An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.
A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Pain during the period after surgery.
Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.
Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.
The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.
Intensely discomforting, distressful, or agonizing sensation associated with trauma or disease, with well-defined location, character, and timing.
Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.
Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.
Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.
Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
A type of pain that is perceived in an area away from the site where the pain arises, such as facial pain caused by lesion of the VAGUS NERVE, or throat problem generating referred pain in the ear.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Dull or sharp aching pain caused by stimulated NOCICEPTORS due to tissue injury, inflammation or diseases. It can be divided into somatic or tissue pain and VISCERAL PAIN.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Discomfort stemming from muscles, LIGAMENTS, tendons, and bones.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Sensing of noxious mechanical, thermal or chemical stimuli by NOCICEPTORS. It is the sensory component of visceral and tissue pain (NOCICEPTIVE PAIN).
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.
A condition characterized by pain radiating from the back into the buttock and posterior/lateral aspects of the leg. Sciatica may be a manifestation of SCIATIC NEUROPATHY; RADICULOPATHY (involving the SPINAL NERVE ROOTS; L4, L5, S1, or S2, often associated with INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT); or lesions of the CAUDA EQUINA.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A water-soluble extractive mixture of sulfated polysaccharides from RED ALGAE. Chief sources are the Irish moss CHONDRUS CRISPUS (Carrageen), and Gigartina stellata. It is used as a stabilizer, for suspending COCOA in chocolate manufacture, and to clarify BEVERAGES.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Muscular pain in numerous body regions that can be reproduced by pressure on TRIGGER POINTS, localized hardenings in skeletal muscle tissue. Pain is referred to a location distant from the trigger points. A prime example is the TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.
Conditions characterized by pain involving an extremity or other body region, HYPERESTHESIA, and localized autonomic dysfunction following injury to soft tissue or nerve. The pain is usually associated with ERYTHEMA; SKIN TEMPERATURE changes, abnormal sudomotor activity (i.e., changes in sweating due to altered sympathetic innervation) or edema. The degree of pain and other manifestations is out of proportion to that expected from the inciting event. Two subtypes of this condition have been described: type I; (REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY) and type II; (CAUSALGIA). (From Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)
Disease or trauma involving a single peripheral nerve in isolation, or out of proportion to evidence of diffuse peripheral nerve dysfunction. Mononeuropathy multiplex refers to a condition characterized by multiple isolated nerve injuries. Mononeuropathies may result from a wide variety of causes, including ISCHEMIA; traumatic injury; compression; CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS; and other conditions.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
Pain originating from internal organs (VISCERA) associated with autonomic phenomena (PALLOR; SWEATING; NAUSEA; and VOMITING). It often becomes a REFERRED PAIN.
A narcotic analgesic proposed for severe pain. It may be habituating.
A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on immune cells where it may play a role modulating release of CYTOKINES.
Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Compounds based on reduced IMIDAZOLES containing a single double bond.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.
Pain in the joint.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.
Inflammation caused by an injurious stimulus of peripheral neurons and resulting in release of neuropeptides which affect vascular permeability and help initiate proinflammatory and immune reactions at the site of injury.
Drugs that act on neuronal sensory receptors resulting in an increase, decrease, or modification of afferent nerve activity. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p367)
A form of acupuncture with electrical impulses passing through the needles to stimulate NERVE TISSUE. It can be used for ANALGESIA; ANESTHESIA; REHABILITATION; and treatment for diseases.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
Pain associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR in CHILDBIRTH. It is caused primarily by UTERINE CONTRACTION as well as pressure on the CERVIX; BLADDER; and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Labor pain mostly occurs in the ABDOMEN; the GROIN; and the BACK.
Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.
An increased response to stimulation that is mediated by amplification of signaling in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS).
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.
Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.
The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that is expressed in nociceptors, including spinal and trigeminal sensory neurons. It plays a role in the transmission of pain signals induced by cold, heat, and mechanical stimuli.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A common nonarticular rheumatic syndrome characterized by myalgia and multiple points of focal muscle tenderness to palpation (trigger points). Muscle pain is typically aggravated by inactivity or exposure to cold. This condition is often associated with general symptoms, such as sleep disturbances, fatigue, stiffness, HEADACHES, and occasionally DEPRESSION. There is significant overlap between fibromyalgia and the chronic fatigue syndrome (FATIGUE SYNDROME, CHRONIC). Fibromyalgia may arise as a primary or secondary disease process. It is most frequent in females aged 20 to 50 years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1494-95)
Compounds having the cannabinoid structure. They were originally extracted from Cannabis sativa L. The most pharmacologically active constituents are TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL; CANNABINOL; and CANNABIDIOL.
Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.
A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
Cognitive and emotional processes encompassing magnification of pain-related stimuli, feelings of helplessness, and a generally pessimistic orientation.
Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.
Pain emanating from below the RIBS and above the ILIUM.
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.
Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
A dull or sharp painful sensation associated with the outer or inner structures of the eyeball, having different causes.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.
The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.
Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.
Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Neoplasms which arise from nerve sheaths formed by SCHWANN CELLS in the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM or by OLIGODENDROCYTES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, NEUROFIBROMA, and NEURILEMMOMA are relatively common tumors in this category.
Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.
Perception of painful and nonpainful phantom sensations that occur following the complete or partial loss of a limb. The majority of individuals with an amputated extremity will experience the impression that the limb is still present, and in many cases, painful. (From Neurol Clin 1998 Nov;16(4):919-36; Brain 1998 Sep;121(Pt 9):1603-30)
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.
Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)
Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.
A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
"Actions of N-arachidonyl-glycine in a rat inflammatory pain model". Molecular Pain. 3 (1): 1744-8069-3-24. doi:10.1186/1744- ... In either case, these findings hold promise for NAGly as a means of mitigating postoperative or chronic pain. NAGly is also ... Similar mechanical allydonia induced by partial ligation of the sciatic nerve was also reduced by NaGly. Other arachidonic acid ... Vuong LA, Mitchell VA, Vaughan CW (January 2008). "Actions of N-arachidonyl-glycine in a rat neuropathic pain model". ...
Nociception, (pain) - signals nerve-damage or damage to tissue. The main function of pain is to attract attention to dangers ... Neurocomputational models of speech processing are complex. They comprise at least a cognitive part, a motor part and a sensory ... Alcoholic polyneuropathy - primarily caused by chronic alcoholism, this is a neurological disorder in which multiple peripheral ... Olfactory nerve (cranial nerve 1) Smell. See also: olfactory receptor neurons Optic nerve (cranial nerve 2) Sight. See also: ...
Injection of the CCK-saporin conjugate also reversed allodynia and hyperalgesia in a nerve injury model, producing the same ... This suggests that the targeted neurons are the ones responsible for maintaining chronic neuropathic pain states, and that the ... The injury model consisted of two injections of acidic saline (pH = 4.0), and was designed to model non-inflammatory muscular ... Pain. 140 (2): 376-386. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2008.09.009. PMC 2704017. PMID 18926635. Vera-Portocarrero, LP; Zhang, ET; Ossipov, ...
... of MGM-16 produced antinociceptive effects in a mouse acute pain model and antiallodynic effects in a chronic pain model. The ... and its antiallodynic effect was approximately 100 times more potent than that of gabapentin in partial sciatic nerve-ligated ... The antiallodynic effect of MGM-16 was completely blocked by β-FNA and naltrindole in a neuropathic pain model. These findings ... and δ-opioid agonists MGM-15 and MGM-16 from 7-hydroxymitragynine for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. MGM-16 showed a ...
In chronic granulomatous pain and inflammation model, PEA could prevent nerve formation and sprouting, mechanical allodynia, ... In models of stroke and other CNS trauma, PEA exerted neuroprotective properties. Chronic pain and neuropathic pain are ... PEA has been tested in a variety of animal models for chronic and neuropathic pain. As cannabinoids, such as THC, have been ... likewise alleviate pain behaviors elicited in mice-pain models.[verification needed] PEA and related compounds such as ...
... acute but not chronic Herpes simplex infection-induced pain; and HIV-1 Envelope glycoprotein GP120 intrathecal injection- ... Model studies indicate that PG2 (but not specific antigens or IgE cross-linkage) stimulates mouse and human mast cells to ... nerve growth factor, and other receptors, these studies indicate that EP3 receptors contribute to the perception of at least ... Furthermore, a selective EP3 agonist, ONO-AE-248, induces hyperalgesia pain in wild type but not EP3-deficient mice. While pain ...
Whether for back or knee pain, a drawback for this procedure is that nerves recover function over time, so the pain relief ... RFA, or rhizotomy, is sometimes used to treat severe chronic pain in the lower (lumbar) back, where radio frequency waves are ... RFA was first studied in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a pig model. RFA has been recognized as a somnoplasty treatment ... If the local anesthesia injections provide temporary pain relief, then RFA is performed on the nerve(s) that responded well to ...
... studied the genetic basis of chronic pain. Using a mouse model they identified a novel gene affecting predisposition to chronic ... "Susceptibility to chronic pain following nerve injury is genetically affected by CACNG2". Genome Research. 20 (9): 1180-1190. ... Their findings were shown to affect chronic pain in humans as well. The Genetic basis of schizophrenia. Adopting experimental ... The genetic basis of chronic pain. Darvasi, in collaboration with Marshall Devor, ...
... what is the effect of nerve blocks (Intervention) compared to opioid pain medication (Comparison) in controlling post-operative ... The Iowa Model is used to promote quality of care. It is a guideline for nurses in their decision making process. The decision ... How do post-rehab chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients (Population) with stage 3 (Issue of Interest) perceive ... The model is based on problem-solving steps that are a part of the scientific process. Recognition for applicability and ease ...
"Behavioral phenotypes of mice lacking purinergic P2X4 receptors in acute and chronic pain assays". Molecular Pain. 5: 1744-8069 ... "Induction of the P2X7 receptor in spinal microglia in a neuropathic pain model". Neuroscience Letters. 504 (1): 57-61. doi: ... "P2X4 receptors induced in spinal microglia gate tactile allodynia after nerve injury". Nature. 424 (6950): 778-83. doi:10.1038/ ... "Disruption of the P2X7 purinoceptor gene abolishes chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain". Pain. 114 (3): 386-96. doi: ...
Rodent models where the social effects of chronic pain can be isolated from other factors suggest that induction of chronic ... They named this type of pain specifically as "vaja al asab" [nerve originated pain], described its numbness, tingling and ... "Changes in pain intensity after discontinuation of long-term opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain". PAIN. 159 (10): 2097- ... Neuropathic pain is pain caused by damage or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system.[1] Neuropathic pain may be ...
Bone cancer pain: From mechanism to model to therapy. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 29(5): 32-46. Zwas, T. ... Stimulation of specialized pain-sensitive nerve fibers (nociceptors) that innervate bone tissue leads to the sensation of bone ... Junnila JL, Cartwright VW (2006). "Chronic musculoskeletal pain in children: part II. Rheumatic causes". Am Fam Physician. 74 ( ... Bone pain belongs to the class of deep somatic pain, often experienced as a dull pain that cannot be localized accurately by ...
Pain management[edit]. RFA, or rhizotomy, is sometimes used to treat severe chronic pain in the lower (lumbar) back, where ... Whether for back or knee pain, a drawback for this procedure is that nerves recover function over time, so the pain relief ... RFA was first studied in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a pig model.[23] RFA has been recognized as a somnoplasty treatment ... one of the articular branches of the tibial nerve), targeting larger nerves including the femoral nerve, or by using an intra- ...
... researchers can identify new models of nerve cell mechanoproperties. For example, LaPlaca et al. developed a new model showing ... chronic pain, OCD, severe depression, and eventually epilepsy. Neuromodulation is appealing as treatment for varying defects ... Nerve guidance channels, Nerve guidance conduit are innovative strategies focusing on larger defects that provide a conduit for ... End to end surgical suture of damaged nerve ends can repair small gaps with autologous nerve grafts. For larger injuries, an ...
This type of sensitization has been suggested as a possible causal mechanism for chronic pain conditions. The changes of ... Volkow ND, Koob GF, McLellan AT (January 2016). "Neurobiologic Advances from the Brain Disease Model of Addiction". N. Engl. J ... For example, after a back surgery that removed a herniated disc from causing a pinched nerve, the patient may still continue to ... the animal's pain threshold will change and result in a stronger pain response. Researchers believe that there are parallels ...
This model allowed the researchers to decipher what was causing these neurological symptoms. It was found that the potassium ... The pig antigen was found most prominently in the nerve roots of the spine which were also swollen. Researchers determined that ... They looked at chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) which is characterized by progressive weakness and ... It is this hyper-excitability that leads to the tingling, numbness, pain, and weakness. Researchers from the Mayo Clinic ...
Mobility disabilities due to age-related musculoskeletal pain or increase in chronic conditions are easier to detect by ... "Sensory and Motor Peripheral Nerve Function and Incident Mobility Disability." Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 62.12 ... "Lower extremity function and subsequent disability consistency across studies, predictive models, and value of gait speed alone ... "Patterns of pain and mobility limitation in older people: cross-sectional findings from a population survey of 18,497 adults ...
This type of sensitization has been suggested as a possible causal mechanism for chronic pain conditions. The changes of ... For example, after a back surgery that removed a herniated disc from causing a pinched nerve, the patient may still continue to ... Thus, kindling has been suggested as a model for temporal lobe epilepsy in humans, where stimulation of a repetitive type ( ... the animal's pain threshold will change and result in a stronger pain response. Researchers believe that there are parallels ...
... performed the first robotic-assisted microsurgery procedure denervation of the spermatic cord for chronic testicular pain.[58] ... The results were more clear visualization of the cranial nerves, lingual nerves, and lingual artery, and the patients had a ... In 2005, a surgical technique was documented in canine and cadaveric models called the transoral robotic surgery (TORS) for the ... Due to these techniques, there is a reduced duration of hospital stays, blood loss, transfusions, and use of pain medication.[4 ...
... and peripheral nerve stimulation from induced currents. Practitioners of magnet therapy attempt to treat pain or other medical ... evidence for this model has been lacking. The magnetite model arose with the discovery of chains of single domain magnetite in ... Some electromagnetic fields at chronic exposures may pose a threat to human health. World Health Organization considers ... The induction model would only apply to marine animals because as a surrounding medium with high conductivity only salt water ...
... and inhibiting such interaction provide analgesic effects in animals model of chronic pain. He is the founding member of ... formalin and complete Freund's adjuvant as well as nerve injury were reduced or abolished. Considering AC1 is highly expressed ... The discovery of LTP in pain-related cortex provides direct evidence for pathological mechanism of chronic pain as well as pain ... He showed that 'smart' mice suffered more pain, GluN2B and AC1 are novel therapeutic targets for treating chronic pain In 2003 ...
It may also be of benefit in chronic axonal polyneuropathy. It is also being prescribed 'off-label' for the postural ... Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, frequent urination, and abdominal pain. More severe side effects include low ... World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World ... bromide has been FDA approved for military use during combat situations as an agent to be given prior to exposure to the nerve ...
In cyclophosamide (CYP)-induced rodent models of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/PBS), CYP instillation caused ... reduces chronic inflammation in a carrageenin-granuloma model in rats". Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. 13 (6): ... and inflammatory mediator levels as well as reduced mechanical allodynia and nerve growth factor levels. Adelmidrol seems ... Chronic gingiva inflammation can be a difficult to treat medical problem in dogs. A similar anti-inflammatory effect was ...
The most common symptoms are pain and swelling around the affected tendon. The pain is typically worse at the start of exercise ... The sural nerve accompanies the small saphenous vein as it descends in the posterior leg, traveling inferolateral to it as it ... Computer models suggest this energy storage Achilles tendon increases top running speed by >80% and reduces running costs by ... Maffulli, N; Ajis, A (June 2008). "Management of chronic ruptures of the Achilles tendon". The Journal of Bone and Joint ...
Psychosocial interventions assume 2 models of chronic facial pain, namely "inactivity" and "over activity". The former is where ... Neuralgia refers to pain in the distribution of a nerve (or nerves), and commonly implies paroxysmal (sudden) pain, although ... "Classification of Chronic Pain", listing AO as "tooth pain not associated with lesions"). "pain and hypersensitive teeth in the ... Atypical facial pain (AFP) is a type of chronic facial pain which does not fulfill any other diagnosis. There is no consensus ...
... in a model of nerve injury pain. Inappropriate, spontaneous firing in pain receptors has also been implicated as a cause of ... suggesting that nerve damage can cause dysesthesia. In women with chronic pain or itchy scalps without any apparent physical ... When the researchers artificially blocked nerves in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain or central post-stroke pain, DMA ... Pain, 33(1). Djouhri, L., Fang, X., Koutsikou, S., & Lawson, S. N. (2012). Partial nerve injury induces electrophysiological ...
Ji, Ru-Rong; Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Gao, Yong-Jing (2014). "Emerging targets in neuroinflammation-driven chronic pain". Nature Reviews ... The vagus nerve connects to the gut and airways and elicits nerve impulses to the brainstem in response to the detection of ... Disease Models & Mechanisms. 3 (11-12): 721-731. doi:10.1242/dmm.003871. ISSN 1754-8403. PMC 2965399. PMID 20829562. Farfara, D ... Patients with chronic cough also have an enhanced cough reflex to pathogens even if the pathogen has been expelled. In both ...
Other studies to overcome chronic pain syndromes are discussed in the pamphlet "Chronic Pain: Hope Through Research", published ... Noordenbos, W. (1959). PAIN Problems pertaining to the transmission of nerve impulses which give rise to pain. Amsterdam: ... South Korean actor and model Howard Hughes, American business tycoon, aviator, inventor, filmmaker, and philanthropist Rachel ... while half will develop phantom limb pain and/or pain at the amputation site. As in any other chronic pain syndrome, the brain ...
... for alleviating the neuropathic pain in a chronic constriction nerve injury model. Methods and Methods This neuropathic pain ... animal model was conducted by four 3-0 chromic gut ligatures loosely ligated around the left sciatic nerve in Sprague-Dawley ... Remarkably increased expression of CD 68 and TNF-α and decreased S-100 and neurofilament expression in injured nerve were ... Conclusion Human AFMSCs administration could alleviate the neuropathic pain demonstrated in histomorphological alteration and ...
Decosterd, I, Woolf, CJ (2000). Spared nerve injury: an animal model of persistent peripheral neuropathic pain. Pain. 87, 149- ... Pertin, M, Gosselin, RD, Decosterd, I (2012). The spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain. Methods Mol Biol. 851, 205-212 ... in Inflammatory Cytokines Confer Susceptible to Chronic Neuropathic Pain-related Anhedonia in a Rat Model of Spared Nerve ... Experiences with spinal cord stimulator in patients with chronic neuropathic back pain. Pain Manag Nurs. 15, e13-e24. ...
Intervention Model:. Parallel Assignment. Masking:. Double (Participant, Outcomes Assessor). Primary Purpose:. Prevention. ... Incidence of chronic pain after chest surgery [ Time Frame: At the 3rd month after surgery ]. The incidence of chronic pain ... Effect of Intercostal Nerve Block With Ropivacaine Combined With Mecobalamine on Chronic Pain After Thoracic Surgery. The ... Effect of Intercostal Nerve Block With Ropivacaine Combined With Mecobalamine on Chronic Pain After Thoracic Surgery -- a ...
Observational Model: Case-Control. Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional Target Follow-Up Duration Not Provided ... Chronic Pain, Opioid Use, and Epidermal Nerve Fiber Density Official Title Chronic Opioid Use and Epidermal Nerve Fiber Density ... Chronic pain patients not taking opioids Diagnosis of non-cancer chronic pain syndrome (persistent pain lasting longer than 3 ... Chronic pain patients taking opioids Diagnosis of non-cancer chronic pain syndrome (persistent pain lasting longer than 3 ...
... in Inflammatory Cytokines Confer Susceptible to Chronic Neuropathic Pain-related Anhedonia in a Rat Model of Spared Nerve ... and to explore the effects of ketamine and parecoxib on pain and anhedonia. METHODS:. A rat model of spared nerve injury (SNI) ... Patients with chronic neuropathic pain (CNP) have a higher incidence to develop depression. However, its pathogenesis has not ... Abnormalities in Inflammatory Cytokines Confer Susceptible to Chronic Neuropathic Pain-rel Abnormalities ...
Changes in Brain Function induced by Chronic Neuropathic Pain in a Mouse Model of Chronic Nerve Constriction Injury. Katja ... The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the well-established chronic constriction injury (CCI) model on central ... analysis of functional connectivity revealed known effects of chronic pain for the first time also for the CCI model: ... The ligation of the sciatic nerve induced behavioral changes indicative of a neuropathic pain state. Graph theoretical ...
Related: CBD oil reduces chronic illness pain.). Waterhyssop extract tested on CCI animal models of neuropathic pain. ... natural pain relief, neuropathic pain, Nootropics, pain relief, pain relief medicine, plant extracts, waterhyssop. ... tested its effectiveness on neuropathic pain in a rat model of chronic sciatic nerve constriction injury. They collected ...",Reduce nerve pain with the ...
Negative reinforcement reveals non-evoked ongoing pain in mice with tissue or nerve injury. J Pain. 2012;13(6):598-607.. View ... PKCδ-targeted intervention relieves chronic pain in a murine sickle cell disease model. Ying He,1,2 Diana J. Wilkie,3 Jonathan ... The neurobiological mechanisms of chronic pain in SCD remain unclear, which markedly limits effective pain management and the ... indicative of chronic pain severity, were on the same order of magnitude as those in mice after spinal nerve ligation (11), ...
... is one of the most frequent causes of chronic pain. However, the mechanisms of OA pain are poorly understood. This review ... Among mediators involved in OA pain, nerve growth factor (NGF) is in the focus because antibodies against NGF significantly ... is one of the most frequent causes of chronic pain. However, the mechanisms of OA pain are poorly understood. This review ... Among mediators involved in OA pain, nerve growth factor (NGF) is in the focus b... ...
Transcriptional changes occur in the dorsal root ganglion in response to nerve injury and may contribute to neuropathic pain. ... which may contribute to nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. DNA methylation represses gene expression. Here, we report that ... Here the authors show that the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3a is upregulated in rodents following nerve injury, and may ... Conversely, in the absence of nerve injury, mimicking this increase reduces the Kcna2 promoter activity, diminishes Kcna2 ...
Spinal nerve stimulators use electrical pulses to block the pain signal to the brain; this summer the FDA approved one about ... Spinal nerve stimulators use electrical pulses to block the pain signal to the brain. Theyve been used for decades, but ... previous models were bulky and needed frequent charging. This summer, the FDA approved the smallest implantable device - about ... But a new drug-free approach could help patients stop pain.. Chronic pain can affect every aspect of patients lives, ...
Does an exploding brain network cause chronic pain?. January 12, 2018 A new study finds that patients with fibromyalgia have ... An innovative PET tracer can measure damage from multiple sclerosis in mouse models. January 12, 2018 The loss or damage of ... The brain consists of gray matter, which contains the nerve cell bodies (neurons), and white matter, bundles of long nerve ... Mouse nose nerve cells mature after birth, allowing bonding, recognition with mother. March 12, 2011, University of ...
The journal welcomes submissions in the areas of chronic pain, anaesthesia, dentistry and oral medicine, rheumatology, and drug ... clinical focusing on laboratory and clinical findings in the field of pain research and the prevention and treatment of pain. ... Pain Research and Treatment is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles ... Sciatic nerve ligation is a standard model used to study neuropathic pain [15]. In rats, sciatic nerve injury induces abnormal ...
Baclofen showed antiallodynic and antinociceptive actions in chronic pain models in rats, such as the PSL [57, 58]. Baclofen ... "A novel behavioral model of neuropathic pain disorders produced in rats by partial sciatic nerve injury," Pain, vol. 43, no. 2 ... Nerve Regenerative Effects of GABA-B Ligands in a Model of Neuropathic Pain. Valerio Magnaghi,1 Luca Franco Castelnovo,1 ... The identification of new treatments for nerve regeneration and chronic neuropathic pain is currently a challenge for clinical ...
Nonaddictive drug compound could replace opioids for chronic pain sufferers Brain and Nerves. 12/14/2018 Autism ... The model, described in the March 2011 issue of Reproductive Toxicology (published online in November), used bioinformatics and ... Based on the developmental gene profile, they created a model that showed 79 percent accuracy in predicting whether a drug ... Given the degree of uncertainty, Schachter and Kohane believe their model may be of interest to drug developers and prescribing ...
Nonaddictive drug compound could replace opioids for chronic pain sufferers Brain and Nerves. 12/14/2018 Autism ... Thus, if validated in the setting of HIV infection in humans, our data support a model in which macrophages do not constitute ...
A number of animal models of chronic pain after nerve injury have been introduced. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the ... Decosterd I, Woolf CJ (2000) Spared nerve injury: an animal model of persistent peripheral neuropathic pain. Pain 87: 149-158. ... Devor M, Seltzer Z (1999) Pathophysiology of damaged nerves in reaction to chronic pain. In: Textbook of pain (Wall PD, Melzack ... A novel behavioral model of neuropathic pain disorders produced in rats by partial sciatic nerve injury. Pain 43: 205-218. ...
A Northwestern University researcher has found a key source of chronic pain appears to b.... Gene therapy delivery of nerve ... A team of biomedical engineers has developed a computer model that makes use of more or less predictable "guesstimates" of ... Old memory traces in brain may trigger chronic pain. Why do so many people continue to suffer from life-altering, chronic pain ... Rats with erectile dysfunction, or ED, that were injected with a gene therapy vector containing either of two nerve growth ...
Chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve was used as the neuropathic pain model. Nociception was assessed by ... in a model of neuropathic pain 8 days after nerve injury. In a different experiment, we delivered Phα1β (60 pmol/μL/h) or ... delivery of Phα1β produces analgesia disconnected from toxicity in a relevant model of neuropathic pain, indicating that it is ... infusion in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Adult male Wistar rats (200-300 g) bred in-house were used. ...
Chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve and streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy were introduced to male ... Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Pain 2004; 111: 116-24.CrossRefGoogle ... Taurine Neuropathic Pain Mechanical Allodynia Chronic Constriction Injury Thermal Hyperalgesia Effet antinociceptif dune ... Critical evaluation of the streptozotocin model of painful diabetic neuropathy in the rat. Pain 1999; 81: 307-16.CrossRefGoogle ...
Insomnia and co-existing sleeplessness and musculoskeletal pain were inversely related to long-term recovery from chronic low ... back pain, a study found; relieving sleep problems may improve recovery. ... Update of Markov Model on the Cost-Effectiveness of Nonpharmacologic Interventions for Chronic Low Back Pain Compared to Usual ... Journal Article Nerve Growth Factor Inhibitors for Low Back Pain * 2001/viewarticle/903980 ...
Charles River conducts pharmacology and efficacy pain studies in clinically relevant pain models to help advance the discovery ... Neuropathic Pain Model * Chronic Joint Pain Model * Inflammatory Pain Model * Spinal Nerve Ligation Model ... Chronic joint pain models including MIA, gout pain, and arthritic pain. *Acute inflammatory pain models *Complete Freunds ... Chronic Pain Models/Inflammatory Pain Models. Inflammatory pain is usually caused by tissue injury, arthritis, or tumor growth ...
Vein Wrapping for Chronic Nerve Constriction Injury in a Rat Model: Study Showing Increases in VEGF and HGF Production and ... Prevention of Pain-Associated Behaviors and Nerve Damage. Murakami, Kenichi; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Iwakura, Nahoko; More ... Radial Nerve Disruption Following Application of a Hinged Elbow External Fixator: A Report of Three Cases. Baumann, Gregor; ... Prevention of Nerve Injury During Arthroscopic Capsulectomy of the Elbow Utilizing a Safety-Driven Strategy. Blonna, Davide; ...
Bilateral chronic constriction of the sciatic nerve: a model of long-term cold hyperalgesia. ... TRPM8 mechanism of autonomic nerve response to cold in respiratory airway. Molecular pain. 4 [DOI] 10.1186/1744-8069-4-22. [ ... Segmental Neuropathic Pain Does Not Develop in Male Rats With Complete Spinal Transections ... Bilateral bulbospinal projections to pudendal motoneuron circuitry after chronic spinal cord hemisection injury as revealed by ...
With a compound designed and developed by the researchers themselves, they can achieve complete pain relief. ... Researchers from the University of Copenhagen have developed a new way to treat chronic pain which has been tested in mice. ... Between seven and ten percent of the worlds population suffers from chronic pain originating from nerves that have been ... We can administer this peptide and obtain complete pain relief in the mouse model we have used, without the lethargic effect ...
In the present study the antinociceptive effects of TT-232 were analysed using both acute and chronic models of nociception. ... Somatostatin released from capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves exerts systemic anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive actions. TT ... Analgesic effect of TT-232, a heptapeptide somatostatin analogue, in acute pain models of the rat and the mouse and in ... Formalin-induced pain behaviour, noxious heat threshold and streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathic mechanical allodynia ...
Researchers found that chronic pain could be halted or reversed in rodents by activating a receptor called A3 with a small ... The researchers analyzed more than 300 rodent models of chronic neuropathic pain - pain that results from nerve damage. ... They found that activating a receptor in the brain called A3 halted or reversed chronic pain in the rodents, and that this ... Scientists find a way to prevent, reverse chronic pain. Written by Honor Whiteman on November 30, 2014 ...
... in Chronic Pain after Peripheral Nerve Injury.2016. *. Author(s). Katano T, Fukuda M, Furue H, Yamazaki M, Abe M, Watanabe M, ... Journal Article] Environmental enrichment attenuates behavioral abnormalities in valproic acid-exposed autism model mice.2017. ... Presentation] Effects of intranasal oxytocin on autism-like behavioral abnormalities in valproic acid-induced mouse model of ... ameliorates social interaction deficits in a prenatal valproic acid-induced autism mouse model2019. *. Author(s). Kawase H, Ago ...
Neuropathic pain was induced by using the mild (28) and classic (29) CCI models of sciatic nerve injury. CCI was performed at ... HMGB1-a DAMP released spinally in chronic pain models (17, 45)-increased the expression of gene transcripts encoding IκBα (a ... 2013) Chronic opioid use is associated with increased DNA methylation correlating with increased clinical pain. Pain 154(1):15- ... Firstly, this model may provide a basis for understanding how opioids exaggerate pain in preclinical models of peripheral ...
... chronic pain related to nerve injury. We are investigating biophysical models of the impact of general anesthesia on the ... Research Areas: sensory perception, nerve injury, central nervous system, neuropathy, neuropathic pain, anesthesia, pain ... Providers who have less stress are better equipped to care for patients, including those living with chronic diseases. Our team ... We employ a cross-phylogenetic approach, using both invertebrate and vertebrate model systems, to understand how guidance cues ...
  • Two of its major symptoms are hyperalgesia, where the sensitivity to pain is much greater than normal, and allodynia, where normally non-painful stimuli cause pain. (
  • Gabapentin has been proven to relieve allodynia and hyperalgesia in both animal models and human trials. (
  • It is characterized by spontaneous ongoing pain or intermittent burning pain, an exaggerated response to painful stimuli (hyperalgesia), and pain in response to normally innocuous stimuli (allodynia). (
  • It may be associated with allodynia and increased pain sensitivity. (
  • As a consequence, neuropathic pain may be partially associated with a state of tactile hypersensitivity (allodynia) and hyperalgesia [ 1 ]. (
  • The "partial sciatic ligation" (PSL) shows many of the typical symptoms of the complex regional pain syndrome- (CRPS-) II, a human chronic pain condition associated with nerve injuries, including the rapid onset of allodynia [ 2 ]. (
  • Peripheral nerve injury often results in spontaneous pain sensation, hyperalgesia, and allodynia, which are associated with neuropathic pain. (
  • Neuropathic pain is characterized by dysesthesias (numbness, stabbing, and burning sensations) and allodynia. (
  • Formalin-induced pain behaviour, noxious heat threshold and streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathic mechanical allodynia were examined in rats and phenylquinone-evoked abdominal constrictions were tested in mice. (
  • These findings show that TT-232 potently inhibits acute chemical somatic/visceral and thermal nociception and diminishes chronic mechanical allodynia associated with diabetic neuropathy, thereby it could open new perspectives in the treatment of various pain syndromes. (
  • In models of inflammatory pain, CCR2 knockout mice showed a 70% reduction in phase 2 of the intraplantar formalin-evoked pain response but only a modest (20-30%) and nonsignificant reduction of mechanical allodynia after intraplantar Freund's adjuvant (CFA). (
  • In a model of neuropathic pain, the development of mechanical allodynia was totally abrogated in CCR2 knockout mice. (
  • The administration of a proper dose of vitamin C can reduce oxidative stress, increase antioxidants, and recover the threshold for mechanical allodynia in the CPIP model. (
  • 9 , 10 ] In studies of the CPIP model, several free radical scavengers were effective for the improvement of mechanical allodynia. (
  • Peripheral alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor signalling attenuates tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia after nerve injury in mice. (
  • Mechanistically, peripheral nerve injury triggers a loss of central inhibition that drives escape circuit plasticity and neuropathic allodynia. (
  • Together, we define how injury leads to allodynia in insects, and describe a primordial precursor to neuropathic pain may have been advantageous, protecting animals after serious injury. (
  • Pathological stimuli or injury to the peripheral nervous system can trigger neuropathic pain with common clinical features such as allodynia and hypersensitivity. (
  • One of the defining characteristics of chronic pain is the development of tactile allodynia, in which previously innocuous mechanical stimuli are perceived as being painful. (
  • To identify dorsal horn interneurons implicated in the development of tactile allodynia after peripheral nerve injury. (
  • Upregulation of substance P in low-threshold myelinated afferents is not required for tactile allodynia in the chronic constriction injury and spinal nerve ligation models. (
  • NAGly is also effective in acute pain models, reducing mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia induced by intraplantar injection of Fruend's complete adjuvant. (
  • A-740003 also attenuated tactile allodynia in two other models of neuropathic pain, chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve and vincristine-induced neuropathy. (
  • This study was undertaken in order to investigate the effect of chronic treatment with 5′-chloro-5′-deoxy-(±)-ENBA, a potent and highly selective agonist of human adenosine A 1 receptor, on thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in a mouse model of neuropathic pain, the Spared Nerve Injury (SNI) of the sciatic nerve. (
  • Chronic systemic administration of 5′-chloro-5′-deoxy-(±)-ENBA (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced both mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia 3 and 7 days post-SNI, in a way prevented by DPCPX (3 mg/kg, i.p.), a selective A 1 adenosine receptor antagonist, without exerting any significant change on the motor coordination or arterial blood pressure. (
  • Neuropathic pain is characterized by both negative symptoms and positive symptoms including hyperalgesia, allodynia, paresthesia and spontaneous pain [1] . (
  • The animals were less prone to develop an inflammatory-related state of pain and were, in the partial sciatic nerve ligation chronic pain model, much less hypersensitive to mechanical stimuli and did not develop cold allodynia or heat hyperalgesia. (
  • They did not develop cold allodynia, or heat hyperalgesia and were less hypersensitive to mechanical stimuli in the PSNL chronic pain model. (
  • The rats also exhibit spontaneous pain behaviors (hindpaw shaking, licking and favoring), and spread of hyperalgesia/allodynia to the uninjured contralateral hindpaw. (
  • Consistent with the hypothesis that the generation of free radicals may be partly responsible for CRPS-I and CPIP, two free radical scavengers, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperydine-1-oxyl (Tempol), were able to reduce signs of mechanical allodynia in this model. (
  • Neuropathic pain may arise from many different disease states and present with a variety of symptoms, including shooting or burning pain, tingling, numbness and allodynia. (
  • 8 , 9) We therefore inferred that there are an amazing number of commonalities in the pathological mechanisms between pain and depression. (
  • Mechanisms of Osteoarthritic Pain. (
  • However, the mechanisms of OA pain are poorly understood. (
  • This review addresses the mechanisms which are thought to be involved in OA pain, derived from studies on pain mechanisms in humans and in experimental models of OA. (
  • Three areas will be considered, namely local processes in the joint associated with OA pain, neuronal mechanisms involved in OA pain, and general factors which influence OA pain. (
  • Concerning the peripheral neuronal mechanisms of OA pain, peripheral nociceptive sensitization was shown, and neuropathic mechanisms may be involved at some stages. (
  • The combination of different neuronal mechanisms may define the particular pain phenotype in an OA patient. (
  • In the last decade, given the increasing knowledge of the mechanisms regulating degeneration/regeneration of peripheral nerves several approaches to promote nerve regeneration have been addressed. (
  • Investigation of the neural circuit maps, physiological mechanisms, and the therapeutic strategies associated with spinal cord/peripheral nerve injury and visceral organ dysfunction (including pancreas/diabetes, peripheral vasculature, urogenital tract). (
  • The most successful pharmacological approaches for the treatment of chronic pain rely on engagement of endogenous circuits involving opioid, adrenergic and calcium channel mechanisms," the researchers note. (
  • In visual cortical slices, we investigate two forms of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity: long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). These two forms of synaptic plasticity are currently the most comprehensive models of the elementary mechanisms underlying naturally occurring plasticity. (
  • The Aliaksei Pustavoitau Lab conducts research on models and mechanisms of impaired consciousness in patients who have suffered acute brain injury. (
  • Research in the Allan Gottschalk Lab focuses on the mechanisms behind neuropathic pain , chronic pain related to nerve injury. (
  • We primarily examine the mechanisms and efficacy of spinal cord stimulation in treating neuropathic pain , peripheral neuropathies and peripheral vascular disease. (
  • Investigators in the Roger Johns Lab are examining the molecular mechanisms behind the onset and continuation of chronic pain, particularly neuropathic pain . (
  • Dr. Trudell and I count ourselves fortunate to be among the handful of individuals in the world who are actively and successfully applying the very specialized and cutting-edge techniques of structural biology, protein bioinformatics, molecular modeling, and computational chemistry to the study of anesthetic and alcohol mechanisms. (
  • We investigated whether chronic pain and stress affect similar molecular mechanisms and whether chronic pain can affect gene expression patterns that are involved in depression. (
  • There is a lack of effective treatment for neuropathic pain, which may possibly be related to poor understanding of pathological mechanisms at the molecular level. (
  • Over the last twenty years he has used a number of functional brain imaging techniques to understand the normal and abnormal mechanisms of pain perception. (
  • His main current goals are to use the current understanding of pain perception to encourage more rational use of current therapies and to develop new mechanisms-based treatments for pain. (
  • Despite decades of research into the molecular and physiological mechanisms that contribute to neuropathic pain, it is still not completely clear what we should target to treat the underlying pathology responsible for neuropathic pain. (
  • Indeed, although numerous studies have identified various putative receptors, neurotrophic factors, and neuropeptides that are considered to be important molecules underlying the mechanisms of chronic pain, debate continues regarding the essential therapeutic target in neuropathic pain. (
  • This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying GPR40 activation-induced antinociception in neuropathic pain, particularly related to the spinal glial expression of IL-10 and subsequent β-endorphin. (
  • Pain mechanisms: a new theory. (
  • These small diameter fibers transmit sensations of pain, tissue injury and irritation via mechanisms that include ATP signaling. (
  • One of the characteristic alterations in gene modification is abnormal histone acetylation, which is believed to be one of the transcription factor-mediated epigenetic mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain [6] , [7] . (
  • Although chronic low back pain (cLBP) is increasingly recognized as a complex syndrome with multifactorial etiology, the pathogenic mechanisms leading to the development of chronic pain in this condition remain poorly understood. (
  • This article presents a new, testable pathophysiological model integrating connective tissue plasticity mechanisms with several well-developed areas of research on cLBP (pain psychology, postural control, neuroplasticity). (
  • Professor Carolyn Fairbanks is also working to advance the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of chronic pain and to optimize innovative approaches to provide pain relief. (
  • Fairbanks works extensively with U of M colleagues across other disciplines in research and in educational efforts regarding pain mechanisms and pain management. (
  • Understanding the mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain syndromes is crucial to the development of more effective therapies. (
  • Although the two models share many common features, the consideration of key differences in observable pain behavior, contributing mechanisms, and ability to measure cellular changes may be helpful in guiding investigators to the best model for their experiments. (
  • The molecular mechanisms underlying pain sensation are poorly understood at present. (
  • A particular problem is the role of DH in pain relief: outside of medicine, this is deadlocked by lack of the knowledge of molecular mechanisms involved [7]. (
  • Nerve injury induces changes in gene transcription in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which may contribute to nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. (
  • Here, we report that peripheral nerve injury increases expression of the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3a in the injured DRG neurons via the activation of the transcription factor octamer transcription factor 1. (
  • Conversely, in the absence of nerve injury, mimicking this increase reduces the Kcna2 promoter activity, diminishes Kcna2 expression, decreases Kv current, increases excitability in DRG neurons and leads to spinal cord central sensitization and neuropathic pain symptoms. (
  • We report here that the de novo methyltransferase DNMT3a, but not DNMT3b, is significantly increased in the injured DRG neurons after peripheral nerve injury. (
  • We first confirmed, using activating transcription factor 3 and neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity, that virtually all L4 DRG neurons are spared from axotomy in this model. (
  • Together, our results demonstrate that the L5 SNL induces differential activation of MAPK in injured and uninjured DRG neurons and, furthermore, that MAPK activation in the primary afferents may participate in generating pain hypersensitivity after partial nerve injury. (
  • Among them, the L5 SNL model is unique because the L4 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons are clearly separated from the axotomized L5 DRG neurons. (
  • However, there has been no study examining MAPK activation in adjacent uninjured DRG neurons after partial nerve injury. (
  • Furthermore, the contribution of JNK activation in sensory neurons to pain is unknown, although peripheral axotomy has been shown to induce JNK/SAPK activation in DRG neurons ( Kenney and Kocsis, 1998 ). (
  • In this study, we precisely identified the axotomized sensory neurons in the L4 and L5 DRG in the L5 SNL model and then set out to investigate whether ERK, p38, and JNK are activated in both damaged and undamaged primary afferents and participate in the development of mechanical and/or heat hypersensitivity. (
  • ATF3 expression in neurons is closely linked to their survival and the regeneration of their axons following axotomy, and that in peripheral nerves correlates with the generation of a Schwann cell phenotype that is conducive to axonal regeneration. (
  • One factor that contributes to the successful regeneration of the axons in peripheral nerves is the complex cell body response the neurons show to axotomy. (
  • The scale bar also applies to (D) . (B) ATF3 (green) is present in the nuclei of preganglionic parasympathetic neurons in the dorsal nucleus of the vagus (outlined with a dashed line) and in motor neurons of the hypoglossal nucleus (asterisk) 5 days after crush injury to the vagus and hypoglossal nerves in an adult rat. (
  • University of Pennsylvania researchers have identified a group of just 300 neurons in the brain that act to prioritize hunger over long-term, inflammatory pain, and could represent new targets for dev. (
  • GPR40 was expressed on microglia, astrocytes, and neurons in the spinal cords and upregulated by spinal nerve ligation. (
  • As well as causing pain, this degenerative process impairs communication among neurons and can even lead to amputation of the lower limbs. (
  • Underlying the development of this pathological pain state is a process of neuronal plasticity, termed central sensitisation that results in hyperexcitability of sensory neurons in the spinal cord. (
  • Examining further the role played by PSD-95, we found that the expression of both PSD- 95 and one of its signalling partner kinases, Pyk 2, was increased in the same superficial dorsal horn neurons following nerve injury. (
  • The main stream of our research program is to investigate the immune etiology of chronic pain by exploring the interactions between injured neurons and their surrounding glia/immune cells and the impact of glial activation in pain behaviour. (
  • Sensing and control of pain are mediated by neurons, both central and peripheral. (
  • 4) "Ongoing pain is associated with widespread neuroplastic changes at multiple levels within the nervous system and including primary afferent neurons, spinal cord, brainstem, thalamus, limbic system and cortex. (
  • To investigate more specific neuronal populations, we analyzed mice lacking Vglut2 in the Nav1.8 population, as inflammatory hyperalgesia, cold pain, and noxious mechanosensation have been shown to depend upon Na v 1.8 Cre positive sensory neurons. (
  • In an effort to develop medications that are effective for the pharmacotherapy of chronic pain without tolerance, we designed two compounds - MMG22 and MCC22 - that inhibit the action of inflammation-induced release of endogenous mediators that would promote pain sensitization of neurons while simultaneously stimulating opioid receptors in neurons," said Portoghese. (
  • Although the researchers cannot say with certainty how gabapentin helps reduce pain, Dr. Arnold says one possible explanation involves the binding of gabapentin to a specific subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels on neurons. (
  • channel expressed in nociceptive neurons, and found that it is strongly related to pain sensation in three northern Pakistan families investigated in their study [1]. (
  • Adequate modeling of a pain system in vitro, for example, would require some combination of keratinocytes and nerve endings, cultures of neurons and glial cells in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and the dorsal horn (DH), or other neuronal networks of the brain. (
  • Mind concepts (as in mind vs. body), and cognitive and behavioral aspects, are introduced where they have at least a fairly direct connection to physical aspects of the brain, neurons, spinal cord, nerve networks, neurotransmitters, etc. (
  • Other neurons bundles which are labeled cranial nerves, connect to the brain on one end, and to locations outside the brain on the other, without having a junction inside the spinal column. (
  • Cranial nerves are actually huge collections of vast numbers of individual neurons that have found common routes through the body. (
  • See also: olfactory receptor neurons Optic nerve (cranial nerve 2) Sight. (
  • 10 This model demonstrates reproducible, quantifiable, and mechanical hyperalgesia that lasts from several days to a week after the incision. (
  • A rat model of spared nerve injury (SNI) was constructed to mimic CNP. (
  • L5 and L6 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) ( Kim and Chung, 1992 ), and spared nerve injury ( Decosterd and Woolf, 2000 ) have been widely used. (
  • Using two mouse models of neuropathic pain and depression [spared nerve injury (SNI) and chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)], we performed next-generation RNA sequencing and pathway analysis to monitor changes in gene expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and the periaqueductal gray (PAG). (
  • Environmental enrichment alleviates chronic pain in rats following a spared nerve injury to induce neuropathic pain. (
  • Environmental enrichment alleviated mechanically induced chronic pain in a spared nerve injury rat model of neuropathic pain. (
  • We extracted candidate genes in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) from three nerve injury mouse models and a sham-operated model (sciatic nerve ligation and resection, sural nerve resection, spared nerve injury [SNI], and sham) using DNA microarray to elucidate the genes responsible for the neuropathic pain mechanism in the SNI model, which exhibits hypersensitivity in the hindpaw of the preserved sural nerve area. (
  • Rats were used to build a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. (
  • Rats with erectile dysfunction, or ED, that were injected with a gene therapy vector containing either of two nerve growth factors were able to regain normal function after four weeks, according to a study conducted by University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine researchers. (
  • Phα1β, a peptide from the venom of the spider Phoneutria nigriventer shows antinociceptive effects after continuous infusion in a neuropathic pain model in rats. (
  • In a different experiment, we delivered Phα1β (60 pmol/μL/h) or vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline, 1.0 μL/h) through continuous infusion using an osmotic pump by spinal catheterization for 7 days in rats submitted to nerve injury. (
  • We observed that CCI of the sciatic nerve but not sham surgery caused intense (reduction of approximately 2.5 times in mechanical withdrawal threshold) and persistent (up to 14 days) nociception in rats. (
  • Chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve and streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy were introduced to male Sprague-Dawley rats. (
  • Des lésions de constriction chronique (chronic constriction injury ou CCI) du nerf sciatique et une neuropathie diabétique induite par la streptozotocine ont été introduites à des rats Sprague-Dawley mâles. (
  • La taurine a soulagé l'allodynie mécanique, l'hyperalgésie mécanique et l'hyperalgésie thermique chez les rats en CCI et supprimé l'allodynie mécanique et l'hyperalgésie dans les modèles de rats diabétiques. (
  • To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on expression of high mobility group protein 1 (HMGB 1) and related downstream effectors of proinflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus in chronic neuropathic pain rats, so as to investigate its mechanism underlying neuropathic pain relief. (
  • Male SD rats were randomized into sham, model, and EA groups, with 12 rats in each group. (
  • EA stimulation of ST 36-GB 34 can relieve pain in chronic neuropathic pain rats, which may be related to its actions in down-regulating the levels of HMGB 1 and its downstream proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1 β in the hippocampus. (
  • The authors examined whether dermorphin [D-Arg2, Lys4] (1-4) amide, a peripherally acting µ-opioid receptor agonist, attenuates ongoing pain-associated manifestations after nerve injury in rats and mice. (
  • Twenty-eight CPIP model rats were generated from 49 rats. (
  • The purpose of this preliminary study is to investigate whether pain behaviors in rats with peripheral neuropathy would be altered when keeping these animals in either 1) standard laboratory cages or in 2) a significantly EE. (
  • Resolving the contributions of anaesthesia, surgery, and nerve injury on brain derived neurotrophic factor expression in the medial prefrontal cortex of male rats in the CCI model of neuropathic pain. (
  • Evidence for a distinct neuro-immune signature in rats that develop behavioural disability after nerve injury. (
  • We initially scheduled ten sessions of phototherapy applied to the thigh every ten days, each lasting one minute, but we observed an improvement shortly after the fourth session and sacrificed the rats to analyze their sciatic nerves. (
  • LUCY CARTER: His team gave lab rats a nerve injury to induce chronic pain. (
  • NAGly has been hypothesized to have a neurophysiological function of pain suppression, supported by evidence that it suppresses formalin-induced pain behavior in rats. (
  • Therefore, in this study, we compared the differential activation modes of microglia in the AH and PH of the lumbar cord 7 days after chronic constriction injury of the left sciatic nerve in Wistar rats. (
  • Somatostatin released from capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves exerts systemic anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive actions. (
  • Deliver as needed: home, work or on-the-go The opiate-mediated control theory is based on stimulation of the sensory nerves at 10 Hz or less which causes the body to produce endorphins and enkephalins that bind to specific receptor sites in the central and peripheral nervous system blocking the perception of pain. (
  • Peripheral Sensory Nerves: A Treatable Source of Pain? (
  • If peripheral sensory nerves can and do cause pain, how do we diagnose and treat this? (
  • Dr. Ford added, "A key advantage of targeting P2X3 receptors is that they have limited distribution beyond sensory nerves and no significant expression in the higher centers of the brain. (
  • Validated in numerous preclinical models, P2X3 is highly specific to types of sensory nerves (C fiber afferents) that transmit sensations of pain and irritation via ATP signaling. (
  • Sensory nerves, sometimes called afferent nerves, carry information from the outside world, such as sensations of heat, cold, and pain, to the brain and spinal cord. (
  • We used the partial sciatic ligation- (PSL-) induced neuropathic model. (
  • METHODS Mice were subjected to partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSL). (
  • It is characterized by a reduced nociceptive threshold and sometimes by spontaneous pain in the absence of stimuli, so that normally innocuous stimuli can produce pain. (
  • Acute pain is defined as a normal physiological response to external noxious stimuli and serves as a protective early warning system for the body. (
  • The neuropathic pain models are validated using the following established assays, and our scientific team is developing new endpoints to measure gait and balance changes in response to pain stimuli. (
  • Mice lacking the chemokine receptor chemotactic cytokine receptor 2 (CCR2) have a marked attenuation of monocyte recruitment in response to various inflammatory stimuli and a reduction of inflammatory lesions in models of demyelinating disease. (
  • Mice lacking either MCP-1 or CCR2 show a marked attenuation of monocyte recruitment in response to various inflammatory stimuli, as well as a reduction in the development of inflammatory lesions in models of CNS demyelinating disease ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • 3) Electrotherapy is a convenient and easy way for patients to take control of their pain: The gate control theory is based on stimulating A-beta fibers to inhibit nociceptive nerve fibers (A-delta, C fibers) from transmitting painful stimuli to the spinal cord. (
  • We are also using a combination of cortical evoked potential responses to laser pulsed pain stimuli as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brain of volunteers (and eventually patients) to determine the cortical representation of these A-delta and C fiber mediated pain. (
  • As with some other chronic pain conditions, people with fibromyalgia often develop a heightened response to stimuli, experiencing pain that would not cause problems in other people. (
  • Although gabapentin has little, if any, effect on acute pain, it has shown a robust effect on pain caused by a heightened response to stimuli related to inflammation or nerve injury in animal models of chronic pain syndromes. (
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the well-established chronic constriction injury (CCI) model on central nociceptive processing in mice over a period of 56 days. (
  • In animal models, physical trauma, infection, or distressing noise can induce abnormal connections between the sympathetic nervous system and the nociceptive system. (
  • It also examines concerns surrounding the stability of symptoms and measures, including varying durations of multiple symptoms and the potential development of nociceptive sensitization, as well as possible use-dependent alterations in drug sensitivity and time-dependent changes in pain processes in specific animal models. (
  • In the present study, we compared nociceptive responses in inflammatory and neuropathic models of pain in CCR2 knockout and wild-type mice. (
  • The pain associated with PAD is thought to result from chronic ischemia and comprises neuropathic and nociceptive pain component [ 13 , 14 ]. (
  • In particular, peripherally administered NAGly inhibited phase 2 pain behavior, suggesting either a direct suppression of nociceptive afferents on the nerve or an indirect modulation of the afferents' interstitial environment. (
  • P2X 7 knockout mice show reduced inflammation as well as decreased nociceptive sensitivity following peripheral nerve injury. (
  • Our results demonstrated an involvement of adenosine A 1 receptor in the amplified nociceptive thresholds and in spinal glial and microglial changes occurred in neuropathic pain, without affecting motor coordination or blood pressure. (
  • At present, there are 3 categories of pain distinguishable by source: nociceptive pain, inflammatory pain, and pathological pain [8, 9]. (
  • Transient pain is induced by the activation of nociceptive receptors, mainly in the skin, with little or no tissue damage, whereas acute pain is associated with local tissue damage [11]. (
  • TS is the perceived increase in pain intensity to repeated stimulation at a constant stimulus intensity and is reflective of CNS sensitization. (
  • Graph theoretical analysis of functional connectivity revealed known effects of chronic pain for the first time also for the CCI model: modifications of the sensory as well as emotional system induced by thermal but also mechanical stimulation. (
  • This new technology opens a door to a wide range of applications that we are currently exploring along with device development: e.g. peripheral nerve stimulation for suppressing neuropathic pain , vestibular nerve stimulation to correct balance disorders, vagal nerve stimulation to suppress an asthma attack, and a host of other neuroprosthetic applications. (
  • We also conduct research on the use of spinal cord stimulation as a treatment for neuropathic pain , refractory angina pectoris and refractory peripheral vascular disease. (
  • Work in the Sivanesan Neuromodulation Laboratory (SNL) focuses on developing electrical stimulation therapies for treating neuropathic pain conditions and discovering novel applications for patients suffering from painful conditions. (
  • and Robert Cutler, ph.D. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation treatment outcome in long-term users. (
  • However, no study has examined whether US can reduce the volume required when compared with nerve stimulation (NS) for ISB. (
  • Using a laser-based stimulation system, we are performing experiments examining both electrophysiological and biochemical responses to these two pain types. (
  • An integrative mechanistic model incorporating behavioral and structural aspects of cLBP will strengthen the rationale for a multidisciplinary treatment approach including direct mechanical tissue stimulation, movement reeducation, psychosocial intervention and pharmacological treatment to address this common and debilitating condition. (
  • 2. an afferent nerve whose stimulation causes a fall in blood pressure. (
  • secretory nerve an efferent nerve whose stimulation increases vascular activity. (
  • In the first three topics, a common element is the use of the EEG as a diagnostic tool, assisted by computational modeling and the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation. (
  • Neuromodulation focuses on applications for chronic pain, using spinal cord stimulation, tinnitus, and epilepsy (vagus nerve stimulation). (
  • The methods we are about to propose in this review may lead to the relief of pain through the application of physical stimulation (mechanical pressure, vibration, electric current, etc.), as demonstrated by the example of knee arthritis [14]. (
  • Up to now, pain reduction by physical stimulation treatment has been categorized outside the field of medicine, as an "alternative medicine" or "modality. (
  • Patients in chronic pain and on opioids have been shown to have changes in their reward pathways. (
  • Twenty-six percent of Americans who are 20 and older report some type of chronic pain and every day, more than 650,000 prescriptions for opioids are filled. (
  • Researchers report a significant advance in the search for medications that can suppress pain but avoid opioids' abuse potential and other undesirable CNS effects. (
  • In addition to neuronal blockade, several approaches have been used to reduce postoperative pain, including systemic opioids and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. (
  • AIM Neuropathic pain is often refractory to conventional analgesics including opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. (
  • And by preventing the onset of chronic pain, we eliminate the need to use addictive and potentially deadly opioids . (
  • So we've been advising people of recent times to consider reducing or even getting off of their opioids and finding other ways of managing their chronic pain. (
  • LUCY CARTER: Professor Maree Smith from the University of Queensland's Pharmacy faculty says most doctors already know opioids are ineffective for chronic nerve pain. (
  • Labuz and coworkers show that leukocytes produce opioids to control neuropathic pain (page 278). (
  • Fairbanks' goal is to refine and improve the effectiveness and safety of opioids and other analgesic medications to treat chronic pain. (
  • Therefore, the researchers hope that the compound may potentially help pain patients who have become addicted to, for example, opioid pain relievers in particular. (
  • What is more, activating the A3 receptor with a small adenosine molecule did not alter the normal pain threshold in rodents or trigger the reward center of the brain - a process that can lead to addiction with opioid use. (
  • The purpose of this study is to determine if the research results obtained in animal models of pain - that show that being in pain for some time increases opioid use beyond what is expecte. (
  • NIDA Program Officer Dr. David Thomas speaks about the intertwined problems of pain and prescription opioid abuse, as well as the research supported by NIDA and the National Institutes of Health to address these problems. (
  • However a new study has revealed that using opioid painkillers to treat chronic nerve pain can actually make the pain worse, and last much longer. (
  • MEREDITH CRAIGIE: Something we've suspected for a long time is that the opioid medications, that's morphine-like medications, for a lot of people are actually making their pain worse when they've been taking them for long periods of time. (
  • MAREE SMITH: People who are aware, who have had the education promulgated by the neuropathic pain special interest group, the faculty of Pain Medicine, the Australian Pain Society, they would know that opioid analgesics are not very good for nerve pain. (
  • However, the opioid analgesics commonly prescribed today were originally evaluated on normal, noninflamed animal models. (
  • Researchers in the Children's Hospital Boston Informatics Program (CHIP) have created a preclinical model for predicting a drug's teratogenicity (tendency to cause fetal malformations) based on characterizing the genes that it targets. (
  • It also examines the advantages and disadvantages of tonic pain models, mechanism-based and disease-related models of chronic pain, including issues related to the novel discovery of injury- or disease-related pathophysiological processes, the expansion of testing repertoires, and the successes and failures in the translation of analgesic development from animal preclinical models to human chronic pain conditions. (
  • Andrews NA, Latrémolière A, Basbaum AI et al (2016) Ensuring transparency and minimization of methodologic bias in preclinical pain research: PPRECISE considerations. (
  • Furthermore, clinical and preclinical studies indicate that chronic pain corresponds with adaptations in several brain networks involved in mood, motivation, and reward. (
  • In preclinical studies, tanezumab, and its murine precursor muMab-911, effectively targeted the NGF pathway in various chronic and inflammatory pain models. (
  • Predator-based psychosocial stress animal model of PTSD: Preclinical assessment of traumatic stress at cognitive, hormonal, pharmacological, cardiovascular and epigenetic levels of analysis. (
  • Choosing preclinical peripheral nerve injury models. (
  • A number of animal models of chronic pain after nerve injury have been introduced. (
  • This paper examines the development of and some logistical and methodological issues surrounding the use of animal models of chronic pain. (
  • The first section addresses the emergent move towards mechanism-based and disease-related animal models of chronic pain that has accelerated since the late 1980s following publication of Bennett and Xie's (Pain 33:87-107, 1998 ) paper on chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve and Stein et al. (
  • however, some studies have suggested that poor sleep may increase inflammation in the body and change how the brain processes pain. (
  • Attenuation of inflammatory pain by puerarin in animal model of inflammation through inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators. (
  • Adam B, Liebregts T, Gschossmann JM, Krippner C, Scholl F, Ruwe M, Holtmann G (2006) Severity of mucosal inflammation as a predictor for alterations of visceral sensory function in a rat model. (
  • We examined whether peripheral nerve damage and acute inflammation occur during short episodes of acute ischemia . (
  • Specifically, it significantly inhibited TNFα and IFNγ production, and it shows potential as a therapeutic treatment for chronic inflammation. (
  • When we are chronically under a physiological state of threat (chronic pain, life demands, unresolved traumas, etc.), our survival response activates the central and autonomic nervous system that creates a vicious cycle of inflammation and sensitization of the body. (
  • We hypothesize that pain-related fear leads to a cycle of decreased movement, connective tissue remodeling, inflammation, nervous system sensitization and further decreased mobility. (
  • 11) A chronic local increase in stress leads to micro-injury and inflammation. (
  • Many diseases or traumatic conditions are accompanied by inflammation that may lead to increased sensitivity to pain. (
  • Yet, unlike many other pain syndromes, there is no physical evidence of inflammation or central nervous system damage. (
  • Related clinical characteristics of postoperative chronic pain. (
  • vii) Genetic and clinical data suggesting that FM is a sympathetically maintained neuropathic pain syndrome. (
  • The researchers are now working towards clinical trials in collaboration with, among others, pain researcher Nanna Brix Finnerup, Professor at Aarhus University. (
  • The assessment of pain in sheep is a clinical challenge, because being a prey species, they tend to mask it. (
  • Phase I and II clinical trials in osteoarthritic pain and chronic lower back pain demonstrated good efficacy for the compound, as well as a good safety and tolerability profile. (
  • Aimed at an audience of scientific leaders and senior specialists in neuroscience, CNS, clinical operations and pharmacology, the 17th annual show will provide a focal point for the industry to assess new innovations in effective and safe pain management . (
  • PAIN after surgery continues to be a major management challenge in clinical practice. (
  • Hypercoagulability is due key facts the clinical studies clearly indicate that chronic pelvic pain. (
  • Intermittent claudication is the clinical presentation of exercise induced acute ischemic pain in PAD patients [ 2 ]. (
  • Although clinical evidence for the use of psychedelic substances in chronic pain is limited, studies and case reports over the past 50 years have shown potential benefits in cancer pain, phantom limb pain, and cluster headache. (
  • Regression models found the following clinical factors to be significantly associated with outcome, 2 or more seizures prior to randomization 1.6 (1.3 to 2.0), 3 or more seizures prior to randomization 2.6 (1.6 to 4.1), 10 or more seizures prior to randomization 1.3 (1.0 to 1.7), 'brain pathology' (learning difficulty, delayed development, neurological signs) 1.4 (1.1 to 1.8)), abnormal EEG 1.6 (1.3, 1.9). (
  • MESS provides a simple prognostic model which will inform clinical decision making. (
  • The model is reliable within the MESS dataset and should be tested in other datasets and in clinical practice. (
  • The results of this study indicate that selective P2X3 antagonism may have clinical utility in treating interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and overactive bladder," commented Dr. Ford. (
  • Based on these and other promising data, Afferent is planning a clinical trial of its lead P2X3 antagonist, AF-219, in patients with chronic bladder pain syndrome, a prevalent and painful condition with currently limited therapeutic options. (
  • Afferent is also planning clinical studies of AF-219 in osteoarthritis and chronic cough patients. (
  • Afferent Pharmaceuticals is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company developing first-in-class, small molecule compounds that target P2X3 receptors for the treatment of chronic pain and irritative conditions. (
  • Afferent's lead compound, AF-219, is being prepared for entry into Phase 2 clinical testing in patients with osteoarthritis, interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and chronic cough. (
  • There is tremendous frustration amongst clinicians in treating chronic pain because results are often poor, patients are angry and the costs to society are crippling, but the last ten years of research have revealed many new answers that have not been implemented in clinical care, until now. (
  • In the NIAMS-sponsored, randomized, double-blind clinical trial of 150 women (90 percent) and men with the condition, Lesley M. Arnold, M.D., director of the Women's Health Research Program at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, and her colleagues found that those taking gabapentin at dosages of 1,200 to 2,400 mg daily for 12 weeks displayed significantly less pain than those taking placebo. (
  • Spinal nerve stimulators use electrical pulses to block the pain signal to the brain. (
  • To investigate whether activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in damaged and/or undamaged primary afferents participates in neuropathic pain after partial nerve injury, we examined the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), p38 MAPK, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in the L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in the L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model. (
  • Spinal nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain model was used in this study. (
  • Systemic administration of A-740003 produced dose-dependent antinociception in a spinal nerve ligation model (ED 50 = 19 mg/kg i.p.) in the rat. (
  • Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of intraoperative local anesthetic infiltration in combination with intravenous paracetamol infusion on postoperative pain management in patients who underwent percutaneus nephrolithotomy (PCNL). (
  • The sciatic nerves of some animals were ligated to cause neuropathic nociception. (
  • The PSL-induced changes in nociception correlate with altered nerve morphology and myelin protein expression. (
  • Similarly, the continuous infusion of Phα1β (60 pmol/μL/h for 7 days) was also able to reverse nerve injury-induced nociception from 1 to 7 days, but did not cause either behavioral side effects or histopathological changes in the central nervous system. (
  • In the present study the antinociceptive effects of TT-232 were analysed using both acute and chronic models of nociception. (
  • TT-232 (80 microg/kg i.p.) inhibited both early (0-5 min) and late phases (25-45 min) of formalin-induced nociception as revealed by determination of the composite pain score. (
  • Barrot M (2012) Tests and models of nociception and pain in rodents. (
  • While acute pain perception (nociception) evolved more than 500 million years ago, virtually nothing is known about the molecular origin of chronic pain. (
  • The neuropathic pain model was established by ligature of the left sciatic nerve to induce chronic constriction injury (CCI). (
  • gp120, RANTES (ligands for CCR1, 3, 5, and 9), SDF-1α (ligand for CXCR4), and MDC (ligand for CCR4) also induce pain when injected intradermally ( 8 ). (
  • These altered sensory features may be reproduced in rodent experimental models by a unilateral partial injury of the sciatic nerve. (
  • Rodent neuropathic pain models are typically evaluated in a stimulus-response setting. (
  • The researchers analyzed more than 300 rodent models of chronic neuropathic pain - pain that results from nerve damage. (
  • We use a rodent peripheral nerve model for our investigations. (
  • In this review, we have summarized our psychosocial stress rodent model of PTSD which is based on well-d. (
  • Other animals received "sham" surgeries that did not ligate their sciatic nerves. (
  • Researchers from the University of Copenhagen have developed a new way to treat chronic pain which has been tested in mice. (
  • We have developed a new way to treat chronic pain. (
  • These studies suggest that A3AR activation by highly selective small molecular weight A3AR agonists - such as MRS5698 - activates a pain-reducing pathway supporting the idea that we could develop A3AR agonists as possible new therapeutics to treat chronic pain," adds Prof. Salvemini. (
  • Researchers identified around 30 existing drugs that appear to target the importin alpha-3-c-Fos pathway to help treat chronic pain. (
  • Lyftogt is an MD in the prolotherapy tradition who has come up with another way to treat chronic pain. (
  • New research supported by the National Institutes of Health's National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) shows that the anticonvulsant medication gabapentin, which is used for certain types of seizures, can be an effective treatment for the pain and other symptoms associated with the common, often hard-to-treat chronic pain disorder, fibromyalgia. (
  • There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves , which carry messages to and from the brain. (
  • Patients with chronic neuropathic pain (CNP) have a higher incidence to develop depression. (
  • Patients with chronic neuropathic pain (CNP) are often accompanied by depression. (
  • This project intends to investigate the effects of intercostal nerve block with ropivacaine combined with mecobalamin on chronic post-surgical pain (CPSP) in thoracic postoperative patients. (
  • The BPI asks patients to rate their worst, least and average pain intensity (0-10 NRS). (
  • Patients who suffer from neuropathic pain often take complementary and alternative treatments in order to further reduce pain. (
  • But a new drug-free approach could help patients stop pain. (
  • Chronic pain can affect every aspect of patients' lives, preventing them from working, caring for family members or even themselves. (
  • Doctors now have a new tool to help decrease the perception of pain: a small implant placed in the back that can get patients back on their feet. (
  • Dr. Youssef Josephson, one of the first doctors trained to treat patients with Medtronic's new implant, said that most patients will report at least a 50 percent reduction in pain. (
  • Providers who have less stress are better equipped to care for patients, including those living with chronic diseases. (
  • We're working to develop new analgesics that interfere with the PSD protein interactions in an effort to better treat patients who suffer from chronic pain. (
  • They found some common changes in the expression of genes encoding signaling pathway components (including those involved in inflammatory signaling) that also occur in patients with depression, anxiety, and pain. (
  • A large percentage of patients with neuropathic pain are also afflicted with depression and anxiety disorders, a pattern that is also seen in animal models. (
  • Many of these genes have been implicated in depression, anxiety, and chronic pain in patients. (
  • The increasing variation in protocols for genicular RFA raises important questions about the prognostic value, best practices, and healthcare cost burden of genicular nerve blocks (GNB) to aid in the appropriate selection of patients for genicular nerve RFA. (
  • However, we did not find studies on the therapeutic effect of vitamin C in the CPIP model or in CRPS patients. (
  • Understanding (persistent) pain Mostly to help clinicians but also to help some patients who need this understanding to accept the 'shift' Basically - Pain turns out not to be simple! (
  • and 3) improve the treatment of chronic pain patients. (
  • He has also established a multidisciplinary musculoskeletal pain clinic for patients with rheumatic pain and a neuropathic pain for patients with nerve-damage related pain. (
  • A recent meta-analysis covering approximately 20,000 patients and 800 publications revealed that 41% of all surgical patients experience moderate to severe acute postoperative pain. (
  • Chronic pain has an enormous impact on the quality of life for billions of patients, families, and caregivers worldwide, and current therapies do not adequately address pain for most patients ( 2 ). (
  • Neuropathic pain (e.g., sciatica, back pain, cancer pain, diabetic pain, and accidental injury) is generally refractory to available therapies, with first-line antineuropathics providing adequate pain relief for only ~25% of patients ( 4 ). (
  • In another study, treatment again focused on the sciatic nerve, but the injury was induced by compression to simulate what happens in patients with spinal stenosis or disc herniation. (
  • Chronic (persistent) pain affects 7.8 million people in the UK, however, only 66% of these patients respond to treatments that are currently available. (
  • Eleven patients with unilateral peripheral arterial disease (PAD) performed treadmill exercise until intolerable ischemic pain urged them to stop. (
  • The acute ischemia and its local impact cause the pain during exercise in PAD patients. (
  • For over 40 years, patients have been taking control of managing their pain with electrotherapy with no risk of long-term side-effects commonly associated with NSAIDs and narcotics. (
  • In order to predict seizure recurrence risk for individual patients associated with these treatment policies, data for time to a first seizure after randomization have been used to generate a predictive model. (
  • ConclusionsDespite published reports showing benefit for pain control in patients with BPA, the overall low quality, retrospective evidence included in this review highlights the need for a rigorous prospective study to further address this indication. (
  • Moderate to severe pain after hallux valgus repair can be successfully treated with a continuous popliteal sciatic nerve block in ambulatory patients. (
  • To investigate the difference in pain score of patients allowed to view their flexible cystoscopy procedure compared with those who have not viewed the procedure on the video monitor. (
  • 3) The "association between symptoms and imaging results (X-ray, CT, MRI) has been consistently weak, and up to 85 percent of patients with low back pain cannot be given a precise pathoanatomical diagnosis using these methods. (
  • Recently, studies performed with the PSL model have proposed new drug candidates and therapeutic targets to reduce neuropathic pain [ 3 - 7 ]. (
  • We have developed a variety of clinically relevant pain models that have been validated using existing and novel methods to effectively test new therapeutic candidates. (
  • The findings not only identify molecular links between pain, stress, and depression but also provide a resource for further investigation and potential therapeutic development. (
  • Curcumin, a therapeutic herbal extract, has shown to be effectively capable of reducing chronic pain induced by peripheral administration of inflammatory agents such as formalin. (
  • Accordingly, blockade of the CCR2 receptor may provide a novel therapeutic modality for the treatment of chronic pain. (
  • Persistent pain represents a major health problem, and most current therapeutic approaches are associated with unwanted effects and unsatisfactory pain relief. (
  • In this study, we tested the hypothesis that vitamin C has a therapeutic effect and that the effect shows a dose-response relationship in the CPIP model. (
  • The aetiology, diagnosis and interventional and therapeutic options in PAD have been examined extensively [ 3 - 12 ], whereas the pathophysiology of acute ischemic pain in PAD has received considerably less attention. (
  • Psilocybin, MDMA, and other psychedelic drugs are growing in therapeutic interest and use - could they be game-changers in the pain management space, either for chronic conditions or their psychiatric comorbidities? (
  • Neuropathic pain is a pervasive chronic condition that lacks adequate therapeutic treatment, making the identification of new candidate targets for drug development a priority. (
  • These studies suggest the importance of specific receptors and signalling pathways, non-neuronal cells and of protein:protein complexes associated with the NMDA receptor in chronic pain states and point to their future potential in the design of novel therapeutic targets. (
  • Developing new therapeutic strategy by targeting both spinal glial cells and bone marrow derived macrophages for an effective pain relief. (
  • Spinal delivery of analgesics or gene therapeutics that activate or optimize inhibitory systems offers a very selective method of pain control that can increase the therapeutic index of such analgesics by reducing or eliminating their exposure to brain regions that mediate undesired side effects," she said. (
  • Considering the local factors in the joint, the neuronal processes and the comorbidities, a better definition of OA pain phenotypes may become possible. (
  • That is, it does not affect the general neuronal signalling, but only affects the nerve changes that are caused by the disease," says co-author Kenneth Lindegaard Madsen, Associate Professor at the Department of Neuroscience, University of Copenhagen. (
  • We employ a cross-phylogenetic approach, using both invertebrate and vertebrate model systems, to understand how guidance cues regulate neuronal pathfinding, morphology and synaptogenesis. (
  • This work has led to a better understanding of the vast network of molecules at neuronal synapses, particularly the postsynaptic density (PSD), which is key to the propagation of pain signals. (
  • Neuronal block with local anesthetics is widely used for intraoperative and postoperative pain management. (
  • This project aims to further our understanding of neuronal circuitry in the spinal dorsal horn by identifying populations of interneurons that receive direct inputs from tactile afferents and have the capacity to activate pain pathways following the development of neuropathic pain. (
  • Neuronal circuitry for pain processing in the dorsal horn. (
  • 6) Chronic back pain results in neuronal or glial loss in the pre-frontal and thalamic gray matter. (
  • The discovery of vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3) has been a crucial step in describing specific glutamatergic neuronal subpopulations and glutamate-dependent pain pathways. (
  • Structural changes of joint innervation such as local loss and/or sprouting of nerve fibers were shown. (
  • Yet, no work has been published assessing its effects on acute or chronic pain, nor whether it is able to differentially modulate different classes of nerve fibers. (
  • P2X3-containing fibers have been broadly implicated for treating chronic inflammatory, visceral and neuropathic pain. (
  • When activated, the thinly myelinated A-delta pain fibers create the sensation of sharp, pricking pain, whereas activation of unmyelinated C fibers produces a burning or aching sensation. (
  • a macroscopic cordlike structure of the body, comprising a collection of nerve fibers that convey impulses between a part of the central nervous system and some other body region. (
  • Mixed nerves are composed of both motor and sensory fibers, and transmit messages in both directions at once. (
  • The various nerve fibers and cells that make up the autonomic nervous system innervate the glands, heart, blood vessels, and involuntary muscles of the internal organs. (
  • mixed nerve ( nerve of mixed fibers ) a nerve composed of both sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent) fibers. (
  • Therefore, the UoP researchers conclude that waterhyssop could see use as a natural remedy for neuropathic pain syndromes . (
  • Although inflammatory and neuropathic pain syndromes are often considered distinct entities, emerging evidence belies this strict dichotomy. (
  • Is this a common phenomenon, that sensory peripheral nerves get irritated and cause pain above and beyond the usual tunnel syndromes? (
  • P2X3 receptors are preclinically well-validated targets, highly specific to unmyelinated, C fiber afferent nerves that have dense innervations in visceral organs, skin and joints. (
  • [ 31 ] Another important role of 5-HT 3 receptors is to transmit sensory information to primary spinal afferent nerves and higher CNS levels. (
  • Psychedelics for Chronic Pain: Is It Time? (
  • While there has been increasing interest in and research on the use of psychedelics, such as psilocybin and MDMA (aka, ecstasy or molly), for depression, anxiety, PTSD, and other psychiatric disorders, little research has been conducted to date on the use of psychedelics for chronic pain. (
  • Since pain in animals cannot be measured directly, various methods are applicable to detect. (
  • Several years ago, we developed simple methods for differentiating pain or responses evoked by the activation of A-delta or C fiber nociceptors in humans and animals. (
  • In response to nerve ligation, persistent and marked up-regulation of CCR2 mRNA was evident in the nerve and DRG. (
  • Persistent (chronic) Pain A joint exploration leading to first steps in improving management AND in teaching these skills. (
  • Knowledge and confidence in managing Persistent pain? (
  • Moreover, the design of translational research needs to link animal models of PTSD to clinically relevant risk factors which address why only a subset of traumatized individuals develop persistent psychopathology. (
  • There were high rates of complaints about physical health among the parents of children with persistent abdominal pain, and the mothers had higher neuroticism scores. (
  • Persistent abdominal pain is associated with poor health and emotional disorder in the parents. (
  • The ligation of the sciatic nerve induced behavioral changes indicative of a neuropathic pain state. (
  • Similar mechanical allydonia induced by partial ligation of the sciatic nerve was also reduced by NaGly. (
  • After the tenth session of phototherapy, the animals were sacrificed for analysis of the dorsal root ganglion, a cluster of nerve cell bodies located in the posterior region of the vertebrae along the spinal cord and conveying sensory and motor information. (
  • Researchers from the University of Peshawar (UoP) tested its effectiveness on neuropathic pain in a rat model of chronic sciatic nerve constriction injury. (
  • The probability of recovery [from LBP] is especially low among persons who often/always experience sleeplessness and who also suffer from co-occurring musculoskeletal pain," the researchers write. (
  • The reasons for the lower likelihood of recovery among women compared with men may be a result of chance or could be related to sex differences in how sleep affects processing of pain in the brain, the researchers explain. (
  • In addition, the researchers could not assess changes over time in sleeplessness, insomnia, and co-occurring musculoskeletal pain, so they were unable to evaluate whether improvement or worsening in these factors affects recovery from LBP. (
  • With a compound designed and developed by the researchers themselves, they can achieve complete pain relief. (
  • Now, researchers from the University of Copenhagen have found a new way to treat the pain. (
  • For more than a decade, the researchers have been working to design, develop and test a drug that shall provide complete pain relief. (
  • In a previous study, the researchers have shown in an animal model that use of the peptide can also reduce addiction. (
  • But in a new study, researchers say they have discovered an "off switch" for pain, paving the way for new treatments. (
  • In a recent paper published in the journal Pain, Saint Louis University researchers describe their success in an animal model in turning off the excruciating pain that often accompanies a colorectal c. (
  • Nineteen researchers drawn from the London Pain Consortium, the Danish Pain Research Centre, the German Pain Network and a Spanish research-intensive SME centre will form a 'meta' consortium with complementary expertise. (
  • 1-3 In most cases no defined organic diagnosis can be found, and this has led researchers to seek psychosocial explanations for recurrent abdominal pain. (
  • Inflammatory pain models target both acute and chronic inflammatory pain depending on the stimulus that includes carrageenan and capsaicin. (
  • In the current study, the puerarin was investigated for both acute Carrageenan and chronic CFA-induced inflammatory pain models. (
  • Vardeh and colleagues tease out peripheral and central roles for COX2 in mediating inflammatory, mechanical, and thermal pain sensitivity (page 287). (
  • MCC22 was found to be highly effective in the treatment of chronic pain resulting from chemotherapy-induced neuropathy and sickle cell disease. (
  • Ketamine, a fast-acting antidepressant, has pharmacological benefits to alleviate pain and anhedonia symptoms. (
  • Their results suggest that an extract from the nootropic medicinal herb can help mitigate the symptoms of neuropathic pain . (
  • The probability of recovering from chronic LBP decreased as the number of insomnia symptoms increased. (
  • Men with corresponding symptoms had a 31% lower likelihood of recovery (RR, 0.69) compared with those without co-occurring musculoskeletal pain. (
  • Neuropathic pain is a complex chronic condition characterized by various sensory, cognitive, and affective symptoms. (
  • Most people recover from a traumatic incident, but a substantial percentage develop chronic problems, including post-traumatic stress symptoms, depression and chronic pain. (
  • To test the hypotheses that children with abdominal pain have anxious parents and come from families with high rates of physical illness and that they grow up to suffer from high rates of medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric disorders. (
  • Abdominal pain present throughout childhood in the absence of defined organic disease, and measures of physical symptoms and psychiatric disorder at age 36 years. (
  • Children with abdominal pain do not necessarily continue to experience physical symptoms into adulthood but are at increased risk of adult psychiatric disorders. (
  • 13-15 It seems plausible that children with recurrent abdominal pain might also grow up to suffer from irritable bowel syndrome and other functional (or medically unexplained) symptoms. (
  • Our data suggest a possible use of adenosine A 1 receptor agonist in neuropathic pain symptoms. (
  • Our results also demonstrated that spinal microglial activation induced by peripheral nerve injury is not just a property of those cells that already existed in the spinal cord, there include populations of cells coming from proliferation and recruitment of blood-born macrophages (J of Neuroscience, Pain). (
  • Spatial and temporal relationship between MCP-1 expression and spinal microglial activation following peripheral nerve injury. (
  • SNI was associated with spinal changes in microglial activation ipsilaterally to the nerve injury. (
  • Some were then treated with morphine and tested for pain sensitivity. (
  • They found just five days of morphine treatment could prolong pain and sensitivity by up to three months. (
  • Generally, the greater sensitivity is due to release of endogenous substances that make nerves that carry pain more sensitive. (
  • Sleep problems may decrease the likelihood of recovery from chronic low back pain (LBP) over the long term and those who have musculoskeletal pain on top of insomnia have an even lower possibility of recovery, a study has found. (
  • Participants reported sleeplessness/insomnia and co-occurring musculoskeletal pain on questionnaires at baseline and reported chronic LBP pain at baseline and follow-up. (
  • The probability of recovery also decreased with increasing musculoskeletal pain at other locations in the body. (
  • Among participants without sleep problems, women with musculoskeletal pain at five or more body sites had a 46% lower likelihood of recovery (RR, 0.54) compared with women with no co-occurring musculoskeletal pain. (
  • The likelihood of recovery decreased even more when musculoskeletal pain accompanied sleep problems. (
  • Often, pain in muscles and other joints accompany LBP and, again, the impact of insomnia and musculoskeletal pain on long-term recovery are not well understood. (
  • In order to work more closely with healthcare professionals in primary care, the musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain clinics have recently moved to the Walkden Gateway Centre. (
  • He also leads the International Association for the Study of Pain Musculoskeletal Pain Taskforce, and has led the development of National and International Guidelines on the Integrated Management of Musculoskeletal Pain (jointly sponsored by the BSR and the IASP). (
  • By a wide margin, the survey and various studies suggested that doctors of chiropractic were managing primarily musculoskeletal problems with emphasis upon back pain. (
  • Butler, in my limited reading of his work, seems to imply that the main therapy for most musculoskeletal pain is to glide the irritated nerves. (
  • These data indicate that the reduction in SIRT1 deacetylase activity may be a factor contributing to the development of neuropathic pain in CCI mice. (
  • To take advantage of this neuropathic pain-resistant model, we analyzed Vglut2-dependent transcriptional changes in the dorsal spinal cord after nerve injury, which revealed several novel candidate target genes potentially relevant for the development of neuropathic pain therapeutics. (
  • Blocking this increase prevents nerve injury-induced methylation of the voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channel subunit Kcna2 promoter region and rescues Kcna2 expression in the injured DRG and attenuates neuropathic pain. (
  • This study used behavioural assessments to determine whether taurine attenuates neuropathic pain in the spinal cord. (
  • 2014) Spinal SIRT1 Activation Attenuates Neuropathic Pain in Mice. (
  • Inflammatory pain is usually caused by tissue injury, arthritis, or tumor growth. (
  • pain based on tissue repair and neural regeneration, not nerve damage as in current models. (
  • Collectively, these data suggest that the recruitment and activation of macrophages and microglia peripherally and in neural tissue may contribute to both inflammatory and neuropathic pain states. (
  • You really don't press deeply into the nerve tissue at all with this one. (
  • When pain becomes chronic it is less about structural, nerve or tissue damage and more about the central and autonomic nervous system's sustained hypervigilant state to support defense. (
  • Thus, we are examining changes in pain nerve (nociceptor) gene expression in skin and nerve tissue. (
  • 1) In chronic low back pain, there is an integration between connective tissue fibrosis and the nervous system perception of pain. (
  • 7) "Increased connective tissue stiffness due to fibrosis is an important link in the pathogenic mechanism leading to chronicity of pain. (
  • Details of structure of components of nerve tissue. (
  • Indeed, pain is associated not only with damaged tissue but also frequently with serious illnesses [3, 4]. (
  • According to the definition by the International Association for the Study of Pain, "pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage" ( (
  • However, its broad usage in the central and peripheral nervous system prevents us from designing efficient glutamate-based pain therapies without causing harmful side effects. (
  • Together, the nerves make up the peripheral nervous system, as distinguished from the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). (
  • Peripheral nervous system - consists of nerves outside the brain and spinal cord, where they are not protected by the human vertebral column, skull and the protective blood-brain barrier. (
  • With one exception, the optic nerve, they are all considered part of the peripheral nervous system. (
  • Analgesic effect of TT-232, a heptapeptide somatostatin analogue, in acute pain models of the rat and the mouse and in streptozotocin-induced diabe. (
  • Past studies have shown that a drug called adenosine may be effective for pain relief in humans, but the medication activates an array of circuits, or "pathways," causing a number of side effects. (
  • Although great strides have been made in some areas, such as the identification of neural pathways of pain, the experience of pain and the challenge of treatment have remained uniquely individual and unsolved. (
  • PETER GRACE: Morphine activates two parallel but I guess opposing pathways so the one that you expect and were all familiar with is that it induces pain relief. (
  • Inhibition of both the p42/44 and p38 MAP kinase pathways attenuated the behavioural reflex sensitisation seen following nerve injury. (
  • Glutamate is an essential transmitter in pain pathways. (
  • Glutamate is the essential neurotransmitters in pain pathways. (
  • The discovery of the vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3) has been a fundamental step on the way to describe glutamate-dependent pain pathways. (
  • Comparison of whole body SOD1 knockout with muscle specific SOD1 knockout mice reveals a role for nerve redox signaling in regulation of degenerative pathways in skeletal muscle. (
  • 2 Postoperative pain management might also contribute to preventing cardiac events and pulmonary complications and decreasing medical expenses. (
  • 3 Continuous infusions of local anesthetics via an indwelling catheter are often used for postoperative pain management, particularly when applied in the epidural space or at peripheral nerves. (
  • In the current study, we generated slow-release lidocaine sheets (SRLS) from PLGA that release lidocaine over a period of 1 week to enhance postoperative pain management. (
  • The rat model of postoperative pain produced by hind paw incision is well established. (
  • In either case, these findings hold promise for NAGly as a means of mitigating postoperative or chronic pain. (
  • Our aim was to test if neuropathic pain is related to nerve degeneration, speculating whether the modulation of peripheral GABA-B receptors may promote nerve regeneration and decrease neuropathic pain. (
  • To explore the effect of taurine on motor function, a rotarod test was performed, and in order to determine which neurotransmitter pathway is involved in taurine's action, we examined how several antagonists of spinal pain processing receptors altered the effect of taurine 400 μg in a paw pressure test. (
  • Among the subsets of chemokines and their receptors, MCP-1 and CCR2 have not been directly implicated in pain but clearly play a role in both inflammatory and demyelinating diseases. (
  • These data demonstrate that selective blockade of P2X 7 receptors in vivo produces significant antinociception in animal models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain. (
  • Motor nerves, or efferent nerves, transmit impulses from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles. (
  • Because the levels of chronic CORT approached or exceeded those associated with high physiological stress levels, our data suggest that chronic CORT therapy or sustained physiological stress primes the CNS neuroinflammatory response to injury. (
  • The LPC is mainly laboratory based with a spectrum of skills from molecular biology and bioinformatics through integrated research in animal models to human physiological research, including imaging.The German and Danish groups have large databases on neuropathic and postsurgical pain, respectively, while the Spanish centre offers expertise in human microneurography. (
  • The G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40), broadly expressed in various tissues such as the spinal cord, exerts multiple physiological functions including pain regulation. (
  • Our failure to offer effective pain relief for a significant proportion of the population not only presents serious welfare problems, but also serves to highlight how little is known about the anatomical, physiological and pharmacological basis of sensory systems in health and disease. (
  • In terms of pain diagnosis, my laboratory is focused on identifying biomolecular and physiological markers that are indicative of different pain pathologies and can be directive in choosing therapies for that pain state. (
  • Since then, I have been able to set up my own hardware and software resources for our molecular modeling lab at the Palo Alto VA Hospital, and have developed a very productive collaboration with Dr. Jim Trudell, Professor of Chemistry in Anesthesia in the Stanford University Department of Anesthesia. (
  • Our study provides a resource of the changes in gene expression induced by long-term neuropathic pain in three distinct brain regions and reveals molecular connections between pain and chronic stress. (
  • New advances are needed in every area of pain research, from the micro perspective of molecular sciences to the macro perspective of behavioral and social sciences. (
  • Therefore, in this study, we investigated the molecular and genetic factors related to neuropathic pain. (
  • I am a geneticist and molecular biologist studying predictors and mediators of chronic pain and other chronic neuropsychiatric conditions that develop after a traumatic experience. (
  • A Proposed Molecular Mechanism for Physical Analgesia in Chronic Pain. (
  • Figure 1: Bi-phasic nocifensive behavioral response in response to formalin exposure in an acute pain model. (
  • We tested laser therapy in different rat neuropathy models, and behavioral responses improved in all of them," Chacur told. (
  • The degree of pain was evaluated before and after the start of treatment by behavioral tests such as the von Frey hair test, in which nylon filaments of different thicknesses are pressed against the rat's paw. (
  • Upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the brain ('neuroinflammation') accompanies CNS injury as well as, e.g., systemic infections, depression, pain and sleep disorders. (
  • In particular, a model to examine metabolic changes during acute ischemia directly in the affected limb in order to differentiate local from systemic changes might help to understand the pathophysiology of acute ischemic pain. (