Gastritis: Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.Gastritis, Atrophic: GASTRITIS with atrophy of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS, and the mucosal glands leading to ACHLORHYDRIA. Atrophic gastritis usually progresses from chronic gastritis.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Helicobacter Infections: Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.Parietal Cells, Gastric: Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.H(+)-K(+)-Exchanging ATPaseAutoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Thymectomy: Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Anemia, Pernicious: A megaloblastic anemia occurring in children but more commonly in later life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in which the laboratory and clinical manifestations are based on malabsorption of vitamin B 12 due to a failure of the gastric mucosa to secrete adequate and potent intrinsic factor. (Dorland, 27th ed)Achlorhydria: A lack of HYDROCHLORIC ACID in GASTRIC JUICE despite stimulation of gastric secretion.Metaplasia: A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Gastrins: A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.Pyloric Antrum: The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Pepsinogen A: This is one of 2 related pepsinogen systems in humans and is also known as pepsinogen. (The other is PEPSINOGEN C.) This includes isozymogens Pg1-Pg5 (pepsinogens 1-5, group I or products of PGA1-PGA5 genes). This is the main pepsinogen found in urine.Stomach Ulcer: Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Gastroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.Peptic Ulcer: Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Intrinsic Factor: A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12 (cyanocobalamin). Deficiency of intrinsic factor leads to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY and ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.Gastritis, Hypertrophic: GASTRITIS with HYPERTROPHY of the GASTRIC MUCOSA. It is characterized by giant gastric folds, diminished acid secretion, excessive MUCUS secretion, and HYPOPROTEINEMIA. Symptoms include VOMITING; DIARRHEA; and WEIGHT LOSS.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Pepsinogen C: This is one of the 2 related pepsinogen systems in humans. It is found in prostate and seminal fluid whereas PEPSINOGEN A is not.Bile Reflux: Retrograde bile flow. Reflux of bile can be from the duodenum to the stomach (DUODENOGASTRIC REFLUX); to the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX); or to the PANCREAS.Duodenal Ulcer: A PEPTIC ULCER located in the DUODENUM.Duodenitis: Inflammation of the DUODENUM section of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL). Erosive duodenitis may cause bleeding in the UPPER GI TRACT and PEPTIC ULCER.Dyspepsia: Impaired digestion, especially after eating.Stomach Diseases: Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Helicobacter heilmannii: A species of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria found in the gastric mucosa that is associated with chronic antral gastritis. This bacterium was first discovered in samples removed at endoscopy from patients investigated for HELICOBACTER PYLORI colonization.Mice, Inbred BALB CHelicobacter: A genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from the intestinal tract of mammals, including humans. It has been associated with PEPTIC ULCER.Gastric Juice: The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)Urease: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.Helicobacter felis: A species of HELICOBACTER that colonizes in the STOMACH of laboratory MICE; CATS; and DOGS. It is associated with lymphoid follicular hyperplasia and mild GASTRITIS in CATS.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Lymphopenia: Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.Campylobacter: A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Anti-Ulcer Agents: Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone: Extranodal lymphoma of lymphoid tissue associated with mucosa that is in contact with exogenous antigens. Many of the sites of these lymphomas, such as the stomach, salivary gland, and thyroid, are normally devoid of lymphoid tissue. They acquire mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type as a result of an immunologically mediated disorder.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Omeprazole: A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Pepsinogens: Proenzymes secreted by chief cells, mucous neck cells, and pyloric gland cells, which are converted into pepsin in the presence of gastric acid or pepsin itself. (Dorland, 28th ed) In humans there are 2 related pepsinogen systems: PEPSINOGEN A (formerly pepsinogen I or pepsinogen) and PEPSINOGEN C (formerly pepsinogen II or progastricsin). Pepsinogen B is the name of a pepsinogen from pigs.Campylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.Postgastrectomy Syndromes: Sequelae of gastrectomy from the second week after operation on. Include recurrent or anastomotic ulcer, postprandial syndromes (DUMPING SYNDROME and late postprandial hypoglycemia), disordered bowel action, and nutritional deficiencies.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Clarithromycin: A semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic derived from ERYTHROMYCIN that is active against a variety of microorganisms. It can inhibit PROTEIN SYNTHESIS in BACTERIA by reversibly binding to the 50S ribosomal subunits. This inhibits the translocation of aminoacyl transfer-RNA and prevents peptide chain elongation.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Acinonyx: A genus of long-legged, swift-moving felines (FELIDAE) from Africa (and formerly Asia) about the size of a small leopard.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Gastric Acid: Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.Mice, Inbred C57BLDisease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Gastritis is an inflammation of the lining of the stomach. It has many possible causes.[1] The main causes are drinking too much alcohol, or using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (also known as NSAIDs) such as aspirin or ibuprofen for too long. Sometimes gastritis starts after major surgery, serious injury, burns, or infections. People who have had weight loss surgery may also get gastritis. Long term causes are infection with bacteria, mainly Helicobacter pylori. Certain diseases, such as pernicious anemia, chronic bile reflux, stress and certain autoimmune disorders can cause gastritis as well. The most common symptom is abdominal pain. Other symptoms are indigestion, abdominal bloating, nausea, and vomiting. Some may have a feeling of fullness or burning in the upper ...
... is a drug used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Troxipide is a systemic non-antisecretory gastric cytoprotective agent with anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory and mucus secreting properties irrespective of pH of stomach or duodenum. Troxipide is currently marketed in Japan (Aplace), China (Shuqi), South Korea (Defensa), and India (Troxip). It is used for the management of gastric ulcers, and amelioration of gastric mucosal lesions in acute gastritis and acute exacerbation of chronic gastritis. The gastric pH and content independent properties of troxipide include the following: Gastric mucosa typically is composed of salts and other dialyzable components, free proteins, carbohydrate rich glycoprotein and water. Troxipide fortifies this gastric mucosal barrier by increasing the content of glucosamine, mucopolysaccharides and collagen. Glucosamine is an amino-sugar that is ...
This is a timeline of the events relating to the discovery that peptic ulcer disease and some cancers are caused by H. pylori. In 2005, Barry Marshall and Robin Warren were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery that peptic ulcer disease (PUD) was primarily caused by Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium with affinity for acidic environments, such as the stomach. As a result, PUD that is associated with H. pylori is currently treated with antibiotics used to eradicate the infection. For 30 years prior to their discovery, it was widely believed that PUD was caused by excess acid in the stomach. During this time, acid control was the primary method of treatment for PUD, to only partial success; among other effects, it is now known that acid suppression alters the stomach milieu to make it less amenable to H. pylori infection. Before the 1950s, there were many microbiological descriptions of bacteria in the stomach and in gastric acid secretions, lending credence to both ...
The Warthin-Starry stain (WS) is a silver nitrate-based staining method (a silver stain) used in histology. It was first introduced in 1920 by American pathologists Aldred Scott Warthin (1866-1931) and Allen Chronister Starry (1890-1973), for the detection of spirochetes. It has been considered the best stain for detection of spirochetes, and is also used to stain Helicobacter pylori, Lawsonia intracellularis, Microsporidia, and particulates. It is also important for confirmation of Bartonella henselae, a causative organism in cat-scratch disease. Warthin-Starry stains organisms dark brown to black, and the background light golden brown/golden yellow. Dieterle stain "Warthin-Starry stain". Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary. Retrieved 2009-09-04. Warthin, AS; Chronister, AC (1920). "A more rapid and improved method of demonstrating spirochetes in tissues (Warthin and Starry's cover-glass method)". American Journal of Syphilis. 4: 97-103. "Special Stains in Histology". The Internet Pathology ...
Sampai 85% dari orang yang terinfeksi H. pylori tidak pernah mengalami gejala atau komplikasi.[6] Infeksi akut mungkin muncul sebagai gastritis akut dengan sakit perut atau mual.[7] Jika ini berkembang menjadi gastritis kronis, gejala, jika ada, seringkali adalah gejala dari dispepsia non-ulkus: sakit perut, mual, kembung, bersendawa, dan kadang-kadang muntah atau tinja berwarna hitam.[8][9]. Individu yang terinfeksi dengan H. pylori memiliki risiko seumur hidup 10 sampai 20% untuk mengembangkan ulkus peptikum dan risiko 1 sampai 2% untuk menderita kanker lambung.[10][11] Peradangan pada antrum pilorus lebih cenderung menyebabkan ulkus duodenum, sedangkan radang corpus (tubuh lambung) lebih cenderung menyebabkan tukak lambung dan karsinoma lambung.[12] Namun, H. pylori mungkin berperan hanya dalam tahap pertama yang mengarah ke peradangan kronis yang umum, tapi tidak di tahap lebih lanjut yang mengarah ke ...
Sampai 85% dari orang yang terinfeksi H. pylori tidak pernah mengalami gejala atau komplikasi.[6] Infeksi akut mungkin muncul sebagai gastritis akut dengan sakit perut atau mual.[7] Jika ini berkembang menjadi gastritis kronis, gejala, jika ada, seringkali adalah gejala dari dispepsia non-ulkus: sakit perut, mual, kembung, bersendawa, dan kadang-kadang muntah atau tinja berwarna hitam.[8][9]. Individu yang terinfeksi dengan H. pylori memiliki risiko seumur hidup 10 sampai 20% untuk mengembangkan ulkus peptikum dan risiko 1 sampai 2% untuk menderita kanker lambung.[10][11] Peradangan pada antrum pilorus lebih cenderung menyebabkan ulkus duodenum, sedangkan radang corpus (tubuh lambung) lebih cenderung menyebabkan tukak lambung dan karsinoma lambung.[12] Namun, H. pylori mungkin berperan hanya dalam tahap pertama yang mengarah ke peradangan kronis yang umum, tapi tidak di tahap lebih lanjut yang mengarah ke ...
... migrated out of Africa along with its human host circa 60,000 years ago.[115] Recent research states that genetic diversity in H. pylori, like that of its host, decreases with geographic distance from East Africa. Using the genetic diversity data, researchers have created simulations that indicate the bacteria seem to have spread from East Africa around 58,000 years ago. Their results indicate modern humans were already infected by H. pylori before their migrations out of Africa, and it has remained associated with human hosts since that time.[116]. H. pylori was first discovered in the stomachs of patients with gastritis and ulcers in 1982 by Drs. Barry Marshall and Robin Warren of Perth, Western Australia. At the time, the conventional thinking was that no bacterium could live in the acid environment of the human stomach. In recognition of their discovery, Marshall and Warren were awarded the 2005 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.[117]. Before ...
Blaser is best known[20] for his studies of Helicobacter pylori and its relationship with human diseases.[21][22] His work helped establish the role of H. pylori in the causation of gastric cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death in the world.[23] Studies of the diversity of H. pylori lead him to identify the CagA protein and its gene in 1989, which broadened understanding of H. pylori interactions with humans.[24] His team found that cagA+ strains induced enhanced host responses, development of atrophic gastritis, gastric cancer, and peptic ulcer disease, compared to cagA− strains, and that cagA+ strains signal human gastric cells differently from cagA− strains, and affect gastric physiology in markedly different ways than in the absence of H. pylori.[22] This work led to a general model for the persistence of co-evolved organisms, based on the presence of a Nash equilibrium,[25] and also for the relationship of persisting microbes to cancer,[26] ...
ହେଲିକୋବ୍ୟାକ୍ଟର ପାଇଲୋରି‌ ସଂକ୍ରମିତ ପ୍ରାୟ ୯୦% ଲୋକଙ୍କର କୌଣସି ଲକ୍ଷଣ ବା ଜଟିଳତା ଅନୁଭବ ହୁଏନି । [୧୧] ଆକ୍ୟୁଟ ସଂକ୍ରମଣ ହେଲେ ଗ୍ୟାସ୍ଟ୍ରାଇଟିସ (gastritis) ଯନ୍ତ୍ରଣା ଭଳି ଲାଗେ ଓ ଉଦର ଯନ୍ତ୍ରଣା (abdominal pain)‌ ସ‌ହିତ ଅଇ ହୁଏ । [୧] ଏହା କ୍ରନିକ ଗ୍ୟାସ୍ଟ୍ରାଇଟିସରେ ପରିଣତ ହୋଇଗଲେ ଉଦର ଯନ୍ତ୍ରଣା, ବଦ‌ହଜମୀ, ଅଇ, ପେଟଫମ୍ପା, ଓକାଳ ଓ ବେଳେବେଳେ ବାନ୍ତି ଓ କଳା ମଳ ହେବା ଦେଖାଯାଏ । [୧୨][୧୩] ଏଚ.ପାଇଲୋରି ସଂକ୍ରମିତ ବ୍ୟକ୍ତିମାନଙ୍କ ମଧ୍ୟରୁ ୨୦% ଲୋକଙ୍କର ଆଜୀବନ ...
... , also known as dyspepsia, is a condition of impaired digestion. Symptoms may include upper abdominal fullness, heartburn, nausea, belching, or upper abdominal pain. People may also experience feeling full earlier than expected when eating. Dyspepsia is a common problem and is frequently caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or gastritis. In a small minority of cases it may be the first symptom of peptic ulcer disease (an ulcer of the stomach or duodenum) and, occasionally, cancer. Hence, unexplained newly onset dyspepsia in people over 55 or the presence of other alarming symptoms may require further investigations. Functional indigestion (previously called nonulcer dyspepsia) is indigestion "without evidence of an organic disease that is likely to explain the symptoms". Functional indigestion is estimated to affect about 15% of the general population in western countries. In most cases, the clinical history is of limited use in ...
Cancer bacteria are bacteria infectious organisms that are known or suspected to cause cancer. While cancer-associated bacteria have long been considered to be opportunistic (i.e., infecting healthy tissues after cancer has already established itself), there is some evidence that bacteria may be directly carcinogenic. The strongest evidence to date involves the bacterium H. pylori and its role in gastric cancer. Oncoviruses are viral agents that are similarly suspected of causing cancer. Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and duodenum. In some cases it can cause stomach cancer and MALT lymphoma. Animal models have demonstrated Koch's third and fourth postulates for the role of Helicobacter pylori in the causation of stomach cancer. The mechanism by which H. pylori causes cancer may involve chronic inflammation, or the direct action of some of its virulence factors, for example, CagA has been implicated in carcinogenesis. A number of bacteria have associations with cancer, ...
Fischer Euskirchen herrian jaio zen, Koloniatik hurbil, eta enpresaburu baten semea zen. Berak natur zientziak ikasi nahi zituen, baina bere aitak sendiaren negozioan lan egitera behartu zuen, lan horretarako erabat desegokia zela ziurtatu arte. Fischerrek Bonngo eta Estrasburgoko unibertsitatetan 1872an ikasi ondoren, doktoretza lortu zuen 1874an. Ftaleinari buruzko lana egin ondoren, laborategi-laguntzaile postua lortu zuen Estrasburgon. Fischer osasun kaxkarrekoa izan zen bere bizitza guztian, gastritis kroniko baten erruz. Uste denez, 18 urtetatik pairatu zuen gaixotasun hau izan zen bere biziarekin amaitu zuena, urdail-minbizia eraginez. Bestalde, ohiz kanpoko oroimena zuen Fischerrek, eta inoiz irakurritako artikulu guztiak bururatzen omen zituen. 1888.an Agnes Gerlach-ekin ezkondu zen, baina bere emaztea handik zazpi urtera hil zen. Beren hiru semeetatik zaharrena Lehen Mundu Gerran frontean hil zen, bigarrena soldadutzako ariketa militarretan hil zen ...
Maomahl (ladina keeles succus gastricus) on maoseina krüptide epiteeli ja maonäärmete eritatav happeline vedelik, mis on vajalik söödu ja joodu keemiliseks lagundamiseks. Maomahl sisaldab vett, anorgaanilisi ioone, soolhapet, lima, ensüüme (näiteks pepsinogeen), polüpeptiide, aminohappeid, ja sisemist faktorit. Terve inimese maomahl sisaldab rohkelt C-vitamiini.[1] Ööpäevas eritub inimesel seda 2-3 liitrit. Maomahla eritumine on allutatud parasümpaatilisele närvisüsteemile. Maomahla eritumist stimuleerivad atsetüülkoliin, gastriin ja histamiin (Popielski, 1920). Magu hakkab normaalse füsioloogiaga inimestel maomahla eritama juba siis kui toit on veel suus. Eelkõige lahustab maomahl toidus sisalduvaid lämmastikühendeid. Samuti tapab see toidu ja õhuga makku saabuvaid mikroorganisme. Erandiks on happekindlad mikroorganismid nagu Helicobacter pylori ja tuberkuloosi mükobakter[2]. Mao limaskest kaitseb normaalse füsioloogiaga inimestel end oma erististe lõhustava toime eest ...
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Suggest treatment for fundal gastritis. MD. Hello doctor, I got endoscopy done and it showed fundal gastritis. My symptoms were ... it is not always a symptom of chronic gastritis. There are several types of chronic gastritis that are classified by different ... Type A fundal gastritis Type A is usually due to autoimmune and affects the fundus and body. It is associated with circulating ... Akute und chronische erosive-hämorrhagische Gastritis: antral, fundal, fokal. Es ist klar, dass, wenn die Symptome auf eine ...
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