Chylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Chyle: An opaque, milky-white fluid consisting mainly of emulsified fats that passes through the lacteals of the small intestines into the lymphatic system.TriglyceridesLipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.Apolipoprotein B-48: A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Thoracic Duct: The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Apolipoproteins C: A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Apoproteins: The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).Apolipoprotein C-II: A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.Receptors, Lipoprotein: Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Blood Protein DisordersPhospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Butter: The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mesentery: A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.Enterocytes: Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Apolipoprotein B-100: A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Apolipoprotein C-III: A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS. Apo C-III, synthesized in the liver, is an inhibitor of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Apo C-III modulates the binding of chylomicron remnants and VLDL to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) thus decreases the uptake of triglyceride-rich particles by the liver cells and subsequent degradation. The normal Apo C-III is glycosylated. There are several polymorphic forms with varying amounts of SIALIC ACID (Apo C-III-0, Apo C-III-1, and Apo C-III-2).Hypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type I: An inherited condition due to a deficiency of either LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE or APOLIPOPROTEIN C-II (a lipase-activating protein). The lack of lipase activities results in inability to remove CHYLOMICRONS and TRIGLYCERIDES from the blood which has a creamy top layer after standing.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Corn Oil: Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.Poloxalene: A copolymer of polyethylene and polypropylene ether glycol. It is a non-ionic polyol surface-active agent used medically as a fecal softener and in cattle for prevention of bloat.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.TritiumParticle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Lipid Mobilization: LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.Poloxamer: A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Hyperlipoproteinemia Type III: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by the accumulation of intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL or broad-beta-lipoprotein). IDL has a CHOLESTEROL to TRIGLYCERIDES ratio greater than that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. This disorder is due to mutation of APOLIPOPROTEINS E, a receptor-binding component of VLDL and CHYLOMICRONS, resulting in their reduced clearance and high plasma levels of both cholesterol and triglycerides.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Lactoferrin: An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.EstersFat Emulsions, Intravenous: Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.Linoleic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.

Lipoprotein lipase expression level influences tissue clearance of chylomicron retinyl ester. (1/827)

Approximately 25% of postprandial retinoid is cleared from the circulation by extrahepatic tissues. Little is known about physiologic factors important to this uptake. We hypothesized that lipoprotein lipase (LpL) contributes to extrahepatic clearance of chylomicron vitamin A. To investigate this, [3H]retinyl ester-containing rat mesenteric chylomicrons were injected intravenously into induced mutant mice and nutritionally manipulated rats. The tissue sites of uptake of 3H label by wild type mice and LpL-null mice overexpressing human LpL in muscle indicate that LpL expression does influence accumulation of chylomicron retinoid. Skeletal muscle from mice overexpressing human LpL accumulated 1.7- to 2.4-fold more 3H label than wild type. Moreover, heart tissue from mice overexpresssing human LpL, but lacking mouse LpL, accumulated less than half of the 3H-label taken up by wild type heart. Fasting and heparin injection, two factors that increase LpL activity in skeletal muscle, increased uptake of chylomicron [3H] retinoid by rat skeletal muscle. Using [3H]retinyl palmitate and its non-hydrolyzable analog retinyl [14C]hexadecyl ether incorporated into Intralipid emulsions, the importance of retinyl ester hydrolysis in this process was assessed. We observed that 3H label was taken up to a greater extent than 14C label by rat skeletal muscle, suggesting that retinoid uptake requires hydrolysis. In summary, for each of our experiments, the level of lipoprotein lipase expression in skeletal muscle, heart, and/or adipose tissue influenced the amount of [3H]retinoid taken up from chylomicrons and/or their remnants.  (+info)

Plasma clearance and liver uptake of chylomicron remnants generated by hepatic lipase lipolysis: evidence for a lactoferrin-sensitive and apolipoprotein E-independent pathway. (2/827)

Chylomicrons labeled with [3H]cholesterol and [14C]triglyceride fatty acids were lipolyzed by hepatic lipase (HL) in vitro and then injected intravenously into normal mice fed low- or high-fat diets, and into apolipoprotein (apo) E-deficient mice. In normal mice fed the high-fat diet and injected with non-lipolyzed chylomicrons, the plasma clearance and hepatic uptake of the resulting [3H]cholesterol-labeled remnants was markedly inhibited. In contrast, chylomicrons lipolyzed by HL were taken up equally rapidly by the livers of mice fed the low- and high-fat diets. The removal of non-lipolyzed chylomicrons lacking apoE from the plasma of apoE-deficient mice was inhibited, but not the removal of chylomicrons lipolyzed by HL. Pre-injection of lactoferrin into normal mice inhibited the plasma clearance of both non-lipolyzed chylomicrons and chylomicrons lipolyzed by HL. The removal of HL from the surface of the lipolyzed particles by proteolytic digestion did not affect their rapid uptake, indicating that the hepatic recognition of the lipoproteins was not mediated by HL. These observations support previous findings that phospholipolysis of chylomicrons by hepatic lipase generates remnant particles that are rapidly cleared from circulation by the liver. They also support the concept that chylomicron remnants can be taken up by the liver by an apolipoprotein E-independent mechanism. We hypothesize that this mechanism is modulated by the remnant phospholipids and that it may involve their interaction with a phospholipid-binding receptor on the surface of hepatocytes such as the class B scavenger receptor BI.  (+info)

Effects of a frequent apolipoprotein E isoform, ApoE4Freiburg (Leu28-->Pro), on lipoproteins and the prevalence of coronary artery disease in whites. (3/827)

Different isoforms of apoE modulate the concentrations of plasma lipoproteins and the risk for atherosclerosis. A novel apoE isoform, apoE4Freiburg, was detected in plasma by isoelectric focusing because its isoelectric point is slightly more acidic than that of apoE4. ApoE4Freiburg results from a base exchange in the APOE4 gene that causes the replacement of a leucine by a proline at position 28. Analysis of the allelic frequencies in whites in southwestern Germany revealed that this isoform is frequent among control subjects (10:4264 alleles) and is even more frequent in patients with coronary artery disease (21:2874 alleles; P=0.004; adjusted odds ratio, 3.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.20 to 7.97). ApoE4Freiburg affects serum lipoproteins by lowering cholesterol, apoB, and apoA-I compared with apoE4 (P<0.05). Our 4 apoE4Freiburg homozygotes suffered from various phenotypes of hyperlipoproteinemia (types IIa, IIb, IV, and V). In vitro binding studies excluded a binding defect of apoE4Freiburg, and in vivo studies excluded an abnormal accumulation of chylomicron remnants. ApoE4Freiburg and apoE4 accumulated to a similar extent in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. HDLs, however, contained about 40% less apoE4Freiburg than apoE4. In conclusion, our data indicate that apoE4Freiburg exerts its possible atherogenic properties by affecting the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and HDL.  (+info)

Very low-density lipoprotein activates nuclear factor-kappaB in endothelial cells. (4/827)

High plasma levels of VLDL are associated with increased risk for atherosclerosis. Here we show that VLDL (75 to 150 microg/mL) activates nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), a transcription factor known to play a key role in regulation of inflammation. Oxidation of VLDL reduced its capacity to activate NF-kappaB in vitro, whereas free fatty acids such as linoleic and oleic acid activated NF-kappaB to the same extent as did VLDL. Intravenous injection of human VLDL (6 mg protein per kg) into rats resulted in arterial activation of NF-kappaB as assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Aortic endothelial cells showed positive nuclear staining for the activated RelA (p65) subunit of NF-kappaB at 6 to 24 hours after injection. There was also a parallel expression of the adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, as well as the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Pretreatment of the rats with diet containing 1% of the antioxidant probucol for 8 weeks did not inhibit arterial activation of NF-kappaB in response to injection of VLDL. Moreover, injection of triglycerides (10% Intralipid, 5 mL/kg) activated arterial expression of NF-kappaB to the same extent as VLDL. Our results suggest that VLDL may promote the development of atherosclerotic lesions by activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-kappaB. The effect appears to be mediated by a release of VLDL fatty acids but not to involve VLDL oxidation.  (+info)

Effect of oxidized lipids in the diet on oxidized lipid levels in postprandial serum chylomicrons of diabetic patients. (5/827)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether humans with type 2 diabetes have increased levels of oxidized fatty acids in their serum chylomicron fraction after the ingestion of dietary oxidized fatty acids. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study was performed on 31 male type 2 diabetic patients and 24 age-matched control subjects. Among the diabetic patients, 22 had poor glycemic control, defined as HbA1 > 10% (normal value < 7.7%). Nine patients had good glycemic control (HbA1 < or = 10). Heated corn oil containing low or high levels of oxidized fatty acids was used as a test meal. At 2.5 h after the test meal, 50-ml blood samples were obtained from all subjects, and the chylomicron fraction (Sf > 1,000) was isolated. The degree of oxidation in chylomicrons was determined by measuring conjugated dienes. For determining the postprandial levels of triglycerides and of oxidized lipids in serum chylomicrons over an extended time period, blood samples were obtained at 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 h for isolation of chylomicrons and determination of fatty acid oxidation. RESULTS: We found that at 2.5 h after the consumption of the test meal containing either a low or high oxidized fatty acid content, conjugated dienes in serum chylomicrons in diabetic subjects in poor glycemic control were increased compared with those in control subjects. Diabetic patients in good glycemic control had similar levels of oxidized lipid in their chylomicrons when compared with control subjects. Additionally, in diabetic patients in poor glycemic control, the levels of oxidized lipids in chylomicrons remained elevated for an extended post-prandial period. CONCLUSIONS: In diabetic subjects with poor glycemic control, dietary oxidized lipids induce an exaggerated and sustained increase in the levels of oxidized lipids in chylomicrons when compared with either control subjects or diabetic patients with good glycemic control. These increased postprandial levels of potentially atherogenic oxidized lipids may contribute to the accelerated atherosclerosis associated with diabetes.  (+info)

Plasma clearance of chylomicrons from butterfat is not dependent on saturation: studies with butterfat fractions and other fats containing triacylglycerols with low or high melting points. (6/827)

BACKGROUND: Dietary fats influence plasma lipids, and changes in the clearance and metabolism of postprandial lipoproteins can affect atherosclerosis. Butterfat is considered hypercholesterolemic but contains a multitude of constituent fatty acids. OBJECTIVES: We determined triacylglycerol and cholesteryl ester clearances of lymph chylomicrons derived from butterfat, fractions of butterfat, and other dietary fats. METHODS: Radiolabeled lymph chylomicrons resulting from the intestinal absorption of different fats were reinjected into recipient rats to measure plasma clearance. Plasma clearance of [14C]triacylglycerol was used as an indicator of chylomicron lipolysis whereas clearance of [3H]cholesteryl ester was used as an indicator of chylomicron remnant removal. RESULTS: [3H]Cholesteryl ester clearance was slower from chylomicrons derived from a solid, high-saturated-butterfat fraction than from whole butterfat, but clearance of chylomicrons from other fractions did not correlate with the fractions' saturated fatty acid contents. Clearance of cholesteryl esters in chylomicrons derived from cocoa butter, palm oil, and butterfat was slower than clearance of cholesteryl esters in chylomicrons derived from safflower oil. Hepatic uptakes of cholesteryl esters were generally lower for chylomicrons from all butterfat fractions, cocoa butter, and palm oil. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast with minor effects on the lipolysis of chylomicron triacylglycerols, chylomicron remnant removal was strongly influenced by the type of dietary fat, with slower cholesteryl ester clearances for saturated fats with higher melting points. However, remnant removal and hepatic uptake of chylomicrons from whole butterfat and fractions of butterfat were not correlated with fat saturation. The mechanisms of this apparent paradox remain unknown but may be attributable to acyl arrangements in the lipid classes of chylomicrons that influence the association with apolipoproteins and receptors and hence remnant removal.  (+info)

All ApoB-containing lipoproteins induce monocyte chemotaxis and adhesion when minimally modified. Modulation of lipoprotein bioactivity by platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase. (7/827)

Mildly oxidized LDL has many proinflammatory properties, including the stimulation of monocyte chemotaxis and adhesion, that are important in the development of atherosclerosis. Although ApoB-containing lipoproteins other than LDL may enter the artery wall and undergo oxidation, very little is known regarding their proinflammatory potential. LDL, IDL, VLDL, postprandial remnant particles, and chylomicrons were mildly oxidized by fibroblasts overexpressing 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) and tested for their ability to stimulate monocyte chemotaxis and adhesion to endothelial cells. When conditioned on 15-LO cells, LDL, IDL, but not VLDL increased monocyte chemotaxis and adhesion approximately 4-fold. Chylomicrons and postprandial remnant particles were also bioactive. Although chylomicrons had a high 18:1/18:2 ratio, similar to that of VLDL, and should presumably be less susceptible to oxidation, they contained (in contrast to VLDL) essentially no platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) activity. Because PAF-AH activity of lipoproteins may be reduced in vivo by oxidation or glycation, LDL, IDL, and VLDL were treated in vitro to reduce PAF-AH activity and then conditioned on 15-lipoxygenase cells. All 3 PAF-AH-depleted lipoproteins, including VLDL, exhibited increased stimulation of monocyte chemotaxis and adhesion. In a similar manner, lipoproteins from Japanese subjects with a deficiency of plasma PAF-AH activity were also markedly more bioactive, and stimulated monocyte adhesion nearly 2-fold compared with lipoproteins from Japanese control subjects with normal plasma PAF-AH. For each lipoprotein, bioactivity resided in the lipid fraction and monocyte adhesion could be blocked by PAF-receptor antagonists. These data suggest that the susceptibility of plasma lipoproteins to develop proinflammatory activity is in part related to their 18:1/18:2 ratio and PAF-AH activity, and that bioactive phospholipids similar to PAF are generated during oxidation of each lipoprotein. Moreover, LDL, IDL, postprandial remnant particles, and chylomicrons and PAF-AH-depleted VLDL all give rise to proinflammatory lipids when mildly oxidized.  (+info)

Mutations in the lipoprotein lipase gene associated with ischemic heart disease in men. The Copenhagen city heart study. (8/827)

The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the Asp9Asn substitution and the T(-93)-->G mutation in the promoter of the lipoprotein lipase gene affect plasma lipid levels and thereby the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). We genotyped 9033 men and women from a general population sample and 940 patients with IHD. The frequency of both the G allele and the Asn9 allele in the general population sample was approximately 0.015 for both men and women. These 2 mutations appeared together in 95% of carriers. The average triglyceride-raising effect associated with double heterozygosity for the T(-93)-->G mutation and the Asp9Asn substitution was 0.28 mmol/L (P=0.004) and 0.16 mmol/L (P=0.10) in men and women, respectively. On logistic regression analysis allowing for age, the risk of IHD for double heterozygous men and women was increased 90% (95% confidence interval [CI], 20% to 200%) and 30% (95% CI, -40% to 170%), respectively, compared with noncarriers. When, in addition, other conventional cardiovascular risk factors were allowed for, the risk of IHD for double heterozygous men and women was increased 70% (95% CI, 0% to 190%) and 20% (95% CI, -50% to 180%), respectively. Of the overall risk of IHD in men in the general population, the fraction attributable to double heterozygosity was 3%, similar to the 5% attributable to diabetes mellitus. These results demonstrate that the Asp9Asn substitution is in linkage disequilibrium with the T(-93)-->G mutation and that the double-heterozygous carrier status is associated with elevated plasma triglycerides and an increased risk of IHD in men.  (+info)

TAG depleted remnants of postprandial chylomicrons are a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that in the fasted state, the majority of chylomicrons are small enough for transcytosis to arterial subendothelial space and accelerate atherogenesis. However, the size distribution of chylomicrons in the absorptive state is unclear. This study explored in normolipidaemic subjects the postprandial distribution of the chylomicron marker, apoB-48, in a TAG-rich lipoprotein plasma fraction (Svedberg flotation rate (Sf,400), in partially hydrolysed remnants (Sf 20-400) and in a TAG-deplete fraction (Sf,20), following ingestion of isoenergetic meals with either palm oil (PO), rice bran or coconut oil. Results from this study show that the majority of fasting chylomicrons are within the potentially pro-atherogenic Sf,20 fraction (70-75 %). Following the ingestion of test meals, chylomicronaemia was also principally distributed within the Sf,20 fraction. However, approximately 40 ...
Looking for Chylomicrons? Find out information about Chylomicrons. One of the extremely small lipid droplets, consisting chiefly of triglycerides, found in blood after ingestion of fat Explanation of Chylomicrons
In agreement with a range of previous studies we report that a single session of moderate intensity exercise decreases fasting triacylglycerol concentration on the subsequent day. There was a trend towards a significant decrease in postprandial triacylglycerol concentration following the moderate fat mixed meal; however when postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations were corrected for their corresponding fasting concentration, no decrease was observed. Despite the improvement in triacylglycerol concentration there was no reduction in fasting or postprandial chylomicron particle number. Insulin sensitivity, measured by HOMA score, and NEFA levels in either the fasting or postprandial states were also not altered in this group of subjects.. The extent of the reduction in fasting triacylglycerol concentration observed in the present study was 16% which is comparable to that reported in other studies [9-12]. In the fasting state the majority of circulating triacylglycerol resides associated with ...
Hyperlipidemia is characterized by abnormally excessive amounts of fat, and/or fatty substances in the blood. Chylomicrons are micro particles of liquid fat, in the class of lipids, which include both triglycerides and cholesterol, and which are formed during the digestion of fats from food. After eating a meal, the nutrients in an animals body pass into the small intestine, from which chylomicrons are absorbed 30-60 minutes later. Normally, the absorption of chylomicrons increases serum triglycerides for 3-10 hours, but some animals will have high cholesterol and high triglyceride levels for more than twelve hours after a meal - one of the main indications of hyperlipidemia. The clear part of the blood, the serum, is referred to as being lipemic when it has levels of triglycerides measuring over 200 mg/dL. Sometimes, levels of triglycerides in an animals serum can be even greater than 1000 mg/dL, giving the serum a milky, opaque appearance. This is medically referred to as lactescence ...
Rabbits fed cholesterol rapidly develop high serum cholesterol levels which lead to the development of atherosclerosis. This is related to the retention of cholesterol-rich chylomicron remnants in the circulation. In most animals, such as rats, chylomicron remnants are rapidly removed from the circulation by the liver. The first barrier to this removal is the fenestrated endothelium of liver sinusoids. Measurements made of a large number of sinusoidal fenestrae by scanning electron microscopy have shown the average diameters to be 89 nm in rats and 49 nm in rabbits. We postulate that the small size of endothelial fenestrae in the liver sinusoids of rabbits hinders the egress of chylomicron remnants from the sinusoidal blood, explaining the subsequent development of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. ...
Fatty acids come as mixtures. Even beef dripping carries a small load of PUFA. Nuts more so, seeds like those from Sunflowers much more so. Humans eat all of these in variable quantities. They are broken down by lipase, absorbed in to intestinal cells and reassembled in to triglycerides to be secreted as chylomicrons. Chylomicrons are the bulk transport system used to get lipid, including the PUFA, from the diet to the muscles, fat and the liver. A chylomicron is labled with a marker protein. Its a truncated form of that good old apoB100 used by the liver to mark the VLDLs destined to become LDL particles. The truncated protein is called apoB48. It starts life as an apoB100 but gets a socking great chunk cut off between transcription and particle assembly. It looses the LDL receptor interacting section but keeps the AGE triggered switch. No one seems to have looked at how glycation of chylomicrons acts in terms of receptor attachment to deliver lipid to muscles, or its interaction with the ...
Fatty acids come as mixtures. Even beef dripping carries a small load of PUFA. Nuts more so, seeds like those from Sunflowers much more so. Humans eat all of these in variable quantities. They are broken down by lipase, absorbed in to intestinal cells and reassembled in to triglycerides to be secreted as chylomicrons. Chylomicrons are the bulk transport system used to get lipid, including the PUFA, from the diet to the muscles, fat and the liver. A chylomicron is labled with a marker protein. Its a truncated form of that good old apoB100 used by the liver to mark the VLDLs destined to become LDL particles. The truncated protein is called apoB48. It starts life as an apoB100 but gets a socking great chunk cut off between transcription and particle assembly. It looses the LDL receptor interacting section but keeps the AGE triggered switch. No one seems to have looked at how glycation of chylomicrons acts in terms of receptor attachment to deliver lipid to muscles, or its interaction with the ...
sympathetikey First off, do yourself a favor and check this out - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NJYNf-Jcclo The LDL receptor is found on peripheral tissues. It recognizes B100 on LDL, IDL, and VLDL (secreted from the liver). Therefore, an issue with that would cause an increase in those, but mainly LDL. Since in this question we see that Triglycerides and Chylomicrons are elevated, that points towards a different problem. That problem is in the Lipoprotein Lipase receptor. This is the receptor that allows tissues to degrade TGs in Chylomicrons. So, if its not working, you get increased TGs and Chylomicrons. Additionally, you get eruptive xanthomas, which are the yellow white papules the question refers to. +4 2019-06-05T01:46:47Z ...
Hepatic steatosis is common, with at least 65% of liver biopsy specimens demonstrating steatosis. In genotype 3 infection, a specific mechanism of steatosis induction exists, via core antigen expression. The incidence of diabetes is higher in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and increases with increasing severity of liver disease. The mechanism of this is via insulin resistance, but it is uncertain whether hepatic steatosis is a result of the insulin resistance or plays a pivotal role in its induction.. HCV is associated with lipid in the serum and almost certainly uses lipid receptors to enter hepatocytes. The low-density fractions of serum contain HCV RNA particles and lipoviral particles (LVP) associated with triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins. Such particles rich in TG have been shown to contain viral capsid and RNA.1 TG is contained within chylomicrons or within very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). Chylomicrons are synthesised in the intestine and transported via lymph into the ...
In this study, the most striking findings were the postprandial uptake of fatty acids from the circulating NEFA pool by adipose tissue, the direct confirmation that chylomicrons are the preferred substrate of LPL over VLDL, the preferential channeling of fatty acids derived from LPL-mediated chylomicron hydrolysis into adipose tissue, and the postprandial release of fatty acids across the forearm ...
83. , Fahey,J. ,J. A, 704, 99-111 (1995). 84. N. , Lipids, 5, 353-358 (1970). 85. , Ferrato,F. , Chirality, 5, 24-30 (1993). 86. , Ransac,S. ,J. Biol. , 265, 20271-20276 (1990). 87. , Damiani,P. ,J. Am. Oil Chem. , 69, 552-556 (1992). 88. , J. Am. Oil Chem. , 42, 945-957 (1965). 89. Sempore,G. ,J. Am. Oil Chem. , 68, 702-709 (1991). 90. Sempore,G. ,J. , 547, 89-103 (1991 ). 91. G. ,J. , 557, 227-240 (1991). 36 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. Yang and Kuksis [110,112] have used the method for stereospecific analysis of menhaden oil and of the chylomicron triacylglycerols derived from it to propose a convergence of the phosphatidic acid and the monoacylglycerol pathways of triacylglycerol biosynthesis during fat absorption. Yang et al. [113] have employed the chiral-phase HPLC method to demonstrate that hepatic triacylglycerols are not directly transferred to VLDL but first undergo lipolysis to acylglycerols before being re-synthesised into ...
Phillips, M. L., Pullinger, C., Kroes, I., Kroes, J., Hardman, D. A., Chen, G., Curtiss, L. K., Gutierrez, M. M., Kane, J. P., Schumaker, V. N. A single copy of apolipoprotein b-48 is present on the human chylomicron remnant Journal of Lipid Research 1997 38:1170-1177 PMID:9215545 ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a glycoprotein secreted from the pancreas into the digestive tract and from the lactating mammary gland into human milk. The physiological role of this protein is in cholesterol and lipid-soluble vitamin ester hydrolysis and absorption. This encoded protein promotes large chylomicron production in the intestine. Also its presence in plasma suggests its interactions with cholesterol and oxidized lipoproteins to modulate the progression of atherosclerosis. In pancreatic tumoral cells, this encoded protein is thought to be sequestrated within the Golgi compartment and is probably not secreted. This gene contains a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the coding region that may influence the function of the encoded protein ...
Description: The protein encoded by this gene is a glycoprotein secreted from the pancreas into the digestive tract and from the lactating mammary gland into human milk. The physiological role of this protein is in cholesterol and lipid-soluble vitamin ester hydrolysis and absorption. This encoded protein promotes large chylomicron production in the intestine. Also its presence in plasma suggests its interactions with cholesterol and oxidized lipoproteins to modulate the progression of atherosclerosis. In pancreatic tumoral cells, this encoded protein is thought to be sequestrated within the Golgi compartment and is probably not secreted. This gene contains a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the coding region that may influence the function of the encoded protein ...
Hyperlipidemia is characterized by abnormally excessive amounts of fat, and/or fatty substances in the blood. After eating a meal, the nutrients in an animals body pass into the small intestine, from which chylomicrons, micro particles of liquid fat, are absorbed 30-60 minutes later.
Looking for online definition of chylomicrons in the Medical Dictionary? chylomicrons explanation free. What is chylomicrons? Meaning of chylomicrons medical term. What does chylomicrons mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oxidation affects the regulation of hepatic lipid synthesis by chylomicron remnants. AU - Napolitano, Mariarosaria. AU - Rivabene, Roberto. AU - Avella, Michael. AU - Amicone, Laura. AU - Tripodi, Marco. AU - Botham, Kathleen M.. AU - Bravo, Elena. PY - 2001/3/1. Y1 - 2001/3/1. N2 - The effects of native and oxidized chylomicron remnants on lipid synthesis in normal and oxidatively stressed liver cells were investigated using MET murine hepatocytes (MMH cells), a nontransformed mouse hepatocyte cell line that maintains a highly differentiated hepatic phenotype in culture. Lipid synthesis was determined by measuring the incorporation of [3H]oleate into cholesteryl ester, triacylglycerol, and phospholipid by the cells. The formation of cholesteryl ester and phospholipid was decreased by chylomicron remnants in a dose-dependent manner, while triacylglycerol synthesis was increased. Exposure of MMH cells to mild oxidative stress by incubation with CuSO4 (2.5 μM) for 24 h led to ...
Da) and in size (diameter 30-80 nm), have a plasma density of 0.93-1.006 g/mL, and migrate in the prebeta region on lipoprotein electrophoresis. These particles are rich in triglyceride (about 60% by weight in the core of the particle) and contain about 10% cholesteryl ester. On their surface these particles contain about 8% protein, 7% free cholesterol, and 15% phospholipids. Although they resemble chylomicrons, the major protein of these particles is apoB-100, compared to apoB-48 in chylomicrons. Other surface proteins include apoC-I, apoC-II, and apoC-III. In the fed state, the average daily production of VLDL apoB-100 in humans is about 20 mg/kg/day.3 When VLDLs enter the bloodstream, the particles pick up apoE and other apolipoproteins from HDL. Most of the triglycerides in VLDLs are rapidly removed via the action of LPL, similar to intestinal chylomicron particles. In the fat, the free fatty acids are converted back into triglyceride for long-term energy storage. As with chylomicrons, ...
The adipocyte plays a crucial role in metabolic regulation, serving as a storage depot for fatty acids and as an endocrine cell to manage energy utilization and feeding behavior [1, 2]. The mass of adipose tissue is maintained by a well-controlled balance of cell proliferation (hyperplasia) and increase in fat cell size (hypertrophy). Increases in adipocyte hypertrophy result from the uptake and assimilation of extracellular fatty acids into cytosolic triacylglycerol-rich lipid droplets. The primary sources of these extracellular fatty acids are those that are 1) associated with circulating albumin or 2) hydrolyzed from triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein particles such as chylomicrons or very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Since chylomicrons are short-lived fatty acid carriers present only during the post-prandial period, it is accepted that VLDL particles represent the major source of circulating fatty acids in the form of triacylglycerols. Triacylglycerols are the major component of VLDL and ...
240 mg/dl high cholesterol. The average amount of blood cholesterol varies with age, typically rising gradually until one is about 60 years old. There appear to be seasonal variations in cholesterol levels in humans, more, on average, in winter. These seasonal variations seem to be inversely linked to vitamin C intake. In lipid digestion, cholesterol is packed into Chylomicrons in the small intestine, which are delivered to the Portal vein and Lymph. The chylomicrons are ultimately taken up by liver hepatocytes via interaction between apolipoproteinE and the LDL receptor or Lipoprotein receptor-related proteins. Cholesterol is minimally soluble in water; it cannot dissolve and travel in the water-based bloodstream. Instead, it is transported in the bloodstream by lipoproteins that are water-soluble and carry cholesterol and triglycerides internally. The apolipoproteins forming the surface of the given lipoprotein particle determine from what cells cholesterol will be removed and to where it will ...
Lipid molecules are sucked from the order asacol online gut epithelial cells are packed into a transportation particles ventolin asma (chylomicrons) which receives via lymphatics to the bloodstream. Under the action of capillary endothelial lipoprotein main component of chylomicrons - neutral triglycerides - cleaved to glycerol and free fatty acids. Part of the fatty acids may bind to albumin and zovirax ointment genital herpes glycerol and free fatty acids act in the fat cells and converted into triglycerides. The remnants of chylomicrons blood trapped hepatocytes, are endocytosed and destroyed in the lysosomes. In the liver, forming lipoproteins for transport side effects for nexium 40 mg of synthesized lipid molecules in it. These lipoproteins are very low and low-density lipoprotein, which is transported from the liver to other tissues triglycerides, cholesterol. Low-density lipoprotein uptake from the blood cells of tissues via lipoprotein receptors endotsitiruyutsya, released for the needs ...
Familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) is a serious disease that prevents the body from breaking down fats.. Eating even a little fat can make someone with FCS ill, and the condition causes chronic symptoms and can lead to potentially fatal pancreatitis. FCS is a genetic disorder passed down from parents. Because it is rare, many healthcare providers have never heard of FCS or may not know how to diagnose it.. Lipoprotein lipase is a digestive enzyme that helps the body break down structures called chylomicrons. People who have FCS have a problem with lipoprotein lipase: it is either missing or broken. Chylomicrons carry triglycerides (a type of fat) to where they are needed in the body for energy. A buildup of these particles causes an increase in triglycerides levels.. Patients with FCS have extremely high levels of triglycerides. Normal triglyceride levels fall below 150 mg/dL. For people with FCS, triglyceride levels can exceed 1,000 mg/dL, even after medication and/or a low-fat diet are ...
Olive oil increases the number of triacylglycerol-rich chylomicron particles compared with other oils: an effect retained when a second standard meal is fed.: T
In this thesis, chylomicron (CM) and CM-remnant (CM-R) metabolism in humans was studied by the application of unique markers which label these lipoprotein particles from the stage of production by the enterocyte until, removal by hepatic receptor mediated processes. Retinyl palmitate (RP) is a vitamin A ester, which labels the CM/CM-R by behaving like the cholesterol ester (CE) which is carried in the core of these particles. Development of a mono-specific antibody to apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 and application of an enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) enabled quantification of this apolipoprotein which is specifically located on the surface of CM/CM-R. The postprandial lipaemic response for all parameters were determined by the area under the time response curve (AUC). Plasma was separated by flotation ultracentrifugation, overlayered with saline (d=1.006 g/ml), to separate the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) and infranatant fractions. To examine the effects of habitual low intensity ...
Evaluate if there is any correlation among the reduction of the plasma clearance of chylomicrons by the artificial chylomicrons technique and the presence of sub-clinical ...
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Both active and passive connectivity associated with significant improvement in patient-reported perceptions of overall health, disease outlook and emotional well-being
I absolutely agree, the two pictures in Dr Ds graphs are utter opposites. I too would also doubt that the apoB100 on the VLDLs is any more toxic than the apoB45 on the chylomicrons. What matters to me is the blood glucose, spiking to 200 is killing endothelial cells, and the blood insulin (not shown but certainly spiking with the glucose) which drives the repair process beyond what is appropriate for the amount of damage done by the hyperglycaemia... And if we must include lipids we can always suggest the hyperglycaemia glycoxidises either apoB100 or apoB45 to give persistent remnants which cannot be taken up by the LDL receptors, only by RAGEs. In the latest lipid hypothesis these are the problem ones. Of course, to lipophiles these persistent remnants are markers of previous damaging hyperglycaemia, not necessarily the problem in its own right ...
Assessment: Triglyceride levels occasionally become persistently elevated in patients receiving continuous infusions of IV lipids. At very high levels (greater than 1000 mg/dl) triglycerides appear to precipitate pancreatitis.. TPN correction:. Consider cyclical administration of lipids over 12-18 hours a day to give the liver a chance to rest from the fat load. Heparin may facilitate faster metabolism of chylomicrons and reduce triglyceride levels.. ...
... Chylomicrons do not move towards the charged end in electrophoresis, as they are too large to penetrate into the resolving gel. Ref: Nutrition, Lipids, Health and Disease By Augustine S. H. O
... Chylomicrons do not move towards the charged end in electrophoresis, as they are too large to penetrate into the resolving gel. Ref: Nutrition, Lipids, Health and Disease By Augustine S. H. O
TRIGLYCERIDES In our day today life a process called metabolism takes place and for this process triglycerides acts as an energy source. These triglycerides have low density lipo proteins and chylomicrons as major components. It is important to maintain the Triglycerides levels to particular value. This is because HighTriglycerides may lead to hazardous heart disease […]. Read More » ...
The enterocyte, which lines the luminal wall of the intestine, has an expansive apical surface area and the intracellular machinery needed to produce lipoprotein vesicles that pass through the basal surface and into systemic circulation. This unique design optimizes the transfer of dietary nutrients into circulation (Mansbach and Siddiqi, 2010). One of the key players in the formation of lipoprotein vesicles or "chylomicrons" is MTP, making it a seemingly ideal target to disrupt dietary contributions to systemic lipid and cholesterol loads (Wierzbicki et al., 2009). Unfortunately, MTP is also found in a number of additional organs with notably high levels in the liver, retina, and heart (Borén et al., 1998; Li et al., 2005). Inhibition of hepatic MTP decreases the ability of the liver to rid itself of fat, and chronic treatment with first-generation MTP inhibitors resulted in unacceptable rises in liver transaminases and hepatic steatosis in rodent models and humans (Lammens et al., 1999; Lilly ...
J:130260 Van Dyck F, Braem CV, Chen Z, Declercq J, Deckers R, Kim BM, Ito S, Wu MK, Cohen DE, Dewerchin M, Derua R, Waelkens E, Fiette L, Roebroek A, Schuit F, Van de Ven WJ, Shivdasani RA, Loss of the PlagL2 transcription factor affects lacteal uptake of chylomicrons. Cell Metab. 2007 Nov;6(5):406-13 ...
Cholesterol is minimally soluble in water; it cannot dissolve and travel in the water-based bloodstream. Instead, it is transported in the bloodstream by lipoproteins that are water-soluble and carry cholesterol and triglycerides internally. The apolipoproteins forming the surface of the given lipoprotein particle determine from what cells cholesterol will be removed and to where it will be supplied.. The largest lipoproteins, which primarily transport fats from the intestinal mucosa to the liver, are called chylomicrons. They carry mostly fats in the form of triglycerides. In the liver, chylomicron particles release triglycerides and some cholesterol. The liver converts unburned food metabolites into very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and secretes them into plasma where they are converted to intermediate density lipoproteins(IDL), which thereafter are converted to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles and non-esterified fatty acids, which can affect other body cells. In healthy individuals, ...
Background: Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (PHTG) is caused by the accumulation of chylomicron and chylomicron remnants and has been shown to be associated with metabolic syndrome and the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. In our previous studies, we showed that the intestinal cholesterol transporter inhibitor, ezetimibe, attenuates PHTG and postprandial elevation of FFAs in patients with type IIb hyperlipidemia (Eur J Clin Invest 2009), however the mechanisms for this have not been elucidated yet.. Methods and Results: We investigated the effect of ezetimibe on PHTG in wild-type (WT) mice fed a western diet and CD36KO mice fed a normal chow diet, which is an animal model of PHTG which was due to the intestinal over-production of chylomicrons. Ezetimibe significantly reduced TG levels at 3 hours after oral fat load using olive oil in both WT and CD36KO mice (from 375±41 to 252±19 mg/dl. 457±114 to 383±93 mg/dl, respectively). The analysis of lipoprotein profiles by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A frequently occurring mutation in the lipoprotein lipase gene (Asn291Ser) results in altered postprandial chylomicron triglyceride and retinyl palmitate response in normolipidemic carriers. AU - Pimstone, Simon N.. AU - Clee, Susanne M.. AU - Gagné, S. Eric. AU - Miao, Li. AU - Zhang, Hanfang. AU - Stein, Evan A.. AU - Hayden, Michael R.. PY - 1996/8/1. Y1 - 1996/8/1. N2 - An Asn291Ser mutation in exon 6 of the lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) frequently occurs in Caucasians (2-4%) and results in a partial catalytic defect. Although this mutation may be associated with low HDL cholesterol and elevated triglyceride levels, some carriers are normolipidemic and may have LPL activity in the normal range in the fasting state. To assess in vivo the influence of dietary stress on the function of this mutation, we have performed oral fat load studies on three unrelated normolipidemic Asn291Ser carriers and compared these results to five healthy controls and to a subject with a clear 50% ...
A group of Apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of Lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; Chylomicrons). After Lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and Chylomicrons, Apo-C Proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase, or Lipoprotein Lipase ...
Cholesterol is minimally soluble in water; it cannot dissolve and travel in the water-based bloodstream. Instead, it is transported in the bloodstream by lipoproteins that are water-soluble and carry cholesterol and triglycerides internally. The apolipoproteins forming the surface of the given lipoprotein particle determine from what cells cholesterol will be removed and to where it will be supplied.. The largest lipoproteins, which primarily transport fats from the intestinal mucosa to the liver, are called chylomicrons. They carry mostly fats in the form of triglycerides. In the liver, chylomicron particles release triglycerides and some cholesterol. The liver converts unburned food metabolites into very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and secretes them into plasma where they are converted to intermediate density lipoproteins(IDL), which thereafter are converted to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles and non-esterified fatty acids, which can affect other body cells. In healthy individuals, ...
Cabello-Moruno, R and Sinausia, L and Montero, E and Botham, K M and Avella, M A and Perona, J S (2015) Minor components of pomace olive oil enhance VLDL-receptor expression in macrophages when treated with postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. GRASAS Y ACEITES, 66 (4). Bentley, C and Hathaway, N and Widdows, J and Bejta, F and De Pascale, C and Avella, M A and Wheeler-Jones, C P D and Botham, K M and Lawson, C (2011) Influence of chylomicron remnants on human monocyte activation in vitro. NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, 21 (11). pp. 871-878. Lopez-Soldado, I and Avella, M A and Botham, K M (2009) Differential influence of different dietary fatty acids on very low-density lipoprotein secretion when delivered to hepatocytes in chylomicron remnants. Metabolism-Clinical and Experimental, 58 (2). pp. 186-195. Lopez-Soldado, I and Avella, M A and Botham, K M (2009) Suppression of VLDL secretion by cultured hepatocytes incubated with chylomicron remnants enriched in n-3 ...
Compared with nondiabetic individuals, patients with type 2 diabetes are at a much greater risk for CVD. Consequently, the treatment of CVD risk factors is a healthcare priority in this patient population. A number of clinical trials with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG) CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) have shown significant CVD risk reduction through LDL cholesterol lowering in patients with diabetes,172-177 mainly through increased LDL-receptor activity.178 Increased LDL-receptor activity may also correct chylomicron metabolism.179 Indeed, the recently published Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS), a placebo-controlled trial of patients with type 2 diabetes, was terminated 2 years earlier than its anticipated length owing to the significant reduction in number of CVD events observed in patients randomized to receive low-dose atorvastatin versus placebo.172 The statin therapy in this trial resulted in significant reduction of CVD events in patients with type 2 ...
The liver can convert carbohydrate to fat, which is exported from the liver as a lipoprotein. The lipoprotein complex responsible for transporting lipids from the small intestine is in the form of chylomicrons. It is the chylomicrons that responsible for the milky appearance of blood plasma that occurs after a meal rich in fat has been eaten ...
and the therapeutic and commercial potential of WAYLIVRA and other products in development. Any statement describing Ionis or Akceas goals, expectations, financial or other projections, intentions or beliefs, including the commercial potential of TEGSEDI, WAYLIVRA or other of Ionis or Akceas drugs in development is a forward-looking statement and should be considered an at-risk statement. Such statements are subject to certain risks and uncertainties, particularly those inherent in the process of discovering, developing and commercializing drugs that are safe and effective for use as human therapeutics, and in the endeavor of building a business around such drugs. Ionis and Akceas forward-looking statements also involve assumptions that, if they never materialize or prove correct, could cause its results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Although Ionis and Akceas forward-looking statements reflect the good faith judgment of its ...
HDL and LDL determinations used in human medicine; values reported for HDL and LDL in dogs and cats cannot be assumed to be reliable.  Chylomicron test obtain serum sample after a 12-hour fast and refrigerate for 12-14 hours; do not freeze; chylomicrons rise to the surface and form a creamy layer.  Lipoprotein electrophoresis separates LDL, VLDL, HDL1, and HDL2  LPL activity collect serum for triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations and lipoprotein electrophoresis before and 15 min after IV administration of heparin (90 IU/kg); if there is no change in values before and after heparin administration, a defective LPL enzyme system should be suspected.  T and T determinations indicated if hypothyroidism is suspected  Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test indicated if hyperadrenocorticism is DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES ...
Lipoprotein lipase deficiency (also known as "familial chylomicronemia syndrome", "chylomicronemia", "chylomicronemia syndrome" and "hyperlipoproteinemia type Ia") is a rare autosomal recessive lipid disorder caused by a mutation in the gene which codes lipoprotein lipase. As a result, afflicted individuals lack the ability to produce lipoprotein lipase enzymes necessary for effective breakdown of triglycerides. Laboratory changes: massive accumulation of chylomicrons in the plasma and corresponding severe hypertriglyceridemia. Typically, the plasma in a fasting blood sample appears creamy (plasma lactescence). Clinical symptoms: The disease often presents in infancy with colicky pain, failure to thrive, and other symptoms and signs of the chylomicronemia syndrome. In women the use of estrogens or first pregnancy are also well known trigger factors for initial manifestation of LPLD. At all ages, the most common clinical manifestation is recurrent abdominal pain and acute pancreatitis. The pain ...
We examined whether postprandial (PP) chylomicrons (CMs) can serve as vehicles for transporting cholesterol from endogenous cholesterol-rich lipoprotein (LDL+HDL) fractions and cell membranes to the liver via lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activities. During incubation of fresh fasting and PP plasma containing [(3)H]cholesteryl ester (CE)-labeled LDL+HDL, both CMs and VLDL served as acceptors of [(3)H]CE or cholesterol from LDL+HDL. The presence of CMs in PP plasma suppressed the ability of VLDL to accept [(3)H]CE from LDL+HDL. In reconstituted plasma containing an equivalent amount of triglycerides from isolated VLDL or CMs, a CM particle was about 40 times more potent than a VLDL particle in accepting [(3)H]CE or cholesterol from LDL+HDLs. When incubated with red blood cells (RBCs) as a source for cell membrane cholesterol, the cholesterol content of CMs, VLDL, LDL, and HDL in PP plasma increased by 485%, 74%, 13%, and 30%, ...
In this study, the most striking findings were the postprandial uptake of fatty acids from the circulating NEFA pool by adipose tissue, the direct confirmation that chylomicrons are the preferred substrate of LPL over VLDL, the preferential channeling of fatty acids derived from LPL-mediated chylomicron hydrolysis into adipose tissue, and the postprandial release of fatty acids across the forearm ...
Cholesterol is minimally soluble in water; it cannot dissolve and travel in the water-based bloodstream. Instead, it is transported in the bloodstream by lipoproteins that are water-soluble and carry cholesterol and triglycerides internally. The apolipoproteins forming the surface of the given lipoprotein particle determine from what cells cholesterol will be removed and to where it will be supplied. The largest lipoproteins, which primarily transport fats from the intestinal mucosa to the liver, are called chylomicrons. They carry mostly fats in the form of triglycerides. In the liver, chylomicron particles release triglycerides and some cholesterol. The liver converts unburned food metabolites into very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and secretes them into plasma where they are converted to intermediate density lipoproteins(IDL), which thereafter are converted to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles and non-esterified fatty acids, which can affect other body cells. In healthy individuals, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of dietary triacylglycerol structure on lipoprotein metabolism. T2 - A comparison of the effects of dioleoylpalmitoylglycerol in which palmitate is esterified to the 2-or 1(3)-position of the glycerol. AU - Pufal, Deborah A. AU - Quinlan, Paul T. AU - Salter, Andrew M. PY - 1995/8/24. Y1 - 1995/8/24. N2 - The effect on lipoprotein metabolism of diets enriched in different isomers of dioleoylpalmitoylglycerol was studied. One diet contained fat in which palmitate was esterified to the two outer positions of the glycerol (OOP) and the other in which it was esterified to the middle carbon (OPO). The lipid composition of chylomicrons was similar in rats fed either fat blend. However, triacylglycerol (TAG) in chylomicrons from OPO fed animals was relatively enriched in palmitic acid, at the expense of stearic, oleic and linoleic acids. Silver phase HPLC and 2-positional analysis clearly demonstrated that the identity of the fatty acid in the 2-position was similar in both ...
Definition : Immunoassay reagents intended to perform qualitative and/or quantitative analyses on a body fluid sample (typically serum) to determine apolipoprotein B, the major protein in low-density lipids (LDLs) and present in large amounts (approximately 4%) in both very-low-density lipids (VLDLs) and chylomicrons. Apolipoprotein B is found in at least two forms: B-100 (Apo B-100) synthesized in the liver, and B-48 (Apo B-48), probably synthesized in the intestines. Levels of apolipoproteins in plasma are associated with the risk of atherosclerosis and coronary artery diseases.. Entry Terms : "Apolipoprotein B Determination Reagents" , "Reagents, Immunoassay, Lipoprotein, Apolipoprotein B". UMDC code : 19817 ...
The ability to distinguish cancer cells from healthy cells during surgery is essential for preventing the removal of healthy tissue and ensuring no tumor remnants are left behind.
Lipoproteins contain a core of hydrophobic lipids (triglycerides and cholesteryl esters) surrounded by a shell of hydrophilic lipids (phospholipids, unesterified cholesterol) and proteins (called apolipoproteins) that interact with body fluids. The plasma lipoproteins are divided into five major classes based on their relative density (Fig. 421-1 and Table 421-1): chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs), intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs), low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), and high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Each lipoprotein class comprises a family of particles that vary in density, size, and protein composition. Because lipid is less dense than water, the density of a lipoprotein particle is primarily determined by the amount of lipid per particle. Chylomicrons are the most lipid-rich and therefore least dense lipoprotein particles, whereas HDLs have the least lipid and are therefore the most dense lipoproteins. In addition to their density, lipoprotein particles can be ...
Lipoproteins contain a core of hydrophobic lipids (triglycerides and cholesteryl esters) surrounded by a shell of hydrophilic lipids (phospholipids, unesterified cholesterol) and proteins (called apolipoproteins) that interact with body fluids. The plasma lipoproteins are divided into five major classes based on their relative density (Fig. 27-1 and Table 27-1): chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs), intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs), low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), and high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Each lipoprotein class comprises a family of particles that vary in density, size, and protein composition. Because lipid is less dense than water, the density of a lipoprotein particle is primarily determined by the amount of lipid per particle. Chylomicrons are the most lipid-rich and therefore least dense lipoprotein particles, whereas HDLs have the least lipid and are therefore the most dense lipoproteins. In addition to their density, lipoprotein particles can be ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Plasma apolipoprotein B-48 transport in obese men: A new tracer kinetic study in the postprandial state. AU - Wong, A.T.Y.. AU - Chan, Dick. AU - Pang, Jing. AU - Watts, Gerald. AU - Barrett, Hugh. PY - 2014/1. Y1 - 2014/1. N2 - Context: The mechanisms responsible for impaired chylomicron metabolism have not been adequately investigated in obese subjects. Objective: We aimed to compare apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 kinetics in obese and lean men by developing a new model to describe the kinetics of apoB-48 particles in the postprandial state. Design, Setting, and Patients: Seven obese and 13 age-matched lean men were given an oral fat load. apoB-48 tracer to tracee ratios were measured after intravenous d3-leucine administration using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Kinetic parameters were derived using a multicompartmental model. Outcomes Measures: Plasma total and incremental apoB-48 0-10 hour areas under the curve as well as apoB-48 secretion and fractional catabolic rate. ...
Lipins play important roles in adipogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and gene regulation, and mutations in these genes cause lipodystrophy, myoglobinuria, and inflammatory disorders. While all lipins (lipin 1, 2, and 3) act as phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) enzymes, which are required for triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis from glycerol 3-phosphate, lipin 1 has been the focus of most of the lipin-related research. In the current issue of the JCI, Zhang et al. show that while lipin 2 and 3 are expendable for the incorporation of dietary fatty acids into triglycerides, lipin 2/3 PAP activity has a critical role in phospholipid homeostasis and chylomicron assembly in enterocytes.. ...
A 39-year-old man with lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency (height 177.7 cm, body weight 67 kg, and body mass index 21.2 kg/m,sup,2,/sup,) showed severe hypertriglyceridemia (2, 032 mg/dl). LPL activity and concentration were markedly low in postheparin plasma. LPL gene analysis revealed a homozygous mutation, Asp204 → Glu in exon 5. Fasting plasma glucose (81 mg/dl) and insulin (2.7 (μU/ml) levels were normal. Plasma glucose pattern during oral glucose (75 g) tolerance test was normal, however 30 minutes after glucose-loading the insulin secretion unexpectedly increased to 89.4 μU/ml. These data suggested that chylomicronemia might be related to a hyper-response of insulin secretion to glucose without obesity.,br,(Internal Medicine 41: 300-303, 2002). ...
How does an essential nutrient, required for energy and cellular structure, become a major toxin? When we over-nourish ourselves, excess carbohydrate calories (after conversion to triglycerides) circulate in very-low-density lipoprotein, and dietary triglycerides circulate in chylomicrons. Both of these particles interact with lipoprotein lipase (LpL), a dimeric enzyme located on the luminal surface of endothelial cells and on cardiomyocytes. LpL releases fatty acids from triglyceride and allows them to be taken up by cells. Thus, LpL is central to the creation of LDL and the regulation of HDL.. Lipolysis of triglyceride is beneficial, but when it occurs in excess and along the arterial wall, it can be detrimental. Both tissue culture and limited animal experimental data suggest that excess products of LpL lipolysis activate inflammatory molecules and alter vascular function.. The organ of the body that most actively metabolizes triglyceride is the heart. This ultimate marathon muscle uses ...
Health Focus (Niacin):. Note: I see a lot of orders for no-flush niacin. I assume the reason people are buying this is to raise HDL cholesterol. I couldnt find any research that no-flush niacin works to increase HDL. Its probably a waste of money for the no-flush. Just do a Medline search of hexanicotinate HDL, hexaniacinate HDL or no-flush niacin. Here are the the only studies I could find:. Accumulation of chylomicron remnants and impaired vascular reactivity occur in subjects with isolated low HDL cholesterol: effects of niacin treatment - Atherosclerosis. 2006 Jul;187(1):116-22 - evaluation of no-flush niacin treatment ... Twenty-two low HDL subjects with reduced FMD were randomized into two groups, one given 1.5 g/day niacin and a placebo group. After 3-month treatment, plasma lipids and chylomicron kinetics were not changed by niacin treatment. Varying cost and free nicotinic acid content in over-the-counter niacin preparations for dyslipidemia - Ann Intern Med. 2003 Dec ...
The Beckman Airfuge CLS Ultracentrifuge is engineered to provide fast and simple chylomicron removal without serum loss. The system employs the advanced Beckman Coulter Chylomicron rotor and liner which eliminate the
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PCTV HD Pro Stick is the first ultra-compact USB 2.0 powered TV tuner in an attractive stick form factor that brings the brilliant sharpness of HDTV via ATSC to your PC. The new digital TV standard ATSC comes over the air and for free in high or standard definition, and there is no subscription required. In addition to ATSC, also standard analog TV (NTSC) can be received, via cable, satellite or antenna. The included Pinnacle TVCenter Pro software lets you not only watch TV but also record it. You can even pause live TV and resume exactly where you left off and you can rewind or fast forward. Good looks, great features and minimum size, will make the PCTV HD Pro Stick a must have wherever you are.. ...
Postprandial lipemia and fatty acid fluxes occur several times daily, resulting in very efficient absorption of dietary fat and redistribution to various tissues. Absorbed dietary lipids are incorporated into chylomicrons to distribute triglycerides either for storage in adipose tissue or for immediate use in muscle. Commonly, the dietary sources of fat exceed the actual needs and the tissues are faced with dealing with the excess. Under these circumstances, the removal process of dietary triglycerides and fatty acids becomes overloaded, resulting in excessive postprandial lipemia and accumulation of chylomicrons, remnant particles and non-esterified fatty acids. These particles are associated with disruptions in lipoprotein metabolism and changes in inflammatory factors, thus their association with cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome and diabetes is not surprising. Dietary factors, not just fat, influence postprandial fluxes. This leads to the question: do we need a standardized fat ...
View Notes - 09lipRxns from FST 100A at UC Davis. II.C.i.-1 Reactions of Reactions of Triglycerides Triglycerides • Hydrolysis (lipolysis ) triglycerides diglycerides, monoglycerides, glycerol +
The use of penile implants, grafts or remnants are used in situations of lost or partially lost members. The penile implant surgery will be performed together with an urologist,
The discovery reveals the role of a growth factor and endothelial cells in thymus repair, and could have implications for chemotherapy and radiation patients recovery following treatment.. 0 Comments. ...
Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
PMID 20170916] Association of selected ABC gene family single nucleotide polymorphisms with postprandial lipoproteins: results from the population-based Hortega study. ...
1) Lipid intake, absorption and intestinal lipoprotein formation. By: Dr. Tso, Dr. Hui, Dr. Jandack, Dr. Sun, Dr. Howles, Dr Heubi, Dr. Woollett. ...
Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as a causal factor for cardiovascular disease Peter P Toth1,2 1Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 2Preventive Cardiology, CGH Medical Center, Sterling, IL, USA Abstract: Approximately 25% of US adults are estimated to have hypertriglyceridemia (triglyceride [TG] level ≥150 mg/dL [≥1.7 mmol/L]). Elevated TG levels are associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and severe hypertriglyceridemia (TG levels ≥500 mg/dL [≥5.6 mmol/L]) is a well-established risk factor for acute pancreatitis. Plasma TG levels correspond to the sum of the TG content in TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs; ie, very low-density lipoproteins plus chylomicrons) and their remnants. There remains some uncertainty regarding the direct causal role of TRLs in the progression of atherosclerosis and CVD, with cardiovascular outcome studies of TG-lowering agents, to date, having produced inconsistent
Apolipoprotein B is a major protein constituent of chylomicrons (apo B-48), LDL (apo B-100) and VLDL (apo B-100). Apo B-100 functions as a recognition signal for the cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles by the apoB/E receptor.
The Liquid autoHDL™ Cholesterol assay is a homogeneous method for directly measuring serum HDL-C levels without the need for any off-line pretreatment or centrifugation steps. The method is in a two-reagent format. The first reagent contains α-cyclodextrin and dextran sulfate to stabilize LDL, VLDL, and chylomicrons. The second reagent contains PEG modified enzymes that selectively react with the cholesterol present in the HDL particles. Consequently, only the HDL cholesterol is subject to cholesterol measurement ...
Inhibiting the enzyme that converts A into B results in less of B but more of A. This also applies to something called Cholesterol Ester Transport Protein (CETP) that transports esterified cholesterol (acid + alcohol = ester + water & cholesterol is technically an alcohol) from the tiny HDL discs to the much larger LDL & relatively huge VLDL particles. To see what HDL, LDL, VLDL & chylomicrons look like, see Large LDL and small HDL particles: The best combination ...
large VLDL fractions of TRLs were isolated from 4 mL plasma The following morning they came to the hospital after fasting for overlayered with 0.15 mol NaCl/L, 1 mmol EDTA/L (pH 7.4; 12 h. By use of a randomized, sequential crossover design, the density: 1.006 kg/L) by a single ultracentrifugal spin (28 000 ҂ participants were given 1 of 2 breakfasts consisting of 60 g white g, 30 min, 4 °C) in a type 50 rotor (Beckman Instruments, Ful- bread, 40 mL virgin olive oil (Carapelli Firenze SpA, Florence, lerton, CA). Chylomicrons contained in the top layer were re- Italy) with either a high (A, 400 ppm) or a low (B, 80 ppm) moved by aspiration after the tubes were cut. The infranatant content of phenolic compounds and 60 000 IUs vitamin A/m2 fraction was centrifuged at a density of 1.019 kg/L for 24 h at body surface area. Patients starting with the A type breakfast 115 000 ҂ g in the same rotor. The nonchylomicron fraction of consumed the B type after 1 wk, and conversely. Olive oil B was TRL ...
Rabbit polyclonal Apolipoprotein CII antibody validated for WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication and 2 independent reviews…
Sixteen pigs from 2 distinct genetic lines (LGAH and VFIL) obtained after eight generations of divergent selection for high (H) and low (L) lean tissue growth rate with ad-libitum feeding (LGA) and voluntary feed intake (VFI), respectively, were used in this study. The objectives of this investigation were to establish appropriate working conditions for the postheparin plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) assay and to study relationships between fat deposition and plasma lipids, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) lipids, VLDL-subfractions and postheparin plasma LPL activity in growing pigs. Four preliminary experiments were performed to determine the appropriate working conditions for the postheparin plasma LPL assays. Postheparin plasma preincubated with SDS (20-50 mM) at 26 C for 45 minutes inhibited hepatic lipase activity. A total of 2 l VLDL/assay produced maximum stimulation of LPL activity. Postheparin plasma protein and increasing incubation time contributed an optimum response. LGAH pigs ...
LPL encodes for the enzyme lipoprotein lipase. It plays a role in breaking down fat in the form of triglycerides. When lipoprotein lipase breaks down triglycerides, the fat molecules are used by the body as energy or stored in fatty tissue for later use (R). Mutations in this can cause familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency, which will lead to an increase in fat and cause inflammation (R). familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency More than 220 mutations in the LPL gene have been found to cause familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency. This condition disrupts the normal breakdown of triglycerides in the body, resulting in an increase of these fats. The most common mutation in people of European ancestry replaces the protein building block (amino acid) glycine with the amino acid glutamic acid at position 188 in the enzyme (written as Gly188Glu or G188E). Mutations that cause familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency reduce or eliminate lipoprotein lipase activity, which prevents the enzyme from ...
The sine qua non of atherosclerosis is the presence of sterols in arterial wall macrophages. Sterols are delivered to the arterial wall by the penetration of the endothelium by an apoB-containing lipoprotein, which transport the sterols. In other words, unless an apoB-containing lipoprotein particle violates the border created by an endothelium cell and the layer it protects, the media layer, there is no way atherogenesis occurs. For now, lets focus only on the most ubiquitous apoB-containing lipoprotein, the LDL particle. Yes, other lipoproteins also contain apoB (e.g., chylomicrons, remnant lipoproteins such as VLDL remnants, IDL and Lp(a)), but they are few in number relative to LDL particles. I will address them later.. The endothelium is the one-cell-thick-layer which lines the lumen (i.e., the "tube") of a vessel, in this case, the artery. Since blood is in direct contact with this cell all the time, all lipoproteins - including LDL particles - come in constant contact with such ...
Macrophage receptor that binds to the apolipoprotein B48 (APOB) of dietary triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins (TRL) or to a like domain of APOB in hypertriglyceridemic very low density lipoprotein (HTG-VLDL). Binds and internalizes TRL when out of the context of the macrophage. May provide essential lipids to reticuloendothelial cells. Could also be involved in foam cell formation with elevated TRL and remnant lipoprotein (RLP). Mediates the rapid high-affinity uptake of chylomicrons (CM), HTG-VLDL, and trypsinized (tryp) VLDL devoid of APOE in vitro in macrophages.
This gene product is the main apolipoprotein of chylomicrons and low density lipoproteins. It occurs in plasma as two main isoforms, apoB-48 and apoB-100: the former is synthesized exclusively in the gut and the latter in the liver. The intestinal and the hepatic forms of apoB are encoded by a single gene from a single, very long mRNA. The two isoforms share a common N-terminal sequence. The shorter apoB-48 protein is produced after RNA editing of the apoB-100 transcript at residue 2180 (CAA->UAA), resulting in the creation of a stop codon, and early translation termination. Mutations in this gene or its regulatory region cause hypobetalipoproteinemia, normotriglyceridemic hypobetalipoproteinemia, and hypercholesterolemia due to ligand-defective apoB, diseases affecting plasma cholesterol and apoB levels. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Cholesterol and triglyceride test - Animation Maybe youve been eating fast food more often than you should, or youre not getting your recommended two-and-a-half hours of exercise each week. Or, it could be that you smoke, or your blood pressure is too high. Well, for whatever reason, you may be concerned about your risk of getting heart disease. Well, a few tests can help you learn that risk, so you can start making healthy lifestyle changes to reduce it. A coronary risk profile is a group of blood tests that measure your cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Why is it important to know these levels? Because if you have too much of these substances in your blood from eating foods like burgers and French fries, they can clog your arteries. Eventually your arteries can become so clogged that youll have a heart attack or stroke. Men should have their cholesterol tested by the time theyre 35. Women should have it checked by age 45. If you have a condition like diabetes, heart disease, stroke, or ...
ZCZC MIATCPAT1 ALL TTAA00 KNHC DDHHMM BULLETIN TROPICAL DEPRESSION ALEX ADVISORY NUMBER 26 NWS TPC/NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL AL012010 1000 PM CDT THU JUL 01 2010 ...ALEX DISSIPATES OVER THE MOUNTAINS OF CENTRAL MEXICO... SUMMARY OF 1000 PM CDT...0300 UTC...INFORMATION ----------------------------------------------- LOCATION...23.3N 102.4W ABOUT 35 MI...55 KM...NNE OF ZACATECAS MEXICO MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS...30 MPH...45 KM/HR PRESENT MOVEMENT...W OR 275 DEGREES AT 12 MPH...19 KM/HR MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE...1000 MB...29.53 INCHES WATCHES AND WARNINGS -------------------- THERE ARE NO COASTAL WATCHES OR WARNINGS IN EFFECT. DISCUSSION AND 48-HOUR OUTLOOK ------------------------------ AT 1000 PM CDT...0300 UTC...THE REMNANTS OF ALEX WERE CENTERED NEAR LATITUDE 23.3 NORTH...LONGITUDE 102.4 WEST. THE REMNANTS ARE MOVING TOWARD THE WEST NEAR 12 MPH...19 KM/HR...AND THIS GENERAL MOTION WILL CONTINUE OVERNIGHT. MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS ARE NEAR 30 MPH...45 KM/HR...WITH HIGHER GUSTS. WINDS ...
And much more.. The bottom line. The bottom line is that steam remnants are better in every way possible! Imagine, being able to clean better, faster and healthier with all natural steam. Imagine never waiting for a floor to dry.Also, lets not forget all the other things your steam vapor cleaner can do.. Protect your family by removing harmful chemicals from your cleaning routine. Save money by not having to buy another mop or mop head again! Steam mopping hardwood floors and other types of flooring make your life healthier and easier! A Steam Vapor Cleaner is a multi use tool that you will use over and over again. T that the image on the left is for our use in commercial and heavy VC4000 home.. No expensive mops or cloths!. Note: This image shows a homeowner using a large towel. With our sturdy built in clips you can use almost any fabric that can fit in the mop. No need to order expensive mop replacement heads. You can use any form of an old cloth, towel or a t-shirt with an expensive ...
Shaving soaps and creams are made up of lots of different ingredients. In a natural, artisan soap, like Nannys Silly Soap Company make you can be sure that all these […]. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Contribution of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to plasma free fatty acids. AU - Miles, J. M.. AU - Nelson, R. H.. PY - 2007/10. Y1 - 2007/10. N2 - Free fatty acids are the major lipid fuel of the body. Dysregulation of adipose tissue lipolysis results in increased plasma free fatty acid concentrations, and via that mechanism contributes to insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adipose tissue hormone sensitive lipase is thought to be responsible for the production of the majority of free fatty acids. However, a separate contribution comes from the action of endothelial lipases, especially lipoprotein lipase, on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins via a process known as spillover. The primary substrate for spillover appears to be chylomicrons derived from dietary fat. The spillover of fatty acids into the free fatty acid pool varies from one tissue to another. For example, spillover is low (∼14%) in the forearm of healthy volunteers, suggesting that triglyceride ...
In this report, the authors used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to measure different apoB-containing lipoprotein particle concentrations in 11,984 subjects from the JUPITER study population. The variables of interest were LDL (large, small), intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL), and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL, large, medium and small) particle subclasses, VLDL-cholesterol and VLDL/chylomicron triglycerides. In the statin-treated group, in which median LDL-C was 55 mg/dl (1.4 mmol/L), there was no association between LDL or IDL particle concentration and risk for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). There was, however, an association for VLDL particle concentration, specifically driven by small VLDL particles. Indeed, each increase by one standard deviation in small VLDL particle concentration was associated with 68% increase in the residual risk of MACE. This finding is consistent with mechanistic studies of lipoprotein/arterial wall interactions, which show ...
Added to this, both observational and genetic studies have been concordant in showing that remnant cholesterol (which includes intermediate-density lipoproteins, very-low-density lipoproteins, and chylomicron remnants, the products of the lipolytic degradation of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins produced by the liver and intestine) is causal for ischaemic heart disease 8. Genetic studies have also shown associations between different players in triglyceride metabolism, apolipoprotein CIII and the angiopoietins-like 3 and 4 (ANGPTL3, ANGPTL4) and coronary artery disease (9-11); the latest Focus report discusses recent data for ANGPTL3 inhibition. Moreover, given the pivotal role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) in controlling the expression of a number of key genes in triglyceride and HDL metabolism, efforts have been directed to modulating the unique receptor-cofactor binding profile to improve the potency and selectivity of PPAR? ligands (the SPPARM? concept). The ...
Natural killer (NK) cells take up chylomicrons (CM), very low density (VLDL), low density (LDL), high density (HDL) and acetyl-modified low density (AcLDL) lipoproteins through different receptors, VLDL being the lipoprotein with the highest uptake and HDL the lowest. The uptake of LDL can be selectively blocked by the anti-LDL receptor, which does not affect the uptake of CM, VLDL, HDL and AcLDL. Although the uptake of lipoproteins assessed by flow cytometry using DiI is not very high, the lipoproteins are able to induce an increase in proliferative responses, VLDL, AcLDL and HDL being the most important ones with 12- and 17-fold increments, respectively. CM, VLDL and LDL at low concentrations increase NK cytotoxic activity, while HDL and AcLDL inhibit, in a dose-dependent fashion, the killing of NK cells against K562. These results suggest the presence of four different receptors that are responsible for the cytotoxic and proliferative responses observed ...
Cyclosporine encapsulated in Lym-X-Sorb® was compared to the current delivery formulations of cyclosporine and administered orally to dogs. The area under the curve showed a 4-5 fold increased absorption of cyclosporine in Lym-X-Sorb® formulation when compared to the commercial formulation. The delayed appearance of drug in plasma for Lym-X-Sorb® formulation indicates that cyclosporine partitions with the chylomicrons into the lymphatic system. Exclusion Chromatography and Oral Bioavailability of Cyclosporin Graph ...
When different forms of statistical studies, and different approaches in the study of one disease, lead to a similar set of deductions, the validity of the deductions assumes a greater weight and significance. The importance of the summation of the evidence is well illustrated in the evaluation of different statistical studies of cancer of the lung and the reasonable conclusion t h a t its main cause is cigarette smoking (see Chapter IX). Another meaningful illustration of the usefulness of statistical methods may be seen in records of epidermoid cancer of the skin. In benign ulcer, there is complete destruction of muscle in the floor; and the muscularis mucosae is fused with the muscular layer at the edge of the ulcer. I n malignancy arising de novo, muscle remnants are left in the base, and there is no fusion a t the margins ; if a malignant ulcer has no muscle in its base, it may have been preceded by a peptic ulcer. 2. In benign ulcer, there is dense fibrosis underlying granulation tissue in ...
She has a long list of cute things like get ice cream from the truck, eat outside.... etc. One of the things on her list that I immediately knew I HAD to do was welcome our new, next door neighbors with some side walk chalk graffiti. They just moved to Charlotte, NC from Costa Rica so I thought this would be fun. Avery and I had a great time doing it! We couldnt decide whether or not to do it in English or Spanish but went with English in case they were actually Americans who had been living in Costa Rica or something like that. Come to find out, they are from Costa Rica, they speak very fluent English.... and the chalk I used was like spray paint. WHOOPS. 3 hard rains and 1 sighting of the new resident trying to hose it off the sidewalk later... the remnants are still faintly there! Thankfully, we arent facebook friends yet and since I did it while they were out experiencing Carowinds for the day, they dont know I did it ...
HIRATA, Mario Hiroyuki; BORELLI, Primavera; MARANHÃO, Raul Cavalcante. Metabolism of triglyceride-rich emulsions in rats with protein mal nutrition. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, New York, v. 12, n. 1 , p. 47-57, 1993. DOI: 10.1080/07315724.1993.10718282 ...
So I come again, at last some may say; and I come barring a gift of yet another 1st draft excerpt of my WIP Remnant. I hope you enjoy this taste of what I have been up to these past few months... I promise soon Ill have another post up with more then just an…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Abetalipoproteinemia. T2 - descrizione di un caso.. AU - Guariso, G.. AU - Chiarelli, M. S.. AU - Nichetti, C.. AU - Montesco, M. C.. AU - Zancan, L.. PY - 1993/11. Y1 - 1993/11. N2 - The abetalipoproteinemia is a recessively inherited defect in the formation of the proteins coating chylomicrons. Their absence compromises the transport of absorbed fats out of the enterocytes into the lymphatic system and the general circulation. Clinical features include steatorrhea, retarded growth, acanthocytosis of erythrocytes, retinitis pigmentosa and a chronic progressive neurological disorder with ataxia. We describe here the case of a 3 year old girl.. AB - The abetalipoproteinemia is a recessively inherited defect in the formation of the proteins coating chylomicrons. Their absence compromises the transport of absorbed fats out of the enterocytes into the lymphatic system and the general circulation. Clinical features include steatorrhea, retarded growth, acanthocytosis of erythrocytes, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The correlation between TG vs remnant lipoproteins in the fasting and postprandial plasma of 23 volunteers. AU - Nakajima, Katsuyuki. AU - Nakano, Takamitsu. AU - Moon, Hyun Duk. AU - Nagamine, Takeaki. AU - Stanhope, Kimber. AU - Havel, Peter J. AU - Warnick, G. Russell. PY - 2009/6/27. Y1 - 2009/6/27. N2 - Background: Two recent publications report that non-fasting triglycerides concentrations in plasma are more predictive of cardiovascular events than conventional measurements of fasting triglycerides. While these observations are consistent with the previous studies, direct correlations between remnant lipoprotein triglyceride (RLP-TG) and remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C), which are also considered to be risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and fasting and postprandial TG have not been investigated. Methods: On four different days, both fasting and postprandial blood samples were collected from twenty-three overweight to obese men and women at UC Davis and analyzed ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Adenovirus-mediated rescue of lipoprotein lipase-deficient mice. Lipolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins is essential for high density lipoprotein maturation in mice. AU - Strauss, Juliane Gertrude. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. M3 - Poster. ER - ...
A measurement system using a surfactant or an enzyme reacting strongly with all lipoproteins would be suitable for measuring total TG. Considering this, to design the direct LDL-TG assay reagents, it was important to identify milder conditions, with reactivity distinguishing LDL from other lipoproteins including chylomicrons (CM), VLDL, and HDL. We have previously reported in our development of a direct LDL-C assay that the reactivity of surfactants with various lipoproteins differs depending on their hydrophilic-lipophilic balance values (11). Surfactants with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance values from 13.20-13.75 had higher reactivity with TRL and HDL, but lower reactivity with LDL. Thus, to develop the LDL-TG assay, we considered these surfactant properties. We selected polyoxyethylene benzyl phenyl ether derivative with an HLB value of 13.2 for further evaluation in our LDL-C measurement assay system.. In screening lipoprotein lipases, we found that most lipases reacted with all ...
Atherogenesis is initiated by subendothelial accumulation (i.e. retention) of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins. Lipoprotein retention only occurs in specific vascular areas and is mediated by artery wall proteoglycans in the innermost layer of the artery (the arterial intima). In particular, proteoglycans with elongated glycosaminoglycan chains seem to play a crucial role in this process. The retained lipoproteins subsequently provoke an inflammatory response that ultimately leads to atherosclerosis. Atherogenic lipoproteins specifically locate in areas of intimal hyperplasia, characterised by accumulation of vascular smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix. This thickened intima appears to act as a depot for extracellular lipids in the earliest initial stages of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, accumulation of apoB-containing triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the postprandial state promotes the retention of remnant particles in the artery wall, in turn leading to accelerated ...
Atherogenesis is initiated by subendothelial accumulation (i.e. retention) of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins. Lipoprotein retention only occurs in specific vascular areas and is mediated by artery wall proteoglycans in the innermost layer of the artery (the arterial intima). In particular, proteoglycans with elongated glycosaminoglycan chains seem to play a crucial role in this process. The retained lipoproteins subsequently provoke an inflammatory response that ultimately leads to atherosclerosis. Atherogenic lipoproteins specifically locate in areas of intimal hyperplasia, characterised by accumulation of vascular smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix. This thickened intima appears to act as a depot for extracellular lipids in the earliest initial stages of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, accumulation of apoB-containing triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the postprandial state promotes the retention of remnant particles in the artery wall, in turn leading to accelerated ...
Fat is an important energy source from food. More than 95% of dietary fat is long-chain triacylglycerols (TAG), the remaining being phospholipids (4.5%) and sterols. In the small intestine lumen, dietary TAG is hydrolyzed to fatty acids (FA) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) by pancreatic lipase. These products are then emulsified with the help of phospholipids (PL) and bile acids (BA) present in bile to form micelles. Free FAs and MAGs are taken up by the enterocyte where they are rapidly resynthesized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to form TAG. PLs from the diet as well as bile - mainly LPA - too are absorbed by the enterocyte and are acylated to form phosphatidic acid (PA), which is also converted into TAG. Absorbed cholesterol (CL) is acylated to cholesterol esters (CE). Within the ER, TAG joins CE and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) to form chylomicrons that enter circulation through the lymph ...
Optimal absorption of these fat-soluble phytonutrients requires just the right amount and combination of dietary fats-and that is exactly the combination that is provided by avocado! Included within avocado are generous amounts of oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid that makes it easier for the digestive tract to form transport molecules (chylomicrons) that can carry carotenoids up into the body. This great match between avocados fat content and its carotenoids also extends to the relationship between avocado and other foods. Consider, for example, a simple salad composed of romaine lettuce, spinach, and carrots. This simple salad is rich in carotenoids, and when we eat it, we definitely get important carotenoid benefits. But recent research has shown that if one cup of avocado (150 grams) is added to this salad, absorption of carotenoids will be increased by 200-400%! This improvement in carotenoid absorption has also been shown in the case of salsa made with and without ...
delivery of TGs: Chylomicron. *VLDL. *delivery of C and CE: IDL. *LDL ...
delivery of TGs: Chylomicron. *VLDL. *delivery of C and CE: IDL. *LDL ...
chylomicron remodeling. • high-density lipoprotein particle remodeling. • chylomicron assembly. • positive regulation of ... chylomicron. • very-low-density lipoprotein particle. • spherical high-density lipoprotein particle. • extracellular region. • ... chylomicron remnant clearance. • Lipid metabolism. • phospholipid efflux. • positive regulation of lipoprotein lipase activity ... secreted in plasma where it is a component of very low density lipoproteins and chylomicrons. This protein activates the enzyme ...
Kuksis, Arnis (2000). "Biochemistry of Glycerolipids and Formation of Chylomicrons". In Christophe, Armand B.; DeVriese, ... while long-chain fatty acids are packed into chylomicrons and enter lymphatic capillaries, and enter the blood first at the ...
CYBB Chylomicron retention disease; 246700; SAR1B Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 1, with or without situs inversus; 244400; DNAI1 ...
The hydrolyzed chylomicrons are now called chylomicron remnants. The chylomicron remnants continue circulating the bloodstream ... The chylomicron at this stage is then considered mature. Via apolipoprotein C-II, mature chylomicrons activate lipoprotein ... Chylomicrons carry triglycerides (fat) from the intestines to the liver, to skeletal muscle, and to adipose tissue. Very-low- ... Again, like chylomicrons, VLDL particles circulate and encounter lipoprotein lipase (LPL) expressed on endothelial cells. ...
"Incorporation of carotenoids from paprika oleoresin into human chylomicrons". Br. J. Nutr. 89 (6): 787-93. doi:10.1079/ ...
VLDL is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, low-density lipoprotein, intermediate-density ... VLDL transports endogenous products, whereas chylomicrons transport exogenous (dietary) products. Recently both the lipid ...
The lipids in the chyle are colloidally suspended in chylomicrons. A chyle fistula occurs when defect(s) of lymphatic vessel(s ...
Since there is no or little assimilation of chylomicrons, their levels in plasma remains low. The inability to absorb fat in ... Low levels of plasma chylomicron are also characteristic. There is an absence of apolipoprotein B. On intestinal biopsy, ... which are used in the synthesis and exportation of chylomicrons and VLDL respectively. It is not to be confused with familial ... Because the epithelial cells of the bowel lack the ability to place fats into chylomicrons, lipids accumulate at the surface of ...
The triglycerides in chylomicrons are hydrolyzed by lipoprotein lipase (LPL) along the luminal surface of capillaries, mainly ... GPIHBP1 is a capillary endothelial cell protein that provides a platform for LPL-mediated processing of chylomicrons. GRCh38: ... Dietary fats are packaged by intestine into triglyceride-rich lipoproteins called chylomicrons. ... "The Acidic Domain of GPIHBP1 is Important for the Binding of Lipoprotein Lipase and Chylomicrons". Journal of Biological ...
... assembly and secretion of chylomicrons. These chylomicrons transport dietary lipids to tissues while the remaining chylomicrons ... ApoB 48 is a unique protein to chylomicrons from the small intestine. After most of the lipids in the chylomicron have been ... Apolipoprotein B is the primary apolipoprotein of chylomicrons, VLDL, IDL, and LDL particles (LDL - known commonly by the ... Intestinal proteins containing ApoB48 are metabolised to chylomicron remnant particles which are taken up by remnant receptors ...
At this point, the fats are in the bloodstream in the form of chylomicrons. Once in the blood, chylomicrons are subject to ... now referred to as a chylomicron remnant) can be taken up by the liver. From the liver, the fat released from chylomicron ... These chylomicrons then pass into the lacteals, forming a milky substance known as chyle. The lacteals merge to form larger ... The triglyceride is then combined with phospholipids, cholesterol ester, and apolipoprotein B48 to form chylomicrons. ...
It is a component of several lipoprotein fractions including VLDL, HDL, chylomicrons. It is believed that apoA-V affects ... APOA5 is associated predominantly with TG-rich lipoproteins (chylomicrons and VLDL) and has also been detected on HDL particles ... and chylomicrons, and circulates at very low concentrations compared with other apolipoproteins". Clinical Chemistry. 51 (2): ...
The chylomicrons are small enough to pass through the enterocyte villi and into their lymph capillaries called lacteals. A ... From this breakdown, smaller particles of emulsified fats called chylomicrons are produced. There are also digestive cells ... milky fluid called chyle, consisting mainly of the emulsified fats of the chylomicrons, results from the absorbed mix with the ...
Hofmann AF (Sep 1960). "Exchange of iodine-131-labeled chylomicron protein in vitro". Am. J. Physiol. 199: 433-6. PMID 13715094 ... Exchange of iodine-131-labeled chylomicron protein in vitro in the American Journal of Physiology and the next (also a sole ...
Laboratory changes: massive accumulation of chylomicrons in the plasma and corresponding severe hypertriglyceridemia. Typically ... on postprandial chylomicron metabolism in lipoprotein lipase-deficient patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 May;97(5):1635- ... because they are absorbed into the portal vein without becoming incorporated into chylomicrons. Fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, ...
By reducing the cholesterol content in chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants, cholesterol absorption inhibitors effectively ... These chylomicrons are then secreted into the lymphatics and circulated to the liver. These cholesterol particles are then ... Once absorbed by the enterocyte, cholesterol is reassembled into intestinal lipoproteins called chylomicrons. ... thereby reducing the incorporation of cholesterol esters into chylomicron particles. ...
"CD36 deficiency impairs intestinal lipid secretion and clearance of chylomicrons from the blood". The Journal of Clinical ...
The chylomicron enters a lymphatic capillary and enters into the bloodstream first at the left subclavian vein (having bypassed ... The chylomicrons are ultimately taken up by liver hepatocytes via interaction between apolipoproteinE and the LDL receptor or ... In the liver, chylomicron particles release triglycerides and some cholesterol. The liver converts unburned food metabolites ... In lipid digestion, cholesterol is packed into Chylomicrons in the small intestine, which are delivered to the Portal vein and ...
The chyle or chylomicron lipid so obtained was chromatographed on silicic acid columns to separate cholesterol esters and ... In contrast, chylomicron cholesterol ester formation showed marked specificity for oleic acid, relative to the other three ... Experiments were conducted to study in vivo the over-all fatty acid specificity of the mechanisms involved in chylomicron ... With the exception of a slight discrimination against stearic acid, the processes of fatty acid absorption and chylomicron ...
The thoracic duct empties the chylomicrons into the bloodstream via the left subclavian vein. At this point the chylomicrons ... They are taken in through the intestine in chylomicrons, but also exist in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and low density ... From within the cell, the chylomicron is released into a lymphatic capillary called a lacteal, which merges into larger ... The triglycerides are coated with cholesterol and protein (protein coat) into a compound called a chylomicron. ...
Chylomicrons VLDL-C particiles IDL-C particles LDL-C particles HDL-C particle Lipoprotein (a) [LP(a)] Men tend to have ... TGs, as major components of VLDL and chylomicrons, play an important role in metabolism. When the body requires fatty acids as ...
It is a water-soluble enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides in lipoproteins, such as those found in chylomicrons and very low- ... It is also involved in promoting the cellular uptake of chylomicron remnants, cholesterol-rich lipoproteins, and free fatty ... Beisiegel U, Weber W, Bengtsson-Olivecrona G (October 1991). "Lipoprotein lipase enhances the binding of chylomicrons to low ... high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 plays a critical role in the lipolytic processing of chylomicrons". Cell Metabolism ...
2003). "Intestinal alkaline phosphatase release is not associated with chylomicron formation". Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. ...
Measurement of human chylomicron triglyceride clearance with a labeled commercial lipid emulsion. Lipids. 2001 Feb; 36(2):115- ... A new method for the study of chylomicron kinetics in vivo. Am J Physiol. 2000; 279:E1258-63. ...
A proposed model for the assembly of chylomicrons.. Hussain MM1.. Author information. 1. Department of Biochemistry, School of ... The intestine synthesizes very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and chylomicrons (CM) to transport fat and fat-soluble vitamins ...
C. L. Elsegood, S. Pal, P. D. Roach, and J. C. L. Mamo, "Binding and uptake of chylomicron remnants by primary and THP-1 human ... The Chylomicron: Relationship to Atherosclerosis. Gerald H. Tomkin1,2 and Daphne Owens1,2 ... B. J. Zeng, B. C. Mortimer, I. J. Martins, U. Seydel, and T. G. Redgrave, "Chylomicron remnant uptake is regulated by the ... M. M. Hussain, R. K. Kancha, Z. Zhou, J. Luchoomun, H. Zu, and A. Bakillah, "Chylomicron assembly and catabolism: role of ...
There are three stages in the chylomicrons "lifecycle": Nascent chylomicron Mature chylomicron Chylomicron remnant ... to the nascent chylomicron and, thus, converts it to a mature chylomicron (often referred to simply as "chylomicron"). APOC2 is ... Chylomicrons are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins: chylomicrons (a.k.a. ULDL ultra low-density lipoprotein relative ... becomes a chylomicron remnant, now only 30-50 nm. APOB48 and APOE are important to identify the chylomicron remnant in the ...
... chylomicrons explanation free. What is chylomicrons? Meaning of chylomicrons medical term. What does chylomicrons mean? ... Looking for online definition of chylomicrons in the Medical Dictionary? ... chylomicrons. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. chylomicrons. Microscopic globules, 80 to 1000 nanometres in ... Chylomicrons, and some of their contents are broken don in the liver and the constituents released.. chylomicrons (kī´lōmī´ ...
Study of the Absorption of Vitamin E Water-soluble Form (Pegylated) in the Familial Hypocholesterolemia With Chylomicron ...
Without functional chylomicrons certain fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin D and vitamin E cannot be absorbed. Chylomicrons ... Chylomicron retention disease is a disorder of fat absorption. It is associated with SAR1B. Mutations in SAR1B prevent the ... Chylomicron retention disease". Gastroenterology. 92 (2): 390-9. PMID 3792776. Jones B, Jones EL, Bonney SA, et al. (May 2003 ... release of chylomicrons in the circulation which leads to nutritional and developmental problems. It is a rare autosomal ...
LPS binding to chylomicrons was compared with binding of LPS to LBP-chylomicron complexes. LPS was observed to interact with ... 2⇓A). However, LBP associated with chylomicrons strongly enhanced the LPS binding capacity of chylomicrons (Fig. 2⇓A). The LBP- ... LBP associated with chylomicrons enhances the LPS binding capacity of chylomicrons. LBP was demonstrated to transfer LPS into ... Chylomicrons neutralize LPS in a dose-dependent fashion. A range of chylomicron concentrations and 100 ng/ml LPS were incubated ...
Chylomicron remnants (CMRs) contribute directly to human monocyte activation ,i,in vitro,/i,, by increasing reactive oxygen ... Chylomicron remnants (CMRs) contribute directly to human monocyte activation in vitro, by increasing reactive oxygen species ( ... K. C. W. Yu and J. C. L. Mamo, "Chylomicron-remnant-induced foam cell formation and cytotoxicity: a possible mechanism of cell ... F. Bejta, E. H. Moore, M. Avella, P. J. Gough, K. E. Suckling, and K. M. Botham, "Oxidation of chylomicron remnant-like ...
glossary:chylomicrons. Login. You are currently not logged in! Enter your authentication credentials below to log in. You need ... glossary/chylomicrons.txt · Last modified: 2012/10/16 14:40 (external edit) ...
We assessed the levels of key chylomicron protein components. Levels of the major chylomicron protein, apoB48, were elevated in ... chylomicron biogenesis requires appropriate levels of phospholipids, which coat the surface of the particle. Chylomicrons are ... Chylomicron remnants are increased in the postprandial state in CD36 deficiency. J Lipid Res. 2009;50(5):999-1011.. View this ... The impaired chylomicron assembly in Lpin2/3-KO enterocytes was not associated with a dearth of TAG, which likely is ...
Impaired chylomicron synthesis in lipin 2/3 deficiency could be rescued by normalizing phospholipid synthesis levels. These ... Enterocyte TAGs are stored transiently as cytosolic lipid droplets or incorporated into lipoproteins (chylomicrons) for ... We determined that lipin enzymes are critical for chylomicron biogenesis, through regulation of membrane phospholipid ... Lipin 2/3 phosphatidic acid phosphatases maintain phospholipid homeostasis to regulate chylomicron synthesis. ...
Remnants of chylomicron and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) have been implicated as potentially atherogenic. Since ... Chylomicrons / pharmacology*. Electrophoresis, Agar Gel. Endothelium, Vascular / cytology, drug effects, physiology*. Humans. ... Remnants of chylomicron and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) have been implicated as potentially atherogenic. Since ...
At 2.5 h after the test meal, 50-ml blood samples were obtained from all subjects, and the chylomicron fraction (Sf , 1,000) ... Effect of oxidized lipids in the diet on oxidized lipid levels in postprandial serum chylomicrons of diabetic patients.. ... Effect of oxidized lipids in the diet on oxidized lipid levels in postprandial serum chylomicrons of diabetic patients. ... For determining the postprandial levels of triglycerides and of oxidized lipids in serum chylomicrons over an extended time ...
... is to decipher the cross-talk between the chylomicron and HDL metabolic pathways with adipose and hepatic tissues in the ... A. Create groups of mice transgenic or deficient for proteins of the chylomicron and HDL pathways with similar body-weights and ... B. Perform gene analyses to identify genes and pathways that are affected by protein components of the chylomicron and HDL ... In particular we focused on apolipoprotein E, and LDLr two key proteins responsible for the clearance of chylomicrons in plasma ...
Both DHA and EPA resulted in a lower secretion of chylomicron and VLDL (. ). In contrast to OA, EPA and DHA were preferentially ... The present research was undertaken to determine the effects of EPA (20 : 5 n-3) and DHA (22 : 6 n-3) on chylomicron and VLDL ... Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Chylomicron and VLDL Synthesis and Secretion in Caco-2 Cells. Yue ... These discoveries demonstrated that exposure of DHA and EPA reduced the secretion of chylomicron and VLDL partly by regulating ...
If chylomicrons kill, the higher the chylomicron count after a random meal, the more people should die, especially of heart ... All increase across rising chylomicron quartiles! Chylomicrons even make you smoke! They dont seem to make you alcoholic, a ... So if apoB48 containing chylomicrons kill, then fat kills. Post prandial chylomicrons kill. Even ketogenic diets kill. Eat ... a ketogenic diet for six weeks markedly reduces your chylomicron concentration after an OFTT, ie you clear the chylomicrons ...
Study of the Absorption of Vitamin E Water-soluble Form (Pegylated) in the Familial Hypocholesterolemia With Chylomicron ... Study of the Absorption of Vitamin E Water-soluble Form (Pegylated) in the Familial Hypocholesterolemia With Chylomicron ... Patient suffering from familial hypocholesterolemia by retention of chylomicrons. *Systematically followed in the department of ...
... disease information resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Chylomicron ... Chylomicron retention disease Title Other Names:. CMRD; Lipid transport defect of intestine; Hypobetalipoproteinemia with ... Chylomicron retention disease manifests in infancy or early childhood. Features include an abnormal lipid profile, failure to ... Chylomicron retention disease (CRD) is a type of familial. hypocholesterolemia characterized by malnutrition, failure to thrive ...
... Love- ... effects of SNPs within a approximate to 410 kb region encompassing CD36 and its proximal and distal promoters on chylomicron ( ...
One thing about chylomicrons is they contain Apo A1 which they pass off to HDL. Apo A1 is a good guy. Its the main apo that ... One is that chylomicrons kill you. That seems enough for a lipophobe and, if you have this mindset, for goodness sake add carbs ... Low carbers should have plenty of Apo A1 from chylomicron production. Dr. Attia has said that some who go on a low carb diet ... It looks like chylomicrons themselves may be responsible for a great deal of reverse cholesterol transport. We examined ...
Chylomicrons are particles that have a density less than 0.94 mg/mL. They are large triglyceride-rich lipoproteins that arise ... The chylomicron determination at PBI using a one-hour ultracentrifugation. The tubes are sliced to remove the chylomicron ... Other lipid soluble materials, such as fat-soluble vitamins are also incorporated into chylomicrons. The chylomicron particles ... The chylomicrons range in size from 75 to 1200 nm in diameter and their mass ranges from 50 x 106 to 1 x 109 Daltons. ...
Rat chyle chylomicrons were incubated with human 125I-prothrombin and binding was examined by separating the chylomicrons from ... Rat chyle chylomicrons were incubated with human 125I-prothrombin and binding was examined by separating the chylomicrons from ... Rat chyle chylomicrons were incubated with human 125I-prothrombin and binding was examined by separating the chylomicrons from ... Binding of prothrombin to chyle chylomicrons: effects of temperatuure and calcium ions, and role of surface phospholipids.. Xu ...
Types of Chylomicron retention disease with Marinesco-Sjogren syndrome including less common types and symptoms and diagnosis ... Next: Causes of Chylomicron retention disease with Marinesco-Sjogren syndrome Diseases » Chylomicron retention disease with ... Symptoms: Chylomicron retention disease with Marinesco-Sjogren syndrome » Next page: Causes of Chylomicron retention disease ... Summary Overview: Chylomicron retention disease with Marinesco-Sjogren syndrome. *Types of Chylomicron retention disease with ...
Role of capillary endothelium in the clearance of chylomicrons. A model for lipid transport from blood by lateral diffusion in ... Role of capillary endothelium in the clearance of chylomicrons. A model for lipid transport from blood by lateral diffusion in ... Role of capillary endothelium in the clearance of chylomicrons. A model for lipid transport from blood by lateral diffusion in ... Role of capillary endothelium in the clearance of chylomicrons. A model for lipid transport from blood by lateral diffusion in ...

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