Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Mice, Inbred C57BLCytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Colitis: Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Carrageenan: A water-soluble extractive mixture of sulfated polysaccharides from RED ALGAE. Chief sources are the Irish moss CHONDRUS CRISPUS (Carrageen), and Gigartina stellata. It is used as a stabilizer, for suspending COCOA in chocolate manufacture, and to clarify BEVERAGES.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Mediator Complex: A large protein complex which acts as a signaling adaptor protein that allows communication between the various regulatory and functional components of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION including DNA POLYMERASE II; GENERAL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that are bound to upstream ENHANCER ELEMENTS. The mediator complex was originally studied in YEAST where at least 21 subunits were identified. Many of the yeast subunits are homologs to proteins in higher organisms that are found associated with specific nuclear receptors such as THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS and VITAMIN D RECEPTORS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Dermatitis: Any inflammation of the skin.Neurogenic Inflammation: Inflammation caused by an injurious stimulus of peripheral neurons and resulting in release of neuropeptides which affect vascular permeability and help initiate proinflammatory and immune reactions at the site of injury.Mice, Inbred BALB CGene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Ileitis: Inflammation of any segment of the ILEUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Dextran Sulfate: Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.ArthritisArthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Pleurisy: INFLAMMATION of PLEURA, the lining of the LUNG. When PARIETAL PLEURA is involved, there is pleuritic CHEST PAIN.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Lipoxins: Trihydroxy derivatives of eicosanoic acids. They are primarily derived from arachidonic acid, however eicosapentaenoic acid derivatives also exist. Many of them are naturally occurring mediators of immune regulation.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Vasculitis: Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Granuloma: A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Turpentine: The concrete oleoresin obtained from Pinus palustris Mill. (Pinaceae) and other species of Pinus. It contains a volatile oil, to which its properties are due, and to which form it is generally used. (Dorland, 28th ed) Turpentine is used as a solvent and an experimental irritant in biomedical research. Turpentine toxicity is of medical interest.Prostatitis: Infiltration of inflammatory cells into the parenchyma of PROSTATE. The subtypes are classified by their varied laboratory analysis, clinical presentation and response to treatment.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Rats, Inbred LewGastritis: Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid: A reagent that is used to neutralize peptide terminal amino groups.Colitis, Ulcerative: Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Serum Amyloid A Protein: An ACUTE PHASE REACTION protein present in low concentrations in normal sera, but found at higher concentrations in sera of older persons and in patients with AMYLOIDOSIS. It is the circulating precusor of amyloid A protein, which is found deposited in AA type AMYLOID FIBRILS.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Metaplasia: A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.Synovitis: Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1: Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Enteritis: Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Crohn Disease: A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Nephritis: Inflammation of any part of the KIDNEY.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Myeloid Cells: The classes of BONE MARROW-derived blood cells in the monocytic series (MONOCYTES and their precursors) and granulocytic series (GRANULOCYTES and their precursors).Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Leukotriene B4: The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Myocarditis: Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.ZymosanToll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Helicobacter Infections: Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases: Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Acute-Phase Proteins: Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Interleukin-1alpha: An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.Airway Remodeling: The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Arteritis: INFLAMMATION of any ARTERIES.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Eicosanoids: A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).Enterocolitis: Inflammation of the MUCOSA of both the SMALL INTESTINE and the LARGE INTESTINE. Etiology includes ISCHEMIA, infections, allergic, and immune responses.Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Helicobacter felis: A species of HELICOBACTER that colonizes in the STOMACH of laboratory MICE; CATS; and DOGS. It is associated with lymphoid follicular hyperplasia and mild GASTRITIS in CATS.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Neutrophil Activation: The process in which the neutrophil is stimulated by diverse substances, resulting in degranulation and/or generation of reactive oxygen products, and culminating in the destruction of invading pathogens. The stimulatory substances, including opsonized particles, immune complexes, and chemotactic factors, bind to specific cell-surface receptors on the neutrophil.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.E-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Uveitis: Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Calgranulin A: A 10.8-kDa member of the S-100 family of calcium-binding proteins that can form homo- or heterocomplexes with CALGRANULIN B and a variety of other proteins. The calgranulin A/B heterodimer is known as LEUKOCYTE L1 ANTIGEN COMPLEX. Calgranulin A is found in many cell types including GRANULOCYTES; KERATINOCYTES; and myelomonocytes, and has been shown to act as a chemotactic substance for NEUTROPHILS. Because it is present in acute inflammation but absent in chronic inflammation, it is a useful biological marker for a number of pathological conditions.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
PCOS may be associated with chronic inflammation, with several investigators correlating inflammatory mediators with ... "Mediators of inflammation in polycystic ovary syndrome in relation to adiposity". Mediators Inflamm. 2010: 1-5. doi:10.1155/ ... Infertility: This generally results directly from chronic anovulation (lack of ovulation). High levels of masculinizing ...
Thus an AMD pathophysiological model of chronic low grade complement activation and inflammation in the macula has been ... Early work demonstrated a family of immune mediators was plentiful in drusen. Complement factor H (CFH) is an important ... The role of retinal oxidative stress in the cause of AMD by resulting in further inflammation of the macula is suggested by the ... and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic ...
... it is unclear as to how this inflammation acts as a mediator between diet and chronic disease. A study done after the Dutch ... high fat diets cause chronic low-grade inflammation in the placenta, adipose, liver, brain, and vascular system. Inflammation ... This chronic low-grade inflammation is commonly seen in obese individuals on high fat diets. In a mice model, excessive ... However, chronic low-grade inflammation has been linked to long-term consequences such as cardiovascular disease, renal failure ...
PCOS may be associated with chronic inflammation,[18][43]with several investigators correlating inflammatory mediators with ... Mediators of inflammation in polycystic ovary syndrome in relation to adiposity. Mediators Inflamm. 2010, 2010: 1-5. PMC ...
In periodontitis, however, the chemical mediators, or by-products, of chronic inflammation stimulate the osteoclasts, causing ... Left untreated, chronic inflammation of the gums and supporting tissue can raise a person's risk of heart disease. Prior to ... The inflammation dissipates as the infection declines, allowing the swelling to decrease which results in the gums once again ... This infection of the gum causes the gum disease known as gingivitis, which literally means inflammation of the gingiva, or ...
Basil MC, Levy BD (2016). "Specialized pro-resolving mediators: endogenous regulators of infection and inflammation". Nature ... certain polypeptides that are associated with the development of chronic amyloidosis and/or inflammation including Serum ... Bennett M, Gilroy DW (2016). "Lipid Mediators in Inflammation". Microbiology Spectrum. 4 (6). doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD- ... Weylandt KH (2016). "Docosapentaenoic acid derived metabolites and mediators - The new world of lipid mediator medicine in a ...
Chronic gingiva inflammation can be a difficult to treat medical problem in dogs. A similar anti-inflammatory effect was ... as shown by the significant decrease of mediators selectively expressed by MCs and involved in skin inflammation, such as ... reduces chronic inflammation in a carrageenin-granuloma model in rats". Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. 13 (6): ... the local application of adelmidrol has been recently confirmed to reduce MC responses during chronic experimental inflammation ...
... require ROS for activation and chronic inflammation, a major mediator of cancer, is regulated by ROS. On the other hand, a high ... chronic inflammation, and cancer. ROS induces chronic inflammation by the induction of COX-2, inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, ... Guzik TJ, Korbut R, Adamek-Guzik T (Dec 2003). "Nitric oxide and superoxide in inflammation and immune regulation". Journal of ... Waris G, Ahsan H (2006). "Reactive oxygen species: role in the development of cancer and various chronic conditions". Journal ...
General muscle wasting that often occurs in COPD may be partly due to inflammatory mediators released by the lungs into the ... Narrowing of the airways occurs due to inflammation and scarring within them. This contributes to the inability to breathe out ... chronic obstructive respiratory disease, chronic airflow obstruction, chronic airflow limitation, chronic obstructive lung ... Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are older terms used for different types of COPD. The term "chronic bronchitis" is still used ...
"Chronic Inflammation in Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome". Mediators of Inflammation. 2010. doi:10.1155/2010/289645. ISSN ... Chronic inflammation In acute inflammation, if the injurious agent persists then chronic inflammation will ensue. This process ... Prolonged inflammation, known as chronic inflammation, leads to a progressive shift in the type of cells present at the site of ... Inflammation can be classified as either acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is the initial response of the body to harmful ...
... pancreatitis is sudden while chronic pancreatitis is characterized by recurring or persistent form of pancreatic inflammation. ... Once the process cascades, inflammatory mediators and free radicals are released and pancreatitis develops, causing ... and cause inflammation in arteries and veins. The inflammation triggers the body's clotting factors, possibly depleting them to ... Chronic pancreatitis can be present even though there are no clinical signs of the disease. Pancreatitis can result in exocrine ...
... damage and is influenced by dressing changes and chronic inflammation. Chronic wounds take a long time to heal and patients can ... However, soluble mediators of the immune system (growth factors), cell-based therapies and therapeutic chemicals can propagate ... Chronic wounds seem to be detained in one or more of the phases of wound healing. For example, chronic wounds often remain in ... Neutrophils remain in chronic wounds for longer than they do in acute wounds, and contribute to the fact that chronic wounds ...
p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases are mediators of inflammation. A Phase II human clinical trial for the treatment of COPD ... chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is underway. Inhibiting these enzymes has been shown to produce antidepressant and ... Inhibition of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Improves Nitric Oxide-Mediated Vasodilatation and Reduces Inflammation in ... and Safety of Losmapimod Tablets Administered Twice Daily Compared With Placebo for 24 Weeks in Adult Subjects With Chronic ...
... and inflammation in the skin of rodents (see 9-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid#9-HODEs as mediators of pain perception). However, ... For example, 9R-HODE, similar to 9S-HODE, mediates the perception of acute and chronic pain induced by heat, UV light, ... It is not clear if these increases contribute to the disease by, for example, 12R-HETE induction of inflammation, or are ... Other Lipid Mediators. 68-69: 291-301. doi:10.1016/s0090-6980(02)00041-2. PMID 12432924. Klein A, Pappas SC, Gordon P, Wong A, ...
Increased NGF is also found in atopic dermatitis, a hereditary and non-contagious skin disease with chronic inflammation. NGF ... Rukwied R, Lischetzki G, McGlone F, Heyer G, Schmelz M (2000). "Mast cell mediators other than histamine induce pruritus in ... This shows that there is spinal hypersensitivity to C-fiber input in chronic pain. A variety of over-the-counter and ... This can be problematic with chronic itch patients, such as ones with atopic dermatitis, who may scratch affected spots until ...
For pet animals PEA has been used successfully to treat painstates and chronic inflammation. Chronic pain and neuropathic pain ... PEA inhibits the release of both preformed and newly synthesised mast cell mediators, such as histamine and TNF-alpha. PEA, as ... PEA seems to be produced in human as well as in animals as a biological response and a repair mechanism in chronic inflammation ... In chronic granulomatous pain and inflammation model, PEA could prevent nerve formation and sprouting, mechanical allodynia, ...
In chronic neuroinflammation, microglia remain activated for an extended period during which the production of mediators is ... This increase in mediators contributes to neuronal death. Neuroinflammation is distinct from inflammation in other organs, but ... The word neuroinflammation has come to stand for chronic, central nervous system (CNS) specific, inflammation-like glial ... Altered gene expression leads to the production of numerous potentially neurotoxic mediators. These mediators are important in ...
... of patients with chronic subdural bleeds had outcomes worse than "good" or "complete recovery". Chronic subdural hematomas are ... leading to inflammation. This post-operative complication would usually resolved spontaneously. Inflammation causes the new ... while the anti-inflammatory mediator is Interleukin 10. Mediators that promote angiogenesis are: angiopoietin and vascular ... Chronic subdural haematoma is usually asymptomatic until four to seven weeks later. In this case, accumulation of blood in the ...
Chronic inflammation contributes to an increased risk of hypertension, atherosclerosis and diabetes. The involvement of the ... serve as a substrate to the production of inflammatory mediators known as eicosanoids, whereas the arachidonic acid-containing ... The increase in adipose tissue also increases the number of immune cells present within, which play a role in inflammation. ... A number of markers of systemic inflammation, including C-reactive protein, are often increased, as are fibrinogen, interleukin ...
The EMT and cancer progression can be triggered also by chronic inflammation. The main roles have molecules (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α ... Hypoxia is a main stimulant for angiogenesis, with HIF-1α being the primary mediator. Angiogenesis induced by hypoxic ... which can regulate both processes through regulation of downstream signalling that overlapping between EMT and inflammation. ...
Chronic damage leads to the sustained activation of the active PaSC phenotype. Diminished production of MMPs by PaSCs also ... However, if inflammation and injury is minor, PaSCs undergo an apoptotic fate and become quiescent, preventing the development ... Protein kinases such as MAPKs are primary mediators of activating signals initiated by the growth factors, angiotensin II and ... Treatment of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer aims to target the major mechanisms involved in both their activation ...
Serhan CN, Chiang N, Dalli J (2015). "The resolution code of acute inflammation: Novel pro-resolving lipid mediators in ... see Inflammation#Causes); however, ALOX5 also contributes to the development and progression of excessive and chronic ... Serhan CN, Chiang N, Dalli J, Levy BD (2015). "Lipid mediators in the resolution of inflammation". Cold Spring Harbor ... RvE1 and ReV2 are specialized pro-resolving mediators that contribute to the resolution of inflammation and other reactions. ...
... "mediators", or compounds that induce inflammation, from storage granules into the local microenvironment. Mast cells can be ... Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are characterized by chronic complaints arising from disorganized brain-gut ... Examples of mediators that are released into the extracellular environment during mast cell degranulation include: serine ... ISBN 0-89603-404-6. [page needed] Moon TC, Befus AD, Kulka M (2014). "Mast cell mediators: their differential release and the ...
Chronic sinusitis occurs when one or more nasal polyps appear.[citation needed] This can be caused by a deviated septum as well ... IgE bound to mast cells are stimulated by pollen and dust, causing the release of inflammatory mediators such as histamine.[11] ... the inflammation of the nasal tissue) may occur, causing the mucous membranes to release more mucus. Acute sinusitis consists ... In turn, this causes, among other things, inflammation and swelling of the tissue of the nasal cavities as well as increased ...
Mari D, Di Berardino F, Cugno M (December 2002). "Chronic heart failure and the immune system". Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 23 (3 ... Celacade is believed to inhibit inflammation, platelet aggregation and progression of arterial lesions by a mechanism ... of atherosclerosis and Immune Modulation therapy has a broad-spectrum positive effect on a number of immune mediators, ... At the World Congress of Cardiology in September 2006 the Advanced Chronic Heart Failure Clinical Assessment of Immune ...
The tissue, animal model, and animal and human genetic studies cited above implicate ALOX5 in a wide range of diseases: a) excessive inflammatory responses to pathogens, trauma, burns, and other forms of tissue injury [see Inflammation#Causes); b) chronic inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune diseases, and Alzheimers disease (see Inflammation#Inflammatory disorders); c) allergy and allergic inflammation reactions such as allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, asthma, rashes, and eczema; d) NSAID-induced acute non-allergic reactions such as asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, angioedema and urticaria; and e) the progression of certain cancers such as those of the prostate and pancreas. However, clinical use of drugs that inhibit ALOX5 to treat any of these diseases has been successful with only Zileuton along with its ...
The tissue, animal model, and animal and human genetic studies cited above implicate ALOX5 in a wide range of diseases: a) excessive inflammatory responses to pathogens, trauma, burns, and other forms of tissue injury [see Inflammation#Causes); b) chronic inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune diseases, and Alzheimers disease (see Inflammation#Inflammatory disorders); c) allergy and allergic inflammation reactions such as allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, asthma, rashes, and eczema; d) NSAID-induced acute non-allergic reactions such as asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, angioedema and urticaria; and e) the progression of certain cancers such as those of the prostate and pancreas. However, clinical use of drugs that inhibit ALOX5 to treat any of these diseases has been successful with only Zileuton along with its ...
... (SPM, also termed specialized proresolving mediators) are a large and growing class of cell signaling molecules formed in cells by the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) by one or a combination of lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase enzymes. Pre-clinical studies, primarily in animal models and human tissues, implicate SPM in orchestrating the resolution of inflammation. SPM join the long list of other physiological agents which tend to limit inflammation (see Inflammation § Resolution of inflammation) including glucocorticoids, interleukin 10 (an anti-inflammatory cytokine), interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (an inhibitor of the action of pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin 1), annexin A1 (an inhibitor of formation of pro-inflammatory metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids), and the gaseous resolvins, ...
As of September 2018, two CGRP blockers have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of migraine.[21] Additional CGRP blockers are progressing through clinical trials.[22] Anticipating later botox therapy for migraine, early work by Jancsó et al. found some success in treatment using denervation or pretreatment with capsaicin to prevent uncomfortable symptoms of neurogenic inflammation.[23] A recent (2010) study of the treatment of migraine with CGRP blockers shows promise.[24] In early trials, the first oral nonpeptide CGRP antagonist, MK-0974 (Telcagepant), was shown effective in the treatment of migraine attacks,[25] but elevated liver enzymes in two participants were found. Other therapies and other links in the neurogenic inflammatory pathway for interruption of disease are under study, including migraine therapies.[26] Noting that botulinum toxin has been shown to have an effect on inhibiting neurogenic inflammation, and evidence ...
... (or haemopexin; HPX), also known as beta-1B-glycoprotein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HPX gene and belongs to hemopexin family of proteins. Hemoglobin and its scavenger protein hemopexin (Hx) associate with HDL[expand acronym] and influence the inflammatory properties of HDL. In addition it can also be said that HDL from Hx-null mice is proinflammatory. Moreover, hemopexin deficiency is associated with various other inflammatory diseases such as septic shock and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Takahashi et al. (1985) determined that human plasma beta-glycoprotein hemopexin consists of a single polypeptide chain of 439 amino acids residues with six intrachain disulfide bridges and has a molecular mass of approximately 63 kD. The amino-terminal threonine residue is blocked by an O-linked galactosamine oligosaccharide, and the protein has five glucosamine oligosaccharides N-linked to the acceptor sequence Asn-X-Ser/Thr. The 18 tryptophan residues are arranged ...
... is a disease in which there is permanent enlargement of parts of the airways of the lung. Symptoms typically include a chronic cough with mucus production. Other symptoms include shortness of breath, coughing up blood, and chest pain. Wheezing and nail clubbing may also occur. Those with the disease often get frequent lung infections. Bronchiectasis may result from a number of infective and acquired causes, including pneumonia, tuberculosis, immune system problems, and cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis eventually results in severe bronchiectasis in nearly all cases. The cause in 10-50% of those without cystic fibrosis is unknown. The mechanism of disease is breakdown of the airways due to an excessive inflammatory response. Involved airways (bronchi) become enlarged and thus less able to clear secretions. These secretions increase the amount of bacteria in the lungs, result in airway blockage and further breakdown of the airways. It is classified as an obstructive lung disease, ...
9 hours) is associated with a doubling of the risk of death, though not primarily from cardiovascular disease. Sleeping more than 7 to 8 hours per day has been consistently associated with increased mortality, though the cause is probably other factors such as depression and socioeconomic status, which would correlate statistically. Sleep monitoring of hunter-gatherer tribes from Africa and from South America has shown similar sleep patterns across continents: their average sleeping duration is 6.4 hours (with a summer/winter difference of 1 hour), afternoon naps (siestas) are uncommon, and insomnia is very rare (tenfold less than in industrial societies). Physical exercise may increase life expectancy. People who participate in moderate to high levels of physical exercise have a lower mortality rate compared to individuals who are not physically active. Moderate levels of exercise have been correlated with preventing aging and improving quality of life by reducing inflammatory potential. The ...
... (trade name Eucrisa) is a nonsteroidal topical medication approved for the treatment of mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis (eczema) in patients 2 years of age and older. As of 2016[update] it is also under development by Anacor Pharmaceuticals for the topical treatment of psoriasis. It is a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, mainly acting on phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B), which causes inflammation. Chemically, crisaborole is a phenoxybenzoxaborole. It contains a boron atom that helps penetrate the skin and is essential for its binding activity. Inhibition of PDE4B appears to suppress the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-23 and other cytokines, proteins believed to be involved in the immune response and inflammation. The chemical name for crisaborole is 4-[(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-5-yl)oxy]benzonitrile. During preclinical and clinical development, crisaborole was called AN2728 and ...
The immune system recognizes foreign pathogens and eliminates them. This occurs in several phases. In the early inflammation phase, the pathogens are recognized by antibodies that are already present (innate or acquired through prior infection; see also cross-reactivity). Immune-system components (e.g. complement) are bound to the antibodies and kept near, in reserve to disable them via phagocytosis by scavenger cells (e.g. macrophages). Dendritic cells are likewise capable of phagocytizing but do not do it for the purpose of direct pathogen elimination. Rather, they infiltrate the spleen and lymph nodes, and each presents components of an antigen there, as the result of which specific antibodies are formed that recognize precisely that antigen. These newly formed antibodies would arrive too late in an acute infection, however, so what we think of as "immunology" constitutes only the second half of the process. Because this phase would always start too late to play an ...
Caspase-1/Interleukin-1 converting enzyme (ICE) is an evolutionarily conserved enzyme that proteolytically cleaves other proteins, such as the precursors of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β and interleukin 18 as well as the pyroptosis inducer Gasdermin D, into active mature peptides. It plays a central role in cell immunity as an inflammatory response initiator. Once activated through formation of an inflammasome complex, it initiates a proinflammatory response through the cleavage and thus activation of the two inflammatory cytokines, interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and interleukin 18 (IL-18) as well as pyroptosis, a programmed lytic cell death pathway, through cleavage of Gasdermin D. The two inflammatory cytokines activated by Caspase-1 are excreted from the cell to further induce the inflammatory response in neighboring cells. Caspase-1 is evolutionarily conserved in many Eukaryotes of the Kingdom Animalia. Due to its role in the inflammatory immune response, it is highly expressed in the ...
... may be due to any number of causes, including proliferation of basal layer of epidermis to compensate skin loss, chronic inflammatory response, hormonal dysfunctions, or compensation for damage or disease elsewhere.[11] Hyperplasia may be harmless and occur on a particular tissue. An example of a normal hyperplastic response would be the growth and multiplication of milk-secreting glandular cells in the breast as a response to pregnancy, thus preparing for future breast feeding.[12] Perhaps the most interesting and potent effect IGF has on the human body is its ability to cause hyperplasia, which is an actual splitting of cells.[13] By contrast, hypertrophy is what occurs, for example, to skeletal muscle cells during weight training and steroid use and is simply an increase in the size of the cells.[14] With IGF use, one is able to cause hyperplasia which actually increases the number of muscle cells present in the tissue.[15] Weight training with or without anabolic steroid use ...
Because the glycocalyx is so prominent throughout the cardiovascular system, disruption to this structure has detrimental effects that can cause disease. Certain stimuli that cause atheroma may lead to enhanced sensitivity of vasculature. Initial dysfunction of the glycocalyx can be caused by hyperglycemia or oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), which then causes atherothrombosis. In microvasculature, dysfunction of the glycocalyx leads to internal fluid imbalance, and potentially edema. In arterial vascular tissue, glycocalyx disruption causes inflammation and atherothrombosis.[8] Experiments have been performed to test precisely how the glycocalyx can be altered or damaged. One particular study used an isolated perfused heart model designed to facilitate detection of the state of the vascular barrier portion, and sought to cause insult-induced shedding of the glycocalyx to ascertain the cause-and-effect relationship between glycocalyx shedding and vascular ...
ହେପାଟାଇଟିସ (ଇଂରାଜୀରେ Hepatitis) ଏକ ରୋଗ ଗୋଷ୍ଠୀ ଯେଉଁଥିରେ ଯକୃତର ପ୍ରଦାହ (inflammation) ହୁଏ ।[୩] କେତେକ ଲୋକଙ୍କର କୌଣସି ଲକ୍ଷଣ ନ ଥାଏ ଓ ଅନ୍ୟ ପକ୍ଷରେ ଅନ୍ୟମାନଙ୍କର କାମଳ, ଆନୋରେକ୍ସିଆ ବା ଅରୁଚି (poor appetite), ବାନ୍ତି, ଥକ୍କା ଲାଗିବା (feel tired), ପେଟ ଯନ୍ତ୍ରଣା (abdominal pain) ବା ତରଳ ଝାଡ଼ା ହୁଏ । [୧][୨] ହେପାଟାଇଟିସ ଏକ ସାମୟିକ ରୋଗ ବା ଦୀର୍ଘକାଳୀନ କ୍ରନିକ ରୋଗ (long term) ହୋଇପାରେ । [୧] ଆକ୍ୟୁଟ ହେପାଟାଇଟିସ ସ୍ୱତଃ ଉପଶମ ହୋଇପାରେ, ଏହା ପ୍ରଗତିଶୀଳ ହୋଇ କ୍ରନିକ ହେପାଟାଇଟିସ ...
Acute or chronic inflammation in the prostate is implicated in pathogenesis of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) as well as ... and induction of the inflammatory mediator interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Since exogenous CO mimics the majority, if not all, of the ... Acute or chronic inflammation in the prostate is implicated in pathogenesis of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) as well as ... misc{7862195, abstract = {Acute or chronic inflammation in the prostate is implicated in pathogenesis of benign prostate ...
Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including ... Metoda Lipnik-Stangelj, "Mediators of Inflammation as Targets for Chronic Pain Treatment," Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2013 ... Mediators of Inflammation as Targets for Chronic Pain Treatment. Metoda Lipnik-Stangelj ... To receive news and publication updates for Mediators of Inflammation, enter your email address in the box below. ...
Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including ... Mediators of Inflammation: Inflammation in Cancer, Chronic Diseases, and Wound Healing. Caigan Du,1 Madhav Bhatia,2 Sydney C. W ... T. Miyamoto, J. J. Carrero, and P. Stenvinkel, "Inflammation as a risk factor and target for therapy in chronic kidney disease ... To receive news and publication updates for Mediators of Inflammation, enter your email address in the box below. ...
... a possible mediator for the development of chronic conjunctival inflammation ... a possible mediator for the development of chronic conjunctival inflammation ... Background: Chronic inflammation may develop from failure of the immune system to deactivate itself during resolution of the ... Chronic inflammation is a clinically recognised risk factor for the failure of glaucoma filtration surgery owing to excessive ...
Acute and chronic inflammation. In: Serhan CN, Ward PA, Gilroy DW, eds. Fundamentals of Inflammation. New York, New York, USA: ... Resolvins in inflammation: emergence of the pro-resolving superfamily of mediators. Charles N. Serhan1 and Bruce D. Levy2 1 ... Treating inflammation and infection in the 21st century: new hints from decoding resolution mediators and mechanisms. FASEB J. ... Specialised pro-resolving mediators of inflammation in inflammatory arthritis. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2016; ...
14:40 TARGETING THE MEDIATORS OF CHRONIC INFLAMMATION. Dr Douglas Williams, Executive Vice President, Chief Technical Office, ... TNF and its over-production: the link to chronic inflammatory diseases *THALOMID: a TNF inhibitor *Developing SelCIDs and IMiDs ... TNF-alpha: a cytokine triggering activation of immune response and inflammation *Developing RDP58: a small molecule to inhibit ... Action of IL-9IL9R in asthmatic lung inflammation *Developing novel therapeutics for asthma and allergy utilising optimal ...
Mediators Inflamm. 2016;2016:1571457. doi: 10.1155/2016/1571457. Epub 2016 Feb 24. ... Basic and Clinical Advances in Chronic Liver Inflammation.. Enomoto H1, Tamori A2, Yoshiji H3, Seki E4. ... Mediators Inflamm. 2016;2016:1571457. doi: 10.1155/2016/1571457. Epub 2016 Feb 24. Editorial ...
Chronic Inflammation as a Link between Periodontitis and Carcinogenesis.. Hoare A, Soto C, Rojas-Celis V, Bravo D. ... Mediators Inflamm. 2019 Mar 27;2019:1029857. doi: 10.1155/2019/1029857. eCollection 2019. Review. ... The ecology of chronic wasting disease in wildlife.. Escobar LE, Pritzkow S, Winter SN, Grear DA, Kirchgessner MS, Dominguez- ... In Vitro detection of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) prions in semen and reproductive tissues of white tailed deer bucks ( ...
... and pharmacology of inflammation. Published items include full-length scientific reports, ... ... Inflammation presents the latest international advances in experimental and clinical research on the physiology, biochemistry, ... The journals coverage extends to acute and chronic inflammation; mediators of inflammation; mechanisms of tissue injury and ... The journals coverage includes acute and chronic inflammation; mediators of inflammation; mechanisms of tissue injury and ...
2010) Chronic inflammation in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Mediators Inflamm 2010:289645. ... This form of chronic inflammation induced by diet is termed metaflammation (31). After LPS treatment, WD mice had lower ... It is known from human studies and animal models that the WD can influence microbial pathogenesis (8⇓-10), chronic inflammation ... 2017) High fat induces acute and chronic inflammation in the hypothalamus: Effect of high-fat diet, palmitate and TNF-α on ...
Effect of ISS on Ag/IgE-stimulated MBMMC mediator release in vitro. A, Effect of ISS on Ag/IgE-mediated histamine release from ... Mast cells can amplify airway reactivity and features of chronic inflammation in an asthma model in mice. J. Exp. Med. 192:455. ... Accumulation of Peribronchial Mast Cells in a Mouse Model of Ovalbumin Allergen Induced Chronic Airway Inflammation: Modulation ... Accumulation of Peribronchial Mast Cells in a Mouse Model of Ovalbumin Allergen Induced Chronic Airway Inflammation: Modulation ...
The characterization of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate inflammation provides a foundation that supports ... Biosynthesis and Release of Lipid Mediators of Inflammation. * Front Matter Pages 151-151 ... The Role of Endothelium in Chronic Inflammation Morris Ziff, Druie Cavender. Pages 57-64 ... Thus, we now have the opportunity to understand inflammation in pharmacologic terms and to attack the key molecular targets to ...
Airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 160: S17-S20. [ Links ]. Senior RM, ... It appears that this metalloelastase could be an important mediator in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury and chronic lung ... Pharmacological modulation of rhMMP-12-induced inflammation. As lung inflammation induced by rhMMP-12 instillation in mouse ... Studies using animal models of acute and chronic pulmonary inflammatory diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis and chronic ...
Our results provide population-based evidence that COPD is independently associated with low-grade systemic inflammation, with ... Inflammation / immunology * Inflammation Mediators / blood* * Male * Middle Aged * Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / ... Systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population-based study Respir Res. 2010 May 25;11(1):63. doi ... Our results provide population-based evidence that COPD is independently associated with low-grade systemic inflammation, with ...
Cytokine and Inflammatory Mediator Assessment. BAL and serum differentials were measured by cytospins and direct cell counts ( ... hMSC Attenuates Inflammation in a Tissue-Specific Manner. BAL fluid was obtained from the chronic asthma model with and without ... hMSC attenuates inflammation in a tissue-specific manner. BAL fluid was obtained from the chronic asthma model with and without ... hMSCs decrease lung inflammation in the chronic asthma lung model. hMSCs or bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) were given ...
We now know that when inflammation becomes chronic, it acts as a strong disease-promoting factor in a variety of disorders ... This book provides readers with the most up-to-date information on cutting-edge research concerning chronic inflammation. ... Visualization of Localized Cellular Signalling Mediators in Tissues by Imaging Mass Spectrometry ... or resolution underlying chronic inflammation. The most emphasized characteristic is the molecular aspect of chronic ...
Inflammation and Inflammatory Mediators. 4059-ASIP. Inflammation, Infection and Chronic Fatigue/Pain Syndromes. ... Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Metabolism in Health and Disease (Williams). 1057-APS. Ion Channels, Transporters, and Pumps ... Metabolic Consequences in Chronic Lung Diseases (Yeligar/Guttengag). 1317-APS. Pulmonary Vascular Endothelial Control of Cardio ... Mucosal Inflammation, Epithelial-Leukocyte Interactions and Epithelial Pathobiology. 4097-ASIP. Epithelial Cell Surface ...
Macrolide Therapy in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases. Mediators of Inflammation 2012; 2012: 1 doi: 10.1155/2012/636157 ... First-line Helicobacter pylori eradication among patients with chronic liver diseases in Taiwan. The Kaohsiung Journal of ... First-Line Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Patients with Chronic Kidney Diseases in Taiwan. BioMed Research International ... The Association of Helicobacter pylori Eradication with the Occurrences of Chronic Kidney Diseases in Patients with Peptic ...
Therefore, in chronic inflammation, inflammatory mediators prevail with T-lymphocyte and macrophage products including ... www.pharmainfo.net/reviews/inflammation-mediators-review. [ Links ] . Halfman CJ. Mediators of Inflammation. Laboratory ... Chronic inflammation and mediators. Illinois: University of Illinois. http://www.life.illinois.edu/mcb/493.bhp/private/lectures ... Nowadays, there is increasing evidence to support this hypothesis.33 It has become obvious that chronic inflammatory mediators ...
Changes in bronchial inflammation during acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. S. Gompertz, C. OBrien, D.L. Bayley, S.L. ... Changes in bronchial inflammation during acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. S. Gompertz, C. OBrien, D.L. Bayley, S.L. ... Changes in bronchial inflammation during acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. S. Gompertz, C. OBrien, D.L. Bayley, S.L. ... Airways inflammation in chronic bronchitis: the effects of smoking and α-1-antitrypsin deficiency. Eur Respir J 2000;15:886-890 ...
A human study of purified theaflavin extracts produced dramatic reduction in disease-causing mediators of inflammation, ... The effects of chronic tea intake on platelet activation and inflammation: a double-blind placebo controlled trial. ... By modulating inflammation at its earliest stages, theaflavins represent a new tool in the fight against inflammation-related ... Inflammation is intimately involved in aging and the manifestations of age-related diseases-in fact, the two processes are so ...
These challenges go unnoticed because they are self-limited and naturally resolve without progressing to chronic inflammation. ... This Review focuses on the resolution phase of inflammation with identification of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) ... While acute inflammation is protective, excessive swarming of neutrophils amplifies collateral tissue damage and inflammation. ... Hence, understanding the mechanisms that control the resolution of acute inflammation provides insight into preventing and ...
Sun Y et al. Rotenone remarkably attenuates oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis in chronic obstructive uropathy. ... Mediators Inflamm 2014:670106 (2014). Mouse . PubMed: 25140114. *Pinho BR et al. Is Nitric Oxide Decrease Observed with ... Huang N et al. Deletion of Nlrp3 protects from inflammation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy. Intensive Care Med Exp 5:3 (2017 ... Derived From Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell Mediates MiR-181c Attenuating Burn-induced Excessive Inflammation. ...
Pathogenesis of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: Role and Mechanisms of Chronic Inflammation. Mediators Inflamm. 2015;2015:145293. ... thus inducing a chronic state of inflammation.51,52 Expression of CXCL12, essential for controlled HSC mobilization, as ... chronic inflammation, and subsequent adaptive and innate immune responses. Cross-talk between mutated hematopoietic stem ... In chronic MPN, JAK2-mutated murine models, tamoxifen led to preferential restoration of apoptosis in mutated-HSC.62 ...
MCP-1 and RANTES are mediators of acute and chronic inflammation. Allergy and Asthma Proceedings 22 (3): 133-137.CrossRefPubMed ... and inflammation-related mediators in IL-1β-stimulated human lung epithelial A549 cells. Human lung epithelial A549 cells were ... Beyond inflammation: Airway epithelial cells are at the interface of innate and adaptive immunity. Current Opinion in ... Therapeutic potential of inhibition of the NF-κB pathway in the treatment of inflammation and cancer. The Journal of Clinical ...
  • We established a mouse model of bacterial prostatitis in wild type mice, and evaluated the role of HO-1 in pathogen-induced prostate inflammation by using mice with conditional deletion of HO-1 in myeloid cells (LysM-Cre:Hmox1fl/fl). (lu.se)
  • Inflammation was accelerated in mice lacking myeloid-derived HO-1 with increased number of CD45 positive cells in the prostate glands. (lu.se)
  • In summary, these results suggest that HO-1 plays a role in modulating pathogen-induced prostate inflammation via suppression of leukocyte influx and that exogenous CO may be used to block inflammation trigged proliferation and prevent PIN lesion formation. (lu.se)
  • In addition, soluble mediators produced by cancer cells recruit and activate inflammatory cells, which further stimulate tumor progression. (nih.gov)
  • The traditional names for signs of inflammation come from Latin: Dolor (pain) Calor (heat) Rubor (redness) Tumor (swelling) Functio laesa (loss of function) The first four (classical signs) were described by Celsus (ca. 30 BC-38 AD), while loss of function was probably added later by Galen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The four cardinal signs of inflammation-redness (Latin rubor ), heat ( calor ), swelling ( tumor ), and pain ( dolor )-were described in the 1st century ad by the Roman medical writer Aulus Cornelius Celsus . (britannica.com)
  • These are the original, so called, "cardinal signs" of inflammation. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Further exposures result in the bridging of 2 adjacent IgE molecules, leading to the release of preformed mediators from mast cell granules. (medscape.com)
  • Several mediators are involved in the angiogenic process, including basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF), 2 3 4 and chemokines. (arvojournals.org)
  • The 2016 World Health Organization consensus recognizes the following categories under the MPN classification: chronic myeloid leukemia BCR-ABL + , chronic neutrophilic leukemia, essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), primary myelofibrosis (PMF) (which includes both the prefibrotic/early stage and overt fibrotic stage), chronic eosinophilic leukemia not otherwise specified, and MPN-unclassifiable. (haematologica.org)
  • In larger airways, there is evidence of neutrophilic rather than eosinophilic inflammation, as indicated by an increased number of neutrophils in BAL fluid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, interventions that reopen a window of opportunity for effective motor training after chronic injury would have significant therapeutic value. (deepdyve.com)
  • Even though PGE 2 has been detected in the eye during inflammation, the role of this prominent prostanoid and primary therapeutic target, surprisingly remains largely unexplored in the eye. (arvojournals.org)
  • Anemia occurs commonly in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and has been proposed as a novel therapeutic target in this patient population. (ahajournals.org)
  • Immediate Effects of Dasatinib on the Migration and Redistribution of Naïve and Memory Lymphocytes Associated With Lymphocytosis in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients. (nih.gov)