The temporal sequence of events that have occurred.
Chronology, in a medical context, refers to the arrangement of events or data in the order they occurred, which aids in understanding the temporal course and progression of a disease, treatment, or health status over time.
Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.
The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.
The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.
A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE. The species are slow growing coniferous evergreen trees or shrubs.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.

Y2K: the moment of truth. (1/45)

It remains to be seen whether the world will move in time to fix the Y2K bug, or whether computers around the world will shut down when the clock strikes midnight on 31 December 1999. Y2K could have a serious impact on environmental facilities, particularly given the extent to which computer software and microchips are now involved in pollution control and environmental monitoring and protection systems.  (+info)

Assessment of public health computer readiness for 2000--United States, 1999. (2/45)

Computer software, equipment, and other devices that contain embedded microchips that store and process dates may use two-digit years (e.g., 99 for 1999) to reduce data entry burden and save electronic storage space; these devices may not work properly when the year 2000 (Y2K) arrives. Many aspects of health-care delivery, public health surveillance and research, and critical infrastructure components (e.g., utilities and transportation services) depend on vulnerable computers. To ensure that critical public health functions will not be compromised because of Y2K problems, CDC assessed state public health agency readiness for Y2K. This report describes the findings of the assessment, which indicate that state health agencies that responded are substantially ready for Y2K and plan to reach full readiness in 1999.  (+info)

Publication of survey results of assessment of state health agencies' readiness for 2000. (3/45)

Following publication of the results of a CDC assessment of the readiness for the year 2000 (Y2K) of state health agencies, CDC conducted a follow-up survey during June-August 1999 in which 47 states and the District of Columbia-covering 98.7% of the U.S. population-responded. Overall, responding states are 99% complete with Y2K assessment and 90% complete with Y2K readiness. Additional information from the states and trends from the initial to the follow-up survey identify no significant Y2K readiness vulnerabilities in critical public health functions. Complete results of this survey are available on the World-Wide Web at + and from the Information Resources Management Office, CDC, Mailstop D45, 1600 Clifton Rd., N.E., Atlanta, GA 30333. CDC continues to work with states on Y2K readiness, including identifying and communicating Y2K issues that may occur during the transition to 2000.  (+info)

Reading radiographs in chronological order, in pairs or as single films has important implications for the discriminative power of rheumatoid arthritis clinical trials. (4/45)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of reading series of films in chronological order, in pairs with unknown time sequence, or as single films, on precision and sensitivity to change. METHODS: Two studies were performed with 10 and 12 patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology criteria. In Study 1, two sets of films with a 1 yr interval were scored in chronological order, in pairs, and as single films. In Study 2, four sets of films, with a 1 yr interval each, were scored in chronological order, as single films and as single-pair (right and left together). All films were scored with the Sharp/van der Heijde method by two independent observers. Data were analysed with a repeated measures ANOVA using a full mixed effects model. Two generalizability (G) coefficients were constructed for reliability and for change. RESULTS: Study 1: the interobserver reliability was similar for the three methods (G(reliability) chronological 0.94, paired 0.88, single 0.93); progression was a mean increase (averaged over patients, observers and methods) from 26 to 37 (P=0.046). The sensitivity for change was greater for the chronological than for the paired and single scoring (G(change) 0.39, 0.22 and 0.24, respectively). Study 2: the interobserver reliability was 0.86 for chronological, 0.76 for single-pair and 0.91 for single readings. Significantly more progression was measured with the chronological compared with the single-paired and single methods (15.9 vs 8.5 and 8.3; P=0.0001). A constant progression was suggested by chronological reading, in contrast to a stabilization in the other two methods after 1 yr. CONCLUSION: Reading films in chronological order is most sensitive to change in a time period up to 3 yr follow-up; this was already present after 1 yr, but even more pronounced with longer follow-up.  (+info)

Differing temporal patterns of onset in subgroups of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. (5/45)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to further analyze the temporal patterns of onset of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and to determine whether or not subgroups with specific clinical characteristics exhibit different patterns of onset. METHODS: The daily, weekly, and yearly variations in occurrence of ICH together with the relationship between ICH occurrence and changes in air temperature were evaluated in 1018 patients. Patients were grouped according to the presumed etiology of ICH: hypertensive ICH, secondary ICH, and ICH of undetermined origin. The contribution of demographic and clinical factors to the temporal distributions of ICH was also evaluated. RESULTS: Marked differences in seasonal and diurnal patterns of ICH onset were observed in the different groups. The incidence of hypertensive ICH reflected seasonal and circadian changes in blood pressure, whereas the latter did not seem related to the onset of nonhypertensive ICH. The seasonal pattern was more evident in elderly patients with hypertensive ICH than in younger subjects. No significant weekly variations were observed; however, risk was greater on Monday in the working population. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the higher incidence of ICH in the colder months is due to the effect of low temperatures on blood pressure and that the clustering of ICH events in the morning is due to the increase in sympathetic tone, and consequent increase in blood pressure, on awakening.  (+info)

The onset of generalized osteoarthritis in older women: a qualitative approach. (6/45)

OBJECTIVE: This qualitative study aims to investigate which factors are possibly associated with the onset of generalized osteoarthritis (OA) in older women. METHODS: The study population was recruited from participants of a group course, "Coping With Osteoarthritis of the Hip or Knee." Twenty-three women with generalized OA were identified, 20 of whom participated in a semistructured interview at home. All data were self-reported by the subjects. RESULTS: Hereditary factors were present in 17 women. Metabolic factors (such as impairments in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, diabetes, etc.) were not prevalent. Twelve women thought that certain diets influenced their pain symptoms. Five women spontaneously mentioned their health status during the Second World War as a cause of their OA. Four considered too much stress as being a cause, and in 13 women symptoms started after a period of stressful life events or depression. CONCLUSION: According to the respondents, depression, stress, and diets are associated with the onset and worsening of their generalized OA. Heredity and a low health status at a vulnerable age may also be important. These findings could generate new hypotheses that can be tested in future quantitative studies.  (+info)

Prognostic significance of blood pressure measured on rising. (7/45)

Previous works using ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring demonstrated that independently of the mean level of BP, the variability in BP, or the day-night range, could have prognostic significance. We have also found that the value of BP on rising in the morning is strongly correlated with left ventricular mass of hypertensive individuals independently of the 24-h value. In the present study, we sought its predictive value for cardiovascular complications in a cohort of hypertensive patients. The population studied belongs to a cohort of initially untreated hypertensive patients recruited since 1983 and followed for more than 5 years. Patients were then treated and followed by their family doctor. At entry, all patients were equipped with a device to measure ambulatory BP. They were requested to trigger a measurement manually on rising in the morning (arising BP). The data on their outcome were collected by a physician unaware of the initial state of the patients. A total of 256 patients have been followed up for 5 years or more, 19 were lost to follow-up. The mean follow-up period was 84 +/- 29 months. Cardiovascular complications were recorded in 23 individuals. The arising systolic BP (SBP) was significantly higher in the group who presented a complication. In a stepwise discriminant analysis including age, office, fitting, arising and 24-h average SBPs only age and arising SBP entered the equation. In conclusion, the single BP value measured by an ambulatory device on rising in the morning seems more discriminant of future cardiovascular events than the value of BP measured on fitting the device or the average of three measurements taken under standardised conditions in the hospital or office.  (+info)

Oxidative DNA damage and alteration of glutamate transporter expressions in the hippocampal Ca1 area immediately after ischemic insult. (8/45)

Although oxidative stress and excitotoxicity may be interdependent mechanisms that are involved in delayed neuronal death, the temporal participation of these events in the early stage after ischemia-reperfusion insult is unclear. Therefore, in the present study, using the gerbil global ischemic model we investigated whether oxidative stress could be correlated with the expression of the glutamate transporters in the hippocampus, and whether these events are related and cooperate in the events that link ischemia to neuronal death in vivo. Thirty minutes after ischemia, the intensities of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1), glutamate/aspar-tate transporter (GLAST), and 8-hydroxy2'-deoxy-guanosine (8-OHdG) immunoreactivities were markedly increased in the hippocampal CA1 area. In contrast, excitatory amino acid carrier-1 (EAAC-1) immunoreactivity was 30% lower in the CA1 area than in the sham level. At 3 h post-reperfusion, the EAAC-1 expression began to increase in the CA1 area. Twelve hours after reperfusion, the reduction of both GLT-1 and GLAST immunoreactivity was salient, while the EAAC-1 immunoreactivity level intensified significantly. The 8-OHdG immunoreactivity peaked at this time point. These findings suggest that oxidative stress and alterations in the glutamate transporter expression in the CA1 area may simultaneously trigger neuronal damages very early after ischemia.  (+info)

The study and recording of events in their order of occurrence, usually in relation to specific time periods. In the medical context, chronology is used to document a patient's medical history, including symptoms, diagnoses, treatments, and outcomes over time. This information can help healthcare providers understand the progression of a patient's condition, identify patterns or trends, and make informed decisions about their care.

A medical chronology may include various types of records, such as clinic notes, hospital discharge summaries, laboratory results, and imaging studies. It is important to maintain an accurate and up-to-date chronology to ensure continuity of care, support research and quality improvement initiatives, and facilitate communication among healthcare team members.

The term "chronology" is a general term that refers to the arrangement of events or things in the order of their occurrence based on time. It is not a medical term, but it can be used in a medical context to describe the sequence of symptoms, diagnoses, treatments, and other medical events related to a patient's health over time.

In medical record-keeping, maintaining an accurate chronology is essential for tracking a patient's health status, monitoring their response to treatment, and making informed clinical decisions. Healthcare providers use various tools, such as progress notes, problem lists, and timelines, to document the chronology of a patient's medical history.

Therefore, while "chronology" is not a medical term per se, it plays a crucial role in medical practice and patient care.

Radiometric dating is a method used to determine the age of objects, including rocks and other fossilized materials, based on the decay rates of radioactive isotopes. This technique relies on the fact that certain elements, such as carbon-14, potassium-40, and uranium-238, are unstable and gradually decay into different elements over time.

By measuring the ratio of the remaining radioactive isotope to the stable end product, scientists can calculate the age of a sample using the following formula:

age = (ln(Nf/N0)) / λ

where Nf is the number of atoms of the decayed isotope, N0 is the initial number of atoms of the radioactive isotope, and λ is the decay constant.

Radiometric dating has been used to date objects ranging from a few thousand years old to billions of years old, making it an essential tool for archaeologists, geologists, and other scientists who study the history of our planet.

I believe you may have made a typo in your question. "Archaeology" is the scientific study of past human cultures and societies through the recovery, examination, and analysis of material remains such as artifacts, buildings, biofacts (e.g., bones, shells), and cultural landscapes. It is not typically associated with medical definitions. If you intended to ask for a different term related to medicine or healthcare, please let me know so I can provide the correct information.

For more information about archaeology, you may be interested in visiting the World Archaeological Congress () or the Society for American Archaeology () websites to learn more about this fascinating field of study.

I am not a medical professional, but I can tell you that the term 'civilization' is more commonly used in social sciences and humanities rather than medicine. It refers to a complex human society, usually characterized by the development of agriculture, permanent settlements, and advanced institutions and technology. However, it is not a term that would typically be used in a medical definition. If you have any other questions, I'd be happy to try and help!

"Juniperus" is not a medical term itself, but it refers to a genus of evergreen coniferous trees and shrubs that belong to the cypress family (Cupressaceae). There are around 50-70 species in this genus, which are native to the northern hemisphere.

Juniperus species have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating digestive disorders, skin conditions, and respiratory ailments. The essential oil extracted from some Juniperus species contains compounds that have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties. However, it's important to note that the use of juniper in modern medicine is limited, and its efficacy and safety for specific medical conditions are not well-established.

Therefore, if you're considering using juniper or any of its preparations for medicinal purposes, it's recommended to consult a healthcare professional first to ensure its safe and appropriate use.

I'm not a medical professional, but the term "History, Ancient" is not a medical term per se. However, in a broader context, it could refer to the study of ancient medical practices, theories, and beliefs that existed in civilizations prior to the Middle Ages or Classical Antiquity. This might include the examination of ancient texts, artifacts, and archaeological evidence to understand how illnesses were treated and viewed in these historical periods. It forms an essential part of the evolution of medical knowledge and practices over time.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Volcanic Eruptions" are not a medical term or concept. Volcanic eruptions refer to the release of molten rock, ash, and gases from a volcano's opening, or vent, onto the Earth's surface. This is a geological event that occurs due to the movement of tectonic plates and the build-up of pressure within the Earth's crust.

If you have any medical questions or terms you would like me to define, please feel free to ask!

In medical terms, "fossils" do not have a specific or direct relevance to the field. However, in a broader scientific context, fossils are the remains or impressions of prehistoric organisms preserved in petrified form or as a mold or cast in rock. They offer valuable evidence about the Earth's history and the life forms that existed on it millions of years ago.

Paleopathology is a subfield of paleontology that deals with the study of diseases in fossils, which can provide insights into the evolution of diseases and human health over time.

Hominidae, also known as the "great apes," is a family of primates that includes humans (Homo sapiens), orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and Gorilla beringei), bonobos (Pan paniscus), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). This family is characterized by their upright walking ability, although not all members exhibit this trait. Hominidae species are known for their high intelligence, complex social structures, and expressive facial features. They share a common ancestor with the Old World monkeys, and fossil records suggest that this split occurred around 25 million years ago.

Climate, in the context of environmental science and medicine, refers to the long-term average of weather conditions (such as temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, and other meteorological elements) in a given region over a period of years to decades. It is the statistical description of the weather patterns that occur in a particular location over long periods of time.

In medical terms, climate can have significant impacts on human health, both physical and mental. For example, extreme temperatures, air pollution, and ultraviolet radiation levels associated with certain climates can increase the risk of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, heat-related illnesses, and skin cancer. Similarly, changes in climate patterns can affect the distribution and prevalence of infectious diseases, such as malaria and Lyme disease.

Climate change, which refers to significant long-term changes in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years, can have even more profound impacts on human health, including increased rates of heat-related illnesses and deaths, worsening air quality, and altered transmission patterns of infectious diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Wood" is not a medical term. It is a common name for various hard, fibrous tissues that make up the trunks and branches of trees and shrubs, as well as a term used for a wide range of items made from these materials. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Paleontology is not a medical field, but rather it is a branch of earth sciences and biology that deals with the study of prehistoric life forms through the examination of plant and animal fossils, including those of extinct organisms. It involves various disciplines such as stratigraphy, geochronology, and systematics to understand the evolutionary history of life on Earth.

However, I understand that you are looking for information related to a non-medical topic, so here is some additional context:

Paleontology can be divided into several subdisciplines, including vertebrate paleontology (the study of fossilized animals with backbones), invertebrate paleontology (the study of fossilized animals without backbones), paleobotany (the study of fossil plants), micropaleontology (the study of microscopic fossils), and taphonomy (the study of the processes that occur after an organism's death, leading to its preservation as a fossil).

Paleontologists use various techniques to study fossils, including comparative anatomy, histology (the study of tissue structure), and geochemistry. They also rely on other scientific fields such as genetics, physics, and chemistry to help them interpret the data they collect from fossils.

Through their research, paleontologists can learn about the morphology, behavior, ecology, and evolutionary relationships of extinct organisms, providing valuable insights into the history of life on Earth.

"History, 19th Century" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to the historical events, developments, and figures related to the 1800s in various fields, including politics, culture, science, and technology. However, if you are looking for medical advancements during the 19th century, here's a brief overview:

The 19th century was a period of significant progress in medicine, with numerous discoveries and innovations that shaped modern medical practices. Some notable developments include:

1. Edward Jenner's smallpox vaccine (1796): Although not strictly within the 19th century, Jenner's discovery laid the foundation for vaccination as a preventive measure against infectious diseases.
2. Germ theory of disease: The work of Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, and others established that many diseases were caused by microorganisms, leading to the development of antiseptic practices and vaccines.
3. Anesthesia: In 1842, Crawford Long first used ether as an anesthetic during surgery, followed by the introduction of chloroform in 1847 by James Simpson.
4. Antisepsis and asepsis: Joseph Lister introduced antiseptic practices in surgery, significantly reducing postoperative infections. Later, the concept of asepsis (sterilization) was developed to prevent contamination during surgical procedures.
5. Microbiology: The development of techniques for culturing and staining bacteria allowed for better understanding and identification of pathogens.
6. Physiology: Claude Bernard's work on the regulation of internal body functions, or homeostasis, contributed significantly to our understanding of human physiology.
7. Neurology: Jean-Martin Charcot made significant contributions to the study of neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.
8. Psychiatry: Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis, a new approach to understanding mental illnesses.
9. Public health: The 19th century saw the establishment of public health organizations and initiatives aimed at improving sanitation, water quality, and vaccination programs.
10. Medical education reforms: The Flexner Report in 1910 led to significant improvements in medical education standards and practices.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "History, 20th Century" is a broad and complex topic that refers to the events, developments, and transformations that occurred throughout the world during the 1900s. It is not a medical term or concept. If you're interested in learning more about this historical period, I would recommend consulting a history textbook, reputable online resources, or speaking with a historian. They can provide detailed information about the political, social, economic, and cultural changes that took place during the 20th century.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "trees" is not a medical term. It is a common term used in various fields, including biology, ecology, and dendrology, to refer to a woody perennial plant with a single stem or trunk that supports branches and leaves in most species.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, please provide more context so I can offer an accurate and helpful response.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geography" is not a term that has a medical definition. Geography is a field of study that deals with the location and distribution of physical and cultural features on Earth's surface, as well as how humans interact with and affect those features. It is not a concept that is typically used in a medical context. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Bayes' theorem, also known as Bayes' rule or Bayes' formula, is a fundamental principle in the field of statistics and probability theory. It describes how to update the probability of a hypothesis based on new evidence or data. The theorem is named after Reverend Thomas Bayes, who first formulated it in the 18th century.

In mathematical terms, Bayes' theorem states that the posterior probability of a hypothesis (H) given some observed evidence (E) is proportional to the product of the prior probability of the hypothesis (P(H)) and the likelihood of observing the evidence given the hypothesis (P(E|H)):

Posterior Probability = P(H|E) = [P(E|H) x P(H)] / P(E)


* P(H|E): The posterior probability of the hypothesis H after observing evidence E. This is the probability we want to calculate.
* P(E|H): The likelihood of observing evidence E given that the hypothesis H is true.
* P(H): The prior probability of the hypothesis H before observing any evidence.
* P(E): The marginal likelihood or probability of observing evidence E, regardless of whether the hypothesis H is true or not. This value can be calculated as the sum of the products of the likelihood and prior probability for all possible hypotheses: P(E) = Σ[P(E|Hi) x P(Hi)]

Bayes' theorem has many applications in various fields, including medicine, where it can be used to update the probability of a disease diagnosis based on test results or other clinical findings. It is also widely used in machine learning and artificial intelligence algorithms for probabilistic reasoning and decision making under uncertainty.

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the DNA sequence or protein structure over time, driven by mechanisms such as mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection. It refers to the evolutionary study of changes in DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how these changes accumulate and lead to new species and diversity of life. Molecular evolution can be used to understand the history and relationships among different organisms, as well as the functional consequences of genetic changes.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

The term "Congresses as Topic" refers to large, formal meetings that are held to discuss and exchange information on a specific topic or field, usually academic or professional in nature. In the context of medical science, a congress is an event where healthcare professionals, researchers, and experts gather to present and discuss the latest research, developments, and innovations in their field. Medical congresses can cover a wide range of topics, including specific diseases, treatments, medical specialties, public health issues, or healthcare policies. These events often include keynote speeches, panel discussions, workshops, poster sessions, and networking opportunities for attendees. Examples of well-known medical congresses are the annual meetings of the American Medical Association, the American Heart Association, and the European Society of Cardiology.

A "periodical" in the context of medicine typically refers to a type of publication that is issued regularly, such as on a monthly or quarterly basis. These publications include peer-reviewed journals, magazines, and newsletters that focus on medical research, education, and practice. They may contain original research articles, review articles, case reports, editorials, letters to the editor, and other types of content related to medical science and clinical practice.

As a "Topic," periodicals in medicine encompass various aspects such as their role in disseminating new knowledge, their impact on clinical decision-making, their quality control measures, and their ethical considerations. Medical periodicals serve as a crucial resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and other stakeholders to stay updated on the latest developments in their field and to share their findings with others.

"Textbooks as Topic" is a medical subject heading (MeSH) used in the National Library of Medicine's cataloging system to describe works that are about textbooks as a genre or medium, rather than a specific subject. This can include discussions on the history of medical textbooks, their role in medical education, comparisons between different types of textbooks, and analysis of their content and effectiveness. It may also cover issues related to the production, distribution, and accessibility of medical textbooks.

Chronology of Events Under the Marine Mammal Protection Act Section 120 Process for Lethal Removal Authority for Problem ... More On This Topic. A U.S. Fish and Wildlife employee reintroduces salmon into a Central Valley river. ... Marine Mammal Protection Act Section 120 Pinniped Removal on the Columbia River: Chronology of Events Chronology of Events ...
Browse by Topic *Browse by Topic - Main. * Commemoration Toolkits *Commemoration Toolkits - Main ...
When the Egyptian low chronology is matched with the Mesopotamian high chronology a hidden historical narrative of the third ... Active forum topics. *Clay cylinders. *Best Books on Comparative Mythology and Folklore ... Ancient Middle Eastern Chronologies. In general, there are basically only a few well-established chronologies used in the ... the single most important factor is the selection of the right chronology among all the possibilities, for if this chronology ...
TOPICS: History; Religion & Culture. KEYWORDS: 1 posted on 09/27/2004 10:52:39 PM PDT by restornu ... Chronology of Christianity (1AD-Present). Et Cum Spiritu Tuo ^ , 28 May 1997 Posted on 09/27/2004 10:52:39 PM PDT by restornu ... I feel there are some good leads in this chronology to do a google search and learn more about this effort that we have been ... What we have in this Chronology is many good LEADS to do a Google/Yahoo/etc to have more detail for a better understanding of ...
Stay on-topic. Were not here to debate matters like eschatology, baptism, or Bible translation. ... as the contradictions between secular Egyptian chronology and the very straightforward chronology derivable from the Bible are ... It should therefore not be a surprise to hear that I am confident that what will in due course emerge is a chronology that ... This is in part due to the complete absence of any progress on revising the defective Egyptian chronology by most of the six ...
Stay on-topic. Were not here to debate matters like eschatology, baptism, or Bible translation. ...
Topics. Chronology. Publisher. London, Pub. for the Oriental translation fund of Great Britain & Ireland by W.H. Allen and co. ... The chronology of ancient nations; an english version of the Arabic text of the Athâr-ul-Bâkiya of Albîrûnî, or Vestiges of ... The chronology of ancient nations; an english version of the Arabic text of the Athâr-ul-Bâkiya of Albîrûnî, or Vestiges of ...
The point is that when we write about a topic, we can go in any direction of time in talking about the topic, but our main ... Chronology. The main purpose of a chronology is to establish a timeline of events. Writing chronologically relates to the ... Grammar Camp: Verb tenses in essays -- chronology or relativity? In this grammar camp post, learn about chronology and ... if you are unsure whether you should be providing a timeline for your topic or writing relatively about your topic, always be ...
Forms of Durga "Topic 1". Joseph (2000), p. 328 Pingree (1981), p. 6 Joseph, George Gheverguese: The Crest of the Peacock: Non- ... "Approximate Chronology of Indian Philosophers". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 2022-02-21. "Kātyāyana". Oxford ... "Topic 101". Winternitz, Moriz (1920). Geschichte der indischen Literatur. Bd. 3: Die Kunstdichtung. Die wissenschaftliche ...
Usshers chronology[edit]. See the main article on this topic: Age of the Earth § Early Christian and modern Young Earth ... Barr, James, Why the World Was Created in 4004 B.C.: Archbishop Ussher and Biblical Chronology, Bulletin of the John Rylands ... The chronology Ussher devised gives the following biblically identified dates for important events.[2] ... A few, more modern (and fringe) biblical chronologies have moved Creation back significantly, such as Harold Campings 11,013 ... Here are other Reilly Martini s, with no ... - home Forums General Discussion DoubleGun BBS @ E.M. Reilly; History; Chronology; Serial ... With this information available in one spot surely the chronology of E.M. Reilly Serial Numbers can be refined.. Ill add three ... See the Reilly Comblain mentioned in the chronology below). 1868 (January?) - Store: Opened a branch store at 2 Rue Scribe, ...
This thread has been added to the Vectrix Collaborative Handbook, please stay on topic!. ... vectrix production chronology In the following link you will see a vectrix production chronology. It has been build up thanks ... Re: vectrix production chronology I took a photo of my VIN sticker today. Quality is not all that good as it was with a mobile ... Re: vectrix production chronology You need to take out the battery to replace the fuse, but if you only want to just have a ...
The Arts by JESSICA DORMAN CONTENTS CHRONOLOGY 26 OVERVIEW 40 TOPICS IN THE NEWS American Impressionism in Art 42 Bands, ... 1878-1899: Sports and Recreation: Chronology 1878-1899: Sports and Recreation 1878-1899: Science and Medicine: Topics in the ... 1878-1899: Lifestyles, Social Trends, and Fashion: Topics in the News 1878-1899: Lifestyles, Social Trends, and Fashion: ...
... various Web sites that contain information and images relevant to the topic. In addition, sources have been cited (and linked ... Pinelli, T. E., Henderson, M., Bishop, A.P., & Doty, P. Chronology of Selected Literature, Reports, Policy Instruments, and ... Emard, J. P. (1976). An information science chronology in perspective. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science ... The chronology should be considered a DRAFT version and all comments regarding corrections, changes, additions, etc. are ...
Relevant skills will be emphasised for each topic.. Chronology, terms and concepts. ... Students study TWO topics with at least ONE to be chosen from the topic electives below. An alternative significant development ... Any topic other than the suggested topic electives should be selected on the basis of the following criteria. ... Any topic other than the suggested topic electives should be selected on the basis of the following criteria. ...
chronology* In chronology: Chinese. Chinese legendary history can be traced back to 2697 bc, the first year of Huang Ti ( ... Learn about this topic in these articles:. Assorted References. *major treatment*. In China: History of China. The practice of ...
Location: CTAN Topics Calendar Calendar. This topic contains packages to typeset calendars, diaries, planning charts, etc. ... chronology. Provides a horizontal timeline.. context-calendar-examples. Collection of calendars based on the PocketDiary-module ...
Students will investigate the chronology of Tudor religious turmoil. • Students will see the impact this would have had on ...
Category: Faith & Spirituality, Featured, Videos Topics: Quran, Ramadan Channel: Quran Chronology, Ramadan - Day 16 Views: 2073 ... Topics Menu - Always one click away. Topics menu will always be here, always within reach. Here, you will find quick shortcuts ... Quran Chronology Series (Episode 16): Luqman, Saba, Az-Zumar, Al-Ghafir. By: Aslam Abdullah Source: IslamiCity Apr 17, 2022 No ... Quran Chronology Series Episode 16:. 57. Luqman (Surah 31), it has 34 verses.. 58. Saba (Surah 34), it has 54 verses.. 59. Az- ...
Analysis topics. All topics Toutes. Accommodation. Ailleurs dans le monde. Around the world. Customer segments. Distribution ... Chronology. Most recent All months. November 2017 (2). August 2017 (2). May 2017 (1). April 2017 (1). February 2017 (2). ...
Analysis topics. All topics Toutes. Accommodation. Ailleurs dans le monde. Around the world. Customer segments. Distribution ... Chronology. December 2007 All months. November 2017 (2). August 2017 (2). May 2017 (1). April 2017 (1). February 2017 (2). ...
These are the topics:. * Etiology of Pandemics. * Historical Considerations of Pandemics (Chronology) ...
The 1914 Chronology of Jehovahs Witnesses. James White, April 9, 2002. August 17, 2018. , Jehovahs Witnesses ... Ecclesiology, Response to Matthew Vines, And Almost a Third Topic…But Not Quite. James White, June 5, 2014. January 27, 2023. ... The 1914 Chronology of Jehovahs Witnesses. James White, April 9, 2002. August 17, 2018. , Jehovahs Witnesses ... Recently the topic of Roman Catholicism has been front and center on Twitter. Taylor Marshall, a convert to Roman Catholicism ( ...
Too Many Topics Today To Remember!. James White, November 14, 2023. November 14, 2023. , Abortion, Christian Worldview, Church ... The 1914 Chronology of Jehovahs Witnesses. James White, April 9, 2002. August 17, 2018. , Jehovahs Witnesses ... Too Many Topics Today To Remember!. James White, November 14, 2023. November 14, 2023. , Abortion, Christian Worldview, Church ... Too Many Topics Today To Remember!. James White, November 14, 2023. November 14, 2023. , Abortion, Christian Worldview, Church ...
Chronology of world events outside the United States.. *Chronologies for each topic. ...
Filtering a Bible to Display Only Verses on a Specific Topic. *Wedding at Cana: Setting in the Larger Narrative ... Exploring Johns Chronology with Inline Searching. *Wedding at Cana: The Story and Its Meaning ...
reverse chronology. - paginated entries. ...etc. Setup:. - set welcome page as front page, not posts. - change permalink to ... About this Topic. *Started 14 years ago by phejster. *Latest reply from Bike ...
Topic: Security Political Geography: United States, China, South Korea, and North Korea 22. Rays of Hope? Author: Ralph A. ... Chronology of India Relations with US and East Asia:January - December 2010 Author: Brad Glosserman and Carl Baker Publication ... Topic: Human Rights Political Geography: United States, Asia, and Korea 39. US-Russia Relations Author: Joseph Ferguson ... Topic: Development Political Geography: Russia and United States 40. US-Southeast Asia Relations Author: Sheldon W. Simon ...
GEnie, A2 Roundtable, Mar 1991, Category 2, Topic 16.↩. *[8]Polsson, Ken. 2002. Chronology of Personal Computers.↩ ... Chronology of Personal Computers.↩. *[28]--. "Because Its There: 1979 - 1984". History Of The Internet, http://www. ...
Changing Chronology of Event Page Dates By audreymolloy, May 9. in Customize with code ... Go to topic listing News. * Whats new at Squarespace - October 2023 * New webinar: Design tips to increase your stores sales ...

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