A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.
Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.
An unassigned genus of RNA viruses with a single officially described species, HEPATITIS E VIRUS. A distantly related virus, Avian hepatitis E virus, has been listed as a tentative species. Strains have also been identified in swine. The family name hepeviridae has been proposed.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.
A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in conjunction with HEPATITIS B VIRUS and lasting six months or more.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.
Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A genus of Sciuridae consisting of 14 species. They are shortlegged, burrowing rodents which hibernate in winter.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
A republic in eastern Africa, on the Gulf of Aden at the entrance to the Red Sea. Djibouti is also the name of its capital.
Azzam HS, Goertz C, Fritts M, Jonas WB (2007). "Natural products and chronic hepatitis C virus". Liver Int. 27 (1): 17-25. doi: ... hepatitis C virus, hantaviruses, rotaviruses, poliovirus type 1, human respiratory syncytial virus, murine leukemia viruses and ... Beside interacting with the cell membrane, lactoferrin also directly binds to viral particles, such as the hepatitis viruses. ... Lactoferrin also suppresses virus replication after the virus penetrated into the cell. Such an indirect antiviral effect is ...
... benefits patients with chronic HBV (hepatitis B virus) infection." Niruri fruit Niruri proliferation "The Plant List: A Working ... "Phyllanthus species for chronic hepatitis B virus infection". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD008960. doi: ... Phyllanthus niruri has been used in traditional medicine for various illnesses, like jaundice, chronic dysentery, dyspepsia, ...
... of hepatitis B infections in newborns become chronic". In occult cases, Hepatitis B virus is present by hepatitis B virus DNA, ... De Clercq E, Férir G, Kaptein S, Neyts J (June 2010). "Antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infections". Viruses. 2 ... Viral infection by hepatitis B virus, or hepatitis C virus causes an increase of reactive oxygen species. The increase in ... oxygen species is about 10,000-fold with chronic hepatitis B virus infection and 100,000-fold following hepatitis C virus ...
A new virus has been described in fish - White sucker hepatitis B virus.[3] This is the first hepadnavirus described from fish ... Diseases associated with this family include: liver infections, such as hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinomas (chronic ... the first known hepatitis with a viral etiological agent was Hepatitis A, in the picornaviridae family. Hepatis B Virus (HBV) ... "Deciphering the Origin and Evolution of Hepatitis B Viruses by Means of a Family of Non-enveloped Fish Viruses". Cell Host & ...
"Estimating hepatitis B virus cccDNA persistence in chronic infection". Virus Evolution. doi:10.1093/ve/veaa063. Lucifora, Julie ... "Attacking hepatitis B virus cccDNA - The holy grail to hepatitis B cure". Journal of Hepatology. Molecular Biology of Hepatitis ... CccDNA is associated with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), where the virus constructs its plasmid through covalently linking its ... In practice, the only known organism that makes use of cccDNA is the Hepatitis B Virus. More specifically, cccDNA is a reactive ...
Domont F, Cacoub P (2016). "Chronic hepatitis C virus infection, a new cardiovascular risk factor?". Liver Int (Review). 36 (5 ... including Hepatitis C). Untreated celiac disease can cause cardiomyopathies, which can completely reverse with a timely ...
MYR focuses on the treatment of chronic hepatitis delta virus. The drug sofosbuvir had been part of the 2011 acquisition of ... In 2013, the FDA approved this drug, under the trade name Sovaldi, as a treatment for the hepatitis C virus. Forbes magazine ... This transaction helped cement Gilead as the leader in treatment of the hepatitis C virus by giving it control of sofosbuvir ( ... Later that year, Hepsera (adefovir) was approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B, and Emtriva (emtricitabine) for the ...
... species have been assessed for use in people with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, but the poor quality of ... Xia, Y; Luo, H; Liu, J. P.; Gluud, C (2013). "Phyllanthus species versus antiviral drugs for chronic hepatitis B virus ...
2011). "Telaprevir for previously untreated chronic hepatitis C virus infection" (PDF). N Engl J Med. 364 (25): 2405-16. doi: ... Kim, Jenny; Culley, Colleen; Mohammad Rima, Telaprevir (2012). "An Oral Protease Inhibitor for Hepatitis C Virus Infection". Am ... newly or chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus. The most common adverse effect is rash. Grade 3 adverse events ( ... and reversible inhibitor of hepatitis C virus NS3.4A serine protease". Infect Disord Drug Targets. 6 (1): 3-16. doi:10.2174/ ...
Dec 2013). "New loci associated with chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Han Chinese". Nature Genetics. 45 (12): 1499-503. ... UBE2L3 has been linked to natural killer cell cytotoxic function, and high UBE2L3 levels had contributed to clearing chronic ...
"Role of T-Helper 9 Cells in Chronic Hepatitis C-Infected Patients". Viruses. 10 (7): 341. doi:10.3390/v10070341. PMC 6071239. ... are Associated With Survival of Patients With Acute-on-Chronic Hepatitis B Liver Failure". Medicine. 95 (16): e3405. doi: ... "Decreased frequency of circulating Th9 cells in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection". Journal of Clinical Laboratory ... A higher percentage of TH9 cells in patients with chronic HCV was linked to higher levels of liver enzymes, more severe disease ...
"CD24 polymorphisms affect risk and progression of chronic hepatitis B virus infection". Hepatology. 50 (3): 735-42. doi:10.1002 ... hep.23047. PMID 19610054. S2CID 34010521. Piotrowski P, Lianeri M, Wudarski M, Łacki JK, Jagodziński PP (June 2010). "CD24 ...
IVF and ICSI in chronic hepatitis B virus carriers". Human Reproduction. 24 (11): 2676-2678. doi:10.1093/humrep/dep258. PMID ... There is not enough evidence to say that ICSI procedures are safe in females with hepatitis B in regard to vertical ...
Diseases associated with this genus include: hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic infections), cirrhosis. Viruses in ... Bat hepatitis virus Ground squirrel hepatitis virus Hepatitis B virus Woodchuck hepatitis virus Woolly monkey hepatitis B virus ... There are currently five species in this genus including the type species Hepatitis B virus. ... The virus exits the host cell by budding, and nuclear pore export. Human and mammals serve as the natural host. Transmission ...
"Serum prolidase activity and oxidant-antioxidant status in children with chronic hepatitis B virus infection". Italian Journal ... reliable marker for diseases including chronic hepatitis B and liver fibrosis. Decontamination: Prolidase from the ... Duygu F, Aksoy N, Cicek AC, Butun I, Unlu S (Sep 2013). "Does prolidase indicate worsening of hepatitis B infection?". Journal ... Deficiency in prolidase leads to a rare, severe autosomal recessive disorder (prolidase deficiency) that causes many chronic, ...
Azzam HS, Goertz C, Fritts M, Jonas WB (February 2007). "Natural products and chronic hepatitis C virus". Liver International. ... including the herpes simplex virus 1 and 2,[45][46] cytomegalovirus,[47] HIV,[46][48] hepatitis C virus,[49][50] hantaviruses, ... rotaviruses, poliovirus type 1,[51] human respiratory syncytial virus, murine leukemia viruses[41] and Mayaro virus.[52] ... Beside interacting with the cell membrane, lactoferrin also directly binds to viral particles, such as the hepatitis viruses.[ ...
"AST/ALT Ratio Predicts Cirrhosis in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection". The American Journal of ... Byrnes, Valerie; Chopra, Sanjiv; Koziel, Margaret J (2007). "Resolution of chronic hepatitis C following parasitosis". World ... 1994 Sep; 89(9):1578-9. Proctor DD, Chopra S, Rubenstein SC, Jokela JA, Uhl L. Mycobacteremia and granulomatous hepatitis ... Cheney, Catherine Petruff; Chopra, Sanjiv; Graham, Camilla (2000). "Hepatitis C". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. ...
2009). "Evaluation of FibroTest-ActiTest in children with chronic hepatitis C virus infection". Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 34 (1 ... FibroTest has been validated for chronic hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis C or B with HIV co-infection, ... 2008). Ahmed, Niyaz (ed.). "An accurate definition of the status of inactive hepatitis B virus carrier by a combination of ... 2004). "Prospective analysis of discordant results between biochemical markers and biopsy in patients with chronic hepatitis C ...
Palazzi C, D'Amico E, D'Angelo S, Gilio M, Olivieri I (January 2016). "Rheumatic manifestations of hepatitis C virus chronic ... chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, or chronic muscular headaches". Because of this symptomatic overlap, some ... Chronic widespread pain had already been described in the literature in the 19th century but the term fibromyalgia was not used ... Other types of chronic pain are also frequently present. The cause of fibromyalgia is unknown; however, it is believed to ...
"Cytomegalovirus-Driven Adaptive-Like Natural Killer Cell Expansions Are Unaffected by Concurrent Chronic Hepatitis Virus ... Chikungunya virus, HIV, or viral hepatitis. However, whether these virus infections trigger the expansion of adaptive NKG2C+ NK ... For NK cells to defend the body against viruses and other pathogens, they require mechanisms that enable the determination of ... NK cells provide rapid responses to virus-infected cells, acting at around 3 days after infection, and respond to tumor ...
... bacteremia in a patient with chronic hepatitis B virus infection". Annals of Clinical and Laboratory ... Staphylococcus gallinarum bacteremia in a patient with chronic hepatitis B virus infection". Annals of Clinical and Laboratory ... from blood of a patient with a chronic hepatitis B infection, and from an eye infection (endophthalmitis). The infection rate ...
... is a prescription medicine used to treat (chronic) infections with hepatitis B virus. A prodrug form of adefovir was ... February 2003). "Adefovir dipivoxil for the treatment of hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B". The New England ... It is approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in adults with evidence of active viral replication and either evidence ... It is used for treatment of hepatitis B. Trials of adefovir in patients with HIV have not shown any clear benefits. Adefovir ...
"Distribution of three major hepatitis C virus genotypes in Italy. A multicentre study of 495 patients with chronic hepatitis C ... molecular studies on hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus along with genomic analysis and functional studies of viral ... In early 1990s, Pontisso shifted her research focus on hepatitis C virus and provided the first evidences of clinical ... Pontisso's research career started with the study of molecular biology of hepatitis B virus and characterization of new ...
"Interferon-free therapies for chronic hepatitis C: toward a hepatitis C virus-free world?". Expert Review of Anti-Infective ... Elbasvir is a highly potent and selective NS5A inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus NS5A replication complex. It has only been ... FDA approves Zepatier for treatment of chronic hepatitis C genotypes 1 and 4. January 28, 2016 Lawitz E, Gane E, Pearlman B, ... The substance blocks NS5A, a protein necessary for hepatitis C virus replication and assembly. Elbasvir reaches peak plasma ...
"Detection of antibody to hepatitis C virus in prospectively followed transfusion recipients with acute and chronic non-A, non-B ... He also co-discovered the Hepatitis D genome in 1986. The discovery of the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) led to the rapid development ... "Detection of antibody to hepatitis C virus in patients with various chronic liver diseases". Hepatology. 10 (4): 581. doi: ... By the 8th International HCV Congress in Paris in 2001, Houghton exclaimed in exasperation, "Where is the Hepatitis C Virus? ...
1997). "Impaired interferon induction of human MxA protein in chronic hepatitis B virus infection". J. Med. Virol. 51 (4): 332- ... Pavlovic J, Zürcher T, Haller O, Staeheli P (1990). "Resistance to influenza virus and vesicular stomatitis virus conferred by ... "Influenza A Viruses: Understanding Human Host Determinants". doi:10.1016/j.molmed.2020.09.014. PMID 33097424. Cite journal ... Furthermore, the human orthologue MxA is a major determinant for influenza viruses of animal origin. The protein encoded by ...
"Chronic Hepatitis After Hepatitis E Virus Infection in a Patient With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Taking Rituximab" (PDF). Retrieved ... Rituximab has been reported as a possible cofactor in a chronic Hepatitis E infection in a person with lymphoma. Hepatitis E ... PML is caused by activation of JC virus, a common virus in the brain which is usually latent. Reactivation of the JC virus ... Chronic fatigue syndrome[edit]. A potential use for rituximab was identified by two Norwegian doctors who were treating people ...
Duck hepatitis B virus Heron hepatitis B virus Viruses in Avihepadnavirus are enveloped, with spherical geometries, and T=4 ... Diseases associated with this genus include: hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinomas (chronic infections), cirrhosis. Group: ssRNA ... There are currently only two species in this genus including the type species Duck hepatitis B virus. ... The virus exits the host cell by budding, and nuclear pore export. Birds serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are ...
Treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection with rebavrin. Br Med J 1977; 1 :904 ... Treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection with rebavrin.. Br Med J 1977; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.6065.904 ( ... Treatment of chronic.... *Treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection with rebavrin. ...
Serologic assays that detect antibodies to hepatitis CMolecular assays that detect or quantify HCV RNAOther investigations such ... Diagnostic tests for hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be divided into two broad categories: ... Overview of renal disease associated with hepatitis C virus infection. *Overview of the management of chronic hepatitis C virus ... Society guideline links: Hepatitis C virus infection. *Treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection in adults with renal ...
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are leading causes of death from cirrhosis and ... There are many challenges to surveillance of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, ... Abbreviations: HBV = hepatitis B virus; HCV = hepatitis C virus; HBsAg = hepatitis B surface antigen; HBeAg = hepatitis B e ... Abbreviations: HBV = hepatitis B virus; HCV = hepatitis C virus.. * Confirmed cases were considered to be cases identified in ...
... Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) ... TABLE 1. (Continued) Number and percentage of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection included in enhanced ... TABLE 1. Number and percentage of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection included in enhanced surveillance, by ... TABLE 2. Number and percentage of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection included in enhanced surveillance who ...
Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection.. Fried MW1, Shiffman ML, Reddy KR, Smith C, ... In patients with chronic hepatitis C, once-weekly peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin was tolerated as well as interferon alfa ... higher sustained virologic responses than treatment with interferon alfa-2a alone in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus ( ... Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. [N Engl J Med. 2003] ...
Dusheiko, G. M. (1988), Acyclovir in chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatology, 8: 1714-1715. doi: 10.1002/hep.1840080642 ...
In this scenario, the cardiovascular risk has emerged and represents a major concern after the eradication of the virus which ... Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, as a result of progression towards ... advent of new direct acting antiviral therapy has dramatically increased the sustained virological response rates of hepatitis ... "Hepatitis C virus seropositivity, but not hepatitis B virus carrier or seropositivity, associated with increased pulse wave ...
For more information chronic hepatitis B infection, visit www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/HBV/TestingChronic.htm or www.cdc.gov/hepatitis ... The CDC recommendations are key to increasing the early diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, since many of ... Chronic hepatitis B affects the lives of more than one million Americans, many of whom do not even know they are infected. ... In the United States, chronic hepatitis B is the underlying cause of an estimated 2,000 4,000 deaths each year from cirrhosis ...
New research sheds light on how a hepatitis B viral protein stimulates the expansion of immune cells that impair antiviral ... Hepatitis B, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis D, Hepatitis E, Immune System, Liver, Medicine, Molecule, Pathogen, ... Research sheds light on how hepatitis B virus establishes chronic infection. *Download PDF Copy ... The findings potentially explain how the hepatitis B virus (HBV) establishes and maintains chronic infection, and could lead to ...
Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Chronic Active Myocarditis. Jia-Horng Kao, Juey-Jen Hwang ... Okabe et al1 studied the association of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with chronic active myocarditis, a variant form of ... Positive and negative strand of hepatitis C virus RNA sequences in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with chronic ... Okabe M, Fukuda K, Arakawa K, Kikuchi M. Chronic variant of myocarditis associated with hepatitis C virus infection. ...
Chronic hepatitis in United Kingdom blood donors infected with hepatitis C virus BMJ 1994; 308 :695 ... Chronic hepatitis in United Kingdom blood donors infected with hepatitis C virus ... Chronic hepatitis in United Kingdom blood donors infected with hepatitis C virus ... Chronic hepatitis in United Kingdom blood donors infected with hepatitis C virus. BMJ 1994; 308 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/ ...
Association of diabetes mellitus and chronic hepatitis C virus infection.. Mason AL1, Lau JY, Hoang N, Qian K, Alexander GJ, Xu ... Diabetes mellitus and chronic hepatitis C virus infection. [Hepatology. 1999]. *No evidence for anti-islet autoimmunity in ... Association of diabetes mellitus and chronic hepatitis C virus infection. [Hepatology. 1999] ... hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, HCV infection, and cirrhosis were independently associated with diabetes. In addition, a ...
... Ann Intern Med. 1996 Nov 1;125(9):740-3. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819- ... Objective: To clarify the effect of hepatitis G virus (HGV) infection on chronic hepatitis C. ... Hepatitis G virus was uniformly sensitive to interferon-alpha therapy, but only a few patients had a sustained virologic ... Results: 21 of 189 (11%) patients with chronic hepatitis C were positive for HGV RNA. On average, patients with HGV RNA were ...
... only seven licensed products are currently available for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection: interferon ... for the treatment of chronic HBV infection the individual drugs are generally used in monotherapy. In principle, combination ... Viruses 2010, 2(6), 1279-1305; doi:10.3390/v2061279. Antiviral Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infections† Erik De ... De Clercq, E.; Férir, G.; Kaptein, S.; Neyts, J. Antiviral Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infections. Viruses ...
... induces persistent infection and causes chronic liver disease in most infected patients. Vigorous HCV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T ... Immune responses during acute and chronic infection with hepatitis C virus Clin Immunol. 2008 Aug;128(2):133-47. doi: 10.1016/j ... Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces persistent infection and causes chronic liver disease in most infected patients. Vigorous HCV- ... Classic cytotoxic T cells (CTL) may primarily damage the liver in chronic HCV, but there may be subpopulations of T cells that ...
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been associated with both organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases, with ... Extrahepatic manifestations associated with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection. Rev. esp. sanid. penit. [online]. 2017, vol.19 ... Keywords : prisons; hepacivirus; hepatitis C; antiviral agents; autoinmune diseases; lymphoma; Spain; diabetes mellitus. ... patients with chronic HCV infection have a higher frequency of other extrahepatic manifestations including endocrine, metabolic ...
In situ analysis of intrahepatic virological events in chronic hepatitis B virus infection. ... In situ analysis of intrahepatic virological events in chronic hepatitis B virus infection. ... Persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is established by the formation of an intranuclear pool of covalently closed ... with single-cell resolution provides a means for monitoring intrahepatic virological events in chronic HBV infection. More ...
... chronic infection, 24 HBeAg+ chronic hepatitis, 24 HBeAg- chronic hepatitis, and 26 HBeAg- chronic infection (32). In addition ... chronic infection, 15 HBeAg+ chronic hepatitis, 18 HBeAg- chronic hepatitis, and 23 HBeAg- chronic infection patients were ... Enhanced B-cell differentiation and reduced proliferative capacity in chronic hepatitis C and chronic hepatitis B virus ... chronic hepatitis (eAg+CHep), 24 HBeAg- chronic hepatitis (eAg-CHep), and 26 HBeAg- chronic infection (eAg-CInf). (C) No ...
... defective RNA virus that has an absolute requirement for a virus belonging to the hepadnaviridae family like hepatitis B virus ... Recently, more practical animal models in which to perform a deeper study of host virus interactions and to evaluate new ... and fulminant hepatitis. Importantly, no selective therapies are available for HDV infection. The mainstay of treatment for HDV ... hepadnavirus-infected chimpanzees or the eastern woodchuck have been of great value for the characterization of HDV chronic ...
Interleukin-35 Suppresses Antiviral Immune Response in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection.. [Xue Shao, Jingting Ma, Shengnan ... A total of 61 patients with chronic HBV infection [37 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 24 asymptomatic HBV carriers (ASC)] and 20 ... The mechanisms of hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistent infection are not completely understood. Interleukin (IL)-35, which is a ... Thus, the aim of current study was to investigate the role of IL-35 during chronic HBV infection. ...
It is the leading or second leading cause of acute hepatitis in adults in developing co... ... clinicaltrials.gov Hepatitis E is a worldwide disease. ... Kidney-transplant Recipients With Chronic Hepatitis E Virus ... Home » Topics » Simeprevir » Research » Host Responses in Kidney-transplant Recipients With Chronic Hepatitis E Virus Infection ... More From BioPortfolio on "Host Responses in Kidney-transplant Recipients With Chronic Hepatitis E Virus Infection". *Related ...
1. The endpoints can include the suppression of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA on-treatment, the agency said. Other endpoints ... Clinical trials of drugs for treatment of chronic hepatitis B viral infections may use multiple efficacy endpoints, the FDA ... The endpoints can include the suppression of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA on-treatment, the agency said. Other endpoints could ... Clinical trials of drugs for treatment of chronic hepatitis B viral infections may use multiple efficacy endpoints, the FDA ...
Phyllanthus species versus antiviral drugs for chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection ... Antiviral agents for hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis. *Glycyrrhizin versus antiviral drugs for chronic hepatitis B virus ... Phyllanthus species for patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have been assessed in clinical trials, but no ... Xia Y, Luo H, Liu JP, Gluud C. Phyllanthus species versus antiviral drugs for chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Cochrane ...
11272609 - Epstein-barr virus-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease after bone ma.... 6398619 - Selective ...
Viral Hepatitis. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease burden and cost ... Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease burden and cost in the United States. Hepatology, 57: 2164-2170. doi: 10.1002/hep.26218 ... HEP_26218_sm_SuppFigA.tif. 469K. Supporting Information Figure Appendix A.. HEP_26218_sm_SuppFigC.tif. 271K. Supporting ... HEP_26218_sm_SuppInfo.rtf. 2598K. Supporting Information. ...
Palabras clave , chronic diseases*Palabras clave , hepatitis C*Palabras clave , hepatitis C (HCV) - prevention and control, ... Care and Treatment of Persons Diagnosed with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018. ( ... Access to Hepatitis C Medicines. Access to Hepatitis C Medicines: Improving Access to Essential Innovative Treatments. Access- ... Guidelines for the Prevention, Care and Treatment of Persons with Chronic Hepatitis B Infection ...
A number of patients do not benefit from advancements made in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and chronic ... Schweitzer A, Horn J, Mikolajczyk RT, Krause G and Ott JJ: Estimations of worldwide prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus ... Su TH and Kao JH: Improving clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 9:141- ... Characteristics of patients unaware of their chronic hepatitis virus infection. *Authors: *Hiroshi Okano ...
... care and treatment of infection due to the hepatitis C virus (HCV). ... Guidelines for the Prevention, Care and Treatment of Persons with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection. Author:. World Health ... care and treatment of infection due to the hepatitis C virus (HCV). In contrast to several recent international guidelines on ... HCV and hepatitis D virus (HDV); children and adolescents; and pregnant women. ...
Dicerna presents positive clinical data for investigational treatments RG6346 for chronic HBV and Nedosiran for PH and ... About Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the worlds most common serious liver infection and ... Dicerna Announces Positive Clinical Data for Investigational Treatments RG6346 for Chronic Hepatitis B Virus and Nedosiran for ... RG6346 Phase 1 Proof-of-Concept Trial for Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection ...
Impaired effector function of hepatitis C virus-specific CD8+ T cells in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. J. Immunol. 2002 ... Hepatic expansion of a virus-specific regulatory CD8+ T cell population in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Daniele ... in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection because of the concomitant presence of virus-specific CCR7-CD8+ TR ... Recognition of hepatitis B virus envelope proteins by liver-infiltrating T lymphocytes in chronic HBV infection. J. Immunol. ...
  • DOHMH requires clinicians and laboratories to report positive results of tests for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), e antigen (HBeAg), and HBV DNA for all NYC residents. (cdc.gov)
  • The CDC and Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) case definition for confirmed chronic HBV infection requires two positive tests at least 6 months apart or one positive test and a negative test for immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to HBV core antigen. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, the hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) - a hepatitis B viral protein -- may represent a viral strategy to establish persistent infection, but the mechanism remains largely unknown. (news-medical.net)
  • Blood donors in the Trent region are screened for antibodies to hepatitis C virus by second generation enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and results are confirmed by a four antigen recombinant immunoblot assay. (bmj.com)
  • Sugiyama A, Ohisa M, Nagashima S, Yamamoto C, Chuon C, Fujii T, Akita T, Katayama K, Kudo Y and Tanaka J: Reduced prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen positivity among pregnant women born after the national implementation of immunoprophylaxis for babies born to hepatitis B virus-carrier mothers in Japan. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In the Phase 1 study, nine of 10 participants who received RG6346 and have completed the treatment period in Group C achieved ≥1.0 log10 IU/mL reduction in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) at Day 112 and continued in the extended follow-up period. (businesswire.com)
  • and 3) negative for both hepatitis B antigen and hepatitis C virus antibody. (cdc.gov)
  • A sensitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay has been developed for hepatitis B virus (HBV) core-related antigen (HBcrAg) detection. (asm.org)
  • A higher HBcrAg concentration was associated with a greater proportion of hepatitis B core antigen immunostaining. (asm.org)
  • A greater reduction in posttreatment HBcrAg concentration was associated with histological improvement and a decrease in hepatitis B core antigen immunostaining. (asm.org)
  • Several assays have been developed for the measurement of serum hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) or hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) concentrations ( 1 , 3 , 16 ). (asm.org)
  • Longitudinally, participants with higher adiponectin were less likely to achieve surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) seroclearance and more likely to have persistently higher HBV DNA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Eighty-nine Sahelian African patients with chronic active hepatitis (CAH) (14), cirrhosis (49), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (26), and 47 controls were tested for hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg]) and hepatitis D virus (HDV, anti-HDV antibody). (ajtmh.org)
  • This is an expanded access, multicenter, national, open-label, and non-randomized study to analyze the safety of peginterferon alfa-2a in participants with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) po. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In addition, the NS3/4A-stork-HBcAg vaccine also primed NS3/4A-specific T cells in human hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-Tg mice with dysfunctional T cells to HBcAg and HBeAg. (avhandlingar.se)
  • To overcome these limitations, we performed a longitudinal study of HBV-specific T-cell responses by using pools of overlapping peptides covering the overall protein sequence of HBV genotype D. Well-characterized groups of patients with anti-HBV e antigen (anti-HBe)-positive chronic hepatitis B or with acute HBV infection were studied. (asm.org)
  • Long term follow up of 16 homosexual men and 78 intravenous drug abusers who were chronic carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) showed fundamental differences between the two groups. (lu.se)
  • Viral replication, expressed by the presence of hepatitis B e antigen, lasted for four years or more in 10 out of 14 (71%) of the homosexual men whereas it was not present in 43 out of 73 (59%) of the drug addicts within one year. (lu.se)
  • Objective To examine viral evolutionary changes and their relationship to hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion. (bmj.com)
  • Associations between chronic antigen stimulation, T cell dysfunction, and the expression of various inhibitory receptors are well characterized in several mouse and human systems. (fluidigm.com)
  • After encountering cognate antigen, for example, during acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, these virus-specific CD8 + T cells are primed to expand clonally and gain effector functions. (asm.org)
  • 8 Furthermore, IFN-γ has been shown to be the principal mediator of the hepatic inflammatory process induced by syngeneic lymphocytes against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) expressed in the liver of transgenic mice. (bmj.com)
  • Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are leading causes of death from cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, as a result of progression towards advanced natural course stages including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. (hindawi.com)
  • Besides the liver related complications of HCV infection such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, chronic infection is associated in several studies with extrahepatic disorders, including metabolic derangements. (hindawi.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver transplantation. (hindawi.com)
  • HDV infection is usually associated with a worsening of HBV-induced liver pathogenesis, which leads to more frequent cirrhosis, increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and fulminant hepatitis. (mdpi.com)
  • de Martel C, Maucort-Boulch D, Plummer M and Franceschi S: World-wide relative contribution of hepatitis B and C viruses in hepatocellular carcinoma. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • We previously found that genetic factors are associated with a familial predisposition for developing liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma during chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. (springer.com)
  • Chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers are at risk of infection with hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and it is known that co-infection with HDV tends to accelerate the progress of chronic HBV infection to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (ajol.info)
  • Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection appears to trigger the onset of immune exhaustion to potentially assist viral persistence in the host, eventually leading to hepatocellular carcinoma. (diva-portal.org)
  • The risk of fulminant hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma is higher in superinfection than the settings when HBV is alone. (eurekamag.com)
  • 3 We and others have shown that the immune cells and mediators involved in the process of virus elimination are responsible for hepatocellular injury. (bmj.com)
  • A total of 484 Romanian patients with chronic HBV infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were investigated. (sid.ir)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Epclusa to treat adult patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) both with and without cirrhosis (advanced liver disease). (fda.gov)
  • The safety and efficacy of Epclusa was also evaluated in a clinical trial of 267 subjects with decompensated cirrhosis (moderate to severe cirrhosis), of whom 87 subjects received Epclusa in combination with ribavirin for 12 weeks, and 94 percent of these patients had no virus detected in the blood 12 weeks after finishing treatment. (fda.gov)
  • In the United States, chronic hepatitis B is the underlying cause of an estimated 2,000 4,000 deaths each year from cirrhosis and liver cancer. (webwire.com)
  • To further study the correlation of HCV infection and diabetes, we performed a retrospective analysis of 1,117 patients with chronic viral hepatitis and analyzed whether age, sex, race, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, HCV infection, and cirrhosis were independently associated with diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • Acquired infection after age 40, male sex, excessive alcohol-consumption, hepatitis B virus (HBV) or HIV co-infection, steatosis, and immunosuppressed state have been identified as co-factors associated with progression of fibrosis and development of cirrhosis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Gilead Sciences announced results from several Phase 2 and Phase 3 studies evaluating the use of Harvoni (ledipasvir/sofosbuvir) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients with limited or no treatment options, including patients with decompensated cirrhosis, patients with HCV recurrence following a liver transplant, and patients who failed previous treatment with other direct acting antivirals. (empr.com)
  • In this study, we evaluated the profiling of angiogenic factors using Bio-Plex Pro™ Human Cancer Biomarker Panel 1, a 16-plex magnetic bead-based assay, in sera of patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) virus, liver cirrhosis (LC) and HCC. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 90% of HCCs develop in the context of chronic liver inflammation and cirrhosis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Approximately 80% of newly infected patients develop a chronic infection, of which an estimated 10-20% develop cirrhosis and 1-5% advance to end-stage liver cancer over a period of 20-30 years ( 4 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • DAAs have revolutionised the treatment of hepatitis C and achieve sustained virological response in over 95% of patients, even with liver cirrhosis. (springer.com)
  • The predominant association of the chronic HBV infection with CAH, cirrhosis, and HCC is confirmed in Sahelian Africa. (ajtmh.org)
  • Among the patients who had HBV/HDV dual infection, 3(75%) had chronic hepatitis while 1(25%) had decompensated liver cirrhosis. (ajol.info)
  • Severe histological damage such as chronic aggressive hepatitis, cirrhosis, or primary liver cancer was found in more than half of the homosexual. (lu.se)
  • HBV is an underappreciated global epidemic with more than 350 million people worldwide chronically infected, including two million in the U.S. Chronic HBV causes cirrhosis and liver failure, and it is a leading cause of liver cancer. (biocrossroads.com)
  • A total of 469 patients were enrolled, including 324 with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 28 with HBV-related compensated liver cirrhosis (LC), and 117 with HBV-related decompensated LC. (springer.com)
  • Background: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) related to liver cirrhosis is an advanced liver fibrosis that is usually progressive, irreversible, and the only option for the treatment is liver transplantation in selected patients Objectives: to examine the demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of patients with the chronic HBV related to cirrhosis. (vixra.org)
  • All patients with liver cirrhosis caused by chronic HBV infection were studied. (vixra.org)
  • Authors: Lin Y, Su C, Niu J, Guo Z, Lu Y Abstract Based on the involvement of NFKIBA (NF-κB Inhibitor Alpha) in the NF-κB pathway, which is closely related with host immunity, and this present study aimed to determine if NFKIBA polymorphisms are associated with the disease progression of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. (medworm.com)
  • Authors: Tao Y, Wu D, Zhou L, Chen E, Liu C, Tang X, Jiang W, Han N, Li H, Tang H Abstract Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remains the leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality across the world. (medworm.com)
  • ABSTRACT We assessed the dermatological manifestations associated with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and their association with liver status. (who.int)
  • Twenty patients displayed clinical, biochemical, and virological evidence of anti-HBe-positive chronic hepatitis B (HBsAg positive, anti-HBc positive, HBe negative, anti-HBe positive), with fluctuating levels of ALT (ranging from 22 to 1,372 U/liters) and HBV DNA (ranging from 0.049 ×10 5 to 1,220 ×10 5 copies/ml). (asm.org)
  • This shows a difference in the immunological response between homosexual HBsAg carriers and addicts that is not related to infection with human T cell lymphotropic virus type III. (lu.se)
  • Treatment with the combination therapy led to an HBV-specific immune response and sustained loss of HBsAg in a mouse model of chronic HBV infection. (alnylam.com)
  • HBsAg positive patients with chronic HBV infection admitted to Fundeni Clinical Institute were randomly enrolled in the study. (sid.ir)
  • Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, mainly in those on hemodialysis (HD). (dovepress.com)
  • The HBeAg-MDSC-IDO axis may therefore serve as an immunotherapeutic target of chronic hepatitis B. (news-medical.net)
  • Since HBeAg and HBcAg share a 149-amino-acid sequence identity, they are collectively called hepatitis B core-related antigens (HBcrAg) ( 5 , 13 ). (asm.org)
  • The proliferative response of PBMC to hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope, core, and e Ag was analyzed prospectively in 21 patients with acute self-limited HBV infection and compared with the response of patients with chronic HBV infection and different levels of HBV replication (i.e., hepatitis e Ag (HBeAg)- or anti-HBe-positive) and liver damage (i.e., chronic active hepatitis or chronic asymptomatic carriers). (jimmunol.org)
  • No association between IFNL3 (IL28B) genotype and response to peginterferon alfa-2a in HBeAg-positive or -negative chronic hepatitis B. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Viral evolution in chronic hepatitis B: a branched way to HBeAg seroconversion and disease progression? (bmj.com)
  • Treatment with peginterferon alfa-2a alone produces significantly higher sustained virologic responses than treatment with interferon alfa-2a alone in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. (nih.gov)
  • We compared the efficacy and safety of peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin, interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin, and peginterferon alfa-2a alone in the initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C. (nih.gov)
  • In patients with chronic hepatitis C, once-weekly peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin was tolerated as well as interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin and produced significant improvements in the rate of sustained virologic response, as compared with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin or peginterferon alfa-2a alone. (nih.gov)
  • 189 randomly selected patients with histologically proven chronic hepatitis C, including 101 patients receiving interferon-alpha. (nih.gov)
  • Clinical features, including liver histologic findings, hepatitis C virus (HCV) markers, and response of HCV to interferon-alpha were compared between HGV RNA-positive and HGV RNA-negative patients. (nih.gov)
  • Ten of 101 patients with chronic hepatitis C who received interferon-alpha were positive for HGV RNA. (nih.gov)
  • Hepatitis G virus was uniformly sensitive to interferon-alpha therapy, but only a few patients had a sustained virologic response. (nih.gov)
  • While 25 compounds have been formally licensed for the treatment of HIV infection (AIDS), only seven licensed products are currently available for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection: interferon-α, pegylated interferon-α, lamivudine, adefovir (dipivoxil), entecavir, telbivudine and tenofovir (disoproxil fumarate). (mdpi.com)
  • Very early viral kinetics on interferon treatment in chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection. (biomedsearch.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Interferon (IFN)-resistant hepatitis C virus strains limit efficacy of antiviral combination therapy in patients infected with genotypes 1 and 4. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) combined with ribavirin is recommended for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients without renal failure. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Heterogeneous Virologic Response Rates to Interferon-Based Therapy in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C: Who Responds Less Well? (annals.org)
  • It has yet to be firmly established whether host IFNL3 (IL28B) genotype influences interferon responsiveness in patients with chronic hepatitis B. We investigated associations between single-nucleotid. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Registered treatment for chronic hepatitis B currently consists of (pegylated) interferon, lamivudine and adefovir, while entecavir is expected to be licensed in the short term. (eur.nl)
  • Association of CTLA4 polymorphisms with sustained response to interferon and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. (mcw.edu)
  • We examined the associations of CTLA4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at promoter site -318 and exon-1 site 49 with clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) after treatment with combination interferon-alpha plus ribavirin (IFN-alpha+R) therapy in 79 white sustained responders (SRs) and 79 nonresponders (NRs). (mcw.edu)
  • Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin versus interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C in HIV-coinfected persons. (acpjc.org)
  • In patients with both HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, is peginterferon α-2a plus ribavirin (PEGRIB) more effective than interferon α-2a plus ribavirin (INTRIB) for inducing a hepatitis C virologic response? (acpjc.org)
  • In patients with both HIV and hepatitis C virus infections, peginterferon α-2a plus ribavirin was more effective than interferon α-2a plus ribavirin for inducing a hepatitis C virologic response. (acpjc.org)
  • Using a quantitative, competitive RT-PCR technique, we recently showed that expression of interferon γ (IFN-γ) and IFN-γ inducible type of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is increased in homogenised liver tissue of patients with chronic HCV infection. (bmj.com)
  • Some patients with chronic hepatitis C were received interferon-alfa therapy. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Loss of serum HCV RNA at week 4 of interferon-α therapy is associated with more favorable long term response in patients with chronic hepatitis C.' Journal of Medical Virology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These new recommendations are critical to identifying people who are living with the disease without the benefits of medical attention, said John W. Ward, M.D., director of CDC′s Division of Viral Hepatitis. (webwire.com)
  • This work builds on a series of analyses conducted with colleagues at CDC Division of Viral Hepatitis and Emory University to estimate state-level level prevalence in 2010, overall and by sex/race groups. (natap.org)
  • National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (U.S.). Division of Viral Hepatitis. (cdc.gov)
  • Completeness of reporting of chronic HBV and HCV infections was significantly improved for those with more recent clinical diagnoses, but reporting still remained incomplete. (cdc.gov)
  • Improving surveillance of chronic hepatitis in Michigan will require exploration of more efficient methods for the transfer of laboratory and clinical data and evaluation of the most appropriate sources for risk factor information to aid in the prevention of viral hepatitis transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • As part of an ongoing, multicenter, chronic hepatitis cohort study, investigators compiled clinical data from patients suspected to have chronic HBV or chronic HCV infection at any time during 2006-2008 and who resided in Michigan and sought care within the health-care network, which was comprised of several hospitals and clinics serving approximately 1 million Michigan residents ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We assessed the value of clinical and laboratory data in predicting the need for liver biopsy in blood donors with antibodies to hepatitis C virus. (bmj.com)
  • Clinical trials of drugs for treatment of chronic hepatitis B viral infections may use multiple efficacy endpoints, the FDA said in new draft guidance released Nov. 1. (fdanews.com)
  • Phyllanthus species for patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have been assessed in clinical trials, but no consensus regarding their usefulness exists. (cochrane.org)
  • When compared with placebo or no intervention, we were unable to identify convincing evidence that phyllanthus species are beneficial in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Some randomised clinical trials have compared phyllanthus species versus antiviral drugs. (cochrane.org)
  • Randomised clinical trials comparing phyllanthus species with antiviral drugs for patients with chronic HBV infection. (cochrane.org)
  • Su TH and Kao JH: Improving clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • To characterize the clinical and histologic features of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection after blood transfusion in Japanese children. (aappublications.org)
  • Discontinuation of anti-hepatitis B therapy, including VEMLIDY, may result in severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B. Hepatic function should be monitored closely with both clinical and laboratory follow-up for at least several months in patients who discontinue anti-hepatitis B therapy, including VEMLIDY. (gilead.com)
  • We retrospectively analyzed HCV hospitalizations during 2006-2010 in the CHeCS, an observational cohort study created to assess the natural history and clinical encounters of chronic viral hepatitis in the United States. (natap.org)
  • Unsatisfying antiviral therapeutic effect in patients with mother-to-child transmissed chronic hepatitis B virus infection: a prospective multi-center clinical study. (medworm.com)
  • European Association For The Study Of The Liver (2009) EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines: management of chronic hepatitis B. J Hepatol. (springer.com)
  • Matsuura K, Isogawa M, Tanaka Y (2016) Host genetic variants influencing the clinical course of hepatitis B virus infection. (springer.com)
  • The blood samples and clinical information were collected from chronic HBV-positive patients Group 1 (n = 120), and their age and gender were matched with those of the healthy control subjects Group 2 (n = 120). (uwi.edu)
  • In this study, 93 consecutive patients with HBV associated Chronic liver disease and 93 age and sex matched asymptomatic subjects with chronic HBV infection seen at the Hepatology Clinic and medical wards of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital were screened for IgG anti-HDV antibody after relevant clinical assessment, laboratory and imaging tests were done. (ajol.info)
  • Chronic inflammation, as defined by persistent immune activation, is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. (ovid.com)
  • We presented pre-clinical data with a combinatorial RNAi/vaccination therapy for Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection at The EASL International Liver Congress, held April 19-23 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. (alnylam.com)
  • We believe this approach holds potential promise for use in a clinical setting to treat patients with hepatitis B. (alnylam.com)
  • Clinical practice guidelines on the management of hepatitis B virus infection. (springer.com)
  • In this study, 'Genotypic distribution of hepatitis C virus and liver diseases', we collected serum samples from Japan, USA,Europe and Saudi Arabia to investigate the relationship between the geographical distribution of each hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype or serum HCV RNA level and the clinical backgrounds of those samples. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Objectives: We aimed to investigate HBV mutations in Romanian patients with chronic HBV infection, also to match HBV genotypes with HBV mutations identified and clinical outcomes. (sid.ir)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces persistent infection and causes chronic liver disease in most infected patients. (nih.gov)
  • Persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is established by the formation of an intranuclear pool of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the liver. (jci.org)
  • The mechanisms of hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistent infection are not completely understood. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Findings suggest chronic HEV infection should be considered as a cause of persistent alanine aminotransferase elevation. (cdc.gov)
  • The persistent exposure to viral antigens can lead to virus-specific T-cell deletion or to progressive functional impairment. (asm.org)
  • In drug addicts chronic persistent hepatitis was a regular finding in the absence of markers of delta infection, but in those addicts infected with the delta agent the degree of liver damage was comparable with that found in homosexual men. (lu.se)
  • The advent of new direct acting antiviral therapy has dramatically increased the sustained virological response rates of hepatitis C infection. (hindawi.com)
  • Results from this pilot study showed that PEG-IFN alpha-2a appeared relatively well tolerated in dialysis patients with chronic HCV infection, and about one-third of patients could achieve sustained virological response. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We estimated HCV reinfection rate and its associated risk factors in inmates with chronic hepatitis C who had achieved sustained virological response (SVR) after completing combination therapy while in prison. (natap.org)
  • Some cases have resulted in fulminant hepatitis, hepatic failure, and death. (natap.org)
  • Direct-acting antiviral therapies (DAAs) that have recently begun to be used are providing the opportunity to effectively cure chronic HCV infection and reduce the burden of both hepatic and extrahepatic complications. (isciii.es)
  • The U.S. Prescribing Information for Vemlidy has a Boxed Warning for the risk of post-treatment severe acute exacerbation of hepatitis B. See below for U.S. Important Safety Information and Indication. (gilead.com)
  • Liver disease progression is an important endpoint, but assessing it can be challenging as the endpoints can occur infrequently until late in the course of chronic HBV progression. (fdanews.com)
  • The relationship between virus load, HCV genotype, quasi-species variability and progression of liver disease is controversial. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The progression or regression of fibrosis and/or portal hypertension caused by DAA therapy could have implications for each patient wider than chronic HCV management alone. (springer.com)
  • However, individual and invasive techniques for measuring fibrosis and portal hypertension respectively do not assess the complex pathophysiological changes associated with progression and regression of chronic liver injury. (springer.com)
  • The association between NFKBIA polymorphisms and the progression of chronic hepatitis B virus infection among the Chinese Han population. (medworm.com)
  • An unconditional logistic regression revealed that carriers of TT genotype at rs2233406 had a greater risk (OR=5.57, 95%CI=2.14-14.52) of chronic HBV infection progression. (medworm.com)
  • HBV preS deletion is positively associated with liver fibrosis progression in chronic HBV-infected patients. (springer.com)
  • METHODS: We conducted a prospective study to investigate the tolerability and efficacy of PEG-IFN alpha-2a (135 microg weekly for 48 weeks) in six dialysis patients with chronic HCV infection. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, during June, 2013 to October, 2014, a total of 243 chronic hemodialysis patients were tested. (scirp.org)
  • The aim of this study was analyze the follow up of newly acquired acute hepatitis C cases, during the period from January 2002 to May 2005, in the Hemodialysis Center, located in the Southwest region of Parana State, Brazil and to analyze the effectiveness of the measures to restrain the appearance of new cases of acute hepatitis C. Methods: Patients were analyzed monthly with anti-HCV tests and ALT measurements. (ebscohost.com)
  • Virus-specific CD8 + T cells are rarely detectable ex vivo by conventional methods during chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. (asm.org)
  • METHODS By applying a non-radioactive in situ hybridisation method combined with indirect immunofluorescence, 33 liver biopsy specimens from patients with chronic HCV infection were studied for cellular expression of IFN-γ and iNOS mRNA. (bmj.com)
  • METHODS: The aim of our study was to evaluate the ability of noninvasive scores in order to define the degree of liver fibrosis, and to assess the effect of host and viral factors on fibrosis in chronic HCV patients. (minervamedica.it)
  • Methods: The viral hepatitis clinic in Azadi Teaching Hospital is dealing with all viral hepatitis cases. (vixra.org)
  • Fortunately, the HBV vaccine has led to a substantial decline in the number of new cases of acute hepatitis B among children, adolescents and adults in wWestern countries since the mid-1980s ( 3 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The applied recommendations contributed importantly to restrain the appearance of new cases of acute hepatitis C in this center and the last case was diagnosed in May 2004. (ebscohost.com)
  • Over 160 million people worldwide are chronically infected with the HCV virus [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The recommendations, published today in CDC′s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) Recommendations & Reports, also for the first time give health professionals guidance for effective management of chronically infected hepatitis B patients. (webwire.com)
  • Zignego AL, De Carli M, Monti M, Careccia G, La Villa G, Giannini C, D'Elios MM, Del Prete G, Gentilini P. Hepatitis C virus infection of mononuclear cells from peripheral blood and liver infiltrates in chronically infected patients. (ahajournals.org)
  • 12 On the assumption that an IFN-γ dependent induction of iNOS in hepatocytes results in NO production which plays a dual proinflammatory and antiviral role in hepatitis C, we analysed liver biopsy specimens of patients chronically infected with HCV. (bmj.com)
  • Given recent profound improvements in the effectiveness of antiviral treatment for chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we aimed to describe the characteristics of patients referred to hepatology expert centres in France from 2000 to 2007 and from 2010 to 2014, and to identify factors associated with severe liver disease at their first visit for evaluation. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • but 60-80% develop chronic hepatitis as indicated by elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT), around 30% maintain persistently normal ALT levels despite having detectable HCV-RNA in serum. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Serum IL-35 in 72 chronic hepatitis B virus infection patients and 41 healthy control subjects were analyzed by ELISA assay. (medsci.org)
  • In conclusion, serum HBcrAg levels correlated with HBV virological markers and reflected the chronic hepatitis B disease activity in the liver. (asm.org)
  • Background: Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is defined as the presence of HCVRNA in liver or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the absence of detectable hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV) or HCV-RNA in the serum. (ebscohost.com)
  • In this study anticardiolipin antibodies (immunoglobulin G [IgG] isotype) were determined in serum from 100 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 52 healthy controls. (cun.es)
  • Mohd Hanafiah K, Groeger J, Flaxman AD and Wiersma ST: Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection: New estimates of age-specific antibody to HCV seroprevalence. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • New research sheds light on how a hepatitis B viral protein stimulates the expansion of immune cells that impair antiviral responses, according to a study published April 18 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Haitao Guo of the Indiana University School of Medicine, Bin Wang and Jiming Zhang of Fudan University, and colleagues. (news-medical.net)
  • There are relatively few studies on the role of immune responses during the chronic phase of infection. (nih.gov)
  • Interleukin-35 Suppresses Antiviral Immune Response in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • As one of the major public health problems, the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection would activate the immune system. (medsci.org)
  • The current data suggested that IL-35 contributed to maintain viral persistence by suppressing antiviral immune responses and reducing inflammatory responses in chronic HBV infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • The outcome of hepatitis B patients is closely associated with host immune status. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the precise mechanism of immune tolerance and hyporesponsiveness in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is still not completely elucidated. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cellular immune response to hepatitis B virus-encoded antigens in acute and chronic hepatitis B virus infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is responsible for more than a million deaths annually as a result of the immune-mediated chronic liver damage it induces. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This work therefore highlights a mechanism contributing to the failure of immune control in chronic HBV infection, paving the way to new therapeutic options. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Withdrawal of ruxolitinib restored innate immune responses and resulted in HCV clearance.This authentic human cell model is well suited to examine acute and chronic host-HCV interactions, particularly IFN-triggered antiviral effector functions and mechanisms of innate immune control of HCV infection. (onmedica.com)
  • RePub, Erasmus University Repository: Antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis B virus infection--immune modulation or viral suppression? (eur.nl)
  • The role of HCV on the spontaneous expression of markers suggestive of immune exhaustion and spontaneous apoptosis in immune cells of chronic HCV (CHC) disease largely remain elusive. (diva-portal.org)
  • Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were investigated for circulating MAIT cell frequency, liver-homing (CCR5 and CD103), biomarkers of immune exhaustion (PD-1, TIM-3 and CTLA-4), chronic immune activation (CD38 and HLA-DR), and immunosenescence (CD57) by flow cytometry. (diva-portal.org)
  • ResultsThe frequency of MAIT cells was significantly decreased, and increased signs of immune exhaustion and chronic immune activation were clearly evident on MAIT cells of HCV-infected patients. (diva-portal.org)
  • BACKGROUND Pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) associated liver injury is thought to be due to the host antiviral immune response. (bmj.com)
  • Longitudinal description of blood hepatitis E virus (HEV) serology, HEV RNA, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, HIV RNA, and CD4 count in patient with positive real-time PCR results for HEV infection but without serologic seroconversion to immunoglobulin (Ig) G. (cdc.gov)
  • We screened 735 HIV-infected patients in Switzerland with unexplained alanine aminotransferase elevation for hepatitis E virus (HEV) immunoglobulin G. Although HEV seroprevalence in this population is low (2.6%), HEV RNA can persist in patients with low CD4 cell counts. (cdc.gov)
  • Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. (nih.gov)
  • Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. [N Engl J Med. (nih.gov)
  • Population pharmacokinetic modeling of plasma and intracellular ribavirin concentrations in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This is an open-label, single-arm study of sofosbuvir ( GS-7977 ) and ribavirin (RBV) in adults who have had a liver transplant which has become re-infected with hepatitis C. The treatment period is 24 weeks with up to 48 weeks of follow up. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Results: Results showed that peginterferon and ribavirin combination regimens were the most common treatments for chronic HCV. (rti.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine if 48 weeks of therapy with Peginterferon Lambda plus Ribavirin is effective and safe for a treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) compared to the. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A total of 61 patients with chronic HBV infection [37 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 24 asymptomatic HBV carriers (ASC)] and 20 healthy individuals were enrolled. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • although the prevalence of HDV was low in this study, subjects with Chronic Liver Disease were more likely to have HDV than subjects with asymptomatic HBV infection. (ajol.info)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is often asymptomatic, but numerous extrahepatic disorders, especially dermatological diseases, have been recognized in association with HCV infection [1-8]. (who.int)
  • We aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of untreated chronic HCV infection and to identify associated risk factors in an Irish male prison. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Otedo, A.E., Mc'Ligeyo, S.O. and Okoth, F.A. (2003) Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C in Maintenance Dialysis in a Public Hospital in a Developing Country. (scirp.org)
  • Approximately 2 billion people have been infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and 350-400 million people have been identified as carriers of the chronic HBV [ 1 ]. (medsci.org)
  • The relationship between adipocytokine and HCC in hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers remains unclear. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Globally, it is estimated that approximately 185 million people are infected with HCV and 130-170 million of these are chronic carriers of the virus (1, 2). (avhandlingar.se)
  • However, only 10% of all chronic HCV carriers receive any treatment due to high cost of treatment and the majority of the chronic carriers live in resource-poor countries. (avhandlingar.se)
  • 25). Virus load also declined more rapidly in carriers of both 49G (P=.0095) and the -318C-49G haplotype. (mcw.edu)
  • OBJECTIVE -A high prevalence of diabetes has been reported in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Genotype distribution in Nagoya and new genotype (genotype 3a) in Japanese patients with hepatitis C virus. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in renal transplant patients. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A liver biopsy yielding histopathologic results consistent with chronic hepatitis C was required within 48 weeks before study entry. (acpjc.org)
  • The findings potentially explain how the hepatitis B virus (HBV) establishes and maintains chronic infection, and could lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. (news-medical.net)
  • Although their findings are interesting and the association of HCV infection with chronic active myocarditis may be true, controversial issues still exist that should be carefully addressed before drawing a final conclusion. (ahajournals.org)
  • On the whole, these findings suggest that, in order to identify greater numbers of patients with chronic hepatitis infection who are unaware of their infection, the necessity of screening for hepatitis virus in primary care, particularly among women and elderly individuals, should be emphasized and promoted. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Sixty percent to 80% of children with HCV infection in this study developed chronic hepatitis C. However, examination of liver histology findings in children with chronic hepatitis C showed only mild changes. (aappublications.org)
  • The global burden of viral hepatitis from 1990 to 2013: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Chandra, M., Khaja, M.N. and Hussain, M.M. (2004) Prevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Viral Infections in Indian Patients with Chronic Renal Failure. (scirp.org)
  • Quantitative and qualitative impairments of virus-specific T cells are present in different chronic viral infections, in both humans and mice. (asm.org)
  • MAIT cells appear to undergo exhaustion and are functionally weakened in chronic viral infections. (diva-portal.org)
  • Association of diabetes mellitus and chronic hepatitis C virus infection. (nih.gov)
  • While patients with liver disease are known to have a higher prevalence of glucose intolerance, preliminary studies suggest that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may be an additional risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus. (nih.gov)
  • No evidence for anti-islet autoimmunity in diabetes mellitus associated with chronic hepatitis C infection. (nih.gov)
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and diabetes mellitus are major health problems associated with significant morbidity and mortality. (uwi.edu)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, HCV infection becomes chronic in approximately 75 to 85 percent of cases. (fda.gov)
  • The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) today published new recommendations for health care providers that are designed to increase routine testing in the United States for chronic hepatitis B, a major cause of liver disease and liver cancer. (webwire.com)
  • The purpose of this review is to provide evidence to justify the use of bone biopsy data to guide decisions regarding fracture prevention in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). (bioportfolio.com)
  • These are the first World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the prevention, care and treatment of persons living with CHB infection, and complement similar recent published guidance by WHO on the prevention, care and treatment of infection due to the hepatitis C virus (HCV). (tsoshop.co.uk)
  • In contrast to several recent international guidelines on the management of CHB infection from the United States, Europe, Asia-Pacific and the United Kingdom (UK), the primary audience for these WHO guidelines is country programme managers in all settings, but particularly in LMICs to help plan the development and scale up of hepatitis B prevention, care and treatment. (tsoshop.co.uk)
  • The impact of the prevention programme of hepatitis C over more than a decade: the French experience. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • for the Chronic Hepatitis Cohort Study (CHeCS) Investigators 1Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA USA 2 Henry Ford Health System, Detroit MI, 3 Geisinger Health System, Danville PA, 4Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland OR, 5 Kaiser Permanente Hawaii, Honolulu HI. (natap.org)
  • It is now recognized that effective prevention and treatment of HCV infection requires an appreciation of the virus' evolutionary behaviour. (prolekare.cz)
  • First, the use of safe and highly effective direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens for all persons improves the balance of benefits and harms of treating persons with little or no fibrosis, supporting a strategy of treating all persons with chronic HCV infection, rather than reserving treatment for persons with more advanced disease. (who.int)
  • Limited data are available regarding the association of hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutations with liver fibrosis in HBV infection. (springer.com)
  • FOSTER CITY, Calif. --(BUSINESS WIRE)--Nov. 18, 2018-- Gilead Sciences, Inc. (NASDAQ: GILD) announced today that the China National Medical Products Administration (NMPA) has approved Vemlidy ® (tenofovir alafenamide, TAF) 25 mg, a once-daily treatment for chronic hepatitis B in adults and adolescents (aged 12 years and older with body weight at least 35 kg). (gilead.com)
  • Hepatitis C is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the liver that can lead to diminished liver function or liver failure. (fda.gov)
  • Because underreporting has complicated the understanding of disease burden, in 2010 the Institute of Medicine requested that CDC perform a comprehensive evaluation of national viral hepatitis surveillance ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The CDC recommendations are key to increasing the early diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, since many of the estimated 800,000 1.4 million Americans with chronic HBV infection have no symptoms and are unaware of their disease. (webwire.com)
  • Furthermore, it is possible that HCV infection may serve as an additional risk factor for the development of diabetes, beyond that attributable to chronic liver disease alone. (nih.gov)
  • Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been associated with both organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases, with cryoglobulinemia being the most frequent associated disease. (isciii.es)
  • Hepatitis E is a worldwide disease. (bioportfolio.com)
  • hepatitis E was until recently considered as imported from hyperendemic geographical areas, but is currently an emerging autochthonous infectious disease. (bioportfolio.com)
  • However, the overall death rate is 1-4%, and it can reach 20% in pregnant women and might be still higher in patients with underlying chronic liver disease. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Bone Biopsy Results in Chronic Kidney Disease: a Single-Center Experience. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Time to rethink the use of bone biopsy to prevent fractures in patients with chronic kidney disease. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Thus, chronic hepatitis C was a morphologically mild disease in most children in this study. (aappublications.org)
  • Hepatitis C is a heterogeneous disease and is responsible for considerable mortality and morbidity. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • AU - Leone,N, AU - Rizzetto,M, PY - 2005/3/10/pubmed PY - 2005/6/4/medline PY - 2005/3/10/entrez SP - 31 EP - 46 JF - Minerva gastroenterologica e dietologica JO - Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol VL - 51 IS - 1 N2 - Hepatitis C is a heterogeneous disease and is responsible for considerable mortality and morbidity. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to document real-world treatment patterns, medication adherence, and the impact of adherence on disease-specific and all-cause health-care costs among chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients in a US managed care population. (rti.org)
  • We aimed to investigate the usefulness of HBcrAg measurement for monitoring chronic hepatitis B disease. (asm.org)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) requiring renal replacement therapy, and is the most frequently recognized cause of liver injury in patients with CKD. (dovepress.com)
  • was significantly lower if a chronic disease manifested in the patient. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Major risk factors for HCC include infection with hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses, alcoholic liver disease, and possibly non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Less common causes include hereditary hemochromatosis, α 1 -antitrypsin deficiency, autoimmune hepatitis, certain types of porphyria and Wilson's disease ( 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • HBV and HCV viruses are the major cause of liver disease worldwide. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • HCV infection in hemodialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, hepatitis C being the most common liver disease in hemodialysis patients. (ebscohost.com)
  • Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major causative agent for severe liver disease and cancer worldwide. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects an estimated 3% of humanity [1] and is a leading global cause of liver disease and liver cancer [2] . (prolekare.cz)
  • In patients with no evidence of liver disease and a history of thrombotic events, hepatitis C markers were absent in all cases who tested negatively for anticardiolipin antibodies (n = 37), but were present in 16.7% of those positive for anticardiolipin (n = 36) (P = .01). (cun.es)
  • This suggests that adult patients with chronic liver disease with a past history of jaundice should be evaluated for HDV co-infection. (ajol.info)
  • Our observation suggests the spontaneous onset of apoptosis signaling and T cell exhaustion in chronic HCV disease. (diva-portal.org)
  • MAIT cells also showed significantly increased levels of HLA-DR, CD38, PD-1, TIM-3 and CTLA-4, besides CD57 in chronic HCV disease. (diva-portal.org)
  • They update the care and treatment section of the WHO Guidelines for the screening, care and treatment of persons with hepatitis C infection issued in April 2016. (who.int)
  • Chronic HCV patients with one or more prescriptions for an HCV-specific treatment within 6 months before or at any time after their first observed diagnosis of chronic HCV were selected. (rti.org)
  • Serological markers are important in chronic HBV infection for the diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of untreated and treated patients. (asm.org)
  • Reports on the cost-effectiveness of a serological-based screening strategy than biochemical-based screening in the diagnosis of de novo hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among patients undergoing hemodialysis, according to a study. (ebscohost.com)
  • Background: Accurate and personalized molecular virological diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is crucial for individualized selection of patients for antiviral therapy in Romania. (sid.ir)
  • Individuals born in Asia, Africa, and other geographic regions with 2 percent or higher prevalence of chronic HBV infections: Previous CDC recommendations called for testing of people born in areas with 8 percent prevalence or higher. (webwire.com)
  • Men who have sex with men and injection drug users: Routine testing is needed for these persons since both have a higher prevalence of chronic HBV infection than the overall U.S. population. (webwire.com)
  • Schweitzer A, Horn J, Mikolajczyk RT, Krause G and Ott JJ: Estimations of worldwide prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection: A systematic review of data published between 1965 and 2013. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • HCV RNA is a marker of chronic infection and levels reflect response to antiviral therapy. (mja.com.au)
  • If appropriate, resumption of anti-hepatitis B therapy may be warranted. (gilead.com)
  • Routine screening for antibodies to hepatitis C virus in blood donations was introduced in Britain in 1991. (bmj.com)
  • In conclusion, anticardiolipin antibodies are frequently found in patients with chronic hepatitis C and in these patients they may be implicated in the occurrence of thrombosis and in the development of thrombocytopenia. (cun.es)
  • Natural History and Treatment Indications of Chronic Hepatitis B. (medworm.com)
  • 4) T cell sensitization to HBV envelope Ag in acute and chronic HBV infection is usually undetectable and when measurable is expressed transiently and at low levels. (jimmunol.org)
  • Efficient acute and chronic infection of stem cell-derived hepatocytes by hepatitis C virus. (onmedica.com)
  • Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes significant mortality, morbidity, and it is an economic burden worldwide. (cochrane.org)
  • Chronic HCV infection in patients with ESRD is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality in the pre and post kidney transplant periods. (dovepress.com)
  • Background and Aims: Patients on hemodialysis (HD) are at high risk of viral hepatitis due to high number of blood transfusion sessions, prolonged vascular access, high exposure to infected patients and contaminated equipment, or cross contamination from the dialysis circuits and pose problems in the management of patients in the renal dialysis units. (scirp.org)
  • This study was done to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) & Hepatitis C virus (HCV), in patients on hemodialysis in Zabeed City, Yemen Republic, and address the major risk factors for transmission of these viruses among HD patients. (scirp.org)
  • Al Hijazat, M. and Ajlouni, Y. (2008) Hepatitis B Infection among Patients Receiving Chronic Hemodialysis at the Royal Medical Services in Jordan. (scirp.org)
  • Boulaajaj, K., Elomari, Y. and Elmaliki, B. (2005) Prevalence of Hepatitis C, Hepatitis B and HIV Infection among Hemodialysis Patients in Ibn-Rochd University Hospital, Casablanca. (scirp.org)
  • Dentico, P., Buogiorno, R. and Volpe, A. (1992) Prevalence and Incidence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in Hemodialysis Patients: Study of Risk Factors. (scirp.org)
  • Oguchi, H., Miyasaka, M. and Tokunaga, S. (1992) Hepatitis Virus Infection (HBV and HCV) in Eleven Japanese Hemodialysis Units. (scirp.org)
  • Background: Chronic hemodialysis patients are at higher risk for acquiring hepatitis C virus (HCV). (ebscohost.com)
  • High prevalence of a rare hepatitis C virus in patients treated in the same hemodialysis unit: Evidence for nosocomial transmission of HCV. (ebscohost.com)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of hepatitis among patients treated with maintenance hemodialysis. (ebscohost.com)
  • Occult hepatitis C virus infection in Iranian hemodialysis patients. (ebscohost.com)
  • Harvoni is already approved as a once-daily single tablet regimen for the treatment of chronic HCV genotype 1 infection in adults. (empr.com)
  • As an initial assessment, CDC partnered with the Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH) and an urban health-care system in southeastern Michigan to evaluate the completeness of reporting (including case status, demographic, and risk factor information) of cases of chronic HBV and HCV infection among persons who were enrolled in a multicenter chronic hepatitis cohort study ( 2 ) to the MDCH viral hepatitis registry. (cdc.gov)
  • Cases from the cohort study that matched in MDSS were queried for case classification in MDSS (acute, chronic, or both) and for the presence of age, sex, and risk factor data in MDSS. (cdc.gov)
  • Classic cytotoxic T cells (CTL) may primarily damage the liver in chronic HCV, but there may be subpopulations of T cells that protect against liver inflammation. (nih.gov)