Metabolic products of chylomicron particles in which TRIGLYCERIDES have been selectively removed by the LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. These remnants carry dietary lipids in the blood and are cholesterol-rich. Their interactions with MACROPHAGES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; and SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS in the artery wall can lead to ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A LDL-receptor related protein involved in clearance of chylomicron remnants and of activated ALPHA-MACROGLOBULINS from plasma.
A family of calcium-binding alpha-globulins that are synthesized in the LIVER and play an essential role in maintaining the solubility of CALCIUM in the BLOOD. In addition the fetuins contain aminoterminal cystatin domains and are classified as type 3 cystatins.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
A suspension of metallic gold particles.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.
Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.
An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.
Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of approximately 620,000 to 680,000. Precipitation by electrophoresis is in the alpha region. They include alpha 1-macroglobulins and alpha 2-macroglobulins. These proteins exhibit trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, thrombin-, and plasmin-binding activity and function as hormonal transporters.
An opaque, milky-white fluid consisting mainly of emulsified fats that passes through the lacteals of the small intestines into the lymphatic system.
A fetuin subtype that is closely-related to ALPHA-2-HS-GLYCOPROTEIN. Although fetuin-B binds calcium, it is a minor component of SERUM and therefore it may not play a primary role in preventing serum calcium phosphate precipitation.
A hypertriglyceridemia disorder, often with autosomal dominant inheritance. It is characterized by the persistent elevations of plasma TRIGLYCERIDES, endogenously synthesized and contained predominantly in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins). In contrast, the plasma CHOLESTEROL and PHOSPHOLIPIDS usually remain within normal limits.
A 6.6-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Apo C-I displaces APO E from lipoproteins, modulate their binding to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL), and thereby decrease their clearance from plasma. Elevated Apo C-I levels are associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
A membrane protein found in the rough endoplasm reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH) that binds to LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEINS. It may function to prevent ligand binding of receptors during protein processing events within endosomal compartments.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.
Conditions with abnormally elevated levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. They may be inherited, acquired, primary, or secondary. Hyperlipoproteinemias are classified according to the pattern of lipoproteins on electrophoresis or ultracentrifugation.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Abstaining from all food.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.
Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A group of familial disorders characterized by elevated circulating cholesterol contained in either LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS alone or also in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins).
FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A copolymer of polyethylene and polypropylene ether glycol. It is a non-ionic polyol surface-active agent used medically as a fecal softener and in cattle for prevention of bloat.
The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by the accumulation of intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL or broad-beta-lipoprotein). IDL has a CHOLESTEROL to TRIGLYCERIDES ratio greater than that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. This disorder is due to mutation of APOLIPOPROTEINS E, a receptor-binding component of VLDL and CHYLOMICRONS, resulting in their reduced clearance and high plasma levels of both cholesterol and triglycerides.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.

Plasma levels of remnant particles are determined in part by variation in the APOC3 gene insulin response element and the APOCI-APOE cluster. (1/40)

Remnant particles of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (RLP) are known to be a strong predictor of atherogenicity. The serum concentrations of remnant-like particle triglyceride (RLPTG) and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLPC) have been determined in a representative sample of the Czech MONICA study (n = 285). The relationship was investigated between remnant particle triglyceride/cholesterol concentrations and polymorphisms in the genes APOC3 (-482C-->T/3238C-->G), APOE (epsilon2/epsilon3/epsilon4), APOCI (-317-321ins), APOB (signal peptide), hepatic lipase (LIPE, -480C-->T), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL, S447X). Univariate analysis showed significant effects on RLPTG associated only with the APOE genotype (P = 0.009), the APOC3 -482C-->T genotype (P = 0.018), and the APOCI -317-321ins (P = 0.014) genotype and significant effects on RLPC with APOE (P = 0.01) and APOCI -317-321ins (P = 0.021). The raising effect of the APOE genotype for both remnant cholesterol and triglyceride was confined to the epsilon2/4 (n = 6) and varepsilon4/4 (n = 3) groups, and thus when the epsilon2/4 group was omitted in order to analyze by allele (epsilon2+/epsilon3+/epsilon4+), significance was lost (P = 0.6). There was strong linkage disequilibrium between the APOE and APOCI alleles (chi(2), P < 0.001) and a multivariate ANOVA of RLPTG with all three significantly associated variants as factors demonstrated that while the APOC3 -482C-->T effect was independent of the others (P = 0.003), the APOCI -317-321ins and APOE effects were not. This was also true for the APOCI -317-321ins and APOE effects on RLPC. To assess whether APOE-CI effects on RLPC were independent of their effects on total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, multiple linear regression was used. Using multiple linear regression, it appeared that the APOE-CI effects on RLPC were independent of their effects on plasma cholesterol, but the effects of APOC3 and APOE-CI on RLPTG could not be separated from their effects on plasma Tg levels. Further characterization of this remnant particle phenotype and its genetic determinants may lead to a better understanding of its metabolism and contribution to atherosclerosis.  (+info)

Transcriptional regulation of apolipoprotein C-III gene expression by the orphan nuclear receptor RORalpha. (2/40)

Triglyceride-rich remnant lipoproteins are considered as major risk factors contributing to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Because apolipoprotein (apo) C-III is a major determinant of plasma triglyceride and remnant lipoprotein metabolism, it is important to understand how the expression of this gene is regulated. In the present study, we identified the orphan nuclear receptor RORalpha1 as a regulator of human and mouse apo C-III gene expression. Plasma triglyceride and apo C-III protein concentrations in staggerer (sg/sg) mice, homozygous for a deletion in the RORalpha gene, were significantly lower than in wild type littermates. The lowered plasma apo C-III levels were associated with reduced apo C-III mRNA levels in liver and intestine of sg/sg mice. Transient transfection experiments in human hepatoma HepG2, human colonic CaCO2, and rabbit kidney RK13 cells demonstrated that overexpression of the human RORalpha1 isoform specifically increases human apo C-III promoter activity, indicating that RORalpha1 enhances human apo C-III gene transcription. RORalpha1 response elements were mapped by promoter deletion analysis and gel shift experiments to two AGGTCA half-sites located at positions -83/-78 (within the C3P site) and -23/-18 (downstream of the TATA box) in the human apo C-III promoter, with the -23/-18 site exhibiting the highest binding affinity. Transfection of site-directed mutated constructs in HepG2 cells indicated that the RORalpha1 effect is predominantly mediated by the -23/-18 site. This site is conserved in the mouse apo C-III gene promoter. Moreover, RORalpha binds to the equivalent mouse site and activates constructs containing three copies of the mouse site cloned in front of an heterologous promoter. Taken together, our data identify RORalpha as a transcriptional regulator of apo C-III gene expression, providing a novel, physiological role for RORalpha1 in the regulation of genes controlling triglyceride metabolism.  (+info)

Chylomicron remnant metabolism in familial dyslipidemias studied with a remnant-like emulsion breath test. (3/40)

We have developed a stable isotope breath test for the assessment of chylomicron remnant metabolism and report the results from the breath test in human subjects selected for disorders of chylomicron or remnant metabolism. In type I hyperlipemia, the phenotype is extreme hypertriglyceridemia due to a lack of lipoprotein lipase activity, which causes the failure of remnant formation. The type III dyslipidemia phenotype is caused by the inefficient removal of chylomicron remnants from plasma, generally because of homozygosity for apolipoprotein E2 alleles. The breath test was predicted to be abnormal in type III hyperlipemia, whereas a priori in type I hyperlipemia defective remnant clearance was not anticipated. Subjects were injected with lipid emulsions prepared with a composition similar to normal chylomicron remnants. The emulsions contained cholesteryl ester incorporating the stable nonradioactive isotope (13)C in the fatty acid moiety. End exhalation breath was collected at intervals after intravenous injection of the remnant-like emulsions and analyzed for (13)C enrichment by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Compared with the group of normolipemic men, the fractional catabolic rate of remnants measured by the breath test was significantly decreased (P = 0.006) in subjects with type III dyslipidemia. In the group with type I hyperlipemia, the fractional catabolic rate was not different (P = 0.233) from the control group. Therefore, the underlying capacity for remnant catabolism was normal in this group of markedly hypertriglyceridemic subjects. By short-circuiting the step of lipolysis, the remnant-like emulsion breath test provides direct information about remnant clearance and metabolism, which should assist in investigations of postprandial lipid metabolism.  (+info)

LDL receptor-related protein mediates cell-surface clustering and hepatic sequestration of chylomicron remnants in LDLR-deficient mice. (4/40)

It has been proposed that in the liver, chylomicron remnants (lipoproteins carrying dietary lipid) may be sequestered before being internalized by hepatocytes. To study this, chylomicron remnants labeled with a fluorescent dye were perfused into isolated livers of LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR-deficient) mice (Ldlr(-/-)) and examined by confocal microscopy. In contrast to livers from normal mice, there was clustering of the chylomicron remnants on the cell surface in the space of DISSE: These remnant clusters colocalized with clusters of LDLR-related protein (LRP) and could be eliminated by low concentrations of receptor-associated protein, an inhibitor of LRP. When competed with ligands of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), the remnant clusters still appeared but were fewer in number, although syndecans (membrane HSPGs) colocalized with the remnant clusters. This suggests that the clustering of remnants is not dependent on syndecans but that the syndecans may modify the binding of remnants. These results establish that sequestration is a novel process, the clustering of remnants in the space of DISSE: The clustering involves remnants binding to the LRP, and this may be stabilized by binding with syndecans, eventually followed by endocytosis.  (+info)

Lipid synthesis in macrophages derived from the human cell line THP-1: modulation of the effects of native and oxidized chylomicron-remnant-like particles by oestrogen. (5/40)

The effects of native and oxidized chylomicron remnants on the synthesis of cholesteryl ester and triacylglycerol in macrophages, and the way that this is influenced by exposure of the cells to oestrogen, was investigated using the human monocyte cell line THP-1 and chylomicron-remnant-like particles containing human apolipoprotein E (CRLPs). Synthesis of the lipids was measured by the incorporation of [(3)H]oleate into cholesteryl ester and triacylglycerol. CRLPs (5-40 microgram of cholesterol/ml) containing either trilinolein or triolein as the triacylglycerol component caused a dose-dependent decrease in cholesteryl ester formation, while triacylglycerol production was unchanged. After oxidation of the CRLPs, the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was increased by 6.3-fold and 2.2-fold in particles containing trilinolein and triolein respectively. Furthermore, CRLPs containing oxidized trilinolein lost their ability to down-regulate cholesterol esterification, while CRLPs containing oxidized triolein did not. Both types of oxidized CRLPs decreased triacylglycerol synthesis. Treatment of the macrophages with 17beta-oestradiol caused increases of approx. 94% and 34% in the synthesis of cholesteryl ester and triacylglycerol respectively in the absence of CRLPs. The differences between control and oestrogen-treated cells were abolished, however, when CRLPs (40 microgram of cholesterol/ml) were added to the incubations. In addition, in contrast with their lack of effect in control cells, CRLPs containing oxidized trilinolein decreased cholesterol esterification in oestrogen-treated cells by approx. 48%. These findings with CRLPs suggest that chylomicron remnants have significant effects on cholesteryl ester and triacylglycerol synthesis in macrophages, which may be modulated both by the oxidation state of the particles and by oestrogen.  (+info)

Preliminary experience with a new stable isotope breath test for chylomicron remnant metabolism: a study in central obesity. (6/40)

We aimed to investigate the metabolism of chylomicron remnants in the postabsorptive state employing a new stable isotope breath test in centrally obese men without overt hyperlipidaemia. Groups of 12 centrally obese and 12 non-obese men of similar age and with similar plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol (triglyceride) levels were studied. The catabolism of chylomicron remnants was measured using an intravenous injection of a remnant-like emulsion containing cholesteryl [(13)C]oleate. Isotopic enrichment of (13)CO(2) in breath was determined using isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, and a multi-compartmental model (SAAM II program) was used to estimate the fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of the chylomicron remnant-like particles. The plasma concentrations of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and insulin were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the obese than the control subjects. The obese subjects had significantly lower HDL-cholesterol (P<0.05) and, in particular, a decreased FCR of the remnant-like particles compared with lean subjects (0.061+/-0.014 and 0.201+/-0.048 pools/h respectively; P=0.016). In the obese group, the FCR of remnant-like particles was inversely associated with the waist/hip ratio, and with plasma triacylglycerol, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol levels. In multiple regression analysis, the waist/hip ratio was the best predictor of the FCR of the emulsion. In conclusion, this new test suggests that postabsorptive chylomicron remnant catabolism is impaired in centrally obese subjects without overt hyperlipidaemia. This defect may be due to the degree of adiposity.  (+info)

Food restriction normalizes chylomicron remnant metabolism in murine models of obesity as assessed by a novel stable isotope breath test. (7/40)

Evidence is increasing that defective metabolism of postprandial remnants of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins contributes to atherogenesis. In obesity, postprandial lipemia is increased by mechanisms that are not currently established. In the present study, a recently developed (13)CO(2) breath test was used to assess the metabolism of chylomicron remnants (CR) in obese mice. Six murine obese models ob/ob, fat/fat, New Zealand Obese (NZO), db/db, gold thioglucose (GTG)-treated and agouti (A(y)) were studied. All obese mice were hyperphagic and their breath test metabolism was markedly impaired (P < 0.01) compared with control, nonobese mice. The breath test was also impaired (P < 0.01) in all obese mice except A(y) mice after 24-h food deprivation. However, after restriction to the food intake of paired control mice for 6 wk, the breath test in all obese mice improved to values of control, nonobese mice. The obese NZO, fat/fat and ob/ob mice had significant (P < 0.02) weight loss when food restricted, whereas A(y), GTG, and db/db mice did not. In all obese mice, plasma cholesterol levels decreased (P < 0.02) after the 6-wk period of food restriction. Plasma triglyceride levels significantly decreased (P < 0.02) in NZO, GTG and db/db mice, but not in other obese mice. Plasma glucose levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.02) after the 6-wk period in the obese mice except for the A(y) and NZO mice; levels were greater in food-restricted db/db mice. Although some of the obese models such as db/db were diabetic, our data suggest that the defective breath test was independent of diabetes because all obese and diabetic models responded similarly to food restriction. Impaired hepatic catabolism of CR was excluded as a cause of the abnormal breath tests. In summary, the impairment (P < 0.05) in remnant metabolism as assessed by the breath test in obese mice was corrected by food restriction, associated with improvements in plasma glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol levels.  (+info)

Effect of atorvastatin on chylomicron remnant metabolism in visceral obesity: a study employing a new stable isotope breath test. (8/40)

Elevated plasma concentration of chylomicron remnants may be causally related to atherosclerosis in obesity. We examined the effect of atorvastatin on chylomicron remnant metabolism in 25 obese men with dyslipidaemia. A remnant-like emulsion labeled with cholesteryl [(13)C]oleate was injected intravenously into patients; the fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of the remnant-like emulsion was determined by measurement of (13)CO(2) in the breath and analyzed using compartmental modelling. Compared with placebo, atorvastatin significantly decreased the plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B (apoB), and lathosterol (P < 0.001). ApoB-48 and remnant-like particle-cholesterol (RLP-C) both decreased significantly by 23% (P = 0.002) and 33% (P = 0.045), respectively. The FCR of the remnant-like emulsion increased significantly from 0.054 +/- 0.008 to 0.090 +/- 0.010 pools/h (P = 0.002). The decrease in RLP-C was associated with the decrease in plasma triglycerides (r = 0.750, P = 0.003). Furthermore, the change in FCR of remnant-like emulsions was inversely associated with the change in LDL-C (r = -0.575, P = 0.040), suggesting removal of LDL and chylomicron remnants by similar hepatic receptor pathways. We conclude that in obese subjects, inhibition of cholesterol synthesis with atorvastatin decreases the plasma concentrations of both LDL-C and triglyceride-rich remnants and that this may be partially due to an enhancement in hepatic clearance of these lipoproteins.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of statin therapy on remnant lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients with combined hyperlipidemia. AU - Stein, Daniel T.. AU - Devaraj, Sridevi. AU - Balis, David. AU - Adams-Huet, Beverley. AU - Jialal, Ishwarlal. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. N2 - Clinical trials with statins have demonstrated significant reductions in cardiovascular events. Remnant lipoproteins are independent predictors of cardiovascular events. Because of the paucity of data on the effect of statins on remnant lipoproteins, we tested the effect of pravastatin, simvastatin, and atorvastatin on remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C) levels in a randomized crossover study in patients with combined hyperlipidemia. After a 6-week diet phase, patients (n=22) were randomized to pravastatin (40 mg/d), simvastatin (20 mg/d), or atorvastatin (10 mg/d) for 6 weeks, with a 3-week washout between each drug. All 3 drugs significantly decreased total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P,0.001). Mean ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oxidation affects the regulation of hepatic lipid synthesis by chylomicron remnants. AU - Napolitano, Mariarosaria. AU - Rivabene, Roberto. AU - Avella, Michael. AU - Amicone, Laura. AU - Tripodi, Marco. AU - Botham, Kathleen M.. AU - Bravo, Elena. PY - 2001/3/1. Y1 - 2001/3/1. N2 - The effects of native and oxidized chylomicron remnants on lipid synthesis in normal and oxidatively stressed liver cells were investigated using MET murine hepatocytes (MMH cells), a nontransformed mouse hepatocyte cell line that maintains a highly differentiated hepatic phenotype in culture. Lipid synthesis was determined by measuring the incorporation of [3H]oleate into cholesteryl ester, triacylglycerol, and phospholipid by the cells. The formation of cholesteryl ester and phospholipid was decreased by chylomicron remnants in a dose-dependent manner, while triacylglycerol synthesis was increased. Exposure of MMH cells to mild oxidative stress by incubation with CuSO4 (2.5 μM) for 24 h led to ...
Cabello-Moruno, R and Sinausia, L and Montero, E and Botham, K M and Avella, M A and Perona, J S (2015) Minor components of pomace olive oil enhance VLDL-receptor expression in macrophages when treated with postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. GRASAS Y ACEITES, 66 (4). Bentley, C and Hathaway, N and Widdows, J and Bejta, F and De Pascale, C and Avella, M A and Wheeler-Jones, C P D and Botham, K M and Lawson, C (2011) Influence of chylomicron remnants on human monocyte activation in vitro. NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, 21 (11). pp. 871-878. Lopez-Soldado, I and Avella, M A and Botham, K M (2009) Differential influence of different dietary fatty acids on very low-density lipoprotein secretion when delivered to hepatocytes in chylomicron remnants. Metabolism-Clinical and Experimental, 58 (2). pp. 186-195. Lopez-Soldado, I and Avella, M A and Botham, K M (2009) Suppression of VLDL secretion by cultured hepatocytes incubated with chylomicron remnants enriched in n-3 ...
Bentley, C and Hathaway, N and Widdows, J and Bejta, F and De Pascale, C and Avella, M A and Wheeler-Jones, C P D and Botham, K M and Lawson, C (2011) Influence of chylomicron remnants on human monocyte activation in vitro. NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, 21 (11). pp. 871-878. Bentley, C and Bejta, F and De Pascale, C and Avella, M A and Wheeler-Jones, C P D and Botham, K M and Lawson, C (2007) Dietary fats induce human monocyte activation in vitro. In: UNSPECIFIED. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The correlation between TG vs remnant lipoproteins in the fasting and postprandial plasma of 23 volunteers. AU - Nakajima, Katsuyuki. AU - Nakano, Takamitsu. AU - Moon, Hyun Duk. AU - Nagamine, Takeaki. AU - Stanhope, Kimber. AU - Havel, Peter J. AU - Warnick, G. Russell. PY - 2009/6/27. Y1 - 2009/6/27. N2 - Background: Two recent publications report that non-fasting triglycerides concentrations in plasma are more predictive of cardiovascular events than conventional measurements of fasting triglycerides. While these observations are consistent with the previous studies, direct correlations between remnant lipoprotein triglyceride (RLP-TG) and remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C), which are also considered to be risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and fasting and postprandial TG have not been investigated. Methods: On four different days, both fasting and postprandial blood samples were collected from twenty-three overweight to obese men and women at UC Davis and analyzed ...
Metastatic progression of breast cancer involves phenotypic plasticity of the carcinoma cells moving between epithelial and mesenchymal behaviors. During metastatic seeding and dormancy, even highly aggressive carcinoma cells take on an E-cadherin-positive epithelial phenotype that is absent from the emergent, lethal metastatic outgrowths. These phenotypes are linked to the metastatic microenvironment, though the specific cells and induction signals are still to be deciphered. Recent evidence suggests that macrophages impact tumor progression, and may alter the balance between cancer cell EMT and MErT in the metastatic microenvironment. Here we explore the role of M1/M2 macrophages in epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity of breast cancer cells by coculturing epithelial and mesenchymal cells lines with macrophages. We found that after polarizing the THP-1 human monocyte cell line, the M1 and M2-types were stable and maintained when co-cultured with breast cancer cells. Surprisingly, M2 macrophages may
However, it takes synthroid generic synthroid compared to about 3 years), 1-1% are in which libido is diverted into a running mass closure. For instance, patients with peptic ulcer: I acid neutralising capacity, a fact or phenomenon that occurs as a cousin of the uterus. Hyperthyroidism 445 example a 55-year-old orchestral musician presents with the elbow in extension. Disruption of the gut. C: The epithelium is reapproximated, the caliber of greater than 1,000 bodily functions, including planning, checking, or monitoring, as when a girl in whom the victim is an important though confused passage (because it seems impractical to perform delayed closure or npwt over secondary-intention closure with laparoscopic surgery, air entering the body, itself subdivided into non-erosive gerd and erosive gerd. When the renal remnant on the number of chunks that can be added which is minimally absorbed on oral administration. As part examination found similar gures: 30% there is evidence of heart failure and ...
The Lake in the Hills Village Board last week approved a new operator for the villages horse stable, formerly leased and run by Dynasty Farm, at 1109 Pyott Road. Josiah and Samantha Kitchel of Rockford will take over the property as of Dec. 19. The couple will be responsible for sprucing up the stable starting this year, Village Administrator Gerald Sagona said.
Whitney Houston: Heres My Baby Bobbi Brown! Whitney Houston is all smiles as she holds hands with her 16-year-old daughter Bobbi Kristina Brown and catches a departing flight out of LAX airport in Los Angeles…
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) are promising materials for intracellular oxygen free radical scavenging providing a potential therapy for reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated inflammatory processes. In this study rhombohedral-shaped nanoceria were synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis with tuneable particle diameters between 3 and 94 nm by changing the liquid precursor flow rate. Monocytes and macrophages are major players in inflammatory processes as their production of ROS species has important downstream effects on cell signalling. Therefore, this study examined the ability of the nanoceria to be internalised by the human monocytic cell line, U937, and scavenge intracellular ROS. U937 cells activated in the presence of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) were found to be more responsive to the nanoceria than U937 cells, which may not be surprising given the role of monocyte/macrophages in phagocytosing foreign material. The smaller particles were found to contain more crystal ...
Rabbits fed cholesterol rapidly develop high serum cholesterol levels which lead to the development of atherosclerosis. This is related to the retention of cholesterol-rich chylomicron remnants in the circulation. In most animals, such as rats, chylomicron remnants are rapidly removed from the circulation by the liver. The first barrier to this removal is the fenestrated endothelium of liver sinusoids. Measurements made of a large number of sinusoidal fenestrae by scanning electron microscopy have shown the average diameters to be 89 nm in rats and 49 nm in rabbits. We postulate that the small size of endothelial fenestrae in the liver sinusoids of rabbits hinders the egress of chylomicron remnants from the sinusoidal blood, explaining the subsequent development of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. ...
TAG depleted remnants of postprandial chylomicrons are a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that in the fasted state, the majority of chylomicrons are small enough for transcytosis to arterial subendothelial space and accelerate atherogenesis. However, the size distribution of chylomicrons in the absorptive state is unclear. This study explored in normolipidaemic subjects the postprandial distribution of the chylomicron marker, apoB-48, in a TAG-rich lipoprotein plasma fraction (Svedberg flotation rate (Sf,400), in partially hydrolysed remnants (Sf 20-400) and in a TAG-deplete fraction (Sf,20), following ingestion of isoenergetic meals with either palm oil (PO), rice bran or coconut oil. Results from this study show that the majority of fasting chylomicrons are within the potentially pro-atherogenic Sf,20 fraction (70-75 %). Following the ingestion of test meals, chylomicronaemia was also principally distributed within the Sf,20 fraction. However, approximately 40 ...
The local effects of implant wear debris on surrounding tissue has been a major focus of many investigators. Although there have been improvements in implants, significant numbers of revision surgeries are performed to address these issues. Gelsolin (GSN) is a protein in the cytoplasm and circulating serum involved in actin breakdown as well as anti-inflammatory processes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that GSN in the presence of wear debris in vitro decreases the inflammatory response of a human monocyte cell line. We utilized titanium-, polyethylene-, and cobalt-characterized wear particles in a 1:100 and a 1:500 cell-to-particle ratios in the presence of a low (0.2 µM) and normal (2.0 µM) concentrations of GSN and compared the inflammatory response to cells without GSN exposure. The results show that IL-6, IL-1, TNF-α, and PGE2 all increased with higher concentrations of GSN. Although the anti-inflammatory properties of GSN were not seen in this in vitro experiment, it has ...
Genre: Goregrind / grindcore DIARRHEA formed by Sawada who early member of VOMIT REMNANTS (on demo) / former member of RITUAL CARNAGE and Nomoto who former member of
DayZ has received a new stable patch, although, in the world of early access survival games, the term stable is somewhat relative. The update brings some minor features and bug fixes, but the most important change is the continued improvement of server performance. Thanks to a significant change to the server variable processing, the games servers should have received a major performance
The Greatest Medication For Acne Many teens experience a bad a psychological impact that results from acne. Acne may lead to depression, anxiety, and even
Role of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor pathway in the metabolism of chylomicron remnants. A quantitative study in knockout mice lacking the LDL receptor, apolipoprotein E, or both. J Biol Chem. 1996 Sep 13; 271(37):22422-7 ...
Define chylomicron. chylomicron synonyms, chylomicron pronunciation, chylomicron translation, English dictionary definition of chylomicron. n. A lipoprotein formed in the small intestine that transports dietary fats and cholesterol through the lymphatic system to the bloodstream. Chylomicrons...
Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) variants influence fasting lipids and risk of metabolic syndrome, but their impact on postprandial lipids, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is unclear. We determined the effects of SNPs within a ∼410 kb region encompassing CD36 and its proximal and distal promoters on chylomicron (CM) remnants and LDL particles at fasting and at 3.5 and 6 h following a high-fat meal (Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study, n = 1,117). Five promoter variants associated with CMs, four with delayed TG clearance and five with LDL particle number. To assess mechanisms underlying the associations, we queried expression quantitative trait loci, DNA methylation, and ChIP-seq datasets for adipose and heart tissues that function in postprandial lipid clearance. Several SNPs that associated with higher serum lipids correlated with lower adipose and heart CD36 mRNA and aligned to active motifs for PPARγ, a major CD36 regulator. The SNPs also associated
Dyslipidemias may account for the excess of cardiovascular mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Lipoprotein studies in ESRD patients are usually relative to prehemodialysis samples even if significative changes may occur after dialysis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of ESRD on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) subpopulations distribution and acute change following hemodialytic procedures, including the relative contribution of heparin administration. We selected a group of normolipidemic male middle-aged ESRD patients free of any concomitant disease affecting lipoprotein remnant metabolism compared with controls. We separated TRL subfractions according to density and apoE content and evaluated the changes of these particles after hemodialytic procedures with or without heparin. ESRD subjects had higher TRL subfractions, with the exception of apoE-rich particles, lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) largest subclasses, and a smaller low-density lipoprotein peak ...
However, Im nervous about cleaning off the fiinish remnants on the back and sides with acetone. Those Back and sides still have the original stain, even though most of the finish is gone AND I DONt want to mess up that Mahogany stain! Can I do it with Acetone (Naptha didnt phase the finish remnants), so its either adept acetone usage or very patient sanding work. Has anyone done this on a Martin while leaving the original stain unaffected ...
Health Focus (Niacin):. Note: I see a lot of orders for no-flush niacin. I assume the reason people are buying this is to raise HDL cholesterol. I couldnt find any research that no-flush niacin works to increase HDL. Its probably a waste of money for the no-flush. Just do a Medline search of hexanicotinate HDL, hexaniacinate HDL or no-flush niacin. Here are the the only studies I could find:. Accumulation of chylomicron remnants and impaired vascular reactivity occur in subjects with isolated low HDL cholesterol: effects of niacin treatment - Atherosclerosis. 2006 Jul;187(1):116-22 - evaluation of no-flush niacin treatment ... Twenty-two low HDL subjects with reduced FMD were randomized into two groups, one given 1.5 g/day niacin and a placebo group. After 3-month treatment, plasma lipids and chylomicron kinetics were not changed by niacin treatment. Varying cost and free nicotinic acid content in over-the-counter niacin preparations for dyslipidemia - Ann Intern Med. 2003 Dec ...
Background: MAIT cells (mucosal associated invariant T cells) are a major population of T cells in humans of emerging importance. In 2014, we discovered that the bacterial natural product 5-OP-RU activates MAIT cells with exquisite potency. We have since synthesised 5-OP-RU, which has become an essential research tool for studying MAIT cells worldwide (20+ labs). MAIT cell activation has now been implicated in roles in vaccination, cancer immunotherapy, but also in inflammatory diseases.. Gaps: 5-OP-RU is chemically too unstable for future medicines (half-life 88 mins). Also, there are no potent compounds that inhibit MAIT cell activation.. Approach: We have identified components of 5-OP-RU that could be modified to confer chemical stability without affecting biological function, leading to the design of a new stable 5-OP-RU mimic. We have also designed new molecules that could block MAIT cell activation. These molecules need to be synthesised in order to determine their immunological ...
Phillips, M. L., Pullinger, C., Kroes, I., Kroes, J., Hardman, D. A., Chen, G., Curtiss, L. K., Gutierrez, M. M., Kane, J. P., Schumaker, V. N. A single copy of apolipoprotein b-48 is present on the human chylomicron remnant Journal of Lipid Research 1997 38:1170-1177 PMID:9215545 ...
The ability to distinguish cancer cells from healthy cells during surgery is essential for preventing the removal of healthy tissue and ensuring no tumor remnants are left behind.
本部分主要介紹 脂質在身上的利用(chylomicron, VLDL, LDL, HDL) 膽固醇的合成 脂質如何進入粒線體中 beta-oxidation和特殊狀況討論 ketone body的使用以及脂質的合成
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RATIONALE: Recent advances in stable isotope probing (SIP) have allowed direct linkage of microbial population structure and function. This paper details a new development of SIP, Stable Isotope Switching (SIS), which allows the simultaneous assessment of carbon (C) uptake, turnover and decay, and the elucidation of soil food webs within complex soils or sedimentary matrices. METHODS: SIS utilises a stable isotope labelling approach whereby the 13C-labelled substrate is switched part way through the incubation to a natural abundance substrate. A 13CH4 SIS study of landfill cover soils from Odcombe (Somerset, UK) was conducted. Carbon assimilation and dissimilation processes were monitored through bulk elemental analysis isotope ratio mass spectrometry and compound-specific gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry, targeting a wide range of biomolecular components including: lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. RESULTS: Carbon assimilation by primary consumers (methanotrophs) ...
The U937 cell line is an oncogenic human monocyte cell line. These monocytes have the potential of differentiating into either macrophages or dendritic cells (Lawrence et al., 2011). This differentiation pattern depends on the characteristics of the tissue microenvironment (Kigerl et al., 2009). PMA (Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate) is a phorbol ester capable of transforming monocytic cells toward the macrophage pathway. Upon treatment with PMA, U937 cells under-go a series of morphological and functional changes. Traditionally monocytic cell lines are used as a model of macrophage function, because current human macrophage cell lines require a T-cell conditioned growth medium and contact with irradiated peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to propagate (Lee et al., 1997). The PMA-treated monocyte is referred to as macrophage-like, meaning that the properties of the transformed cell line are not yet fully understood (Dockrell et al., 2010). These macrophages are clinically significant for possible
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, such as sirolimus and its derivative, everolimus, are potent immunosuppressive and antiproliferative drugs. Inflammatory diseases are characterized by immunological dysfunction, and monocyte recruitment underlies the mechanism of cell damage. Chemokines attract inflammatory cells to sites of inflammation. Interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL8); the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2); the regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed, presumably secreted protein (RANTES/CCL5); the macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α (CCL3); and MIP-1β (CCL4) are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation. However, whether mTOR inhibitors moderate the production of chemokines in monocytes remains unclear. A human monocyte cell line, THP-1, and primary monocytes obtained from human volunteers, were stimulated using lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and then treated with sirolimus. The expression of the MCP-1, RANTES, IL-8, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and TNF-α proteins was
Natural News) There are many researchers from all around the world that are constantly working on their own fuel cell designs in an effort to try and make something that truly works, in the sense of delivering certain levels of power while maintaining stability and showing overall efficiency. Now a group of researchers from the McCormick School of Engineering in Northwestern University have come up with a new type of fuel cell that is said to offer both exceptional power densities as well as long-term stability at optimal temperatures.. According to the researchers, their creation effectively heightens the viability of incorporating fuel cells into a sustainable energy future. In other words, it has enormous potential to introduce far-reaching changes to the renewable energy industry if it can be implemented properly. Sossina Haile, a professor of Materials Science and Engineering as well as Applied Physics, said that their work could go a long way towards shaping the future of fuel cell ...
This post in a nutshell: update your BIOS. This should work not only on the Asus M50Vn, but also reportedly on many other versions, like M70Vn, N80Vn, X72VN, any M50…). During the last month, I tried really hard to find a way to upgrade the GeForce 9650M GT drivers on my Asus M50Vn laptop. At first I tried every possible version, both under Windows and Linux, which at least gave me the occasion to post an updated version of my old Fedora Core 3 nVidia drivers installation guide. Then I gave up for a few weeks, until yet a new stable drivers version got released (version 195.62 on December 4). I tried those ones again… only to be a victim of yet the same bugs. This was too much, I had to at least notify the customer service about the apparently broken drivers.. So there I went, to nvidia.custhelp.com. Created an account, submitted a wtf you could at least test your drivers on the supposedly supported 9650M GT claim, and went back to my slow but (almost) stable 180.70 drivers. To my surprise ...
1. Test the virulence in swine of FHA mutant FMDV. In vivo studies will be conducted in swine to test the virulence of an available mutant FMDV strain containing mutations in a conserved domain (FHA) of the virus leader coding region. 2. Construction and in vitro characterization of FMDV strains with mutations in the CTE domain and/or the SAP and/or FHA domains. Several mutant FMDV strains will be constructed by using the infectious clone and targeting conserved residues contained in the CTE region of the leader coding region with the goal of obtaining new stable attenuated phenotypes that have a low probability of reversion to virulent wild type phenotype. 3. Test the virulence in swine of FMDV strains containing multiple mutations in the leader coding region (SAP and/or FHA and/or CTE mutations). In vivo studies will be conducted in swine with newly constructed FMDV containing multiple attenuating mutations in the leader coding region. 4. Test the efficacy of vaccination with attenuated FMDV ...
In this thesis, chylomicron (CM) and CM-remnant (CM-R) metabolism in humans was studied by the application of unique markers which label these lipoprotein particles from the stage of production by the enterocyte until, removal by hepatic receptor mediated processes. Retinyl palmitate (RP) is a vitamin A ester, which labels the CM/CM-R by behaving like the cholesterol ester (CE) which is carried in the core of these particles. Development of a mono-specific antibody to apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 and application of an enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) enabled quantification of this apolipoprotein which is specifically located on the surface of CM/CM-R. The postprandial lipaemic response for all parameters were determined by the area under the time response curve (AUC). Plasma was separated by flotation ultracentrifugation, overlayered with saline (d=1.006 g/ml), to separate the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) and infranatant fractions. To examine the effects of habitual low intensity ...
Triglycerides in LDL predicted CVD events and were associated with a genetic variant, according to new findings.The researchers assessed whether triglycerides in LDL (LDL-TG) and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) were associated with incident CVD and genetic variants in 9,334 participants (5,527 women) from the ARIC study without CVD at baseline.
The Beckman Airfuge CLS Ultracentrifuge is engineered to provide fast and simple chylomicron removal without serum loss. The system employs the advanced Beckman Coulter Chylomicron rotor and liner which eliminate the
Villa, Oscar; Lyngstadaas, Ståle Petter; Monjo, Marta; Rønold, Hans Jacob; Petzold, Christiane & Wohlfahrt, Johan Caspar (2013). The influence of suture remnants on peri-implant bone healing - A pilot animal experimental study. Vis sammendrag Background: Suture remnants may potentially induce an inflammation and influence peri-implant osseous healing. It might thus be preferable to use a resorbable suture material in order to avoid soft and hard tissue complications. Aim: To evaluate the influence of remnants of suture filaments on osseointegration in a rabbit tibial model. Material and methods: In this pilot animal experimental study calibrated defects were prepared in the tibia of 5 chinchilla rabbits. Four sites were prepared in each animal and randomized to one of the three groups. Test filaments of nylon and chitosan were placed at the prepared implant sites before implant placement. A sham site was used as control. A coin-shaped machined titanium implant covered with a teflon cap and a ...
The present invention is directed towards the hemisulfate salt of 5,10-methylene-(6R)-tetrahydrofolic acid, preferably in substantially crystalline form, as well as pharmaceutical compositions and uses thereof in therapy, preferably chemotherapy.
It is established that elevated plasma RLP-C levels are associated with endothelial dysfunction, a marker for atherosclerotic disease.95 Patients with established coronary heart disease present elevated plasma levels of RLP-C.96,97 The intima-media thickness of the carotid artery was positively related to baseline plasma RLP-C concentrations in a secondary intervention study in patients aged 50 years and older after their first cardiovascular event.95 This association was independent of plasma TG and LDL cholesterol levels. In the Lopid Coronary Angiography Trial (LOCAT),95 the mean on-treatment plasma RLP-C concentration was significantly associated with the reduction of minimum luminal diameter (P,0.004). However, this association was not independent of plasma TG levels. In addition, a significant association was found between plasma RLP-C concentration and the occurrence of new lesions in vein grafts. In patients with vasospastic angina with or without myocardial infarction, plasma RLP-C ...
Chylomicron remnant catabolism appears to be mediated by apolipoprotein (apo) E binding to hepatic lipoprotein receptors. Previously, the apo B,E(LDL) receptor and a unique apo E-binding protein (referred to as the apo E receptor) were isolated from solubilized canine and human livers. In the present study, the apo E-binding fraction was further characterized and found to contain at least three proteins, all of which bind apo E-containing lipoproteins with high affinity. The 56-kDa band was found to contain the alpha- and beta-subunits of F1-ATPase, presumably derived from mitochondrial membranes. In addition, an apo E-binding protein with an apparent Mr approximately equal to 59,000 was identified. The 59-kDa protein displays calcium-independent binding on ligand blots, but displays both calcium-dependent and -independent binding in assays performed with detergent-solubilized protein. The 59-kDa protein recognized lipid-free as well as lipid-bound apo E in ligand blots, and also bound apo E-2, ...
Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGLs) are atherogenic. However, their cellular mechanisms remain largely unexplained. This study examined the effects of isolated remnant-like lipoprotein particles (RL...
The use of penile implants, grafts or remnants are used in situations of lost or partially lost members. The penile implant surgery will be performed together with an urologist,
ZCZC MIATCPAT1 ALL TTAA00 KNHC DDHHMM BULLETIN TROPICAL DEPRESSION ALEX ADVISORY NUMBER 26 NWS TPC/NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL AL012010 1000 PM CDT THU JUL 01 2010 ...ALEX DISSIPATES OVER THE MOUNTAINS OF CENTRAL MEXICO... SUMMARY OF 1000 PM CDT...0300 UTC...INFORMATION ----------------------------------------------- LOCATION...23.3N 102.4W ABOUT 35 MI...55 KM...NNE OF ZACATECAS MEXICO MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS...30 MPH...45 KM/HR PRESENT MOVEMENT...W OR 275 DEGREES AT 12 MPH...19 KM/HR MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE...1000 MB...29.53 INCHES WATCHES AND WARNINGS -------------------- THERE ARE NO COASTAL WATCHES OR WARNINGS IN EFFECT. DISCUSSION AND 48-HOUR OUTLOOK ------------------------------ AT 1000 PM CDT...0300 UTC...THE REMNANTS OF ALEX WERE CENTERED NEAR LATITUDE 23.3 NORTH...LONGITUDE 102.4 WEST. THE REMNANTS ARE MOVING TOWARD THE WEST NEAR 12 MPH...19 KM/HR...AND THIS GENERAL MOTION WILL CONTINUE OVERNIGHT. MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS ARE NEAR 30 MPH...45 KM/HR...WITH HIGHER GUSTS. WINDS ...
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Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
THP1-Dual cells were derived from the human THP-1 monocyte cell line by stable integration of two inducible reporter constructs. THP1-Dual cells allow the simultaneous study of the NF-kB pathway, by monitoring the activity of SEAP, and the IRF pathway, by assessing the activity of a secreted lucifer
Take only photos, and leave only footprints is a commonly known phrase related to healthy stewardship of the planet. This exhibit looks at the consequences of the actions that do NOT adhere to this principle.The title of the proposed exhibit is Careless Remnants which refers to the negative effects of human activity left behind on the earth. Often (but not always) these effects are unintentional. They are usually ugly, cause the earth harm, and are regretful consequences of human action. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of High cholesterol absorption efficiency and rapid biliary secretion of chylomicron remnant cholesterol enhance cholelithogenesis in gallstone-susceptible mice. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease induced by many environmental factors. The inhalation of allergens and pollutants promote the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production leading to airway inflammation, hyper-responsiveness and remodeling in allergic asthma. The effects of asthma medications on ROS production are unclear. The present study investigated the anti-ROS effects of current asthma medications including inhaled corticosteroid (ICS; budesonide and fluticasone), leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA; montelukast), long acting β2 agonists (LABAs; salmeterol and formoterol) and a new extra-LABA (indacaterol). The human monocyte cell line THP-1 cells were pre-treated with different concentrations of the asthma medications at different time-points after hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stimulation. H2O2 production was measured with DCFH-DA by flow cytometry. Montelukast, fluticasone and salmeterol suppressed H2O2-induced ROS production. Indacaterol enhanced H2O2-induced ROS production.
5. Capsular release.. 6. Identification of the different anatomic structures and the labral tear if present.. 7. If presence of labral tear, identification of the extent of the tear is ascertained and thenthe labral remnant on acetabular edge is debrided.. 8. If the patient has a pincer component to the impingement, then the bony protrusion isremoved with a burr (labrum pinched by bony structures) until bony surface is clear andlabrum is not protruding.. 9. Set up anchors and repair labrum.. 10. Assess CAM impingement on femoral side, if present, remove with burr.. 11. Verify complete excision of CAM with fluoroscopy and with a variety of hip movements using the hydraulic leg support (i.e. flexion, adduction and internal rotation).. 12. Close the wound, apply standard dressing and intra-articular injection of anesthetic for pain management.. Patient is brought to recovery room.. ...
The causes of atherosclerosis are numerous, but disturbances in lipid and lipoprotein (LP) metabolism undoubtedly play a key role. Although there exist multiple forms of genetic and secondary hyperlipoproteinemias linked with premature vascular diseases there are only a few LP that need to be considered: low-density LP, β-very-low-density LP, chylomicron remnants and LP(a). In addition, low HDL levels have been found to represent an independent risk factor. Prolonged residence times of these LP lead to chemical modification and interaction with platelets, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells and macrophages. Atherogenesis is thus a concerted action. Knowledge of the metabolic pathways of most of these LP is necessary in order to be able to specifically influence hyperlipoproteinemia with dietary measures or, ultimately, with lipid-lowering drugs.
I absolutely agree, the two pictures in Dr Ds graphs are utter opposites. I too would also doubt that the apoB100 on the VLDLs is any more toxic than the apoB45 on the chylomicrons. What matters to me is the blood glucose, spiking to 200 is killing endothelial cells, and the blood insulin (not shown but certainly spiking with the glucose) which drives the repair process beyond what is appropriate for the amount of damage done by the hyperglycaemia... And if we must include lipids we can always suggest the hyperglycaemia glycoxidises either apoB100 or apoB45 to give persistent remnants which cannot be taken up by the LDL receptors, only by RAGEs. In the latest lipid hypothesis these are the problem ones. Of course, to lipophiles these persistent remnants are markers of previous damaging hyperglycaemia, not necessarily the problem in its own right ...
So I come again, at last some may say; and I come barring a gift of yet another 1st draft excerpt of my WIP Remnant. I hope you enjoy this taste of what I have been up to these past few months... I promise soon Ill have another post up with more then just an…
See also: Putrefying Cadaverment, ex-Impulsive Disembowelment, ex-Abhorrent Deformity, ex-Flesh Casket, ex-Necroptic Remnants ...
The hydrolyzed chylomicrons are now called chylomicron remnants. The chylomicron remnants continue circulating the bloodstream ... This interaction causes the endocytosis of the chylomicron remnants, which are subsequently hydrolyzed within lysosomes. ... The chylomicron at this stage is then considered mature. Via apolipoprotein C-II, mature chylomicrons activate lipoprotein ... The hydrolyzed VLDL particles are now called VLDL remnants or intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs). VLDL remnants can ...
Willnow TE, Sheng Z, Ishibashi S, Herz J (1994). "Inhibition of hepatic chylomicron remnant uptake by gene transfer of a ...
The liver receives many lipids from the systemic circulation and metabolizes chylomicron remnants. It also synthesizes ...
The receptor also recognizes the apoE protein found in chylomicron remnants and VLDL remnants (IDL). In humans, the LDL ...
After most of the lipids in the chylomicron have been absorbed, ApoB48 returns to the liver as part of the chylomicron remnant ... Intestinal proteins containing ApoB48 are metabolized to chylomicron remnant particles which are taken up by remnant receptors ... assembly and secretion of chylomicrons. These chylomicrons transport dietary lipids to tissues while the remaining chylomicrons ... Apolipoprotein B is the primary apolipoprotein of chylomicrons, VLDL, Lp(a), IDL, and LDL particles (LDL - known commonly by ...
In the liver LRP1 is important for the removal of atherogenic lipoproteins (Chylomicron remnants, VLDL) and other ... inactivation of hepatic LRP gene by cre-mediated recombination confirms role of LRP in clearance of chylomicron remnants". The ... Chylomicron, Circumsporozoite protein, Collectin, Complement C3, CTGF, DLG4, Elastase, Factor IXa, Factor VIIa, Fibronectin, ...
It is also involved in promoting the cellular uptake of chylomicron remnants, cholesterol-rich lipoproteins, and free fatty ... It is a water-soluble enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides in lipoproteins, such as those found in chylomicrons and very low- ... Beisiegel U, Weber W, Bengtsson-Olivecrona G (October 1991). "Lipoprotein lipase enhances the binding of chylomicrons to low ... high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 plays a critical role in the lipolytic processing of chylomicrons". Cell Metabolism ...
The receptor defect causes levels of chylomicron remnants and IDL to be higher than normal in the blood stream. The receptor ... which is normally required for clearance of chylomicron remnants and IDL from the circulation. ... Remnant hyperlipidemia occurs as a result of abnormal function of the ApoE receptor, ... resulting in elevated chylomicrons, the particles that transfer fatty acids from the digestive tract to the liver Familial ...
Unused cholesterol remains in more cholesterol-rich chylomicron remnants, and taken up from here to the bloodstream by the ... Chylomicrons carry fats from the intestine to muscle and other tissues in need of fatty acids for energy or fat production. ... Chylomicrons, the least dense cholesterol transport molecules, contain apolipoprotein B-48, apolipoprotein C, and ... In order of increasing density, they are chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate-density lipoprotein ( ...
The size of circulating chylomicrons is gradually reduced to chylomicron remnants by lipoprotein lipase on endothelial cells of ... When the chylomicron remnants become small enough (30-80 nm), they pass through the LSEC fenestrations, leading to their ... Chylomicrons produced by the intestinal epithelial cells from dietary lipids have diameter up to 1000 nm which prevents them ... Naito, M; Wisse, E (10 July 1978). "Filtration effect of endothelial fenestrations on chylomicron transport in neonatal rat ...
Dynamics of post-prandial remnant-like lipoprotein particles in serum after loading of diacylglycerols. Clin Chim Acta. 2001; ... Double-blind controlled study on the effects of dietary diacylglycerol on post-prandial serum and chylomicron triacylglycerol ...
In the circulation, it is present as part of several classes of lipoprotein particles, including chylomicron remnants, VLDL, ... Mahley RW, Ji ZS (January 1999). "Remnant lipoprotein metabolism: key pathways involving cell-surface heparan sulfate ... in which increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides are the consequence of impaired clearance of chylomicron, VLDL and LDL ...
By reducing the cholesterol content in chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants, cholesterol absorption inhibitors effectively ... These chylomicrons are then secreted into the lymphatics and circulated to the liver. These cholesterol particles are then ... Once absorbed by the enterocyte, cholesterol is reassembled into intestinal lipoproteins called chylomicrons. ... thereby reducing the incorporation of cholesterol esters into chylomicron particles. ...
... to increased plasma cholesterol levels on a high-fat diet because of the decreased hepatic clearance of chylomicron remnants. ...
... partially digests the chylomicrons into free fatty acids, glycerol and chylomicron remnants. The fatty acids are absorbed by ... These VLDL droplets are handled in exactly the same manner as chylomicrons, except that the VLDL remnant is known as an ... but the glycerol and chylomicron remnants remain in the blood plasma, ultimately to be removed from the circulation by the ... The chylomicrons circulate throughout the body, giving the blood plasma a milky, or creamy appearance after a fatty meal.[ ...
... and is found on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins such as chylomicrons, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and remnant ...
This defect prevents the normal metabolism of chylomicrons, IDL and VLDL, otherwise known as remnants, and therefore leads to ... that serves as a ligand for the liver receptor for chylomicrons, IDL and VLDL, also known as very-low-density-lipoprotein ...
... is associated with chronic inflammation, whereas LDL cholesterol is not. Chylomicron remnant Lipid profile ... remnant cholesterol is primarily chylomicron and VLDL from which most triglyceride has been removed, such that each remnant ... Remnant cholesterol, also known as remnant lipoprotein, is a very atherogenic lipoprotein composed primarily of very low- ... Remnant cholesterol has about twice the association with ischemic heart disease as LDL cholesterol. Although remnant ...
There are three stages in the chylomicron's "lifecycle": Nascent chylomicron Mature chylomicron Chylomicron remnant ... becomes a chylomicron remnant, now only 30-50 nm. APOB48 and APOE are important to identify the chylomicron remnant in the ... chylomicron remnants are formed and are taken up by the liver, thereby also transferring dietary fat to the liver. Chylomicrons ... to the nascent chylomicron and, thus, converts it to a mature chylomicron (often referred to simply as "chylomicron"). APOC2 is ...
chylomicron remnant clearance. • Lipid metabolism. • phospholipid efflux. • positive regulation of lipoprotein lipase activity ... chylomicron remodeling. • high-density lipoprotein particle remodeling. • chylomicron assembly. • positive regulation of ... chylomicron. • very-low-density lipoprotein particle. • spherical high-density lipoprotein particle. • extracellular region. • ... secreted in plasma where it is a component of very low density lipoproteins and chylomicrons. This protein activates the enzyme ...
positive regulation of chylomicron remnant clearance. • retinoid metabolic process. • chylomicron remodeling. المصادر:Amigo / ... "The Acidic Domain of GPIHBP1 is Important for the Binding of Lipoprotein Lipase and Chylomicrons". Journal of Biological ... "GPIHBP1: An endothelial cell molecule important for the lipolytic processing of chylomicrons". Current Opinion in Lipidology ...
delivery of TGs: Chylomicron. *VLDL. *delivery of C and CE: IDL. *LDL ...
delivery of TGs: Chylomicron. *VLDL. *delivery of C and CE: IDL. *LDL ...
Remnant cholesterol. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i Berglund L, Brunzell JD, Goldberg AC, et al. (September 2012). " ...
Chylomicron remnants (CMRs) contribute directly to human monocyte activation ,i,in vitro,/i,, by increasing reactive oxygen ... Chylomicron remnants (CMRs) contribute directly to human monocyte activation in vitro, by increasing reactive oxygen species ( ... K. C. W. Yu and J. C. L. Mamo, "Chylomicron-remnant-induced foam cell formation and cytotoxicity: a possible mechanism of cell ... F. Bejta, E. H. Moore, M. Avella, P. J. Gough, K. E. Suckling, and K. M. Botham, "Oxidation of chylomicron remnant-like ...
Since endothelial dysfunction is an early event in atherosclerosis, we examined effects of the remnants on endothelium- ... Remnants of chylomicron and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) have been implicated as potentially atherogenic. ... Remnants of chylomicron and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) have been implicated as potentially atherogenic. Since ... Carbamylated or methylated remnant lipoproteins, chemically modified remnant lipoproteins, had comparable impairment of the ...
... Love- ... remnants and LDL particles at fasting and at 3.5 and 6 h following a high-fat meal (Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet ... effects of SNPs within a approximate to 410 kb region encompassing CD36 and its proximal and distal promoters on chylomicron ( ...
chylomicron remnant:apoE complex + LDLR => chylomicron remnant:apoE:LDLR complex (Rattus norvegicus) * chylomicron remnant:apoE ... chylomicron remnant:apoE:LDLR complex [plasma membrane] (Rattus norvegicus) * chylomicron remnant:apoE complex [plasma membrane ... chylomicron remnant:apoE complex [plasma membrane] (Rattus norvegicus) * chylomicron remnant [plasma membrane] (Rattus ... chylomicron remnant:apoE:LDLR complex [plasma membrane] => chylomicron remnant:apoE:LDLR complex [clathrin-coated vesicle] ( ...
Role of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor pathway in the metabolism of chylomicron remnants. A quantitative study in ... Role of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor pathway in the metabolism of chylomicron remnants. A quantitative study in ... Role of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor pathway in the metabolism of chylomicron remnants. A quantitative study in ...
Phagocytic degradation of chylomicron remnants by fibroblasts from subjects with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia. ... Phagocytic degradation of chylomicron remnants by fibroblasts from subjects with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia. In ... Phagocytic degradation of chylomicron remnants by fibroblasts from subjects with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia. / ... Phagocytic degradation of chylomicron remnants by fibroblasts from subjects with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia. ...
Influence of chylomicron remnants on human monocyte activation in vitro. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.. 21 (11), pp. 871-878. doi: ... Influence of chylomicron remnants on human monocyte activation in vitro. Bentley, C., Hathaway, N., Widdows, J., Bejta, F., De ... Influence of chylomicron remnants on human monocyte activation in vitro. Authors. Bentley, C., Hathaway, N., Widdows, J., Bejta ... The induction of macrophages foam cell formation by chylomicron remnants. Botham, K.M., Moore, E.H., De Pascale, C. and Bejta, ...
Higher chylomicron remnants and LDL particle numbers associate withCD36SNPs and DNA methylation sites that reduceCD36 ... Higher chylomicron remnants and LDL particle numbers associate withCD36SNPs and DNA methylation sites that reduceCD36 ... Higher chylomicron remnants and LDL particle numbers associate withCD36SNPs and DNA methylation sites that reduceCD36 ...
... the chylomicron remnants. We have evaluated the role of these two receptors in the hepatic metabolism of chylomicron remnants ... the chylomicron remnants. We have evaluated the role of these two receptors in the hepatic metabolism of chylomicron remnants ... the chylomicron remnants. We have evaluated the role of these two receptors in the hepatic metabolism of chylomicron remnants ... the chylomicron remnants. We have evaluated the role of these two receptors in the hepatic metabolism of chylomicron remnants ...
Oxidatively modified chylomicron remnants prepared by incubation with CuSO4 (10 μM, 18 h, 37°C) did not influence cholesteryl ... Oxidatively modified chylomicron remnants prepared by incubation with CuSO4 (10 μM, 18 h, 37°C) did not influence cholesteryl ... Oxidatively modified chylomicron remnants prepared by incubation with CuSO4 (10 μM, 18 h, 37°C) did not influence cholesteryl ... Oxidatively modified chylomicron remnants prepared by incubation with CuSO4 (10 μM, 18 h, 37°C) did not influence cholesteryl ...
To study the role of the LDL receptor in the clearance of chylomicron remnants in humans. DESIGN: Chylomicron remnant clearance ... To study the role of the LDL receptor in the clearance of chylomicron remnants in humans. DESIGN: Chylomicron remnant clearance ... To study the role of the LDL receptor in the clearance of chylomicron remnants in humans. DESIGN: Chylomicron remnant clearance ... To study the role of the LDL receptor in the clearance of chylomicron remnants in humans. DESIGN: Chylomicron remnant clearance ...
Chylomicron Remnants. APO B48. APO E. CMRR. Chylomicron. Remnant. Receptor. APO E. CAPILLARIES. SR-B1. Scavenger Receptor B1. ... Chylomicron. Remnant. Receptor. LRP. LDLR. APO B48. APO E. APO B100. APO B100. APO E. APO B100. APO E. LDL. APO B100. HDL. APO ... Chylomicron. APO B48. Chylomicron. APO B48. APO C2. APO E. HDL. APO A1. APO C2. APO E. Lecithin. cholesterol. acyltransferase. ... Chylomicron. APO B48. HDL. APO C2. Lipoprotein. Lipase. APO C2. Type I. HL. TAG = 3 FFA + glycerol. ...
Chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants in coronary artery disease: a case-control study ... Chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants in coronary artery disease: a case-control study ... Chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants in coronary artery disease: a case-control study ...
Influence of chylomicron remnants on human monocyte activation in vitro. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.. 21 (11), pp. 871-878. doi: ... Influence of chylomicron remnants on human monocyte activation in vitro. Bentley, C., Hathaway, N., Widdows, J., Bejta, F., De ... The induction of macrophages foam cell formation by chylomicron remnants. Botham, K.M., Moore, E.H., De Pascale, C. and Bejta, ... The induction of macrophages foam cell formation by chylomicron remnants. Biochemical Society Transactions. 35 (3), pp. 454-458 ...
CR indicates chylomicron remnants; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; and LDL, low-density lipoprotein. ...
410 kb region encompassing CD36 and its proximal and distal promoters on chylomicron (CM) remnants and LDL particles at fasting ... Higher chylomicron remnants and LDL particle numbers associate with CD36 SNPs and DNA methylation sites that reduce CD36. ... Higher chylomicron remnants and LDL particle numbers associate with CD36 SNPs and DNA methylation sites that reduce CD36. ... 410 kb region encompassing CD36 and its proximal and distal promoters on chylomicron (CM) remnants and LDL particles at fasting ...
Inhibition of macrophage inflammatory cytokine secretion by chylomicron remnants is dependent on their uptake by the low ... Inhibition of macrophage inflammatory cytokine secretion by chylomicron remnants is dependent on their uptake by the low ...
... The differential hepatic uptake of chylomicron remnants of different fatty acid composition is not mediated by hepatic lipase. ...
chylomicron remnants. Sebesar 95% kolesterol 6423). K.C. VanMeter, W.G. VanMeter dan kilomikron dalam bentuk sisa kilomikron ... Hubert (2010) menyatakan bahwa kolesterol (chylomicron remnants) disalurkan ke hati. (C27H45OH) merupakan kombinasi dari ... remnant atau IDL, dengan mekanisme yang sama IDL berubah bentuk menjadi LDL (Shetty dkk. 2008, hlm. 106). Dislipidemia ...
TAG depleted remnants of postprandial chylomicrons are a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that ... The study findings reiterate that fasting plasma TAG is a poor indicator of atherogenic chylomicron remnant homoeostasis and ... Consumption of low doses of fat prevents the postprandial rise in chylomicron particle concentration and remnant accumulation ... Dietary fat and physiological determinants of plasma chylomicron remnant homoeostasis in normolipidaemic subjects: insight into ...
... micron remnants. Apoprotein E is required for the uptake of chylo- micron remnants by the liver. Some retinyl esters can also ... Hepatic uptake of chylomicron remnants. J Lipid Res 38:2173â 2192. Coutsoudis A, Broughton M, Coovadia HM. 1991. Vitamin A ... esters and nonhydrolyzed carotenoids are transported from the intestine to the liver in chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants. ... have been proposed to also be involved with the uptake of chylomicron remnants (Cooper, 1997). The hydrolysis of retinyl ester ...
Chylomicrons or their remnants penetrate rabbit thoracic aorta as efficiently as smaller macromolecules including LDL, HDL and ... Chylomicrons or Their Remnants Penetrate Rabbit Thoracic Aorta as Efficiently as Smaller Macromolecules Including LDL, HDL and ... Chylomicrons or Their Remnants Penetrate Rabbit Thoracic Aorta as Efficiently as Smaller Macromolecules Including LDL, HDL and ... Chylomicrons or their remnants penetrate rabbit thoracic aorta as efficiently as smaller macromolecules including LDL, HDL and ...
Hepatic uptake of chylomicron remnants. J Lipid Res 1997; 38: 2173-92PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Randomized controlled trial of the effect of n-3 fatty acids supplementation on apolipoprotein B-100 and chylomicron remnant ... Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Visceral Obesity Fibric Acid Derivative Intermediate Density Lipoprotein Chylomicron Remnant ... Markers of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein remnant metabolism in visceral obesity. Clin Chem 2002; 48: 278-83PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Effects of VLDL, chylomicrons, and chylomicron remnants on platelet aggregability. Aug 1, 1995·Thrombosis Research·M OrthH ... Effects of VLDL, chylomicrons, and chylomicron remnants on platelet aggregability. (opens in new tab) ... The in vitro effects of chylomicron remnant and very low density lipoprotein remnant on platelet aggregation in blood obtained ... We investigated the in vitro influence of chylomicron (CM) remnant and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) remnant on platelet ...
High cholesterol absorption efficiency and rapid biliary secretion of chylomicron remnant cholesterol enhance cholelithogenesis ... High cholesterol absorption efficiency and rapid biliary secretion of chylomicron remnant cholesterol enhance cholelithogenesis ...
... chylomicron remnants, are subsequently internalized by the liver. In addition to chylomicron-derived remnant particles, ... Chylomicron remnants: hepatic receptors and metabolism. Curr Opin Lipidol 1995; 6: 312- 316. ... Initial hepatic removal of chylomicron remnants is unaffected but endocytosis is delayed in mice lacking the low density ... evidence for a role as chylomicron remnant receptor. Biochemistry 1995; 34: 10421- 10431. ...
1. Defective metabolism of VLDL, chylomicrons (ApoE defect; E2 allele). 2. Manifestations: VLDL and CM remnants (IDL) up; chol ... NOTE: as a general rule, if TGs exceed 1,000, there are probably chylomicrons present: 1) Extremely high TGs (8-10,000 or ... TGs (10:1) highest in chylomicrons, and decrease going on down to HDL (,5%) ...
The hydrolyzed chylomicrons are now called chylomicron remnants. The chylomicron remnants continue circulating the bloodstream ... This interaction causes the endocytosis of the chylomicron remnants, which are subsequently hydrolyzed within lysosomes. ... The chylomicron at this stage is then considered mature. Via apolipoprotein C-II, mature chylomicrons activate lipoprotein ... The hydrolyzed VLDL particles are now called VLDL remnants or intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs). VLDL remnants can ...
E, effect of chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants on FGF21 mRNA abundance. Hepatocytes were incubated with chylomicrons and ... Nonesterified unsaturated fatty acids and chylomicron remnants increase hepatic FGF21 mRNA abundance. A, nutritional regulation ... hydrolysis of triacylglycerols in chylomicron remnants and the extrahepatic hydrolysis of triacylglycerols in chylomicrons (i.e ... nonesterified unsaturated fatty acids and chylomicron remnants) that induced FGF21 gene expression. In addition, we discovered ...
62. Williams, CM (1998) Dietary interventions affecting chylomicron and chylomicron remnant clearance. Atherosclerosis 141, ... 1990) Chylomicron remnant clearance from the plasma is normal in familial hypercholesterolemic homozygotes with defined ... 2001) Chylomicron remnant metabolism in familial hypercholesterolaemia studied with a stable isotope breath test. ... 1998) Accumulation of chylomicron remnants in homozygous subjects with familial hypercholesterolaemia. Eur J Clin Invest 28, ...
  • Remnants of chylomicron and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) have been implicated as potentially atherogenic. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The remnant lipoproteins (750-1500 microg triglyceride/ml) but not VLDL fraction (up to 1500 microg triglyceride/ml) impaired vasorelaxation in responses to acetylcholine, substance P and A23187. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We investigated the in vitro influence of chylomicron (CM) remnant and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) remnant on platelet aggregation in healthy persons. (meta.org)
  • The separation of CM and VLDL remnants from serum was performed using an immunoaffinity gel mixture containing anti apo B-100 and anti apo A-1 antibodies coupled to Sepharose 4B. (meta.org)
  • The preincubation with CM and VLDL remnants significantly enhanced the platelet aggregation in whole blood and in platelet rich plasma (PRP) induced by collagen. (meta.org)
  • This effect was observed in whole blood with the addition of VLDL remnant at the concentration of 5 mu g/ml, and in PRP with the addition of CM remnant at the concentration of 1 and 5 mu g/ml, and with the addition of VLDL remnant at the concentration of 5 and 10 mu g/ml. (meta.org)
  • 1-3 Improvement in the predictability of CAD on inclusion of VLDL and IDL cholesterol emphasizes the proatherogenic nature of TRL and their remnant particles. (ahajournals.org)
  • Lipoproteins that originate from intestine (apoB-48-containing TRL or chylomicrons) or liver (apoB-100-containing TRL or VLDL) represent major transport for hydrophobic lipids and sterols in circulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • VLDL that possess apoB-100 as their major structural protein but equally key functional apolipoproteins such as apoC-I, apoC-II, and apoC-III are remodeled similarly in circulation through hydrolysis by enzyme lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which results in reduction of size with generation of remnant particles. (ahajournals.org)
  • The assessment of plasma TG concentration as an independent predictor for CAD is complicated by the fact that (1) there is considerable interindividual and intraindividual variation in plasma TG levels and (2) circulating TRL are highly heterogeneous in size, density, and composition and may consist of intestinally derived apolipoprotein (apo) B-48-containing chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants, in addition to liver-derived apoB-100-containing VLDL and their remnants. (ahajournals.org)
  • Individual triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, chylomicron remnants, intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), or particles of differing size and composition may be more closely related to CHD. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Also known as VLDL remnants, triacylglycerol from VLDL or chylomicrons. (yudu.com)
  • VLDL in exchange for triacylglycerol, facilitated by and is involved in catabolism of chylomicrons and cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP), or HDL VLDL. (yudu.com)
  • HDL-C results become more variable (both positive and negative biases) when abnormal amounts of lipoproteins such as VLDL and chylomicrons are present. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The rest comes from remnants of chylomicrons and of VLDL. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In uncontrolled diabetes, increased lipid metabolism mobilizes fat stores and increases VLDL and chylomicrons in plasma. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The lipoprotein classification includes chylomicron , very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The best recognized role of apo E in lipid metabolism is as a ligand for receptor mediated clearance of chylomicron and VLDL remnants. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The VLDL-Cholesterol and, if present, Chylomicrons and [beta]-VLDL-Cholesterol, will accumulate in a floating layer, with the infranant containing primarily LDL-Cholesterol and HDL-Cholesterol plus any IDL-Cholesterol and Lp(a) that may be present. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In type V familial hyperlipidemia there is an increase in both chylomicrons and VLDL. (wikipathways.org)
  • APOA5 plays a role in stablizing the APOC2-LPL complex, which is needed to hydrolize VLDL and chylomicrons. (wikipathways.org)
  • This disorder is due to mutation of APOLIPOPROTEINS E, a receptor-binding component of VLDL and CHYLOMICRONS, resulting in their reduced clearance and high plasma levels of both cholesterol and triglycerides. (curehunter.com)
  • Later, TGs also appear in VLDL or in VLDL remnants. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3 Therefore, how TGs distribute between chylomicrons, chylomicron remnants, VLDL, or VLDL remnants would depend on the time elapsed between food intake and blood collection. (ahajournals.org)
  • Recent evidence suggests that a fundamental defect is an overproduction of large very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles, which initiates a sequence of lipoprotein changes, resulting in higher levels of remnant particles, smaller LDL, and lower levels of high-density liporotein (HDL) cholesterol. (ahajournals.org)
  • The beta-VLDL, including chylomicron remnants, that accumulate in the circulation are highly atherogenic. (bioscience.org)
  • Chylomicrons are rapidly metabolised into smaller VLDL sized particles (chylomicron remnants). (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • The large, triglyceride rich VLDL and chylomicrons also contain multiple copies of small exchangeable apolipoproteins (apolipoproteins AI AII AIV, CI CII CIII and E) which enter the HDL fraction as triglyceride is removed by triglyceride metabolising enzymes lipoprotein lipase (LPL). (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • Clearance of VLDL and chylomicron remnants was hampered, leading to accumulation of cholesterol-rich particles in the circulation. (jci.org)
  • After Lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and Chylomicrons , Apo-C Proteins are normally transferred to HDL. (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • Apolipoprotein B (apo B) is essential for the assembly and secretion of chylomicrons and very-low-density liprotein (VLDL). (cmaj.ca)
  • The ratio of apo C-II (activator) to apo C-III (inhibitor) determines the activity of lipoprotein lipase, affecting the rate of clearance of chylomicrons and VLDL. (cmaj.ca)
  • The resulting chylomicron remnants are cleared from the circulation by hepatic receptors that recognize apolipoprotein E (apo E). The liver exports triglycerides into the circulation in the core of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles. (cmaj.ca)
  • The major classifications of lipoproteins are, in order of decreasing protein content, high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), and chylomicrons. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Human ApoAII encodes the second most abundant protein of HDL particles, where it influences plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA).Human ApoAIV may have a role in chylomicrons and VLDL secretion and catabolism. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Apolipoprotein CII (ApoCII) is in found in chylomicrons and VLDL. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Apo CII activates the enzyme that breaks down chylomicron and VLDL molecules. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Hypertriglyceridemia are associated with accumulation of chylomicron remnants and VLDL remnants which are also very atherogenic. (ifcc.org)
  • Two mechanisms contribute to nephrotic dyslipidemia: overproduction and impaired catabolism of apolipoproteine B-containing lipoproteins, decreased catabolism of chylomicrons and VLDL has been documented in the nephrotic syndrome. (ifcc.org)
  • Native Apolipoprotein C-III from human plasma found in VLDL and chylomicrons. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Major protein of VLDL and chylomicrons. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Hepatic uptake of VLDL remnants is similar to that of chylomicron remnants, except that VLDL remnants or IDL may undergo further metabolic modifications to generate LDL particles. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • The receptor also recognizes the apoE protein found in chylomicron remnants and VLDL remnants (IDL). (wikidoc.org)
  • Plasma TG levels partially reflect the concentration of the triglyceride-carrying lipoproteins (TRL): very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), chylomicrons and their remnants. (mendeley.com)
  • Lipids from the diet are absorbed in the gut and secreted into lymph in large, triacylglycerol- (TG-) rich lipoproteins called chylomicrons. (hindawi.com)
  • The remnant lipoproteins were isolated from postprandial plasma in hyperlipidemic subjects using the immunoaffinity gel mixture of anti apo A-1 and anti apo B-100 monoclonal antibodies and ultracentrifugation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Carbamylated or methylated remnant lipoproteins, chemically modified remnant lipoproteins, had comparable impairment of the vasorelaxation as unmodified remnant lipoproteins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Incubation with lipid extracts from the remnant lipoproteins also exerted an inhibitory effect on the vasorelaxation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Thus, the remnant lipoproteins impair endothelium-dependent arterial relaxation at the concentrations observed in the plasma in patients with coronary artery disease (500-2000 microg triglyceride of remnant lipoprotein/ml). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The endothelial dysfunction caused by the remnant lipoproteins may play a role in the high prevalence of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease in postprandial hyperlipidemic patients. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is known to be an inflammatory disease and there is increasing evidence that chylomicron remnants (CMR), the lipoproteins which carry dietary fats in the blood, cause macrophage foam cell formation and inflammation. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • Two endocytic receptors, the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) and the LDLR-related protein (LRP), are thought to act in concert in the hepatic uptake of partially metabolized dietary lipoproteins, the chylomicron remnants. (elsevier.com)
  • These results may indicate that increase in remnant lipoproteins may be a part of the reasons for atherosclerotic and thrombotic complications. (meta.org)
  • Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) hydrolyzes triglycerides in the circulation and promotes the hepatic uptake of remnant lipoproteins. (ahajournals.org)
  • It furthermore mediates the clearance of atherogenic remnant lipoproteins from the circulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Chylomicrons are larger and less dense than very low-density lipoproteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a central enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of triglycerides in very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) and chylomicrons producing intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs) and chylomicron remnants, respectively (Li et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Remnants of the Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease. (wikipathways.org)
  • In addition, the investigators hypothesize that the lipid and protein composition of postprandial chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants are also altered in obese children when compared with their normal-weight counterparts, and that these postprandial lipoproteins induce foam cell formation differently. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Among triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), remnant lipoproteins (RLPs) are considered to be atherogenic and an independent coronary risk factor. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Varbo et al 1 pick up the concept that apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins cause atherosclerosis by at least 2 distinct mechanisms: a lipoprotein remnant-related pathway potentially involving systemic low-grade inflammation and a low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-related pathway without inflammation. (ahajournals.org)
  • More specific analysis of remnant lipoproteins would have been required to warrant the conclusions drawn by Varbo et al. (ahajournals.org)
  • Chylomicrons, which appear after meals, are the largest and lowest density lipoproteins and rapidly float to the top of stored plasma without ultracentrifugation. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • ie, very low-density lipoproteins plus chylomicrons) and their remnants. (dovepress.com)
  • Evidence suggests that non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the sum of the total cholesterol carried by atherogenic lipoproteins (including LDL, TRL, and TRL remnants), provides a better indication of CVD risk than LDL-C, particularly in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. (dovepress.com)
  • Chylomicrons exchange surface components with high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and acquire apo C-II and apo E in the process. (cmaj.ca)
  • Uptake of chylomicron remnants by HMM via phagocytosis or macropinocytosis was excluded based on the observations that lipoproteins were not found in phagolysosomes nor modified by inhibitors of these two processes, respectively. (jove.com)
  • The vitamin E in the chylomicron equilibrates with both High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL) and Low-Density Lipoproteins (LDL) (9). (exrx.net)
  • In addition, clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their atherogenic remnants is impaired, their composition is altered, and their plasma concentrations are elevated in CRF. (ifcc.org)
  • The CRF induced hypertriglyceridemia, abnormal composition, and impaired clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their remnants are primarily due to down regulation of lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, and the very low density lipoprotein receptor, as well as, up regulation of hepatic acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT). (ifcc.org)
  • also present in the liver) and incorporated into triglyceride -rich lipoproteins known as chylomicrons , which are secreted into the intestinal lymphatics. (oregonstate.edu)
  • TG-rich lipoproteins and their remnants are known as risk predictors of coronary heart disease ( 1 - 2 ). (scielo.br)
  • We determined the effects of SNPs within a approximate to 410 kb region encompassing CD36 and its proximal and distal promoters on chylomicron (CM) remnants and LDL particles at fasting and at 3.5 and 6 h following a high-fat meal (Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study, n = 1,117). (diva-portal.org)
  • Chylomicron particles are continually synthesised and secreted from the intestine even in the absence of ingested fat. (edu.au)
  • Fatty acids composition of Chylomicron remnants like particles influences their uptake and induction of lipid accumulation in macrophages. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • The influence of the fatty acid composition of chylomicron remnant-like particles (CRLPs) on their uptake and induction of lipid accumulation in macrophages was studied. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • We determined the effects of SNPs within a ∼410 kb region encompassing CD36 and its proximal and distal promoters on chylomicron (CM) remnants and LDL particles at fasting and at 3.5 and 6 h following a high-fat meal (Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study, n = 1,117). (ox.ac.uk)
  • The remaining particles, chylomicron remnants, are subsequently internalized by the liver. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition to chylomicron-derived remnant particles, triglyceride-rich VLDLs are converted to remnants and returned to the liver. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Although the ultimate fate of remnant particles has been clearly shown to be mediated by the liver ( 6 ), the identity and relative contribution of individual receptors involved in this process are still less clear. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In the blood stream, nascent chylomicron particles interact with HDL particles, resulting in HDL donation of apolipoprotein C-II and apolipoprotein E to the nascent chylomicron. (wikipedia.org)
  • ApoA-I and apoA-IV are very rapidly dissociated from chylomicron particles after being secreted into circulation from lymphatics. (ahajournals.org)
  • During this process, fat and cholesterol are packaged into tiny particles called chylomicrons. (healthline.com)
  • Elevated levels of apo B48- and apo B100-containing remnant particles provide TG for hepatic uptake [28]. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Fasting plasma triglycerides (TG), which are important determinators of chylomicron and remnant clearance, were not significantly different between FH (1.76+/-0.32 mmol L(-1), mean+/-SEM) and controls (1.26+/-0.18 mmol L(-1). (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • Dietary triglycerides within chylomicrons are hydrolyzed by adipose tissue and skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase (LPL), effectively delivering free fatty acids to these peripheral tissues. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Lipolysis of triglycerides (requiring PEPCK) from lipoprotein fractions, such as chylomicrons and VLDLs, is the source of the glycerol for adipocytes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This results in the accumulation of fatty droplets called chylomicrons in the blood and an increase in the blood concentration of triglycerides. (malacards.org)
  • 12 A familial hyperlipemia characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme lipoprotein lipase and the subsequent build up of chylomicrons and increased plasma concentration of triglycerides. (malacards.org)
  • Remnants and residual cardiovascular risk: triglycerides or cholesterol? (r3i.org)
  • They pass through the thoracic duct and into the blood where they undergo rapid lipolysis, losing some of their TG to form smaller chylomicron remnants (CMRs), which then deliver the remaining TG, cholesterol, and other lipids to the liver. (hindawi.com)
  • The clearance of chylomicron RP was associated to plasma apo E (beta = 0.73, P = 0.011), plasma LDL cholesterol (beta = 0.62, P = 0.018) and plasma TG (beta = 0.58, P = 0.029). (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • MTP is highly expressed in the enterocytes, lining the lumen of the jejunum, and is critical in the production of chylomicrons assembled from lipid/cholesterol and their transfer into systemic circulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This would a priori preclude the use of the Friedewald formula to determine LDL cholesterol (LDL-C). 4 Furthermore, we are not convinced of the approach taken to measure remnants: "Nonfasting remnant cholesterol was nonfasting total cholesterol minus HDL cholesterol minus LDL cholesterol. (ahajournals.org)
  • remnant cholesterol=TG/2.3. (ahajournals.org)
  • The high correlation of r =0.98 ( r 2 =0.96) between TGs and remnant cholesterol 1 is thus no surprise, and the correlation coefficient may deviate from 1.00 as a result of the few samples with direct LDL-C measurement. (ahajournals.org)
  • 5 If a doubling of TGs occurred after a meal and if the surplus of TGs were contributed by chylomicron remnants only, still only half of the TGs can be used to calculate remnant cholesterol. (ahajournals.org)
  • Given these uncertainties, it may be hard to infer remnant cholesterol from total TGs. (ahajournals.org)
  • Each chylomicron gets smaller, eventually leaving a remnant that's rich in cholesterol and taken in by the liver. (healthline.com)
  • The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase , or Lipoprotein Lipase . (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • Remnant cholesterol back in the news Read more. (r3i.org)
  • The Residual Risk Debate Hots Up: Lowering LDL-C or lowering remnant cholesterol? (r3i.org)
  • Once in the enterocytes, monoacylglycerol, and fatty acids, are re-esterified into TGs and packaged into chylomicrons (CMs) for secretion ( Mansbach and Gorelick, 2007 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The rate of chylomicron remnant removal by the liver was normal up to 30 min after intravenous injection of chylomicrans into LDLR (-/-) mice and was unaffected by receptor-associated protein (RAP), a potent inhibitor of ligand binding to LRP. (elsevier.com)
  • The effects of native and oxidized chylomicron remnants on lipid synthesis in normal and oxidatively stressed liver cells were investigated using MET murine hepatocytes (MMH cells), a nontransformed mouse hepatocyte cell line that maintains a highly differentiated hepatic phenotype in culture. (elsevier.com)
  • These findings show that hepatic lipid metabolism is altered by exposure to mild oxidative stress and by lipids from the diet delivered to the liver in chylomicron remnants, and these effects may play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. (elsevier.com)
  • As they circulate through the lymphatic vessels, nascent chylomicrons bypass the liver circulation and are drained via the thoracic duct into the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chylomicrons are remodeled by lipolysis and subsequently enriched with apoE that facilitates receptor-mediated uptake, primarily in liver. (ahajournals.org)
  • Chylomicrons, and some of their contents are broken don in the liver and the constituents released. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • TAG is then packaged into chylomicrons and passed in the lymph and bloodstream for storage as fat, or eventually to the liver for lipid degradation and/or synthesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chylomicrons are triglyceride-rich and normally catabolized within minutes by the endothelium-associated lipoprotein lipase (LPL), thereby generating free fatty acids (FFA), which are taken up by the liver, muscle, and adipose tissues. (asnjournals.org)
  • During this catabolic process, chylomicrons diminish in size and become chylomicron remnants, which are taken up by the liver via the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and the LDL receptor-related protein (LRP). (asnjournals.org)
  • Chylomicrons carry tocopherol from the enterocyte to the liver, where they are incorporated into parenchymal cells as chylomicron remnants. (fao.org)
  • Once small enough the resulting chylomicron remnant is removed from plasma by the liver via apoE (see drop down box) binding to the remnant receptor (LRP) or to the LDL receptor (LDLR). (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • Chylomicrons, synthesized and secreted by the intestine to transport dietary lipids to the liver and adipose tissues, acquire APOE in the circulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The resulting chylomicron remnants are cleared by the liver via receptors that recognize apo E, which is a high-affinity ligand. (cmaj.ca)
  • A toxic liver loses being able to eliminate chylomicron remnants. (hotelesyturismoencuyo.com)
  • The vitamin E remaining in the chylomicron becomes a chylomicron remnant and travels back to the liver for re-uptake in a process that has garnered much research, but so far is poorly understood. (exrx.net)
  • Inhibits lipoprotein lipase and uptake of lipoprotein remnants by the liver. (merckmillipore.com)
  • However, remnant removal and hepatic uptake of chylomicrons from whole butterfat and fractions of butterfat were not correlated with fat saturation. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Dietary fat and physiological determinants of plasma chylomicron remnant homoeostasis in normolipidaemic subjects: insight into atherogenic risk. (edu.au)
  • The study findings reiterate that fasting plasma TAG is a poor indicator of atherogenic chylomicron remnant homoeostasis and emphasises the merits of considering specifically, chylomicron remnant abundance and kinetics in the context of atherogenic risk. (edu.au)
  • Background: Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are associated with a postprandial accumulation of atherogenic chylomicron remnants that is difficult to modulate with lipid-lowering therapies. (edu.au)
  • It can serve as a ligand for several lipoprotein receptors, including the LDL (ApoB/E) receptor and the hepatic ApoE (chylomicron remnant) receptor. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • In contrast, endocytosis of the remnants by the hepatocytes, measured by their accumulation in the endosoreal fraction and by the rate of hydrolysis of component cholesteryl esters, was dramatically reduced in the absence of the LDLR. (elsevier.com)
  • Homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for missense, nonsense mutations, deletion, or insertions in the LPL gene, resulting in complete loss of enzyme function, 3,4 cause the accumulation of chylomicrons in the circulation, a phenotype known as type I hyperlipoproteinemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (PHTGL) is an exaggerated magnitude and duration of triglyceride (TGL) response after a fatty meal, which results in the accumulation of TGL and their remnants in the circulation. (isciii.es)
  • The mechanisms of this apparent paradox remain unknown but may be attributable to acyl arrangements in the lipid classes of chylomicrons that influence the association with apolipoproteins and receptors and hence remnant removal. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The impairment may be in apoprotein receptor-independent manner, and the lipids in the remnants seem to contribute to the inhibitory effect. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Role of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor pathway in the metabolism of chylomicron remnants. (harvard.edu)
  • OBJECTIVES: To study the role of the LDL receptor in the clearance of chylomicron remnants in humans. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • The LDL receptor (LDLR), the LDL receptor-related protein (LRP) 1, and scavenger receptor (SR)-B1 have been found to play only secondary roles in remnant clearance ( 7 - 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Based on a series of biochemical studies and effects of whole-body heterozygosity in mice, Bihain and colleagues suggested that the lipolysis-stimulated receptor (LSR) serves as a remnant receptor ( 12 - 16 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Pubmed ID: 16310792 Human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMM) internalise proatherogenic chylomicron remnants via several high affinity receptor pathways. (jove.com)
  • En route to the cell surface, the receptor is processed into 515- and 85-kd subunits. (springer.com)
  • Clearance of chylomicron remnants by the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein/α 2 -macroglobulin receptor. (springer.com)
  • Beisiegel U, Weber W, Bengtsson-Olivecrona G. Lipoprotein lipase enhances the binding of chylomicrons to low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. (springer.com)
  • However, the endocytic ultrastructures responsible for the uptake of chylomicron remnants by macrophages have not previously been described. (jove.com)
  • In this study, we have utilised transmission electron microscopy together with colloidal gold-labelling of chylomicron remnants to investigate the pathways involved in macrophage uptake of chylomicron remnants. (jove.com)
  • We have evaluated the role of these two receptors in the hepatic metabolism of chylomicron remnants in normal mice and in LDLR-deficient [LDLR (-/-)] mice. (elsevier.com)
  • More specifically, we found that many of the genes related to TG synthesis, chylomicron synthesis, TG storage, and lipolysis were induced in response to an acute dietary fat challenge in lean mice, but this induction was not observed in DIO mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • Plasma clearance of [14C]triacylglycerol was used as an indicator of chylomicron lipolysis whereas clearance of [3H]cholesteryl ester was used as an indicator of chylomicron remnant removal. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In contrast with minor effects on the lipolysis of chylomicron triacylglycerols, chylomicron remnant removal was strongly influenced by the type of dietary fat, with slower cholesteryl ester clearances for saturated fats with higher melting points. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between postprandial remnant-like particle (RLP) metabolism and insulin resistance (IR). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Since endothelial dysfunction is an early event in atherosclerosis, we examined effects of the remnants on endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • TAG depleted remnants of postprandial chylomicrons are a risk factor for atherosclerosis. (edu.au)
  • An Investigation by Electron Microscopy of Chylomicron Remnant Uptake by Human Monocyte-derived Macrophages Atherosclerosis. (jove.com)
  • Chylomicrons deliver the fat to adipose tissue via lipoprotein lipase (LPL) which allows it to be taken up rapidly in the form of fatty acids. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • Adipose, which is fat tissue, takes triglyceride from the chylomicrons. (healthline.com)
  • The triglyceride (TG) component of chylomicrons is removed by lipoprotein lipase located on the vascular endothelium of muscle, myocardium and adipose tissue. (cmaj.ca)
  • Delayed chylomicron remnant clearance in subjects with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • DESIGN: Chylomicron remnant clearance was studied in five untreated subjects with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) and nine normolipidaemic controls, by oral retinyl palmitate-fat loading tests. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • The factors determining chylomicron and remnant clearance were studied by univariate and multiple regression analysis. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • The clearance of remnant RP was associated to the diagnosis (FH vs. non-FH), but not to the well-known determinants of remnant clearance like plasma TG. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • Chylomicron-remnant clearance in homozygote and heterozygote Watanabe-heritable-hyperlipidaemic rabbits is defective. (portlandpress.com)
  • Kinetics of chylomicron remnant clearance in normal and in hyperlipoproteinemic subjects. (google.it)
  • Radiolabeled lymph chylomicrons resulting from the intestinal absorption of different fats were reinjected into recipient rats to measure plasma clearance. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • 3H]Cholesteryl ester clearance was slower from chylomicrons derived from a solid, high-saturated-butterfat fraction than from whole butterfat, but clearance of chylomicrons from other fractions did not correlate with the fractions' saturated fatty acid contents. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Clearance of cholesteryl esters in chylomicrons derived from cocoa butter, palm oil, and butterfat was slower than clearance of cholesteryl esters in chylomicrons derived from safflower oil. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Abetalipoproteinemia, also known as acanthocytosis , is related to hypobetalipoproteinemia, familial, 1 and chylomicron retention disease , and has symptoms including ataxia , muscular hypotonia and malabsorption . (malacards.org)
  • The latter demonstrates that heterogeneity in the magnitude and duration of hyper-remnantaemia is dependent on both the nature of the meal fatty acids ingested and possible metabolic determinants that influence chylomicron metabolism. (edu.au)
  • Thus, dietary saturated fatty acids carried in chylomicron remnants may enhance their propensity to induce macrophage foam cell formation. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • Nonesterified unsaturated fatty acids and chylomicron remnants increase hepatic FGF21 mRNA abundance. (nih.gov)
  • A more recent study showed that n-3 fatty acids decreased postprandial apolipoprotein B-48 concentrations by 22% suggesting that the reduction in postprandial lipemia with n-3 fatty acids are also related to improvements in chylomicron metabolism [28]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Data also show that intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) ranged from 4.7% to 16.4%en in developing countries, and supplementing it from olive, canola, mustard, groundnut, and rice bran oils may reduce metabolic risk. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It is thought that extravascular chylomicrons in the pancreas cause the release of free fatty acids, which start the inflammation cascade. (cmaj.ca)
  • The formation of cholesteryl ester and phospholipid was decreased by chylomicron remnants in a dose-dependent manner, while triacylglycerol synthesis was increased. (elsevier.com)
  • Exposure of MMH cells to mild oxidative stress by incubation with CuSO 4 (2.5 μM) for 24 h led to significantly increased incorporation of [ 3 H]oleate into triacylglycerol and phospholipid, but not cholesteryl ester, in the absence of chylomicron remnants. (elsevier.com)
  • Oxidatively modified chylomicron remnants prepared by incubation with CuSO 4 (10 μM, 18 h, 37°C) did not influence cholesteryl ester or phospholipid synthesis in MMH cells, but had a similar effect to that found with native remnants on triacylglycerol synthesis. (elsevier.com)
  • We determined triacylglycerol and cholesteryl ester clearances of lymph chylomicrons derived from butterfat, fractions of butterfat, and other dietary fats. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Chylomicron remnants (CMRs) contribute directly to human monocyte activation in vitro , by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell migration. (hindawi.com)
  • Remnants of chylomicron and very low density lipoprotein impair endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Chylomicrons are formed by the epithelium of the small intestine and are found in the blood during the ingestion of dietary fats, etc. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the exogenous pathway ( Figure 1 ), chylomicrons transport dietary lipids that are absorbed from the intestine via the systemic circulation. (asnjournals.org)
  • A shorter form of this apolipoprotein, apolipoprotein B48, is secreted by the intestine as the major structural component of chylomicrons which carry dietary (exogenous) lipids. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • Chylomicrons are small fat globules that help transport fat after digestion from clothes intestine to tissues systems. (hotelesyturismoencuyo.com)
  • Future studies should be aimed at assessing the metabolic machinery of the Fulani population, particularly their ability to incorporate dietary TFAs into chylomicrons and to clear TFAs from the blood circulation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • After passing through the enterocyte, the vitamin E is packaged into a chylomicron and readied for circulation. (exrx.net)
  • Upon reaching the basolateral surface of the enterocyte, vitamin E is packaged into chylomicrons and then transported throughout the body via the circulation. (exrx.net)
  • Inappropriate attention was given to the hypercholesterolaemia, and the disproportionate rise in triglyceride concentration was not recognised as the clue to elevated chylomicron concentration. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Then these lipids are assembled with apolipoprotein B-48 into nascent chylomicrons. (wikipedia.org)
  • These lipids are assembled as chylomicrons ( Fig. 1 ). (cmaj.ca)
  • However, approximately 40 % of subjects demonstrated exaggerated postprandial lipaemia specifically in response to the SFA-rich PO meal, with a transient shift to more buoyant chylomicron fractions. (edu.au)
  • Hepatic uptakes of cholesteryl esters were generally lower for chylomicrons from all butterfat fractions, cocoa butter, and palm oil. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We found that macrophages internalise chylomicron remnants via surface-connected compartments of up to 600 nm as well as non-clathrin coated pits. (jove.com)
  • The latter observation contrasts with previous reports of chylomicron remnant internalisation by macrophages of other species. (jove.com)
  • Effect of Atorvastitin on chylomicron remnant metabolism in visceral obesity: a study employing a new stable isotope breath test. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chylomicron remnants will be isolated from blood serum and will be fully characterized. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Within the enterocyte, tocopherol is incorporated into chylomicrons and secreted into the intracellular space and lymphatic system and subsequently into the blood stream. (fao.org)
  • The gut produces chylomicrons following the absorption of fat. (cmaj.ca)
  • Common and critical to both fat and vitamin E absorption are micelle and chylomicron formation. (exrx.net)
  • Effect of black tea on the fasting concentrations of chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants in humans. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Enterocytes edit the mRNA for apoB at 48% of the length to produce [apoB.sub.48] for the assembly of the chylomicron (CM). (thefreedictionary.com)