Metabolic products of chylomicron particles in which TRIGLYCERIDES have been selectively removed by the LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. These remnants carry dietary lipids in the blood and are cholesterol-rich. Their interactions with MACROPHAGES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; and SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS in the artery wall can lead to ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, stored in fat cells and used as energy; they are measured in blood tests to assess heart disease risk, with high levels often resulting from dietary habits, obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol consumption.
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A LDL-receptor related protein involved in clearance of chylomicron remnants and of activated ALPHA-MACROGLOBULINS from plasma.
A family of calcium-binding alpha-globulins that are synthesized in the LIVER and play an essential role in maintaining the solubility of CALCIUM in the BLOOD. In addition the fetuins contain aminoterminal cystatin domains and are classified as type 3 cystatins.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
A suspension of metallic gold particles.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.
Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.
An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.
Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of approximately 620,000 to 680,000. Precipitation by electrophoresis is in the alpha region. They include alpha 1-macroglobulins and alpha 2-macroglobulins. These proteins exhibit trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, thrombin-, and plasmin-binding activity and function as hormonal transporters.
An opaque, milky-white fluid consisting mainly of emulsified fats that passes through the lacteals of the small intestines into the lymphatic system.
A fetuin subtype that is closely-related to ALPHA-2-HS-GLYCOPROTEIN. Although fetuin-B binds calcium, it is a minor component of SERUM and therefore it may not play a primary role in preventing serum calcium phosphate precipitation.
A hypertriglyceridemia disorder, often with autosomal dominant inheritance. It is characterized by the persistent elevations of plasma TRIGLYCERIDES, endogenously synthesized and contained predominantly in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins). In contrast, the plasma CHOLESTEROL and PHOSPHOLIPIDS usually remain within normal limits.
A 6.6-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Apo C-I displaces APO E from lipoproteins, modulate their binding to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL), and thereby decrease their clearance from plasma. Elevated Apo C-I levels are associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
A membrane protein found in the rough endoplasm reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH) that binds to LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEINS. It may function to prevent ligand binding of receptors during protein processing events within endosomal compartments.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.
Conditions with abnormally elevated levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. They may be inherited, acquired, primary, or secondary. Hyperlipoproteinemias are classified according to the pattern of lipoproteins on electrophoresis or ultracentrifugation.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Abstaining from all food.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen (specifically, hydrogen-3) that contains one proton and two neutrons in its nucleus, making it radioactive with a half-life of about 12.3 years, and is used in various applications including nuclear research, illumination, and dating techniques due to its low energy beta decay.
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.
Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A group of familial disorders characterized by elevated circulating cholesterol contained in either LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS alone or also in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins).
FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A copolymer of polyethylene and polypropylene ether glycol. It is a non-ionic polyol surface-active agent used medically as a fecal softener and in cattle for prevention of bloat.
The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by the accumulation of intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL or broad-beta-lipoprotein). IDL has a CHOLESTEROL to TRIGLYCERIDES ratio greater than that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. This disorder is due to mutation of APOLIPOPROTEINS E, a receptor-binding component of VLDL and CHYLOMICRONS, resulting in their reduced clearance and high plasma levels of both cholesterol and triglycerides.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).
"Esters are organic compounds that result from the reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid, playing significant roles in various biological processes and often used in pharmaceutical synthesis."
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.

Plasma levels of remnant particles are determined in part by variation in the APOC3 gene insulin response element and the APOCI-APOE cluster. (1/40)

Remnant particles of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (RLP) are known to be a strong predictor of atherogenicity. The serum concentrations of remnant-like particle triglyceride (RLPTG) and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLPC) have been determined in a representative sample of the Czech MONICA study (n = 285). The relationship was investigated between remnant particle triglyceride/cholesterol concentrations and polymorphisms in the genes APOC3 (-482C-->T/3238C-->G), APOE (epsilon2/epsilon3/epsilon4), APOCI (-317-321ins), APOB (signal peptide), hepatic lipase (LIPE, -480C-->T), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL, S447X). Univariate analysis showed significant effects on RLPTG associated only with the APOE genotype (P = 0.009), the APOC3 -482C-->T genotype (P = 0.018), and the APOCI -317-321ins (P = 0.014) genotype and significant effects on RLPC with APOE (P = 0.01) and APOCI -317-321ins (P = 0.021). The raising effect of the APOE genotype for both remnant cholesterol and triglyceride was confined to the epsilon2/4 (n = 6) and varepsilon4/4 (n = 3) groups, and thus when the epsilon2/4 group was omitted in order to analyze by allele (epsilon2+/epsilon3+/epsilon4+), significance was lost (P = 0.6). There was strong linkage disequilibrium between the APOE and APOCI alleles (chi(2), P < 0.001) and a multivariate ANOVA of RLPTG with all three significantly associated variants as factors demonstrated that while the APOC3 -482C-->T effect was independent of the others (P = 0.003), the APOCI -317-321ins and APOE effects were not. This was also true for the APOCI -317-321ins and APOE effects on RLPC. To assess whether APOE-CI effects on RLPC were independent of their effects on total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, multiple linear regression was used. Using multiple linear regression, it appeared that the APOE-CI effects on RLPC were independent of their effects on plasma cholesterol, but the effects of APOC3 and APOE-CI on RLPTG could not be separated from their effects on plasma Tg levels. Further characterization of this remnant particle phenotype and its genetic determinants may lead to a better understanding of its metabolism and contribution to atherosclerosis.  (+info)

Transcriptional regulation of apolipoprotein C-III gene expression by the orphan nuclear receptor RORalpha. (2/40)

Triglyceride-rich remnant lipoproteins are considered as major risk factors contributing to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Because apolipoprotein (apo) C-III is a major determinant of plasma triglyceride and remnant lipoprotein metabolism, it is important to understand how the expression of this gene is regulated. In the present study, we identified the orphan nuclear receptor RORalpha1 as a regulator of human and mouse apo C-III gene expression. Plasma triglyceride and apo C-III protein concentrations in staggerer (sg/sg) mice, homozygous for a deletion in the RORalpha gene, were significantly lower than in wild type littermates. The lowered plasma apo C-III levels were associated with reduced apo C-III mRNA levels in liver and intestine of sg/sg mice. Transient transfection experiments in human hepatoma HepG2, human colonic CaCO2, and rabbit kidney RK13 cells demonstrated that overexpression of the human RORalpha1 isoform specifically increases human apo C-III promoter activity, indicating that RORalpha1 enhances human apo C-III gene transcription. RORalpha1 response elements were mapped by promoter deletion analysis and gel shift experiments to two AGGTCA half-sites located at positions -83/-78 (within the C3P site) and -23/-18 (downstream of the TATA box) in the human apo C-III promoter, with the -23/-18 site exhibiting the highest binding affinity. Transfection of site-directed mutated constructs in HepG2 cells indicated that the RORalpha1 effect is predominantly mediated by the -23/-18 site. This site is conserved in the mouse apo C-III gene promoter. Moreover, RORalpha binds to the equivalent mouse site and activates constructs containing three copies of the mouse site cloned in front of an heterologous promoter. Taken together, our data identify RORalpha as a transcriptional regulator of apo C-III gene expression, providing a novel, physiological role for RORalpha1 in the regulation of genes controlling triglyceride metabolism.  (+info)

Chylomicron remnant metabolism in familial dyslipidemias studied with a remnant-like emulsion breath test. (3/40)

We have developed a stable isotope breath test for the assessment of chylomicron remnant metabolism and report the results from the breath test in human subjects selected for disorders of chylomicron or remnant metabolism. In type I hyperlipemia, the phenotype is extreme hypertriglyceridemia due to a lack of lipoprotein lipase activity, which causes the failure of remnant formation. The type III dyslipidemia phenotype is caused by the inefficient removal of chylomicron remnants from plasma, generally because of homozygosity for apolipoprotein E2 alleles. The breath test was predicted to be abnormal in type III hyperlipemia, whereas a priori in type I hyperlipemia defective remnant clearance was not anticipated. Subjects were injected with lipid emulsions prepared with a composition similar to normal chylomicron remnants. The emulsions contained cholesteryl ester incorporating the stable nonradioactive isotope (13)C in the fatty acid moiety. End exhalation breath was collected at intervals after intravenous injection of the remnant-like emulsions and analyzed for (13)C enrichment by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Compared with the group of normolipemic men, the fractional catabolic rate of remnants measured by the breath test was significantly decreased (P = 0.006) in subjects with type III dyslipidemia. In the group with type I hyperlipemia, the fractional catabolic rate was not different (P = 0.233) from the control group. Therefore, the underlying capacity for remnant catabolism was normal in this group of markedly hypertriglyceridemic subjects. By short-circuiting the step of lipolysis, the remnant-like emulsion breath test provides direct information about remnant clearance and metabolism, which should assist in investigations of postprandial lipid metabolism.  (+info)

LDL receptor-related protein mediates cell-surface clustering and hepatic sequestration of chylomicron remnants in LDLR-deficient mice. (4/40)

It has been proposed that in the liver, chylomicron remnants (lipoproteins carrying dietary lipid) may be sequestered before being internalized by hepatocytes. To study this, chylomicron remnants labeled with a fluorescent dye were perfused into isolated livers of LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR-deficient) mice (Ldlr(-/-)) and examined by confocal microscopy. In contrast to livers from normal mice, there was clustering of the chylomicron remnants on the cell surface in the space of DISSE: These remnant clusters colocalized with clusters of LDLR-related protein (LRP) and could be eliminated by low concentrations of receptor-associated protein, an inhibitor of LRP. When competed with ligands of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), the remnant clusters still appeared but were fewer in number, although syndecans (membrane HSPGs) colocalized with the remnant clusters. This suggests that the clustering of remnants is not dependent on syndecans but that the syndecans may modify the binding of remnants. These results establish that sequestration is a novel process, the clustering of remnants in the space of DISSE: The clustering involves remnants binding to the LRP, and this may be stabilized by binding with syndecans, eventually followed by endocytosis.  (+info)

Lipid synthesis in macrophages derived from the human cell line THP-1: modulation of the effects of native and oxidized chylomicron-remnant-like particles by oestrogen. (5/40)

The effects of native and oxidized chylomicron remnants on the synthesis of cholesteryl ester and triacylglycerol in macrophages, and the way that this is influenced by exposure of the cells to oestrogen, was investigated using the human monocyte cell line THP-1 and chylomicron-remnant-like particles containing human apolipoprotein E (CRLPs). Synthesis of the lipids was measured by the incorporation of [(3)H]oleate into cholesteryl ester and triacylglycerol. CRLPs (5-40 microgram of cholesterol/ml) containing either trilinolein or triolein as the triacylglycerol component caused a dose-dependent decrease in cholesteryl ester formation, while triacylglycerol production was unchanged. After oxidation of the CRLPs, the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was increased by 6.3-fold and 2.2-fold in particles containing trilinolein and triolein respectively. Furthermore, CRLPs containing oxidized trilinolein lost their ability to down-regulate cholesterol esterification, while CRLPs containing oxidized triolein did not. Both types of oxidized CRLPs decreased triacylglycerol synthesis. Treatment of the macrophages with 17beta-oestradiol caused increases of approx. 94% and 34% in the synthesis of cholesteryl ester and triacylglycerol respectively in the absence of CRLPs. The differences between control and oestrogen-treated cells were abolished, however, when CRLPs (40 microgram of cholesterol/ml) were added to the incubations. In addition, in contrast with their lack of effect in control cells, CRLPs containing oxidized trilinolein decreased cholesterol esterification in oestrogen-treated cells by approx. 48%. These findings with CRLPs suggest that chylomicron remnants have significant effects on cholesteryl ester and triacylglycerol synthesis in macrophages, which may be modulated both by the oxidation state of the particles and by oestrogen.  (+info)

Preliminary experience with a new stable isotope breath test for chylomicron remnant metabolism: a study in central obesity. (6/40)

We aimed to investigate the metabolism of chylomicron remnants in the postabsorptive state employing a new stable isotope breath test in centrally obese men without overt hyperlipidaemia. Groups of 12 centrally obese and 12 non-obese men of similar age and with similar plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol (triglyceride) levels were studied. The catabolism of chylomicron remnants was measured using an intravenous injection of a remnant-like emulsion containing cholesteryl [(13)C]oleate. Isotopic enrichment of (13)CO(2) in breath was determined using isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, and a multi-compartmental model (SAAM II program) was used to estimate the fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of the chylomicron remnant-like particles. The plasma concentrations of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and insulin were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the obese than the control subjects. The obese subjects had significantly lower HDL-cholesterol (P<0.05) and, in particular, a decreased FCR of the remnant-like particles compared with lean subjects (0.061+/-0.014 and 0.201+/-0.048 pools/h respectively; P=0.016). In the obese group, the FCR of remnant-like particles was inversely associated with the waist/hip ratio, and with plasma triacylglycerol, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol levels. In multiple regression analysis, the waist/hip ratio was the best predictor of the FCR of the emulsion. In conclusion, this new test suggests that postabsorptive chylomicron remnant catabolism is impaired in centrally obese subjects without overt hyperlipidaemia. This defect may be due to the degree of adiposity.  (+info)

Food restriction normalizes chylomicron remnant metabolism in murine models of obesity as assessed by a novel stable isotope breath test. (7/40)

Evidence is increasing that defective metabolism of postprandial remnants of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins contributes to atherogenesis. In obesity, postprandial lipemia is increased by mechanisms that are not currently established. In the present study, a recently developed (13)CO(2) breath test was used to assess the metabolism of chylomicron remnants (CR) in obese mice. Six murine obese models ob/ob, fat/fat, New Zealand Obese (NZO), db/db, gold thioglucose (GTG)-treated and agouti (A(y)) were studied. All obese mice were hyperphagic and their breath test metabolism was markedly impaired (P < 0.01) compared with control, nonobese mice. The breath test was also impaired (P < 0.01) in all obese mice except A(y) mice after 24-h food deprivation. However, after restriction to the food intake of paired control mice for 6 wk, the breath test in all obese mice improved to values of control, nonobese mice. The obese NZO, fat/fat and ob/ob mice had significant (P < 0.02) weight loss when food restricted, whereas A(y), GTG, and db/db mice did not. In all obese mice, plasma cholesterol levels decreased (P < 0.02) after the 6-wk period of food restriction. Plasma triglyceride levels significantly decreased (P < 0.02) in NZO, GTG and db/db mice, but not in other obese mice. Plasma glucose levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.02) after the 6-wk period in the obese mice except for the A(y) and NZO mice; levels were greater in food-restricted db/db mice. Although some of the obese models such as db/db were diabetic, our data suggest that the defective breath test was independent of diabetes because all obese and diabetic models responded similarly to food restriction. Impaired hepatic catabolism of CR was excluded as a cause of the abnormal breath tests. In summary, the impairment (P < 0.05) in remnant metabolism as assessed by the breath test in obese mice was corrected by food restriction, associated with improvements in plasma glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol levels.  (+info)

Effect of atorvastatin on chylomicron remnant metabolism in visceral obesity: a study employing a new stable isotope breath test. (8/40)

Elevated plasma concentration of chylomicron remnants may be causally related to atherosclerosis in obesity. We examined the effect of atorvastatin on chylomicron remnant metabolism in 25 obese men with dyslipidaemia. A remnant-like emulsion labeled with cholesteryl [(13)C]oleate was injected intravenously into patients; the fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of the remnant-like emulsion was determined by measurement of (13)CO(2) in the breath and analyzed using compartmental modelling. Compared with placebo, atorvastatin significantly decreased the plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B (apoB), and lathosterol (P < 0.001). ApoB-48 and remnant-like particle-cholesterol (RLP-C) both decreased significantly by 23% (P = 0.002) and 33% (P = 0.045), respectively. The FCR of the remnant-like emulsion increased significantly from 0.054 +/- 0.008 to 0.090 +/- 0.010 pools/h (P = 0.002). The decrease in RLP-C was associated with the decrease in plasma triglycerides (r = 0.750, P = 0.003). Furthermore, the change in FCR of remnant-like emulsions was inversely associated with the change in LDL-C (r = -0.575, P = 0.040), suggesting removal of LDL and chylomicron remnants by similar hepatic receptor pathways. We conclude that in obese subjects, inhibition of cholesterol synthesis with atorvastatin decreases the plasma concentrations of both LDL-C and triglyceride-rich remnants and that this may be partially due to an enhancement in hepatic clearance of these lipoproteins.  (+info)

Chylomicron remnants are the small, dense lipoprotein particles that remain after the digestion and absorption of dietary fats in the gut. They consist of a core of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides surrounded by a shell of phospholipids, apolipoproteins (including ApoE), and other proteins.

After a meal, dietary fats are absorbed by the intestinal cells and packaged into chylomicrons, which are released into the lymphatic system and then enter the bloodstream. The triglycerides in the chylomicrons are progressively hydrolyzed by lipoprotein lipase in the capillaries of various tissues, resulting in the formation of chylomicron remnants.

Chylomicron remnants contain a higher proportion of cholesterol and ApoE than the original chylomicrons and are taken up by the liver via receptor-mediated endocytosis. The ApoE on the surface of the chylomicron remnants binds to specific receptors (e.g., LDL receptors, LDL receptor-related proteins) on the hepatocytes, leading to their internalization and degradation in the liver.

Abnormalities in chylomicron metabolism can lead to hyperlipidemia and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Chylomicrons are a type of lipoprotein that are responsible for carrying dietary lipids, such as triglycerides and cholesterol, from the intestines to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system and bloodstream. They are the largest lipoproteins and are composed of an outer layer of phospholipids, free cholesterol, and apolipoproteins, which surrounds a core of triglycerides and cholesteryl esters. Chylomicrons are produced in the intestinal mucosa after a meal containing fat, and their production is stimulated by the hormone cholecystokinin. Once in the bloodstream, chylomicrons interact with other lipoproteins and enzymes to deliver their lipid cargo to various tissues, including muscle and adipose tissue, where they are used for energy or stored for later use.

Apolipoprotein B-48 (apoB-48) is a protein component of chylomicrons, which are lipoprotein particles responsible for carrying dietary fat and cholesterol from the intestines to other parts of the body. ApoB-48 is produced in the intestines and is a shorter version of apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100), which is a component of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) or "bad cholesterol."

Chylomicrons are assembled and secreted by intestinal cells after a meal, and apoB-48 is essential for the formation and function of these particles. ApoB-48-containing chylomicrons transport dietary lipids to various tissues, including the liver, where they contribute to the maintenance of lipid homeostasis.

Elevated levels of apoB-48 in the blood have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly in individuals with familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS), a rare genetic disorder characterized by severely elevated triglyceride levels due to impaired clearance of chylomicrons.

VLDL (Very Low-Density Lipoproteins) are a type of lipoprotein that play a crucial role in the transport and metabolism of fat molecules, known as triglycerides, in the body. They are produced by the liver and consist of a core of triglycerides surrounded by a shell of proteins called apolipoproteins, phospholipids, and cholesterol.

VLDL particles are responsible for delivering fat molecules from the liver to peripheral tissues throughout the body, where they can be used as an energy source or stored for later use. During this process, VLDL particles lose triglycerides and acquire more cholesterol, transforming into intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL) and eventually low-density lipoproteins (LDL), which are also known as "bad" cholesterol.

Elevated levels of VLDL in the blood can contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease due to their association with increased levels of triglycerides and LDL cholesterol, as well as decreased levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), which are considered "good" cholesterol.

LDL receptors (Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptors) are cell surface receptors that play a crucial role in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis within the body. They are responsible for recognizing and binding to LDL particles, also known as "bad cholesterol," which are then internalized by the cell through endocytosis.

Once inside the cell, the LDL particles are broken down, releasing their cholesterol content, which can be used for various cellular processes such as membrane synthesis and hormone production. The LDL receptors themselves are recycled back to the cell surface, allowing for continued uptake of LDL particles.

Mutations in the LDL receptor gene can lead to a condition called familial hypercholesterolemia, which is characterized by high levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood and an increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease.

Lipoproteins are complex particles composed of multiple proteins and lipids (fats) that play a crucial role in the transport and metabolism of fat molecules in the body. They consist of an outer shell of phospholipids, free cholesterols, and apolipoproteins, enclosing a core of triglycerides and cholesteryl esters.

There are several types of lipoproteins, including:

1. Chylomicrons: These are the largest lipoproteins and are responsible for transporting dietary lipids from the intestines to other parts of the body.
2. Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL): Produced by the liver, VLDL particles carry triglycerides to peripheral tissues for energy storage or use.
3. Low-density lipoproteins (LDL): Often referred to as "bad cholesterol," LDL particles transport cholesterol from the liver to cells throughout the body. High levels of LDL in the blood can lead to plaque buildup in artery walls and increase the risk of heart disease.
4. High-density lipoproteins (HDL): Known as "good cholesterol," HDL particles help remove excess cholesterol from cells and transport it back to the liver for excretion or recycling. Higher levels of HDL are associated with a lower risk of heart disease.

Understanding lipoproteins and their roles in the body is essential for assessing cardiovascular health and managing risks related to heart disease and stroke.

Medical Definition of Vitamin A:

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for normal vision, immune function, and cell growth. It is also an antioxidant that helps protect the body's cells from damage caused by free radicals. Vitamin A can be found in two main forms: preformed vitamin A, which is found in animal products such as dairy, fish, and meat, particularly liver; and provitamin A carotenoids, which are found in plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables, and vegetable oils.

The most active form of vitamin A is retinoic acid, which plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of the heart, lungs, kidneys, and other organs. Vitamin A deficiency can lead to night blindness, dry skin, and increased susceptibility to infections. Chronic vitamin A toxicity can cause nausea, dizziness, headaches, coma, and even death.

Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, and they're found in the food we eat. They're carried in the bloodstream to provide energy to the cells in our body. High levels of triglycerides in the blood can increase the risk of heart disease, especially in combination with other risk factors such as high LDL (bad) cholesterol, low HDL (good) cholesterol, and high blood pressure.

It's important to note that while triglycerides are a type of fat, they should not be confused with cholesterol, which is a waxy substance found in the cells of our body. Both triglycerides and cholesterol are important for maintaining good health, but high levels of either can increase the risk of heart disease.

Triglyceride levels are measured through a blood test called a lipid panel or lipid profile. A normal triglyceride level is less than 150 mg/dL. Borderline-high levels range from 150 to 199 mg/dL, high levels range from 200 to 499 mg/dL, and very high levels are 500 mg/dL or higher.

Elevated triglycerides can be caused by various factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypothyroidism, and kidney disease. Medications such as beta-blockers, steroids, and diuretics can also raise triglyceride levels.

Lifestyle changes such as losing weight, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet low in saturated and trans fats, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, and quitting smoking can help lower triglyceride levels. In some cases, medication may be necessary to reduce triglycerides to recommended levels.

Lymph is a colorless, transparent fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system, which is a part of the immune and circulatory systems. It consists of white blood cells called lymphocytes, proteins, lipids, glucose, electrolytes, hormones, and waste products. Lymph plays an essential role in maintaining fluid balance, absorbing fats from the digestive tract, and defending the body against infection by transporting immune cells to various tissues and organs. It is collected from tissues through lymph capillaries and flows through increasingly larger lymphatic vessels, ultimately returning to the bloodstream via the subclavian veins in the chest region.

Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a protein involved in the metabolism of lipids, particularly cholesterol. It is produced primarily by the liver and is a component of several types of lipoproteins, including very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL).

ApoE plays a crucial role in the transport and uptake of lipids in the body. It binds to specific receptors on cell surfaces, facilitating the delivery of lipids to cells for energy metabolism or storage. ApoE also helps to clear cholesterol from the bloodstream and is involved in the repair and maintenance of tissues.

There are three major isoforms of ApoE, designated ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4, which differ from each other by only a few amino acids. These genetic variations can have significant effects on an individual's risk for developing certain diseases, particularly cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer's disease. For example, individuals who inherit the ApoE4 allele have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, while those with the ApoE2 allele may have a reduced risk.

In summary, Apolipoprotein E is a protein involved in lipid metabolism and transport, and genetic variations in this protein can influence an individual's risk for certain diseases.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 1 (LRP1) is a large transmembrane receptor protein that belongs to the low-density lipoprotein receptor family. It plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including cellular signaling, endocytosis, and intracellular trafficking of ligands. LRP1 is widely expressed in many tissues, particularly in the brain, liver, and vascular endothelial cells.

LRP1 interacts with a diverse array of ligands, such as extracellular matrix proteins, apolipoproteins, proteinases, proteinase inhibitors, and various pathogen-associated molecules. The receptor is involved in the clearance of these ligands from the extracellular space through endocytosis, followed by intracellular degradation or recycling.

In the context of lipid metabolism, LRP1 has been implicated in the cellular uptake and degradation of Apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-containing lipoproteins, which are involved in the reverse transport of cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver. Dysregulation of LRP1 function has been linked to several diseases, including atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and various neurological disorders.

In summary, Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 1 (LRP1) is a multifunctional transmembrane receptor that plays essential roles in cellular signaling, endocytosis, and intracellular trafficking of various ligands. Its dysfunction has been implicated in several diseases related to lipid metabolism, neurodegeneration, and neurological disorders.

Fetuins are a group of proteins that are produced by the liver and found in circulation in the blood. The most well-known fetuin, fetuin-A, is a 64 kDa glycoprotein that is synthesized in the liver and secreted into the bloodstream. Fetuin-A plays a role in several physiological processes, including inhibition of tissue calcification, regulation of insulin sensitivity, and modulation of immune responses.

Fetuin-B is another member of the fetuin family that shares some structural similarities with fetuin-A but has distinct functions. Fetuin-B is also produced by the liver and secreted into the bloodstream, where it plays a role in regulating lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity.

It's worth noting that while both fetuins have been studied for their roles in various physiological processes, there is still much to be learned about their functions and regulation.

Apolipoproteins are a group of proteins that are associated with lipids (fats) in the body and play a crucial role in the metabolism, transportation, and regulation of lipids. They are structural components of lipoprotein particles, which are complexes of lipids and proteins that transport lipids in the bloodstream.

There are several types of apolipoproteins, including ApoA, ApoB, ApoC, ApoD, ApoE, and others. Each type has a specific function in lipid metabolism. For example, ApoA is a major component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), often referred to as "good cholesterol," and helps remove excess cholesterol from cells and tissues and transport it to the liver for excretion. ApoB, on the other hand, is a major component of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or "bad cholesterol," and plays a role in the delivery of cholesterol to cells and tissues.

Abnormal levels of apolipoproteins or dysfunctional forms of these proteins have been linked to various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, and metabolic disorders such as diabetes. Therefore, measuring apolipoprotein levels in the blood can provide valuable information for diagnosing and monitoring these conditions.

Corn oil is a type of vegetable oil that is extracted from the germ of corn (maize). It is rich in polyunsaturated fat, particularly linoleic acid, and contains about 25% saturated fat. Corn oil has a high smoke point, making it suitable for frying and baking. It is also used as an ingredient in margarine, salad dressings, and other food products. In addition to its use as a food product, corn oil is sometimes used topically on the skin as a moisturizer or emollient.

Cholesterol is a type of lipid (fat) molecule that is an essential component of cell membranes and is also used to make certain hormones and vitamins in the body. It is produced by the liver and is also obtained from animal-derived foods such as meat, dairy products, and eggs.

Cholesterol does not mix with blood, so it is transported through the bloodstream by lipoproteins, which are particles made up of both lipids and proteins. There are two main types of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol: low-density lipoproteins (LDL), also known as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoproteins (HDL), also known as "good" cholesterol.

High levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood can lead to a buildup of cholesterol in the walls of the arteries, increasing the risk of heart disease and stroke. On the other hand, high levels of HDL cholesterol are associated with a lower risk of these conditions because HDL helps remove LDL cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for disposal.

It is important to maintain healthy levels of cholesterol through a balanced diet, regular exercise, and sometimes medication if necessary. Regular screening is also recommended to monitor cholesterol levels and prevent health complications.

An emulsion is a type of stable mixture of two immiscible liquids, such as oil and water, which are normally unable to mix together uniformly. In an emulsion, one liquid (the dispersed phase) is broken down into small droplets and distributed throughout the other liquid (the continuous phase), creating a stable, cloudy mixture.

In medical terms, emulsions can be used in various pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. For example, certain medications may be formulated as oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions to improve their absorption, stability, or palatability. Similarly, some skincare products and makeup removers contain emulsifiers that help create stable mixtures of water and oils, allowing for effective cleansing and moisturizing.

Emulsions can also occur naturally in the body, such as in the digestion of fats. The bile salts produced by the liver help to form small droplets of dietary lipids (oil) within the watery environment of the small intestine, allowing for efficient absorption and metabolism of these nutrients.

Lipase is an enzyme that is produced by the pancreas and found in the digestive system of most organisms. Its primary function is to catalyze the hydrolysis of fats (triglycerides) into smaller molecules, such as fatty acids and glycerol, which can then be absorbed by the intestines and utilized for energy or stored for later use.

In medical terms, lipase levels in the blood are often measured to diagnose or monitor conditions that affect the pancreas, such as pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), pancreatic cancer, or cystic fibrosis. Elevated lipase levels may indicate damage to the pancreas and its ability to produce digestive enzymes.

Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is a type of protein that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of lipids, particularly low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or "bad" cholesterol. ApoB is a component of LDL particles and serves as a ligand for the LDL receptor, which is responsible for the clearance of LDL from the bloodstream.

There are two main forms of ApoB: ApoB-100 and ApoB-48. ApoB-100 is found in LDL particles, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles, and chylomicrons, while ApoB-48 is only found in chylomicrons, which are produced in the intestines and responsible for transporting dietary lipids.

Elevated levels of ApoB are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), as they indicate a higher concentration of LDL particles in the bloodstream. Therefore, measuring ApoB levels can provide additional information about CVD risk beyond traditional lipid profile tests that only measure total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides.

Cholesteryl esters are formed when cholesterol, a type of lipid (fat) that is important for the normal functioning of the body, becomes combined with fatty acids through a process called esterification. This results in a compound that is more hydrophobic (water-repelling) than cholesterol itself, which allows it to be stored more efficiently in the body.

Cholesteryl esters are found naturally in foods such as animal fats and oils, and they are also produced by the liver and other cells in the body. They play an important role in the structure and function of cell membranes, and they are also precursors to the synthesis of steroid hormones, bile acids, and vitamin D.

However, high levels of cholesteryl esters in the blood can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, a condition characterized by the buildup of plaque in the arteries, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke. Cholesteryl esters are typically measured as part of a lipid profile, along with other markers such as total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides.

A gold colloid is not a medical term per se, but it is often used in the context of medical applications. It refers to a suspension of sub-nanometer to nanometer-sized gold particles in a fluid, usually water. These particles are small enough to remain suspended and not settle at the bottom due to Brownian motion. Gold colloids have been used in various medical applications, such as diagnostic tests, drug delivery systems, and photothermal therapies, due to their unique optical properties and biocompatibility.

Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of lipids. It is responsible for breaking down triglycerides, which are the main constituent of dietary fats and chylomicrons, into fatty acids and glycerol. These products are then taken up by cells for energy production or storage.

LPL is synthesized in various tissues, including muscle and fat, where it is attached to the inner lining of blood vessels (endothelium). The enzyme is activated when it comes into contact with lipoprotein particles, such as chylomicrons and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), which transport triglycerides in the bloodstream.

Deficiencies or mutations in LPL can lead to various metabolic disorders, including hypertriglyceridemia, a condition characterized by high levels of triglycerides in the blood. Conversely, overexpression of LPL has been associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis due to excessive uptake of fatty acids by macrophages and their conversion into foam cells, which contribute to plaque formation in the arteries.

Lipoprotein receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of cells that play a crucial role in the metabolism of lipoproteins, which are complex particles composed of lipids and proteins. These receptors bind to specific lipoproteins in the bloodstream, facilitating their uptake into the cell for further processing.

There are several types of lipoprotein receptors, including:

1. LDL (Low-Density Lipoprotein) Receptor: This receptor is responsible for recognizing and internalizing LDL particles, which are rich in cholesterol. Once inside the cell, LDL particles release their cholesterol, which can then be used for various cellular functions or stored for later use. Defects in the LDL receptor can lead to elevated levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood and an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
2. HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein) Receptor: This receptor is involved in the clearance of HDL particles from the bloodstream. HDL particles are responsible for transporting excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver, where it can be processed and eliminated from the body.
3. VLDL (Very Low-Density Lipoprotein) Receptor: This receptor recognizes and internalizes VLDL particles, which are produced by the liver and carry triglycerides and cholesterol to peripheral tissues. VLDL particles are subsequently converted into LDL particles in the bloodstream.
4. LRP (Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein) Family: This family of receptors includes several members, such as LRP1 and LRP2, that play roles in various cellular processes, including lipid metabolism, protein trafficking, and cell signaling. They can bind to a variety of ligands, including lipoproteins, proteases, and extracellular matrix components.

In summary, lipoprotein receptors are essential for maintaining proper lipid metabolism and homeostasis by facilitating the uptake, processing, and elimination of lipoproteins in the body.

Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein that belongs to the transferrin family. It is an iron-binding protein found in various exocrine secretions such as milk, tears, and saliva, as well as in neutrophils, which are a type of white blood cell involved in immune response. Lactoferrin plays a role in iron homeostasis, antimicrobial activity, and anti-inflammatory responses. It has the ability to bind free iron, which can help prevent bacterial growth by depriving them of an essential nutrient. Additionally, lactoferrin has been shown to have direct antimicrobial effects against various bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Its role in the immune system also includes modulating the activity of immune cells and regulating inflammation.

Alpha-macroglobulins are a type of large protein molecule found in blood plasma, which play a crucial role in the human body's immune system. They are called "macro" globulins because of their large size, and "alpha" refers to their electrophoretic mobility, which is a laboratory technique used to separate proteins based on their electrical charge.

Alpha-macroglobulins function as protease inhibitors, which means they help regulate the activity of enzymes called proteases that can break down other proteins in the body. By inhibiting these proteases, alpha-macroglobulins help protect tissues and organs from excessive protein degradation and also help maintain the balance of various biological processes.

One of the most well-known alpha-macroglobulins is alpha-1-antitrypsin, which helps protect the lungs from damage caused by inflammation and protease activity. Deficiencies in this protein have been linked to lung diseases such as emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Overall, alpha-macroglobulins are an essential component of the human immune system and play a critical role in maintaining homeostasis and preventing excessive tissue damage.

Chyle is a milky, slightly opaque fluid that is present in the lymphatic system. It is formed in the small intestine during the digestion of food, particularly fats. Chyle consists of emulsified fat droplets (chylomicrons), proteins, electrolytes, and lymphocytes suspended in a watery solution. It is transported through the lacteals in the villi of the small intestine into the cisterna chyli and then to the thoracic duct, where it empties into the left subclavian vein. From there, it mixes with blood and circulates throughout the body. Chyle formation plays a crucial role in fat absorption and transportation in the human body.

Fetuin-B, also known as alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein (AHSG), is a liver-derived plasma protein that belongs to the cystatin superfamily. It has a molecular weight of approximately 59 kDa and is composed of three domains: an N-terminal cystatin-like domain, a fibrinogen-related domain, and a C-terminal domain with homology to thyroglobulin.

Fetuin-B plays a role in several physiological processes, including the regulation of mineral metabolism, inflammation, and cell adhesion. It has been shown to inhibit the formation of hydroxyapatite crystals, which suggests that it may have a protective effect against ectopic calcification.

Increased levels of fetuin-B have been associated with various metabolic disorders, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. It has also been implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. However, the exact role of fetuin-B in these conditions remains to be fully elucidated.

Hyperlipoproteinemia Type IV is a genetic disorder characterized by an increased level of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) in the blood. This leads to elevated levels of triglycerides, which are a type of fat found in the blood. The condition is also sometimes referred to as "Fredrickson Type IV."

People with Hyperlipoproteinemia Type IV have an increased risk of developing pancreatitis, a potentially life-threatening inflammation of the pancreas, due to high levels of triglycerides. They may also have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to elevated levels of VLDL and other atherogenic lipoproteins.

The condition is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that a child has a 50% chance of inheriting the disorder if one parent has it. However, some cases may be caused by mutations in multiple genes or by environmental factors such as obesity, diabetes, and excessive alcohol consumption.

Treatment for Hyperlipoproteinemia Type IV typically involves lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, exercise, and dietary changes to reduce triglyceride levels. In some cases, medication may be necessary to control the condition.

Apolipoprotein C-I (apoC-I) is a small protein component of lipoproteins, which are particles that transport all fat molecules (lipids), including cholesterol, in the bloodstream. ApoC-I is primarily produced in the liver and intestines and plays a crucial role in the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, such as very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and chylomicrons.

Apolipoprotein C-I has several functions:

1. Inhibition of lipoprotein lipase (LPL): ApoC-I inhibits the activity of LPL, an enzyme responsible for breaking down triglycerides in lipoproteins. This inhibition helps regulate the rate at which fatty acids are released from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and taken up by cells for energy production or storage.
2. Activation of hepatic lipase (HL): ApoC-I activates HL, an enzyme involved in the catabolism of intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL). This activation aids in the clearance of these particles from the circulation.
3. Regulation of cholesterol efflux: ApoC-I may also play a role in regulating cholesterol efflux, the process by which excess cholesterol is removed from cells and transported to the liver for excretion.

Genetic variations in the APOC1 gene, which encodes apoC-I, have been associated with alterations in lipid metabolism and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

The postprandial period is the time frame following a meal, during which the body is engaged in the process of digestion, absorption, and assimilation of nutrients. In a medical context, this term generally refers to the few hours after eating when the body is responding to the ingested food, particularly in terms of changes in metabolism and insulin levels.

The postprandial period can be of specific interest in the study and management of conditions such as diabetes, where understanding how the body handles glucose during this time can inform treatment decisions and strategies for maintaining healthy blood sugar levels.

Apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) is a large protein component of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), also known as "bad cholesterol." It plays a crucial role in the metabolism and transport of fats and cholesterol in the body. ApoB-100 is responsible for the binding of LDL to specific receptors on cell surfaces, facilitating the uptake of lipoprotein particles by cells. Elevated levels of apoB-100 in the blood are associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease.

Dietary fats, also known as fatty acids, are a major nutrient that the body needs for energy and various functions. They are an essential component of cell membranes and hormones, and they help the body absorb certain vitamins. There are several types of dietary fats:

1. Saturated fats: These are typically solid at room temperature and are found in animal products such as meat, butter, and cheese, as well as tropical oils like coconut and palm oil. Consuming a high amount of saturated fats can raise levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol and increase the risk of heart disease.
2. Unsaturated fats: These are typically liquid at room temperature and can be further divided into monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Monounsaturated fats, found in foods such as olive oil, avocados, and nuts, can help lower levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol while maintaining levels of healthy HDL cholesterol. Polyunsaturated fats, found in foods such as fatty fish, flaxseeds, and walnuts, have similar effects on cholesterol levels and also provide essential omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids that the body cannot produce on its own.
3. Trans fats: These are unsaturated fats that have been chemically modified to be solid at room temperature. They are often found in processed foods such as baked goods, fried foods, and snack foods. Consuming trans fats can raise levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol and lower levels of healthy HDL cholesterol, increasing the risk of heart disease.

It is recommended to limit intake of saturated and trans fats and to consume more unsaturated fats as part of a healthy diet.

Low-density lipoproteins (LDL), also known as "bad cholesterol," are a type of lipoprotein that carry cholesterol and other fats from the liver to cells throughout the body. High levels of LDL in the blood can lead to the buildup of cholesterol in the walls of the arteries, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Lipoproteins are complex particles composed of proteins (apolipoproteins) and lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids) that are responsible for transporting fat molecules around the body in the bloodstream. LDL is one type of lipoprotein, along with high-density lipoproteins (HDL), very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), and chylomicrons.

LDL particles are smaller than HDL particles and can easily penetrate the artery walls, leading to the formation of plaques that can narrow or block the arteries. Therefore, maintaining healthy levels of LDL in the blood is essential for preventing cardiovascular disease.

The Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-Associated Protein (LRPAP) is not a medical condition, but rather a protein involved in the functioning of another protein called the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP). LRP is a type of cell surface receptor that plays a crucial role in various biological processes such as lipid metabolism, cell signaling, and protein degradation.

LRPAP is a chaperone protein that helps to ensure the proper folding, trafficking, and function of LRP. It forms a complex with LRP in the endoplasmic reticulum and accompanies it to the cell surface, where it dissociates from LRP and recycles back to the endoplasmic reticulum.

Mutations in the gene that encodes LRPAP have been associated with certain inherited eye disorders, such as age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa, suggesting a role for this protein in maintaining the health of the eye. However, more research is needed to fully understand the functions of LRPAP and its potential implications for human health and disease.

Lipolysis is the process by which fat cells (adipocytes) break down stored triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids. This process occurs when the body needs to use stored fat as a source of energy, such as during fasting, exercise, or in response to certain hormonal signals. The breakdown products of lipolysis can be used directly by cells for energy production or can be released into the bloodstream and transported to other tissues for use. Lipolysis is regulated by several hormones, including adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline (norepinephrine), cortisol, glucagon, and growth hormone, which act on lipases, enzymes that mediate the breakdown of triglycerides.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Metabolic clearance rate is a term used in pharmacology to describe the volume of blood or plasma from which a drug is completely removed per unit time by metabolic processes. It is a measure of the body's ability to eliminate a particular substance and is usually expressed in units of volume (e.g., milliliters or liters) per time (e.g., minutes, hours, or days).

The metabolic clearance rate can be calculated by dividing the total amount of drug eliminated by the plasma concentration of the drug and the time over which it was eliminated. It provides important information about the pharmacokinetics of a drug, including its rate of elimination and the potential for drug-drug interactions that may affect metabolism.

It is worth noting that there are different types of clearance rates, such as renal clearance rate (which refers to the removal of a drug by the kidneys) or hepatic clearance rate (which refers to the removal of a drug by the liver). Metabolic clearance rate specifically refers to the elimination of a drug through metabolic processes, which can occur in various organs throughout the body.

Iodine radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of the element iodine, which decays and emits radiation in the form of gamma rays. Some commonly used iodine radioisotopes include I-123, I-125, I-131. These radioisotopes have various medical applications such as in diagnostic imaging, therapy for thyroid disorders, and cancer treatment.

For example, I-131 is commonly used to treat hyperthyroidism and differentiated thyroid cancer due to its ability to destroy thyroid tissue. On the other hand, I-123 is often used in nuclear medicine scans of the thyroid gland because it emits gamma rays that can be detected by a gamma camera, allowing for detailed images of the gland's structure and function.

It is important to note that handling and administering radioisotopes require specialized training and safety precautions due to their radiation-emitting properties.

Dietary cholesterol is a type of cholesterol that comes from the foods we eat. It is present in animal-derived products such as meat, poultry, dairy products, and eggs. While dietary cholesterol can contribute to an increase in blood cholesterol levels for some people, it's important to note that saturated and trans fats have a more significant impact on blood cholesterol levels than dietary cholesterol itself.

The American Heart Association recommends limiting dietary cholesterol intake to less than 300 milligrams per day for most people, and less than 200 milligrams per day for those with a history of heart disease or high cholesterol levels. However, individual responses to dietary cholesterol can vary, so it's essential to monitor blood cholesterol levels and adjust dietary habits accordingly.

Asialoglycoproteins are glycoproteins that have lost their terminal sialic acid residues. In the body, these molecules are typically recognized and removed from circulation by hepatic lectins, such as the Ashwell-Morrell receptor, found on liver cells. This process is a part of the normal turnover and clearance of glycoproteins in the body.

Hyperlipoproteinemias are medical conditions characterized by elevated levels of lipoproteins in the blood. Lipoproteins are particles that consist of proteins and lipids, which are responsible for transporting all fat molecules, such as cholesterol and triglycerides, around the body within the water outside cells. These lipids cannot dissolve in the blood, so they must be carried by these lipoprotein particles.

There are several types of hyperlipoproteinemias, classified based on the type of lipoprotein that is elevated and the pattern of inheritance. The most commonly recognized classification system is the Fredrickson classification, which includes five main types:

1. Type I - characterized by an excess of chylomicrons, a type of lipoprotein that carries dietary lipids, leading to extremely high levels of triglycerides in the blood. This rare disorder is usually caused by genetic mutations.
2. Type II - divided into two subtypes:
a. Type IIa - characterized by elevated LDL (low-density lipoprotein), or "bad" cholesterol, levels and often associated with premature cardiovascular disease. This condition can be caused by genetic factors, lifestyle choices, or both.
b. Type IIb - marked by increased levels of both LDL cholesterol and VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein), which leads to elevated triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood. This subtype can also be influenced by genetic factors, lifestyle choices, or both.
3. Type III - known as broad beta disease or remnant removal disease, this condition is characterized by an abnormal accumulation of remnant particles from VLDL and IDL (intermediate-density lipoprotein) metabolism, leading to increased levels of both cholesterol and triglycerides. This disorder can be caused by genetic mutations or secondary factors like diabetes, obesity, or hypothyroidism.
4. Type IV - characterized by elevated VLDL particles and high triglyceride levels in the blood. This condition is often associated with metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, and alcohol consumption.
5. Type V - marked by increased VLDL and chylomicrons (lipoprotein particles that transport dietary lipids) in the blood, leading to extremely high triglyceride levels. This rare condition can be caused by genetic factors or secondary factors like diabetes, obesity, alcohol consumption, or uncontrolled lipid absorption.

It is important to note that these types are not mutually exclusive and can coexist in various combinations. Additionally, lifestyle choices such as diet, exercise, smoking, and alcohol consumption can significantly impact lipoprotein levels and contribute to the development of dyslipidemia (abnormal lipid levels).

Medical definitions generally do not include plant oils as a specific term. However, in a biological or biochemical context, plant oils, also known as vegetable oils, are defined as lipid extracts derived from various parts of plants such as seeds, fruits, and leaves. They mainly consist of triglycerides, which are esters of glycerol and three fatty acids. The composition of fatty acids can vary between different plant sources, leading to a range of physical and chemical properties that make plant oils useful for various applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. Some common examples of plant oils include olive oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, and jojoba oil.

Lipids are a broad group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. They include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Lipids serve many important functions in the body, including energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, and serving as signaling molecules. High levels of certain lipids, particularly cholesterol and triglycerides, in the blood are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Fish oils are a type of fat or lipid derived from the tissues of oily fish. They are a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These fatty acids have been associated with various health benefits such as reducing inflammation, decreasing the risk of heart disease, improving brain function, and promoting eye health. Fish oils can be consumed through diet or taken as a dietary supplement in the form of capsules or liquid. It is important to note that while fish oils have potential health benefits, they should not replace a balanced diet and medical advice should be sought before starting any supplementation.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Lipid metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down and utilizes lipids (fats) for various functions, such as energy production, cell membrane formation, and hormone synthesis. This complex process involves several enzymes and pathways that regulate the digestion, absorption, transport, storage, and consumption of fats in the body.

The main types of lipids involved in metabolism include triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and fatty acids. The breakdown of these lipids begins in the digestive system, where enzymes called lipases break down dietary fats into smaller molecules called fatty acids and glycerol. These molecules are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the liver, which is the main site of lipid metabolism.

In the liver, fatty acids may be further broken down for energy production or used to synthesize new lipids. Excess fatty acids may be stored as triglycerides in specialized cells called adipocytes (fat cells) for later use. Cholesterol is also metabolized in the liver, where it may be used to synthesize bile acids, steroid hormones, and other important molecules.

Disorders of lipid metabolism can lead to a range of health problems, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These conditions may be caused by genetic factors, lifestyle habits, or a combination of both. Proper diagnosis and management of lipid metabolism disorders typically involves a combination of dietary changes, exercise, and medication.

Ethinyl estradiol is a synthetic form of the hormone estrogen that is often used in various forms of hormonal contraception, such as birth control pills. It works by preventing ovulation and thickening cervical mucus to make it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg. Ethinyl estradiol may also be used in combination with other hormones to treat menopausal symptoms or hormonal disorders.

It is important to note that while ethinyl estradiol can be an effective form of hormonal therapy, it can also carry risks and side effects, such as an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, and breast cancer. As with any medication, it should only be used under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare provider.

Triolein is a type of triglyceride, which is a kind of fat molecule. More specifically, triolein is the triglyceride formed from three molecules of oleic acid, a common monounsaturated fatty acid. It is often used in scientific research and studies involving lipid metabolism, and it can be found in various vegetable oils and animal fats.

High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL) are a type of lipoprotein that play a crucial role in the transportation and metabolism of cholesterol in the body. They are often referred to as "good" cholesterol because they help remove excess cholesterol from cells and carry it back to the liver, where it can be broken down and removed from the body. This process is known as reverse cholesterol transport.

HDLs are composed of a lipid core containing cholesteryl esters and triglycerides, surrounded by a shell of phospholipids, free cholesterol, and apolipoproteins, primarily apoA-I. The size and composition of HDL particles can vary, leading to the classification of different subclasses of HDL with varying functions and metabolic fates.

Elevated levels of HDL have been associated with a lower risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, while low HDL levels increase the risk. However, it is essential to consider that HDL function and quality may be more important than just the quantity in determining cardiovascular risk.

Apolipoprotein C (apoC) is a group of proteins that are associated with lipoproteins, which are complex particles composed of lipids and proteins that play a crucial role in the transport and metabolism of lipids in the body. There are three main types of apoC proteins: apoC-I, apoC-II, and apoC-III.

ApoC-I is involved in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism and has been shown to inhibit the activity of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), which is an enzyme that facilitates the transfer of cholesteryl esters from high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL).

ApoC-II is a cofactor for lipoprotein lipase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides in chylomicrons and VLDL, leading to the formation of smaller, denser lipoproteins. A deficiency in apoC-II can lead to hypertriglyceridemia, a condition characterized by elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood.

ApoC-III is also involved in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism and has been shown to inhibit the activity of lipoprotein lipase and CETP. Elevated levels of apoC-III have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, possibly due to its effects on lipoprotein metabolism.

In summary, apolipoprotein C is a group of proteins that are involved in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism and have important roles in the transport and metabolism of lipids in the body.

Phospholipids are a major class of lipids that consist of a hydrophilic (water-attracting) head and two hydrophobic (water-repelling) tails. The head is composed of a phosphate group, which is often bound to an organic molecule such as choline, ethanolamine, serine or inositol. The tails are made up of two fatty acid chains.

Phospholipids are a key component of cell membranes and play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and function of the cell. They form a lipid bilayer, with the hydrophilic heads facing outwards and the hydrophobic tails facing inwards, creating a barrier that separates the interior of the cell from the outside environment.

Phospholipids are also involved in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, intracellular trafficking, and protein function regulation. Additionally, they serve as emulsifiers in the digestive system, helping to break down fats in the diet.

"Competitive binding" is a term used in pharmacology and biochemistry to describe the behavior of two or more molecules (ligands) competing for the same binding site on a target protein or receptor. In this context, "binding" refers to the physical interaction between a ligand and its target.

When a ligand binds to a receptor, it can alter the receptor's function, either activating or inhibiting it. If multiple ligands compete for the same binding site, they will compete to bind to the receptor. The ability of each ligand to bind to the receptor is influenced by its affinity for the receptor, which is a measure of how strongly and specifically the ligand binds to the receptor.

In competitive binding, if one ligand is present in high concentrations, it can prevent other ligands with lower affinity from binding to the receptor. This is because the higher-affinity ligand will have a greater probability of occupying the binding site and blocking access to the other ligands. The competition between ligands can be described mathematically using equations such as the Langmuir isotherm, which describes the relationship between the concentration of ligand and the fraction of receptors that are occupied by the ligand.

Competitive binding is an important concept in drug development, as it can be used to predict how different drugs will interact with their targets and how they may affect each other's activity. By understanding the competitive binding properties of a drug, researchers can optimize its dosage and delivery to maximize its therapeutic effect while minimizing unwanted side effects.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Carbon radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of carbon, which is an naturally occurring chemical element with the atomic number 6. The most common and stable isotope of carbon is carbon-12 (^12C), but there are also several radioactive isotopes, including carbon-11 (^11C), carbon-14 (^14C), and carbon-13 (^13C). These radioisotopes have different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei, which makes them unstable and causes them to emit radiation.

Carbon-11 has a half-life of about 20 minutes and is used in medical imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It is produced by bombarding nitrogen-14 with protons in a cyclotron.

Carbon-14, also known as radiocarbon, has a half-life of about 5730 years and is used in archaeology and geology to date organic materials. It is produced naturally in the atmosphere by cosmic rays.

Carbon-13 is stable and has a natural abundance of about 1.1% in carbon. It is not radioactive, but it can be used as a tracer in medical research and in the study of metabolic processes.

Immunologic receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of immune cells that recognize and bind to specific molecules, known as antigens, on the surface of pathogens or infected cells. This binding triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that activate the immune cell and initiate an immune response.

There are several types of immunologic receptors, including:

1. T-cell receptors (TCRs): These receptors are found on the surface of T cells and recognize antigens presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.
2. B-cell receptors (BCRs): These receptors are found on the surface of B cells and recognize free antigens in solution.
3. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs): These receptors are found inside immune cells and recognize conserved molecular patterns associated with pathogens, such as lipopolysaccharides and flagellin.
4. Fc receptors: These receptors are found on the surface of various immune cells and bind to the constant region of antibodies, mediating effector functions such as phagocytosis and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC).

Immunologic receptors play a critical role in the recognition and elimination of pathogens and infected cells, and dysregulation of these receptors can lead to immune disorders and diseases.

Fasting is defined in medical terms as the abstinence from food or drink for a period of time. This practice is often recommended before certain medical tests or procedures, as it helps to ensure that the results are not affected by recent eating or drinking.

In some cases, fasting may also be used as a therapeutic intervention, such as in the management of seizures or other neurological conditions. Fasting can help to lower blood sugar and insulin levels, which can have a variety of health benefits. However, it is important to note that prolonged fasting can also have negative effects on the body, including malnutrition, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalances.

Fasting is also a spiritual practice in many religions, including Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism. In these contexts, fasting is often seen as a way to purify the mind and body, to focus on spiritual practices, or to express devotion or mourning.

Heparin is defined as a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan (a type of polysaccharide) that is widely present in many tissues, but is most commonly derived from the mucosal tissues of mammalian lungs or intestinal mucosa. It is an anticoagulant that acts as an inhibitor of several enzymes involved in the blood coagulation cascade, primarily by activating antithrombin III which then neutralizes thrombin and other clotting factors.

Heparin is used medically to prevent and treat thromboembolic disorders such as deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and certain types of heart attacks. It can also be used during hemodialysis, cardiac bypass surgery, and other medical procedures to prevent the formation of blood clots.

It's important to note that while heparin is a powerful anticoagulant, it does not have any fibrinolytic activity, meaning it cannot dissolve existing blood clots. Instead, it prevents new clots from forming and stops existing clots from growing larger.

Tritium is not a medical term, but it is a term used in the field of nuclear physics and chemistry. Tritium (symbol: T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen with two neutrons and one proton in its nucleus. It is also known as heavy hydrogen or superheavy hydrogen.

Tritium has a half-life of about 12.3 years, which means that it decays by emitting a low-energy beta particle (an electron) to become helium-3. Due to its radioactive nature and relatively short half-life, tritium is used in various applications, including nuclear weapons, fusion reactors, luminous paints, and medical research.

In the context of medicine, tritium may be used as a radioactive tracer in some scientific studies or medical research, but it is not a term commonly used to describe a medical condition or treatment.

Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of cholesterol in the body. It is found in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells and catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonic acid, which is a key rate-limiting step in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway.

The reaction catalyzed by HMG-CoA reductase is as follows:

HMG-CoA + 2 NADPH + 2 H+ → mevalonic acid + CoA + 2 NADP+

This enzyme is the target of statin drugs, which are commonly prescribed to lower cholesterol levels in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Statins work by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, thereby reducing the production of cholesterol in the body.

Hyperlipidemias are a group of disorders characterized by an excess of lipids (fats) or lipoproteins in the blood. These include elevated levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, or both. Hyperlipidemias can be inherited (primary) or caused by other medical conditions (secondary). They are a significant risk factor for developing cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease.

There are two main types of lipids that are commonly measured in the blood: low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, often referred to as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, known as "good" cholesterol. High levels of LDL cholesterol can lead to the formation of plaques in the arteries, which can narrow or block them and increase the risk of heart attack or stroke. On the other hand, high levels of HDL cholesterol are protective because they help remove LDL cholesterol from the bloodstream.

Triglycerides are another type of lipid that can be measured in the blood. Elevated triglyceride levels can also contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease, particularly when combined with high LDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol levels.

Hyperlipidemias are typically diagnosed through a blood test that measures the levels of various lipids and lipoproteins in the blood. Treatment may include lifestyle changes, such as following a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, losing weight, and quitting smoking, as well as medication to lower lipid levels if necessary.

VLDL, or very low-density lipoproteins, are a type of lipoprotein that carries triglycerides and cholesterol from the liver to other parts of the body. Cholesterol is a fatty substance found in the blood, and VLDL contains both triglycerides and cholesterol.

Cholesterol itself cannot dissolve in the blood and needs to be transported around the body by lipoproteins, which are protein molecules that encapsulate and carry fat molecules, such as cholesterol and triglycerides, through the bloodstream. VLDL is one of several types of lipoproteins, including low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL).

Elevated levels of VLDL in the blood can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, a condition characterized by the buildup of plaque in the arteries, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke. Therefore, maintaining healthy levels of VLDL and other lipoproteins is an important part of overall cardiovascular health.

Unsaturated dietary fats are a type of fat that are primarily found in foods from plants. They are called "unsaturated" because of their chemical structure, which contains one or more double bonds in the carbon chain of the fat molecule. These double bonds can be either monounsaturated (one double bond) or polyunsaturated (multiple double bonds).

Monounsaturated fats are found in foods such as olive oil, avocados, and nuts, while polyunsaturated fats are found in foods such as fatty fish, flaxseeds, and vegetable oils. Unsaturated fats are generally considered to be heart-healthy, as they can help lower levels of harmful cholesterol in the blood and reduce the risk of heart disease.

It is important to note that while unsaturated fats are healthier than saturated and trans fats, they are still high in calories and should be consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Cell surface receptors, also known as membrane receptors, are proteins located on the cell membrane that bind to specific molecules outside the cell, known as ligands. These receptors play a crucial role in signal transduction, which is the process of converting an extracellular signal into an intracellular response.

Cell surface receptors can be classified into several categories based on their structure and mechanism of action, including:

1. Ion channel receptors: These receptors contain a pore that opens to allow ions to flow across the cell membrane when they bind to their ligands. This ion flux can directly activate or inhibit various cellular processes.
2. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): These receptors consist of seven transmembrane domains and are associated with heterotrimeric G proteins that modulate intracellular signaling pathways upon ligand binding.
3. Enzyme-linked receptors: These receptors possess an intrinsic enzymatic activity or are linked to an enzyme, which becomes activated when the receptor binds to its ligand. This activation can lead to the initiation of various signaling cascades within the cell.
4. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs): These receptors contain intracellular tyrosine kinase domains that become activated upon ligand binding, leading to the phosphorylation and activation of downstream signaling molecules.
5. Integrins: These receptors are transmembrane proteins that mediate cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions by binding to extracellular matrix proteins or counter-receptors on adjacent cells. They play essential roles in cell adhesion, migration, and survival.

Cell surface receptors are involved in various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, hormone signaling, immune response, and cell growth and differentiation. Dysregulation of these receptors can contribute to the development of numerous diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Omega-3 fatty acids are a type of polyunsaturated fats that are essential for human health. The "omega-3" designation refers to the location of a double bond in the chemical structure of the fatty acid, specifically three carbon atoms from the end of the molecule.

There are three main types of omega-3 fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). EPA and DHA are primarily found in fatty fish, such as salmon, mackerel, and sardines, as well as in algae. ALA is found in plant sources, such as flaxseeds, chia seeds, walnuts, and some vegetable oils.

Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to have numerous health benefits, including reducing inflammation, lowering the risk of heart disease, improving brain function, and supporting eye health. They are also important for fetal development during pregnancy and breastfeeding. It is recommended that adults consume at least 250-500 milligrams of combined EPA and DHA per day, although higher intakes may be beneficial for certain conditions. ALA can be converted to EPA and DHA in the body, but this process is not very efficient, so it is important to consume preformed EPA and DHA from dietary sources or supplements.

Apolipoprotein C-II (ApoC-II) is a type of apolipoprotein, which are proteins that bind to lipids to form lipoprotein complexes. ApoC-II is a component of several lipoproteins, including very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and chylomicrons, which are responsible for the transport of fat molecules, such as triglycerides and cholesterol, in the bloodstream.

ApoC-II plays a crucial role in the activation of lipoprotein lipase, an enzyme that breaks down triglycerides in VLDL and chylomicrons into fatty acids, which can then be taken up by cells for energy production or storage. Therefore, ApoC-II deficiency can lead to hypertriglyceridemia, a condition characterized by high levels of triglycerides in the blood.

In addition to its role in lipid metabolism, ApoC-II has been implicated in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the arteries and can lead to serious cardiovascular complications, such as heart attack and stroke.

Fatty acids are carboxylic acids with a long aliphatic chain, which are important components of lipids and are widely distributed in living organisms. They can be classified based on the length of their carbon chain, saturation level (presence or absence of double bonds), and other structural features.

The two main types of fatty acids are:

1. Saturated fatty acids: These have no double bonds in their carbon chain and are typically solid at room temperature. Examples include palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0).
2. Unsaturated fatty acids: These contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain and can be further classified into monounsaturated (one double bond) and polyunsaturated (two or more double bonds) fatty acids. Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (C18:1, monounsaturated), linoleic acid (C18:2, polyunsaturated), and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3, polyunsaturated).

Fatty acids play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as energy storage, membrane structure, and cell signaling. Some essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources.

Perfusion, in medical terms, refers to the process of circulating blood through the body's organs and tissues to deliver oxygen and nutrients and remove waste products. It is a measure of the delivery of adequate blood flow to specific areas or tissues in the body. Perfusion can be assessed using various methods, including imaging techniques like computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and perfusion scintigraphy.

Perfusion is critical for maintaining proper organ function and overall health. When perfusion is impaired or inadequate, it can lead to tissue hypoxia, acidosis, and cell death, which can result in organ dysfunction or failure. Conditions that can affect perfusion include cardiovascular disease, shock, trauma, and certain surgical procedures.

Endocytosis is the process by which cells absorb substances from their external environment by engulfing them in membrane-bound structures, resulting in the formation of intracellular vesicles. This mechanism allows cells to take up large molecules, such as proteins and lipids, as well as small particles, like bacteria and viruses. There are two main types of endocytosis: phagocytosis (cell eating) and pinocytosis (cell drinking). Phagocytosis involves the engulfment of solid particles, while pinocytosis deals with the uptake of fluids and dissolved substances. Other specialized forms of endocytosis include receptor-mediated endocytosis and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, which allow for the specific internalization of molecules through the interaction with cell surface receptors.

Unsaturated fatty acids are a type of fatty acid that contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain. These double bonds can be either cis or trans configurations, although the cis configuration is more common in nature. The presence of these double bonds makes unsaturated fatty acids more liquid at room temperature and less prone to spoilage than saturated fatty acids, which do not have any double bonds.

Unsaturated fatty acids can be further classified into two main categories: monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). MUFAs contain one double bond in their carbon chain, while PUFAs contain two or more.

Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (a MUFA found in olive oil), linoleic acid (a PUFA found in vegetable oils), and alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 PUFA found in flaxseed and fish). Unsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for the human body, as they play important roles in various physiological processes such as membrane structure, inflammation, and blood clotting. It is recommended to consume a balanced diet that includes both MUFAs and PUFAs to maintain good health.

Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, ions, or solutes across biological membranes or through cells in living organisms. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, regulating cellular functions, and enabling communication between cells. There are two main types of biological transport: passive transport and active transport.

Passive transport does not require the input of energy and includes:

1. Diffusion: The random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached.
2. Osmosis: The diffusion of solvent molecules (usually water) across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
3. Facilitated diffusion: The assisted passage of polar or charged substances through protein channels or carriers in the cell membrane, which increases the rate of diffusion without consuming energy.

Active transport requires the input of energy (in the form of ATP) and includes:

1. Primary active transport: The direct use of ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient, often driven by specific transport proteins called pumps.
2. Secondary active transport: The coupling of the movement of one substance down its electrochemical gradient with the uphill transport of another substance, mediated by a shared transport protein. This process is also known as co-transport or counter-transport.

Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II, also known as Fredrickson Type II or Familial Combined Hyperlipidemia, is a genetic disorder characterized by elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and/or triglycerides in the blood. This condition can lead to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease.

The disorder is caused by mutations in several genes involved in lipid metabolism, including APOB, LDLR, PCSK9, and APOE. These genetic defects result in impaired clearance of LDL particles from the bloodstream, leading to their accumulation and increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Individuals with Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II typically have elevated levels of both LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, although some may only have one or the other elevated. The disorder can present at any age, but it is often diagnosed in adulthood during routine cholesterol screening.

Treatment for Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II typically involves lifestyle modifications such as a heart-healthy diet, regular exercise, and weight loss. Medications such as statins, ezetimibe, and PCSK9 inhibitors may also be prescribed to lower LDL cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Omega-6 fatty acids are a type of polyunsaturated fats that are essential for human health. The "omega-6" designation refers to the location of a double bond in the chemical structure of the fatty acid. Specifically, the double bond is located six carbons from the omega end of the molecule.

Omega-6 fatty acids play important roles in the body, including supporting brain function, stimulating skin and hair growth, regulating metabolism, and maintaining the reproductive system. They are also involved in the production of hormones that regulate inflammation and blood clotting.

The most common omega-6 fatty acids found in the Western diet include linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA). LA is found in vegetable oils such as soybean, corn, and sunflower oil, while AA is found in animal products such as meat, poultry, and eggs.

While omega-6 fatty acids are essential for human health, it's important to maintain a balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. A diet that is too high in omega-6 fatty acids and low in omega-3 fatty acids can contribute to chronic inflammation and increase the risk of heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. Therefore, it's recommended to consume omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in a ratio of 2:1 to 4:1.

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal development. In adults, AFP is normally present in very low levels in the blood. However, abnormal production of AFP can occur in certain medical conditions, such as:

* Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
* Germ cell tumors, including non-seminomatous testicular cancer and ovarian cancer
* Hepatitis or liver inflammation
* Certain types of benign liver disease, such as cirrhosis or hepatic adenomas

Elevated levels of AFP in the blood can be detected through a simple blood test. This test is often used as a tumor marker to help diagnose and monitor certain types of cancer, particularly HCC. However, it's important to note that an elevated AFP level alone is not enough to diagnose cancer, and further testing is usually needed to confirm the diagnosis. Additionally, some non-cancerous conditions can also cause elevated AFP levels, so it's important to interpret the test results in the context of the individual's medical history and other diagnostic tests.

Foam cells are a type of cell that form when certain white blood cells, called macrophages, accumulate an excessive amount of lipids (fats) within their cytoplasm. This occurs due to the ingestion and breakdown of low-density lipoproteins (LDL), which then get trapped inside the macrophages, leading to the formation of large lipid-rich vacuoles that give the cells a foamy appearance under the microscope.

Foam cells are commonly found in the early stages of atherosclerosis, a condition characterized by the buildup of plaque in the walls of arteries. Over time, the accumulation of foam cells and other components of plaque can narrow or block the affected artery, leading to serious health problems such as heart attack or stroke.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Bile is a digestive fluid that is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It plays an essential role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. Bile consists of bile salts, bilirubin, cholesterol, phospholipids, electrolytes, and water.

Bile salts are amphipathic molecules that help to emulsify fats into smaller droplets, increasing their surface area and allowing for more efficient digestion by enzymes such as lipase. Bilirubin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin from red blood cells and gives bile its characteristic greenish-brown color.

Bile is released into the small intestine in response to food, particularly fats, entering the digestive tract. It helps to break down large fat molecules into smaller ones that can be absorbed through the walls of the intestines and transported to other parts of the body for energy or storage.

Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that are an essential part of the immune system. They are large, specialized cells that engulf and destroy foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, as well as damaged or dead cells. Macrophages are found throughout the body, including in the bloodstream, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, lungs, and connective tissues. They play a critical role in inflammation, immune response, and tissue repair and remodeling.

Macrophages originate from monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow. When monocytes enter the tissues, they differentiate into macrophages, which have a larger size and more specialized functions than monocytes. Macrophages can change their shape and move through tissues to reach sites of infection or injury. They also produce cytokines, chemokines, and other signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response and recruit other immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

Macrophages have a variety of surface receptors that allow them to recognize and respond to different types of foreign substances and signals from other cells. They can engulf and digest foreign particles, bacteria, and viruses through a process called phagocytosis. Macrophages also play a role in presenting antigens to T cells, which are another type of immune cell that helps coordinate the immune response.

Overall, macrophages are crucial for maintaining tissue homeostasis, defending against infection, and promoting wound healing and tissue repair. Dysregulation of macrophage function has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory conditions.

Poloxalene is not a medical term, but a chemical compound. It's an ether used as a non-ionic surfactant and emulsifying agent in the pharmaceutical industry. Poloxalene is also known for its ability to reduce the severity of bloat (gas distention) in animals, particularly in ruminants like cows, when included in their feed. However, it's not typically used as a human medication.

I couldn't find a medical definition for the term "butter" in and of itself, as it is not a medical term. However, butter is a common food item that can be mentioned in a medical context. Butter is a dairy product made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk to separate the fat globules from the buttermilk. It is used as a spread, cooking fat, and ingredient in various foods.

In some cases, butter may be relevant in a medical setting due to its nutritional content. Butter is high in saturated fats and cholesterol, which can contribute to an increased risk of heart disease when consumed in excess. Therefore, individuals with certain medical conditions, such as high blood cholesterol levels or a history of heart disease, may be advised to limit their intake of butter and other high-fat dairy products.

Additionally, some people may have allergies or sensitivities to dairy products, including butter, which can cause symptoms such as hives, itching, swelling, difficulty breathing, or digestive problems. In these cases, avoiding butter and other dairy products is important for managing the allergy or sensitivity.

Intestinal absorption refers to the process by which the small intestine absorbs water, nutrients, and electrolytes from food into the bloodstream. This is a critical part of the digestive process, allowing the body to utilize the nutrients it needs and eliminate waste products. The inner wall of the small intestine contains tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase the surface area for absorption. Nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the capillaries in these villi, and then transported to other parts of the body for use or storage.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

A breath test is a medical or forensic procedure used to analyze a sample of exhaled breath in order to detect and measure the presence of various substances, most commonly alcohol. The test is typically conducted using a device called a breathalyzer, which measures the amount of alcohol in the breath and converts it into a reading of blood alcohol concentration (BAC).

In addition to alcohol, breath tests can also be used to detect other substances such as drugs or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that may indicate certain medical conditions. However, these types of breath tests are less common and may not be as reliable or accurate as other diagnostic tests.

Breath testing is commonly used by law enforcement officers to determine whether a driver is impaired by alcohol and to establish probable cause for arrest. It is also used in some healthcare settings to monitor patients who are being treated for alcohol abuse or dependence.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Hyperlipoproteinemia Type III, also known as Broad Beta Disease or Remnant Hyperlipidemia, is a genetic disorder characterized by an increased level of chylomicron remnants and intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL) in the blood. This results in elevated levels of both low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or "bad" cholesterol, and triglycerides, and decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or "good" cholesterol. The condition can lead to premature atherosclerosis and an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. It is caused by mutations in the APOE gene, which encodes the apolipoprotein E protein, leading to abnormal clearance of lipoproteins from the blood.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

Hepatocytes are the predominant type of cells in the liver, accounting for about 80% of its cytoplasmic mass. They play a key role in protein synthesis, protein storage, transformation of carbohydrates, synthesis of cholesterol, bile salts and phospholipids, detoxification, modification, and excretion of exogenous and endogenous substances, initiation of formation and secretion of bile, and enzyme production. Hepatocytes are essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

Arteriosclerosis is a general term that describes the hardening and stiffening of the artery walls. It's a progressive condition that can occur as a result of aging, or it may be associated with certain risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, smoking, and a sedentary lifestyle.

The process of arteriosclerosis involves the buildup of plaque, made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances, in the inner lining of the artery walls. Over time, this buildup can cause the artery walls to thicken and harden, reducing the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the body's organs and tissues.

Arteriosclerosis can affect any of the body's arteries, but it is most commonly found in the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart, the cerebral arteries that supply blood to the brain, and the peripheral arteries that supply blood to the limbs. When arteriosclerosis affects the coronary arteries, it can lead to heart disease, angina, or heart attack. When it affects the cerebral arteries, it can lead to stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). When it affects the peripheral arteries, it can cause pain, numbness, or weakness in the limbs, and in severe cases, gangrene and amputation.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Poloxamers are a type of triblock copolymer made up of a central hydrophobic chain of polyoxypropylene (poly(propylene oxide)) flanked by two hydrophilic chains of polyoxyethylene (poly(ethylene oxide)). They are amphiphilic molecules, meaning they have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts.

Poloxamers are often used in the pharmaceutical industry as drug delivery agents, emulsifiers, solubilizers, and stabilizers. They can form micelles in aqueous solutions above their critical micelle concentration (CMC), with the hydrophobic chains oriented toward the interior of the micelle and the hydrophilic chains on the exterior, interacting with the water molecules. This unique property allows poloxamers to solubilize drugs that are otherwise poorly soluble in water, improving their bioavailability.

Poloxamers have been studied for various medical applications, including as drug carriers for chemotherapy, diagnostic agents, and mucoadhesive materials. Some specific poloxamer compounds have been approved by the FDA for use in pharmaceutical formulations, such as Poloxamer 188 and Poloxamer 407.

In a medical context, poloxamers are not typically used as standalone treatments but rather as components of drug delivery systems or formulations.

Hypercholesterolemia is a medical term that describes a condition characterized by high levels of cholesterol in the blood. Specifically, it refers to an abnormally elevated level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, also known as "bad" cholesterol, which can contribute to the development of fatty deposits in the arteries called plaques. Over time, these plaques can narrow and harden the arteries, leading to atherosclerosis, a condition that increases the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular complications.

Hypercholesterolemia can be caused by various factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and underlying medical conditions. In some cases, it may not cause any symptoms until serious complications arise. Therefore, regular cholesterol screening is essential for early detection and management of hypercholesterolemia. Treatment typically involves lifestyle modifications, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, and weight management, along with medication if necessary.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Hydroxycholesterols are a type of sterol that is formed in the body when cholesterol, a steroid alcohol, undergoes hydroxylation. This means that one or more hydroxyl groups (-OH) are added to the cholesterol molecule. There are several different types of hydroxycholesterols, including 24-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, and 27-hydroxycholesterol, among others. These compounds play important roles in various physiological processes, such as regulating cholesterol metabolism and contributing to the formation of bile acids. They have also been studied for their potential involvement in atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and other health conditions.

Biological transport, active is the process by which cells use energy to move materials across their membranes from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. This type of transport is facilitated by specialized proteins called transporters or pumps that are located in the cell membrane. These proteins undergo conformational changes to physically carry the molecules through the lipid bilayer of the membrane, often against their concentration gradient.

Active transport requires energy because it works against the natural tendency of molecules to move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, a process known as diffusion. Cells obtain this energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is produced through cellular respiration.

Examples of active transport include the uptake of glucose and amino acids into cells, as well as the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters. The sodium-potassium pump, which helps maintain resting membrane potential in nerve and muscle cells, is a classic example of an active transporter.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein) cholesterol is often referred to as "good" cholesterol. It is a type of lipoprotein that helps remove excess cholesterol from cells and carry it back to the liver, where it can be broken down and removed from the body. High levels of HDL cholesterol have been associated with a lower risk of heart disease and stroke.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, such as a bacterium or virus. They are capable of identifying and binding to specific antigens (foreign substances) on the surface of these invaders, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Antibodies are also known as immunoglobulins and come in several different types, including IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM, each with a unique function in the immune response. They are composed of four polypeptide chains, two heavy chains and two light chains, that are held together by disulfide bonds. The variable regions of the heavy and light chains form the antigen-binding site, which is specific to a particular antigen.

Hypertriglyceridemia is a medical condition characterized by an elevated level of triglycerides in the blood. Triglycerides are a type of fat (lipid) found in your blood that can increase the risk of developing heart disease, especially when levels are very high.

In general, hypertriglyceridemia is defined as having triglyceride levels greater than 150 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) of blood. However, the specific definition of hypertriglyceridemia may vary depending on individual risk factors and medical history.

Hypertriglyceridemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, obesity, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, and certain medications. In some cases, it may also be a secondary consequence of other medical conditions such as diabetes or hypothyroidism. Treatment for hypertriglyceridemia typically involves lifestyle modifications such as dietary changes, increased exercise, and weight loss, as well as medication if necessary.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

Apoproteins are the protein components of lipoprotein complexes, which are responsible for transporting fat molecules, such as cholesterol and triglycerides, throughout the body. Apoproteins play a crucial role in the metabolism of lipids by acting as recognition signals that allow lipoproteins to interact with specific receptors on cell surfaces.

There are several different types of apoproteins, each with distinct functions. For example, apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1) is the major protein component of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), which are responsible for transporting excess cholesterol from tissues to the liver for excretion. Apolipoprotein B (apoB) is a large apoprotein found in low-density lipoproteins (LDL), very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), and lipoprotein(a). ApoB plays a critical role in the assembly and secretion of VLDL from the liver, and it also mediates the uptake of LDL by cells.

Abnormalities in apoprotein levels or function can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, measuring apoprotein levels in the blood can provide valuable information for diagnosing and monitoring these conditions.

Esters are organic compounds that are formed by the reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid. They are widely found in nature and are used in various industries, including the production of perfumes, flavors, and pharmaceuticals. In the context of medical definitions, esters may be mentioned in relation to their use as excipients in medications or in discussions of organic chemistry and biochemistry. Esters can also be found in various natural substances such as fats and oils, which are triesters of glycerol and fatty acids.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

Oleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid that is commonly found in various natural oils such as olive oil, sunflower oil, and grapeseed oil. Its chemical formula is cis-9-octadecenoic acid, and it is a colorless liquid at room temperature. Oleic acid is an important component of human diet and has been shown to have potential health benefits, including reducing the risk of heart disease and improving immune function. It is also used in the manufacture of soaps, cosmetics, and other personal care products.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Malabsorption syndromes refer to a group of disorders in which the small intestine is unable to properly absorb nutrients from food, leading to various gastrointestinal and systemic symptoms. This can result from a variety of underlying conditions, including:

1. Mucosal damage: Conditions such as celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or bacterial overgrowth that cause damage to the lining of the small intestine, impairing nutrient absorption.
2. Pancreatic insufficiency: A lack of digestive enzymes produced by the pancreas can lead to poor breakdown and absorption of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. Examples include chronic pancreatitis or cystic fibrosis.
3. Bile acid deficiency: Insufficient bile acids, which are necessary for fat emulsification and absorption, can result in steatorrhea (fatty stools) and malabsorption. This may occur due to liver dysfunction, gallbladder removal, or ileal resection.
4. Motility disorders: Abnormalities in small intestine motility can affect nutrient absorption, as seen in conditions like gastroparesis, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, or scleroderma.
5. Structural abnormalities: Congenital or acquired structural defects of the small intestine, such as short bowel syndrome, may lead to malabsorption.
6. Infections: Certain bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections can cause transient malabsorption by damaging the intestinal mucosa or altering gut flora.

Symptoms of malabsorption syndromes may include diarrhea, steatorrhea, bloating, abdominal cramps, weight loss, and nutrient deficiencies. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, radiologic imaging, and sometimes endoscopic procedures to identify the underlying cause. Treatment is focused on addressing the specific etiology and providing supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

The hydrolyzed chylomicrons are now called chylomicron remnants. The chylomicron remnants continue circulating the bloodstream ... This interaction causes the endocytosis of the chylomicron remnants, which are subsequently hydrolyzed within lysosomes. ... The chylomicron at this stage is then considered mature. Via apolipoprotein C-II, mature chylomicrons activate lipoprotein ... The hydrolyzed VLDL particles are now called VLDL remnants or intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs). VLDL remnants can ...
... becomes a chylomicron remnant, now only 30-50 nm. ApoB48 and APOE are important to identify the chylomicron remnant in the ... to the nascent chylomicron and, thus, converts it to a mature chylomicron (often referred to simply as "chylomicron"). APOC2 is ... When a large portion of the triglyceride core has been hydrolyzed, chylomicron remnants are formed and are taken up by the ... The three stages of the chylomicron are nascent, mature, and remnant. Triglycerides are emulsified by bile and hydrolyzed by ...
The liver receives many lipids from the systemic circulation and metabolizes chylomicron remnants. It also synthesizes ...
Willnow TE, Sheng Z, Ishibashi S, Herz J (1994). "Inhibition of hepatic chylomicron remnant uptake by gene transfer of a ...
The receptor also recognizes apolipoprotein E (ApoE) which is found in chylomicron remnants and IDL. In humans, the LDL ... their remnants-i.e. intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), and LDL particles. ...
After most of the lipids in the chylomicron have been absorbed, ApoB48 returns to the liver as part of the chylomicron remnant ... Intestinal proteins containing ApoB48 are metabolized to chylomicron remnant particles which are taken up by remnant receptors ... assembly and secretion of chylomicrons. These chylomicrons transport dietary lipids to tissues while the remaining chylomicrons ... Apolipoprotein B is the primary apolipoprotein of chylomicrons, VLDL, Lp(a), IDL, and LDL particles (LDL-commonly known as "bad ...
However, remnant cholesterol is primarily chylomicron and VLDL, and each remnant particle contains about 40 times more ... Remnant cholesterol is associated with chronic inflammation, whereas LDL cholesterol is not. Chylomicron remnant Lipid profile ... Remnant cholesterol, also known as remnant lipoprotein, is a very atherogenic lipoprotein composed primarily of very low- ... Remnant cholesterol has about twice the association with ischemic heart disease as LDL cholesterol. Although remnant ...
In the liver LRP1 is important for the removal of atherogenic lipoproteins (Chylomicron remnants, VLDL) and other ... inactivation of hepatic LRP gene by cre-mediated recombination confirms role of LRP in clearance of chylomicron remnants". The ... Chylomicron, Circumsporozoite protein, Collectin, Complement C3, CTGF, DLG4, Elastase, Factor IXa, Factor VIIa, Fibronectin, ...
The receptor defect causes levels of chylomicron remnants and IDL to be higher than normal in the blood stream. The receptor ... which is normally required for clearance of chylomicron remnants and IDL from the circulation. ... Remnant hyperlipidemia occurs as a result of abnormal function of the ApoE receptor, ... resulting in elevated chylomicrons, the particles that transfer fatty acids from the digestive tract to the liver Familial ...
Unused cholesterol remains in more cholesterol-rich chylomicron remnants, and taken up from here to the bloodstream by the ... Chylomicrons carry fats from the intestine to muscle and other tissues in need of fatty acids for energy or fat production. ... Chylomicrons, the least dense cholesterol transport molecules, contain apolipoprotein B-48, apolipoprotein C, and ... In order of increasing density, they are chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate-density lipoprotein ( ...
The size of circulating chylomicrons is gradually reduced to chylomicron remnants by lipoprotein lipase on endothelial cells of ... When the chylomicron remnants become small enough (30-80 nm), they pass through the LSEC fenestrations, leading to their ... Chylomicrons produced by the intestinal epithelial cells from dietary lipids have diameter up to 1000 nm which prevents them ... Naito, M; Wisse, E (10 July 1978). "Filtration effect of endothelial fenestrations on chylomicron transport in neonatal rat ...
In the circulation, it is present as part of several classes of lipoprotein particles, including chylomicron remnants, VLDL, ... Mahley RW, Ji ZS (January 1999). "Remnant lipoprotein metabolism: key pathways involving cell-surface heparan sulfate ... in which increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides are the consequence of impaired clearance of chylomicron, VLDL and LDL ...
... to increased plasma cholesterol levels on a high-fat diet because of the decreased hepatic clearance of chylomicron remnants. ...
By reducing the cholesterol content in chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants, cholesterol absorption inhibitors effectively ... These chylomicrons are then secreted into the lymphatics and circulated to the liver. These cholesterol particles are then ... Once absorbed by the enterocyte, cholesterol is reassembled into intestinal lipoproteins called chylomicrons. ... thereby reducing the incorporation of cholesterol esters into chylomicron particles. ...
... now referred to as a chylomicron remnant) can be taken up by the liver. From the liver, the fat released from chylomicron ... At this point, the fats are in the bloodstream in the form of chylomicrons. Once in the blood, chylomicrons are subject to ... These chylomicrons then pass into the lacteals, forming a milky substance known as chyle. The lacteals merge to form larger ... The triglyceride is then combined with phospholipids, cholesterol ester, and apolipoprotein B48 to form chylomicrons. ...
Dynamics of post-prandial remnant-like lipoprotein particles in serum after loading of diacylglycerols. Clin Chim Acta. 2001; ... Double-blind controlled study on the effects of dietary diacylglycerol on post-prandial serum and chylomicron triacylglycerol ...
... a carboxylate It is also involved in promoting the cellular uptake of chylomicron remnants, cholesterol-rich lipoproteins, and ... It is a water-soluble enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides in lipoproteins, such as those found in chylomicrons and very low- ... Beisiegel U, Weber W, Bengtsson-Olivecrona G (October 1991). "Lipoprotein lipase enhances the binding of chylomicrons to low ... high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 plays a critical role in the lipolytic processing of chylomicrons". Cell Metabolism ...
... partially digests the chylomicrons into free fatty acids, glycerol and chylomicron remnants. The fatty acids are absorbed by ... These VLDL droplets are processed in exactly the same manner as chylomicrons, except that the VLDL remnant is known as an ... but the glycerol and chylomicron remnants remain in the blood plasma, ultimately to be removed from the circulation by the ... The chylomicrons circulate throughout the body, giving the blood plasma a milky or creamy appearance after a fatty meal.[ ...
... and is found on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins such as chylomicrons, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and remnant ...
This defect prevents the normal metabolism of chylomicrons, IDL and VLDL, otherwise known as remnants, and therefore leads to ... that serves as a ligand for the liver receptor for chylomicrons, IDL and VLDL, also known as very-low-density-lipoprotein ...
Finally, the third possibility relates to the acceleration of the hepatic uptake of lipoprotein remnants and it has been shown ... It is a component of several lipoprotein fractions including VLDL, HDL, chylomicrons. It is believed that apoA-V affects ... APOA5 is associated predominantly with TG-rich lipoproteins (chylomicrons and VLDL) and has also been detected on HDL particles ... and chylomicrons, and circulates at very low concentrations compared with other apolipoproteins". Clinical Chemistry. 51 (2): ...
The hydrolyzed chylomicrons are now called chylomicron remnants. The chylomicron remnants continue circulating the bloodstream ... This interaction causes the endocytosis of the chylomicron remnants, which are subsequently hydrolyzed within lysosomes. ... The chylomicron at this stage is then considered mature. Via apolipoprotein C-II, mature chylomicrons activate lipoprotein ... The hydrolyzed VLDL particles are now called VLDL remnants or intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs). VLDL remnants can ...
"Chylomicrons" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Intestinal scavenger receptor class B type I as a novel regulator of chylomicron production in healthy and diet-induced obese ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Chylomicrons" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Chylomicrons" by people in Profiles. ...
In the fasting state, chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants are not normally detected in plasma. ... When the chylomicrons are reduced in TG content, they become remnants that are rapidly cleared by the liver (apoprotein E binds ... Chylomicrons, which are TG rich, enter the lymphatic system. The thoracic duct empties into the vena cava, and chylomicrons ... Apoprotein B-48 is a chylomicron structural protein. Chylomicrons bind to LPL via apoprotein C-II. Once acted on by LPL, which ...
To investigate the role of apoE in hepatic uptake of chylomicron remnants, we studied chylomicron metabolism in transgenic mice ... Data from experiments with very low density lipoprotein and LDL showed that this system is specific for chylomicron remnants. ... Polyacrylamide gel analysis of chylomicrons and remnants that had been reisolated from plasma and from liver membrane after the ... These results provide strong evidence for the secretion-recapture process of apoE, whereby chylomicron remnants enter the ...
10 Type III HLP results from the accumulation of chylomicron remnants from intestinal lipoproteins and VLDL remnants derived ... APOE is an integral component of chylomicrons, VLDL, and HDL in the peripheral system (Table 1). It operates as part of an ... APOE is also involved in the formation of chylomicrons and VLDL and affects the activity of other lipid metabolism-associated ... and chylomicrons). APOE ε2 was studied in disorders associated with elevated cholesterol levels or lipid derangements such as ...
... chylomicrons and remnant lipoproteins; and APOC3, which slows the clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their remnant ...
The newly synthesized TG and CE in the chylomicrons are hydrolyzed by lipoprotein lipase (LPL) to yield chylomicron remnant ... In indirect reverse cholesterol transport, CE is exchanged 1 : 1 for TG between apo B-containing lipoproteins (chylomicrons, ... and then absorbed by intestinal mucosal cells and secreted into mesenteric lymphatic vessels in the form of chylomicrons with ...
Chylomicron and chylomicron remnant metabolism in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes. 1992 Mar; 41(3):325-33. Staprans I, Pan ... Exposure to cigarette smoke delays the plasma clearance of chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants in rats. Am J Physiol. 1997 ... Chylomicrons can inhibit endotoxin activity in vitro. J Surg Res. 1991 Nov; 51(5):413-6. Eichbaum EB, Harris HW, Kane JP, Rapp ... Chylomicrons enhance endotoxin excretion in bile. Infect Immun. 1993 Aug; 61(8):3496-502. Read TE, Harris HW, Grunfeld C, ...
... increase chylomicron and chylomicron remnant apoE and ApoCIII content (both of which inhibit lipoprotein lipase, thereby ... and to have higher levels of chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants, which are also cleared more slowly (Bergeron 1995; ... saturated fats provoke twice the chylomicron triglyceride response and several-fold greater VLDL response." ...
Apo B-450 is associated with chylomicrons and their remnants, and apo B-100 is associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL), ...
Chylomicron Remnants MeSH Plaque, Atherosclerotic MeSH DeCS ID:. 50504 Unique ID:. D050197 ...
Cholesterol-rich chylomicron remnants then circulate back to the liver, where they are cleared in a process mediated by ... VLDL is the way the liver exports excess TGs derived from plasma free fatty acids and chylomicron remnants. VLDL synthesis ... Chylomicrons transport dietary TGs and cholesterol from within enterocytes through lymphatics into the circulation. In the ... IDL are cholesterol-rich VLDL remnants that are either cleared by the liver or metabolized by hepatic lipase into LDL, which ...
Macrophages, hepatocytes, and fibroblasts, intake lipid-deficient polyproteins, remnants of HDL, and chylomicrons into cell, ...
A knowledge graph of biological entities such as genes, gene functions, diseases, phenotypes and chemicals. Embeddings are generated with Walking RDF and OWL method ...
Transport cholesterol to the liver in the form of triglyceride-depleted chylomicron remnants ... The lipoproteins in order of increasing triglycerides are HDL, LDL, IDL, VLDL, and chylomicrons. ... Hydrolyzes triglycerides circulating in chylomicrons and VLDLs into fatty acids and glycerine, which can be taken up by cells [ ... Absorbed lipids are transported in chylomicrons via the lymphatic system into the bloodstream, where they reach the liver, ...
... exercise may reduce the number of chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants and improve exogenous lipoprotein metabolism. ... The values of apoB48, a marker of the chylomicron particle number, at 2, 4, and 6 h after the fat intake and IAUC for apoB48 ... remnant-like particle-TG (RLP-TG), lactate, free fatty acid (FFA), insulin, and glucose.. Results: In both experiments, ...
Chylomicrons are rich in triglyceride and secreted by the intestine postprandially. Chylomicrons compete with VLDL for ... there is a large increase in chylomicron and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) concentrations. The accumulation of ... Chylomicrons are rich in triglyceride and secreted by the intestine postprandially. Chylomicrons compete with VLDL for ... Blood Coagulation, Cholesterol Esters, Cholesterol, Dietary, Chylomicrons, Coronary Disease, Humans, Hyperlipidemias, Insulin ...
This inverse relationship results from the fact that vitamin K in plasma is bound to chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants, ... Clearance of chylomicrons and their remnants from the circulation depends on ApoEs binding to a hepatic receptor, and the rate ... are modified into smaller chylomicron remnants, and rapidly shunted to the liver - vitamin K is efficiently extracted and used ... After its absorption in the small intestine, where all vitamin K is incorporated into chylomicrons - which form in the small ...
Reaction Name: chylomicron remnant:apoE complex + LDLR =, chylomicron remnant:apoE:LDLR complex See in Reactome ... Reaction Name: chylomicron =, TG-depleted chylomicron + 50 long-chain fatty acids + 50 diacylglycerols See in Reactome ... Reaction Name: chylomicron =, TG-depleted chylomicron + 50 long-chain fatty acids + 50 diacylglycerols See in Reactome ... Reactome Name: Chylomicron clearance See in Reactome R-HSA-174824 R-HSA-174824. Reactome Name: Plasma lipoprotein assembly, ...
LDL, VLDL, Lp(a), chylomicron remnant particles, and IDL. And as such, what this table shows is that replacement of PUFAs with ...
A toxic liver loses its ability to eliminate chylomicron remnants. This results in fatty deposits under the skin leading to ... Chylomicrons are small fat globules that help transport fat after digestion from the small intestine to tissues in the body. ...
... chylomicrons into fat and muscle cells; only chylomicron remnants are taken up by the liver. ... this phase is to take up remnants of chylomicrons, sort out the complex mix of lipids contained (e. g., lipid-soluble vitamins ... Within the cell, lipids are reassembled, combined to chylomicrons and set free at the basolateral side of the enterocytes. From ... From there, enterocyte-produced chylomicrons enter the blood stream via thoracic duct and venous angle. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL ...
As triglycerides are removed from the chylomicrons, they become smaller. These chylomicron remnants travel to the liver, where ... The contents of chylomicron remnants, as well as other lipids in the liver, are incorporated into another type of lipoprotein ... Chylomicrons Deliver Lipids to Cells for Utilization and Storage. On the previous page, we learned that chylomicrons are formed ... The job of chylomicrons is to deliver triglycerides (originating from digested food) to the cells of the body, where they can ...
This reduces the CM to a chylomicron remnant (CMR). It is now unable to further donate TGs directly to peripheral tissues. ... side of the cell and will use those materials to rebuild a similar structure on the basal side of the cell called a chylomicron ...
Understanding lipoprotein types: HDL, LDL, IDL, VLDL, Chlyomicrons, chylomicron remnants, Lp(a) ...
The chylomicron remnants interact with receptors on liver cells and are taken+ up by endocytosis. The contents are degraded by ... Transport of the Chylomicrons in the Lymph. From the sides of the epithelial cells the chylomicrons wend their way into the ... Familial dysbetalipoproteinemia or type III hyperlipoproteinemia (also known as "remnant hyperlipidemia", "remnant ... The remnants of the chylomicrons are taken up by liver cells by the process of endocytosis and are degraded by lysosomal ...
Uptake of chylomicron remnant retinyl esters in human leukocytes in vivo. Eur J Clin Invest, 22 (4), 229-34. DOI 10.1111/j.1365 ...
  • APOE is also involved in the formation of chylomicrons and VLDL and affects the activity of other lipid metabolism-associated proteins and enzymes, such as hepatic lipase and lipoprotein lipase. (dovepress.com)
  • APOE is an integral component of chylomicrons, VLDL, and HDL in the peripheral system ( Table 1 ). (dovepress.com)
  • In the postprandial state, there is a large increase in chylomicron and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) concentrations. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Chylomicrons compete with VLDL for hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase (LPL). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Similar to chylomicrons, the main job of VLDL is delivering triglycerides to the body's cells, and lipoprotein lipase again helps to break down the triglycerides so that they can enter cells (Figure 5.27). (pressbooks.pub)
  • The clinically important apoproteins in VLDL are apoprotein C-II, apoprotein B-100, and apoprotein E. Like chylomicrons, VLDL interacts with LPL via apoprotein C-II to release TG, forming intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) particles. (medscape.com)
  • Your remnant cholesterol reading measures the amount of "leftover" or remnant VLDL molecules excluding LDL and HDL. (fatty15.com)
  • The remnant cholesterol reading measures the VLDL molecules (including intermediate-density lipoprotein, chylomicrons, and their remnants) that have taken up triglycerides and delivered them to the bloodstream. (fatty15.com)
  • [ 6 ] The confusion arises as to what to call this "other" cholesterol (non-HDL-C minus LDL-C). The most accurate term is triglyceride-rich lipoprotein cholesterol (TRL-C) but it has also been called 'remnant cholesterol' [ 7 ] and most commonly VLDL-C. (medscape.com)
  • One molecule of apo B is present on very large dense lipoproteins (VLDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), chylomicron and lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) and as such, plasma apo B equates to the total number of apo B particles 8 . (biorexdiagnostics.com)
  • and APOC3, which slows the clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their remnant lipoprotein particles, or RLPs, lipids that have been linked previously to cardiovascular disease. (asbmb.org)
  • Once absorbed into enterocytes, they are reassembled into TGs and packaged with cholesterol into chylomicrons, the largest lipoproteins. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Except for chylomicrons, the names of the lipoproteins refer to their density. (pressbooks.pub)
  • The plasma lipoproteins include chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) , low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), and high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). (pharmacy180.com)
  • The pathogenetic link between hypertriglyceridemia and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is thought to be triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, which are converted to remnant particles and contribute to the development of atherosclerotic plaques ( 2,5 ). (lww.com)
  • Apo E is involved in the removal of atherogenic remnant lipoproteins from plasma and exerts an influence on several cells, including those of the bone marrow, immune system and vessel wall 11 . (biorexdiagnostics.com)
  • Then these lipids are assembled with apolipoprotein B-48 into nascent chylomicrons. (wikipedia.org)
  • these lipids (predominantly TGs) are packaged by the intestinal mucosal cells into chylomicrons. (medscape.com)
  • Absorbed lipids are transported in chylomicrons via the lymphatic system into the bloodstream, where they reach the liver , peripheral tissues (which have LDL receptors ) and adipose tissue (storage). (amboss.com)
  • Chylomicrons are assembled in intestinal mucosal cells from dietary lipids (primarily TAG). (pharmacy180.com)
  • When the chylomicrons are reduced in TG content, they become remnants that are rapidly cleared by the liver (apoprotein E binds to the LDL receptor [LDL-R]). At this time, apoprotein C-II is passed to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles in the circulation. (medscape.com)
  • Chylomicrons" are the particles which ship fat to our physique's storage areas. (radiusguide.com)
  • Chylomicrons, also known as cholesterol remnants, are large, fat-wealthy lipoprotein particles that research has discovered contribute to the development of cholesterol-filled plaques. (wikidot.com)
  • Chylomicrons and lipid emulsions were labeled with [ 3 H]triolein, injected into mice, and appearance in plasma of [ 3 H]oleic acid was estimated, either through a steady-state approach or by compartmental modeling. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In the capillaries of adipose and muscle tissue, apoprotein C-II (apo C-II) on the chylomicron activates endothelial lipoprotein lipase (LPL) to convert 90% of chylomicron triglyceride to fatty acids and glycerol, which are taken up by adipocytes and muscle cells for energy use or storage. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Apo C-II activates endothelial lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which degrades the TAG in chylomicrons to fatty acids and glycerol. (pharmacy180.com)
  • As they circulate through the lymphatic vessels, nascent chylomicrons bypass the liver circulation and are drained via the thoracic duct into the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thoracic duct empties into the vena cava, and chylomicrons systemically circulate. (medscape.com)
  • Cholesterol-rich chylomicron remnants then circulate back to the liver, where they are cleared in a process mediated by apoprotein E (apo E). (msdmanuals.com)
  • On the previous page, we learned that chylomicrons are formed in the cells of the small intestine, absorbed into the lymph vessels, and then eventually delivered into the bloodstream. (pressbooks.pub)
  • This investigation also demonstrated that the monounsaturated fatty acid oleic acid (olive oil is 78% oleic acid) resulted in a marked improve in LPS attached to chylomicrons in the bloodstream. (wikidot.com)
  • Each nascent chylomicron particle has one molecule of apolipoprotein (apo) B-48. (pharmacy180.com)
  • The job of chylomicrons is to deliver triglycerides (originating from digested food) to the cells of the body , where they can be used as an energy source or stored in adipose tissue for future use. (pressbooks.pub)
  • How do the triglycerides get from the chylomicrons into cells? (pressbooks.pub)
  • As triglycerides are removed from the chylomicrons, they become smaller. (pressbooks.pub)
  • Once in the enterocyte, FFA chains and 2MG compounds are transported to the endoplasmic reticulum, where they are reformed into triglycerides and packaged into chylomicrons in the golgi apparatus to receive chylomicron specific apolipoproteins, namely apo B48, which is a marker for TG chylomicron. (medscape.com)
  • These chylomicron remnants travel to the liver, where they're disassembled. (pressbooks.pub)
  • On the other hand, prior to retinyl ester-loaded the primary storageneeded of vitamin A indelivery of retinol to target cells and avoiding the degradation of RBP the liver, they undergo various enzymatic reactions, which cause chylomicrons attain within the kidneys [9600]. (caspaseinhibitor.com)
  • The retinol BP complex is taken up by target the cells via plasmalemmal transporters, which later important function in recognizing retinol blood formation of chylomicron remnants, which areplay ataken up by the liver [93]. (caspaseinhibitor.com)
  • As these emulsions mimic chylomicrons, we anticipate that the apoE-dependent metabolic behavior of chylomicrons (remnants) is largely dependent on their size. (zhangqiaokeyan.com)
  • Differential associations between plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose and intestinal expression of key genes involved in chylomicron metabolism. (harvard.edu)
  • Intestinal scavenger receptor class B type I as a novel regulator of chylomicron production in healthy and diet-induced obese states. (harvard.edu)
  • Chylomicrons transport dietary TGs and cholesterol from within enterocytes through lymphatics into the circulation. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Chylomicrons, which are TG rich, enter the lymphatic system. (medscape.com)
  • Chylomicrons" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Apoprotein C-II, apoprotein B-48, and apoprotein E are the clinically important apoproteins of chylomicrons. (medscape.com)
  • Apoprotein B-48 is a chylomicron structural protein. (medscape.com)
  • Chylomicrons bind to LPL via apoprotein C-II. (medscape.com)
  • Defects in apoprotein C-II or LPL can lead to defects in chylomicron clearance. (medscape.com)
  • Once acted on by LPL, which is attached to the luminal side of the capillary endothelium adjacent to muscle and adipose tissue, chylomicrons release TGs as monoglycerides and free fatty acids. (medscape.com)
  • 8) Soon after a fatty meal, the blood is so complete of chylomicrons that it turns milky, like a strawberry shake.Use it to pan-fry meat, fish, or eggs. (wikidot.com)
  • Patients with a deficiency of LPL or apo C-II show a dramatic accumulation of chylomicrons in the plasma (type I hyperlipoproteinemia, or familial LPL deficiency) even if fasted. (pharmacy180.com)
  • Chylomicrons are the least dense, because they contain so much triglyceride and relatively little protein. (pressbooks.pub)
  • The commonest type of hyperlipidemia is postprandial hyperlipidemia, which is noticed after an animal consumes a meal containing fat and is due primarily to increased chylomicron ranges. (radiusguide.com)
  • A team of researchers has studied a particular type of cholesterol (remnant cholesterol) and determined that, by itself, it might be a better indicator of your likelihood of developing heart-related issues. (fatty15.com)
  • Chylomicrons are rich in triglyceride and secreted by the intestine postprandially. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Chylomicrons" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Chylomicrons" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Remnant cholesterol is calculated as total cholesterol minus LDL and HDL. (fatty15.com)
  • Once absorbed into enterocytes, they are reassembled into TGs and packaged with cholesterol into chylomicrons, the largest lipoproteins. (msdmanuals.com)
  • TAG-rich lipoproteins and their remnants are atherogenic and are associated with other lipid risk factors (small and dense LDL particles and low HDL). (scielo.sa.cr)
  • Measuring APOC3 levels could identify remnant lipoproteins and inform cardiovascular management. (podcastdisclosed.com)
  • We have shown that selected fatty acids, as well as lipoprotein lipase-derived remnants of lipoproteins isolated from hypertriglyceridemic subjects, can activate vascular endothelial cells and disrupt endothelial integrity. (nih.gov)
  • Beyond low-density lipoprotein, lipoprotein(a) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins or remnant lipoproteins have become actionable targets in lipid management. (medscape.com)
  • In these conditions, the simple calculation of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (total cholesterol - HDL) captures all apoB-containing lipoproteins including remnant cholesterol. (medscape.com)
  • Chylomicrons are the largest lipoproteins and are composed of triglycerides surrounded by a protein coating. (vin.com)
  • [ 11 ] One way to counter an increase in plasma chylomicron remnant levels is to induce hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR) activity by treatment with a statin. (medscape.com)
  • 16. Oxidation affects the regulation of hepatic lipid synthesis by chylomicron remnants. (nih.gov)
  • Newly absorbed vitamin A arriving as retinyl ester in chylomicron remnants is taken up by hepatocytes and must be hydrolyzed to retinol before it is transferred to hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) for storage. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, the incorporation of oxidized cholesterols did not alter the hepatic or splenic uptake of chylomicrons compared to chylomicrons isolated from rats given purified cholesterol or TG alone. (edu.au)
  • 2. Comparison of the effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on very-low-density lipoprotein secretion when delivered to hepatocytes in chylomicron remnants. (nih.gov)
  • 4. Differential influence of different dietary fatty acids on very low-density lipoprotein secretion when delivered to hepatocytes in chylomicron remnants. (nih.gov)
  • 8. Influence of the fatty acid composition of lipids in chylomicron remnants derived from fish or corn oil on the lipid profile of cultured rat hepatocytes. (nih.gov)
  • 10. Differential effects of chylomicron remnants derived from corn oil or palm oil on bile acid synthesis and very low density lipoprotein secretion in cultured rat hepatocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Our overall goal is to identify at the molecular level the enzyme(s) responsible in vivo for hydrolyzing chylomicron remnant retinyl ester in hepatocytes and lipid droplet retinyl esters in HSCs. (nih.gov)
  • Dietary cholesterol, on the other hand, is transported from the intestine in chylomicron remnants, which enter hepatocytes via distinct chylomicron remnant receptors. (elsevierpure.com)
  • As noted earlier, chylomicrons arise in the gut during fat digestion, enter the thoracic duct and then the blood stream where they are attacked by LPL, which reduces their triglyceride content by 75% and produces a chylomicron remnant that is taken up by B-100-E receptors on hepatocytes. (healthycholesterolclub.com)
  • In the capillaries of adipose and muscle tissue, apoprotein C-II (apo C-II) on the chylomicron activates endothelial lipoprotein lipase (LPL) to convert 90% of chylomicron triglyceride to fatty acids and glycerol, which are taken up by adipocytes and muscle cells for energy use or storage. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Chylomicrons transport triglycerides (TAG) to vital tissue (the heart, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue). (scielo.sa.cr)
  • Triglycerides and cholesterol combine to form chylomicrons. (healthycholesterolclub.com)
  • It can involve hypertriglyceridemia (too many triglycerides), hypercholesterolemia (cholesterol is too high), elevations in chylomicrons, etc. (vin.com)
  • Therefore, further investigations in humans are required to determine whether dietary oxidized cholesterols found in cholesterol-rich processed foods delay the clearance of postprandial remnants, which may contribute to and exacerbate the development of atherosclerosis. (edu.au)
  • Type I hyperlipidemia is a rare disorder characterized by severe elevations in chylomicrons and extremely elevated triglyceride levels, always reaching well above 1000 mg/dL and not infrequently rising as high as 10,000 mg/dL or more. (medscape.com)
  • In peripheral tissues, free fatty acids are released from the chylomicrons to be used as energy, converted to triglyceride or stored in adipose. (healthycholesterolclub.com)
  • As they circulate through the lymphatic vessels, nascent chylomicrons bypass the liver circulation and are drained via the thoracic duct into the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oxidized cholesterols on the metabolism of nascent chylomicrons in vivo. (edu.au)
  • Moreover, retinol (3 mumol/L) and chylomicron remnant retinyl esters (0.1 mumol/L) in concentrations normally found in human plasma also had inhibitory effects. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Apolipoprotein (apo) analysis showed that oxysterol incorporation reduced the apoE content and altered the apoC phenotype of chylomicrons, which may have an impact oil the removal of chylomicron remnants front plasma. (edu.au)
  • In conclusion, dietary oxysterols appear to have the potential to adversely affect chylomicron metabolism. (edu.au)
  • The chylomicron remnant/remnant receptor system is to exogenous cholesterol transport as the LDL/LDL receptor system is to endogenous cholesterol transport. (elsevierpure.com)
  • LRP1 (scientifically named 'chylomicron remnant receptor') is a molecular structure which has been postulated for a long time and has now been identified and further characterized by Joachim Herz. (heinrich-wieland-prize.de)
  • Another approach would be to reduce the amount of chylomicron cholesterol entering the lymph by blocking the uptake of cholesterol by the enterocytes from the lumen. (medscape.com)
  • Once acted on by LPL, which is attached to the luminal side of the capillary endothelium adjacent to muscle and adipose tissue, chylomicrons release TGs as monoglycerides and free fatty acids. (medscape.com)
  • Chylomicrons are small fat globules that help transport fat after digestion from the small intestine to tissues in the body. (higherhealthnutrition.com)
  • 11. The fatty acid composition of chylomicron remnants influences their propensity to oxidate. (nih.gov)
  • The impaired clearance of chylomicrons containing oxidized cholesterols was not due to impaired lipolysis and slower conversion to the remnant form. (edu.au)
  • Denne responsen skyldes en okt aktivering av mTOR p70S6K Pathway ja, det er ganske heavy , som er ansett som et integrert kontrollpunkt for muskelprotein anabolisme og muskelcelle vekst 2-6. (ewangel-design.com)
  • Chylomicrons, which are TG rich, enter the lymphatic system. (medscape.com)
  • The blood sample may also be checked for chylomicrons. (vin.com)
  • It also includes the extra chylomicron remnants in the non-fasting state [ 19 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The molecular identity of the enzyme which catalyzes hydrolysis of newly absorbed chylomicron retinyl ester will be investigated in Specific Aim 2. (nih.gov)