Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.
Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Pain during the period after surgery.
The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.
Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.
Intensely discomforting, distressful, or agonizing sensation associated with trauma or disease, with well-defined location, character, and timing.
Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
Facilities providing diagnostic, therapeutic, and palliative services for patients with severe chronic pain. These may be free-standing clinics or hospital-based and serve ambulatory or inpatient populations. The approach is usually multidisciplinary. These clinics are often referred to as "acute pain services". (From Br Med Bull 1991 Jul;47(3):762-85)
Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.
Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.
Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)
Discomfort stemming from muscles, LIGAMENTS, tendons, and bones.
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.
A common nonarticular rheumatic syndrome characterized by myalgia and multiple points of focal muscle tenderness to palpation (trigger points). Muscle pain is typically aggravated by inactivity or exposure to cold. This condition is often associated with general symptoms, such as sleep disturbances, fatigue, stiffness, HEADACHES, and occasionally DEPRESSION. There is significant overlap between fibromyalgia and the chronic fatigue syndrome (FATIGUE SYNDROME, CHRONIC). Fibromyalgia may arise as a primary or secondary disease process. It is most frequent in females aged 20 to 50 years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1494-95)
A type of pain that is perceived in an area away from the site where the pain arises, such as facial pain caused by lesion of the VAGUS NERVE, or throat problem generating referred pain in the ear.
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Dull or sharp aching pain caused by stimulated NOCICEPTORS due to tissue injury, inflammation or diseases. It can be divided into somatic or tissue pain and VISCERAL PAIN.
Conditions characterized by pain involving an extremity or other body region, HYPERESTHESIA, and localized autonomic dysfunction following injury to soft tissue or nerve. The pain is usually associated with ERYTHEMA; SKIN TEMPERATURE changes, abnormal sudomotor activity (i.e., changes in sweating due to altered sympathetic innervation) or edema. The degree of pain and other manifestations is out of proportion to that expected from the inciting event. Two subtypes of this condition have been described: type I; (REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY) and type II; (CAUSALGIA). (From Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Pain in the joint.
Muscular pain in numerous body regions that can be reproduced by pressure on TRIGGER POINTS, localized hardenings in skeletal muscle tissue. Pain is referred to a location distant from the trigger points. A prime example is the TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME.
A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.
An increased response to stimulation that is mediated by amplification of signaling in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS).
Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.
A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)
Sensing of noxious mechanical, thermal or chemical stimuli by NOCICEPTORS. It is the sensory component of visceral and tissue pain (NOCICEPTIVE PAIN).
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.
A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Pain originating from internal organs (VISCERA) associated with autonomic phenomena (PALLOR; SWEATING; NAUSEA; and VOMITING). It often becomes a REFERRED PAIN.
Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.
Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.
The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.
Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.
The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.
A state of increased receptivity to suggestion and direction, initially induced by the influence of another person.
Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Any woven or knit material of open texture used in surgery for the repair, reconstruction, or substitution of tissue. The mesh is usually a synthetic fabric made of various polymers. It is occasionally made of metal.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A condition characterized by pain radiating from the back into the buttock and posterior/lateral aspects of the leg. Sciatica may be a manifestation of SCIATIC NEUROPATHY; RADICULOPATHY (involving the SPINAL NERVE ROOTS; L4, L5, S1, or S2, often associated with INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT); or lesions of the CAUDA EQUINA.
Complex pain syndrome with unknown etiology, characterized by constant or intermittent generalized vulva pain (Generalized vulvodynia) or localized burning sensations in the VESTIBULE area when pressure is applied (Vestibulodynia, or Vulvar Vestibulitis Syndrome). Typically, vulvar tissue with vulvodynia appears normal without infection or skin disease. Vulvodynia impacts negatively on a woman's quality of life as it interferes with sexual and daily activities.
Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
An opioid analgesic made from MORPHINE and used mainly as an analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine.
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Tricyclic antidepressant with anticholinergic and sedative properties. It appears to prevent the re-uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin at nerve terminals, thus potentiating the action of these neurotransmitters. Amitriptyline also appears to antagonize cholinergic and alpha-1 adrenergic responses to bioactive amines.
Improper use of drugs or medications outside the intended purpose, scope, or guidelines for use. This is in contrast to MEDICATION ADHERENCE, and distinguished from DRUG ABUSE, which is a deliberate or willful action.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Increased sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation due to a diminished threshold or an increased response to stimuli.
A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)
Cyclohexanecarboxylic acids are organic compounds consisting of a cyclohexane ring substituted with a carboxylic acid group, typically represented by the structural formula C6H11COOH.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Pain in nerves, frequently involving facial SKIN, resulting from the activation the latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). The two forms of the condition preceding the pain are HERPES ZOSTER OTICUS; and HERPES ZOSTER OPHTHALMICUS. Following the healing of the rashes and blisters, the pain sometimes persists.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.
Surgical procedures undertaken to repair abnormal openings through which tissue or parts of organs can protrude or are already protruding.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Application of electric current to the spine for treatment of a variety of conditions involving innervation from the spinal cord.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)
Pain associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR in CHILDBIRTH. It is caused primarily by UTERINE CONTRACTION as well as pressure on the CERVIX; BLADDER; and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Labor pain mostly occurs in the ABDOMEN; the GROIN; and the BACK.
Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.
A condition of persistent pain and discomfort in the BACK and the LEG following lumbar surgery, often seen in patients enrolled in pain centers.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The systematic and methodical manipulations of body tissues best performed with the hands for the purpose of affecting the nervous and muscular systems and the general circulation.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.
Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)
A centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant whose mechanism of action is not completely understood but may be related to its sedative actions. It is used as an adjunct in the symptomatic treatment of musculoskeletal conditions associated with painful muscle spasm. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1202)
A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.
A narcotic analgesic proposed for severe pain. It may be habituating.
Neuralgic syndromes which feature chronic or recurrent FACIAL PAIN as the primary manifestation of disease. Disorders of the trigeminal and facial nerves are frequently associated with these conditions.
Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.
Simulation of symptoms of illness or injury with intent to deceive in order to obtain a goal, e.g., a claim of physical illness to avoid jury duty.
The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.
Narcotic analgesic related to CODEINE, but more potent and more addicting by weight. It is used also as cough suppressant.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.
Treatment methods or techniques which are based on the knowledge of mind and body interactions. These techniques can be used to reduce the feeling of tension and effect of stress, and to enhance the physiological and psychological well-being of an individual.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.
Perception of painful and nonpainful phantom sensations that occur following the complete or partial loss of a limb. The majority of individuals with an amputated extremity will experience the impression that the limb is still present, and in many cases, painful. (From Neurol Clin 1998 Nov;16(4):919-36; Brain 1998 Sep;121(Pt 9):1603-30)
Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.
Contextually focused form of cognitive behavioral psychotherapy that uses MINDFULNESS and behavioral activation to increase patients' psychological flexibility in areas such as ability to engage in values-based, positive behaviors while experiencing difficult thoughts, emotions, or sensations.
Analgesia produced by the insertion of ACUPUNCTURE needles at certain ACUPUNCTURE POINTS on the body. This activates small myelinated nerve fibers in the muscle which transmit impulses to the spinal cord and then activate three centers - the spinal cord, midbrain and pituitary/hypothalamus - to produce analgesia.
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man and animals.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A personality inventory consisting of statements to be asserted or denied by the individual. The patterns of response are characteristic of certain personality attributes.
A syndrome characterized by severe burning pain in an extremity accompanied by sudomotor, vasomotor, and trophic changes in bone without an associated specific nerve injury. This condition is most often precipitated by trauma to soft tissue or nerve complexes. The skin over the affected region is usually erythematous and demonstrates hypersensitivity to tactile stimuli and erythema. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1360; Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)
Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Chronic absence from work or other duty.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
The joint that occurs between facets of the interior and superior articular processes of adjacent VERTEBRAE.
A water-soluble extractive mixture of sulfated polysaccharides from RED ALGAE. Chief sources are the Irish moss CHONDRUS CRISPUS (Carrageen), and Gigartina stellata. It is used as a stabilizer, for suspending COCOA in chocolate manufacture, and to clarify BEVERAGES.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.
Cognitive and emotional processes encompassing magnification of pain-related stimuli, feelings of helplessness, and a generally pessimistic orientation.
Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.
Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.
One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
Mystical, religious, or spiritual practices performed for health benefit.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Pain emanating from below the RIBS and above the ILIUM.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that is expressed in nociceptors, including spinal and trigeminal sensory neurons. It plays a role in the transmission of pain signals induced by cold, heat, and mechanical stimuli.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
Treatment to improve one's health condition by using techniques that can reduce PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS; or both.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Arthritis is a general term used to describe inflammation in the joints, often resulting in pain, stiffness, and reduced mobility, which can be caused by various conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, or lupus.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Cycloheptanes are hydrocarbons characterized by a seven-membered carbon ring, with each carbon atom bonded to either another carbon atom or a hydrogen atom, and having the molecular formula (C7H14).
Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation.
A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.
A dull or sharp painful sensation associated with the outer or inner structures of the eyeball, having different causes.
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)
Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.
Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
A widely distributed purinergic P2X receptor subtype that plays a role in pain sensation. P2X4 receptors found on MICROGLIA cells may also play a role in the mediation of allodynia-related NEUROPATHIC PAIN.
The use of mental images produced by the imagination as a form of psychotherapy. It can be classified by the modality of its content: visual, verbal, auditory, olfactory, tactile, gustatory, or kinesthetic. Common themes derive from nature imagery (e.g., forests and mountains), water imagery (e.g., brooks and oceans), travel imagery, etc. Imagery is used in the treatment of mental disorders and in helping patients cope with other diseases. Imagery often forms a part of HYPNOSIS, of AUTOGENIC TRAINING, of RELAXATION TECHNIQUES, and of BEHAVIOR THERAPY. (From Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, vol. 4, pp29-30, 1994)
A quality-of-life scale developed in the United States in 1972 as a measure of health status or dysfunction generated by a disease. It is a behaviorally based questionnaire for patients and addresses activities such as sleep and rest, mobility, recreation, home management, emotional behavior, social interaction, and the like. It measures the patient's perceived health status and is sensitive enough to detect changes or differences in health status occurring over time or between groups. (From Medical Care, vol.xix, no.8, August 1981, p.787-805)
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.
Failure of a professional person, a physician or lawyer, to render proper services through reprehensible ignorance or negligence or through criminal intent, especially when injury or loss follows. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
Former members of the armed services.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.
The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.

Pathways of chronic pain in survivors of intimate partner violence. (1/754)

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Attributes of response in depressed patients switched to treatment with duloxetine. (2/754)

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Microbial correlates of delayed care for pelvic inflammatory disease. (3/754)

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Chronic pain conditions and depression in the Ibadan Study of Ageing. (4/754)

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A kinematic analysis of relative stability of the lower extremities between subjects with and without chronic low back pain. (5/754)

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Influence of religiosity on the quality of life and on pain intensity in chronic pancreatitis patients after neurolytic celiac plexus block: case-controlled study. (6/754)

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Association of HTR2A polymorphisms with chronic widespread pain and the extent of musculoskeletal pain: results from two population-based cohorts. (7/754)

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Acute low back pain and primary care: how to define recovery and chronification? (8/754)

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Chronic pain is defined as pain that persists or recurs for a period of 3 months or longer, beyond the normal healing time for an injury or illness. It can be continuous or intermittent and range from mild to severe. Chronic pain can have various causes, such as nerve damage, musculoskeletal conditions, or chronic diseases like cancer. It can significantly impact a person's quality of life, causing limitations in mobility, sleep disturbances, mood changes, and decreased overall well-being. Effective management of chronic pain often involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medications, physical therapy, psychological interventions, and complementary therapies.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. It is a complex phenomenon that can result from various stimuli, such as thermal, mechanical, or chemical irritation, and it can be acute or chronic. The perception of pain involves the activation of specialized nerve cells called nociceptors, which transmit signals to the brain via the spinal cord. These signals are then processed in different regions of the brain, leading to the conscious experience of pain. It's important to note that pain is a highly individual and subjective experience, and its perception can vary widely among individuals.

Pain management is a branch of medicine that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of pain and improvement in the quality of life of patients with chronic pain. The goal of pain management is to reduce pain levels, improve physical functioning, and help patients cope mentally and emotionally with their pain. This may involve the use of medications, interventional procedures, physical therapy, psychological therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

The definition of pain management can vary depending on the medical context, but it generally refers to a multidisciplinary approach that addresses the complex interactions between biological, psychological, and social factors that contribute to the experience of pain. Pain management specialists may include physicians, nurses, physical therapists, psychologists, and other healthcare professionals who work together to provide comprehensive care for patients with chronic pain.

Pain measurement, in a medical context, refers to the quantification or evaluation of the intensity and/or unpleasantness of a patient's subjective pain experience. This is typically accomplished through the use of standardized self-report measures such as numerical rating scales (NRS), visual analog scales (VAS), or categorical scales (mild, moderate, severe). In some cases, physiological measures like heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions may also be used to supplement self-reported pain ratings. The goal of pain measurement is to help healthcare providers better understand the nature and severity of a patient's pain in order to develop an effective treatment plan.

In medicine, "intractable pain" is a term used to describe pain that is difficult to manage, control or relieve with standard treatments. It's a type of chronic pain that continues for an extended period, often months or even years, and does not respond to conventional therapies such as medications, physical therapy, or surgery. Intractable pain can significantly affect a person's quality of life, causing emotional distress, sleep disturbances, and reduced mobility. It is essential to distinguish intractable pain from acute pain, which is typically sharp and short-lived, resulting from tissue damage or inflammation.

Intractable pain may be classified as:

1. Refractory pain: Pain that persists despite optimal treatment with various modalities, including medications, interventions, and multidisciplinary care.
2. Incurable pain: Pain caused by a progressive or incurable disease, such as cancer, for which no curative treatment is available.
3. Functional pain: Pain without an identifiable organic cause that does not respond to standard treatments.

Managing intractable pain often requires a multidisciplinary approach involving healthcare professionals from various fields, including pain specialists, neurologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, and physical therapists. Treatment options may include:

1. Adjuvant medications: Medications that are not primarily analgesics but have been found to help with pain relief, such as antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and muscle relaxants.
2. Interventional procedures: Minimally invasive techniques like nerve blocks, spinal cord stimulation, or intrathecal drug delivery systems that target specific nerves or areas of the body to reduce pain signals.
3. Psychological interventions: Techniques such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), mindfulness meditation, and relaxation training can help patients cope with chronic pain and improve their overall well-being.
4. Physical therapy and rehabilitation: Exercise programs, massage, acupuncture, and other physical therapies may provide relief for some types of intractable pain.
5. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM): Techniques like yoga, tai chi, hypnosis, or biofeedback can be helpful in managing chronic pain.
6. Lifestyle modifications: Dietary changes, stress management, and quitting smoking may also contribute to improved pain management.

Pain threshold is a term used in medicine and research to describe the point at which a stimulus begins to be perceived as painful. It is an individual's subjective response and can vary from person to person based on factors such as their pain tolerance, mood, expectations, and cultural background.

The pain threshold is typically determined through a series of tests where gradually increasing levels of stimuli are applied until the individual reports feeling pain. This is often used in research settings to study pain perception and analgesic efficacy. However, it's important to note that the pain threshold should not be confused with pain tolerance, which refers to the maximum level of pain a person can endure.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Postoperative pain is defined as the pain or discomfort experienced by patients following a surgical procedure. It can vary in intensity and duration depending on the type of surgery performed, individual pain tolerance, and other factors. The pain may be caused by tissue trauma, inflammation, or nerve damage resulting from the surgical intervention. Proper assessment and management of postoperative pain is essential to promote recovery, prevent complications, and improve patient satisfaction.

Pain perception refers to the neural and psychological processes involved in receiving, interpreting, and responding to painful stimuli. It is the subjective experience of pain, which can vary greatly among individuals due to factors such as genetics, mood, expectations, and past experiences. The perception of pain involves complex interactions between the peripheral nervous system (which detects and transmits information about tissue damage or potential harm), the spinal cord (where this information is processed and integrated with other sensory inputs), and the brain (where the final interpretation and emotional response to pain occurs).

Back pain is a common symptom characterized by discomfort or soreness in the back, often occurring in the lower region of the back (lumbago). It can range from a mild ache to a sharp stabbing or shooting pain, and it may be accompanied by stiffness, restricted mobility, and difficulty performing daily activities. Back pain is typically caused by strain or sprain to the muscles, ligaments, or spinal joints, but it can also result from degenerative conditions, disc herniation, spinal stenosis, osteoarthritis, or other medical issues affecting the spine. The severity and duration of back pain can vary widely, with some cases resolving on their own within a few days or weeks, while others may require medical treatment and rehabilitation.

Acute pain is a type of pain that comes on suddenly and can be severe, but it typically lasts for a short period of time. It is often described as sharp or stabbing and can be caused by tissue damage, inflammation, or injury. Acute pain is the body's way of signaling that something is wrong and that action needs to be taken to address the underlying cause.

Acute pain is different from chronic pain, which is pain that persists for 12 weeks or longer. Chronic pain can be caused by a variety of factors, including ongoing medical conditions, nerve damage, or inflammation. It is important to seek medical attention if you are experiencing acute pain that does not improve or becomes severe, as it may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition.

Low back pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder characterized by discomfort or pain in the lower part of the back, typically between the costal margin (bottom of the ribcage) and the gluteal folds (buttocks). It can be caused by several factors including strain or sprain of the muscles or ligaments, disc herniation, spinal stenosis, osteoarthritis, or other degenerative conditions affecting the spine. The pain can range from a dull ache to a sharp stabbing sensation and may be accompanied by stiffness, limited mobility, and radiating pain down the legs in some cases. Low back pain is often described as acute (lasting less than 6 weeks), subacute (lasting between 6-12 weeks), or chronic (lasting more than 12 weeks).

Analgesics, opioid are a class of drugs used for the treatment of pain. They work by binding to specific receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals to the brain. Opioids can be synthetic or natural, and include drugs such as morphine, codeine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, fentanyl, and methadone. They are often used for moderate to severe pain, such as that resulting from injury, surgery, or chronic conditions like cancer. However, opioids can also produce euphoria, physical dependence, and addiction, so they are tightly regulated and carry a risk of misuse.

Neck pain is discomfort or soreness in the neck region, which can extend from the base of the skull to the upper part of the shoulder blades, caused by injury, irritation, or inflammation of the muscles, ligaments, or nerves in the cervical spine. The pain may worsen with movement and can be accompanied by stiffness, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the neck, arms, or hands. In some cases, headaches can also occur as a result of neck pain.

Analgesics are a class of drugs that are used to relieve pain. They work by blocking the transmission of pain signals in the nervous system, allowing individuals to manage their pain levels more effectively. There are many different types of analgesics available, including both prescription and over-the-counter options. Some common examples include acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil or Motrin), and opioids such as morphine or oxycodone.

The choice of analgesic will depend on several factors, including the type and severity of pain being experienced, any underlying medical conditions, potential drug interactions, and individual patient preferences. It is important to use these medications as directed by a healthcare provider, as misuse or overuse can lead to serious side effects and potential addiction.

In addition to their pain-relieving properties, some analgesics may also have additional benefits such as reducing inflammation (like in the case of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs) or causing sedation (as with certain opioids). However, it is essential to weigh these potential benefits against the risks and side effects associated with each medication.

When used appropriately, analgesics can significantly improve a person's quality of life by helping them manage their pain effectively and allowing them to engage in daily activities more comfortably.

Neuralgia is a type of pain that occurs along the pathway of a nerve, often caused by damage or irritation to the nerve. It is typically described as a sharp, stabbing, burning, or electric-shock like pain that can be severe and debilitating. Neuralgia can affect any nerve in the body, but it most commonly occurs in the facial area (trigeminal neuralgia) or in the nerves related to the spine (postherpetic neuralgia). The pain associated with neuralgia can be intermittent or constant and may be worsened by certain triggers such as touch, temperature changes, or movement. Treatment for neuralgia typically involves medications to manage pain, as well as other therapies such as nerve blocks, surgery, or lifestyle modifications.

A pain clinic, also known as a pain management center or pain treatment center, is a healthcare facility that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of various types and levels of pain. These clinics are typically staffed with interdisciplinary teams of medical professionals, such as anesthesiologists, neurologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, nurses, and physical therapists, who work together to provide comprehensive and personalized care for patients experiencing chronic or acute pain.

Pain clinics may offer a range of treatments, including medications, injections, nerve blocks, physical therapy, psychological counseling, and complementary therapies like acupuncture and massage. The goal of these clinics is to help patients manage their pain effectively, improve their quality of life, and increase their functionality and mobility.

It's important to note that while pain clinics can be very helpful for many people, it's essential to do your research and choose a reputable clinic with licensed and experienced medical professionals who prioritize patient safety and evidence-based treatments.

Abdominal pain is defined as discomfort or painful sensation in the abdomen. The abdomen is the region of the body between the chest and the pelvis, and contains many important organs such as the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen. Abdominal pain can vary in intensity from mild to severe, and can be acute or chronic depending on the underlying cause.

Abdominal pain can have many different causes, ranging from benign conditions such as gastritis, indigestion, or constipation, to more serious conditions such as appendicitis, inflammatory bowel disease, or abdominal aortic aneurysm. The location, quality, and duration of the pain can provide important clues about its cause. For example, sharp, localized pain in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen may indicate appendicitis, while crampy, diffuse pain in the lower abdomen may suggest irritable bowel syndrome.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience severe or persistent abdominal pain, especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, vomiting, or bloody stools. A thorough physical examination, including a careful history and a focused abdominal exam, can help diagnose the underlying cause of the pain and guide appropriate treatment.

Facial pain is a condition characterized by discomfort or pain felt in any part of the face. It can result from various causes, including nerve damage or irritation, injuries, infections, dental problems, migraines, or sinus congestion. The pain can range from mild to severe and may be sharp, dull, constant, or intermittent. In some cases, facial pain can also be associated with other symptoms such as headaches, redness, swelling, or changes in sensation. Accurate diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause are essential for effective management of facial pain.

Pelvic pain is defined as discomfort or unpleasant sensation in the lower abdominal region, below the belly button, and between the hips. It can be acute (sudden and lasting for a short time) or chronic (persisting for months or even years), and it may be steady or intermittent, mild or severe. The pain can have various causes, including musculoskeletal issues, nerve irritation, infection, inflammation, or organic diseases in the reproductive, urinary, or gastrointestinal systems. Accurate diagnosis often requires a thorough medical evaluation to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Musculoskeletal pain is discomfort or pain that affects the muscles, bones, ligaments, tendons, and nerves. It can be caused by injury, overuse, or disease and can affect any part of the body, including the neck, back, shoulders, hips, and extremities. The pain can range from mild to severe and may be accompanied by stiffness, swelling, and decreased range of motion. Common causes of musculoskeletal pain include arthritis, fibromyalgia, tendinitis, bursitis, and muscle or ligament strain. Treatment for musculoskeletal pain depends on the underlying cause and may include physical therapy, medication, and in some cases, surgery.

Hyperalgesia is a medical term that describes an increased sensitivity to pain. It occurs when the nervous system, specifically the nociceptors (pain receptors), become excessively sensitive to stimuli. This means that a person experiences pain from a stimulus that normally wouldn't cause pain or experiences pain that is more intense than usual. Hyperalgesia can be a result of various conditions such as nerve damage, inflammation, or certain medications. It's an important symptom to monitor in patients with chronic pain conditions, as it may indicate the development of tolerance or addiction to pain medication.

Shoulder pain is a condition characterized by discomfort or hurt in the shoulder joint, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or surrounding structures. The shoulder is one of the most mobile joints in the body, and this mobility makes it prone to injury and pain. Shoulder pain can result from various causes, including overuse, trauma, degenerative conditions, or referred pain from other areas of the body.

The shoulder joint is a ball-and-socket joint made up of three bones: the humerus (upper arm bone), scapula (shoulder blade), and clavicle (collarbone). The rotator cuff, a group of four muscles that surround and stabilize the shoulder joint, can also be a source of pain if it becomes inflamed or torn.

Shoulder pain can range from mild to severe, and it may be accompanied by stiffness, swelling, bruising, weakness, numbness, tingling, or reduced mobility in the affected arm. The pain may worsen with movement, lifting objects, or performing certain activities, such as reaching overhead or behind the back.

Medical evaluation is necessary to determine the underlying cause of shoulder pain and develop an appropriate treatment plan. Treatment options may include rest, physical therapy, medication, injections, or surgery, depending on the severity and nature of the condition.

Fibromyalgia is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, sleep disturbances, and cognitive difficulties. The pain typically occurs in specific tender points or trigger points, which are located on the neck, shoulders, back, hips, arms, and legs. These points are painful when pressure is applied.

The exact cause of fibromyalgia is unknown, but it appears to be related to abnormalities in the way the brain processes pain signals. It may also be associated with certain genetic factors, physical trauma, infection, or emotional stress. Fibromyalgia is more common in women than men and tends to develop between the ages of 20 and 50.

Fibromyalgia can be difficult to diagnose because its symptoms are similar to those of other conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and chronic fatigue syndrome. However, a diagnosis of fibromyalgia may be made if a person has widespread pain for at least three months and tenderness in at least 11 of 18 specific points on the body when pressure is applied.

There is no cure for fibromyalgia, but medications, therapy, and lifestyle changes can help manage its symptoms. Treatment may include pain relievers, antidepressants, anti-seizure drugs, physical therapy, counseling, stress reduction techniques, and regular exercise.

Referred pain is a type of pain that is felt in a part of the body other than its actual source. This occurs because the brain incorrectly interprets nerve signals from damaged tissues or organs. In the case of referred pain, the brain misinterprets the location of the pain signal and attributes it to a different area of the body.

Referred pain is often described as a dull, aching sensation rather than a sharp, stabbing pain. It can be difficult to diagnose because the source of the pain may not be immediately apparent. Common examples of referred pain include:

* Heart attack pain that is felt in the left arm or jaw
* Gallbladder pain that is felt in the right shoulder blade
* Kidney stones that cause pain in the lower back and abdomen
* Appendicitis that causes pain in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen, but can sometimes be referred to the lower left quadrant in pregnant women or those with a longer colon.

Referred pain is thought to occur because the nerves carrying pain signals from different parts of the body converge on the same neurons in the spinal cord before traveling to the brain. If these neurons are stimulated by pain signals from multiple sources, the brain may have difficulty distinguishing between them and may interpret the pain as coming from a single location.

Analgesia is defined as the absence or relief of pain in a patient, achieved through various medical means. It is derived from the Greek word "an-" meaning without and "algein" meaning to feel pain. Analgesics are medications that are used to reduce pain without causing loss of consciousness, and they work by blocking the transmission of pain signals to the brain.

Examples of analgesics include over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve). Prescription opioid painkillers, such as oxycodone (OxyContin, Percocet) and hydrocodone (Vicodin), are also used for pain relief but carry a higher risk of addiction and abuse.

Analgesia can also be achieved through non-pharmacological means, such as through nerve blocks, spinal cord stimulation, acupuncture, and other complementary therapies. The choice of analgesic therapy depends on the type and severity of pain, as well as the patient's medical history and individual needs.

Opioid-related disorders is a term that encompasses a range of conditions related to the use of opioids, which are a class of drugs that include prescription painkillers such as oxycodone and hydrocodone, as well as illegal drugs like heroin. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) identifies the following opioid-related disorders:

1. Opioid Use Disorder: This disorder is characterized by a problematic pattern of opioid use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. The symptoms may include a strong desire to use opioids, increased tolerance, withdrawal symptoms when not using opioids, and unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control opioid use.
2. Opioid Intoxication: This disorder occurs when an individual uses opioids and experiences significant problematic behavioral or psychological changes, such as marked sedation, small pupils, or respiratory depression.
3. Opioid Withdrawal: This disorder is characterized by the development of a substance-specific withdrawal syndrome following cessation or reduction of opioid use. The symptoms may include anxiety, irritability, dysphoria, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle aches.
4. Other Opioid-Induced Disorders: This category includes disorders that are caused by the direct physiological effects of opioids, such as opioid-induced sexual dysfunction or opioid-induced sleep disorder.

It is important to note that opioid use disorder is a chronic and often relapsing condition that can cause significant harm to an individual's health, relationships, and overall quality of life. If you or someone you know is struggling with opioid use, it is essential to seek professional help from a healthcare provider or addiction specialist.

Nociceptors are specialized peripheral sensory neurons that detect and transmit signals indicating potentially harmful stimuli in the form of pain. They are activated by various noxious stimuli such as extreme temperatures, intense pressure, or chemical irritants. Once activated, nociceptors transmit these signals to the central nervous system (spinal cord and brain) where they are interpreted as painful sensations, leading to protective responses like withdrawing from the harmful stimulus or seeking medical attention. Nociceptors play a crucial role in our perception of pain and help protect the body from further harm.

Nociceptive pain is a type of pain that results from the activation of nociceptors, which are specialized sensory receptors located in various tissues throughout the body. These receptors detect potentially harmful stimuli such as extreme temperatures, pressure, or chemical irritants and transmit signals to the brain, which interprets them as painful sensations.

Nociceptive pain can be further classified into two categories:

1. Somatic nociceptive pain: This type of pain arises from the activation of nociceptors in the skin, muscles, bones, and joints. It is often described as sharp, aching, or throbbing and may be localized to a specific area of the body.
2. Visceral nociceptive pain: This type of pain arises from the activation of nociceptors in the internal organs, such as the lungs, heart, and digestive system. It is often described as deep, cramping, or aching and may be more diffuse and difficult to localize.

Examples of conditions that can cause nociceptive pain include injuries, arthritis, cancer, and infections. Effective management of nociceptive pain typically involves a multimodal approach that includes pharmacologic interventions, such as non-opioid analgesics, opioids, and adjuvant medications, as well as non-pharmacologic therapies, such as physical therapy, acupuncture, and cognitive-behavioral therapy.

Complex Regional Pain Syndromes (CRPS) are a group of chronic pain conditions that typically affect a limb after an injury or trauma. They are characterized by prolonged, severe and often debilitating pain that is out of proportion to the severity of the initial injury. CRPS is divided into two types:

1. CRPS-1 (also known as Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy): This type occurs without a clearly defined nerve injury. It usually develops after an illness or injury that didn't directly damage the nerves.
2. CRPS-2 (also known as Causalgia): This type is associated with a confirmed nerve injury.

The symptoms of CRPS include:

* Continuous, burning or throbbing pain in the affected limb
* Changes in skin temperature, color and texture
* Swelling and stiffness in the joints
* Decreased range of motion and weakness in the affected limb
* Sensitivity to touch or cold
* Abnormal sweating pattern in the affected area
* Changes in nail and hair growth patterns

The exact cause of CRPS is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to a dysfunction in the nervous system's response to injury. Treatment for CRPS typically involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and psychological support. In some cases, more invasive treatments such as nerve blocks or spinal cord stimulation may be recommended.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Arthralgia is a medical term that refers to pain in the joints. It does not involve inflammation, which would be referred to as arthritis. The pain can range from mild to severe and may occur in one or multiple joints. Arthralgia can have various causes, including injuries, infections, degenerative conditions, or systemic diseases. In some cases, the underlying cause of arthralgia remains unknown. Treatment typically focuses on managing the pain and addressing the underlying condition if it can be identified.

Myofascial pain syndromes (MPS) are a group of chronic pain disorders characterized by the presence of trigger points in the musculoskeletal system. A trigger point is a hyperirritable spot within a taut band of skeletal muscle, which is often tender to palpation and can cause referred pain, meaning that the pain is felt in a different location than where the trigger point is located.

MPS can affect any muscle in the body, but they are most commonly found in the muscles of the neck, back, shoulders, and hips. The symptoms of MPS may include local or referred pain, stiffness, weakness, and reduced range of motion. The pain is often described as a deep, aching, or throbbing sensation that can be aggravated by physical activity, stress, or anxiety.

The exact cause of MPS is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to muscle overuse, injury, or chronic tension. Other factors that may contribute to the development of MPS include poor posture, vitamin deficiencies, hormonal imbalances, and emotional stress.

Treatment for MPS typically involves a combination of physical therapy, trigger point release techniques, pain management strategies, and self-care practices such as stretching, relaxation, and stress reduction. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage the pain and reduce muscle spasms.

Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic opioid analgesic, which means it's a painkiller that's synthesized from thebaine, an alkaloid found in the poppy plant. It's a strong pain reliever used to treat moderate to severe pain and is often prescribed for around-the-clock treatment of chronic pain. Oxycodone can be found in various forms, such as immediate-release tablets, extended-release tablets, capsules, and solutions.

Common brand names for oxycodone include OxyContin (extended-release), Percocet (oxycodone + acetaminophen), and Roxicodone (immediate-release). As an opioid, oxycodone works by binding to specific receptors in the brain, spinal cord, and gut, reducing the perception of pain and decreasing the emotional response to pain.

However, it's important to note that oxycodone has a high potential for abuse and addiction due to its euphoric effects. Misuse or prolonged use can lead to physical dependence, tolerance, and withdrawal symptoms upon discontinuation. Therefore, it should be taken exactly as prescribed by a healthcare professional and used with caution.

Central nervous system (CNS) sensitization refers to a state in which the CNS, specifically the brain and spinal cord, becomes increasingly hypersensitive to stimuli. This heightened sensitivity results in an amplified response to painful or non-painful stimuli.

In CNS sensitization, there is an increased responsiveness of neurons in the CNS, leading to a lower threshold for activation and an enhanced transmission of nociceptive (pain) signals. This can occur due to various factors such as tissue injury, inflammation, or nerve damage, which trigger changes in the nervous system that contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pain conditions.

CNS sensitization is associated with functional and structural reorganization within the CNS, including alterations in neurotransmitter release, ion channel function, and synaptic plasticity. These changes can result in long-term modifications in the processing and perception of pain, making it more difficult to manage and treat chronic pain conditions.

Disability Evaluation is the process of determining the nature and extent of a person's functional limitations or impairments, and assessing their ability to perform various tasks and activities in order to determine eligibility for disability benefits or accommodations. This process typically involves a medical examination and assessment by a licensed healthcare professional, such as a physician or psychologist, who evaluates the individual's symptoms, medical history, laboratory test results, and functional abilities. The evaluation may also involve input from other professionals, such as vocational experts, occupational therapists, or speech-language pathologists, who can provide additional information about the person's ability to perform specific tasks and activities in a work or daily living context. Based on this information, a determination is made about whether the individual meets the criteria for disability as defined by the relevant governing authority, such as the Social Security Administration or the Americans with Disabilities Act.

Temporomandibular Joint Disorders (TMD) refer to a group of conditions that cause pain and dysfunction in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the muscles that control jaw movement. The TMJ is the hinge joint that connects the lower jaw (mandible) to the skull (temporal bone) in front of the ear. It allows for movements required for activities such as eating, speaking, and yawning.

TMD can result from various causes, including:

1. Muscle tension or spasm due to clenching or grinding teeth (bruxism), stress, or jaw misalignment
2. Dislocation or injury of the TMJ disc, which is a small piece of cartilage that acts as a cushion between the bones in the joint
3. Arthritis or other degenerative conditions affecting the TMJ
4. Bite problems (malocclusion) leading to abnormal stress on the TMJ and its surrounding muscles
5. Stress, which can exacerbate existing TMD symptoms by causing muscle tension

Symptoms of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders may include:
- Pain or tenderness in the jaw, face, neck, or shoulders
- Limited jaw movement or locking of the jaw
- Clicking, popping, or grating sounds when moving the jaw
- Headaches, earaches, or dizziness
- Difficulty chewing or biting
- Swelling on the side of the face

Treatment for TMD varies depending on the severity and cause of the condition. It may include self-care measures (like eating soft foods, avoiding extreme jaw movements, and applying heat or cold packs), physical therapy, medications (such as muscle relaxants, pain relievers, or anti-inflammatory drugs), dental work (including bite adjustments or orthodontic treatment), or even surgery in severe cases.

Nociception is the neural process of encoding and processing noxious stimuli, which can result in the perception of pain. It involves the activation of specialized nerve endings called nociceptors, located throughout the body, that detect potentially harmful stimuli such as extreme temperatures, intense pressure, or tissue damage caused by chemicals released during inflammation. Once activated, nociceptors transmit signals through sensory neurons to the spinal cord and then to the brain, where they are interpreted as painful experiences.

It is important to note that while nociception is necessary for pain perception, it does not always lead to conscious awareness of pain. Factors such as attention, emotion, and context can influence whether or not nociceptive signals are experienced as painful.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Spinal injections, also known as epidural injections or intrathecal injections, are medical procedures involving the injection of medications directly into the spinal canal. The medication is usually delivered into the space surrounding the spinal cord (the epidural space) or into the cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds and protects the spinal cord (the subarachnoid space).

The medications used in spinal injections can include local anesthetics, steroids, opioids, or a combination of these. The purpose of spinal injections is to provide diagnostic information, therapeutic relief, or both. They are commonly used to treat various conditions affecting the spine, such as radicular pain (pain that radiates down the arms or legs), disc herniation, spinal stenosis, and degenerative disc disease.

Spinal injections can be administered using different techniques, including fluoroscopy-guided injections, computed tomography (CT) scan-guided injections, or with the help of a nerve stimulator. These techniques ensure accurate placement of the medication and minimize the risk of complications.

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for specific information regarding spinal injections and their potential benefits and risks.

The spinal cord is a major part of the nervous system, extending from the brainstem and continuing down to the lower back. It is a slender, tubular bundle of nerve fibers (axons) and support cells (glial cells) that carries signals between the brain and the rest of the body. The spinal cord primarily serves as a conduit for motor information, which travels from the brain to the muscles, and sensory information, which travels from the body to the brain. It also contains neurons that can independently process and respond to information within the spinal cord without direct input from the brain.

The spinal cord is protected by the bony vertebral column (spine) and is divided into 31 segments: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each segment corresponds to a specific region of the body and gives rise to pairs of spinal nerves that exit through the intervertebral foramina at each level.

The spinal cord is responsible for several vital functions, including:

1. Reflexes: Simple reflex actions, such as the withdrawal reflex when touching a hot surface, are mediated by the spinal cord without involving the brain.
2. Muscle control: The spinal cord carries motor signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling voluntary movement and muscle tone regulation.
3. Sensory perception: The spinal cord transmits sensory information, such as touch, temperature, pain, and vibration, from the body to the brain for processing and awareness.
4. Autonomic functions: The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system originate in the thoracolumbar and sacral regions of the spinal cord, respectively, controlling involuntary physiological responses like heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and respiration.

Damage to the spinal cord can result in various degrees of paralysis or loss of sensation below the level of injury, depending on the severity and location of the damage.

Morphine is a potent opioid analgesic (pain reliever) derived from the opium poppy. It works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals and reducing the perception of pain. Morphine is used to treat moderate to severe pain, including pain associated with cancer, myocardial infarction, and other conditions. It can also be used as a sedative and cough suppressant.

Morphine has a high potential for abuse and dependence, and its use should be closely monitored by healthcare professionals. Common side effects of morphine include drowsiness, respiratory depression, constipation, nausea, and vomiting. Overdose can result in respiratory failure, coma, and death.

Inguinal hernia, also known as an inguinal rupture or groin hernia, is a protrusion of abdominal-cavity contents through the inguinal canal. The inguinal canal is a passage in the lower abdominal wall that carries the spermatic cord in males and a round ligament in females. Inguinal hernias are more common in men than women.

There are two types of inguinal hernias: direct and indirect. Direct inguinal hernias occur when the abdominal lining and/or fat push through a weakened area in the lower abdominal wall, while indirect inguinal hernias result from a congenital condition where the abdominal lining and/or fat protrude through the internal inguinal ring, a normal opening in the abdominal wall.

Inguinal hernias can cause discomfort or pain, especially during physical activities, coughing, sneezing, or straining. In some cases, incarceration or strangulation of the hernia may occur, leading to serious complications such as bowel obstruction or tissue necrosis, which require immediate medical attention.

Surgical repair is the standard treatment for inguinal hernias, and it can be performed through open or laparoscopic techniques. The goal of surgery is to return the protruding tissues to their proper position and strengthen the weakened abdominal wall with sutures or mesh reinforcement.

Analgesics, non-narcotic are a class of medications used to relieve pain that do not contain narcotics or opioids. They work by blocking the transmission of pain signals in the nervous system or by reducing inflammation and swelling. Examples of non-narcotic analgesics include acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (Aleve), and aspirin. These medications are often used to treat mild to moderate pain, such as headaches, menstrual cramps, muscle aches, and arthritis symptoms. They can be obtained over-the-counter or by prescription, depending on the dosage and formulation. It is important to follow the recommended dosages and usage instructions carefully to avoid adverse effects.

Local anesthetics are a type of medication that is used to block the sensation of pain in a specific area of the body. They work by temporarily numbing the nerves in that area, preventing them from transmitting pain signals to the brain. Local anesthetics can be administered through various routes, including topical application (such as creams or gels), injection (such as into the skin or tissues), or regional nerve blocks (such as epidural or spinal anesthesia).

Some common examples of local anesthetics include lidocaine, prilocaine, bupivacaine, and ropivacaine. These medications can be used for a variety of medical procedures, ranging from minor surgeries (such as dental work or skin biopsies) to more major surgeries (such as joint replacements or hernia repairs).

Local anesthetics are generally considered safe when used appropriately, but they can have side effects and potential complications. These may include allergic reactions, toxicity (if too much is administered), and nerve damage (if the medication is injected into a nerve). It's important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using local anesthetics, and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Psychological adaptation refers to the process by which individuals adjust and cope with stressors, challenges, or changes in their environment or circumstances. It involves modifying thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and copabilities to reduce the negative impact of these stressors and promote well-being. Psychological adaptation can occur at different levels, including intrapersonal (within the individual), interpersonal (between individuals), and cultural (within a group or society).

Examples of psychological adaptation include:

* Cognitive restructuring: changing negative thoughts and beliefs to more positive or adaptive ones
* Emotion regulation: managing and reducing intense or distressing emotions
* Problem-solving: finding solutions to practical challenges or obstacles
* Seeking social support: reaching out to others for help, advice, or comfort
* Developing coping strategies: using effective ways to deal with stressors or difficulties
* Cultivating resilience: bouncing back from adversity and learning from negative experiences.

Psychological adaptation is an important aspect of mental health and well-being, as it helps individuals adapt to new situations, overcome challenges, and maintain a sense of control and optimism in the face of stressors or changes.

Depression is a mood disorder that is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities. It can also cause significant changes in sleep, appetite, energy level, concentration, and behavior. Depression can interfere with daily life and normal functioning, and it can increase the risk of suicide and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of depression is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. There are several types of depression, including major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, postpartum depression, and seasonal affective disorder. Treatment for depression typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy.

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

Visceral pain is a type of pain that originates from the internal organs (viscera) such as the stomach, intestines, liver, or heart. It's often described as diffuse, dull, and hard to localize, unlike somatic pain which arises from the skin, muscles, or bones and is usually easier to pinpoint.

Visceral pain may be caused by various conditions like inflammation, infection, ischemia (reduced blood supply), distention or stretching of the organ walls, or direct damage to the organs. The sensation of visceral pain can be modulated and referred to other areas of the body due to the complex interactions in the nervous system, making it sometimes challenging to diagnose the exact source of the pain.

Posterior horn cells refer to the neurons located in the posterior (or dorsal) horn of the gray matter in the spinal cord. These cells are primarily responsible for receiving and processing sensory information from peripheral nerves, particularly related to touch, pressure, pain, and temperature. The axons of these cells form the ascending tracts that carry this information to the brain for further processing. It's worth noting that damage to posterior horn cells can result in various sensory deficits, such as those seen in certain neurological conditions.

Spinal nerves are the bundles of nerve fibers that transmit signals between the spinal cord and the rest of the body. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves in the human body, which can be divided into five regions: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each spinal nerve carries both sensory information (such as touch, temperature, and pain) from the periphery to the spinal cord, and motor information (such as muscle control) from the spinal cord to the muscles and other structures in the body. Spinal nerves also contain autonomic fibers that regulate involuntary functions such as heart rate, digestion, and blood pressure.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Activities of Daily Living (ADL) are routine self-care activities that individuals usually do every day without assistance. These activities are widely used as a measure to determine the functional status and independence of a person, particularly in the elderly or those with disabilities or chronic illnesses. The basic ADLs include:

1. Personal hygiene: Bathing, washing hands and face, brushing teeth, grooming, and using the toilet.
2. Dressing: Selecting appropriate clothes and dressing oneself.
3. Eating: Preparing and consuming food, either independently or with assistive devices.
4. Mobility: Moving in and out of bed, chairs, or wheelchairs, walking independently or using mobility aids.
5. Transferring: Moving from one place to another, such as getting in and out of a car, bath, or bed.

There are also more complex Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) that assess an individual's ability to manage their own life and live independently. These include managing finances, shopping for groceries, using the telephone, taking medications as prescribed, preparing meals, and housekeeping tasks.

Musculoskeletal diseases are a group of medical conditions that affect the bones, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, and nerves. These diseases can cause pain, stiffness, limited mobility, and decreased function in the affected areas of the body. They include a wide range of conditions such as:

1. Osteoarthritis: A degenerative joint disease characterized by the breakdown of cartilage in joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation in the lining of the joints, resulting in swelling, pain, and bone erosion.
3. Gout: A form of arthritis caused by the buildup of uric acid crystals in the joints, leading to severe pain, redness, and swelling.
4. Osteoporosis: A condition characterized by weakened bones that are more susceptible to fractures due to decreased bone density.
5. Fibromyalgia: A disorder that causes widespread muscle pain, fatigue, and tenderness in specific areas of the body.
6. Spinal disorders: Conditions affecting the spine, such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or degenerative disc disease, which can cause back pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness.
7. Soft tissue injuries: Damage to muscles, tendons, and ligaments, often caused by overuse, strain, or trauma.
8. Infections: Bone and joint infections (septic arthritis or osteomyelitis) can cause pain, swelling, and fever.
9. Tumors: Benign or malignant growths in bones, muscles, or soft tissues can lead to pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
10. Genetic disorders: Certain genetic conditions, such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, can affect the musculoskeletal system and cause various symptoms.

Treatment for musculoskeletal diseases varies depending on the specific condition but may include medications, physical therapy, exercise, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) diseases, also known as Peripheral Neuropathies, refer to conditions that affect the functioning of the peripheral nervous system, which includes all the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. These nerves transmit signals between the central nervous system (CNS) and the rest of the body, controlling sensations, movements, and automatic functions such as heart rate and digestion.

PNS diseases can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, toxins, metabolic disorders, trauma, or autoimmune conditions. The symptoms of PNS diseases depend on the type and extent of nerve damage but often include:

1. Numbness, tingling, or pain in the hands and feet
2. Muscle weakness or cramps
3. Loss of reflexes
4. Decreased sensation to touch, temperature, or vibration
5. Coordination problems and difficulty with balance
6. Sexual dysfunction
7. Digestive issues, such as constipation or diarrhea
8. Dizziness or fainting due to changes in blood pressure

Examples of PNS diseases include Guillain-Barre syndrome, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, diabetic neuropathy, and peripheral nerve injuries. Treatment for these conditions varies depending on the underlying cause but may involve medications, physical therapy, lifestyle changes, or surgery.

A headache is defined as pain or discomfort in the head, scalp, or neck. It can be a symptom of various underlying conditions such as stress, sinus congestion, migraine, or more serious issues like meningitis or concussion. Headaches can vary in intensity, ranging from mild to severe, and may be accompanied by other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, or sensitivity to light and sound. There are over 150 different types of headaches, including tension headaches, cluster headaches, and sinus headaches, each with their own specific characteristics and causes.

Illness behavior is a term used in the field of medicine and psychology to describe the way an individual perceives, experiences, and responds to symptoms or illness. It encompasses the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that are associated with being sick or experiencing discomfort. This can include seeking medical attention, adhering to treatment plans, and adjusting one's daily activities to accommodate the illness.

Illness behavior is not simply the presence of physical symptoms, but rather it is the way in which an individual interprets and responds to those symptoms. It can be influenced by a variety of factors, including cultural beliefs about health and illness, previous experiences with illness, personality traits, and mental health status.

It's important to note that illness behavior is not necessarily indicative of malingering or fabricating symptoms. Rather, it reflects the complex interplay between an individual's physical health, psychological factors, and social context. Understanding illness behavior can help healthcare providers better assess and manage their patients' symptoms and improve overall care.

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) is a non-invasive method of pain relief that involves the use of low-voltage electrical currents. A TENS device, which is usually small and portable, delivers these currents through electrodes that are placed on the skin near the site of pain. The electrical impulses stimulate nerve fibers, which can help to block the transmission of pain signals to the brain, thereby reducing the perception of pain.

TENS is thought to work through a number of different mechanisms, including the gate control theory of pain and the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body. It is generally considered safe, with few side effects, and can be used in conjunction with other forms of pain management.

TENS is often used to treat chronic pain conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, and lower back pain, as well as acute pain from injuries or surgery. However, its effectiveness varies from person to person, and it may not work for everyone. It is important to consult with a healthcare provider before using TENS, particularly if you have any underlying medical conditions or are taking medication that could interact with the electrical currents.

Hypnosis is a state of highly focused attention or concentration, often associated with relaxation, and heightened suggestibility. In a clinical context, hypnosis is often used as a tool in hypnotherapy, to help individuals explore unconscious thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, or to make positive changes to their thoughts, behavior, and physical well-being. It's important to note that hypnosis is not a state of unconsciousness or sleep, but rather a state of altered consciousness characterized by increased suggestibility and focused attention.

It's also worth noting that the definition of hypnosis can vary between different fields and perspectives. Some definitions emphasize the role of suggestion in shaping experience during hypnosis, while others focus on the importance of expectancy and belief. Additionally, there is ongoing debate about the precise mechanisms underlying hypnotic phenomena, with some researchers emphasizing social and psychological factors, while others highlight neurological and physiological changes associated with hypnosis.

Trigeminal nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the trigeminal nerve, which is one of the cranial nerves responsible for sensations in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing. The trigeminal nerve has three branches: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which innervate different parts of the face and head.

Trigeminal nerve diseases can cause various symptoms, including facial pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness. Some common trigeminal nerve diseases include:

1. Trigeminal neuralgia: A chronic pain condition that affects the trigeminal nerve, causing intense, stabbing, or electric shock-like pain in the face.
2. Hemifacial spasm: A neuromuscular disorder that causes involuntary muscle spasms on one side of the face, often affecting the muscles around the eye and mouth.
3. Trigeminal neuropathy: Damage or injury to the trigeminal nerve, which can result in numbness, tingling, or weakness in the face.
4. Herpes zoster oticus (Ramsay Hunt syndrome): A viral infection that affects the facial nerve and geniculate ganglion of the trigeminal nerve, causing facial paralysis, ear pain, and a rash around the ear.
5. Microvascular compression: Compression of the trigeminal nerve by a blood vessel, which can cause symptoms similar to trigeminal neuralgia.

Treatment for trigeminal nerve diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or radiation therapy.

Spinal ganglia, also known as dorsal root ganglia, are clusters of nerve cell bodies located in the peripheral nervous system. They are situated along the length of the spinal cord and are responsible for transmitting sensory information from the body to the brain. Each spinal ganglion contains numerous neurons, or nerve cells, with long processes called axons that extend into the periphery and innervate various tissues and organs. The cell bodies within the spinal ganglia receive sensory input from these axons and transmit this information to the central nervous system via the dorsal roots of the spinal nerves. This allows the brain to interpret and respond to a wide range of sensory stimuli, including touch, temperature, pain, and proprioception (the sense of the position and movement of one's body).

Whiplash injuries are a type of soft tissue injury to the neck that occurs when the head is suddenly and forcefully thrown backward (hyperextension) and then forward (hyperflexion). This motion is similar to the cracking of a whip, hence the term "whiplash."

Whiplash injuries are most commonly associated with rear-end automobile accidents, but they can also occur from sports accidents, physical abuse, or other traumatic events. The impact of these forces on the neck can cause damage to the muscles, ligaments, tendons, and other soft tissues in the neck, resulting in pain, stiffness, and limited mobility.

In some cases, whiplash injuries may also cause damage to the discs between the vertebrae in the spine or to the nerves exiting the spinal cord. These types of injuries can have more serious consequences and may require additional medical treatment.

Whiplash injuries are typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical examination, patient history, and imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment for whiplash injuries may include pain medication, physical therapy, chiropractic care, or in some cases, surgery.

Surgical mesh is a medical device that is used in various surgical procedures, particularly in reconstructive surgery, to provide additional support to weakened or damaged tissues. It is typically made from synthetic materials such as polypropylene or polyester, or from biological materials such as animal tissue or human cadaveric tissue.

The mesh is designed to be implanted into the body, where it can help to reinforce and repair damaged tissues. For example, it may be used in hernia repairs to support the weakened abdominal wall, or in pelvic floor reconstruction surgery to treat conditions such as pelvic organ prolapse or stress urinary incontinence.

Surgical mesh can come in different forms, including sheets, plugs, and patches, and may be either absorbable or non-absorbable. The choice of mesh material and type will depend on the specific surgical indication and the patient's individual needs. It is important for patients to discuss the risks and benefits of surgical mesh with their healthcare provider before undergoing any surgical procedure that involves its use.

Anxiety: A feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease, typically about an imminent event or something with an uncertain outcome. In a medical context, anxiety refers to a mental health disorder characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or panic that interfere with daily activities. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, or substance abuse disorders. Anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and phobias.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Sciatica is not a medical condition itself but rather a symptom of an underlying medical problem. It's typically described as pain that radiates along the sciatic nerve, which runs from your lower back through your hips and buttocks and down each leg.

The pain can vary widely, from a mild ache to a sharp, burning sensation or excruciating discomfort. Sometimes, the pain is severe enough to make moving difficult. Sciatica most commonly occurs when a herniated disk, bone spur on the spine, or narrowing of the spine (spinal stenosis) compresses part of the nerve.

While sciatica can be quite painful, it's not typically a sign of permanent nerve damage and can often be relieved with non-surgical treatments. However, if the pain is severe or persists for a long period, it's essential to seek medical attention as it could indicate a more serious underlying condition.

Vulvodynia is a chronic pain condition that affects the vulva, which is the external female genital area. The main symptom is persistent, often burning or irritating pain without an identifiable cause. Some women may experience pain only when the area is touched (provoked vulvodynia), while others have constant pain (unprovoked vulvodynia).

The pain can significantly affect a woman's quality of life, making everyday activities like sitting, wearing tight clothes, or having sex uncomfortable or even unbearable. The exact cause of vulvodynia is not known, but it may be associated with nerve damage or irritation, hormonal changes, muscle spasms, allergies, or past genital infections. Treatment often involves a multidisciplinary approach and can include medication, physical therapy, lifestyle changes, and counseling.

Acupuncture therapy is a form of traditional Chinese medicine that involves the insertion of thin needles into specific points on the body to stimulate the flow of energy (Qi), balance the vital force (Chi), and promote healing. It is based on the concept of meridians, or pathways, through which this energy flows. Acupuncture therapy is used to treat a variety of conditions, including pain, stress, anxiety, insomnia, digestive disorders, and reproductive health issues. According to Western medicine, acupuncture may work by stimulating the nervous system, increasing blood flow, and releasing natural pain-relieving chemicals called endorphins. It is generally considered safe when performed by a qualified practitioner using sterile needles.

A nerve block is a medical procedure in which an anesthetic or neurolytic agent is injected near a specific nerve or bundle of nerves to block the transmission of pain signals from that area to the brain. This technique can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, such as identifying the source of pain, providing temporary or prolonged relief, or facilitating surgical procedures in the affected region.

The injection typically contains a local anesthetic like lidocaine or bupivacaine, which numbs the nerve, preventing it from transmitting pain signals. In some cases, steroids may also be added to reduce inflammation and provide longer-lasting relief. Depending on the type of nerve block and its intended use, the injection might be administered close to the spine (neuraxial blocks), at peripheral nerves (peripheral nerve blocks), or around the sympathetic nervous system (sympathetic nerve blocks).

While nerve blocks are generally safe, they can have side effects such as infection, bleeding, nerve damage, or in rare cases, systemic toxicity from the anesthetic agent. It is essential to consult with a qualified medical professional before undergoing this procedure to ensure proper evaluation, technique, and post-procedure care.

Hydromorphone is a potent semi-synthetic opioid analgesic, which is chemically related to morphine but is approximately 8 times more potent. It is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain and is available in various forms such as tablets, extended-release tablets, solutions, and injectable formulations. Common brand names include Dilaudid and Exalgo. Hydromorphone works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, reducing the perception of pain and decreasing the emotional response to pain. As with other opioids, hydromorphone carries a risk for dependence, addiction, and abuse.

Electric stimulation therapy, also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) or electromyostimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses electrical impulses to stimulate muscles and nerves. The electrical signals are delivered through electrodes placed on the skin near the target muscle group or nerve.

The therapy can be used for various purposes, including:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help reduce pain by stimulating the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body. It can also help block the transmission of pain signals to the brain.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: NMES can be used to prevent muscle atrophy and maintain muscle tone in individuals who are unable to move their muscles due to injury or illness, such as spinal cord injuries or stroke.
3. Improving circulation: Electric stimulation can help improve blood flow and reduce swelling by contracting the muscles and promoting the movement of fluids in the body.
4. Wound healing: NMES can be used to promote wound healing by increasing blood flow, reducing swelling, and improving muscle function around the wound site.
5. Muscle strengthening: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen muscles by causing them to contract and relax repeatedly, which can help improve muscle strength and endurance.

It is important to note that electric stimulation therapy should only be administered under the guidance of a trained healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

Sensory receptor cells are specialized structures that convert physical stimuli from our environment into electrical signals, which are then transmitted to the brain for interpretation. These receptors can be found in various tissues throughout the body and are responsible for detecting sensations such as touch, pressure, temperature, taste, and smell. They can be classified into two main types: exteroceptors, which respond to stimuli from the external environment, and interoceptors, which react to internal conditions within the body. Examples of sensory receptor cells include hair cells in the inner ear, photoreceptors in the eye, and taste buds on the tongue.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Amitriptyline is a type of medication known as a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). It is primarily used to treat depression, but it also has other therapeutic uses such as managing chronic pain, migraine prevention, and treating anxiety disorders. Amitriptyline works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, which help to regulate mood and alleviate pain.

The medication is available in various forms, including tablets and liquid solutions, and it is typically taken orally. The dosage of amitriptyline may vary depending on the individual's age, medical condition, and response to treatment. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking this medication.

Common side effects of amitriptyline include drowsiness, dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, and weight gain. In some cases, it may cause more severe side effects such as orthostatic hypotension (low blood pressure upon standing), cardiac arrhythmias, and seizures. It is crucial to inform the healthcare provider of any pre-existing medical conditions or current medications before starting amitriptyline therapy, as these factors can influence its safety and efficacy.

Amitriptyline has a well-established history in clinical practice, but it may not be suitable for everyone due to its potential side effects and drug interactions. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before using this medication.

Prescription drug misuse is defined as the use of a medication without a prescription, in a way other than prescribed (such as taking more than the prescribed dose), or for the experience or feeling it causes. It's important to note that this behavior can lead to negative health consequences, including addiction and overdose.

The term "prescription drug" refers to a medication that is legally available only with a prescription from a healthcare provider. These drugs are typically classified into different categories based on their potential for misuse or dependence. Examples of commonly misused prescription drugs include opioids (such as oxycodone and hydrocodone), benzodiazepines (such as diazepam and alprazolam), and stimulants (such as amphetamine and methylphenidate).

Prescription drug misuse is a significant public health concern in many parts of the world. It's important to only use prescription medications as directed by a healthcare provider, and to store them securely to prevent others from accessing them without a prescription. If you or someone you know is struggling with prescription drug misuse, it's important to seek help from a healthcare professional.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Hyperesthesia is a medical term that refers to an increased sensitivity to sensory stimuli, including touch, pain, temperature, or sound. It can affect various parts of the body and can be a symptom of several different conditions, such as nerve damage, multiple sclerosis, or complex regional pain syndrome. Hyperesthesia can cause discomfort, pain, or even intense pain in response to light touch or other stimuli that would not normally cause such a reaction. Treatment for hyperesthesia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, physical therapy, or other interventions.

Trigeminal neuralgia is a chronic pain condition that affects the trigeminal nerve, which is one of the largest nerves in the head. It carries sensations from the face to the brain.

Medically, trigeminal neuralgia is defined as a neuropathic disorder characterized by episodes of intense, stabbing, electric shock-like pain in the areas of the face supplied by the trigeminal nerve (the ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular divisions). The pain can be triggered by simple activities such as talking, eating, brushing teeth, or even touching the face lightly.

The condition is more common in women over 50, but it can occur at any age and in either gender. While the exact cause of trigeminal neuralgia is not always known, it can sometimes be related to pressure on the trigeminal nerve from a nearby blood vessel or other causes such as multiple sclerosis. Treatment typically involves medications, surgery, or a combination of both.

Cyclohexanecarboxylic acids are a type of organic compound that consists of a cyclohexane ring, which is a six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon, substituted with a carboxylic acid group (-COOH). This group contains a carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen atom and single bonded to a hydroxyl group (-OH).

The cyclohexane ring can be in various forms, including the chair, boat, or twist-boat conformations, depending on the orientation of its constituent atoms. The carboxylic acid group can ionize to form a carboxylate anion, which is negatively charged and has a deprotonated hydroxyl group.

Cyclohexanecarboxylic acids have various applications in industry and research, including as intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals, solvents, and pharmaceuticals. They can also be found naturally in some plants and microorganisms.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a type of neuralgia, which is defined as pain in the distribution of a nerve or nerves. Specifically, PHN is a neuropathic pain condition that develops after an individual has had herpes zoster, also known as shingles. Shingles is caused by the reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus, which lies dormant in the nervous system following chickenpox infection.

PHN is characterized by persistent burning pain, often accompanied by sensory abnormalities such as numbness, tingling, or itching, in the area of the body where shingles occurred. The pain can be severe and debilitating, significantly impacting a person's quality of life. PHN primarily affects older adults and individuals with weakened immune systems.

The exact cause of PHN is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from damage to the affected nerves and their surrounding tissues during the shingles infection. This damage can lead to altered nerve function and increased sensitivity to stimuli, resulting in chronic pain. Treatment for PHN typically involves a combination of medications, such as antidepressants, anticonvulsants, or opioids, as well as topical treatments, physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications to help manage the pain and improve quality of life.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Peripheral nerve injuries refer to damage or trauma to the peripheral nerves, which are the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. These nerves transmit information between the central nervous system (CNS) and the rest of the body, including sensory, motor, and autonomic functions. Peripheral nerve injuries can result in various symptoms, depending on the type and severity of the injury, such as numbness, tingling, weakness, or paralysis in the affected area.

Peripheral nerve injuries are classified into three main categories based on the degree of damage:

1. Neuropraxia: This is the mildest form of nerve injury, where the nerve remains intact but its function is disrupted due to a local conduction block. The nerve fiber is damaged, but the supporting structures remain intact. Recovery usually occurs within 6-12 weeks without any residual deficits.
2. Axonotmesis: In this type of injury, there is damage to both the axons and the supporting structures (endoneurium, perineurium). The nerve fibers are disrupted, but the connective tissue sheaths remain intact. Recovery can take several months or even up to a year, and it may be incomplete, with some residual deficits possible.
3. Neurotmesis: This is the most severe form of nerve injury, where there is complete disruption of the nerve fibers and supporting structures (endoneurium, perineurium, epineurium). Recovery is unlikely without surgical intervention, which may involve nerve grafting or repair.

Peripheral nerve injuries can be caused by various factors, including trauma, compression, stretching, lacerations, or chemical exposure. Treatment options depend on the type and severity of the injury and may include conservative management, such as physical therapy and pain management, or surgical intervention for more severe cases.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Freund's adjuvant is not a medical condition but a substance used in laboratory research to enhance the body's immune response to an antigen or vaccine. It is named after its developer, Jules T. Freund.

There are two types of Freund's adjuvants: complete and incomplete. Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) contains killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, which causes a strong inflammatory response when injected into the body. This makes it an effective adjuvant for experimental vaccines, as it helps to stimulate the immune system and promote a stronger and longer-lasting immune response.

Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) is similar to FCA but does not contain Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is less potent than FCA but still useful for boosting the immune response to certain antigens.

It is important to note that Freund's adjuvants are not used in human vaccines due to their potential to cause adverse reactions, including granulomas and other inflammatory responses. They are primarily used in laboratory research with animals.

Herniorrhaphy is a surgical procedure where the herniated tissue or organ is placed back into its original position, and the weakened or damaged muscle wall is repaired. This is typically done to correct a hernia, which is a protrusion of an organ or tissue through a weakened area in the abdominal wall. The surgical incision may be closed with sutures or staples, and sometimes a mesh patch is used to reinforce the repair.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Spinal cord injuries (SCI) refer to damage to the spinal cord that results in a loss of function, such as mobility or feeling. This injury can be caused by direct trauma to the spine or by indirect damage resulting from disease or degeneration of surrounding bones, tissues, or blood vessels. The location and severity of the injury on the spinal cord will determine which parts of the body are affected and to what extent.

The effects of SCI can range from mild sensory changes to severe paralysis, including loss of motor function, autonomic dysfunction, and possible changes in sensation, strength, and reflexes below the level of injury. These injuries are typically classified as complete or incomplete, depending on whether there is any remaining function below the level of injury.

Immediate medical attention is crucial for spinal cord injuries to prevent further damage and improve the chances of recovery. Treatment usually involves immobilization of the spine, medications to reduce swelling and pressure, surgery to stabilize the spine, and rehabilitation to help regain lost function. Despite advances in treatment, SCI can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life and ability to perform daily activities.

Cognitive Therapy (CT) is a type of psychotherapeutic treatment that helps patients understand the thoughts and feelings that influence behaviors. It is a form of talk therapy where the therapist and the patient work together to identify and change negative or distorted thinking patterns and beliefs, with the goal of improving emotional response and behavior.

Cognitive Therapy is based on the idea that our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are all interconnected, and that negative or inaccurate thoughts can contribute to problems like anxiety and depression. By identifying and challenging these thoughts, patients can learn to think more realistically and positively, which can lead to improvements in their mood and behavior.

In cognitive therapy sessions, the therapist will help the patient identify negative thought patterns and replace them with healthier, more accurate ways of thinking. The therapist may also assign homework or exercises for the patient to practice between sessions, such as keeping a thought record or challenging negative thoughts.

Cognitive Therapy has been shown to be effective in treating a wide range of mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is often used in combination with other forms of treatment, such as medication, and can be delivered individually or in group settings.

Psychometrics is a branch of psychology that deals with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, such as the development and standardization of tests used to measure intelligence, aptitude, personality, attitudes, and other mental abilities or traits. It involves the construction and validation of measurement instruments, including the determination of their reliability and validity, and the application of statistical methods to analyze test data and interpret results. The ultimate goal of psychometrics is to provide accurate, objective, and meaningful measurements that can be used to understand individual differences and make informed decisions in educational, clinical, and organizational settings.

Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a medical procedure that involves the use of an implanted device to deliver electrical pulses to the spinal cord. The pulses are intended to interrupt or mask the transmission of pain signals to the brain, thereby reducing the perception of pain. SCS is typically offered as a treatment option for patients with chronic pain who have not found relief from other therapies, such as medication or surgery.

During the procedure, electrodes are placed in the epidural space of the spinal cord, and connected to a pulse generator that is implanted under the skin, usually in the abdomen or buttocks. The patient can use a remote control to adjust the intensity and location of the stimulation, allowing them to customize the therapy to their individual pain patterns.

SCS is generally considered safe, although there are some risks associated with the procedure, such as infection, bleeding, and nerve damage. It is important for patients to discuss these risks with their healthcare provider before deciding whether to undergo SCS.

In a medical context, "hot temperature" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, it is often used in relation to fever, which is a common symptom of illness. A fever is typically defined as a body temperature that is higher than normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F) for adults and above 37.5-38°C (99.5-101.3°F) for children, depending on the source.

Therefore, when a medical professional talks about "hot temperature," they may be referring to a body temperature that is higher than normal due to fever or other causes. It's important to note that a high environmental temperature can also contribute to an elevated body temperature, so it's essential to consider both the body temperature and the environmental temperature when assessing a patient's condition.

Physical stimulation, in a medical context, refers to the application of external forces or agents to the body or its tissues to elicit a response. This can include various forms of touch, pressure, temperature, vibration, or electrical currents. The purpose of physical stimulation may be therapeutic, as in the case of massage or physical therapy, or diagnostic, as in the use of reflex tests. It is also used in research settings to study physiological responses and mechanisms.

In a broader sense, physical stimulation can also refer to the body's exposure to physical activity or exercise, which can have numerous health benefits, including improving cardiovascular function, increasing muscle strength and flexibility, and reducing the risk of chronic diseases.

Lidocaine is a type of local anesthetic that numbs painful areas and is used to prevent pain during certain medical procedures. It works by blocking the nerves that transmit pain signals to the brain. In addition to its use as an anesthetic, lidocaine can also be used to treat irregular heart rates and relieve itching caused by allergic reactions or skin conditions such as eczema.

Lidocaine is available in various forms, including creams, gels, ointments, sprays, solutions, and injectable preparations. It can be applied directly to the skin or mucous membranes, or it can be administered by injection into a muscle or vein. The specific dosage and method of administration will depend on the reason for its use and the individual patient's medical history and current health status.

Like all medications, lidocaine can have side effects, including allergic reactions, numbness that lasts too long, and in rare cases, heart problems or seizures. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider carefully when using lidocaine to minimize the risk of adverse effects.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Somatoform disorders are a group of psychological disorders characterized by the presence of physical symptoms that cannot be fully explained by a medical condition or substance abuse. These symptoms cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. The individual's belief about the symptoms is not consistent with the medical evaluation and often leads to excessive or repeated medical evaluations.

Examples of somatoform disorders include:

1. Somatization disorder: characterized by multiple physical symptoms that cannot be explained medically, affecting several parts of the body.
2. Conversion disorder: characterized by the presence of one or more neurological symptoms (such as blindness, paralysis, or difficulty swallowing) that cannot be explained medically and appear to have a psychological origin.
3. Pain disorder: characterized by chronic pain that is not fully explained by a medical condition.
4. Hypochondriasis: characterized by an excessive preoccupation with having a serious illness, despite reassurance from medical professionals.
5. Body dysmorphic disorder: characterized by the obsessive idea that some aspect of one's own body part or appearance is severely flawed and warrants exceptional measures to hide or fix it.

It's important to note that these disorders are not caused by intentional deceit or malingering, but rather reflect a genuine belief in the presence of physical symptoms and distress related to them.

Labor pain is the physiological discomfort and pain experienced by women during childbirth, typically beginning in the lower back and radiating to the abdomen as contractions become more intense and frequent. It's primarily caused by the contraction of uterine muscles, pressure on the cervix, and stretching of the vaginal tissues during labor and delivery.

The pain can vary greatly among individuals, ranging from mild to severe, and it may be influenced by factors such as fear, anxiety, cultural expectations, and previous childbirth experiences. Various methods, including pharmacological interventions (such as epidural anesthesia), non-pharmacological techniques (such as breathing exercises, relaxation techniques, and water immersion), and alternative therapies (such as acupuncture and massage) can be used to manage labor pain.

Narcotic antagonists are a class of medications that block the effects of opioids, a type of narcotic pain reliever, by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and blocking the activation of these receptors by opioids. This results in the prevention or reversal of opioid-induced effects such as respiratory depression, sedation, and euphoria. Narcotic antagonists are used for a variety of medical purposes, including the treatment of opioid overdose, the management of opioid dependence, and the prevention of opioid-induced side effects in certain clinical situations. Examples of narcotic antagonists include naloxone, naltrexone, and methylnaltrexone.

Failed Back Surgery Syndrome (FBSS) is not a formally recognized medical diagnosis, but rather a term that is used to describe the condition of patients who continue to experience chronic pain in the spine or legs after having undergone one or more spinal surgeries. FBSS does not necessarily mean that the surgery was performed incorrectly, but rather that it did not achieve the desired outcome of relieving the patient's pain.

The symptoms of FBSS can vary from person to person, but often include chronic pain in the back or legs, numbness or tingling sensations, muscle weakness, and decreased mobility. The exact cause of FBSS is not always clear, but it may be due to a variety of factors, such as nerve damage, scar tissue formation, or continued spinal instability.

Treatment for FBSS typically involves a multidisciplinary approach that may include medication, physical therapy, injections, and psychological support. In some cases, additional surgery may be recommended, but this is usually considered a last resort due to the risks involved and the fact that previous surgeries have not been successful.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that is characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of cartilage - the tissue that cushions the ends of bones where they meet in the joints. This breakdown can cause the bones to rub against each other, causing pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility. OA can occur in any joint, but it most commonly affects the hands, knees, hips, and spine. It is often associated with aging and can be caused or worsened by obesity, injury, or overuse.

The medical definition of osteoarthritis is: "a degenerative, non-inflammatory joint disease characterized by the loss of articular cartilage, bone remodeling, and the formation of osteophytes (bone spurs). It is often associated with pain, stiffness, and decreased range of motion in the affected joint."

Hyperesthesia is a medical term that refers to an increased sensitivity to sensory stimuli, including touch, pain, or temperature. It can affect various parts of the body and can be caused by different conditions, such as nerve damage, multiple sclerosis, or complex regional pain syndrome. Hyperesthesia can manifest as a heightened awareness of sensations, which can be painful or uncomfortable, and may interfere with daily activities. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment if experiencing symptoms of hyperesthesia.

Comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional health conditions or diseases alongside a primary illness or condition. These co-occurring health issues can have an impact on the treatment plan, prognosis, and overall healthcare management of an individual. Comorbidities often interact with each other and the primary condition, leading to more complex clinical situations and increased healthcare needs. It is essential for healthcare professionals to consider and address comorbidities to provide comprehensive care and improve patient outcomes.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

A toothache is defined as pain or discomfort in or around a tooth, usually caused by dental cavities, gum disease, tooth fracture, or exposed tooth roots. The pain may be sharp and stabbing, throbbing, or constant and dull. It can also be aggravated by hot, cold, sweet, or sour foods and drinks, or by biting or chewing. Toothaches are serious and should not be ignored as they can be a sign of more significant dental issues that require immediate professional attention from a dentist.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are a class of medications that reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. They work by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and cause blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable, leading to symptoms such as pain, redness, warmth, and swelling.

NSAIDs are commonly used to treat a variety of conditions, including arthritis, muscle strains and sprains, menstrual cramps, headaches, and fever. Some examples of NSAIDs include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While NSAIDs are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can have side effects, particularly when taken in large doses or for long periods of time. Common side effects include stomach ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding, and increased risk of heart attack and stroke. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any concerns about using NSAIDs.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Medical Definition of Massage:

Massage is defined as the manual manipulation of soft body tissues (such as muscle, connective tissue, tendons, and ligaments) to enhance health and well-being. It involves various techniques that include kneading, rubbing, pressing, and stretching the muscles and fascia (the connective tissue that covers the muscles).

The goal of massage is to increase circulation, relieve tension, reduce muscle stiffness and pain, promote relaxation, and improve range of motion and overall flexibility. Massage therapy may be used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including anxiety, headaches, insomnia, joint pain, soft tissue injuries, and sports-related injuries.

It is important to note that massage should be performed by a trained and licensed professional to ensure safety and effectiveness. Additionally, individuals with certain health conditions, such as deep vein thrombosis, fractures, or infectious diseases, should avoid massage or consult their healthcare provider before receiving treatment.

Drug tolerance is a medical concept that refers to the decreased response to a drug following its repeated use, requiring higher doses to achieve the same effect. This occurs because the body adapts to the presence of the drug, leading to changes in the function or expression of targets that the drug acts upon, such as receptors or enzymes. Tolerance can develop to various types of drugs, including opioids, benzodiazepines, and alcohol, and it is often associated with physical dependence and addiction. It's important to note that tolerance is different from resistance, which refers to the ability of a pathogen to survive or grow in the presence of a drug, such as antibiotics.

Psychological stress is the response of an individual's mind and body to challenging or demanding situations. It can be defined as a state of emotional and physical tension resulting from adversity, demand, or change. This response can involve a variety of symptoms, including emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components.

Emotional responses may include feelings of anxiety, fear, anger, sadness, or frustration. Cognitive responses might involve difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, or negative thinking patterns. Behaviorally, psychological stress can lead to changes in appetite, sleep patterns, social interactions, and substance use. Physiologically, the body's "fight-or-flight" response is activated, leading to increased heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and other symptoms.

Psychological stress can be caused by a wide range of factors, including work or school demands, financial problems, relationship issues, traumatic events, chronic illness, and major life changes. It's important to note that what causes stress in one person may not cause stress in another, as individual perceptions and coping mechanisms play a significant role.

Chronic psychological stress can have negative effects on both mental and physical health, increasing the risk of conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it's essential to identify sources of stress and develop effective coping strategies to manage and reduce its impact.

Physical therapy modalities refer to the various forms of treatment that physical therapists use to help reduce pain, promote healing, and restore function to the body. These modalities can include:

1. Heat therapy: This includes the use of hot packs, paraffin baths, and infrared heat to increase blood flow, relax muscles, and relieve pain.
2. Cold therapy: Also known as cryotherapy, this involves the use of ice packs, cold compresses, or cooling gels to reduce inflammation, numb the area, and relieve pain.
3. Electrical stimulation: This uses electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles, which can help to reduce pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and function.
4. Ultrasound: This uses high-frequency sound waves to penetrate deep into tissues, increasing blood flow, reducing inflammation, and promoting healing.
5. Manual therapy: This includes techniques such as massage, joint mobilization, and stretching, which are used to improve range of motion, reduce pain, and promote relaxation.
6. Traction: This is a technique that uses gentle pulling on the spine or other joints to help relieve pressure and improve alignment.
7. Light therapy: Also known as phototherapy, this involves the use of low-level lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to promote healing and reduce pain and inflammation.
8. Therapeutic exercise: This includes a range of exercises that are designed to improve strength, flexibility, balance, and coordination, and help patients recover from injury or illness.

Physical therapy modalities are often used in combination with other treatments, such as manual therapy and therapeutic exercise, to provide a comprehensive approach to rehabilitation and pain management.

Sciatic neuropathy is a condition that results from damage or injury to the sciatic nerve, which is the largest nerve in the human body. The sciatic nerve originates from the lower spine (lumbar and sacral regions) and travels down through the buttocks, hips, and legs to the feet.

Sciatic neuropathy can cause various symptoms, including pain, numbness, tingling, weakness, or difficulty moving the affected leg or foot. The pain associated with sciatic neuropathy is often described as sharp, shooting, or burning and may worsen with movement, coughing, or sneezing.

The causes of sciatic neuropathy include compression or irritation of the nerve due to conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, bone spurs, tumors, or piriformis syndrome. Trauma or injury to the lower back, hip, or buttocks can also cause sciatic neuropathy.

Diagnosing sciatic neuropathy typically involves a physical examination and medical history, as well as imaging tests such as X-rays, MRI, or CT scans to visualize the spine and surrounding structures. Treatment options may include pain management, physical therapy, steroid injections, or surgery, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition.

Carisoprodol is a muscle relaxant that works by blocking pain sensations between the nerves and the brain. It is often prescribed for the short-term relief of muscle pain and discomfort caused by strains, sprains, or other muscle injuries. Carisoprodol is available in tablet form and is typically taken several times a day, usually in combination with rest, physical therapy, and other treatments.

Like all medications, carisoprodol can have side effects, including dizziness, drowsiness, and headache. It can also cause more serious side effects, such as seizures or difficulty breathing, especially when taken in large doses or in combination with other drugs that depress the central nervous system. As a result, it is important to follow your doctor's instructions carefully when taking carisoprodol, and to avoid activities that require alertness, such as driving or operating heavy machinery, until you know how the drug affects you.

It is worth noting that carisoprodol has a potential for abuse and addiction, so it should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider. If you have any questions or concerns about taking carisoprodol, be sure to talk to your doctor or pharmacist.

Buprenorphine is a partial opioid agonist medication used to treat opioid use disorder. It has a lower risk of respiratory depression and other adverse effects compared to full opioid agonists like methadone, making it a safer option for some individuals. Buprenorphine works by binding to the same receptors in the brain as other opioids but with weaker effects, helping to reduce cravings and withdrawal symptoms. It is available in several forms, including tablets, films, and implants.

In addition to its use in treating opioid use disorder, buprenorphine may also be used to treat pain, although this use is less common due to the risk of addiction and dependence. When used for pain management, it is typically prescribed at lower doses than those used for opioid use disorder treatment.

It's important to note that while buprenorphine has a lower potential for abuse and overdose than full opioid agonists, it still carries some risks and should be taken under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Tramadol is a centrally acting synthetic opioid analgesic, chemically unrelated to other opioids but with actions similar to those of morphine. It is used to manage moderate to moderately severe pain and is available in immediate-release and extended-release formulations. Tramadol has multiple mechanisms of action including binding to mu-opioid receptors, inhibiting the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin, and weakly inhibiting monoamine oxidase A and B. Common side effects include dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, and somnolence. Respiratory depression is less frequent compared to other opioids, but caution should still be exercised in patients at risk for respiratory compromise. Tramadol has a lower potential for abuse than traditional opioids, but it can still produce physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms upon discontinuation.

Facial neuralgia is a general term that refers to painful conditions affecting the facial nerves. It is often used to describe two specific disorders: trigeminal neuralgia and glossopharyngeal neuralgia.

1. Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also known as tic douloureux, is a chronic pain condition that affects the trigeminal nerve, one of the major nerves of the face. The trigeminal nerve is responsible for sensations in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing. Trigeminal neuralgia causes intense, stabbing, electric shock-like pain in the areas of the face where the branches of the nerve are distributed: the lower jaw, upper jaw, and cheek. The pain usually affects one side of the face, is triggered by light touch or other stimuli, and can last from a few seconds to several minutes.

2. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) is a similar but less common condition that involves the glossopharyngeal nerve, which is responsible for sensations in the throat, tongue, and ear on one side of the face. GPN causes sharp, stabbing pain in these areas, often triggered by swallowing, talking, or coughing.

Both trigeminal neuralgia and glossopharyngeal neuralgia can be debilitating and significantly impact a person's quality of life. The exact cause of these conditions is not always clear, but they are often associated with nerve compression by blood vessels or tumors, age-related changes in the nerves and blood vessels, multiple sclerosis, or other underlying medical conditions. Treatment options may include medications to manage pain, surgical procedures to decompress the affected nerves, or, in some cases, radiofrequency ablation or gamma knife radiosurgery to destroy a portion of the nerve and reduce pain signals.

Complementary therapies refer to a group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medicine. They are often used in conjunction with conventional treatments and are intended to facilitate the physical and emotional well-being of the patient. Complementary therapies can include a wide range of interventions such as acupuncture, chiropractic care, massage therapy, herbal medicine, yoga, meditation, guided imagery, hypnotherapy, and homeopathy, among others. It is important to note that while some complementary therapies have been shown to be effective for certain conditions, others lack scientific evidence of their safety and efficacy. Therefore, it is always recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new complementary therapy.

Malingering is a psychological concept that refers to the deliberate and intentional production or exaggeration of physical or psychological symptoms, motivated by external incentives such as avoiding work or military duty, obtaining financial compensation, or evading criminal prosecution. It's important to note that malingering should be distinguished from other conditions where individuals may experience genuine symptoms but have limited insight into their illness, such as in certain psychiatric disorders.

Malingering is not a mental disorder itself, and it requires careful clinical evaluation to distinguish it from legitimate medical or psychological conditions. It's also worth mentioning that malingering is considered uncommon, and its diagnosis should be made with caution, as it can have significant legal and ethical implications.

Epidural injection is a medical procedure where a medication is injected into the epidural space of the spine. The epidural space is the area between the outer covering of the spinal cord (dura mater) and the vertebral column. This procedure is typically used to provide analgesia (pain relief) or anesthesia for surgical procedures, labor and delivery, or chronic pain management.

The injection usually contains a local anesthetic and/or a steroid medication, which can help reduce inflammation and swelling in the affected area. The medication is delivered through a thin needle that is inserted into the epidural space using the guidance of fluoroscopy or computed tomography (CT) scans.

Epidural injections are commonly used to treat various types of pain, including lower back pain, leg pain (sciatica), and neck pain. They can also be used to diagnose the source of pain by injecting a local anesthetic to numb the area and determine if it is the cause of the pain.

While epidural injections are generally safe, they do carry some risks, such as infection, bleeding, nerve damage, or allergic reactions to the medication. It's important to discuss these risks with your healthcare provider before undergoing the procedure.

Hydrocodone is an opioid medication used to treat severe pain. It works by changing how the brain and nervous system respond to pain. Medically, it's defined as a semisynthetic opioid analgesic, synthesized from codeine, one of the natural opiates found in the resin of the poppy seed pod.

Hydrocodone is available only in combination with other drugs, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, which are added to enhance its pain-relieving effects and/or to prevent abuse and overdose. Common brand names include Vicodin, Lortab, and Norco.

Like all opioids, hydrocodone carries a risk of addiction and dependence, and it should be used only under the supervision of a healthcare provider. It's also important to note that misuse or abuse of hydrocodone can lead to overdose and death.

Afferent pathways, also known as sensory pathways, refer to the neural connections that transmit sensory information from the peripheral nervous system to the central nervous system (CNS), specifically to the brain and spinal cord. These pathways are responsible for carrying various types of sensory information, such as touch, temperature, pain, pressure, vibration, hearing, vision, and taste, to the CNS for processing and interpretation.

The afferent pathways begin with sensory receptors located throughout the body, which detect changes in the environment and convert them into electrical signals. These signals are then transmitted via afferent neurons, also known as sensory neurons, to the spinal cord or brainstem. Within the CNS, the information is further processed and integrated with other neural inputs before being relayed to higher cognitive centers for conscious awareness and response.

Understanding the anatomy and physiology of afferent pathways is essential for diagnosing and treating various neurological conditions that affect sensory function, such as neuropathies, spinal cord injuries, and brain disorders.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Substance abuse detection refers to the process of identifying the use or misuse of psychoactive substances, such as alcohol, illicit drugs, or prescription medications, in an individual. This can be done through various methods, including:

1. Physical examination: A healthcare professional may look for signs of substance abuse, such as track marks, enlarged pupils, or unusual behavior.
2. Laboratory tests: Urine, blood, hair, or saliva samples can be analyzed to detect the presence of drugs or their metabolites. These tests can provide information about recent use (hours to days) or longer-term use (up to several months).
3. Self-report measures: Individuals may be asked to complete questionnaires or interviews about their substance use patterns and behaviors.
4. Observational assessments: In some cases, such as in a treatment setting, healthcare professionals may observe an individual's behavior over time to identify patterns of substance abuse.

Substance abuse detection is often used in clinical, workplace, or legal settings to assess individuals for potential substance use disorders, monitor treatment progress, or ensure compliance with laws or regulations.

The lumbosacral region is the lower part of the back where the lumbar spine (five vertebrae in the lower back) connects with the sacrum (a triangular bone at the base of the spine). This region is subject to various conditions such as sprains, strains, herniated discs, and degenerative disorders that can cause pain and discomfort. It's also a common site for surgical intervention when non-surgical treatments fail to provide relief.

Mind-body therapies refer to a group of interventions that aim to facilitate the connection between the mind and body, with the goal of enhancing mental, emotional, and physical well-being. These therapies are based on the understanding that our thoughts, emotions, and beliefs can significantly impact our physical health.

Examples of mind-body therapies include:

1. Meditation: Focused concentration to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.
2. Yoga: A practice that combines physical postures, breathing exercises, meditation, and a distinct philosophy.
3. Guided imagery: Deliberate mental visualization of a peaceful setting or situation to promote relaxation and stress reduction.
4. Progressive muscle relaxation: Systematically tensing and then releasing various muscle groups to promote relaxation and stress reduction.
5. Biofeedback: A technique that uses electronic devices to help individuals learn to control physiological responses, such as heart rate or blood pressure.
6. Hypnotherapy: The use of hypnosis to facilitate therapeutic change by accessing the subconscious mind.
7. Tai Chi and Qigong: Ancient Chinese practices that involve slow, gentle movements, deep breathing, and meditation.
8. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR): A structured program that combines mindfulness meditation, yoga, and cognitive therapy to help manage stress and improve overall well-being.
9. Acupuncture and acupressure: Traditional Chinese medicine practices that involve the stimulation of specific points on the body using needles or pressure, respectively, to promote healing and balance.
10. Prayer and spiritual practices: Engaging in religious or spiritual activities to foster a sense of connection, meaning, and purpose.

These therapies can be used as complementary approaches alongside conventional medical treatments or as standalone interventions for various health conditions, such as stress management, pain relief, anxiety reduction, and overall wellness promotion.

Narcotics, in a medical context, are substances that induce sleep, relieve pain, and suppress cough. They are often used for anesthesia during surgical procedures. Narcotics are derived from opium or its synthetic substitutes and include drugs such as morphine, codeine, fentanyl, oxycodone, and hydrocodone. These drugs bind to specific receptors in the brain and spinal cord, reducing the perception of pain and producing a sense of well-being. However, narcotics can also produce physical dependence and addiction, and their long-term use can lead to tolerance, meaning that higher doses are required to achieve the same effect. Narcotics are classified as controlled substances due to their potential for abuse and are subject to strict regulations.

Unmyelinated nerve fibers, also known as unmyelinated axons or non-myelinated fibers, are nerve cells that lack a myelin sheath. Myelin is a fatty, insulating substance that surrounds the axon of many nerve cells and helps to increase the speed of electrical impulses traveling along the nerve fiber.

In unmyelinated nerve fibers, the axons are surrounded by a thin layer of Schwann cell processes called the endoneurium, but there is no continuous myelin sheath. Instead, the axons are packed closely together in bundles, with several axons lying within the same Schwann cell.

Unmyelinated nerve fibers tend to be smaller in diameter than myelinated fibers and conduct electrical impulses more slowly. They are commonly found in the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion, as well as in sensory nerves that transmit pain and temperature signals.

An autonomic nerve block is a medical procedure that involves injecting a local anesthetic or other medication into or near the nerves that make up the autonomic nervous system. This type of nerve block is used to diagnose and treat certain medical conditions that affect the autonomic nervous system, such as neuropathy or complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

The autonomic nervous system is responsible for controlling many involuntary bodily functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and body temperature. It is made up of two parts: the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for preparing the body for "fight or flight" responses, while the parasympathetic nervous system helps the body relax and rest.

An autonomic nerve block can be used to diagnose a problem with the autonomic nervous system by temporarily blocking the nerves' signals and observing how this affects the body's functions. It can also be used to treat pain or other symptoms caused by damage to the autonomic nerves. The injection is usually given in the area near the spine, and the specific location will depend on the nerves being targeted.

It is important to note that an autonomic nerve block is a medical procedure that should only be performed by a qualified healthcare professional. As with any medical procedure, there are risks and benefits associated with an autonomic nerve block, and it is important for patients to discuss these with their doctor before deciding whether this treatment is right for them.

Phantom limb is a condition where an individual experiences sensations in a limb or appendage that has been amputated. These sensations can include feelings of pain, warmth, cold, itching, or tingling in the area where the limb used to be. The exact cause of phamtom limb is not fully understood, but it's believed to be related to mixed signals from the brain and nervous system.

Phantom limb sensations are relatively common among amputees, with some studies suggesting that up to 80% of individuals who have undergone an amputation may experience these sensations to some degree. While phantom limb can be a challenging condition to live with, there are various treatments available that can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life. These may include medications, physical therapy, and alternative therapies such as acupuncture or mirror box therapy.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "disabled persons" are those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which may hinder their participation in society on an equal basis with others. The term "disability" is not meant to be understood as a 'personal tragedy' but rather as a complex interaction between the features of a person's body and mind, the activities they wish to perform and the physical and social barriers they encounter in their environment.

It's important to note that the term 'disabled persons' has been largely replaced by 'people with disabilities' or 'persons with disabilities' in many contexts, as it is considered more respectful and empowering to put the person first, rather than focusing on their disability. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) uses the term "persons with disabilities" throughout its text.

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a form of psychotherapy that uses mindfulness and acceptance strategies, along with commitment and behavior change strategies, to increase psychological flexibility. The goal of ACT is to help individuals develop a more flexible and open relationship with their thoughts and feelings, so that they can take action that is consistent with their values and goals, even when those thoughts and feelings are difficult or uncomfortable.

In ACT, acceptance refers to the willingness to experience thoughts, feelings, and sensations without trying to change or control them. Committed action, on the other hand, involves taking steps to change behavior in service of one's values, regardless of whether doing so brings up difficult thoughts or feelings.

ACT is based on the idea that psychological suffering arises when individuals get caught up in efforts to avoid or control their own internal experiences, rather than focusing on valued action. By learning to accept and make room for difficult thoughts and feelings, individuals can free themselves up to take action that is consistent with their values and goals.

Overall, ACT aims to help people live full and meaningful lives, even in the presence of pain or difficult emotions, by promoting greater psychological flexibility and values-based action.

Acupuncture analgesia is a form of pain relief that involves the stimulation of specific points on the body, called acupoints, using thin needles. This technique is based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) principles, which suggest that energy, or "qi," flows through the body along pathways called meridians. According to TCM, blockages or imbalances in this flow of qi can lead to illness or pain. By inserting needles at specific acupoints, acupuncture is thought to help restore the balance and flow of qi, thereby alleviating pain and promoting healing.

In modern medical terms, acupuncture analgesia is believed to work by stimulating the nervous system and triggering the release of natural painkillers called endorphins. The needles may also cause localized changes in blood flow and inflammation, which can help reduce pain and promote healing in the affected area.

Acupuncture has been shown to be effective for a variety of pain conditions, including osteoarthritis, migraines, and chronic low back pain. However, it is important to note that acupuncture should be performed by a qualified practitioner and may not be suitable for everyone. As with any medical treatment, there are potential risks and side effects associated with acupuncture, including infection, bruising, and bleeding. It is always best to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new treatment.

Bupivacaine is a long-acting local anesthetic drug, which is used to cause numbness or loss of feeling in a specific area of the body during certain medical procedures such as surgery, dental work, or childbirth. It works by blocking the nerves that transmit pain signals to the brain.

Bupivacaine is available as a solution for injection and is usually administered directly into the tissue surrounding the nerve to be blocked (nerve block) or into the spinal fluid (epidural). The onset of action of bupivacaine is relatively slow, but its duration of action is long, making it suitable for procedures that require prolonged pain relief.

Like all local anesthetics, bupivacaine carries a risk of side effects such as allergic reactions, nerve damage, and systemic toxicity if accidentally injected into a blood vessel or given in excessive doses. It should be used with caution in patients with certain medical conditions, including heart disease, liver disease, and neurological disorders.

Psychology is not a medical discipline itself, but it is a crucial component in the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of many medical conditions. It is a social science that deals with the scientific study of behavior and mental processes such as perception, cognition, emotion, personality, and motivation. In a medical context, psychology can be applied to help understand how biological, psychological, and social factors interact to influence an individual's health and well-being, as well as their response to illness and treatment. Clinical psychologists often work in healthcare settings to evaluate, diagnose, and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, using various therapeutic interventions based on psychological principles and research.

Naloxone is a medication used to reverse the effects of opioids, both illicit and prescription. It works by blocking the action of opioids on the brain and restoring breathing in cases where opioids have caused depressed respirations. Common brand names for naloxone include Narcan and Evzio.

Naloxone is an opioid antagonist, meaning that it binds to opioid receptors in the body without activating them, effectively blocking the effects of opioids already present at these sites. It has no effect in people who have not taken opioids and does not reverse the effects of other sedatives or substances.

Naloxone can be administered via intranasal, intramuscular, intravenous, or subcutaneous routes. The onset of action varies depending on the route of administration but generally ranges from 1 to 5 minutes when given intravenously and up to 10-15 minutes with other methods.

The duration of naloxone's effects is usually shorter than that of most opioids, so multiple doses or a continuous infusion may be necessary in severe cases to maintain reversal of opioid toxicity. Naloxone has been used successfully in emergency situations to treat opioid overdoses and has saved many lives.

It is important to note that naloxone does not reverse the effects of other substances or address the underlying causes of addiction, so it should be used as part of a comprehensive treatment plan for individuals struggling with opioid use disorders.

"Drug and narcotic control" refers to the regulation and oversight of drugs and narcotics, including their production, distribution, and use. This is typically carried out by governmental agencies in order to ensure public safety, prevent abuse and diversion, and protect the health of individuals. The goal of drug and narcotic control is to strike a balance between making sure that medications are available for legitimate medical purposes while also preventing their misuse and illegal sale.

Drug control policies may include measures such as licensing and registration of manufacturers, distributors, and pharmacies; tracking and monitoring of controlled substances; setting standards for prescription practices; and enforcement of laws and regulations related to drug use and trafficking. Narcotic control specifically refers to the regulation of drugs that have a high potential for abuse and are subject to international treaties, such as opioids.

It's important to note that while these regulations aim to protect public health and safety, they can also be controversial and have unintended consequences, such as contributing to drug shortages or creating barriers to access for people who need controlled substances for legitimate medical reasons.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Intervertebral disc displacement, also known as a slipped disc or herniated disc, is a medical condition where the inner, softer material (nucleus pulposus) of the intervertebral disc bulges or ruptures through its outer, tougher ring (annulus fibrosus). This can put pressure on nearby nerves and cause pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected area, often in the lower back or neck. The displacement may also lead to inflammation and irritation of the surrounding spinal structures, further exacerbating the symptoms. The condition is typically caused by age-related wear and tear (degenerative disc disease) or sudden trauma.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

The MMPI, or Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, is a psychological assessment tool that is widely used in clinical and research settings to help evaluate an individual's personality, emotional state, and behavior. It consists of a series of true-false questions that are designed to measure various aspects of an individual's psychological functioning, including their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.

The MMPI was first developed in the 1930s and has undergone several revisions over the years. The current version, the MMPI-2, consists of 567 items and takes approximately 60-90 minutes to complete. The test is typically administered by a trained professional, such as a psychologist or counselor, who uses the results to help diagnose mental health conditions, develop treatment plans, and make recommendations about an individual's care.

It is important to note that while the MMPI can be a useful tool in assessing psychological functioning, it should not be used as the sole basis for making diagnostic or treatment decisions. It is typically used in conjunction with other assessment methods, such as clinical interviews and other tests, to provide a comprehensive picture of an individual's psychological state.

Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD), also known as Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), is a chronic pain condition that most often affects a limb after an injury or trauma. It is characterized by prolonged or excessive pain and sensitivity, along with changes in skin color, temperature, and swelling.

The symptoms of RSD/CRPS are thought to be caused by an overactive sympathetic nervous system, which controls involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and sweating. In RSD/CRPS, the sympathetic nerves are believed to send incorrect signals to the brain, causing it to perceive intense pain even in the absence of any actual tissue damage.

RSD/CRPS can be classified into two types: Type 1, which occurs after an injury or trauma that did not directly damage the nerves, and Type 2, which occurs after a distinct nerve injury. The symptoms of both types are similar, but Type 2 is typically more severe and may involve more widespread nerve damage.

Treatment for RSD/CRPS usually involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and other therapies such as spinal cord stimulation or sympathetic nerve blocks. Early diagnosis and treatment can help improve outcomes and reduce the risk of long-term complications.

Palliative care is a type of medical care that focuses on relieving the pain, symptoms, and stress of serious illnesses. The goal is to improve quality of life for both the patient and their family. It is provided by a team of doctors, nurses, and other specialists who work together to address the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual needs of the patient. Palliative care can be provided at any stage of an illness, alongside curative treatments, and is not dependent on prognosis.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines palliative care as: "an approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problems associated with life-threatening illness, through the prevention and relief of suffering by means of early identification and impeccable assessment and treatment of pain and other problems, physical, psychological and spiritual."

Absenteeism is a term used in the medical and occupational health fields to describe the habitual pattern of absence from work or school. It refers to an employee or student's repeated failure to show up for scheduled work or classes without a valid reason or excuse. Absenteeism can have various causes, including physical illness or injury, mental health issues, stress, burnout, disengagement, and poor job or school satisfaction. Chronic absenteeism can lead to negative consequences such as decreased productivity, increased healthcare costs, and reduced academic performance.

Fear is a basic human emotion that is typically characterized by a strong feeling of anxiety, apprehension, or distress in response to a perceived threat or danger. It is a natural and adaptive response that helps individuals identify and respond to potential dangers in their environment, and it can manifest as physical, emotional, and cognitive symptoms.

Physical symptoms of fear may include increased heart rate, rapid breathing, sweating, trembling, and muscle tension. Emotional symptoms may include feelings of anxiety, worry, or panic, while cognitive symptoms may include difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, and intrusive thoughts about the perceived threat.

Fear can be a normal and adaptive response to real dangers, but it can also become excessive or irrational in some cases, leading to phobias, anxiety disorders, and other mental health conditions. In these cases, professional help may be necessary to manage and overcome the fear.

Methadone is a synthetic opioid agonist, often used as a substitute for heroin or other opiates in detoxification programs or as a long-term maintenance drug for opiate addiction. It works by changing how the brain and nervous system respond to pain signals. It also helps to suppress the withdrawal symptoms and cravings associated with opiate dependence.

Methadone is available in various forms, including tablets, oral solutions, and injectable solutions. It's typically prescribed and dispensed under strict medical supervision due to its potential for abuse and dependence.

In a medical context, methadone may also be used to treat moderate to severe pain that cannot be managed with other types of medication. However, its use in this context is more limited due to the risks associated with opioid therapy.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pilot projects" is not a medical term per se. Instead, it is a general term used in various fields, including healthcare and medicine, to describe a small-scale initiative that is implemented on a temporary basis to evaluate its feasibility, effectiveness, or impact before deciding whether to expand or continue it.

In the context of healthcare, pilot projects might involve testing new treatment protocols, implementing innovative care models, or introducing technology solutions in a limited setting to assess their potential benefits and drawbacks. The results of these projects can help inform decisions about broader implementation and provide valuable insights for improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare services.

A zygapophyseal joint, also known as a facet joint, is a type of synovial joint that connects the articulating processes of adjacent vertebrae in the spine. These joints are formed by the superior and inferior articular processes of the vertebral bodies and are covered with hyaline cartilage. They allow for smooth movement between the vertebrae, providing stability and limiting excessive motion while allowing flexibility in the spine. The zygapophyseal joints are supported by a capsule and ligaments that help to maintain their alignment and restrict abnormal movements. These joints can become sources of pain and discomfort when they become inflamed or damaged due to conditions such as arthritis, degenerative disc disease, or injury.

Carriageenans are a family of linear sulfated polysaccharides that are extracted from red edible seaweeds. They have been widely used in the food industry as thickening, gelling, and stabilizing agents. In the medical field, they have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications, such as in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders and inflammation. However, some studies have suggested that certain types of carriageenans may have negative health effects, including promoting inflammation and damaging the gut lining. Therefore, more research is needed to fully understand their safety and efficacy.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Primary health care is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as:

"Essential health care that is based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford. It forms an integral part both of the country's health system, of which it is the central function and main focus, and of the overall social and economic development of the community. It is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work, and constitutes the first element of a continuing health care process."

Primary health care includes a range of services such as preventive care, health promotion, curative care, rehabilitation, and palliative care. It is typically provided by a team of health professionals including doctors, nurses, midwives, pharmacists, and other community health workers. The goal of primary health care is to provide comprehensive, continuous, and coordinated care to individuals and families in a way that is accessible, affordable, and culturally sensitive.

Amines are organic compounds that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair of electrons. They are derived from ammonia (NH3) by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with alkyl or aryl groups. The nomenclature of amines follows the substitutive type, where the parent compound is named as an aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbon, and the functional group "amine" is designated as a suffix or prefix.

Amines are classified into three types based on the number of carbon atoms attached to the nitrogen atom:

1. Primary (1°) amines: One alkyl or aryl group is attached to the nitrogen atom.
2. Secondary (2°) amines: Two alkyl or aryl groups are attached to the nitrogen atom.
3. Tertiary (3°) amines: Three alkyl or aryl groups are attached to the nitrogen atom.

Quaternary ammonium salts have four organic groups attached to the nitrogen atom and a positive charge, with anions balancing the charge.

Amines have a wide range of applications in the chemical industry, including pharmaceuticals, dyes, polymers, and solvents. They also play a significant role in biological systems as neurotransmitters, hormones, and cell membrane components.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) cation channels are a subfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, which are non-selective cation channels that play important roles in various physiological processes such as nociception, thermosensation, and mechanosensation. TRPV channels are activated by a variety of stimuli including temperature, chemical ligands, and mechanical forces.

TRPV channels are composed of six transmembrane domains with intracellular N- and C-termini. The TRPV subfamily includes six members: TRPV1 to TRPV6. Among them, TRPV1 is also known as the vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1) and is activated by capsaicin, the active component of hot chili peppers, as well as noxious heat. TRPV2 is activated by noxious heat and mechanical stimuli, while TRPV3 and TRPV4 are activated by warm temperatures and various chemical ligands. TRPV5 and TRPV6 are primarily involved in calcium transport and are activated by low pH and divalent cations.

TRPV channels play important roles in pain sensation, neurogenic inflammation, and temperature perception. Dysfunction of these channels has been implicated in various pathological conditions such as chronic pain, inflammatory diseases, and cancer. Therefore, TRPV channels are considered promising targets for the development of novel therapeutics for these conditions.

Catastrophizing is a term used in the medical field, particularly in psychology and psychiatry, to describe a cognitive distortion or a pattern of thinking in which an individual tends to exaggerate the severity or negative consequences of a situation or problem. It involves magnifying or blowing things out of proportion, expecting the worst-case scenario, and having a lack of faith in one's ability to cope with adversity.

Catastrophization can be a symptom of various mental health conditions, such as anxiety disorders, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It can also contribute to increased pain perception and disability in individuals with chronic pain conditions.

For example, a person who catastrophizes might think that if they make a small mistake at work, it will lead to them losing their job, which will then cause them to become homeless and destitute. This type of thinking can be debilitating and interfere with an individual's ability to function in daily life.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is often used to help individuals identify and challenge catastrophic thoughts, with the goal of replacing them with more balanced and realistic thinking patterns.

Radiculopathy is a medical term that refers to the condition where there is damage or disturbance in the nerve roots as they exit the spinal column. These nerve roots, also known as radicles, can become damaged due to various reasons such as compression, inflammation, or injury, leading to a range of symptoms.

Radiculopathy may occur in any part of the spine, but it is most commonly found in the cervical (neck) and lumbar (lower back) regions. When the nerve roots in the cervical region are affected, it can result in symptoms such as neck pain, shoulder pain, arm pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the arms or fingers. On the other hand, when the nerve roots in the lumbar region are affected, it can cause lower back pain, leg pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the legs or feet.

The symptoms of radiculopathy can vary depending on the severity and location of the damage to the nerve roots. In some cases, the condition may resolve on its own with rest and conservative treatment. However, in more severe cases, medical intervention such as physical therapy, medication, or surgery may be necessary to alleviate the symptoms and prevent further damage.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "touch" is not a term that has a specific medical definition in the context you've provided. In a general sense, touch refers to the ability to perceive things through physically contacting them, which is a function of our nervous system. However, it's not a term used to describe a specific medical condition, diagnosis, treatment, or procedure. If you have any more specific context or question in mind, I'd be happy to try and help further!

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Thermosensing refers to the ability of living organisms to detect and respond to changes in temperature. This is achieved through specialized proteins called thermosensors, which are capable of converting thermal energy into chemical or electrical signals that can be interpreted by the organism's nervous system. Thermosensing plays a critical role in regulating various physiological processes, such as body temperature, metabolism, and development. In medicine, understanding thermosensing mechanisms can provide insights into the treatment of conditions associated with impaired temperature regulation, such as fever or hypothermia.

The gyrus cinguli, also known as the cingulate gyrus, is a structure located in the brain. It forms part of the limbic system and plays a role in various functions such as emotion, memory, and perception of pain. The gyrus cinguli is situated in the medial aspect of the cerebral hemisphere, adjacent to the corpus callosum, and curves around the frontal portion of the corpus callosum, forming a C-shaped structure. It has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, and chronic pain syndromes.

Formaldehyde is a colorless, pungent, and volatile chemical compound with the formula CH2O. It is a naturally occurring substance that is found in certain fruits like apples and vegetables, as well as in animals. However, the majority of formaldehyde used in industry is synthetically produced.

In the medical field, formaldehyde is commonly used as a preservative for biological specimens such as organs, tissues, and cells. It works by killing bacteria and inhibiting the decaying process. Formaldehyde is also used in the production of various industrial products, including adhesives, resins, textiles, and paper products.

However, formaldehyde can be harmful to human health if inhaled or ingested in large quantities. It can cause irritation to the eyes, nose, throat, and skin, and prolonged exposure has been linked to respiratory problems and cancer. Therefore, it is essential to handle formaldehyde with care and use appropriate safety measures when working with this chemical compound.

Fentanyl is a potent synthetic opioid analgesic, which is similar to morphine but is 50 to 100 times more potent. It is a schedule II prescription drug, typically used to treat patients with severe pain or to manage pain after surgery. It works by binding to the body's opioid receptors, which are found in the brain, spinal cord, and other areas of the body.

Fentanyl can be administered in several forms, including transdermal patches, lozenges, injectable solutions, and tablets that dissolve in the mouth. Illegally manufactured and distributed fentanyl has also become a major public health concern, as it is often mixed with other drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and counterfeit pills, leading to an increase in overdose deaths.

Like all opioids, fentanyl carries a risk of dependence, addiction, and overdose, especially when used outside of medical supervision or in combination with other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol or benzodiazepines. It is important to use fentanyl only as directed by a healthcare provider and to be aware of the potential risks associated with its use.

Spiritual therapies are a type of complementary and alternative medicine that aim to treat the spirit or soul rather than the body. They are based on the belief that illness has a spiritual cause or a spiritual component, and that healing can be achieved by addressing this aspect of a person's experience. Spiritual therapies can take many forms, including prayer, meditation, guided imagery, spiritual counseling, and energy healing.

It is important to note that while some people find spiritual therapies helpful in managing their health and well-being, these approaches are not typically considered mainstream medical treatments. They should not be used as a substitute for conventional medical care, but rather as a complement to it. As with any therapy, it is important to discuss the potential benefits and risks of spiritual therapies with a qualified healthcare provider before beginning treatment.

Health surveys are research studies that collect data from a sample population to describe the current health status, health behaviors, and healthcare utilization of a particular group or community. These surveys may include questions about various aspects of health such as physical health, mental health, chronic conditions, lifestyle habits, access to healthcare services, and demographic information. The data collected from health surveys can be used to monitor trends in health over time, identify disparities in health outcomes, develop and evaluate public health programs and policies, and inform resource allocation decisions. Examples of national health surveys include the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

Flank pain is defined as discomfort or pain located in the area of the body between the lower ribcage and the pelvis, specifically in the region of the abdomen that lies posterior to the axillary line (the line drawn from the underarm down the side of the body). This region contains several vital organs such as the kidneys, ureters, pancreas, colon, and parts of the reproductive system. Flank pain can be a symptom of various medical conditions affecting these organs, including but not limited to kidney stones, pyelonephritis (kidney infection), musculoskeletal issues, or irritable bowel syndrome. The intensity and character of flank pain may vary depending on the underlying cause, ranging from a dull ache to sharp stabbing sensations.

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a degenerative joint disease that affects the articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the knee joint. It is characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of the smooth, cushioning cartilage that covers the ends of bones and allows for easy movement within joints. As the cartilage wears away, the bones rub against each other, causing pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. Osteoarthritis of the knee can also lead to the formation of bone spurs (osteophytes) and cysts in the joint. This condition is most commonly found in older adults, but it can also occur in younger people as a result of injury or overuse. Risk factors include obesity, family history, previous joint injuries, and repetitive stress on the knee joint. Treatment options typically include pain management, physical therapy, and in some cases, surgery.

NAV1.8 (SCN10A) voltage-gated sodium channel is a type of ion channel found in excitable cells such as neurons and some types of immune cells. These channels play a crucial role in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in the form of action potentials. The NAV1.8 subtype, specifically, is primarily expressed in peripheral nervous system tissues, including sensory neurons responsible for pain perception.

NAV1.8 voltage-gated sodium channels are composed of four homologous domains (I-IV), each containing six transmembrane segments (S1-S6). The S4 segment in each domain functions as a voltage sensor, moving in response to changes in the membrane potential. When the membrane potential becomes more positive (depolarized), the S4 segment moves outward, which opens the channel and allows sodium ions (Na+) to flow into the cell. This influx of Na+ ions further depolarizes the membrane, leading to the rapid upstroke of the action potential.

The NAV1.8 channels are known for their unique biophysical properties, including slow activation and inactivation kinetics, as well as relative resistance to tetrodotoxin (TTX), a neurotoxin that blocks most voltage-gated sodium channels. These characteristics make NAV1.8 channels particularly important for generating and maintaining the electrical excitability of nociceptive neurons, which are responsible for transmitting pain signals from the periphery to the central nervous system.

Mutations in the SCN10A gene, which encodes the NAV1.8 channel, have been associated with various pain-related disorders, such as inherited erythromelalgia and small fiber neuropathies, highlighting their significance in pain physiology and pathophysiology.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

'Behavior' is a term used in the medical and scientific community to describe the actions or reactions of an individual in response to internal or external stimuli. It can be observed and measured, and it involves all the responses of a person, including motor responses, emotional responses, and cognitive responses. Behaviors can be voluntary or involuntary, adaptive or maladaptive, and normal or abnormal. They can also be influenced by genetic, physiological, environmental, and social factors. In a medical context, the study of behavior is often relevant to understanding and treating various mental health conditions, such as anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders.

In medical and psychological terms, "affect" refers to a person's emotional or expressive state, mood, or dispositions that are outwardly manifested in their behavior, facial expressions, demeanor, or speech. Affect can be described as being congruent or incongruent with an individual's thoughts and experiences.

There are different types of affect, including:

1. Neutral affect: When a person shows no apparent emotion or displays minimal emotional expressiveness.
2. Positive affect: When a person exhibits positive emotions such as happiness, excitement, or enthusiasm.
3. Negative affect: When a person experiences and displays negative emotions like sadness, anger, or fear.
4. Blunted affect: When a person's emotional response is noticeably reduced or diminished, often observed in individuals with certain mental health conditions, such as schizophrenia.
5. Flat affect: When a person has an almost complete absence of emotional expressiveness, which can be indicative of severe depression or other mental health disorders.
6. Labile affect: When a person's emotional state fluctuates rapidly and frequently between positive and negative emotions, often observed in individuals with certain neurological conditions or mood disorders.

Clinicians may assess a patient's affect during an interview or examination to help diagnose mental health conditions, evaluate treatment progress, or monitor overall well-being.

Mood disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by significant and persistent changes in mood, affect, and emotional state. These disorders can cause disturbances in normal functioning and significantly impair an individual's ability to carry out their daily activities. The two primary types of mood disorders are depressive disorders (such as major depressive disorder or persistent depressive disorder) and bipolar disorders (which include bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and cyclothymic disorder).

Depressive disorders involve prolonged periods of low mood, sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest in activities. Individuals with these disorders may also experience changes in sleep patterns, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem. In severe cases, they might have thoughts of death or suicide.

Bipolar disorders involve alternating episodes of mania (or hypomania) and depression. During a manic episode, individuals may feel extremely elated, energetic, or irritable, with racing thoughts, rapid speech, and impulsive behavior. They might engage in risky activities, have decreased sleep needs, and display poor judgment. In contrast, depressive episodes involve the same symptoms as depressive disorders.

Mood disorders can be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Proper diagnosis and treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, are essential for managing these conditions and improving quality of life.

Relaxation therapy is not a specific type of therapy with its own distinct medical definition. Rather, relaxation is a common element that is incorporated into many types of therapies and techniques aimed at reducing stress, anxiety, and promoting physical and mental relaxation. These techniques can include various forms of mind-body interventions such as deep breathing exercises, progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery, meditation, yoga, tai chi, and biofeedback.

The goal of relaxation therapy is to help individuals learn to control their physiological responses to stress and anxiety, leading to a reduction in muscle tension, lower heart rate and blood pressure, and an overall sense of calm and well-being. While relaxation therapy is not typically used as a standalone treatment for medical conditions, it can be a useful adjunctive therapy when combined with other treatments for a variety of physical and mental health concerns.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales are standardized assessment tools used by mental health professionals to evaluate and rate the severity of a person's psychiatric symptoms and functioning. These scales provide a systematic and structured approach to measuring various aspects of an individual's mental health, such as mood, anxiety, psychosis, behavior, and cognitive abilities.

The purpose of using Psychiatric Status Rating Scales is to:

1. Assess the severity and improvement of psychiatric symptoms over time.
2. Aid in diagnostic decision-making and treatment planning.
3. Monitor treatment response and adjust interventions accordingly.
4. Facilitate communication among mental health professionals about a patient's status.
5. Provide an objective basis for research and epidemiological studies.

Examples of Psychiatric Status Rating Scales include:

1. Clinical Global Impression (CGI): A brief, subjective rating scale that measures overall illness severity, treatment response, and improvement.
2. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): A comprehensive scale used to assess the symptoms of psychosis, including positive, negative, and general psychopathology domains.
3. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) or Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS): Scales used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms.
4. Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS): A scale used to assess the severity of manic or hypomanic symptoms.
5. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) or Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R): Scales that measure a broad range of psychiatric symptoms and psychopathology.
6. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF): A scale used to rate an individual's overall psychological, social, and occupational functioning on a hypothetical continuum of mental health-illness.

It is important to note that Psychiatric Status Rating Scales should be administered by trained mental health professionals to ensure accurate and reliable results.

Sleep initiation and maintenance disorders are a category of sleep disorders that involve difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep throughout the night. This category includes:

1. Insomnia disorder: A persistent difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep, or early morning awakening, despite adequate opportunity and circumstances for sleep, which causes clinically significant distress or impairment.
2. Narcolepsy: A chronic neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy (sudden loss of muscle tone triggered by strong emotions), hypnagogic hallucinations (vivid, dream-like experiences that occur while falling asleep) and sleep paralysis (temporary inability to move or speak while falling asleep or waking up).
3. Breathing-related sleep disorders: A group of disorders that involve abnormal breathing patterns during sleep, such as obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea, which can lead to difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep.
4. Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders: A group of disorders that involve a misalignment between the individual's internal circadian rhythm and the external environment, leading to difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep at desired times.
5. Parasomnias: A group of disorders that involve abnormal behaviors or experiences during sleep, such as sleepwalking, night terrors, and REM sleep behavior disorder, which can disrupt sleep initiation and maintenance.

These disorders can have significant impacts on an individual's quality of life, daytime functioning, and overall health, and should be evaluated and managed by a healthcare professional with expertise in sleep medicine.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

Arthritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation in one or more joints, leading to symptoms such as pain, stiffness, swelling, and reduced range of motion. There are many different types of arthritis, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, gout, and lupus, among others.

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis and is caused by wear and tear on the joints over time. Rheumatoid arthritis, on the other hand, is an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the joint lining, causing inflammation and damage.

Arthritis can affect people of all ages, including children, although it is more common in older adults. Treatment for arthritis may include medications to manage pain and reduce inflammation, physical therapy, exercise, and in some cases, surgery.

Emotions are complex psychological states that involve three distinct components: a subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response. Emotions can be short-lived, such as a flash of anger, or more long-lasting, such as enduring sadness. They can also vary in intensity, from mild irritation to intense joy or fear.

Emotions are often distinguished from other psychological states, such as moods and temperament, which may be less specific and more enduring. Emotions are typically thought to have a clear cause or object, such as feeling happy when you receive good news or feeling anxious before a job interview.

There are many different emotions that people can experience, including happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, and shame. These emotions are often thought to serve important adaptive functions, helping individuals respond to challenges and opportunities in their environment.

In medical contexts, emotions may be relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of various mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorder. Abnormalities in emotional processing and regulation have been implicated in many psychiatric illnesses, and therapies that target these processes may be effective in treating these conditions.

Cycloheptanes are organic compounds that consist of a seven-membered carbon ring, also known as a heptane ring, with each carbon atom bonded to either another carbon atom or a hydrogen atom. The chemical structure of cycloheptanes can be represented by the formula C7H14.

Cycloheptanes are classified as saturated hydrocarbons because all of the carbon-carbon bonds in the ring are single bonds. This means that there are no double or triple bonds between any of the carbon atoms in the ring.

Cycloheptanes have a variety of uses in the chemical industry, including as intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals and as solvents. They can also be found in some natural sources, such as certain essential oils.

It is worth noting that cycloheptanes are not commonly encountered in medical contexts, as they do not have direct relevance to human health or disease. However, like all chemical compounds, cycloheptanes can potentially have toxic effects if ingested, inhaled, or otherwise introduced into the body in large enough quantities.

Paresthesia is a medical term that describes an abnormal sensation such as tingling, numbness, prickling, or burning, usually in the hands, feet, arms, or legs. These sensations can occur without any obvious cause, often described as "pins and needles" or falling asleep in a limb. However, persistent paresthesia can be a sign of an underlying medical condition, such as nerve damage, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, or a vitamin deficiency. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional if experiencing persistent paresthesia to determine the cause and appropriate treatment.

Exercise therapy is a type of medical treatment that uses physical movement and exercise to improve a patient's physical functioning, mobility, and overall health. It is often used as a component of rehabilitation programs for individuals who have experienced injuries, illnesses, or surgeries that have impaired their ability to move and function normally.

Exercise therapy may involve a range of activities, including stretching, strengthening, balance training, aerobic exercise, and functional training. The specific exercises used will depend on the individual's needs, goals, and medical condition.

The benefits of exercise therapy include:

* Improved strength and flexibility
* Increased endurance and stamina
* Enhanced balance and coordination
* Reduced pain and inflammation
* Improved cardiovascular health
* Increased range of motion and joint mobility
* Better overall physical functioning and quality of life.

Exercise therapy is typically prescribed and supervised by a healthcare professional, such as a physical therapist or exercise physiologist, who has experience working with individuals with similar medical conditions. The healthcare professional will create an individualized exercise program based on the patient's needs and goals, and will provide guidance and support to ensure that the exercises are performed safely and effectively.

Eye pain is defined as discomfort or unpleasant sensations in the eye. It can be sharp, throbbing, stabbing, burning, or aching. The pain may occur in one or both eyes and can range from mild to severe. Eye pain can result from various causes, including infection, inflammation, injury, or irritation of the structures of the eye, such as the cornea, conjunctiva, sclera, or uvea. Other possible causes include migraines, optic neuritis, and glaucoma. It is essential to seek medical attention if experiencing sudden, severe, or persistent eye pain, as it can be a sign of a serious underlying condition that requires prompt treatment.

Sleep disorders are a group of conditions that affect the ability to sleep well on a regular basis. They can include problems with falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up too early in the morning. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as stress, anxiety, depression, medical conditions, or substance abuse.

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) recognizes over 80 distinct sleep disorders, which are categorized into the following major groups:

1. Insomnia - difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep.
2. Sleep-related breathing disorders - abnormal breathing during sleep such as obstructive sleep apnea.
3. Central disorders of hypersomnolence - excessive daytime sleepiness, including narcolepsy.
4. Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders - disruption of the internal body clock that regulates the sleep-wake cycle.
5. Parasomnias - abnormal behaviors during sleep such as sleepwalking or night terrors.
6. Sleep-related movement disorders - repetitive movements during sleep such as restless legs syndrome.
7. Isolated symptoms and normal variants - brief and occasional symptoms that do not warrant a specific diagnosis.

Sleep disorders can have significant impacts on an individual's quality of life, productivity, and overall health. If you suspect that you may have a sleep disorder, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional or a sleep specialist for proper evaluation and treatment.

Diabetic neuropathies refer to a group of nerve disorders that are caused by diabetes. High blood sugar levels can injure nerves throughout the body, but diabetic neuropathies most commonly affect the nerves in the legs and feet.

There are four main types of diabetic neuropathies:

1. Peripheral neuropathy: This is the most common type of diabetic neuropathy. It affects the nerves in the legs and feet, causing symptoms such as numbness, tingling, burning, or shooting pain.
2. Autonomic neuropathy: This type of neuropathy affects the autonomic nerves, which control involuntary functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and bladder function. Symptoms may include dizziness, fainting, digestive problems, sexual dysfunction, and difficulty regulating body temperature.
3. Proximal neuropathy: Also known as diabetic amyotrophy, this type of neuropathy affects the nerves in the hips, thighs, or buttocks, causing weakness, pain, and difficulty walking.
4. Focal neuropathy: This type of neuropathy affects a single nerve or group of nerves, causing symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or pain in the affected area. Focal neuropathies can occur anywhere in the body, but they are most common in the head, torso, and legs.

The risk of developing diabetic neuropathies increases with the duration of diabetes and poor blood sugar control. Other factors that may contribute to the development of diabetic neuropathies include genetics, age, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

Self care is a health practice that involves individuals taking responsibility for their own health and well-being by actively seeking out and participating in activities and behaviors that promote healthy living, prevent illness and disease, and manage existing medical conditions. Self care includes a wide range of activities such as:

* Following a healthy diet and exercise routine
* Getting adequate sleep and rest
* Managing stress through relaxation techniques or mindfulness practices
* Practicing good hygiene and grooming habits
* Seeking preventive care through regular check-ups and screenings
* Taking prescribed medications as directed by a healthcare provider
* Monitoring symptoms and seeking medical attention when necessary

Self care is an important part of overall health and wellness, and can help individuals maintain their physical, emotional, and mental health. It is also an essential component of chronic disease management, helping people with ongoing medical conditions to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Prescription drugs are medications that are only available to patients with a valid prescription from a licensed healthcare professional, such as a doctor or nurse practitioner. These drugs cannot be legally obtained over-the-counter and require a prescription due to their potential for misuse, abuse, or serious side effects. They are typically used to treat complex medical conditions, manage symptoms of chronic illnesses, or provide necessary pain relief in certain situations.

Prescription drugs are classified based on their active ingredients and therapeutic uses. In the United States, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) categorizes them into five schedules (I-V) depending on their potential for abuse and dependence. Schedule I substances have the highest potential for abuse and no accepted medical use, while schedule V substances have a lower potential for abuse and are often used for legitimate medical purposes.

Examples of prescription drugs include opioid painkillers like oxycodone and hydrocodone, stimulants such as Adderall and Ritalin, benzodiazepines like Xanax and Ativan, and various other medications used to treat conditions such as epilepsy, depression, anxiety, and high blood pressure.

It is essential to use prescription drugs only as directed by a healthcare professional, as misuse or abuse can lead to severe health consequences, including addiction, overdose, and even death.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Capsaicin is defined in medical terms as the active component of chili peppers (genus Capsicum) that produces a burning sensation when it comes into contact with mucous membranes or skin. It is a potent irritant and is used topically as a counterirritant in some creams and patches to relieve pain. Capsaicin works by depleting substance P, a neurotransmitter that relays pain signals to the brain, from nerve endings.

Here is the medical definition of capsaicin from the Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary:

caпсаісіn : an alkaloid (C18H27NO3) that is the active principle of red peppers and is used in topical preparations as a counterirritant and analgesic.

Purinergic P2X4 receptors are a type of ionotropic purinergic receptor that are activated by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and related nucleotides. They belong to the P2X receptor family, which includes seven subtypes (P2X1-7) that form trimeric channels permeable to cations such as calcium, sodium, and potassium.

The P2X4 receptor is widely expressed in various tissues, including the central and peripheral nervous systems, immune cells, and epithelial cells. It plays a role in several physiological processes, including neurotransmission, inflammation, and pain perception. Activation of P2X4 receptors leads to an increase in intracellular calcium concentration and membrane depolarization, which can modulate synaptic transmission and cell excitability.

P2X4 receptors have also been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as neuropathic pain, neuroinflammation, and ischemic injury. They are involved in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines from immune cells, contributing to the development of chronic inflammation and tissue damage.

In summary, purinergic P2X4 receptors are a type of ATP-gated ion channel that play important roles in physiological and pathological processes, including neurotransmission, inflammation, and pain perception.

The Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) is a widely used, standardized measure of health-related quality of life and functional status. It is a self-reporting questionnaire that assesses the impact of illness or disability on an individual's daily life and functioning across multiple dimensions. The SIP evaluates four primary domains: physical, psychosocial, independent functioning, and overall health perception. These domains are further divided into 12 subscales, including sleep and rest, eating, work, home management, recreation and pastimes, ambulation, mobility, body care and movement, social interaction, communication, alertness behavior, and emotional behavior. The SIP is designed to measure both the severity and breadth of disability or impairment in individuals with a wide range of medical conditions. It has been used in research and clinical settings to evaluate treatment outcomes, compare the effectiveness of interventions, and monitor changes in health status over time.

A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a type of clinical study in which participants are randomly assigned to receive either the experimental intervention or the control condition, which may be a standard of care, placebo, or no treatment. The goal of an RCT is to minimize bias and ensure that the results are due to the intervention being tested rather than other factors. This design allows for a comparison between the two groups to determine if there is a significant difference in outcomes. RCTs are often considered the gold standard for evaluating the safety and efficacy of medical interventions, as they provide a high level of evidence for causal relationships between the intervention and health outcomes.

Factor analysis is a statistical technique used to identify patterns or structures in a dataset by explaining the correlations between variables. It is a method of simplifying complex data by reducing it to a smaller set of underlying factors that can explain most of the variation in the data. In other words, factor analysis is a way to uncover hidden relationships between multiple variables and group them into meaningful categories or factors.

In factor analysis, each variable is represented as a linear combination of underlying factors, where the factors are unobserved variables that cannot be directly measured but can only be inferred from the observed data. The goal is to identify these underlying factors and determine their relationships with the observed variables. This technique is commonly used in various fields such as psychology, social sciences, marketing, and biomedical research to explore complex datasets and gain insights into the underlying structure of the data.

There are two main types of factor analysis: exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). EFA is used when there is no prior knowledge about the underlying factors, and the goal is to discover the potential structure in the data. CFA, on the other hand, is used when there is a theoretical framework or hypothesis about the underlying factors, and the goal is to test whether the observed data support this framework or hypothesis.

In summary, factor analysis is a statistical method for reducing complex datasets into simpler components called factors, which can help researchers identify patterns, structures, and relationships in the data.

Medical malpractice is a legal term that refers to the breach of the duty of care by a healthcare provider, such as a doctor, nurse, or hospital, resulting in harm to the patient. This breach could be due to negligence, misconduct, or a failure to provide appropriate treatment. The standard of care expected from healthcare providers is based on established medical practices and standards within the relevant medical community.

To prove medical malpractice, four key elements must typically be demonstrated:

1. Duty of Care: A healthcare provider-patient relationship must exist, establishing a duty of care.
2. Breach of Duty: The healthcare provider must have failed to meet the standard of care expected in their field or specialty.
3. Causation: The breach of duty must be directly linked to the patient's injury or harm.
4. Damages: The patient must have suffered harm, such as physical injury, emotional distress, financial loss, or other negative consequences due to the healthcare provider's actions or inactions.

Medical malpractice cases can result in significant financial compensation for the victim and may also lead to changes in medical practices and policies to prevent similar incidents from happening in the future.

A single-blind method in medical research is a study design where the participants are unaware of the group or intervention they have been assigned to, but the researchers conducting the study know which participant belongs to which group. This is done to prevent bias from the participants' expectations or knowledge of their assignment, while still allowing the researchers to control the study conditions and collect data.

In a single-blind trial, the participants do not know whether they are receiving the active treatment or a placebo (a sham treatment that looks like the real thing but has no therapeutic effect), whereas the researcher knows which participant is receiving which intervention. This design helps to ensure that the participants' responses and outcomes are not influenced by their knowledge of the treatment assignment, while still allowing the researchers to assess the effectiveness or safety of the intervention being studied.

Single-blind methods are commonly used in clinical trials and other medical research studies where it is important to minimize bias and control for confounding variables that could affect the study results.

**Ketamine** is a dissociative anesthetic medication primarily used for starting and maintaining anesthesia. It can lead to a state of altered perception, hallucinations, sedation, and memory loss. Ketamine is also used as a pain reliever in patients with chronic pain conditions and during certain medical procedures due to its strong analgesic properties.

It is available as a generic drug and is also sold under various brand names, such as Ketalar, Ketanest, and Ketamine HCl. It can be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, orally, or as a nasal spray.

In addition to its medical uses, ketamine has been increasingly used off-label for the treatment of mood disorders like depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), owing to its rapid antidepressant effects. However, more research is needed to fully understand its long-term benefits and risks in these applications.

It's important to note that ketamine can be abused recreationally due to its dissociative and hallucinogenic effects, which may lead to addiction and severe psychological distress. Therefore, it should only be used under the supervision of a medical professional.

A "Veteran" is not a medical term per se, but rather a term used to describe individuals who have served in the military. Specifically, in the United States, a veteran is defined as a person who has served in the armed forces of the country and was discharged or released under conditions other than dishonorable. This definition can include those who served in war time or peace time. The term "veteran" does not imply any specific medical condition or diagnosis. However, veterans may have unique health needs and challenges related to their military service, such as exposure to hazardous materials, traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder, and other physical and mental health conditions.

The knee joint, also known as the tibiofemoral joint, is the largest and one of the most complex joints in the human body. It is a synovial joint that connects the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The patella (kneecap), which is a sesamoid bone, is located in front of the knee joint and helps in the extension of the leg.

The knee joint is made up of three articulations: the femorotibial joint between the femur and tibia, the femoropatellar joint between the femur and patella, and the tibiofibular joint between the tibia and fibula. These articulations are surrounded by a fibrous capsule that encloses the synovial membrane, which secretes synovial fluid to lubricate the joint.

The knee joint is stabilized by several ligaments, including the medial and lateral collateral ligaments, which provide stability to the sides of the joint, and the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, which prevent excessive forward and backward movement of the tibia relative to the femur. The menisci, which are C-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures located between the femoral condyles and tibial plateaus, also help to stabilize the joint by absorbing shock and distributing weight evenly across the articular surfaces.

The knee joint allows for flexion, extension, and a small amount of rotation, making it essential for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and sitting.

In medical terms, sensation refers to the ability to perceive and interpret various stimuli from our environment through specialized receptor cells located throughout the body. These receptors convert physical stimuli such as light, sound, temperature, pressure, and chemicals into electrical signals that are transmitted to the brain via nerves. The brain then interprets these signals, allowing us to experience sensations like sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell.

There are two main types of sensations: exteroceptive and interoceptive. Exteroceptive sensations involve stimuli from outside the body, such as light, sound, and touch. Interoceptive sensations, on the other hand, refer to the perception of internal bodily sensations, such as hunger, thirst, heartbeat, or emotions.

Disorders in sensation can result from damage to the nervous system, including peripheral nerves, spinal cord, or brain. Examples include numbness, tingling, pain, or loss of sensation in specific body parts, which can significantly impact a person's quality of life and ability to perform daily activities.

Opioid receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) found in the cell membranes of certain neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system. They bind to opioids, which are chemicals that can block pain signals and produce a sense of well-being. There are four main types of opioid receptors: mu, delta, kappa, and nociceptin. These receptors play a role in the regulation of pain, reward, addiction, and other physiological functions. Activation of opioid receptors can lead to both therapeutic effects (such as pain relief) and adverse effects (such as respiratory depression and constipation).

Opioid peptides are naturally occurring short chains of amino acids in the body that bind to opioid receptors in the brain, spinal cord, and gut, acting in a similar way to opiate drugs like morphine or heroin. They play crucial roles in pain regulation, reward systems, and addictive behaviors. Some examples of opioid peptides include endorphins, enkephalins, and dynorphins. These substances are released in response to stress, physical exertion, or injury and help modulate the perception of pain and produce feelings of pleasure or euphoria.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

Sleep disorders, intrinsic, refer to a group of sleep disorders that are caused by underlying medical conditions within an individual's body. These disorders originate from internal physiological or psychological factors and can significantly impact the quality, duration, and timing of sleep. The most common types of intrinsic sleep disorders include insomnia, sleep-related breathing disorders (such as sleep apnea), central hypersomnias (like narcolepsy), circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders, and parasomnias (including nightmares and sleepwalking).

Intrinsic sleep disorders can lead to various negative consequences, such as excessive daytime sleepiness, impaired cognitive function, reduced quality of life, and increased risk of accidents or injuries. Proper diagnosis and management of these disorders typically involve addressing the underlying medical condition and implementing appropriate treatment strategies, which may include lifestyle modifications, pharmacological interventions, or medical devices.

Psychological models are theoretical frameworks used in psychology to explain and predict mental processes and behaviors. They are simplified representations of complex phenomena, consisting of interrelated concepts, assumptions, and hypotheses that describe how various factors interact to produce specific outcomes. These models can be quantitative (e.g., mathematical equations) or qualitative (e.g., conceptual diagrams) in nature and may draw upon empirical data, theoretical insights, or both.

Psychological models serve several purposes:

1. They provide a systematic and organized way to understand and describe psychological phenomena.
2. They generate hypotheses and predictions that can be tested through empirical research.
3. They integrate findings from different studies and help synthesize knowledge across various domains of psychology.
4. They inform the development of interventions and treatments for mental health disorders.

Examples of psychological models include:

1. The Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality, which posits that individual differences in personality can be described along five broad dimensions: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism.
2. The Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) model, which suggests that maladaptive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are interconnected and can be changed through targeted interventions.
3. The Dual Process Theory of Attitudes, which proposes that attitudes are formed and influenced by two distinct processes: a rapid, intuitive process (heuristic) and a slower, deliberative process (systematic).
4. The Social Cognitive Theory, which emphasizes the role of observational learning, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations in shaping behavior.
5. The Attachment Theory, which describes the dynamics of long-term relationships between humans, particularly the parent-child relationship.

It is important to note that psychological models are provisional and subject to revision or replacement as new evidence emerges. They should be considered as useful tools for understanding and explaining psychological phenomena rather than definitive truths.

Health status is a term used to describe the overall condition of an individual's health, including physical, mental, and social well-being. It is often assessed through various measures such as medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and self-reported health assessments. Health status can be used to identify health disparities, track changes in population health over time, and evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare interventions.

In a medical context, relaxation generally refers to the reduction or release of tension in muscles, as well as a state of mental calmness and composure. This can be achieved through various techniques such as deep breathing exercises, progressive muscle relaxation, meditation, yoga, and other forms of stress management. The goal of relaxation is to reduce physical and emotional stress, lower blood pressure, improve sleep quality, and enhance overall well-being.

It's important to note that while relaxation can have many benefits for mental and physical health, it should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment or therapy for any underlying conditions. Always consult with a healthcare professional for advice on managing your health.

Osteopathic manipulation, also known as osteopathic manual medicine (OMM), is a hands-on approach to diagnosing, treating, and preventing illness and injury. It is a system of manual therapy that was developed by Andrew Taylor Still, the founder of osteopathic medicine. OMM uses a variety of techniques to move, stretch, and massage the muscles, joints, and other tissues. The goal of osteopathic manipulation is to restore normal function and balance to the body, allowing it to heal itself.

Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) is a series of manual techniques that are used to diagnose and treat a variety of medical conditions. These techniques may include stretching, gentle pressure, or resistance to improve the mobility and function of joints, muscles, and other tissues. OMT can be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including back pain, headaches, neck pain, and other musculoskeletal problems. It is also used to help relieve the symptoms of various internal disorders, such as asthma, sinus disorders, and digestive problems.

It's important to note that Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT) should be performed by a qualified healthcare professional with training in osteopathic manipulation, like an osteopathic physician (DO). It is generally considered safe when performed by a trained and licensed practitioner. However, as with any medical treatment, it is not without risks and potential complications. Therefore, it's important to discuss the potential benefits and risks of OMT with your healthcare provider before undergoing treatment.

Spinal nerve roots are the initial parts of spinal nerves that emerge from the spinal cord through the intervertebral foramen, which are small openings between each vertebra in the spine. These nerve roots carry motor, sensory, and autonomic fibers to and from specific regions of the body. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerve roots in total, with 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal pair. Each root has a dorsal (posterior) and ventral (anterior) ramus that branch off to form the peripheral nervous system. Irritation or compression of these nerve roots can result in pain, numbness, weakness, or loss of reflexes in the affected area.

A neuroma is not a specific type of tumor, but rather refers to a benign (non-cancerous) growth or swelling of nerve tissue. The most common type of neuroma is called a Morton's neuroma, which typically occurs between the third and fourth toes in the foot. It develops as a result of chronic irritation, compression, or trauma to the nerves leading to the toes, causing them to thicken and enlarge.

Morton's neuroma can cause symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or burning sensations in the affected area. Treatment options for Morton's neuroma may include rest, ice, orthotics, physical therapy, medication, or in some cases, surgery. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional if you suspect you have a neuroma or are experiencing related symptoms.

Chronic neuropathic pain: pain caused by damage to the somatosensory nervous system. Chronic headache and orofacial pain: pain ... Chronic visceral pain: pain originating in an internal organ. Chronic musculoskeletal pain: pain originating in the bones, ... Bogduk N, Merskey H (1994). Classification of chronic pain: descriptions of chronic pain syndromes and definitions of pain ... Chronic pain can contribute to decreased physical activity due to fear of making the pain worse. Pain intensity, pain control, ...
... is described as acute or chronic. Acute pain is nociceptive pain that serves as a warning to prevent ... cyclic acute wound pain, non cyclic acute wound pain, and chronic wound pain. Cyclic acute wound pain may be experienced in ... Chronic wound pain is present for six months or more and occurs without any manipulation of the wound. Chronic wound pain is ... The pain experienced by individuals with chronic wounds can be acute or chronic. Acute wound pain is intermittent and ...
... is long-term pain of the testes. It is considered chronic if it has persisted for more than three ... Leslie, Stephen (2 May 2019). "Chronic Testicular Pain and Orchalgia". Chronic Testicular Pain (Orchialgia). PMID 29494088. {{ ... Back pain may be concurrent or absent and some patients have a long history of low back pain. Onset of pain is commonly related ... Chronic testicular pain may be caused by injury, infection, surgery, cancer or testicular torsion and is a possible ...
Chronic primary pain Chronic cancer pain Chronic postsurgical and posttraumatic pain Chronic neuropathic pain Chronic headache ... and orofacial pain Chronic visceral pain Chronic musculoskeletal pain Childhood chronic pain can be caused by a number of ... Rates of pediatric chronic pain have also increased in the past 20 years. While chronic pain conditions vary significantly in ... Chronic pain can run in families, with the risk of paediatric chronic pain increasing dramatically for offspring of adults with ...
... and the economic loss caused by chronic pain is around 600 million dollars. Chronic pain and accompanying chronic health ... Chronic pain is often caused by peripheral tissue inflammation or nerve and tissue damage. Chronic pain can have a variety of ... which are important mechanisms of chronic pain. In 2019, 20% of adults dealt with chronic pain. Epigenetics can provide a new ... These drugs target the side effects of chronic pain and help manage the pain. However, they don't address the root cause of the ...
... (CFAP) or functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is the ongoing presence of abdominal pain ... CFAP is characterized by chronic pain, with no physical explanation or findings (no structural, infectious, or mechanical ... "Ilioinguinal/Iliohypogastric Pulsed Radiofrequency for the Treatment of Pediatric Chronic Abdominal Pain: A Case Report". A&A ... As with IBS, low doses of antidepressants have been found useful in controlling the pain of CFAP. Clouse, RE; Mayer, EA; Aziz, ...
... (UCPPS) is ongoing bladder pain in either sex, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain ... "A New Look at Urological Chronic Pelvic Pain". Multi-Disciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain. Retrieved 8 ... interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) in women and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) in ... Sandhu J, Tu HY (2017). "Recent advances in managing chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome". F1000Res. 6: 1747. doi: ...
Bowen DK, Dielubanza E, Schaeffer AJ (August 2015). "Chronic bacterial prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome". BMJ ... "Long-term results of multimodal therapy for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome". The Journal of Urology. 169 (4 ... It should be distinguished from other forms of prostatitis such as acute bacterial prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome ... Habermacher GM, Chason JT, Schaeffer AJ (2006). "Prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome". Annual Review of Medicine. 57 (1): ...
Conditions recognized for medical marijuana in Colorado include: cachexia; cancer; chronic pain; chronic nervous system ...
Acquired Brain Injury (ABI). Chronic pain. Turning Point provides a comprehensive program to the local general public, ...
"Chronic Pain". Google Play. Retrieved 21 June 2015. "Fall asleep for adults". Google Play. Retrieved 21 June 2015. "Fall asleep ... reducing chronic pain, insomnia, and to help children go to sleep. Ongoing efforts to allow Melomics to adapt music in real- ... acute stress and pain perception. One of the studies resulted in a reduction of almost two thirds of pain perception in ... to lessen pain perception during pediatric prick test procedure". Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. 25 (7): 721-724. doi: ...
... upper abdominal pain that is frequently chronic and debilitating. Pain is the most common symptom of chronic pancreatitis. The ... However, some people with chronic pancreatitis report little to no pain; from google (chronic pancreatitis smelly poop) result ... The mechanism of chronic pancreatitis viewed from a genetic standpoint indicates early onset of severe epigastric pain ... It can present as episodes of acute inflammation in a previously injured pancreas, or as chronic damage with persistent pain or ...
... back pain and chronic low back pain, or internal disc disruption. The Biostat intradiscal fibrin sealant underwent multiple ... Weiss, Frances (May 8, 2012). "Chronic Back Pain? Spinal Fusion May be the Wrong Surgery". New Jersey Newsroom. Archived from ... Pauza has treated many international clients for chronic back pain and spinal disc degeneration,[citation needed] and even ... Outside of treating patients with chronic lower back pain and degenerative disc disease, Pauza is on the editorial panel of ...
Pain Management. 2 (3): 205-207. doi:10.2217/pmt.12.12. PMID 24654663. "Curing chronic pain". www.adelaide.edu.au. University ... to research links between chronic pain and the immune system. This led them to establish the Pain and Anaesthesia Research ... Rolan's major clinical and academic focus is in treatment of chronic pain, from the underlying causes of disease to development ... He specializes in the management of chronic pain and headache, and development of novel treatments. After his medical training ...
Silvestri, Vivian (June 15, 2013). "Camille Works to Raise Awareness of Ehlers Danlos Syndrome". Chronic Pain Partners. "Two ...
Wåhlén K (2020). "Introduction: chronic pain". The pain profile in fibromyalgia: Painomic studies of pain characteristics and ... This type of pain typically arises in some chronic pain conditions, with the archetypal condition being fibromyalgia. It may be ... The other two mechanisms are nociceptive pain and neuropathic pain. Widespread pain and increased pain have been suggested as ... Linda Geddes (28 June 2021), "The pain that can't be seen - Sufferers of chronic pain have long been told it's all in their ...
ISBN 978-3-88763-075-1. Ledger W, Schlaff WD, Vancaillie TG (11 December 2014). Chronic Pelvic Pain. Cambridge University Press ... Blackwell RE, Olive DL (6 December 2012). Chronic Pelvic Pain: Evaluation and Management. Springer Science & Business Media. pp ... The medication is contraindicated in pregnancy, during lactation, and in patients with severe cardiac, chronic kidney disease ...
It is also useful in pain control for neuropathic pain, chronic pain and palliative care - "comfort care" - for those with ... Harden RN (March 2005). "Chronic neuropathic pain. Mechanisms, diagnosis, and treatment". The Neurologist. 11 (2): 111-122. doi ... When combined with opioids it increases the level of analgesia (pain relief) obtained. Several mechanisms are thought to ... Side effects include dry mouth and throat, increased appetite leading to weight gain, eye pain, blurred vision, restlessness, ...
Ledger W, Schlaff WD, Vancaillie TG (11 December 2014). Chronic Pelvic Pain. Cambridge University Press. pp. 55-. ISBN 978-1- ... These side effects include breast pain/tenderness and gynecomastia (breast development/enlargement), reduced body hair growth/ ...
... such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis Chronic pain syndromes, such as post-vasectomy pain syndrome and complex ... The Self in Chronic Illness and Time by Kathy Charmaz Chronic care management Chronic disease in China Chronic disease in ... Chronic graft-versus-host disease Chronic hepatitis Chronic kidney disease Chronic osteoarticular diseases, ... A chronic condition (also known as chronic disease or chronic illness) is a health condition or disease that is persistent or ...
Medicine portal Chronic pain Larsen, Pamala D. (2011). "Chronicity". In Lubkin, Ilene Morof; Larsen, Pamala D. (eds.). Chronic ... Many of the core functions of primary health care are central to chronic care. Chronic care is complex in nature because it may ... Without effective treatment chronic conditions may lead to disability. The incidence of chronic disease has increased as ... Chronic medical conditions include asthma, diabetes, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, congestive heart disease, cirrhosis of the ...
NRS Pain), McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), Chronic Pain Grade Scale (CPGS), ... "Does Opioid Tapering in Chronic Pain Patients Result in Improved Pain or Same Pain vs Increased Pain at Taper Completion? A ... no pain' and 'worst imaginable pain". Cut-offs for pain classification have been recommended as no pain (0-4mm), mild pain (5- ... The intensity of chronic pain was higher for girls, and girls' reports of chronic pain increased markedly between ages 12 and ...
It may be either acute, subacute or chronic depending on its duration.[citation needed] Chronic scrotal pain (pain for greater ... Leslie, Stephen (2 May 2019). "Chronic Testicular Pain and Orchalgia". Chronic Testicular Pain (Orchialgia). PMID 29494088. {{ ... Testicular pain, also known as scrotal pain, occurs when part or all of either one or both testicles hurt. Pain in the scrotum ... All people with chronic pain should be tested for gonorrhea and chlamydia. Ultrasound is useful if the cause is not certain ...
Szucs-Reed RP, Gallagher RM (5 January 2012). "Chronic pain and opioids.". In Moore RJ (ed.). Handbook of Pain and Palliative ... 332-. ISBN 978-1-4496-1073-9. Flood P, Aleshi P (28 February 2014). "Postoperative and Chronic Pain: Systematic and Regional ... It is commonly used to treat post-surgical dental pain. Weak evidence indicates that it is useful in cancer pain, but it may ... It does not need to be converted to morphine to increase pain sensitivity. Codeine is an opioid and an agonist of the mu opioid ...
"Benzodiazepines in chronic pain". February 2016. Archived from the original on 2016-09-23. Retrieved 2016-09-22. Kaufmann CN, ... Another view maintains that cognitive deficits in chronic benzodiazepine users occur only for a short period after the dose, or ... The main problem of the chronic use of benzodiazepines is the development of tolerance and dependence. Tolerance manifests ... Paradoxical effects may also appear after chronic use of benzodiazepines. While benzodiazepines may have short-term benefits ...
American Chronic Pain Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-05. American Chronic Pain Association Johns ... The American Chronic Pain Association (ACPA) declared this month to "raise public awareness of issues in the area of pain and ... The National Pain Care Policy Act of 2003. 2004 was also the year the ACPA and the Partners for Understanding Pain issued their ... Communication tools to assist patients with talking to medical professionals Pain Awareness toolkits Pain Management Programs ...
"Sensor-driven position-adaptive spinal cord stimulation for chronic pain". Pain Physician. 15 (1): 1-12. doi:10.36076/ppj.2012/ ... Neurostimulation for chronic pain is primarily through the use of spinal cord stimulators. These devices deliver electrical ... The FDA has approved devices for use in the United States in the treatment of epileptic seizures and chronic pain conditions. ... "Neuromodulation for chronic pain". The Lancet. 397 (10289): 2111-2124. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00794-7. PMID 34062145. S2CID ...
"Inpatient Chronic Pain Program". www.rchsd.org. Archived from the original on 2020-09-26. Retrieved 2020-02-09. "Children's ... The new unit is branded with CSH's branding and the unit follows CSH policies on pediatric chronic rehabilitation and pain ... The partnership helps to establish the first inpatient children's chronic pain program in Southern California. The program ... Autism Spinal cord injuries Infant and toddler rehabilitation Chronic pain management Developmental and behavioral issues ...
... full mu-opioid receptor agonist for chronic low-back pain". PAIN. 160 (6): 1374-1382. doi:10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001517. PMC ... Chronic Low Back Pain". Food and Drug Administration. Archived from the original on 24 December 2020. Markman, John; Gudin, ... It has had success for back pain as an alternative to traditional opioids, which have potential for abuse. It acts more slowly ... Oxycodegol (also known as loxicodegol and NKTR-181) is an experimental μ-opioid receptor agonist for the treatment of pain. ...
"Changes in pain intensity after discontinuation of long-term opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain". Pain. 159 (10): 2097- ... Rodent models where the social effects of chronic pain can be isolated from other factors suggest that induction of chronic ... Importantly, recent observational studies suggest a pain-relief benefit in non-cancer related chronic pain of reducing or ... Neuropathic pain also tends to affect defined dermatomes and there may be limits to the area of pain. For neuropathic pain, ...
While chronic pain cannot be cured, there are treatments that can help manage and reduce. ... You may feel pain in one area of your body, or all over. There are two types: acute pain and chronic pain. Acute pain lets you ... Chronic Pain (American Academy of Family Physicians) Also in Spanish * Chronic Pain: What You Need to Know (National Center for ... Many older adults have chronic pain. Women also report having more chronic pain than men, and they are at a greater risk for ...
A major new review finds no reliable evidence that antidepressants help chronic pain, results of a new Cochrane review show. ... Nopioids for Chronic Pain: Only When Nothing Else Works * 2001/viewarticle/innovations-pediatric-chronic-pain-management- ... Patients with chronic pain dont take antidepressants for weeks, they take it for months, and its "shocking that we dont have ... Chronic pain is a problem for millions who are prescribed antidepressants without sufficient scientific proof they help," lead ...
Chronic pain syndrome (CPS) is a common problem that presents a major challenge to health-care providers because of its complex ... Validation of the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire in chronic pain patients. Pain. 2012 Jun. 153(6):1210-8. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... encoded search term (Chronic Pain Syndrome) and Chronic Pain Syndrome What to Read Next on Medscape ... How Does Myofascial Physical Therapy Attenuate Pain in Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome?. Pain Res Manag. 2019. 2019:6091257. [QxMD ...
Chronic neuropathic pain: pain caused by damage to the somatosensory nervous system. Chronic headache and orofacial pain: pain ... Chronic visceral pain: pain originating in an internal organ. Chronic musculoskeletal pain: pain originating in the bones, ... Bogduk N, Merskey H (1994). Classification of chronic pain: descriptions of chronic pain syndromes and definitions of pain ... Chronic pain can contribute to decreased physical activity due to fear of making the pain worse. Pain intensity, pain control, ...
Chronic Pain is Like a Car With Four Flat Tires. Its hard to know how to move forward once chronic pain has entered your life ... listened to the stories of eight chronic pain sufferers, asking them to describe how their pain "feels" with visual descriptors ... Attention Chronic Pain Sufferers. Sharing is healing. Chronicle columnist Randall H. Duckett is writing a book in which he ... Chronic pain may happen to one person but the whole family is affected. Our three-part video series Family Matters discusses ...
Checklist for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Painpdf icon * Factsheet: Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Painpdf ... Opioids for Chronic Pain provides recommendations for safer and more effective prescribing of opioids for chronic pain in ... This COCA Call series covered when and how opioids should be initiated for chronic pain, how to assess risk and address harms ... JAMA Special Communication: CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain external icon ...
New epidemiological and neuroscientific evidence suggests emotional pain activates many of the same limbic brain centers as ... Perspective: Why opioids cannot fix chronic pain. Researchers say that emotional pain and chronic pain are related, and ... This is especially true, they said, for the most common chronic pain syndromes - back pain, headaches, and fibromyalgia. ... say emotional pain and chronic physical pain are bidirectional. Painkillers, they said, ultimately make things worse. ...
Expert Q&A: Tips on how to cope with back pain. Read More ...
... a slight change in day-to-day activities and the use of adaptive devises may help alleviate chronic pain. ... Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is rare chronic pain disorder usually involving an ... Yoga can enhance neuromuscular response during trunk flexion and modify pain perception in chronic low back pain sufferers. ... To test his theory, McCormack picked up the case study of his chronic back pain patient Mr. Jones, who could not sleep, bend or ...
Chronic Pain Relief for Android to . Curable: Back Pain, Migraine & Chronic Pain Relief has had 4 updates. ... back pain, sciatica, nerve pain, foot pain, hip pain, knee pain, RSI, hand and wrist pain, and more. 70% of Curable users ... Key Details of Curable: Back Pain, Migraine & Chronic Pain Relief. *Take control over chronic pain with the Curable app. ... Take control over chronic pain with the Curable app.. Take control over chronic pain with the Curable app. Our step-by-step ...
What are some of those common chronic back pain causes? Find out. ... Most chronic back pain is caused by underlying conditions, not ... What are chronic back pain symptoms?. Chronic back pain symptoms typically come on gradually and are long-lasting, sticking ... Dont wait to get relief: Learn more about your chronic back pain treatment options. If you have chronic back pain, chances are ... So, what are some of those underlying causes of chronic back pain? Lets start by defining what chronic back pain is. Then ...
... has gained traction as a potential treatment for intractable chronic pain in... ... has gained traction as a potential treatment for intractable chronic pain in... ... Chronic Pain In The United States. Chronic pain affects between 50 and 116 million American adults, a staggering number that ... Clinical Outcomes for Cannabidiol in Intractable Chronic Pain. *Mechanistic Insights For Cannabidiol Treatment Of Chronic Pain ...
... chronic pelvic pain from other pelvic problems like endometriosis and some reasons why women experience chronic pelvic pain. ... Chronic pelvic pain refers to pain in the region between your hips, below your bellybutton. In order to be considered chronic, ... Its possible that no physical cause for you pain will ever be found. Up to 61% of chronic pelvic pain sufferers will never be ... Possible causes for chronic pelvic pain include:. *Endometriosis: A condition that causes tissue from the lining of the uterus ...
Psychosocial effects of workplace physical exercise among workers with chronic pain : Randomized controlled trial. *Mark ... with upper limb chronic musculoskeletal pain were randomly allocated to group-based strength training (physical exercise group ... with upper limb chronic musculoskeletal pain were randomly allocated to group-based strength training (physical exercise group ... with upper limb chronic musculoskeletal pain were randomly allocated to group-based strength training (physical exercise group ...
A Canadian study reveals the gut bacterias relationship with chronic pain in findings that identify changes in the gut ... Gut-brain axis may be bridge linking chronic pain with microbiome changes. By Will Chu 21-Jun-2019. - Last updated on 21-Jun- ... A Canadian study reveals the gut bacterias relationship with chronic pain in findings that identify changes in the gut ... have found a correlation between a disease involving chronic pain and alterations in the gut microbiome. CREDIT: McGill ...
... that CBT has small or very small beneficial effects for reducing pain, disability, and distress in chronic pain, but we found ... chronic low back pain, rheumatoid arthritis, or mixed chronic pain. Most risk of bias domains were at high or unclear risk of ... that CBT has small or very small beneficial effects for reducing pain, disability, and distress in chronic pain, but we found ... Background: Chronic non-cancer pain, a disabling and distressing condition, is common in adults. It is a global public health ...
This multi disciplinary team provides care for women who have chronic pelvic pain. ... This multi disciplinary team provides care for women who have chronic pelvic pain.. Service includes:. *physician assessment ...
I had some of the best psycho-education you can receive on chronic pain. I have a pain-threshold that is probably up there with ... I had experienced over three-years of chronic back pain. You would think that ceasing the activity that was causing the pain to ... Chronic pain rehab and management is far from a linear process. In that year off I fractured my foot from running too much. I ... How do I know this? Because if chronic pain has taught me one thing, it is that I am tougher than I thought I was. And you are ...
The presence of pain can affect all aspects of a child or young persons life and have a big impact on their family and whānau. ... Key points about chronic or persistent pain. *chronic or persistent pain is long-lasting pain (it lasts beyond the normal time ... What is chronic or persistent pain?. Chronic or persistent pain is either continuous or recurrent pain that lasts beyond the ... Pain that lasts longer than 3 months is usually considered chronic. What causes chronic or persistent pain?. There are 3 main ...
Watch our full video called Chronic Pelvic Pain in Women now. ... Women who experience chronic pelvic pain know how it can ... At this seminar, learn causes and treatment options for chronic pelvic pain, including physical therapy. ...
Brian Kessler - Medical Director of Spine and Sports Medicine - if you are suffering from chronic back pain, always attempt ... surgery is a last resort to relieve chronic back pain. According to Dr. ... Does Chronic Back Pain Require Surgery?. Chronic Back Pain No, surgery is a last resort to relieve chronic back pain. According ... Interventional Pain Management Renowned Chronic Back Pain Treatment Provider Since 1993, Spine and Sports Medicine has provided ...
Study results suggest that lidocaine injection might be better than ischemic compression in treating chronic pelvic pain in ... Lidocaine Injection Holds Promise for Women with Chronic Pelvic Pain. December 28, 2015. Bill Schu ... "Since we selectively excluded subjects with comorbidities and other causes of chronic pelvic pain, we cannot confirm that this ... Study results suggest that lidocaine injection might be better than ischemic compression in treating chronic pelvic pain in ...
Chronic Pelvic Pain can be caused by Pudendal Neuralgia (PN).. This is a factual statement, backed by the internationally ... Petition For More Research, Awareness, Training For Med School Students & Doctors For Chronic Pelvic Pain Frequently Caused By ... Many are wrongly diagnosed and therefore remain in pain without hope of targeted treatment.. Please, think about this. Patients ... Thankfully, some neurosurgeons, urologists, hip surgeons, gynaecologists, pain consultants and plastic surgeons have taken a ...
Patients with chronic pain also experience ongoing pain, which is rarely evaluated in preclinical studies. In animals, this ... 2013) Psychiatric co-morbidities in patients with chronic peripheral neuropathic pain: a multicentre cohort study. Eur J Pain ... pain burden (Radat et al., 2013). Preclinical studies have shown that the anxiodepressive-like consequences of chronic pain, as ... 2013) Chronic pain leads to concomitant noradrenergic impairment and mood disorders. Biol Psychiatry 73:54-62. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Chronic pain commonly evolves from an acute pain associated with peripheral tissue injury to a more centralized pain that is ... This position statement addresses the management of chronic pain as distinct from the management of acute pain, pain related to ... The relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain in people seeking treatment for chronic pain: The ... Pain, 152(3), 488-497.. 7 Hooten, W. M. (2016). Chronic pain and mental health disorders: Shared neural mechanisms, ...
Pain Research Forum. / Papers of the Week. / Mindfulness and Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: An Umbrella Review.. ... PAIN. PAIN Reports. Pain Research Forum. Papers of the Week. Webinars and Podcasts. Events ... Chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMSP) disorders are a leading cause of disability globally, affecting up to one in three people. ... Resources for Living with Pain. Global Alliance of Partners in Pain Advocacy (GAPPA). Events ...
Neuropathic pain is caused by damage to nerves, either from injury or disease. Pain is described as chronic if it has been ... Complementary & alternative medicine , Pain & anaesthesia , Chronic non-cancer pain management. Neurology , Peripheral ... Topical creams with capsaicin are used to treat pain from a wide range of chronic conditions including neuropathic pain. ... This is an update of an earlier review of topical capsaicin for chronic neuropathic pain in adults that looked at all doses and ...
  • The studies mainly investigated the effect of antidepressants on fibromyalgia, nerve pain, and musculoskeletal pain. (medscape.com)
  • Chronic musculoskeletal pain: pain originating in the bones, muscles, joints or connective tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • This aim of this study was to investigate the effect of workplace physical exercise on psychosocial factors among workers with chronic musculoskeletal pain.The trial design was a 2-armed parallel-group randomized controlled trial with allocation concealment. (lu.se)
  • A total of 66 slaughterhouse workers (51 men and 15 women, mean age 45 years [standard deviation (SD) 10]) with upper limb chronic musculoskeletal pain were randomly allocated to group-based strength training (physical exercise group) or individual ergonomic training and education (reference group) for 10 weeks. (lu.se)
  • There were no reported adverse events.In conclusion, workplace physical exercise performed together with colleagues improves social climate and vitality among workers with chronic musculoskeletal pain. (lu.se)
  • Most musculoskeletal pain responds very well to chiropractic adjustment and physical therapy. (spineandsports.com)
  • Mindfulness and Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: An Umbrella Review. (iasp-pain.org)
  • Chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMSP) disorders are a leading cause of disability globally, affecting up to one in three people. (iasp-pain.org)
  • Chronic pelvic pain refers to pain in the region between your hips, below your bellybutton. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • Up to 61% of chronic pelvic pain sufferers will never be specifically diagnosed. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • Human studies have showed consistent gut microbiota alterations in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and individuals suffering from chronic dysfunctional pelvic pain. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Women who experience chronic pelvic pain know how it can disrupt daily routines and impact mental and physical health. (whhs.com)
  • At this seminar, learn causes and treatment options for chronic pelvic pain, including physical therapy. (whhs.com)
  • Study results suggest that lidocaine injection might be better than ischemic compression in treating chronic pelvic pain in women. (hcplive.com)
  • The finding is potentially important because chronic pelvic pain (CPP), while a common condition among women of reproductive age, can be difficult to diagnose and treat, and its primary cause is not well understood. (hcplive.com)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first randomized trial demonstrating the superiority of a local anesthetic for the treatment of the trigger points in the inferior abdominal wall of women with chronic pelvic pain even though this method has been proven to be effective in the treatment of other myofascial syndromes, and is similar to the effects of the lidocaine patch," the study authors noted. (hcplive.com)
  • Since we selectively excluded subjects with comorbidities and other causes of chronic pelvic pain, we cannot confirm that this intervention, compared to those that had been applied by experts, works in the more complex 'real-life' setting. (hcplive.com)
  • Chronic Pelvic Pain can be caused by Pudendal Neuralgia (PN). (ipetitions.com)
  • Hormonal contraceptive methods are often first-line treatment for certain chronic pelvic pain conditions, and correctional facilities should thus provide full, unrestricted access to these medications. (ncchc.org)
  • Chronic pelvic pain is poorly understood and, consequently, poorly managed. (medscape.com)
  • In the United States, estimated direct medical costs for outpatient visits for chronic pelvic pain (women aged 18-50 y) is approximately $881.5 million per year. (medscape.com)
  • The pathophysiology of chronic pelvic pain is complex and multifactorial. (medscape.com)
  • Chronic pelvic pain is a common problem. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] Of all referrals to gynecologists, 10% are for pelvic pain. (medscape.com)
  • A similar prevalence of chronic pelvic pain has been described in other countries. (medscape.com)
  • In one study, blacks had a higher incidence of pelvic pain. (medscape.com)
  • Chronic pelvic pain is most common among reproductive-aged women. (medscape.com)
  • Common causes of chronic pelvic pain in men include chronic (nonbacterial) prostatitis, chronic orchalgia, and prostatodynia. (medscape.com)
  • Chronic pelvic pain: prevalence, health-related quality of life, and economic correlates. (medscape.com)
  • The prevalence of dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, pelvic pain, and irritable bowel syndrome in primary care practices. (medscape.com)
  • A profile of women with chronic pelvic pain. (medscape.com)
  • Prevalence and incidence of chronic pelvic pain in primary care: evidence from a national general practice database. (medscape.com)
  • Neis KJ, Neis F. Chronic pelvic pain: cause, diagnosis and therapy from a gynaecologist's and an endoscopist's point of view. (medscape.com)
  • Weijenborg PT, Ter Kuile MM, Stones W. A cognitive behavioural based assessment of women with chronic pelvic pain. (medscape.com)
  • Chronic pelvic pain and previous sexual abuse. (medscape.com)
  • Correlates of 1-Year Change in Quality of Life in Patients with Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: Findings from the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Research Network. (bvsalud.org)
  • We evaluated and identified baseline factors associated with change in health related quality of life among patients with interstitial cystitis / bladder pain syndrome and chronic prostatitis /chronic pelvic pain syndrome . (bvsalud.org)
  • Better baseline condition specific health related quality of life and more severe baseline urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome pain symptoms were associated with a lower likelihood of improvement in condition specific health related quality of life . (bvsalud.org)
  • While several nonurologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome factors influenced the trajectory of general health related quality of life over time , only condition specific baseline health related quality of life and urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome symptoms were associated with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome specific health related quality of life change. (bvsalud.org)
  • Significant differences in how urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome impacts various aspects of health related quality of life suggest a multidisciplinary approach to assessment and treatment of these patients . (bvsalud.org)
  • Duloxetine was consistently the highest-ranked antidepressant and was equally effective for fibromyalgia, musculoskeletal, and neuropathic pain conditions, with moderate- to high-certainty evidence, the researchers found. (medscape.com)
  • Chronic neuropathic pain: pain caused by damage to the somatosensory nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuropathic pain is divided into "peripheral" (originating in the peripheral nervous system) and "central" (originating in the brain or spinal cord). (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we characterized, in a mouse model, the long-term development of these sensory and aversive components as well as anxiodepressive-like consequences of neuropathic pain and determined their electrophysiological impact on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, cortical areas 24a/24b). (jneurosci.org)
  • We show that these symptoms of neuropathic pain evolve and recover in different time courses following nerve injury in male mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • Optogenetic inhibition of the ACC hyperactivity was sufficient to alleviate the aversive and anxiodepressive-like consequences of neuropathic pain, indicating that these consequences are underpinned by ACC hyperactivity. (jneurosci.org)
  • The pathophysiology of chronic pain syndrome (CPS) is multifactorial and complex and still is poorly understood. (medscape.com)
  • Orofacial pains are considered complex and multifactorial and often do not respond well to treatment with common analgesics. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa L., has gained traction as a potential treatment for intractable chronic pain in many conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, HDBS in PAG/DRN holds great promise as an efficient treatment of intractable chronic pain disorders. (lu.se)
  • Chronic primary pain: defined by 3 months of persistent pain in one or more regions of the body that is unexplainable by another pain condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • I must admit that when my physiotherapist first explained the concept of 'persistent pain' to me, I was beyond sceptical. (noigroup.com)
  • Chronic or persistent pain is either continuous or recurrent pain that lasts beyond the normal time of healing. (kidshealth.org.nz)
  • Persistent pain is often misunderstood, as the pain system is complex with many pathways in the brain affecting how pain is felt. (kidshealth.org.nz)
  • Who may be involved in the assessment and treatment of chronic or persistent pain? (kidshealth.org.nz)
  • The Pain Toolkit website has a section with useful resources, information and choices for patients to help with the self-management of persistent pain. (kidshealth.org.nz)
  • Alternatively, injury, even mild injury, may lead to long-lasting changes (sensitization) in the nervous system-from peripheral receptors to the cerebral cortex-that may produce persistent pain in the absence of ongoing nociceptive stimuli. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Psychologic factors may amplify persistent pain. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Case-based content was used to demonstrate how clinicians in primary care settings can incorporate and apply the guideline's 12 recommendations when using opioids to treat chronic pain. (cdc.gov)
  • Various neuromuscular, reproductive, gastrointestinal (GI), and urologic disorders may cause or contribute to chronic pain. (medscape.com)
  • But the truth is that a single cause usually can't be identified, rather there are several underlying conditions that can contribute to chronic pain. (healthpartners.com)
  • In medicine, the distinction between acute and chronic pain is sometimes determined by the amount of time since onset. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multidisciplinary Pain Programs (MPPs) follow a model of care that emphasizes, when pain cannot be successfully eliminated, managing the pain to the extent that the patient's independence is restored and overall quality of life improved. (ahrq.gov)
  • This element of the programme aims to give patient's a better understanding of their pain and its relationship with other factors, such as depression, anxiety and exercise. (ramsayhealth.co.uk)
  • Patients living with chronic pain should be evaluated using up-to-date evidence-based tools that assess objective measures such as the patient's level of function, including their ability to perform institutional activities of daily living. (ncchc.org)
  • Mental health and substance use disorders associated with chronic pain should be thoroughly assessed and treated as an essential element of the patient's treatment plan. (ncchc.org)
  • Various factors in the patient's environment (eg, family members, friends) may reinforce behaviors that perpetuate chronic pain. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Thus, effective procedural pain control should include assessment and management of the patient's emotional state and relative stress level. (medscape.com)
  • Finally, differentially abundant taxa in fibromyalgia patients share some commonalities with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and interstitial cystitis (IC) - while retaining some unique differentially abundant taxa. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Patients with bladder problems, urinary frequency, bowel dysfunction and genital pain, men with erectile dysfunction, penile pain and prostatitis, women with endometriosis, dyspareunia, interstitial cystitis, and fibromyalgia who have been unresponsive to treatments typical to these more universally diagnosed problems, may have Pudendal Neuropathy. (ipetitions.com)
  • One approach to predicting a person's experience of chronic pain is the biopsychosocial model, according to which an individual's experience of chronic pain may be affected by a complex mixture of their biology, psychology, and their social environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 183 papers considered in this Technical Brief followed a biopsychosocial model of chronic pain, including treatment components in each of four areas: medical, behavioral, physical reconditioning, and education. (ahrq.gov)
  • Patients with chronic pain don't take antidepressants for weeks, they take it for months, and it's "shocking that we don't have any evidence for long-term use" of antidepressants in patients with chronic pain, Pincus said during a press briefing. (medscape.com)
  • Management of chronic pain in patients with multiple problems is complex, usually requiring specific treatment, simultaneous psychological treatment, and physical therapy (PT). (medscape.com)
  • The CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain provides recommendations for safer and more effective prescribing of opioids for chronic pain in patients 18 years and older in outpatient settings outside of active cancer treatment, palliative care, and end-of-life care. (cdc.gov)
  • What Sullivan recommends is if patients are on high-dose long-term opioids and they are not having clear improvement in pain and function, they need to taper down or switch to buprenorphine. (newswise.com)
  • Relaxation techniques, breathing techniques, imagery and visualization can all help with how patients perceive pain. (medindia.net)
  • It gives patients more control over their pain instead of just having someone hand them a pill. (medindia.net)
  • At enrollment and after 4 months of treatment, all patients in both groups completed two questionnaires: the 11 point pain intensity numerical scale (PI-NRS) and the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). (nih.gov)
  • The cervical facet joints, which allow the neck and back to tilt forwards, backwards, and rotate, are considered to be the primary source of the pain in around 40% of patients with chronic neck pain and in over half of those with neck pain after whiplash injury. (news-medical.net)
  • The guidelines also conclude that more stringent selection criteria, such as requiring nearly total pain relief from diagnostic blocks, might improve the level of pain relief afforded to individual patients after radiofrequency ablation. (news-medical.net)
  • Writing in the journal Pain, ​the team discuss how butyrate metabolism-related bacteria populations such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii ​ and Bacteroides uniformis ​, decreased in fibromyalgia patients. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Highlighted are similar observations in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthropathies in which researchers report microbiome alterations. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The team said the study demonstrated gastrointestinal tract microbiota alteration in patients with somatic (non-visceral) pain in general, and fibromyalgia in particular. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Drs. of Chiropractic and Drs. of Physical Therapy provide many advantages to patients suffering from chronic back pain. (spineandsports.com)
  • Since 1993, Spine and Sports Medicine has provided compassionate, top quality chiropractic and physical therapy care to 1000s of patients suffering from chronic back pain. (spineandsports.com)
  • Thankfully, some neurosurgeons, urologists, hip surgeons, gynaecologists, pain consultants and plastic surgeons have taken a personal interest in the problem in an attempt to alleviate their patients' suffering. (ipetitions.com)
  • Patients living with chronic pain in the carceral setting should be treated with dignity and respect and have timely access to objective health care evaluations that are free from stigma or bias based on their race, ethnicity, age, gender, cognitive limitations, or co-occurring conditions such as substance use disorders. (ncchc.org)
  • Treatment plans for patients with chronic pain should be individualized, based on current evidence-based pain management guidelines, and implemented by interdisciplinary correctional health professionals who possess clinical competencies in pain management. (ncchc.org)
  • Noninvasive, nonpharmacologic interventions should be considered as first-line treatment for patients with certain chronic pain conditions in accordance with evidence-based guidelines. (ncchc.org)
  • Medications should be considered for certain patients with chronic pain while considering the limitations of their long-term efficacy and potential for adverse effects. (ncchc.org)
  • If prescribed opioids are discontinued in patients with chronic pain, they should be tapered slowly in accordance with pain management guidelines. (ncchc.org)
  • Patients transitioning to the community should have their care coordinated with community providers to avoid disruption in pain management. (ncchc.org)
  • The National Commission on Correctional Health Care recognizes the importance of effectively evaluating and treating patients living with chronic pain in the carceral setting. (ncchc.org)
  • This position statement also assumes that all incarcerated patients with chronic pain have had a thorough history, physical examination, and clinically indicated diagnostic studies that could identify causes of pain that could be readily alleviated. (ncchc.org)
  • Some patients living with chronic pain can be at increased risk of suicidal ideation and self-harm while receiving treatments and during the rapid tapering of prescribed opioids 9,10,11 . (ncchc.org)
  • These factors underscore the importance of effectively treating chronic pain in incarcerated patients who have a high prevalence of co-occurring behavioral health disorders and integrating suicide prevention programs into chronic pain management programs. (ncchc.org)
  • Overview of Pain Pain is the most common reason patients seek medical care. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Therefore, in order to improve the quality of life of patients suffering with chronic pain, the anticonvulsant drugs were introduced to the pharmaceutical market. (bvsalud.org)
  • Back-specific functioning, general health, work disability specific to low back pain, safety outcomes, and treatment adherence did not differ between patients receiving OMT and sham OMT. (medscape.com)
  • Unfortunately, opioid-related overdose deaths have increased in parallel with prescribing increases, and the amount of pain that patients report remains unchanged. (cdc.gov)
  • All patients with pain should receive safe and effective pain care. (cdc.gov)
  • Patients should see their established health care providers well in advance of travel to ensure that all chronic conditions are controlled, and management is optimized. (cdc.gov)
  • Adequate preparation for patients with chronic illnesses for international travel requires the active participation of both the traveler and the travel health provider. (cdc.gov)
  • Health care providers play a critical role in helping patients with chronic underlying conditions travel safely. (cdc.gov)
  • Chronic headache and orofacial pain: pain that originates in the head or face, and occurs for 50% or more days over a 3 months period. (wikipedia.org)
  • Set realistic goals for pain and function based on diagnosis pain not well supported by evidence. (cdc.gov)
  • Following three-months of back pain, a handful of disappointing rowing performances, and a whole lot of frustration, I received a diagnosis. (noigroup.com)
  • Our one-stop treatment center offers diagnosis and treatment of chronic back pain - with an emphasis on treatment through manual adjustment and/or manipulation of the spine - in a warm and comfortable environment. (spineandsports.com)
  • The management of pain in dentistry encompasses a number of procedural issues, including the delivery of anesthetic and the management of postprocedural pain, as well as pain diagnosis, management strategies for orofacial conditions that cause pain in the face and head, and the management of pain in special populations. (medscape.com)
  • He invites you to share your pain story and the feelings you've experienced, so that your fellow pain sufferers understand they are not alone. (acpanow.com)
  • Declining access to MPP treatment in the United States is highlighted as a key issue faced by those in the community of chronic pain sufferers and researchers. (ahrq.gov)
  • Parental chronic pain increases the risk of internalizing symptoms, including anxiety and depression, in adolescents. (medscape.com)
  • What are chronic back pain symptoms? (healthpartners.com)
  • Chronic back pain symptoms typically come on gradually and are long-lasting, sticking around for more than six weeks. (healthpartners.com)
  • Ensure your joint pain is properly diagnosed and a treatment plan is agreed to help manage your symptoms. (healthspan.co.uk)
  • Chronic pain is often associated with comorbid symptoms such as fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety, and depression 5 . (ncchc.org)
  • The DSM-5 recognizes one chronic pain disorder, somatic symptom disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unresolved, long-lasting disorders (eg, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, herniated disk) that produce ongoing nociceptive stimuli may account completely for chronic pain. (msdmanuals.com)
  • People with chronic pain tend to have higher rates of depression and although the exact connection between the comorbidities is unclear, a 2017 study on neuroplasticity found that "injury sensory pathways of body pains have been shown to share the same brain regions involved in mood management. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pathophysiology is unknown, but a central sensitization syndrome with impairment of pain regulation may be involved, and the nociceptive pathways and processing centers are primed and over-reactive to stimuli. (msdmanuals.com)
  • To evaluate the effect of HDBS in PAG/DRN on the nociceptive pathways related to pain perception, microelectrode recordings were made in cortical areas known to be involved in the sensory-discriminative and affective aspects of pain. (lu.se)
  • This is especially true, they said, for the most common chronic pain syndromes - back pain, headaches, and fibromyalgia. (newswise.com)
  • is the most common chronic widespread pain syndrome. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Chronic pain may lead to prolonged physical suffering, marital or family problems, loss of employment, and various adverse medical reactions from long-term therapy. (medscape.com)
  • low back pain, headache, and fibromyalgia. (cdc.gov)
  • To test his theory, McCormack picked up the case study of his chronic back pain patient Mr. Jones, who could not sleep, bend or stand for long periods of time and couldn't lose weight because the pain kept him from exercising. (medindia.net)
  • Chronic low back pain (cLBP) is the second leading cause of disability in the United States, with significant physical and financial implications. (nih.gov)
  • HealthPartners Home / Blog / TRIA Orthopedics / Orthopedic injury , Pain / What causes chronic back pain? (healthpartners.com)
  • If you have chronic back pain, it can feel like you're in constant discomfort or you're waiting for the hurt to return. (healthpartners.com)
  • So, what are some of those underlying causes of chronic back pain? (healthpartners.com)
  • Let's start by defining what chronic back pain is. (healthpartners.com)
  • Then we'll talk about chronic back pain causes and how you may be able to find lasting relief. (healthpartners.com)
  • This is different from acute back pain, which usually comes on suddenly and goes away within two to six weeks. (healthpartners.com)
  • How common is chronic back pain? (healthpartners.com)
  • Research shows that eight out of 10 Americans will experience some sort of back pain during their lifetime. (healthpartners.com)
  • Of those who have back pain, one tenth (about 8% of the total population) deals with the chronic kind. (healthpartners.com)
  • What causes chronic back pain? (healthpartners.com)
  • People often think that a single event or injury is to blame for their chronic back problems. (healthpartners.com)
  • Muscle deconditioning - also called muscle atrophy - is one of the most common causes of chronic back pain. (healthpartners.com)
  • When this happens, the muscles in your back may no longer be able to support ligaments and vertebrae as they normally would - which can lead to pain or make you more prone to injury. (healthpartners.com)
  • If your job requires regular lifting or repetitive movement, proper mechanics are your best defense against chronic back pain. (healthpartners.com)
  • Over time, this can cause hips and hamstrings to weaken, leading to lower back pain. (healthpartners.com)
  • This excessive curving of the spine is often associated with chronic back pain. (healthpartners.com)
  • Spine pain, to include the neck and lower back, is the most common cause of disability in North America and globally among 25-64 year olds, with nearly half likely to be affected at some point during their lifetime. (news-medical.net)
  • But my brain having anything to do with the never-relenting pain in my back? (noigroup.com)
  • Mostly, I continued to search for some alternate explanation for why I was experiencing so much pain from a relatively minor back injury. (noigroup.com)
  • Yet, here I was, unable to overcome the pain in my back, unable to finish basic training sessions, and completely unable to trust my body. (noigroup.com)
  • At the point of taking a year off, I had experienced over three-years of chronic back pain. (noigroup.com)
  • You would think that ceasing the activity that was causing the pain to persist in my back would be an easy one. (noigroup.com)
  • For whatever reason, my back seemed to handle running, It seemed to loosen up the muscles that were constantly tight from the pain running down my back, it gave me relief from the nerve pain that seared down my leg, and it gave my head peace and clarity as I ran along beaches, climbed stairs, and navigated soccer ovals. (noigroup.com)
  • Although several different clinical conditions were studied, 90 percent of the studies included chronic back pain, the most frequent condition addressed in the literature. (ahrq.gov)
  • Does Chronic Back Pain Require Surgery? (spineandsports.com)
  • No, surgery is a last resort to relieve chronic back pain. (spineandsports.com)
  • According to Dr. Brian Kessler - Medical Director of Spine and Sports Medicine - if you are suffering from chronic back pain, always attempt conservative, alternative treatment therapies before pursuing surgery. (spineandsports.com)
  • Our Drs. of Chiropractic and Physical Therapy invite you to schedule an evaluation to diagnose and treat your chronic back pain by clicking below or calling 212.986.3888. (spineandsports.com)
  • Purpose We studied the efficacy of osteopathic manual treatment (OMT) and ultrasound therapy (UST) for chronic low back pain. (medscape.com)
  • Methods A randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial design was used to study OMT and UST for short-term relief of nonspecific chronic low back pain. (medscape.com)
  • Intention-to-treat analysis was performed to measure moderate and substantial improvements in low back pain at week 12 (30% or greater and 50% or greater pain reductions from baseline, respectively). (medscape.com)
  • P = .002) improvements in low back pain at week 12. (medscape.com)
  • Conclusions The OMT regimen met or exceeded the Cochrane Back Review Group criterion for a medium effect size in relieving chronic low back pain. (medscape.com)
  • Low back pain is primarily responsible for more than 20 million ambulatory medical care visits [ 1 ] and $100 billion in costs [ 2 ] annually in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • When low back pain persists for 3 months, it is considered chronic and may cause progressive physical and psychological effects. (medscape.com)
  • [ 3 ] Although practice guidelines recommend considering spinal manipulation for chronic or persistent low back pain, [ 4 , 5 ] a Cochrane Collaboration review concluded that spinal manipulation is not more effective than sham interventions for short-term relief of chronic low back pain. (medscape.com)
  • No trial of OMT has conclusively found efficacy in relieving low back pain [ 8-13 ] or achieved a status of low risk of bias. (medscape.com)
  • [ 14 ] The OSTEOPAThic Health outcomes In Chronic low back pain (OSTEOPATHIC) Trial aims to fill these voids by studying OMT and UST for shortterm relief of nonspecific chronic low back pain. (medscape.com)
  • Chronic pain is not always curable, but treatments can help. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are drug treatments, including pain relievers . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Psychological treatments including cognitive behavioral therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy may be effective for improving quality of life in those with chronic pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • International guidelines used to design clinical drug trials and evaluate invasive treatments such as spinal cord stimulation recommend even lower degrees of pain to designate a treatment as successful. (news-medical.net)
  • To develop appropriate treatments, it is crucial to understand the complex mechanisms underlying pain and how they change during sustained pain stimuli or during pathological conditions. (lu.se)
  • Some authors suggest that any pain that persists longer than the reasonably expected healing time for the involved tissues should be considered chronic pain. (medscape.com)
  • The International Association for the Study of Pain defines chronic pain as pain with no biological value, that persists past normal tissue healing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic Abdominal Pain and Recurrent Abdominal Pain Chronic abdominal pain (CAP) is pain that persists for more than 3 months either continuously or intermittently. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Epidemiological studies have found that 8-11.2% of people in various countries have chronic widespread pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental and psychological factors can make chronic pain worse. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chronic pain can contribute to decreased physical activity due to fear of making the pain worse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers say that emotional pain and chronic pain are related, and painkillers, ultimately, make things worse. (newswise.com)
  • I can't imagine a worse pain submerged in Hell's deep flaming lake. (metafilter.com)
  • And because chronic pain is long-lasting, it often causes you to avoid physical activity or compensate in other ways, which can actually make your pain worse in the long-run. (healthpartners.com)
  • These factors can make pain worse and create a vicious cycle. (kidshealth.org.nz)
  • The pain assessment tools proposed by the NPS Workgroup use the definitions of chronic pain and high- impact chronic pain, which are based in part on the widely used definition of chronic pain recommended by the International Association for the Study of Pain, (International Association for the Study of Pain, 1986) modified to account for intermittent pain. (cdc.gov)
  • Intermittent pain may be referred to as recurrent abdominal pain (RAP). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Chronic pain is classified as pain that lasts longer than three months. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pain that lasts longer than 3 months is usually considered chronic. (kidshealth.org.nz)
  • Subacute pain is pain that lasts longer than 1 month but not more than 3 months. (cdc.gov)
  • Pain intensity, pain control, and resilience to pain can be influenced by different levels and types of social support that a person with chronic pain receives, and are also influenced by the person's socioeconomic status. (wikipedia.org)
  • It helps to think of a person with chronic pain as like a car with four flat tires. (acpanow.com)
  • The EU-funded ADDEGE project, led by the biomedical firm CrannMed, focused on the treatment of chronic pain and immobility due to KOA. (europa.eu)
  • This study aimed to review the literature regarding the use of anticonvulsants in the treatment of chronic pain, the most used drugs, the efficacy of each one of them, the pros and cons of their use and the pathologies associated with chronic pain. (bvsalud.org)
  • Long-term opioid therapy that lasts months and perhaps years should be a rare occurrence because it does not treat chronic pain well, it impairs human social and emotional function, and can lead to opioid dependence or addiction," they wrote. (newswise.com)
  • Describe what is known about effectiveness and risks of long-term opioid therapy for chronic pain. (cdc.gov)
  • It was a refreshing shift of focus from the clinical details that I need to track when trying to get medical care for migraines and it was helpful to read words that creatively got at the crazy experience of this pain in a way that medication can't. (metafilter.com)
  • In this mini-review, we present balanced and unbiased pre-clinical and clinical findings for the beneficial effects of CBD treatment on chronic pain and its deleterious effects on prenatal development. (frontiersin.org)
  • The American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine and the American Academy of Pain Medicine therefore convened an international panel of experts to draw up consensus guidelines based on the best available evidence in a bid to standardise clinical practice, enhance patient safety, and minimise unnecessary tests and procedures. (news-medical.net)
  • Clinical response rates and pain relief were significantly better at 1, 4, and 12 weeks for those receiving local anesthetic injections than ischemic compression via physical therapy. (hcplive.com)
  • Chronic pain commonly evolves from an acute pain associated with peripheral tissue injury to a more centralized pain that is multifocal in its clinical presentation. (ncchc.org)
  • Modified 2016 American College of Rheumatology fibromyalgia criteria, the analgesic, anesthetic, and addiction clinical trial translations innovations opportunities and networks-American Pain Society Pain Taxonomy, and the Prevalence of Fibromyalgia. (msdmanuals.com)
  • If available, a multidisciplinary pain program using a case manager to monitor their care and well-being, similar to those for diabetes and depression care, may be of benefit. (newswise.com)
  • A multidisciplinary pain program at the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota for treatment very similar to what Curable does (but in-person) costs $40,000. (cnet.com)
  • What is important about these terms is that they describe the sensory experience related to nerve function generally including peripheral and central activity, and they underscore the complexity of the neural phenomena involved in pain processing. (medscape.com)
  • For a complete understanding of pain neurophysiology, the reader is referred to the numerous texts that are available exploring both peripheral and central pain mechanisms. (medscape.com)
  • Modulation of pain occurs at multiple levels along the nociceptive pathway, and numerous peripheral as well as central mechanisms contribute to both pronociceptive as well as antinociceptive activity. (medscape.com)
  • The persistence of pain (greater than 3 months) sets into motion multiple changes in the functioning of the peripheral and central nervous system that, coupled with psychological and behavioral considerations, can make pain intervention more complex and difficult. (medscape.com)
  • The delivery of anesthetic and the management of postprocedural pain in a normal patient is not likely to be impacted by peripheral and central neurophysiological plasticity. (medscape.com)
  • Pain associates both sensory and emotional aversive components, and often leads to anxiety and depression when it becomes chronic. (jneurosci.org)
  • Pain can lead to anxiety and stress that dampens your sex drive and prevents relaxation. (healthspan.co.uk)
  • Acute pain is frequently associated with anxiety. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Chronic pain commonly leads to or exacerbates psychologic problems (eg, depression, anxiety). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Distinguishing psychologic cause from effect is often difficult, but if pain, depression, and anxiety co-exist, they typically intensify the overall pain experience. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Anxiety and fear is known to activate the pituitary-adrenal axis, leading to an increased experience of pain. (medscape.com)
  • Chronic noncancer pain affects millions of Americans, seriously impacting their quality of life and costing billions of dollars every year in health care expenditures and lost productivity. (ahrq.gov)
  • Chronic pain significantly affects patient quality of life and is one of the most common reasons for seeking primary care in the outpatient setting. (ncchc.org)
  • Pain has sensory and emotional components and is often classified as acute or chronic. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) has defined pain as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. (medscape.com)
  • You may have experienced acute pain from outpatient medical procedures, like a wisdom tooth extraction, or injuries, like a broken bone. (cdc.gov)
  • Women also report having more chronic pain than men, and they are at a greater risk for many pain conditions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some people have two or more chronic pain conditions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chronic post-traumatic pain: pain lasting 3 months after an injury or surgery, excluding infectious or pre-existing conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resources for Pain Conditions. (acpanow.com)
  • Our Mission is to facilitate peer support, education, hope, and motivation for individuals living with pain and those treating pain conditions. (acpanow.com)
  • Our vision is to motivate those with pain conditions to seek quality care, to optimize healthcare office visits, and to prevent chronic disease. (acpanow.com)
  • The ACPA announces a live conferences series to educate and motivate those with pain conditions to seek quality care, to optimize healthcare office visits, and to prevent chronic disease. (acpanow.com)
  • The ACPA features resources to educate and motivate those with pain conditions. (acpanow.com)
  • There are many art shows and related creative endeavors that deal with chronic conditions. (metafilter.com)
  • The truth is that most chronic pain is caused by underlying conditions. (healthpartners.com)
  • Of course, this natural aging process can be sped up by the other chronic pain-causing conditions we talk about in this post. (healthpartners.com)
  • Cannabis and its components are being widely used for chronic pain, especially given the multifaceted and persistent nature of chronic pain in many conditions ( Kalant, 2001 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The selected microelectrode combinations also reduced nociceptive-evoked cortical responses (related to both discriminative and affective pain) in normal conditions and during hyperalgesia. (lu.se)
  • There are currently no definitive cures for the most prevalent chronic pain syndromes. (ahrq.gov)
  • Chronic pain may be divided into "nociceptive" (caused by inflamed or damaged tissue activating specialized pain sensors called nociceptors), and "neuropathic" (caused by damage to or malfunction of the nervous system). (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, it is essential to clarify how the endogenous analgesic centres which are present in the brain, such as periaqueductal grey (PAG) matter and dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN) in the brainstem, modulate pain by interfering with the nociceptive information. (lu.se)
  • Chronic pain syndrome (CPS) is a common problem that presents a major challenge to health-care providers because of its complex natural history, unclear etiology, and poor response to therapy. (medscape.com)
  • Some authors have suggested that CPS might be a learned behavioral syndrome that begins with a noxious stimulus that causes pain. (medscape.com)
  • The overall goal of this cognitive testing study was to test the constructs captured by questions on chronic pain, management of pain, burden of pain and participation restrictions due to pain and to select appropriate items for inclusion on the 2017 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). (cdc.gov)
  • Education for Pain Management. (acpanow.com)
  • Because acute neck pain often resolves by itself, the guidelines recommend 6 weeks of conservative management, such as non-opioid painkillers and physiotherapy, before opting for nerve blocks, to minimise unnecessary invasive procedures and associated healthcare costs. (news-medical.net)
  • A residential rehabilitation centre may be necessary for more intensive assessment and pain management. (kidshealth.org.nz)
  • Painbytes is the youth channel of the Australian Pain Management Network website. (kidshealth.org.nz)
  • The patient is then helped to develop coping strategies with the support of medication and pain management specialists as appropriate. (ramsayhealth.co.uk)
  • This position statement addresses the management of chronic pain as distinct from the management of acute pain, pain related to cancer, and pain related to sickle cell disease. (ncchc.org)
  • The goal of any pain management strategy is to safely reduce pain and increase your ability to do everyday activities. (cdc.gov)
  • Given the extensive nature of the topic, this article reviews pain definitions and mechanisms, acute versus chronic pain, and focuses on management strategies related to anesthetic delivery and the control of pain following dental procedures. (medscape.com)
  • hence, overall pain management needs to reflect these differences. (medscape.com)
  • Chronic pain is reported more commonly in women. (medscape.com)
  • Two commonly used markers are pain that continues at three months and six months since onset, but some theorists and researchers have placed the transition from acute to chronic pain at twelve months. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data suggest duloxetine can provide short-term pain relief, but there is concern about the possible long-term harm, owing to the gaps in current evidence, Pincus said. (medscape.com)
  • However, Guy McCormack, chair of the Department of Occupational Therapy and Occupational Science in the MU School of Health Professions, with the help of a case study, has demonstrated that some modifications in performing daily activities and use of certain adaptive devices can help reduce the perception of pain, and hence provide relief to the patient. (medindia.net)
  • Can you get pain relief without surgery? (healthpartners.com)
  • and those who obtain meaningful pain relief from properly performed diagnostic nerve blocks. (news-medical.net)
  • The pain relief of women treated with local anesthetic injections progressively improved at 1, 4, and 12 weeks after intervention. (hcplive.com)
  • In contrast, women treated with ischemic compression did not show considerable changes in pain relief after intervention. (hcplive.com)
  • No matter what form of treatment is used, discuss with your doctor what kind of pain relief and improvement you can expect overall and continue to follow up with your doctor on your progress. (cdc.gov)
  • Their argument is based on new epidemiological and neuroscientific evidence, which suggests emotional pain activates many of the same limbic brain centers as physical pain. (newswise.com)
  • The majority of antidepressants prescribed for chronic pain lack sufficient evidence of efficacy and safety, results of a large Cochrane review show. (medscape.com)
  • The review showed no reliable evidence for the long-term efficacy of any antidepressant or their safety for chronic pain at any point. (medscape.com)
  • As early as 2003, formulations containing CBD have been used in the clinic to study its efficacy in reducing pain when traditional treatment options have failed. (frontiersin.org)
  • Details for: Coping with chronic nonmalignant pain. (who.int)
  • The use of procedures, such as joint injections, nerve blocks and radiofrequency ablation to ease chronic neck pain, has soared over the past two decades. (news-medical.net)
  • We strive to raise awareness among the health care community, policymakers, and the public at large about issues of living with physical and emotional pain. (acpanow.com)
  • In a reflections column published Dec. 21 in the Annals of Family Medicine, pain experts Mark Sullivan and Jane Ballantyne at the University of Washington School of Medicine, say emotional pain and chronic physical pain are bidirectional. (newswise.com)
  • The Curable program is evidence-based, and is recommended by physicians, physical therapists, and pain psychologists all over the world. (cnet.com)
  • It's possible that no physical cause for you pain will ever be found. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • Both physical and emotional stress has an impact on pain through the stress systems of the body. (kidshealth.org.nz)
  • Physical and occupational therapy aims to decrease pain sensitivity (including at the painful area, within the spinal cord and in the brain). (kidshealth.org.nz)
  • Thus, chronic pain may appear out of proportion to identifiable physical processes. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Many people experience chronic pain, which can lead to impaired physical functioning, poor mental health, reduced quality of life, and contributes to substantial disability and death each year. (cdc.gov)
  • Although traveling abroad can be relaxing and rewarding, the physical demands of travel can be stressful, particularly for travelers with underlying chronic illnesses. (cdc.gov)
  • Cite this: No Reliable Evidence Antidepressants Help Chronic Pain - Medscape - May 10, 2023. (medscape.com)
  • Pain can be characterized as a sensorial and emotional experience in an unpleasant and personal way. (bvsalud.org)
  • The presence of pain can affect all aspects of a child or young person's life and have a big impact on their family and whānau. (kidshealth.org.nz)
  • Events such as car accidents, falls on ice , trip-and-fall accidents, and other high-impact events can speed up the aging process on the spine and trigger chronic pain to flare. (healthpartners.com)
  • The intensity of the pain will also vary between different women, and even vary within a specific individual. (womens-health.co.uk)
  • Opioids are natural or synthetic chemicals that bind to receptors in your brain or body to reduce the intensity of pain signals reaching the brain. (cdc.gov)
  • Various non-opioid medicines are initially recommended to treat chronic pain, depending on whether the pain is due to tissue damage or is neuropathic. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you or someone in your family use an opioid to help manage pain, you know how important it is to treat these medications with the greatest care. (acpanow.com)
  • Nonopioids are preferred over opioids when medications are used to treat chronic pain. (ncchc.org)
  • There are many possible options to treat your chronic pain. (cdc.gov)
  • Some medications used to treat chronic medical illnesses (e.g., warfarin) can interact with prescribed self-treatment for travelers' diarrhea or malaria chemoprophylaxis. (cdc.gov)
  • People with non-cancer pain who have not been helped by non-opioid medicines might be recommended to try opioids if there is no history of substance use disorder and no current mental illness. (wikipedia.org)