Chylomicron Remnants: Metabolic products of chylomicron particles in which TRIGLYCERIDES have been selectively removed by the LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. These remnants carry dietary lipids in the blood and are cholesterol-rich. Their interactions with MACROPHAGES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; and SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS in the artery wall can lead to ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Chylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Apolipoprotein B-48: A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.TriglyceridesLymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1: A LDL-receptor related protein involved in clearance of chylomicron remnants and of activated ALPHA-MACROGLOBULINS from plasma.Fetuins: A family of calcium-binding alpha-globulins that are synthesized in the LIVER and play an essential role in maintaining the solubility of CALCIUM in the BLOOD. In addition the fetuins contain aminoterminal cystatin domains and are classified as type 3 cystatins.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Corn Oil: Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Gold Colloid: A suspension of metallic gold particles.Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.Receptors, Lipoprotein: Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.Lactoferrin: An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.alpha-Macroglobulins: Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of approximately 620,000 to 680,000. Precipitation by electrophoresis is in the alpha region. They include alpha 1-macroglobulins and alpha 2-macroglobulins. These proteins exhibit trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, thrombin-, and plasmin-binding activity and function as hormonal transporters.Chyle: An opaque, milky-white fluid consisting mainly of emulsified fats that passes through the lacteals of the small intestines into the lymphatic system.Fetuin-B: A fetuin subtype that is closely-related to ALPHA-2-HS-GLYCOPROTEIN. Although fetuin-B binds calcium, it is a minor component of SERUM and therefore it may not play a primary role in preventing serum calcium phosphate precipitation.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type IV: A hypertriglyceridemia disorder, often with autosomal dominant inheritance. It is characterized by the persistent elevations of plasma TRIGLYCERIDES, endogenously synthesized and contained predominantly in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins). In contrast, the plasma CHOLESTEROL and PHOSPHOLIPIDS usually remain within normal limits.Apolipoprotein C-I: A 6.6-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Apo C-I displaces APO E from lipoproteins, modulate their binding to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL), and thereby decrease their clearance from plasma. Elevated Apo C-I levels are associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Apolipoprotein B-100: A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.LDL-Receptor Related Protein-Associated Protein: A membrane protein found in the rough endoplasm reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH) that binds to LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEINS. It may function to prevent ligand binding of receptors during protein processing events within endosomal compartments.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Asialoglycoproteins: Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.Hyperlipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally elevated levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. They may be inherited, acquired, primary, or secondary. Hyperlipoproteinemias are classified according to the pattern of lipoproteins on electrophoresis or ultracentrifugation.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Ethinyl Estradiol: A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Apolipoproteins C: A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.TritiumHydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Cholesterol, VLDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Fatty Acids, Omega-3: A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.Apolipoprotein C-II: A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II: A group of familial disorders characterized by elevated circulating cholesterol contained in either LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS alone or also in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins).Fatty Acids, Omega-6: FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Foam Cells: Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Poloxalene: A copolymer of polyethylene and polypropylene ether glycol. It is a non-ionic polyol surface-active agent used medically as a fecal softener and in cattle for prevention of bloat.Butter: The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type III: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by the accumulation of intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL or broad-beta-lipoprotein). IDL has a CHOLESTEROL to TRIGLYCERIDES ratio greater than that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. This disorder is due to mutation of APOLIPOPROTEINS E, a receptor-binding component of VLDL and CHYLOMICRONS, resulting in their reduced clearance and high plasma levels of both cholesterol and triglycerides.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Poloxamer: A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hydroxycholesterols: Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Mice, Inbred C57BLCholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Hypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Apoproteins: The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).EstersCell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Malabsorption Syndromes: General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.

Plasma levels of remnant particles are determined in part by variation in the APOC3 gene insulin response element and the APOCI-APOE cluster. (1/40)

Remnant particles of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (RLP) are known to be a strong predictor of atherogenicity. The serum concentrations of remnant-like particle triglyceride (RLPTG) and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLPC) have been determined in a representative sample of the Czech MONICA study (n = 285). The relationship was investigated between remnant particle triglyceride/cholesterol concentrations and polymorphisms in the genes APOC3 (-482C-->T/3238C-->G), APOE (epsilon2/epsilon3/epsilon4), APOCI (-317-321ins), APOB (signal peptide), hepatic lipase (LIPE, -480C-->T), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL, S447X). Univariate analysis showed significant effects on RLPTG associated only with the APOE genotype (P = 0.009), the APOC3 -482C-->T genotype (P = 0.018), and the APOCI -317-321ins (P = 0.014) genotype and significant effects on RLPC with APOE (P = 0.01) and APOCI -317-321ins (P = 0.021). The raising effect of the APOE genotype for both remnant cholesterol and triglyceride was confined to the epsilon2/4 (n = 6) and varepsilon4/4 (n = 3) groups, and thus when the epsilon2/4 group was omitted in order to analyze by allele (epsilon2+/epsilon3+/epsilon4+), significance was lost (P = 0.6). There was strong linkage disequilibrium between the APOE and APOCI alleles (chi(2), P < 0.001) and a multivariate ANOVA of RLPTG with all three significantly associated variants as factors demonstrated that while the APOC3 -482C-->T effect was independent of the others (P = 0.003), the APOCI -317-321ins and APOE effects were not. This was also true for the APOCI -317-321ins and APOE effects on RLPC. To assess whether APOE-CI effects on RLPC were independent of their effects on total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, multiple linear regression was used. Using multiple linear regression, it appeared that the APOE-CI effects on RLPC were independent of their effects on plasma cholesterol, but the effects of APOC3 and APOE-CI on RLPTG could not be separated from their effects on plasma Tg levels. Further characterization of this remnant particle phenotype and its genetic determinants may lead to a better understanding of its metabolism and contribution to atherosclerosis.  (+info)

Transcriptional regulation of apolipoprotein C-III gene expression by the orphan nuclear receptor RORalpha. (2/40)

Triglyceride-rich remnant lipoproteins are considered as major risk factors contributing to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Because apolipoprotein (apo) C-III is a major determinant of plasma triglyceride and remnant lipoprotein metabolism, it is important to understand how the expression of this gene is regulated. In the present study, we identified the orphan nuclear receptor RORalpha1 as a regulator of human and mouse apo C-III gene expression. Plasma triglyceride and apo C-III protein concentrations in staggerer (sg/sg) mice, homozygous for a deletion in the RORalpha gene, were significantly lower than in wild type littermates. The lowered plasma apo C-III levels were associated with reduced apo C-III mRNA levels in liver and intestine of sg/sg mice. Transient transfection experiments in human hepatoma HepG2, human colonic CaCO2, and rabbit kidney RK13 cells demonstrated that overexpression of the human RORalpha1 isoform specifically increases human apo C-III promoter activity, indicating that RORalpha1 enhances human apo C-III gene transcription. RORalpha1 response elements were mapped by promoter deletion analysis and gel shift experiments to two AGGTCA half-sites located at positions -83/-78 (within the C3P site) and -23/-18 (downstream of the TATA box) in the human apo C-III promoter, with the -23/-18 site exhibiting the highest binding affinity. Transfection of site-directed mutated constructs in HepG2 cells indicated that the RORalpha1 effect is predominantly mediated by the -23/-18 site. This site is conserved in the mouse apo C-III gene promoter. Moreover, RORalpha binds to the equivalent mouse site and activates constructs containing three copies of the mouse site cloned in front of an heterologous promoter. Taken together, our data identify RORalpha as a transcriptional regulator of apo C-III gene expression, providing a novel, physiological role for RORalpha1 in the regulation of genes controlling triglyceride metabolism.  (+info)

Chylomicron remnant metabolism in familial dyslipidemias studied with a remnant-like emulsion breath test. (3/40)

We have developed a stable isotope breath test for the assessment of chylomicron remnant metabolism and report the results from the breath test in human subjects selected for disorders of chylomicron or remnant metabolism. In type I hyperlipemia, the phenotype is extreme hypertriglyceridemia due to a lack of lipoprotein lipase activity, which causes the failure of remnant formation. The type III dyslipidemia phenotype is caused by the inefficient removal of chylomicron remnants from plasma, generally because of homozygosity for apolipoprotein E2 alleles. The breath test was predicted to be abnormal in type III hyperlipemia, whereas a priori in type I hyperlipemia defective remnant clearance was not anticipated. Subjects were injected with lipid emulsions prepared with a composition similar to normal chylomicron remnants. The emulsions contained cholesteryl ester incorporating the stable nonradioactive isotope (13)C in the fatty acid moiety. End exhalation breath was collected at intervals after intravenous injection of the remnant-like emulsions and analyzed for (13)C enrichment by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Compared with the group of normolipemic men, the fractional catabolic rate of remnants measured by the breath test was significantly decreased (P = 0.006) in subjects with type III dyslipidemia. In the group with type I hyperlipemia, the fractional catabolic rate was not different (P = 0.233) from the control group. Therefore, the underlying capacity for remnant catabolism was normal in this group of markedly hypertriglyceridemic subjects. By short-circuiting the step of lipolysis, the remnant-like emulsion breath test provides direct information about remnant clearance and metabolism, which should assist in investigations of postprandial lipid metabolism.  (+info)

LDL receptor-related protein mediates cell-surface clustering and hepatic sequestration of chylomicron remnants in LDLR-deficient mice. (4/40)

It has been proposed that in the liver, chylomicron remnants (lipoproteins carrying dietary lipid) may be sequestered before being internalized by hepatocytes. To study this, chylomicron remnants labeled with a fluorescent dye were perfused into isolated livers of LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR-deficient) mice (Ldlr(-/-)) and examined by confocal microscopy. In contrast to livers from normal mice, there was clustering of the chylomicron remnants on the cell surface in the space of DISSE: These remnant clusters colocalized with clusters of LDLR-related protein (LRP) and could be eliminated by low concentrations of receptor-associated protein, an inhibitor of LRP. When competed with ligands of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), the remnant clusters still appeared but were fewer in number, although syndecans (membrane HSPGs) colocalized with the remnant clusters. This suggests that the clustering of remnants is not dependent on syndecans but that the syndecans may modify the binding of remnants. These results establish that sequestration is a novel process, the clustering of remnants in the space of DISSE: The clustering involves remnants binding to the LRP, and this may be stabilized by binding with syndecans, eventually followed by endocytosis.  (+info)

Lipid synthesis in macrophages derived from the human cell line THP-1: modulation of the effects of native and oxidized chylomicron-remnant-like particles by oestrogen. (5/40)

The effects of native and oxidized chylomicron remnants on the synthesis of cholesteryl ester and triacylglycerol in macrophages, and the way that this is influenced by exposure of the cells to oestrogen, was investigated using the human monocyte cell line THP-1 and chylomicron-remnant-like particles containing human apolipoprotein E (CRLPs). Synthesis of the lipids was measured by the incorporation of [(3)H]oleate into cholesteryl ester and triacylglycerol. CRLPs (5-40 microgram of cholesterol/ml) containing either trilinolein or triolein as the triacylglycerol component caused a dose-dependent decrease in cholesteryl ester formation, while triacylglycerol production was unchanged. After oxidation of the CRLPs, the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was increased by 6.3-fold and 2.2-fold in particles containing trilinolein and triolein respectively. Furthermore, CRLPs containing oxidized trilinolein lost their ability to down-regulate cholesterol esterification, while CRLPs containing oxidized triolein did not. Both types of oxidized CRLPs decreased triacylglycerol synthesis. Treatment of the macrophages with 17beta-oestradiol caused increases of approx. 94% and 34% in the synthesis of cholesteryl ester and triacylglycerol respectively in the absence of CRLPs. The differences between control and oestrogen-treated cells were abolished, however, when CRLPs (40 microgram of cholesterol/ml) were added to the incubations. In addition, in contrast with their lack of effect in control cells, CRLPs containing oxidized trilinolein decreased cholesterol esterification in oestrogen-treated cells by approx. 48%. These findings with CRLPs suggest that chylomicron remnants have significant effects on cholesteryl ester and triacylglycerol synthesis in macrophages, which may be modulated both by the oxidation state of the particles and by oestrogen.  (+info)

Preliminary experience with a new stable isotope breath test for chylomicron remnant metabolism: a study in central obesity. (6/40)

We aimed to investigate the metabolism of chylomicron remnants in the postabsorptive state employing a new stable isotope breath test in centrally obese men without overt hyperlipidaemia. Groups of 12 centrally obese and 12 non-obese men of similar age and with similar plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol (triglyceride) levels were studied. The catabolism of chylomicron remnants was measured using an intravenous injection of a remnant-like emulsion containing cholesteryl [(13)C]oleate. Isotopic enrichment of (13)CO(2) in breath was determined using isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, and a multi-compartmental model (SAAM II program) was used to estimate the fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of the chylomicron remnant-like particles. The plasma concentrations of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and insulin were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the obese than the control subjects. The obese subjects had significantly lower HDL-cholesterol (P<0.05) and, in particular, a decreased FCR of the remnant-like particles compared with lean subjects (0.061+/-0.014 and 0.201+/-0.048 pools/h respectively; P=0.016). In the obese group, the FCR of remnant-like particles was inversely associated with the waist/hip ratio, and with plasma triacylglycerol, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol levels. In multiple regression analysis, the waist/hip ratio was the best predictor of the FCR of the emulsion. In conclusion, this new test suggests that postabsorptive chylomicron remnant catabolism is impaired in centrally obese subjects without overt hyperlipidaemia. This defect may be due to the degree of adiposity.  (+info)

Food restriction normalizes chylomicron remnant metabolism in murine models of obesity as assessed by a novel stable isotope breath test. (7/40)

Evidence is increasing that defective metabolism of postprandial remnants of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins contributes to atherogenesis. In obesity, postprandial lipemia is increased by mechanisms that are not currently established. In the present study, a recently developed (13)CO(2) breath test was used to assess the metabolism of chylomicron remnants (CR) in obese mice. Six murine obese models ob/ob, fat/fat, New Zealand Obese (NZO), db/db, gold thioglucose (GTG)-treated and agouti (A(y)) were studied. All obese mice were hyperphagic and their breath test metabolism was markedly impaired (P < 0.01) compared with control, nonobese mice. The breath test was also impaired (P < 0.01) in all obese mice except A(y) mice after 24-h food deprivation. However, after restriction to the food intake of paired control mice for 6 wk, the breath test in all obese mice improved to values of control, nonobese mice. The obese NZO, fat/fat and ob/ob mice had significant (P < 0.02) weight loss when food restricted, whereas A(y), GTG, and db/db mice did not. In all obese mice, plasma cholesterol levels decreased (P < 0.02) after the 6-wk period of food restriction. Plasma triglyceride levels significantly decreased (P < 0.02) in NZO, GTG and db/db mice, but not in other obese mice. Plasma glucose levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.02) after the 6-wk period in the obese mice except for the A(y) and NZO mice; levels were greater in food-restricted db/db mice. Although some of the obese models such as db/db were diabetic, our data suggest that the defective breath test was independent of diabetes because all obese and diabetic models responded similarly to food restriction. Impaired hepatic catabolism of CR was excluded as a cause of the abnormal breath tests. In summary, the impairment (P < 0.05) in remnant metabolism as assessed by the breath test in obese mice was corrected by food restriction, associated with improvements in plasma glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol levels.  (+info)

Effect of atorvastatin on chylomicron remnant metabolism in visceral obesity: a study employing a new stable isotope breath test. (8/40)

Elevated plasma concentration of chylomicron remnants may be causally related to atherosclerosis in obesity. We examined the effect of atorvastatin on chylomicron remnant metabolism in 25 obese men with dyslipidaemia. A remnant-like emulsion labeled with cholesteryl [(13)C]oleate was injected intravenously into patients; the fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of the remnant-like emulsion was determined by measurement of (13)CO(2) in the breath and analyzed using compartmental modelling. Compared with placebo, atorvastatin significantly decreased the plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B (apoB), and lathosterol (P < 0.001). ApoB-48 and remnant-like particle-cholesterol (RLP-C) both decreased significantly by 23% (P = 0.002) and 33% (P = 0.045), respectively. The FCR of the remnant-like emulsion increased significantly from 0.054 +/- 0.008 to 0.090 +/- 0.010 pools/h (P = 0.002). The decrease in RLP-C was associated with the decrease in plasma triglycerides (r = 0.750, P = 0.003). Furthermore, the change in FCR of remnant-like emulsions was inversely associated with the change in LDL-C (r = -0.575, P = 0.040), suggesting removal of LDL and chylomicron remnants by similar hepatic receptor pathways. We conclude that in obese subjects, inhibition of cholesterol synthesis with atorvastatin decreases the plasma concentrations of both LDL-C and triglyceride-rich remnants and that this may be partially due to an enhancement in hepatic clearance of these lipoproteins.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of statin therapy on remnant lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients with combined hyperlipidemia. AU - Stein, Daniel T.. AU - Devaraj, Sridevi. AU - Balis, David. AU - Adams-Huet, Beverley. AU - Jialal, Ishwarlal. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. N2 - Clinical trials with statins have demonstrated significant reductions in cardiovascular events. Remnant lipoproteins are independent predictors of cardiovascular events. Because of the paucity of data on the effect of statins on remnant lipoproteins, we tested the effect of pravastatin, simvastatin, and atorvastatin on remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C) levels in a randomized crossover study in patients with combined hyperlipidemia. After a 6-week diet phase, patients (n=22) were randomized to pravastatin (40 mg/d), simvastatin (20 mg/d), or atorvastatin (10 mg/d) for 6 weeks, with a 3-week washout between each drug. All 3 drugs significantly decreased total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P,0.001). Mean ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oxidation affects the regulation of hepatic lipid synthesis by chylomicron remnants. AU - Napolitano, Mariarosaria. AU - Rivabene, Roberto. AU - Avella, Michael. AU - Amicone, Laura. AU - Tripodi, Marco. AU - Botham, Kathleen M.. AU - Bravo, Elena. PY - 2001/3/1. Y1 - 2001/3/1. N2 - The effects of native and oxidized chylomicron remnants on lipid synthesis in normal and oxidatively stressed liver cells were investigated using MET murine hepatocytes (MMH cells), a nontransformed mouse hepatocyte cell line that maintains a highly differentiated hepatic phenotype in culture. Lipid synthesis was determined by measuring the incorporation of [3H]oleate into cholesteryl ester, triacylglycerol, and phospholipid by the cells. The formation of cholesteryl ester and phospholipid was decreased by chylomicron remnants in a dose-dependent manner, while triacylglycerol synthesis was increased. Exposure of MMH cells to mild oxidative stress by incubation with CuSO4 (2.5 μM) for 24 h led to ...
Cabello-Moruno, R and Sinausia, L and Montero, E and Botham, K M and Avella, M A and Perona, J S (2015) Minor components of pomace olive oil enhance VLDL-receptor expression in macrophages when treated with postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. GRASAS Y ACEITES, 66 (4). Bentley, C and Hathaway, N and Widdows, J and Bejta, F and De Pascale, C and Avella, M A and Wheeler-Jones, C P D and Botham, K M and Lawson, C (2011) Influence of chylomicron remnants on human monocyte activation in vitro. NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, 21 (11). pp. 871-878. Lopez-Soldado, I and Avella, M A and Botham, K M (2009) Differential influence of different dietary fatty acids on very low-density lipoprotein secretion when delivered to hepatocytes in chylomicron remnants. Metabolism-Clinical and Experimental, 58 (2). pp. 186-195. Lopez-Soldado, I and Avella, M A and Botham, K M (2009) Suppression of VLDL secretion by cultured hepatocytes incubated with chylomicron remnants enriched in n-3 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The correlation between TG vs remnant lipoproteins in the fasting and postprandial plasma of 23 volunteers. AU - Nakajima, Katsuyuki. AU - Nakano, Takamitsu. AU - Moon, Hyun Duk. AU - Nagamine, Takeaki. AU - Stanhope, Kimber. AU - Havel, Peter J. AU - Warnick, G. Russell. PY - 2009/6/27. Y1 - 2009/6/27. N2 - Background: Two recent publications report that non-fasting triglycerides concentrations in plasma are more predictive of cardiovascular events than conventional measurements of fasting triglycerides. While these observations are consistent with the previous studies, direct correlations between remnant lipoprotein triglyceride (RLP-TG) and remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C), which are also considered to be risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and fasting and postprandial TG have not been investigated. Methods: On four different days, both fasting and postprandial blood samples were collected from twenty-three overweight to obese men and women at UC Davis and analyzed ...
Metastatic progression of breast cancer involves phenotypic plasticity of the carcinoma cells moving between epithelial and mesenchymal behaviors. During metastatic seeding and dormancy, even highly aggressive carcinoma cells take on an E-cadherin-positive epithelial phenotype that is absent from the emergent, lethal metastatic outgrowths. These phenotypes are linked to the metastatic microenvironment, though the specific cells and induction signals are still to be deciphered. Recent evidence suggests that macrophages impact tumor progression, and may alter the balance between cancer cell EMT and MErT in the metastatic microenvironment. Here we explore the role of M1/M2 macrophages in epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity of breast cancer cells by coculturing epithelial and mesenchymal cells lines with macrophages. We found that after polarizing the THP-1 human monocyte cell line, the M1 and M2-types were stable and maintained when co-cultured with breast cancer cells. Surprisingly, M2 macrophages may
The Lake in the Hills Village Board last week approved a new operator for the villages horse stable, formerly leased and run by Dynasty Farm, at 1109 Pyott Road. Josiah and Samantha Kitchel of Rockford will take over the property as of Dec. 19. The couple will be responsible for sprucing up the stable starting this year, Village Administrator Gerald Sagona said.
Whitney Houston: Heres My Baby Bobbi Brown! Whitney Houston is all smiles as she holds hands with her 16-year-old daughter Bobbi Kristina Brown and catches a departing flight out of LAX airport in Los Angeles…
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) are promising materials for intracellular oxygen free radical scavenging providing a potential therapy for reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated inflammatory processes. In this study rhombohedral-shaped nanoceria were synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis with tuneable particle diameters between 3 and 94 nm by changing the liquid precursor flow rate. Monocytes and macrophages are major players in inflammatory processes as their production of ROS species has important downstream effects on cell signalling. Therefore, this study examined the ability of the nanoceria to be internalised by the human monocytic cell line, U937, and scavenge intracellular ROS. U937 cells activated in the presence of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) were found to be more responsive to the nanoceria than U937 cells, which may not be surprising given the role of monocyte/macrophages in phagocytosing foreign material. The smaller particles were found to contain more crystal ...
Rabbits fed cholesterol rapidly develop high serum cholesterol levels which lead to the development of atherosclerosis. This is related to the retention of cholesterol-rich chylomicron remnants in the circulation. In most animals, such as rats, chylomicron remnants are rapidly removed from the circulation by the liver. The first barrier to this removal is the fenestrated endothelium of liver sinusoids. Measurements made of a large number of sinusoidal fenestrae by scanning electron microscopy have shown the average diameters to be 89 nm in rats and 49 nm in rabbits. We postulate that the small size of endothelial fenestrae in the liver sinusoids of rabbits hinders the egress of chylomicron remnants from the sinusoidal blood, explaining the subsequent development of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. ...
TAG depleted remnants of postprandial chylomicrons are a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that in the fasted state, the majority of chylomicrons are small enough for transcytosis to arterial subendothelial space and accelerate atherogenesis. However, the size distribution of chylomicrons in the absorptive state is unclear. This study explored in normolipidaemic subjects the postprandial distribution of the chylomicron marker, apoB-48, in a TAG-rich lipoprotein plasma fraction (Svedberg flotation rate (Sf,400), in partially hydrolysed remnants (Sf 20-400) and in a TAG-deplete fraction (Sf,20), following ingestion of isoenergetic meals with either palm oil (PO), rice bran or coconut oil. Results from this study show that the majority of fasting chylomicrons are within the potentially pro-atherogenic Sf,20 fraction (70-75 %). Following the ingestion of test meals, chylomicronaemia was also principally distributed within the Sf,20 fraction. However, approximately 40 ...
The local effects of implant wear debris on surrounding tissue has been a major focus of many investigators. Although there have been improvements in implants, significant numbers of revision surgeries are performed to address these issues. Gelsolin (GSN) is a protein in the cytoplasm and circulating serum involved in actin breakdown as well as anti-inflammatory processes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that GSN in the presence of wear debris in vitro decreases the inflammatory response of a human monocyte cell line. We utilized titanium-, polyethylene-, and cobalt-characterized wear particles in a 1:100 and a 1:500 cell-to-particle ratios in the presence of a low (0.2 µM) and normal (2.0 µM) concentrations of GSN and compared the inflammatory response to cells without GSN exposure. The results show that IL-6, IL-1, TNF-α, and PGE2 all increased with higher concentrations of GSN. Although the anti-inflammatory properties of GSN were not seen in this in vitro experiment, it has ...
Genre: Goregrind / grindcore DIARRHEA formed by Sawada who early member of VOMIT REMNANTS (on demo) / former member of RITUAL CARNAGE and Nomoto who former member of
DayZ has received a new stable patch, although, in the world of early access survival games, the term stable is somewhat relative. The update brings some minor features and bug fixes, but the most important change is the continued improvement of server performance. Thanks to a significant change to the server variable processing, the games servers should have received a major performance
The Greatest Medication For Acne Many teens experience a bad a psychological impact that results from acne. Acne may lead to depression, anxiety, and even
Dyslipidemias may account for the excess of cardiovascular mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Lipoprotein studies in ESRD patients are usually relative to prehemodialysis samples even if significative changes may occur after dialysis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of ESRD on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) subpopulations distribution and acute change following hemodialytic procedures, including the relative contribution of heparin administration. We selected a group of normolipidemic male middle-aged ESRD patients free of any concomitant disease affecting lipoprotein remnant metabolism compared with controls. We separated TRL subfractions according to density and apoE content and evaluated the changes of these particles after hemodialytic procedures with or without heparin. ESRD subjects had higher TRL subfractions, with the exception of apoE-rich particles, lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) largest subclasses, and a smaller low-density lipoprotein peak ...
However, Im nervous about cleaning off the fiinish remnants on the back and sides with acetone. Those Back and sides still have the original stain, even though most of the finish is gone AND I DONt want to mess up that Mahogany stain! Can I do it with Acetone (Naptha didnt phase the finish remnants), so its either adept acetone usage or very patient sanding work. Has anyone done this on a Martin while leaving the original stain unaffected ...
Health Focus (Niacin):. Note: I see a lot of orders for no-flush niacin. I assume the reason people are buying this is to raise HDL cholesterol. I couldnt find any research that no-flush niacin works to increase HDL. Its probably a waste of money for the no-flush. Just do a Medline search of hexanicotinate HDL, hexaniacinate HDL or no-flush niacin. Here are the the only studies I could find:. Accumulation of chylomicron remnants and impaired vascular reactivity occur in subjects with isolated low HDL cholesterol: effects of niacin treatment - Atherosclerosis. 2006 Jul;187(1):116-22 - evaluation of no-flush niacin treatment ... Twenty-two low HDL subjects with reduced FMD were randomized into two groups, one given 1.5 g/day niacin and a placebo group. After 3-month treatment, plasma lipids and chylomicron kinetics were not changed by niacin treatment. Varying cost and free nicotinic acid content in over-the-counter niacin preparations for dyslipidemia - Ann Intern Med. 2003 Dec ...
Phillips, M. L., Pullinger, C., Kroes, I., Kroes, J., Hardman, D. A., Chen, G., Curtiss, L. K., Gutierrez, M. M., Kane, J. P., Schumaker, V. N. A single copy of apolipoprotein b-48 is present on the human chylomicron remnant Journal of Lipid Research 1997 38:1170-1177 PMID:9215545 ...
The ability to distinguish cancer cells from healthy cells during surgery is essential for preventing the removal of healthy tissue and ensuring no tumor remnants are left behind.
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RATIONALE: Recent advances in stable isotope probing (SIP) have allowed direct linkage of microbial population structure and function. This paper details a new development of SIP, Stable Isotope Switching (SIS), which allows the simultaneous assessment of carbon (C) uptake, turnover and decay, and the elucidation of soil food webs within complex soils or sedimentary matrices. METHODS: SIS utilises a stable isotope labelling approach whereby the 13C-labelled substrate is switched part way through the incubation to a natural abundance substrate. A 13CH4 SIS study of landfill cover soils from Odcombe (Somerset, UK) was conducted. Carbon assimilation and dissimilation processes were monitored through bulk elemental analysis isotope ratio mass spectrometry and compound-specific gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry, targeting a wide range of biomolecular components including: lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. RESULTS: Carbon assimilation by primary consumers (methanotrophs) ...
This post in a nutshell: update your BIOS. This should work not only on the Asus M50Vn, but also reportedly on many other versions, like M70Vn, N80Vn, X72VN, any M50…). During the last month, I tried really hard to find a way to upgrade the GeForce 9650M GT drivers on my Asus M50Vn laptop. At first I tried every possible version, both under Windows and Linux, which at least gave me the occasion to post an updated version of my old Fedora Core 3 nVidia drivers installation guide. Then I gave up for a few weeks, until yet a new stable drivers version got released (version 195.62 on December 4). I tried those ones again… only to be a victim of yet the same bugs. This was too much, I had to at least notify the customer service about the apparently broken drivers.. So there I went, to nvidia.custhelp.com. Created an account, submitted a "wtf you could at least test your drivers on the supposedly supported 9650M GT" claim, and went back to my slow but (almost) stable 180.70 drivers. To my surprise ...
1. Test the virulence in swine of FHA mutant FMDV. In vivo studies will be conducted in swine to test the virulence of an available mutant FMDV strain containing mutations in a conserved domain (FHA) of the virus leader coding region. 2. Construction and in vitro characterization of FMDV strains with mutations in the CTE domain and/or the SAP and/or FHA domains. Several mutant FMDV strains will be constructed by using the infectious clone and targeting conserved residues contained in the CTE region of the leader coding region with the goal of obtaining new stable attenuated phenotypes that have a low probability of reversion to virulent wild type phenotype. 3. Test the virulence in swine of FMDV strains containing multiple mutations in the leader coding region (SAP and/or FHA and/or CTE mutations). In vivo studies will be conducted in swine with newly constructed FMDV containing multiple attenuating mutations in the leader coding region. 4. Test the efficacy of vaccination with attenuated FMDV ...
In this thesis, chylomicron (CM) and CM-remnant (CM-R) metabolism in humans was studied by the application of unique markers which label these lipoprotein particles from the stage of production by the enterocyte until, removal by hepatic receptor mediated processes. Retinyl palmitate (RP) is a vitamin A ester, which labels the CM/CM-R by behaving like the cholesterol ester (CE) which is carried in the core of these particles. Development of a mono-specific antibody to apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 and application of an enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) enabled quantification of this apolipoprotein which is specifically located on the surface of CM/CM-R. The postprandial lipaemic response for all parameters were determined by the area under the time response curve (AUC). Plasma was separated by flotation ultracentrifugation, overlayered with saline (d=1.006 g/ml), to separate the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) and infranatant fractions. To examine the effects of habitual low intensity ...
Triglycerides in LDL predicted CVD events and were associated with a genetic variant, according to new findings.The researchers assessed whether triglycerides in LDL (LDL-TG) and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) were associated with incident CVD and genetic variants in 9,334 participants (5,527 women) from the ARIC study without CVD at baseline.
The Beckman Airfuge CLS Ultracentrifuge is engineered to provide fast and simple chylomicron removal without serum loss. The system employs the advanced Beckman Coulter Chylomicron rotor and liner which eliminate the
Villa, Oscar; Lyngstadaas, Ståle Petter; Monjo, Marta; Rønold, Hans Jacob; Petzold, Christiane & Wohlfahrt, Johan Caspar (2013). The influence of suture remnants on peri-implant bone healing - A pilot animal experimental study. Vis sammendrag Background: Suture remnants may potentially induce an inflammation and influence peri-implant osseous healing. It might thus be preferable to use a resorbable suture material in order to avoid soft and hard tissue complications. Aim: To evaluate the influence of remnants of suture filaments on osseointegration in a rabbit tibial model. Material and methods: In this pilot animal experimental study calibrated defects were prepared in the tibia of 5 chinchilla rabbits. Four sites were prepared in each animal and randomized to one of the three groups. Test filaments of nylon and chitosan were placed at the prepared implant sites before implant placement. A sham site was used as control. A coin-shaped machined titanium implant covered with a teflon cap and a ...
It is established that elevated plasma RLP-C levels are associated with endothelial dysfunction, a marker for atherosclerotic disease.95 Patients with established coronary heart disease present elevated plasma levels of RLP-C.96,97 The intima-media thickness of the carotid artery was positively related to baseline plasma RLP-C concentrations in a secondary intervention study in patients aged 50 years and older after their first cardiovascular event.95 This association was independent of plasma TG and LDL cholesterol levels. In the Lopid Coronary Angiography Trial (LOCAT),95 the mean on-treatment plasma RLP-C concentration was significantly associated with the reduction of minimum luminal diameter (P,0.004). However, this association was not independent of plasma TG levels. In addition, a significant association was found between plasma RLP-C concentration and the occurrence of new lesions in vein grafts. In patients with vasospastic angina with or without myocardial infarction, plasma RLP-C ...
Chylomicron remnant catabolism appears to be mediated by apolipoprotein (apo) E binding to hepatic lipoprotein receptors. Previously, the apo B,E(LDL) receptor and a unique apo E-binding protein (referred to as the apo E receptor) were isolated from solubilized canine and human livers. In the present study, the apo E-binding fraction was further characterized and found to contain at least three proteins, all of which bind apo E-containing lipoproteins with high affinity. The 56-kDa band was found to contain the alpha- and beta-subunits of F1-ATPase, presumably derived from mitochondrial membranes. In addition, an apo E-binding protein with an apparent Mr approximately equal to 59,000 was identified. The 59-kDa protein displays calcium-independent binding on ligand blots, but displays both calcium-dependent and -independent binding in assays performed with detergent-solubilized protein. The 59-kDa protein recognized lipid-free as well as lipid-bound apo E in ligand blots, and also bound apo E-2, ...
The use of penile implants, grafts or remnants are used in situations of lost or partially lost members. The penile implant surgery will be performed together with an urologist,
ZCZC MIATCPAT1 ALL TTAA00 KNHC DDHHMM BULLETIN TROPICAL DEPRESSION ALEX ADVISORY NUMBER 26 NWS TPC/NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL AL012010 1000 PM CDT THU JUL 01 2010 ...ALEX DISSIPATES OVER THE MOUNTAINS OF CENTRAL MEXICO... SUMMARY OF 1000 PM CDT...0300 UTC...INFORMATION ----------------------------------------------- LOCATION...23.3N 102.4W ABOUT 35 MI...55 KM...NNE OF ZACATECAS MEXICO MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS...30 MPH...45 KM/HR PRESENT MOVEMENT...W OR 275 DEGREES AT 12 MPH...19 KM/HR MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE...1000 MB...29.53 INCHES WATCHES AND WARNINGS -------------------- THERE ARE NO COASTAL WATCHES OR WARNINGS IN EFFECT. DISCUSSION AND 48-HOUR OUTLOOK ------------------------------ AT 1000 PM CDT...0300 UTC...THE REMNANTS OF ALEX WERE CENTERED NEAR LATITUDE 23.3 NORTH...LONGITUDE 102.4 WEST. THE REMNANTS ARE MOVING TOWARD THE WEST NEAR 12 MPH...19 KM/HR...AND THIS GENERAL MOTION WILL CONTINUE OVERNIGHT. MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS ARE NEAR 30 MPH...45 KM/HR...WITH HIGHER GUSTS. WINDS ...
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Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
THP1-Dual cells were derived from the human THP-1 monocyte cell line by stable integration of two inducible reporter constructs. THP1-Dual cells allow the simultaneous study of the NF-kB pathway, by monitoring the activity of SEAP, and the IRF pathway, by assessing the activity of a secreted lucifer
Take only photos, and leave only footprints is a commonly known phrase related to healthy stewardship of the planet. This exhibit looks at the consequences of the actions that do NOT adhere to this principle.The title of the proposed exhibit is Careless Remnants which refers to the negative effects of human activity left behind on the earth. Often (but not always) these effects are unintentional. They are usually ugly, cause the earth harm, and are regretful consequences of human action. ...
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease induced by many environmental factors. The inhalation of allergens and pollutants promote the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production leading to airway inflammation, hyper-responsiveness and remodeling in allergic asthma. The effects of asthma medications on ROS production are unclear. The present study investigated the anti-ROS effects of current asthma medications including inhaled corticosteroid (ICS; budesonide and fluticasone), leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA; montelukast), long acting β2 agonists (LABAs; salmeterol and formoterol) and a new extra-LABA (indacaterol). The human monocyte cell line THP-1 cells were pre-treated with different concentrations of the asthma medications at different time-points after hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stimulation. H2O2 production was measured with DCFH-DA by flow cytometry. Montelukast, fluticasone and salmeterol suppressed H2O2-induced ROS production. Indacaterol enhanced H2O2-induced ROS production.
I absolutely agree, the two pictures in Dr Ds graphs are utter opposites. I too would also doubt that the apoB100 on the VLDLs is any more toxic than the apoB45 on the chylomicrons. What matters to me is the blood glucose, spiking to 200 is killing endothelial cells, and the blood insulin (not shown but certainly spiking with the glucose) which drives the repair process beyond what is appropriate for the amount of damage done by the hyperglycaemia... And if we must include lipids we can always suggest the hyperglycaemia glycoxidises either apoB100 or apoB45 to give persistent remnants which cannot be taken up by the LDL receptors, only by RAGEs. In the latest lipid hypothesis these are the problem ones. Of course, to lipophiles these persistent remnants are markers of previous damaging hyperglycaemia, not necessarily the problem in its own right ...
So I come again, at last some may say; and I come barring a gift of yet another 1st draft excerpt of my WIP Remnant. I hope you enjoy this taste of what I have been up to these past few months... I promise soon Ill have another post up with more then just an…
See also: Putrefying Cadaverment, ex-Impulsive Disembowelment, ex-Abhorrent Deformity, ex-Flesh Casket, ex-Necroptic Remnants ...
Banana (Musa acuminata) and mango (Mangifera indica) are two of the most popular fruits eaten worldwide. They both soften during ripening but their textural attributes are markedly different. This study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanism underpinning textural differences between banana and mango. We used a novel combination of methods at different scales to analyse the surface properties of fruit cells and the potential contribution of cells and cell wall components to oral processing and texture perception. The results indicated that cell separation occurred easily in both organs under mild mechanical stress. Banana cells showed distinctively elongated shapes with distinct distribution of pectin and hemicellulose epitopes at the cell surface. In contrast, mango had relatively spherical cells that ruptured during cell separation. Atomic force microscopy detected soft surfaces indicative of middle lamella remnants on banana cells, while mango cells had cleaner, smoother surfaces, suggesting
Background: Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (PHTG) is caused by the accumulation of chylomicron and chylomicron remnants and has been shown to be associated with metabolic syndrome and the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. In our previous studies, we showed that the intestinal cholesterol transporter inhibitor, ezetimibe, attenuates PHTG and postprandial elevation of FFAs in patients with type IIb hyperlipidemia (Eur J Clin Invest 2009), however the mechanisms for this have not been elucidated yet.. Methods and Results: We investigated the effect of ezetimibe on PHTG in wild-type (WT) mice fed a western diet and CD36KO mice fed a normal chow diet, which is an animal model of PHTG which was due to the intestinal over-production of chylomicrons. Ezetimibe significantly reduced TG levels at 3 hours after oral fat load using olive oil in both WT and CD36KO mice (from 375±41 to 252±19 mg/dl. 457±114 to 383±93 mg/dl, respectively). The analysis of lipoprotein profiles by ...
And much more.. The bottom line. The bottom line is that steam remnants are better in every way possible! Imagine, being able to clean better, faster and healthier with all natural steam. Imagine never waiting for a floor to dry.Also, lets not forget all the other things your steam vapor cleaner can do.. Protect your family by removing harmful chemicals from your cleaning routine. Save money by not having to buy another mop or mop head again! Steam mopping hardwood floors and other types of flooring make your life healthier and easier! A Steam Vapor Cleaner is a multi use tool that you will use over and over again. T that the image on the left is for our use in commercial and heavy VC4000 home.. No expensive mops or cloths!. Note: This image shows a homeowner using a large towel. With our sturdy built in clips you can use almost any fabric that can fit in the mop. No need to order expensive mop replacement heads. You can use any form of an old cloth, towel or a t-shirt with an expensive ...
Me-cation - I thought I was being original and made up this word. But then I googled it and learned that someone had beat me to it.. So heres my personal take on the definition; Me-cation - an outing or experience for oneself, by oneself for the sole purpose of restoring ones inner spirit. Little or no planning is required and the execution is up to you. Easier than a vacation or staycation, it can be purely spontaneous and the duration can last minutes, hours or even a day. The when, where and how is solely up to you but the why is an opportunity for one to (re)connect and (re)acquaint oneself with the essence of who we are. Life can be extremely busy and often overwhelming; some me-time is in necessary to nourish our soul.. So, off I went to the Arboretum Planting Fields, in Oyster Bay, New York.. ...
RODERIC (Repositori dObjectes Digitals per a lEnsenyament la Recerca i la Cultura) es el repositorio institucional de la Universitat de València. Se concibe como una ventanilla única para el acceso y la difusión de la producción digital de la Universitat. RODERIC responde al compromiso de la Universitat con el movimiento de acceso abierto al conocimiento adquirido con su adhesión a la Declaración de Berlín (30 Septiembre de 2008).
The intrinsic anion oxidation potential (Delta E-v) and lithium ion pair dissociation energy (Delta E-d) are two important properties for predicting the potential use of new lithium salts for battery electrolytes. In this work several cyano substituted fluoroalkylated benzimidazole and imidazole anions have been investigated computationally to obtain Delta E-v and Delta E-d. Varying the number and position of cyano substituents results in large effects on the electrochemical stability of the anion and on the possible lithium ion pair configurations. The lengthening of the fluoroalkyl group introduces several new stable ion pair configurations and a small increase in anion oxidation stability. The most promising fluoroalkylated anions in the present work are the 4,5,6,7-tetracyano-2-fluoroalkylated benzimidazolides (TTB and PTB), with oxidation potentials suitable for high voltage Li-ion battery applications (|4.2 V) and much improved Delta E-d compared to PF6- -a benchmark for commercially available
CONCEPT. Digestion is the process whereby the foods we eat pass through our bodies and are directed toward the purposes of either providing the body with energy or.Basic Anaerobic Digestion Process. Residual fats Rape seed cake Flotated fats. 3-1.1 Anaerobic Digester Process Flow Diagram with options.. The digestive system processes the foods we eat to provide nutrients for the body.This topic explains the digestive system and the process of digestion.. These bacteria perform several useful functions, such as synthesizing various vitamins, processing waste products and food particles, and protecting against harmful bacteria.Between meals, the non-liquefiable remnants are released from the stomach and ushered through the rest of the intestines to be eliminated.This sphincter opens to let food pass into the stomach and closes to keep it there.. ...
When different forms of statistical studies, and different approaches in the study of one disease, lead to a similar set of deductions, the validity of the deductions assumes a greater weight and significance. The importance of the summation of the evidence is well illustrated in the evaluation of different statistical studies of cancer of the lung and the reasonable conclusion t h a t its main cause is cigarette smoking (see Chapter IX). Another meaningful illustration of the usefulness of statistical methods may be seen in records of epidermoid cancer of the skin. In benign ulcer, there is complete destruction of muscle in the floor; and the muscularis mucosae is fused with the muscular layer at the edge of the ulcer. I n malignancy arising de novo, muscle remnants are left in the base, and there is no fusion a t the margins ; if a malignant ulcer has no muscle in its base, it may have been preceded by a peptic ulcer. 2. In benign ulcer, there is dense fibrosis underlying granulation tissue in ...
She has a long list of cute things like get ice cream from the truck, eat outside.... etc. One of the things on her list that I immediately knew I HAD to do was welcome our new, next door neighbors with some side walk chalk graffiti. They just moved to Charlotte, NC from Costa Rica so I thought this would be fun. Avery and I had a great time doing it! We couldnt decide whether or not to do it in English or Spanish but went with English in case they were actually Americans who had been living in Costa Rica or something like that. Come to find out, they are from Costa Rica, they speak very fluent English.... and the chalk I used was like spray paint. WHOOPS. 3 hard rains and 1 sighting of the new resident trying to hose it off the sidewalk later... the remnants are still faintly there! Thankfully, we arent facebook friends yet and since I did it while they were out experiencing Carowinds for the day, they dont know I did it ...
A review of the book Inspired Remnants, Curious Dreams : Mixed Media Projects in Epoxy Clay by Kerin Gale - Book Review- Inspired Remnants, Curious Dreams - Beadwork at BellaOnline
ZCZC MIATCDEP4 ALL TTAA00 KNHC DDHHMM TROPICAL DEPRESSION CARLOS DISCUSSION NUMBER 27 NWS TPC/NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL EP042009 800 AM PDT THU JUL 16 2009 CARLOS HAS A SMALL AND POORLY-DEFINED LOW-LEVEL CIRCULATION BUT IS STILL PRODUCING SOME DEEP CONVECTION. THE SYSTEM IS ON THE VERGE OF BECOMING A REMNANT LOW...AND WILL LIKELY BE DECLARED AS SUCH LATER TODAY. THE INITIAL MOTION IS NEAR 270/14. A GENERAL WESTWARD MOTION IS EXPECTED TO CONTINUE FOLLOWING THE LOW-LEVEL EASTERLIES UNTIL THE SYSTEM DISSIPATES. FORECAST POSITIONS AND MAX WINDS INITIAL 16/1500Z 9.8N 135.0W 25 KT 12HR VT 17/0000Z 9.8N 136.9W 25 KT...REMNANT LOW 24HR VT 17/1200Z 10.0N 139.3W 20 KT...REMNANT LOW 36HR VT 18/0000Z 10.0N 141.5W 20 KT...REMNANT LOW 48HR VT 18/1200Z 10.0N 144.0W 20 KT...REMNANT LOW 72HR VT 19/1200Z...DISSIPATED $$ FORECASTER PASCH NNNN ...
Within a dangerous stomach bacterium, Yale University researchers have discovered an ancient but functioning genetic remnant from a time before DNA existed, they report in the August 13 issue of the journal Science.What these cells are doing is using ancient RNA technology to control modern gene ex...
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Genre: Brutal Death MetalLabel: Unmatched Brutality Records ‎A few minor scuffs/scratches. This has been played, but handled with good care - and certainly not abused.Insert/Inlay/Booklet/Sleeve/Digipak:
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Had a short business trip to KY this week, so as usual I squeezed in a little herping. It was overcast, ~75F and drizzly with the remnants of Ivan
New stable isotope dilution assays were developed for the simultaneous quantitation of the folates 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid, 5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid, tetrahydrofolic acid, 10-formylfolic acid, and folic acid as well as for their catabolites para-aminobenzoylglutamate (pABG) and acetyl-para-aminobenzoylglutamate (ApABG) in clinical samples. The methods were based on cleanup by strong anion exchange followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detection. Deuterated analogues of the folates and [13C5]-labeled isotopologues of the catabolites were applied as the internal standards in stable isotope dilution assays. Extraction in 4-morpholineethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer at pH 5.0 ensured the optimum stability of folates and, in combination with solid-phase extraction (SPE) based on strong anion exchange, resulted in higher recoveries compared with other combinations of extraction buffers and SPE. The method was sensitive enough to detect pABG in plasma generally ...
Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiological agent of melioidosis, is a saprophytic bacterium existing endemically in the water and soil of SE Asia and Northern Australia. This organism has shown the ability to remain dormant in its host for decades. B. thailandensis is a closely related non-pathogenic near neighbor that is also found in these soils. It has been suggested that free-living amoeba could be natural reservoirs for these organisms. The interactions of Burkholderia species and Acanthamoeba castellanii, a species of free-living amoeba, were studied to better understand the natural ecology of these organisms and to determine the effects amoeba interactions might have on pathogenesis. In this study, the adherence and persistence of several B. pseudomallei clinical isolates were compared to that of B. thailandensis within both amoeba and a human monocyte cell line. Results showed that B. pseudomallei isolates can enter amoeba and survive therein at varying levels of efficiency. Some isolates were
The potential energy surface (PES) of tyrosyl-glycyl-glycine (YGG) tripeptide in solution was explored using EDMC (Electrostatically Driven Monte Carlo) and in the gas-phase by means of ab initio quantum chemical calculations. The theoretical computational analysis revealed that this tripeptide possesses a significant molecular flexibility. A C7 backbone conformation was the most energetically preferred for the central Gly residue, using both methodologies. Some new stable conformers that have not been previously reported were identified in the gas phase as well. This study points out the interplay of backbone and side-chain contributions in determining the relative stabilities of energy minima. In addition, the peptide backbone of YGG was compared with other small peptides containing aromatic side-chains (Phe-Gly-Gly and Trp-Gly-Gly). The comparison with experimental X-ray results was also satisfactory ...
Some authors divide this syndrome into a typical or isolated form, consisting of symmetrical nonfunctioning muscular buds (müllerian duct remnants) and normal fallopian tubes, and an atypical,more generalized form consisting of aplasia of one or both buds and with or without fallopian tube dysplasia. Some duct remnants are cystic. Differentiation between the two forms is made on the basis of laparoscopic findings, although MRI can often suggests a diagnosis. The atypical form is associated with skeletal, renal, and ovarian abnormalities ...
OBJECTIVE: Even though carbon ions treatment (CIRT) of sacral chordoma (SC) substantially reduces tumor mass, tumor remnants are observed in most
Elevator" finds Remnant confronting his past in the face of an old friend and an odd interaction with him, as well as going back to his old school. This unsettling story then quickly resolves in a way that makes sense, and the jarring ending doesnt feel like a cop-out because of the warning Remnant receives during the course of the narrative. The story that sort of recapitulates all the others is "You Are Here", which is about depression and how Remnant used meditative hiking up a hill as a form of therapy. Walks have a way of first stirring up bad thoughts and then dissolving them through sheer physical exertion, and Remnant works through his miasma and depression by forcing himself through. Its a story that touches on John Porcellino and his zen comics poetry, using many silent panels to create a rhythm that Remnant feels while walking. The slow, steady progression from panel to panel is modulated by the density of Remnants cross-hatching, especially when Remnant walks slowly through ...
Californian Death Metal sickheads RUDE are back with the second album named ?Remnants ? Nobody less than the mighty artist Dan Seagrave is responsible fo
The hydrolyzed chylomicrons are now called chylomicron remnants. The chylomicron remnants continue circulating the bloodstream ... This interaction causes the endocytosis of the chylomicron remnants, which are subsequently hydrolyzed within lysosomes. ... The chylomicron at this stage is then considered mature. Via apolipoprotein C-II, mature chylomicrons activate lipoprotein ... The hydrolyzed VLDL particles are now called VLDL remnants or intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs). VLDL remnants can ...
Willnow TE, Sheng Z, Ishibashi S, Herz J (1994). "Inhibition of hepatic chylomicron remnant uptake by gene transfer of a ...
The liver receives many lipids from the systemic circulation and metabolizes chylomicron remnants. It also synthesizes ...
The receptor also recognizes the apoE protein found in chylomicron remnants and VLDL remnants (IDL). In humans, the LDL ...
After most of the lipids in the chylomicron have been absorbed, ApoB48 returns to the liver as part of the chylomicron remnant ... Intestinal proteins containing ApoB48 are metabolised to chylomicron remnant particles which are taken up by remnant receptors ... assembly and secretion of chylomicrons. These chylomicrons transport dietary lipids to tissues while the remaining chylomicrons ... Apolipoprotein B is the primary apolipoprotein of chylomicrons, VLDL, IDL, and LDL particles (LDL - known commonly by the ...
In the liver LRP1 is important for the removal of atherogenic lipoproteins (Chylomicron remnants, VLDL) and other ... inactivation of hepatic LRP gene by cre-mediated recombination confirms role of LRP in clearance of chylomicron remnants". The ... Chylomicron, Circumsporozoite protein, Collectin, Complement C3, CTGF, DLG4, Elastase, Factor IXa, Factor VIIa, Fibronectin, ...
It is also involved in promoting the cellular uptake of chylomicron remnants, cholesterol-rich lipoproteins, and free fatty ... It is a water-soluble enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides in lipoproteins, such as those found in chylomicrons and very low- ... Beisiegel U, Weber W, Bengtsson-Olivecrona G (October 1991). "Lipoprotein lipase enhances the binding of chylomicrons to low ... high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 plays a critical role in the lipolytic processing of chylomicrons". Cell Metabolism ...
The receptor defect causes levels of chylomicron remnants and IDL to be higher than normal in the blood stream. The receptor ... which is normally required for clearance of chylomicron remnants and IDL from the circulation. ... Remnant hyperlipidemia occurs as a result of abnormal function of the ApoE receptor, ... resulting in elevated chylomicrons, the particles that transfer fatty acids from the digestive tract to the liver Familial ...
... partially digests the chylomicrons into free fatty acids, glycerol and chylomicron remnants. The fatty acids are absorbed by ... These VLDL droplets are handled in exactly the same manner as chylomicrons, except that the VLDL remnant is known as an ... but the glycerol and chylomicron remnants remain in the blood plasma, ultimately to be removed from the circulation by the ... The chylomicrons circulate throughout the body, giving the blood plasma a milky, or creamy appearance after a fatty meal.[ ...
Dynamics of post-prandial remnant-like lipoprotein particles in serum after loading of diacylglycerols. Clin Chim Acta. 2001; ... Double-blind controlled study on the effects of dietary diacylglycerol on post-prandial serum and chylomicron triacylglycerol ...
... to increased plasma cholesterol levels on a high-fat diet because of the decreased hepatic clearance of chylomicron remnants. ...
... now referred to as a chylomicron remnant) can be taken up by the liver. From the liver, the fat released from chylomicron ... At this point, the fats are in the bloodstream in the form of chylomicrons. Once in the blood, chylomicrons are subject to ... These chylomicrons then pass into the lacteals, forming a milky substance known as chyle. The lacteals merge to form larger ... The triglyceride is then combined with phospholipids, cholesterol ester, and apolipoprotein B48 to form chylomicrons. ...
By reducing the cholesterol content in chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants, cholesterol absorption inhibitors effectively ... These chylomicrons are then secreted into the lymphatics and circulated to the liver. These cholesterol particles are then ... Once absorbed by the enterocyte, cholesterol is reassembled into intestinal lipoproteins called chylomicrons. ... thereby reducing the incorporation of cholesterol esters into chylomicron particles. ...
... is a fat-binding protein (apolipoprotein) that is part of the chylomicron and Intermediate-density lipoprotein ... Mahley RW, Ji ZS (January 1999). "Remnant lipoprotein metabolism: key pathways involving cell-surface heparan sulfate ... VLDL and LDL remnants. More recently, it has been studied for its role in several biological processes not directly related to ... in which increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides are the consequence of impaired clearance of chylomicron, ...
This defect prevents the normal metabolism of chylomicrons, IDL and VLDL, otherwise known as remnants, and therefore leads to ... Familial dysbetalipoproteinemia or type III hyperlipoproteinemia (also known as remnant hyperlipidemia, "remnant ... that serves as a ligand for the liver receptors for chylomicrons, IDL and VLDL or Very Low Density lipoprotein receptors. The ... ", "broad beta disease" and "remnant removal disease") is a condition characterized by increased total cholesterol and ...
There are three stages in the chylomicron's "lifecycle": Nascent chylomicron Mature chylomicron Chylomicron remnant ... becomes a chylomicron remnant, now only 30-50 nm. APOB48 and APOE are important to identify the chylomicron remnant in the ... chylomicron remnants are formed and are taken up by the liver, thereby also transferring dietary fat to the liver. Chylomicrons ... to the nascent chylomicron and, thus, converts it to a mature chylomicron (often referred to simply as "chylomicron"). APOC2 is ...
... induces endothelial dysfunction through oxidative stress. Chylomicron remnant Lipid profile Jørgensen AB, ... Remnant cholesterol, also known as remnant lipoprotein, is a very atherogenic lipoprotein composed primarily of very low- ... Remnant cholesterol has about twice the association with ischemic heart disease as LDL cholesterol. Remnant cholesterol is ... Remnant cholesterol is especially predictive of coronary artery disease in patients with normal total cholesterol. High plasma ...
chylomicron remnant clearance. • Lipid metabolism. • phospholipid efflux. • positive regulation of lipoprotein lipase activity ... chylomicron remodeling. • high-density lipoprotein particle remodeling. • chylomicron assembly. • positive regulation of ... chylomicron. • very-low-density lipoprotein particle. • spherical high-density lipoprotein particle. • extracellular region. • ... secreted in plasma where it is a component of very low density lipoproteins and chylomicrons. This protein activates the enzyme ...
Finally, the third possibility relates to the acceleration of the hepatic uptake of lipoprotein remnants and it has been shown ... It is a component of several lipoprotein fractions including VLDL, HDL, chylomicrons. It is believed that apoA-V affects ... APOA5 is associated predominantly with TG-rich lipoproteins (chylomicrons and VLDL) and has also been detected on HDL particles ... and chylomicrons, and circulates at very low concentrations compared with other apolipoproteins". Clinical Chemistry. 51 (2): ...
delivery of TGs: Chylomicron. *VLDL. *delivery of C and CE: IDL. *LDL ...
delivery of TGs: Chylomicron. *VLDL. *delivery of C and CE: IDL. *LDL ...
Remnant cholesterol. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i Berglund L, Brunzell JD, Goldberg AC, et al. (September 2012). " ...

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