Role of human N-acetyltransferases, NAT1 or NAT2, in genotoxicity of nitroarenes and aromatic amines in Salmonella typhimurium NM6001 and NM6002. (1/90)Human NAT1 and NAT2 genes were subcloned into pACYC184 vector and the plasmids thus obtained were introduced into Salmonella typhimurium O-acetyltransferase-deficient strain NM6000 (TA1538/1, 8-DNP/pSK1002), establishing new strains NM6001 and NM6002, respectively. We compared the sensitivities of these two strains with those of NM6000 towards carcinogenic nitroarenes and aromatic amines in the SOS/umu response. The induction of umuC gene expression by these chemicals in the presence and absence of the S9 fraction was assayed by measuring the cellular beta-galactosidase activity expressed by the umuC"lacZ fusion gene in the tester strains. 2-Nitrofluorene and 2-aminofluorene induced umuC gene expression more strongly in the NM6001 strain than in the NM6002 strain. In contrast, induction of umuC gene expression by 1, 8-dinitropyrene, 6-aminochrysene and 2-amino-3,5-dimethylimidazo[4, 5-f]quinoline was weaker in the NM6001 strain than in the NM6002 strain. 1-Nitropyrene, 2-amino-6-methyl-dipyrido[1,2-a:3', 2'-d]imidazole, 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole, 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole were found to induce umuC gene expression at similar extents in both strains. These results suggest that the newly developed strains can be employed for the studies on mechanisms of genotoxicity of a variety of nitroarenes and aromatic amines, along with the assessment of cancer risk to humans. (+info)
Three-dimensional structure of anti-5,6-dimethylchrysene-1, 2-dihydrodiol-3,4-epoxide: a diol epoxide with a bay region methyl group. (2/90)The three-dimensional structure of a dihydrodiol epoxide of 5, 6-dimethylchrysene was elucidated by X-ray diffraction techniques. The effects of the steric overcrowding by the 5-methyl group in the bay region of this compound are described. The carbon atom of the 5-methyl group is found to lie out of the plane of the aromatic system, thereby avoiding the nearer C-H group of the epoxide ring; this C-H hydrogen atom is pushed in the opposite direction. As a result, the molecule is distorted so that the relative orientations of the epoxide group and the aromatic ring systems are very different for the diol epoxides of (nearly planar) benzo[a]pyrene (studied by Neidle and co-workers) and (distorted) 5, 6-dimethylchrysene (described here). The main effect of the 5-methyl group is to change the relative angle between the epoxide-bearing ring (the site of attack when the diol epoxide acts as an alkylating agent) and the aromatic ring system (which is presumed to lie partially between the DNA bases in the DNA adduct that is about to be formed). This may favor some specific alkylation geometry. (+info)
Specificity of murine glutathione S-transferase isozymes in the glutathione conjugation of (-)-anti- and (+)-syn-stereoisomers of benzo[g]chrysene 11,12-diol 13,14-epoxide. (3/90)Specificities of murine glutathione (GSH) S-transferase (GST) isozymes mGSTA1-1, mGSTA2-2, mGSTA3-3 and mGSTA4-4 (alpha class), mGSTP1-1 (pi class) and mGSTM1-1 (mu class) for GSH conjugation of (-)-anti- and (+)-syn-stereoisomers of benzo[g]chrysene 11, 12-diol 13,14-epoxide (B[g]CDE), the activated metabolites of the environmental pollutant benzo[g]chrysene (B[g]C), have been determined. When GST activity was determined as a function of varying (-)-anti- or (+)-syn-B[g]CDE concentration (10-320 microM) at a fixed saturating concentration of GSH (2 mM), each isozyme obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. mGSTA1-1 was significantly more efficient than other murine GSTs in the GSH conjugation of not only (-)-anti-stereoisomer but also (+)-syn-B[g]CDE. For example, the catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) of mGSTA1-1 towards (-)-anti-B[g]CDE was approximately 2.3- to 16.6-fold higher compared with other murine GSTs. Likewise, mGSTA1-1 was approximately 2.7-, 6.7-, 4.4- and 12.4-fold more efficient than mGSTA2-2, mGSTA3-3, mGSTP1-1 and mGSTM1-1, respectively, in catalyzing the GSH conjugation of (+)-syn-B[g]CDE. Interestingly, mGSTA4-4, which also belongs to class alpha, was virtually inactive towards both stereoisomers of B[g]CDE. The results of the present study indicate that murine GSTs, especially alpha class isozymes, significantly differ in their ability to detoxify B[g]CDE stereoisomers and that mGSTA1-1 plays a major role in the detoxification of both (-)-anti- and (+)-syn-B[g]CDE, which among four B[g]CDE stereoisomers are formed from the carcinogen B[g]C as major DNA binding metabolites. (+info)
A phase I and pharmacological study of protracted infusions of crisnatol mesylate in patients with solid malignancies. (4/90)This Phase I and pharmacological study was performed to assess the feasibility of administering the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon crisnatol in increasingly prolonged continuous i.v. infusions to patients with advanced solid malignancies. The study also sought to characterize the-principal toxicities of crisnatol on this schedule, to recommend doses for subsequent disease-directed studies, and to characterize possible associations between pharmacological parameters and toxicity. Sixteen patients were treated with 40 courses of crisnatol administered as a continuous i.v. infusion. The initial dose-schedule was 750 mg/m2/day for 6 days, and the duration of the infusion was to be progressively increased by 3-day increments to 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21. Courses were to be repeated every 4 weeks. Moderate to severe central nervous system (CNS) toxicity precluded the administration of crisnatol 750 mg/m2/day for longer than 6 days, and, therefore, the dose of crisnatol was reduced to 600 mg/m2/day. At this dose, three of five patients receiving a 12-day infusion experienced dose-limiting toxicity, which consisted of pulmonary thromboembolism (two patients) and grade 4 thrombocytopenia (one patient). None of the six patients completing a 9-day infusion at 600 mg/m2/day developed dose-limiting toxicity during the first or second course of crisnatol. At this dose level, the plasma concentrations at steady state (Css) averaged 1607.8+/-261.1 ng/ml, which exceeds minimal inhibitory concentrations for most tumors in vitro (1000 ng/ml). In fact, the administration of crisnatol at a dose of 600 mg/m2/day for 9 days resulted in the longest duration that biologically relevant plasma crisnatol concentrations have been sustained. Plasma Css values were significantly higher in patients who experienced severe CNS toxicity compared with those who did not (2465.3+/-1213.5 versus 1342+/-447.3 ng/ml; P = 0.04). There were no relationships evident between the clearance of crisnatol and indices reflecting renal and hepatic functions. One patient with a glioblastoma multiforme experienced a partial response lasting 14 months. The relative lack of intolerable CNS toxicity at the recommended dose for Phase II studies of crisnatol, 600 mg/m2/day for 9 days, as well as the magnitude of the Css values achieved and the antitumor activity observed at this dose, are encouraging. However, the mechanisms for the apparently increased thrombogenicity observed in this trial are unclear and require further elucidation. (+info)
Targeting of lung cancer mutational hotspots by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (5/90)BACKGROUND: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in combustion products of organic matter, including cigarette smoke. Metabolically activated diol epoxides of these compounds, including benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (B[a]PDE), have been suggested as causative agents in the development of lung cancer. We previously mapped the distribution of B[a]PDE adducts within the p53 tumor suppressor gene (also known as TP53), which is mutated in 60% of human lung cancers, and found that B[a]PDE adducts preferentially form at lung cancer mutational hotspots (codons 154, 157, 158, 245, 248, and 273). Other PAHs may be important in lung cancer as well. METHODS: Here we have mapped the distribution of adducts induced by diol epoxides of additional PAHs: chrysene (CDE), 5-methylchrysene (5-MCDE), 6-methylchrysene (6-MCDE), benzo[c]phenanthrene (B[c]PDE), and benzo[g]chrysene (B[g]CDE) within exons 5, 7, and 8 of the p53 gene in human bronchial epithelial cells. RESULTS: CDE exposure produced only low levels of adducts. Exposure of cells to the other activated PAHs resulted in DNA damage patterns similar to those previously observed with B[a]PDE but with some distinct differences. 5-MCDE, 6-MCDE, B[g]CDE, and B[c]PDE efficiently induced adducts at guanines within codons 154, 156, 157, 158, and 159 of exon 5, codons 237, 245 and 248 of exon 7, and codon 273 of exon 8, but the relative levels of adducts at each site varied for each compound. B[g]CDE, B[c]PDE, and 5-MCDE induced damage at codon 158 more selectively than 6-MCDE or B[a]PDE. The sites most strongly involved in PAH adduct formation were also the sites of highest mutation frequency (codons 157, 158, 245, 248, and 273). CONCLUSION: The data suggest that PAHs contribute to the mutational spectrum in human lung cancer. (+info)
Time- and dose-dependent DNA binding of PAHs derived from diesel particle extracts, benzo[a]pyrene and 5-methychrysene in a human mammary carcinoma cell line (MCF-7). (6/90)Cultures of a human mammary carcinoma cell line (MCF-7) were exposed to the soluble organic fraction of diesel particle emissions, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and 5-methylchrysene (5-MeCHR) to study time- and dose-related PAH-DNA binding. The concentrations of 14 PAHs in three extracts were analyzed by HPLC and PAH-DNA adducts were measured by (32)P post-labeling assay. Time-dependent DNA adducts formation of 2.5 microM B[a]P was lower than that of 2.5 microM 5-MeCHR. In comparison with B[a]P, 2-fold higher adduct formation by 5-MeCHR was observed at 12 h exposure, after which BPDE adducts decreased and 5-MeCHR continued to form adducts linearly during 48 h exposure. The data for these two PAH compounds demonstrate a large variation in adduct-forming potency, which should be taken into account when estimating DNA adducts formed by mixtures of unknown PAHs. A clear dose-response effect on formation of DNA adducts was obtained for B[a]P and a Standard Reference Material (SRM) of diesel particulate matter. The amount of B[a]P contributed more to total DNA adduct formation by SRM than by three diesel extracts. Thus, no conclusions can be drawn from diesel particle-derived B[a]P as to the adduct-forming potency of other carcinogenic PAHs. There was little change in adduct levels formed by three diesel extracts from 0 to 12 h exposure. Thereafter, the number of adducts formed by RD2 increased more rapidly than those formed by RD1 and EN97. The concentrations of 14 PAHs and adduct levels analyzed at 24 and 48 h did not change in the same proportion between the extracts. Neither could PAH-DNA adduct levels be explained by the sum of strong and weak adduct-forming PAHs analyzed in the extracts. This indicates that other PAHs in the extracts RD1, RD2 and EN97 contributed to adduct formation more than the carcinogenic adduct-forming PAHs analyzed in this study. (+info)
Activation of estrogen receptor beta is a prerequisite for estrogen-dependent upregulation of nitric oxide synthases in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. (7/90)Physiological effects of estrogen on myocardium are mediated by two intracellular estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta, that regulate transcription of target genes through binding to specific DNA target sequences. To define the role of ERbeta in the transcriptional activation of both endothelial (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cardiac myocytes, we used the complete ER-specific antagonist R,R-tetrahydrochrysene (R,R-THC). R,R-THC inhibited activation of iNOS/eNOS promoter-luciferase reporter constructs (iNOS/eNOS-Luc) in a dose-dependent fashion in COS7 cells selectively transfected with ERbeta, but failed to influence ERalpha-mediated increase of iNOS/ eNOS-Luc. In neonatal rat cardiomyocytes transfected with eNOS-Luc or iNOS-Luc, incubation with 17betaestradiol (E2, 10(-8) M) for 24 h stimulated expression of eNOS and iNOS. R,R-THC (10(-5) M) completely inhibited this effect. Furthermore, eNOS and iNOS protein expression in cardiac myocytes induced by E2 was completely blocked by R,R-THC as shown by immunoblot analysis. Taken together, these results show that ERbeta mediates transcriptional activation of eNOS and iNOS by E2. (+info)
The carcinogenicity of polycyclic hydrocarbon epoxides in newborn mice. (8/90)Benz(a)anthracene injected subcutaneously during the first 3 days of life caused a dose related increase in the incidence of liver and lung tumours in Swiss mice but over a similar dose range, the K region epoxide of benz(a)anthracene was less effective. Neonatally injected 7-methylbenz(a) was considerably more active than its K region epoxide in increasing the incidence of liver tumours in males. Both the parent compound and the epoxide slightly raised the incidence of lung tumours. Both chrysene and its K region epoxide increased liver tumour incidence but not lung tumour incidence. The K region epoxides of dibenz(a,h)-anthracene and 3-methylcholanthrene were without apparent effect on the incidence of liver, lung or other tumours despite indications from previously reported studies that the parent hydrocarbons are active at the same dose levels. The K region epoxide of phenanthrene had no effect on the incidence of any kind of neoplasm. (+info)
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- 2017. Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene transplacental carcinogenesis in wild-type, Cyp1b1 knockout, and CYP1B1 humanized mice. . (oregonstate.edu)
- Since mid-2017, Dragos has been tracking a group it has named Chrysene, whose activity focuses on North America, Western Europe, Israel and Iraq, particularly organizations in the electricity generation and oil&gas sectors. (securityweek.com)
- Serum PAHs did not appear to be related to bladder cancer risk, although the profile of contamination by PAHs was different between patients and controls: pyrene (Pyr) was solely detected in controls and chrysene (Chry) was exclusively detected in the cases. (nih.gov)
- New Jersey officials indicate that Ford Motors intentionally concealed information about dumping large amounts of toxic waste across more than 500 acres in Passaic County from 1967 and 1974, including lead, arsenic, benzene, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), semi-volatile organic compounds, chrysene and 1,4 dioxane, a colorless solvent believed to be a carcinogen, as well as other pollutants. (aboutlawsuits.com)
- 10. Effects of methylated chrysenes on AhR-dependent and -independent toxic events in rat liver epithelial cells. (nih.gov)