-positive cells, chymase-positive cells, and mast cells. We counted PCNA-positive cells, chymase-positive ... We also reported that chymase promoted cell proliferation of fibroblasts using canine Tenons capsule, while chymase inhibitor ... a chymase inhibitor suppressed the proliferation of the fibroblasts [17]. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that chymase ...
more infohttp://www.molvis.org/molvis/v15/a217/

Anti Human Mast Cell Chymase Antibody, clone CC1 | Bio-RadAnti Human Mast Cell Chymase Antibody, clone CC1 | Bio-Rad

... binds to human mast cell chymase, an important marker of mast cells and also an important mediator of inflammation.,br,,br, ... strong,Mouse anti Human Mast Cell Chymase antibody, clone CC1,/strong, ... Mouse anti Human Mast Cell Chymase antibody, clone CC1 binds to human mast cell chymase, an important marker of mast cells and ... Binding of Mouse anti Human Mast Cell Chymase antibody, clone CC1 to chymase is not reduced in the presence of heparin, ...
more infohttps://www.bio-rad-antibodies.com/monoclonal/human-mast-cell-chymase-antibody-cc1-mca1930.html

After heart attack, chymase inhibitors could extend cell survival | Emory University | Atlanta, GAAfter heart attack, chymase inhibitors could extend cell survival | Emory University | Atlanta, GA

"And we found that chymase is not important for its angiotensin II effects. But that doesnt mean chymase is not important." ... Chymase inhibitor drugs would work by allowing IGF-1, produced by the injured heart, to last longer. In mice, IGF-1 levels ... A clinical trial using a chymase inhibitor in heart failure patients is underway in Europe. Husain and Naqvi say that, based on ... MMCP-4, known as chymase in humans, was already known to act as an "angiotensin converting enzyme." An important class of blood ...
more infohttp://www.news.emory.edu/stories/2016/06/husain_pnas_extending_cardiac_survival/campus.html
  • Furthermore, both chymase inhibitors and AT 1 receptor blockers abrogate LPS-induced responses [ 8 ], indicating a potential role for hamster chymase in the pathophysiology of septic shock. (medsci.org)
  • LPS-induced increases in chymase activity in the heart and skin were significantly greater in Tg than WT mice. (medsci.org)
  • 8 ] showed that suffusion of LPS on the in situ hamster spinotrapezius muscle for 60 min elicits an immediate, reversible biphasic vasomotor response, vasoconstriction followed by vasodilatation, and increased accumulation of perivascular mast cells having chymase-like activity. (medsci.org)
  • Basal chymase activity in the heart and skin ( n =6, respectively) was measured in eighteen-week-old Tg and age-matched WT mice. (medsci.org)
  • Thus, mast cells are the source of the vascular ACE-independent pathway, and the antihypertensive benefit of combining ACE inhibitor therapy with AT(1) receptor antagonist therapy is most likely due to negation of chymase-catalyzed Ang II generation. (nih.gov)
  • Balloon injury remarkably activated canine vascular chymase, 10 and an ANG II receptor antagonist substantially prevented neointima formation, whereas an ACE inhibitor did so only modestly. (ahajournals.org)
  • Separately, rat myocardial fibroblast was incubated with vehicle ( n = 4), low-dose chymase ( n = 4), high-dose chymase ( n = 4), or high-dose chymase plus chymase inhibitor ( n = 4). (aspetjournals.org)
  • molecular weight 526.60), a specific chymase inhibitor (CM), on a clinically relevant swine model of AMI-R. A 60-min ischemia followed by a 120-min reperfusion was chosen to assess an early effect of chymase inhibition (it is the shorter time point where necrosis can be determined with accuracy and reproducibility) and to allow comparison with previous experiments performed by our group. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The specific chymase inhibitor TY51469 was synthesized at Toa Eiyo Ltd. (Tokyo, Japan). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Chymase inhibitor drugs would work by allowing IGF-1, produced by the injured heart, to last longer. (emory.edu)
  • A clinical trial using a chymase inhibitor in heart failure patients is underway in Europe. (emory.edu)
  • Because lethal arrhythmias are generally believed to contribute to sudden cardiac death, we assessed whether inhibition of cardiac chymase would provide an antiarrhythmic effect during the 8-h ischemic period after 2-[4-(5-fluoro-3-methylbenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)sulfonamide-3-methanesulfonylphenyl]oxazole-4-carboxylicacid (TY51184) (a specific chymase inhibitor, 1 mg/kg i.v.) treatment by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) in dogs. (spotidoc.com)
  • Thus, we hypothesize that chymase inhibitor (CI) will attenuate extracellular matrix loss and LV remodeling in MR. (lvhn.org)
  • This study demonstrates that chymase inhibition plays crucial roles in myocardial protection related to MMP-9, inflammatory markers, and the eNOS pathway. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These findings demonstrate that chymase inhibition can provide an antiarrhythmic effect after MI, and the reduction of Ang II by TY51184 may be mainly responsible for this beneficial effect. (spotidoc.com)
  • Chymase Inhibition Prevents Fibronectin and Myofibrillar Loss and Impr" by Betty Pat, Yuanwen Chen et al. (lvhn.org)
  • Chymase Inhibition Prevents Fibronectin and Myofibrillar Loss and Improves Cardiomyocyte Function and LV Torsion Angle in Dogs with Isolated Mitral Regurgitation. (lvhn.org)
  • Nevertheless, it remained to be determined whether these immune cells could modify their expression of other chymases and the granule tryptases mMCP-6 and mMCP-7. (jimmunol.org)
  • Among the granule proteases are the phylogenetically related mast cell chymases, neutrophil cathepsin G, and T-cell granzymes (Gzm B to H and Gzm N), which share the characteristic absence of a Cys 191 -Cys 220 bridge. (diva-portal.org)
  • 490 Downloaded from jpet.aspetjournals.org by guest on June 9, 2014 ABSTRACT Chymase plays an important role in the regulation of local angiotensin (Ang) II formation in the cardiac tissue. (spotidoc.com)
  • Here we show that the predominant chymase mRNA species in the mouse aorta are those for types 4 and 5 isoforms, and that both are efficient Ang II-forming enzymes. (nih.gov)
  • 7 8 9 10 11 Chymases of these species cleave the Phe 8 -His 9 bond of ANG I and produce ANG II efficiently. (ahajournals.org)
  • To better understand mast cell functions in these species, one member of the mouse Mcpt8-family, mMCP-8, and human and dog chymase were studied. (diva-portal.org)
  • Evaluation of ACE-dependent and ACE-independent Ang II-forming pathways in mast cell-deficient (Kit(w)/Kit(w-v)) mice and their mast cell-sufficient littermate (MC(+/+)) controls revealed that, in contrast to the latter, Kit(w)/Kit(w-v) mice fail to express chymase mRNAs in the vasculature and have almost no ACE-independent Ang II-forming activity in either isolated blood vessels or homogenates. (nih.gov)
  • 2001, 2002, 2003), which possesses both chymase and ACE-dependent Ang II-forming pathways like in humans, as mentioned above. (spotidoc.com)
  • GAPDH-normalized chymase 1, chymase 2, chymase 4, and chymase 5 mRNA levels in aortae from vehicle- or captopril-treated MC +/+ and Kit w /Kit w-v mice. (nih.gov)
  • Chymase mRNA levels and chymaselike activity of vehicle-treated injured arteries were increased 10.2- and 4.8-fold, respectively, those of uninjured arteries. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the present study, we aimed to identify chymase-induced cleavage sites in both lipid-free and lipid-bound (HDL 3 ) forms of apoA-I. Lipid-free apoA-I was preferentially digested by chymase, at the C-terminus rather than the N-terminus. (portlandpress.com)
  • LPS-induced increases in chymase activity in the heart and skin were significantly greater in Tg than WT mice. (medsci.org)
  • After the analysis was adjusted for multiple comparisons, only chymase-positive mast cells significantly and positively correlated with lung function. (nih.gov)
  • Plasma chymase levels significantly increased in systemic inflammatory diseases (pneumonia autoimmune disease and etc. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Densities of proliferative cell nuclear antigen-positive cells, chymase-positive cells, and areas of collagen fiber in conjunctival and scleral lesions were significantly decreased in MMC-treated eyes, compared with placebo-treated eyes (p=0.034, 0.034, 0.049, respectively). (molvis.org)
  • Total Ang II-forming activity and chymase activity in the infarcted heart were increased significantly 8 h after LAD ligation. (spotidoc.com)
  • These findings indicate that all chymase locus genes are derived from a single ancestor that was present more than 200 million years ago. (diva-portal.org)
  • Our findings show that a substantial level of heart muscle cell death occurs few days later, and its prevention by suppressing chymase activity could dramatically improve outcomes. (emory.edu)
  • Effects of candesartan (an Ang II type 1 receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg i.v.) in Chymase and Arrhythmias after Myocardial Infarction diac ACE after MI. (spotidoc.com)
  • The side chains of residues Phe191 and Lys192 of pro-chymase fill the Ile16 binding pocket and the base of the S1 binding pocket, respectively. (rcsb.org)
  • CPA, in vitro , further cleaved C-terminal Phe 225 and Phe 229 residues newly exposed by chymase, but did not cleave Tyr 192 . (portlandpress.com)
  • There was a significant positive correlation between plasma chymase level and plasma c-reactive protein or fibrinogen. (nii.ac.jp)
  • however, a 100-fold higher concentration of chymase modestly digested apoA-I in HDL 3 at only the N-terminus, especially at Phe 33 . (portlandpress.com)
  • Sections of concurrently obtained endobronchial and transbronchial/surgical biopsy tissue from 20 individuals with severe asthma were immunostained for T-lymphocyte, eosinophil, monocyte/macrophage, neutrophil, and two mast cell markers (tryptase and chymase). (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, mast cell number, percentage, and the chymase-positive phenotype increased in small airway regions. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, rats possess only an ACE-dependent Ang II-forming pathway, because in cardiovascular tissues in rat, chymase acts as an This study was supported by Grant-in-Aid 13670102 (C) for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Japan. (spotidoc.com)
  • BACKGROUND: The left ventricular (LV) dilatation of isolated mitral regurgitation (MR) is associated with an increase in chymase and a decrease in interstitial collagen and extracellular matrix. (lvhn.org)
  • For example, chymases are released by mucosal mast cells upon challenge with parasites and parasite antigens promoting an inflammatory response. (wikipedia.org)
  • We speculate that activation of endothelial CLP/chymase may directly relate to the increased inflammatory phenotypic changes in the vascular system in women with PE. (preeclampsia.org)
  • Suppression of the chymase-dependent ANG II-forming pathway may contribute to the beneficial effects of tranilast. (ahajournals.org)
  • We used α 2 -macroglobulin capture to develop a sensitive, microtiter plate-based assay for serum chymase, assisted by a novel substrate synthesized based on results of combinatorial screening of peptide substrates. (jimmunol.org)