Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Cordotomy: Any operation on the spinal cord. (Stedman, 26th ed)Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Anterior Horn Cells: MOTOR NEURONS in the anterior (ventral) horn of the SPINAL CORD which project to SKELETAL MUSCLES.Spasm: An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Quadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Reflex, Abnormal: An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Decerebrate State: A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)Spinal Cord Diseases: Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.Spinal DiseasesSpinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Zygapophyseal Joint: The joint that occurs between facets of the interior and superior articular processes of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Sacrum: Five fused VERTEBRAE forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the PELVIS. It articulates superiorly with the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, inferiorly with the COCCYX, and anteriorly with the ILIUM of the PELVIS. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the PELVIS.Urination: Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Wheelchairs: Chairs mounted on wheels and designed to be propelled by the occupant.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.TailLumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic: Dysfunction of the URINARY BLADDER due to disease of the central or peripheral nervous system pathways involved in the control of URINATION. This is often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, but may also be caused by BRAIN DISEASES or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES.Injections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.Spinal Cord Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Spinal Canal: The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Mononeuropathies: Disease or trauma involving a single peripheral nerve in isolation, or out of proportion to evidence of diffuse peripheral nerve dysfunction. Mononeuropathy multiplex refers to a condition characterized by multiple isolated nerve injuries. Mononeuropathies may result from a wide variety of causes, including ISCHEMIA; traumatic injury; compression; CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS; and other conditions.Spinal Cord Compression: Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Spinal NeoplasmsHindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Spinal Stenosis: Narrowing of the spinal canal.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.5-Hydroxytryptophan: The immediate precursor in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN from tryptophan. It is used as an antiepileptic and antidepressant.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Muscular Atrophy, Spinal: A group of disorders marked by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord resulting in weakness and muscular atrophy, usually without evidence of injury to the corticospinal tracts. Diseases in this category include Werdnig-Hoffmann disease and later onset SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD, most of which are hereditary. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Chronic Pain: Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Ankle: The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.Spinal Cord Ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Tuberculosis, Spinal: Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Laminectomy: A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.Spinal Curvatures: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Hematoma, Epidural, Spinal: A rare epidural hematoma in the spinal epidural space, usually due to a vascular malformation (CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS) or TRAUMA. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a neurologic emergency due to a rapidly evolving compressive MYELOPATHY.Posterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood: A group of recessively inherited diseases that feature progressive muscular atrophy and hypotonia. They are classified as type I (Werdnig-Hoffman disease), type II (intermediate form), and type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease). Type I is fatal in infancy, type II has a late infantile onset and is associated with survival into the second or third decade. Type III has its onset in childhood, and is slowly progressive. (J Med Genet 1996 Apr:33(4):281-3)Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Spinal Cord Regeneration: Repair of the damaged neuron function after SPINAL CORD INJURY or SPINAL CORD DISEASES.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Trigeminal Nucleus, Spinal: Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Manipulation, Spinal: Adjustment and manipulation of the vertebral column.Myelography: X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Epidural Space: Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.Spinal Puncture: Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Myelitis: Inflammation of the spinal cord. Relatively common etiologies include infections; AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES; SPINAL CORD; and ischemia (see also SPINAL CORD VASCULAR DISEASES). Clinical features generally include weakness, sensory loss, localized pain, incontinence, and other signs of autonomic dysfunction.Scoliosis: An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)Spinal Cord Stimulation: Application of electric current to the spine for treatment of a variety of conditions involving innervation from the spinal cord.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Spinal Dysraphism: Congenital defects of closure of one or more vertebral arches, which may be associated with malformations of the spinal cord, nerve roots, congenital fibrous bands, lipomas, and congenital cysts. These malformations range from mild (e.g., SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA) to severe, including rachischisis where there is complete failure of neural tube and spinal cord fusion, resulting in exposure of the spinal cord at the surface. Spinal dysraphism includes all forms of spina bifida. The open form is called SPINA BIFIDA CYSTICA and the closed form is SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p34)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Hematoma, Subdural, Spinal: Subdural hematoma of the SPINAL CANAL.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Spinal Osteophytosis: Outgrowth of immature bony processes or bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE) from the VERTEBRAE, reflecting the presence of degenerative disease and calcification. It commonly occurs in cervical and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS.Survival of Motor Neuron 1 Protein: A SMN complex protein that is essential for the function of the SMN protein complex. In humans the protein is encoded by a single gene found near the inversion telomere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5. Mutations in the gene coding for survival of motor neuron 1 protein may result in SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Cauda Equina: The lower part of the SPINAL CORD consisting of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerve roots.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Lampreys: Common name for the only family (Petromyzontidae) of eellike fish in the order Petromyzontiformes. They are jawless but have a sucking mouth with horny teeth.Spinal Cord Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS feeding the SPINAL CORD, such as the anterior and paired posterior spinal arteries or their many branches. Disease processes may include ATHEROSCLEROSIS; EMBOLISM; and ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS leading to ISCHEMIA or HEMORRHAGE into the spinal cord (hematomyelia).SMN Complex Proteins: A complex of proteins that assemble the SNRNP CORE PROTEINS into a core structure that surrounds a highly conserved RNA sequence found in SMALL NUCLEAR RNA. They are found localized in the GEMINI OF COILED BODIES and in the CYTOPLASM. The SMN complex is named after the Survival of Motor Neuron Complex Protein 1, which is a critical component of the complex.Paraparesis: Mild to moderate loss of bilateral lower extremity motor function, which may be a manifestation of SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; MUSCULAR DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; parasagittal brain lesions; and other conditions.Kyphosis: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.Pyramidal Tracts: Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Epidural Abscess: Circumscribed collections of suppurative material occurring in the spinal or intracranial EPIDURAL SPACE. The majority of epidural abscesses occur in the spinal canal and are associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a vertebral body; ANALGESIA, EPIDURAL; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include local and radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, URINARY INCONTINENCE, and FECAL INCONTINENCE. Cranial epidural abscesses are usually associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a cranial bone, SINUSITIS, or OTITIS MEDIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p710 and pp1240-1; J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Aug;65(2):209-12)Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Autonomic Dysreflexia: A syndrome associated with damage to the spinal cord above the mid thoracic level (see SPINAL CORD INJURIES) characterized by a marked increase in the sympathetic response to minor stimuli such as bladder or rectal distention. Manifestations include HYPERTENSION; TACHYCARDIA (or reflex bradycardia); FEVER; FLUSHING; and HYPERHIDROSIS. Extreme hypertension may be associated with a STROKE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp538 and 1232; J Spinal Cord Med 1997;20(3):355-60)Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.Strychnine: An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Syringomyelia: Longitudinal cavities in the spinal cord, most often in the cervical region, which may extend for multiple spinal levels. The cavities are lined by dense, gliogenous tissue and may be associated with SPINAL CORD NEOPLASMS; spinal cord traumatic injuries; and vascular malformations. Syringomyelia is marked clinically by pain and PARESTHESIA, muscular atrophy of the hands, and analgesia with thermoanesthesia of the hands and arms, but with the tactile sense preserved (sensory dissociation). Lower extremity spasticity and incontinence may also develop. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1269)Hyperesthesia: Increased sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation due to a diminished threshold or an increased response to stimuli.Survival of Motor Neuron 2 Protein: A SMN complex protein that is closely-related to SURVIVAL OF MOTOR NEURON 1 PROTEIN. In humans, the protein is encoded by an often duplicated gene found near the inversion centromere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5.Reflex, Monosynaptic: A reflex in which the AFFERENT NEURONS synapse directly on the EFFERENT NEURONS, without any INTERCALATED NEURONS. (Lockard, Desk Reference for Neuroscience, 2nd ed.)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Epidural Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the space between the vertebral PERIOSTEUM and DURA MATER surrounding the SPINAL CORD. Tumors in this location are most often metastatic in origin and may cause neurologic deficits by mass effect on the spinal cord or nerve roots or by interfering with blood supply to the spinal cord.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Radiculopathy: Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.H-Reflex: A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Oligodendroglia: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Contusions: Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.Nerve Tissue ProteinsPeripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Rhizotomy: Surgical interruption of a spinal or cranial nerve root. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Meninges: The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Intervertebral Disc Displacement: An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Polyradiculopathy: Disease or injury involving multiple SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Polyradiculitis refers to inflammation of multiple spinal nerve roots.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure: Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.Nociception: Sensing of noxious mechanical, thermal or chemical stimuli by NOCICEPTORS. It is the sensory component of visceral and tissue pain (NOCICEPTIVE PAIN).Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Substantia Gelatinosa: Gelatinous-appearing material in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, consisting chiefly of Golgi type II neurons and some larger nerve cells.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Glycine Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on glycinergic systems. Glycinergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Longitudinal Ligaments: Two extensive fibrous bands running the length of the vertebral column. The anterior longitudinal ligament (ligamentum longitudinale anterius; lacertus medius) interconnects the anterior surfaces of the vertebral bodies; the posterior longitudinal ligament (ligamentum longitudinale posterius) interconnects the posterior surfaces. The commonest clinical consideration is OSSIFICATION OF POSTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1089-94)Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Clonidine: An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Infarction: Formation of an infarct, which is NECROSIS in tissue due to local ISCHEMIA resulting from obstruction of BLOOD CIRCULATION, most commonly by a THROMBUS or EMBOLUS.Spondylosis: A degenerative spinal disease that can involve any part of the VERTEBRA, the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK, and the surrounding soft tissue.Internal Fixators: Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.N-Methylaspartate: An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Dynorphins: A class of opioid peptides including dynorphin A, dynorphin B, and smaller fragments of these peptides. Dynorphins prefer kappa-opioid receptors (RECEPTORS, OPIOID, KAPPA) and have been shown to play a role as central nervous system transmitters.Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Spondylitis: Inflammation of the SPINE. This includes both arthritic and non-arthritic conditions.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Sacrococcygeal Region: The body region between (and flanking) the SACRUM and COCCYX.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Vitamin D and chronic pain. Pain. 2009;141(1):10-13. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2008.11.010. PMID 19084336. Spinal manipulative therapy ... The intensity of chronic pain was higher for girls, and girls' reports of chronic pain increased markedly between ages 12 and ... "The efficacy of acupuncture in managing patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: A systemic review and ... Other spinal cord fibers, known as wide dynamic range neurons, respond to A-delta and C fibers, but also to the large A-beta ...
... into damaged spinal discs for the treatment of spinal conditions such as degenerative disc disease, back pain and chronic low ... Weiss, Frances (May 8, 2012). "Chronic Back Pain? Spinal Fusion May be the Wrong Surgery". New Jersey Newsroom. Archived from ... Pauza developed a procedure for the treatment of spinal disorders known as the Pauza Disc Treatment, which repairs and re-grows ... "Groundbreaking Spinal Treatment Spurs Saudi Interest". Penn State College of Medicine. March 2011. Retrieved August 13, 2015. " ...
Cause spinal damage and aggravate chronic backache. In 2003, the chairman of the London Ambulance Service, Sigurd Reinton ... In Sweden, an evaluation of spinal stress in bus drivers against ISO 2631-5 required on health grounds that: bus drivers avoid ...
"Involuntary stepping after chronic spinal cord injury. Evidence for a central rhythm generator for locomotion in man". Brain. ... Whelan PJ (December 2003). "Developmental aspects of spinal locomotor function: insights from using the in vitro mouse spinal ... When removed from the lamprey, the intact spinal cord can survive for days in vitro. It also has very few neurons and can be ... Increasing the neural drive from the midbrain locomotor region (MLR) to the spinal CPG increases the step cycle frequency (the ...
32: 676-7. Barolat, Giancarlo (May 2000). "Spinal Cord Stimulation for Chronic Pain Management". Archives of Medical Research. ... is a type of neuroprosthesis used in patients suffering from a spinal cord injury or to treat some forms of chronic spinal pain ... While spinal cord injury is a broad and widely-encompassing term, root stimulators may be used for many instances of SCIs. For ... Similarly, spinal cord injuries can potentially cause a loss of motor control in lower limbs, such as with paraplegic and ...
"Involuntary stepping after chronic spinal cord injury. Evidence for a central rhythm generator for locomotion in man". Brain. ... The SCN evokes a response from the spinal cord. Preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord modulate the superior cervical ganglia ... These networks are often found in the spinal cord. It has been hypothesized that certain CPG's are hardwired from birth. For ... Conway, B.A. (1995). "Synchronization between motor cortex and spinal motoneuronal pool during the performance of a maintained ...
Meglio M (2004). "Spinal cord stimulation in chronic pain management". Neurosurg. Clin. N. Am. 15 (3): 297-306. doi:10.1016/j. ... evidence-based practice guidelines in the management of chronic spinal pain" (PDF). Pain physician. 10 (1): 7-111. PMID ... It is also used for relief of non-surgical pain and to enable diagnosis of the cause of some chronic pain conditions. ... Rasche D, Ruppolt M, Stippich C, Unterberg A, Tronnier VM (2006). "Motor cortex stimulation for long-term relief of chronic ...
Meadows JC, Marsden CD (1969). "A distal form of chronic spinal muscular atrophy". Neurology. 19 (1): 53-8. doi:10.1212/wnl. ... D'Alessandro R, Montagna P, Govoni E, Pazzaglia P (1982). "Benign familial spinal muscular atrophy with hypertrophy of the ... Groen RJ, Sie OG, van Weerden TW (1993). "Dominant inherited distal spinal muscular atrophy with atrophic and hypertrophic ... "A rapidly progressive autosomal dominant scapulohumeral form of spinal muscular atrophy". Ann. Neurol. 20 (4): 538-40. doi: ...
"Spinal manipulative therapy for chronic low-back pain". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD008112. doi:10.1002/ ... Surgery may be beneficial for those with disc-related chronic pain and disability or spinal stenosis. No clear benefit has been ... It is unclear if among those with non-chronic back pain alternative treatments are useful. For chiropractic care or spinal ... Low back pain may be classified by duration as acute (pain lasting less than 6 weeks), sub-chronic (6 to 12 weeks), or chronic ...
The schwannomas develop on cranial, spinal and peripheral nerves. Chronic pain, and sometimes numbness, tingling and weakness. ... Schwannomas on sensory nerve axons cause chronic severe pain. Treatment options for schwannomas are to surgically remove them, ... J Spinal Disord Tech. 20 (4): 329-32. doi:10.1097/BSD.0b013e318033ee0f. PMID 17538359. Senchenkov A, Kriegel A, Staren ED, ...
Straus, BN (2002). "Chronic pain of spinal origin: the costs of intervention". Spine. 27 (22): 2614-2619. doi:10.1097/00007632- ... Spinal disc herniation Wing, PC; Tsang, IK; Susak, L; Gagnon, F; Gagnon, R; Potts, JE (April 1991). "Back pain and spinal ... Spinal Ultrasound) NASA taps into USF spinal injury expert Dr. John Mayer. ... Collacott, EA; Zimmerman, JT; White, DW; Rindone, JP (2000). "Bipolar permanent magnets for the treatment of chronic low back ...
Ghezzi A, Comi G, Federico A (February 2011). "Chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and multiple sclerosis". ... Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord ... These lesions most commonly affect the white matter in the optic nerve, brain stem, basal ganglia, and spinal cord, or white ... Zamboni P, Galeotti R, Menegatti E, Malagoni AM, Tacconi G, Dall'Ara S, Bartolomei I, Salvi F (April 2009). "Chronic ...
Ghezzi A, Comi G, Federico A (February 2011). "Chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and multiple sclerosis". ... Chronic pain is very common and harder to treat as its most common cause is dysesthesias. Acute pain due to trigeminal ... In a similar way, other factors such as disturbed sleep, chronic pain, poor nutrition, or even some medications can contribute ... April 2009). "Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis". J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry ...
Topics in Spinal Cord Injury, 7, 73-83. Benrud-Larsen LM, Wegener ST (2000). Psychosocial aspects of chronic pain in ... PMID 1633388 Elliott, T.R. & Wegener, S.T. (Eds.). (1992). Chronic pain and spinal cord injury (Special section). The Clinical ... 1988 Oct;69(10):873-6. PMID 3178455 Schwartz DP, Large HS, Degood DE, Wegener ST, Rowlingson JC (1984). Chronic emergency room ... San Jose Mercury News Bor, Jonathan (July 30, 2000). Baltimore's street violence creates an epidemic of spinal cord injuries. ...
2006). "Spinal cord stimulation for chronic reflex sympathetic dystrophy--five-year follow-up". N. Engl. J. Med. 354 (22): 2394 ... Ubbink DT, Vermeulen H (2013). "Spinal cord stimulation for non-reconstructable chronic critical leg ischaemia". Cochrane ... Neuromodulation therapy has been investigated for other chronic conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, depression, chronic ... for design of electrical leads to be used in spinal cord stimulation treatment of chronic pain conditions. In 2012, the global ...
The guidelines are An Update of Comprehensive Evidence-Based Guidelines for Interventional Techniques in Chronic Spinal Pain ... Books published by ASIPP Publishing include Interventional Techniques in Chronic Non-spinal Pain For Interventional Pain ... Interventional Techniques in Chronic Spinal Pain For Interventional Pain Physicians; Essentials of Practice Management: Billing ... and American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians Guidelines for Responsible Opioid Prescribing in Chronic Non-cancer Pain ...
Apr 2009). "Mechanisms of chronic central neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury". Brain Res Rev. 60 (1): 202-13. doi: ... This pathologic phenomenon can also occur after brain injury and spinal cord injury. Within minutes after spinal cord injury, ... "Na+-K+-ATPase inhibition and depolarization induce glutamate release via reverse Na+-dependent transport in spinal cord white ... Excitotoxicity may be involved in spinal cord injury, stroke, traumatic brain injury, hearing loss (through noise overexposure ...
... spinal manipulation and mobilsation, posture instruction and spinal fulcrums. Biomechanical analysis suggests a combination of ... low dose tricyclic antidepressants such as amytriptyline for chronic problems; Physical therapy (a.k.a. physiotherapy in ... In practical terms this may be achieved by the hunched patient lying back on a spinal fulcrum device, which uses the upper body ... iHunch is a term used to describe the common spinal problem of an excessively kyphotic (hunched) thoracic spine driving neck ...
... chronic compression of spinal nerves, complications from spinal surgery or other invasive spinal procedures, or the accidental ... Chronic pain is common, including neuralgia, while numbness and tingling of the extremities can occur with spinal cord ... Brodsky A. E. (1978). "Chronic spinal arachnoiditis. A postoperative syndrome that may signal its onset". Spine. 3 (1): 88-91. ... Spinal tuberculous arachnoiditis (subtype) at NIH's Office of Rare Diseases Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) Spinal ...
J Spinal Disord Tech; (2008) 21 (5) 359-363 Mason LW Chopra I Mohanty K. The percutaneous stabilization of the sacroiliac joint ... Sacroiliac joint fusion in a chronic low back pain population. In Vleeming A, editor. The integrated function of the lumbar ... J Spinal Discord: (2001) 14 (2) 118-124 Buchowski JM et al. Functional and radiographic outcome of sacroiliac arthrodesis for ... J Spinal Disord Tech. (2008) 21 (8) 579-584 Rudolf L. Sacroiliac joint arthrodesis-MIS technique with titanium implants: report ...
A new approach to the treatment of chronic low back pain. Lancet. 1987;18;2(8551):143-6. Digiorgi, Dennis (2013). "Spinal ... Kohlbeck FJ, Haldeman S. Medication-assisted spinal manipulation. Spine J. 2002;2(4):288-302. DiGiorgi D. Spinal manipulation ... "Evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain with spinal manipulation and mobilization". The Spine Journal. 8 (1): 213 ... "Supplemental Care with Medication-Assisted Manipulation Versus Spinal Manipulation Therapy Alone for Patients with Chronic Low ...
"A systematic review of therapeutic facet joint interventions in chronic spinal pain". Pain physician. 10 (1): 229-53. PMID ...
In chronic pain following spinal cord injury, research is of high quality and has found tDCS to be ineffective. In stroke, ... Nov 2014). "Non-pharmacological interventions for chronic pain in people with spinal cord injury". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. ... "Repeated Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Prevents Abnormal Behaviors Associated with Abstinence from Chronic Nicotine ...
"Genetic mapping of chronic childhood-onset spinal muscular atrophy to chromosome 5q11.2-13.3." Nature 344.6266 (1990): 540-541 ... Spinal Muscular Atrophy Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive motor neuron disease caused by mutations in the ... Genetic Cause Spinal muscular atrophy is linked to genetic mutations in the SMN1 (Survival of Motor Neuron 1) gene. The SMN ... Chang JG, Hsieh-Li HM, Jong YJ, Wang NM, Tsai CH, Li H. "Treatment of spinal muscular atrophy by sodium butyrate." Proc Natl ...
They're used to treat bone fractures, osteoarthritis, scoliosis, spinal stenosis, and chronic pain. Examples include a wide ... The immune system response may lead to chronic inflammation where the implant is rejected and has to be removed from the body. ...
Spinal manipulation aims to treat "vertebral subluxations" which are claimed to put pressure on nerves. Chiropractic was ... Complementary therapies are often used in palliative care or by practitioners attempting to manage chronic pain in patients. ... Most Americans used CAM to treat and/or prevent musculoskeletal conditions or other conditions associated with chronic or ... "Herbal products: benefits, limits, and applications in chronic liver disease". Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012: 1-19 ...
MRI in chronic spinal cord trauma.. Neuroradiology, 35 (1992), pp. 30-35 ... el Masry and Biyani6 and Curati et al.7 suggest that complete spinal cord lesions (grade A on the American Spinal Injury ... leading to spinal cystic degeneration and the formation of a large cavity.9 According to other theories, atrophy of the spinal ... Spinal cord injury is the cause most frequently addressed in the literature, with syringomyelia developing in 0.5%-4.5% of ...
He was found to have a metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC), a PSA exceeding 27,000, and biopsy-confirmed prostate cancer ... His past medical history included benign prostatic hypertrophy, chronic kidney disease, and hypertension. His medications ... Metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) occurs in 5-14% of patients with cancer during the course of their disease [1-2]. ... Cite this article as: Nguyen N, Hotte S, Dayes I (January 22, 2015) Long-term Survival in a Patient with Metastatic Spinal Cord ...
Spinal Subdural hematoma is a rare cause of radiculopathy and spinal cord compression syndromes. Its early diagnosis is ... Conclusion: Spinal subdural hematoma may present with rapidly progressive neurological symptoms. MRI is the investigation of ... subacute and chronic. We report a case with early subacute spinal subdural haematoma managed surgically. ... Keywords: Spinal subdural haematoma, extramedullary spinal cord compression, MRI scan.. Introduction. Spinal subdural ...
... same as spinal cord stimulator) in June 2011 for chronic anal and perineal pain. The past 6 weeks I... ... I had a Boston Scientific sacral nerve stimulator implanted (same as spinal cord stimulator) in June 2011 for chronic anal and ... Fibromyalgia General Chronic Illness GERD & Acid Reflux Headaches & Migraines Hepatitis Irritable Bowel Syndrome Lupus Lyme ... Anxiety & Panic Disorders Bipolar Disorder Breast Cancer Chronic Pain Crohns Disease Depression Diabetes Fibromyalgia GERD & ...
... and those with the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome report similar symptoms. ... Spinal Fluid Proteins Distinguish Lyme Disease From Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Published Thursday 24 February 2011 Published Thu ... "Spinal Fluid Proteins Distinguish Lyme Disease From Chronic Fatigue Syndrome." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 24 Feb. ... 2011, February 24). "Spinal Fluid Proteins Distinguish Lyme Disease From Chronic Fatigue Syndrome." Medical News Today. ...
This abnormality called chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) could result in increased permeability of blood ... Plasmati R, Pastorelli F, Fini N et al (2010) Chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency: report of transcranial magnetic ... Werner HL (2009) The challenge of multiple sclerosis: how do we cure chronic heterogeneous disease? Ann Neurol 65:239-248 ... Zivadinov R, Cutter G, Marr K et al (2010) MRI result of blinded chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency study in patients ...
Innovation in the devices and a push away from treating chronic pain with opioids are causing the market to boom. ... Spinal cord stimulation isnt as scary as it sounds. ... She had a spinal cord stimulator implanted in August and now is ... Innovation and a growing weariness of doctors to treat chronic pain with opioids have sparked interest in spinal cord ... He expects spinal cord stimulation to become more mainstream.. That may be good news for businesses, but it also may be good ...
Learn more about Medtronic spinal cord stimulation treatment for chronic pain. Find information on the trial period, implant ... SPINAL CORD STIMULATION YOU DESERVE. RELIEF FROM. CHRONIC PAIN Medtronic spinal cord stimulation (SCS) therapy may help you get ... Hear from patients whose lives have been transformed by spinal cord stimulation. ...
HealingWell.com Forum , Diseases & Conditions , Chronic Pain , Spinal stenosis Select A Location. ****** Top of the Forum ... http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/spinal-stenosis/DS00515. When you were diagnosed what did your Doctor say was the cause? What ...
Get answers to the questions most frequently asked by patients and caregivers about spinal cord stimulation for chronic pain ... Spinal cord stimulation versus repeated lumbosacral spine surgery for chronic pain: a randomized, controlled trial. ... Published studies have shown that when used by patients with chronic intractable pain, spinal cord stimulation may offer the ... Learn more about a spinal cord stimulator trial. The great thing about spinal cord stimulation is your loved one can ...
Spinal cord stimulators are small devices implanted under a patients skin with the purpose of stopping pain signals from ... reaching the brain and thus alleviating chronic or neuropathic pain. ... See Spinal Cord Stimulation for Chronic Back and Neck Pain. It should also be noted that the effectiveness of SCS treatment can ... Watch: Spinal Cord Stimulation for Chronic Back Pain Video. Most SCS devices contain a battery that must eventually be ...
Abnormalities in brain motor system function are present following spinal cord injury (SCI) and could reduce effectiveness of ... Cramer SC, Lastra L, Lacourse MG, Cohen MJ (2005) Brain motor system function after chronic, complete spinal cord injury. Brain ... Cortical potentials during imagined movements in individuals with chronic spinal cord injuries. Behav Brain Res 104:73-88PubMed ... Motor system Imagery Plasticity Putamen Globus pallidus Spinal cord injury This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ...
So I have been diagnosed with Cervical Spinal Stenosis and disc degenerative disease. In 2000 I had a ACDF at level C6-7. Then ... Chronic Neck Pain So I have been diagnosed with Cervical Spinal Stenosis and disc degenerative disease. In 2000 I had a ACDF at ... Re: Chronic Neck Pain Hi, Sorry to hear you are in pain. could you tell me what kind of a dr. does a nerve block or burn? Thank ...
But when bad things happen to the body, injury and pain can bring someone to the specialist for spinal epidurals. After three ... Christina Lasich, M.D., wrote about chronic pain and osteoarthritis for HealthCentral. She is physiatrist in Grass Valley, ... https://www.healthcentral.com/article/driving-after-spinal-injections-can-prove-dangerous ...
... may benefit from spinal decompression therapy. The chiropractors at Advanced Wellness of Westfield announced that they have had ... significant success treating patients with spinal decompression therapy. ... Individuals who are experiencing chronic pain in the lower back, especially pain related to herniated discs, ... "For individuals who suffer from chronic back pain due to a herniated disc or other spinal condition, spinal decompression ...
The number of people in the United States living with spinal cord injury (SCI) was estimated to be 276,000 persons in 2014 ( ... J Spinal Cord Med 1999; 22:97.. *Grandas NF, Jain NB, Denckla JB, et al. Dyspnea during daily activities in chronic spinal cord ... See Acute traumatic spinal cord injury and Chronic complications of spinal cord injury and disease and Respiratory ... J Spinal Cord Med 2008; 31:500.. *Bach JR. Noninvasive respiratory management of high level spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord ...
Failed Back Syndrome can be devastating after spinal surgery offers such hope to those with none. Unfortunately, some end up ... When a spinal surgery failed in the past, a persons only option was to take pain medication or to try a reoperation. Another ... Spinal Cord Stimulation for Failed Back Syndrome. Christina Lasich, MDHealth Professional. Nov 11, 2009. ... With spinal cord stimulators, the risk of infection can be upwards of a 10% rate. Another problem is that the implant itself ...
... central nervous system axons can be achieved in rats even when treatment delayed is more than a year after the original spinal ... "Our findings indicate that there is potential for promoting repair of the injured spinal cord even in chronic stages of injury ... A number of mechanisms create formidable barriers to regeneration of injured axons in chronic spinal cord injury. These include ... nearly 250,000 patients are living in the chronic stages of injury. Yet nearly all previous spinal cord injury studies have ...
... a new study was published in Brain addressing electrical stimulation of the spinal cord after injury. The study was funded in ... Spinal cord injury Spinal cord injury My story Causes Consequences Prognosis Links About us What we do History Organisation ... Voluntary movements after chronic spinal cord injury. Back to overview Recently, a new study was published in Brain addressing ... These will also unravel if and when the results of this study can be translated to a therapy for chronic spinal injured ...
... history of chronic pain since I was 13 - migraine-like headaches of increasing severity/frequency. At lea... ... Optic nerve hemorrhages, chronic headaches & increased spinal fluid pressure MiewMyoo Personal background: 28 year old female, ... Create an account to receive updates on: Optic nerve hemorrhages, chronic headaches & increased spinal fluid pressure ... Optic nerve hemorrhages, chronic headaches & increased spinal fluid pressure. Personal background: 28 year old female, average ...
... By Nancy Martin-Molina, DC, QME, MBA, CCSP. I recently completed a deposition for a ... Myofascial Pain Syndrome, Fibrosis and Chronic Pain Neck pain is easily explained by tearing of any soft tissue, disc injury or ... One plausible explanation for the many cases of chronic neck and back pain in the absence of ongoing injury or inflammation is ... The result is excessive loading to the spinal ligaments. This report4 discusses six patients with third cervical root ganglion ...
spinal issues to deal with.. I happen to have Spinal Disc Degeneration Disease, also Spinal Stenosis, and Scoliosis and Chronic ... Degenerative Disc Disease, Spinal Stenosis, Chronic Pain. Started by Chronic Pain on 02/12/2015 10:14am ... They say in the near future, I will have to have more spinal fusion.. My neck is shot. That is my worst with the chronic pain. ... Chronic pain,. I just wanted you to know that I read about your health concern.. I am a bit younger than you, 55, so I cant ...
... chronic infantile form?) and Which physical findings are characteristic of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type II - chronic ... Genetic mapping of chronic childhood-onset spinal muscular atrophy to chromosome 5q11.2-13.3. Nature. 1990 Apr 5. 344(6266):540 ... Which physical findings are characteristic of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type II - chronic infantile form?. Updated: May 30 ... Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz I, Zaremba J, Borkowska J, Szirkowiec W. Chronic proximal spinal muscular atrophy of childhood and ...
Autonomic Dysreflexia Causes Chronic Immune Suppression after Spinal Cord Injury. Yi Zhang, Zhen Guan, Brenda Reader, Todd ... Autonomic Dysreflexia Causes Chronic Immune Suppression after Spinal Cord Injury. Yi Zhang, Zhen Guan, Brenda Reader, Todd ... Autonomic Dysreflexia Causes Chronic Immune Suppression after Spinal Cord Injury. Yi Zhang, Zhen Guan, Brenda Reader, Todd ... 2012) Chronic spinal cord injury impairs primary antibody responses but spares existing humoral immunity in mice. J Immunol 188 ...
... has become a standard of care for people with chronic back and neck pain. Neurosurgeon answers the questions patients ask. ... Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has become a standard of care for people with chronic back and neck pain. Advances in SCS ... Spinal Cord Stimulation FAQs. Will a spinal cord stimulator free you from your back pain? This and other FAQs are answered by F ... Treatments › Pain Management › Spinal Cord Stimulation for Chronic Pain: What You Need to K... ...
  • Studies were excluded if they 1) included patients with different types of primary cancers (not exclusively prostate cancers), 2) included patients treated surgically for their MSCC, 3) were abstracts or review articles, or 4) did not address patients' outcomes after treatment of the spinal cord compression. (cureus.com)
  • Stem cells from fetal brains were sorted and cultured, and then injected into the injured spinal cord sites 30 days after the trauma. (medgadget.com)
  • Cruz-Montecinos C, Godoy-Olave D, Contreras-Briceno F, Gutierrez P, Torress-Castro R, Miret-Venegas L, Engel R (2017), "The immediate effect of softi tissue manual therapy intervention on lung function in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease," International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Feb 21;12:691-696. (spinalresearch.com.au)
  • Medtronic SCS is recommended as an aid in the management of chronic, intractable pain of the trunk and/or limbs. (medtronic.com)
  • In Canada, SCS therapy is indicated for the management of chronic, intractable pain of the trunk and/or limbs. (hospitalnews.com)
  • Advances in SCS technology have allowed people with chronic spine-related pain to reduce or eliminate their need for pain medications and return to comfortable, productive lives. (spineuniverse.com)
  • This case report describes chiropractic management of a case of chronic CES, a condition that may be little known to many chiropractors. (chiro.org)
  • Therefore, we decided to search the literature for reports of chiropractic treatment of the primary components of chronic CES seen in this patient: bladder/bowel incontinence and postoperative LBP. (chiro.org)
  • Taking advantage of previously unavailable methods for detailed analysis of spinal fluid, the investigators analyzed the fluid by means of high powered mass spectrometry and special protein separation techniques. (medicalnewstoday.com)