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Rational sequence of tests for pancreatic function. (1/24046)Of 144 patients with suspected pancreatic disease in whom a 75Se-selenomethionine scan was performed, endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) was successful in 108 (75%). The final diagnosis is known in 100 patients and has been compared with scan and ERP findings. A normal scan reliably indicated a normal pancreas, but the scan was falsely abnormal in 30%. ERP distinguished between carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis in 84% of cases but was falsely normal in five patients with pancreatic disease. In extrahepatic biliary disease both tests tended to give falsely abnormal results. A sequence of tests to provide a rapid and reliable assessment of pancreatic function should be a radio-isotope scan, followed by ERP if the results of the scan are abnormal, and a Lundh test if the scan is abnormal but the findings on ERP are normal. (+info)
Enhanced Th1 activity and development of chronic enterocolitis in mice devoid of Stat3 in macrophages and neutrophils. (2/24046)We have generated mice with a cell type-specific disruption of the Stat3 gene in macrophages and neutrophils. The mutant mice are highly susceptible to endotoxin shock with increased production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF alpha, IL-1, IFN gamma, and IL-6. Endotoxin-induced production of inflammatory cytokines is augmented because the suppressive effects of IL-10 on inflammatory cytokine production from macrophages and neutrophils are completely abolished. The mice show a polarized immune response toward the Th1 type and develop chronic enterocolitis with age. Taken together, Stat3 plays a critical role in deactivation of macrophages and neutrophils mainly exerted by IL-10. (+info)
Reconstruction for chronic dysfunction of ileoanal pouches. (3/24046)OBJECTIVE: A retrospective review was performed to determine the results after surgical reconstruction for chronic dysfunction of ileal pouch-anal procedures for ulcerative colitis and familial colonic polyposis at a university medical center. METHODS: During the 20-year period from 1978 to 1998, 601 patients underwent colectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis, familial colonic polyposis, or Hirschsprung's disease. A J pouch was used for 351 patients, a lateral pouch for 221, an S pouch for 6, and a straight pull-through for 23. Acute complications after pouch construction have been detailed in previous publications and are not included in this study. Chronic pouch stasis with diarrhea, frequency, urgency, and soiling gradually became more severe in 164 patients (27.3%), associated with pouch enlargement, an elongated efferent limb, and obstruction to pouch outflow, largely related to the pouch configuration used during the authors' early clinical experience. These patients were sufficiently symptomatic to be considered for reconstruction (mean 68 months after IPAA). Transanal resection of an elongated IPAA spout was performed on 58 patients; abdominoperineal mobilization of the pouch with resection and tapering of the lower end (AP reconstruction) and ileoanal anastomosis on 83; pouch removal and new pouch construction on 7; and conversion of a straight pull-through to a pouch on 16. RESULTS: Good long-term results (mean 7.7 years) with improvement in symptoms occurred in 98% of transanal resections, 91.5% of AP reconstructions, 86% of new pouch constructions, and 100% of conversions of a straight pull-through to a pouch. The average number of bowel movements per 24 hours at 6 months was 4.8. Complications occurred in 11.6% of reconstructed patients. Five of the 164 patients (3.1%) required eventual pouch removal and permanent ileostomy. The high rate of pouch revision in this series of patients undergoing IPAA is due to a policy of aggressive correction when patients do not experience an optimal functional result, or have a progressive worsening of their status. CONCLUSIONS: Although occasionally a major undertaking, reconstruction of ileoanal pouches with progressive dysfunction due to large size or a long efferent limb has resulted in marked improvement in intestinal function in >93% of patients and has reduced the need for late pouch removal. (+info)
Risk of major liver resection in patients with underlying chronic liver disease: a reappraisal. (4/24046)OBJECTIVE: To explore the relation of patient age, status of liver parenchyma, presence of markers of active hepatitis, and blood loss to subsequent death and complications in patients undergoing a similar major hepatectomy for the same disease using a standardized technique. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Major liver resection carries a high risk of postoperative liver failure in patients with chronic liver disease. However, this underlying liver disease may comprise a wide range of pathologic changes that have, in the past, not been well defined. METHODS: The nontumorous liver of 55 patients undergoing a right hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma was classified according to a semiquantitative grading of fibrosis. The authors analyzed the influence of this pathologic feature and of other preoperative variables on the risk of postoperative death and complications. RESULTS: Serum bilirubin and prothrombin time increased on postoperative day 1, and their speed of recovery was influenced by the severity of fibrosis. Incidence of death from liver failure was 32% in patients with grade 4 fibrosis (cirrhosis) and 0% in patients with grade 0 to 3 fibrosis. The preoperative serum aspartate transaminase (ASAT) level ranged from 68 to 207 IU/l in patients with cirrhosis who died, compared with 20 to 62 in patients with cirrhosis who survived. CONCLUSION: A major liver resection such as a right hepatectomy may be safely performed in patients with underlying liver disease, provided no additional risk factors are present. Patients with a preoperative increase in ASAT should undergo a liver biopsy to rule out the presence of grade 4 fibrosis, which should contraindicate this resection. (+info)
In vitro induction of activation-induced cell death in lymphocytes from chronic periodontal lesions by exogenous Fas ligand. (5/24046)Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease which gradually destroys the supporting tissues of the teeth, leading to tooth loss in adults. The lesions are characterized by a persistence of inflammatory cells in gingival and periodontal connective tissues. To understand what mechanisms are involved in the establishment of chronic lesions, we hypothesized that infiltrating lymphocytes might be resistant to apoptosis. However, both Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were weakly detected in lymphocytes from the lesions, compared with those from peripheral blood, suggesting that these cells are susceptible to apoptosis. Nevertheless, very few apoptotic cells were observed in tissue sections from the lesions. Lymphocytes from the lesions expressed mRNA encoding Fas, whereas Fas-ligand mRNA was very weakly expressed in lymphocytes from the lesions and in periodontal tissues. Since the results indicated that lymphocytes in the lesions might be susceptible to Fas-mediated apoptosis but lack the death signal, we next investigated if these lymphocytes actually undergo apoptosis by the addition of anti-Fas antibodies in vitro. Fas-positive lymphocytes from the lesions underwent apoptosis by these antibodies, but Fas-negative lymphocytes and Fas-positive peripheral lymphocytes did not undergo apoptosis by these antibodies. These results indicate that lymphocytes in the lesions are susceptible to activation-induced cell death and are induced to die by apoptosis after the addition of exogenous Fas ligand. (+info)
The sialylation of bronchial mucins secreted by patients suffering from cystic fibrosis or from chronic bronchitis is related to the severity of airway infection. (6/24046)Bronchial mucins were purified from the sputum of 14 patients suffering from cystic fibrosis and 24 patients suffering from chronic bronchitis, using two CsBr density-gradient centrifugations. The presence of DNA in each secretion was used as an index to estimate the severity of infection and allowed to subdivide the mucins into four groups corresponding to infected or noninfected patients with cystic fibrosis, and to infected or noninfected patients with chronic bronchitis. All infected patients suffering from cystic fibrosis were colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. As already observed, the mucins from the patients with cystic fibrosis had a higher sulfate content than the mucins from the patients with chronic bronchitis. However, there was a striking increase in the sialic acid content of the mucins secreted by severely infected patients as compared to noninfected patients. Thirty-six bronchial mucins out of 38 contained the sialyl-Lewis x epitope which was even expressed by subjects phenotyped as Lewis negative, indicating that at least one alpha1,3 fucosyltransferase different from the Lewis enzyme was involved in the biosynthesis of this epitope. Finally, the sialyl-Lewis x determinant was also overexpressed in the mucins from severely infected patients. Altogether these differences in the glycosylation process of mucins from infected and noninfected patients suggest that bacterial infection influences the expression of sialyltransferases and alpha1,3 fucosyltransferases in the human bronchial mucosa. (+info)
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy and quality of life. (7/24046)The quality of life (QOL) of 79 people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes and 37 non-diabetic controls was assessed using the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). The NHP consists of six domains assessing energy, sleep, pain, physical mobility, emotional reactions and social isolation. Symptomatic diabetic neuropathy was present in 41 of the patients. The neuropathy patients had significantly higher scores (impaired QOL) in 5/6 NHP domains than either the other diabetic patients (p < 0.01) or the non-diabetic (p < 0.001) controls. These were: emotional reaction, energy, pain, physical mobility and sleep. The diabetic patients without neuropathy also had significantly impaired QOL for 4/6 NHP domains compared with the non-diabetic control group (p < 0.05) (energy, pain, physical mobility and sleep). This quantification of the detrimental effect on QOL of diabetes, and in particular of chronic symptomatic peripheral diabetic neuropathy, emphasizes the need for further research into effective management of these patients. (+info)
Reliability of information on physical activity and other chronic disease risk factors among US women aged 40 years or older. (8/24046)Data on chronic disease risk behaviors and related variables, including barriers to and attitudes toward physical activity, are lacking for women of some racial/ethnic groups. A test-retest study was conducted from July 1996 through June 1997 among US women (n = 199) aged 40 years or more who were white, black, American Indian/Alaska Native, or Hispanic. The sample was selected and interviews were conducted using a modified version of the methods of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. For behavioral risk factors such as physical inactivity, smoking, and low fruit and vegetable consumption, group prevalences were generally similar between interviews 1 and 2. However, kappa values for selected physical activity variables ranged from 0.26 to 0.51 and tended to be lower for black women. Discordance was low for variables on cigarette smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (kappa = 0.64-0.92). Discordance was high (kappa = 0.33) for low consumption of fruits and vegetables. Additional variables for barriers to and access to exercise ranged widely across racial/ethnic groups and in terms of measures of agreement. These methods illustrate an efficient way to sample and assess the reliability of data collected from women of racial/ethnic minority groups. (+info)
The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.
In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.
What is a Chronic Disease?
A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:
2. Heart disease
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
Impact of Chronic Diseases
The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.
Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.
Addressing Chronic Diseases
Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:
1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.
Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.
There are several types of diabetes mellitus, including:
1. Type 1 DM: This is an autoimmune condition in which the body's immune system attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, resulting in a complete deficiency of insulin production. It typically develops in childhood or adolescence, and patients with this condition require lifelong insulin therapy.
2. Type 2 DM: This is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for around 90% of all cases. It is caused by a combination of insulin resistance (where the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin) and impaired insulin secretion. It is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and a diet high in sugar and unhealthy fats.
3. Gestational DM: This type of diabetes develops during pregnancy, usually in the second or third trimester. Hormonal changes and insulin resistance can cause blood sugar levels to rise, putting both the mother and baby at risk.
4. LADA (Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults): This is a form of type 1 DM that develops in adults, typically after the age of 30. It shares features with both type 1 and type 2 DM.
5. MODY (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young): This is a rare form of diabetes caused by genetic mutations that affect insulin production. It typically develops in young adulthood and can be managed with lifestyle changes and/or medication.
The symptoms of diabetes mellitus can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:
1. Increased thirst and urination
3. Blurred vision
4. Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
5. Tingling or numbness in hands and feet
6. Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections
7. Flu-like symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, and stomach pain
8. Dark, velvety skin patches (acanthosis nigricans)
9. Yellowish color of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
10. Delayed healing of cuts and wounds
If left untreated, diabetes mellitus can lead to a range of complications, including:
1. Heart disease and stroke
2. Kidney damage and failure
3. Nerve damage (neuropathy)
4. Eye damage (retinopathy)
5. Foot damage (neuropathic ulcers)
6. Cognitive impairment and dementia
7. Increased risk of infections and other diseases, such as pneumonia, gum disease, and urinary tract infections.
It is important to note that not all individuals with diabetes will experience these complications, and that proper management of the condition can greatly reduce the risk of developing these complications.
1. Coronary artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart.
2. Heart failure: A condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
3. Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms that can be too fast, too slow, or irregular.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves that control blood flow through the heart.
5. Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy): Disease of the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure.
6. Congenital heart disease: Defects in the heart's structure and function that are present at birth.
7. Peripheral artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the arms, legs, and other organs.
8. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg.
9. Pulmonary embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, which can be caused by a blood clot or other debris.
10. Stroke: A condition in which there is a lack of oxygen to the brain due to a blockage or rupture of blood vessels.
Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.
Types of Neoplasms
There are many different types of neoplasms, including:
1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.
Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms
The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:
1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.
Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms
The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:
1. Unusual lumps or swelling
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms
The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.
The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:
1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
Prevention of Neoplasms
While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:
1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.
It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.
There are several different types of obesity, including:
1. Central obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
2. Peripheral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat in the hips, thighs, and arms.
3. Visceral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.
4. Mixed obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by both central and peripheral obesity.
Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lack of physical activity, poor diet, sleep deprivation, and certain medications. Treatment for obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet, and in some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to achieve weight loss.
Preventing obesity is important for overall health and well-being, and can be achieved through a variety of strategies, including:
1. Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is low in added sugars, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, or swimming.
3. Getting enough sleep each night.
4. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing.
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking.
6. Monitoring weight and body mass index (BMI) on a regular basis to identify any changes or potential health risks.
7. Seeking professional help from a healthcare provider or registered dietitian for personalized guidance on weight management and healthy lifestyle choices.
There are many different types of anemia, each with its own set of causes and symptoms. Some common types of anemia include:
1. Iron-deficiency anemia: This is the most common type of anemia and is caused by a lack of iron in the diet or a problem with the body's ability to absorb iron. Iron is essential for making hemoglobin.
2. Vitamin deficiency anemia: This type of anemia is caused by a lack of vitamins, such as vitamin B12 or folate, that are necessary for red blood cell production.
3. Anemia of chronic disease: This type of anemia is seen in people with chronic diseases, such as kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer.
4. Sickle cell anemia: This is a genetic disorder that affects the structure of hemoglobin and causes red blood cells to be shaped like crescents or sickles.
5. Thalassemia: This is a genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin and can cause anemia, fatigue, and other health problems.
The symptoms of anemia can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include fatigue, weakness, pale skin, shortness of breath, and dizziness or lightheadedness. Anemia can be diagnosed with a blood test that measures the number and size of red blood cells, as well as the levels of hemoglobin and other nutrients.
Treatment for anemia depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, dietary changes or supplements may be sufficient to treat anemia. For example, people with iron-deficiency anemia may need to increase their intake of iron-rich foods or take iron supplements. In other cases, medical treatment may be necessary to address underlying conditions such as kidney disease or cancer.
Preventing anemia is important for maintaining good health and preventing complications. To prevent anemia, it is important to eat a balanced diet that includes plenty of iron-rich foods, vitamin C-rich foods, and other essential nutrients. It is also important to avoid certain substances that can interfere with the absorption of nutrients, such as alcohol and caffeine. Additionally, it is important to manage any underlying medical conditions and seek medical attention if symptoms of anemia persist or worsen over time.
In conclusion, anemia is a common blood disorder that can have significant health implications if left untreated. It is important to be aware of the different types of anemia, their causes, and symptoms in order to seek medical attention if necessary. With proper diagnosis and treatment, many cases of anemia can be successfully managed and prevented.
There are two types of hypertension:
1. Primary Hypertension: This type of hypertension has no identifiable cause and is also known as essential hypertension. It accounts for about 90% of all cases of hypertension.
2. Secondary Hypertension: This type of hypertension is caused by an underlying medical condition or medication. It accounts for about 10% of all cases of hypertension.
Some common causes of secondary hypertension include:
* Kidney disease
* Adrenal gland disorders
* Hormonal imbalances
* Certain medications
* Sleep apnea
* Cocaine use
There are also several risk factors for hypertension, including:
* Age (the risk increases with age)
* Family history of hypertension
* Lack of exercise
* High sodium intake
* Low potassium intake
Hypertension is often asymptomatic, and it can cause damage to the blood vessels and organs over time. Some potential complications of hypertension include:
* Heart disease (e.g., heart attacks, heart failure)
* Kidney disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease)
* Vision loss (e.g., retinopathy)
* Peripheral artery disease
Hypertension is typically diagnosed through blood pressure readings taken over a period of time. Treatment for hypertension may include lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, stress management), medications, or a combination of both. The goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life.
Asthma can cause recurring episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. These symptoms occur when the muscles surrounding the airways contract, causing the airways to narrow and swell. This can be triggered by exposure to environmental allergens or irritants such as pollen, dust mites, pet dander, or respiratory infections.
There is no cure for asthma, but it can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment typically includes inhaled corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, bronchodilators to open up the airways, and rescue medications to relieve symptoms during an asthma attack.
Asthma is a common condition that affects people of all ages, but it is most commonly diagnosed in children. According to the American Lung Association, more than 25 million Americans have asthma, and it is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children under the age of 18.
While there is no cure for asthma, early diagnosis and proper treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the condition.
Type 2 diabetes can be managed through a combination of diet, exercise, and medication. In some cases, lifestyle changes may be enough to control blood sugar levels, while in other cases, medication or insulin therapy may be necessary. Regular monitoring of blood sugar levels and follow-up with a healthcare provider are important for managing the condition and preventing complications.
Common symptoms of type 2 diabetes include:
* Increased thirst and urination
* Blurred vision
* Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
* Tingling or numbness in the hands and feet
* Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections
If left untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to a range of complications, including:
* Heart disease and stroke
* Kidney damage and failure
* Nerve damage and pain
* Eye damage and blindness
* Foot damage and amputation
The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is not known, but it is believed to be linked to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as:
* Obesity and excess body weight
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet and nutrition
* Age and family history
* Certain ethnicities (e.g., African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native American)
* History of gestational diabetes or delivering a baby over 9 lbs.
There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but it can be managed and controlled through a combination of lifestyle changes and medication. With proper treatment and self-care, people with type 2 diabetes can lead long, healthy lives.
1. Chronic bronchitis: This condition causes inflammation of the bronchial tubes (the airways that lead to the lungs), which can cause coughing and excessive mucus production.
2. Emphysema: This condition damages the air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult for the body to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide.
The main causes of COPD are smoking and long-term exposure to air pollution, although genetics can also play a role. Symptoms of COPD can include shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing, particularly during exercise or exertion. The disease can be diagnosed through pulmonary function tests, chest X-rays, and blood tests.
There is no cure for COPD, but there are several treatment options available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These include medications such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids, pulmonary rehabilitation programs, and lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and increasing physical activity. In severe cases, oxygen therapy may be necessary to help the patient breathe.
Prevention is key in avoiding the development of COPD, and this includes not smoking and avoiding exposure to air pollution. Early detection and treatment can also help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. With proper management, many people with COPD are able to lead active and productive lives.
Prevalence: Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide, affecting approximately 1.6 billion people, with women being more likely to be affected than men.
Causes: The main cause of iron deficiency anemia is a diet that does not provide enough iron. Other causes include:
* Poor absorption of iron from the diet
* Increased demand for iron due to growth or pregnancy
* Blood loss due to menstruation, internal bleeding, or surgery
* Chronic diseases such as kidney disease, cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis
Signs and symptoms: The signs and symptoms of iron deficiency anemia may include:
* Fatigue and weakness
* Pale skin
* Shortness of breath
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Cold hands and feet
Diagnosis: Iron deficiency anemia is diagnosed based on a physical exam, medical history, and laboratory tests, including:
* Complete blood count (CBC) to check for low red blood cell count and low hemoglobin level
* Serum iron and transferrin tests to check for low iron levels
* Ferritin test to check for low iron stores
Treatment: Treatment of iron deficiency anemia involves correcting the underlying cause, which may include:
* Dietary changes to increase iron intake
* Iron supplements to replenish iron stores
* Addressing any underlying causes such as bleeding or malabsorption
Complications: Iron deficiency anemia can lead to complications such as:
* Heart failure
* Increased risk of infections
* Poor cognitive function and development in children
Prevention: Preventing iron deficiency anemia involves consuming enough iron through a balanced diet, avoiding foods that inhibit iron absorption, and addressing any underlying causes. It is also important to maintain good overall health, including managing chronic conditions such as bleeding or malabsorption.
There are many different types of heart diseases, including:
1. Coronary artery disease: The buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, leading to chest pain or a heart attack.
2. Heart failure: When the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs, leading to fatigue, shortness of breath, and swelling in the legs.
3. Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms, such as atrial fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia, which can cause palpitations, dizziness, and shortness of breath.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves, which can lead to blood leaking back into the chambers or not being pumped effectively.
5. Cardiomyopathy: Disease of the heart muscle, which can lead to weakened heart function and heart failure.
6. Heart murmurs: Abnormal sounds heard during a heartbeat, which can be caused by defects in the heart valves or abnormal blood flow.
7. Congenital heart disease: Heart defects present at birth, such as holes in the heart or abnormal blood vessels.
8. Myocardial infarction (heart attack): Damage to the heart muscle due to a lack of oxygen, often caused by a blockage in a coronary artery.
9. Cardiac tamponade: Fluid accumulation around the heart, which can cause compression of the heart and lead to cardiac arrest.
10. Endocarditis: Infection of the inner lining of the heart, which can cause fever, fatigue, and heart valve damage.
Heart diseases can be diagnosed through various tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, stress test, and blood tests. Treatment options depend on the specific condition and may include lifestyle changes, medication, surgery, or a combination of these.
There are several key features of inflammation:
1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.
Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.
There are several types of inflammation, including:
1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.
There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:
1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.
It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:
3. Heart disease
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.
Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative condition that occurs when the cartilage that cushions the joints breaks down over time, causing the bones to rub together. It is the most common form of arthritis and typically affects older adults.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune condition that occurs when the body's immune system attacks the lining of the joints, leading to inflammation and pain. It can affect anyone, regardless of age, and is typically seen in women.
Other types of arthritis include psoriatic arthritis, gouty arthritis, and lupus-related arthritis. Treatment for arthritis depends on the type and severity of the condition, but can include medications such as pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Physical therapy and lifestyle changes, such as exercise and weight loss, can also be helpful. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged joints.
Arthritis is a leading cause of disability worldwide, affecting over 50 million adults in the United States alone. It can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life, making everyday activities such as walking, dressing, and grooming difficult and painful. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
Being overweight can increase the risk of various health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. It can also affect a person's mental health and overall quality of life.
There are several ways to assess whether someone is overweight or not. One common method is using the BMI, which is calculated based on height and weight. Another method is measuring body fat percentage, which can be done with specialized tools such as skinfold calipers or bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA).
Losing weight and maintaining a healthy weight can be achieved through a combination of diet, exercise, and lifestyle changes. Some examples of healthy weight loss strategies include:
* Eating a balanced diet that is high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein sources
* Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, running, swimming, or weight training
* Avoiding fad diets and quick fixes
* Getting enough sleep and managing stress levels
* Setting realistic weight loss goals and tracking progress over time.
Examples of acute diseases include:
1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.
Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Examples of slow virus diseases include:
1. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS): A condition characterized by persistent fatigue, muscle pain, and cognitive impairment, which is believed to be caused by a viral infection.
2. Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME): A chronic condition that is similar to CFS, but with additional symptoms such as muscle weakness and sensitivity to light and sound.
3. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML): A rare brain infection caused by the John Cunningham virus (JCV), which can cause a variety of neurological symptoms including weakness, vision loss, and cognitive impairment.
4. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE): A fatal brain disease caused by the measles virus, which can cause a range of neurological symptoms including seizures, confusion, and loss of coordination.
5. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND): A group of cognitive and neurological conditions that affect individuals with HIV infection, including HIV dementia, which can cause a range of symptoms including memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with concentration.
Slow virus diseases are often challenging to diagnose and treat due to the long incubation period and the non-specific nature of their symptoms. However, research into these conditions is ongoing, and new diagnostic tools and treatments are being developed to improve outcomes for patients with slow virus diseases.
Some common signs and symptoms of mental fatigue include:
* Difficulty concentrating or paying attention
* Memory lapses or decreased ability to learn new information
* Mood changes, such as irritability or apathy
* Decreased motivation or interest in activities
* Increased errors or mistakes in work or other tasks
* Difficulty multitasking or processing complex information
* Feeling overwhelmed or burnt out
* Physical symptoms like headaches, muscle tension, or gastrointestinal issues.
Mental fatigue can be diagnosed by a mental health professional through a combination of clinical interviews and assessment tools, such as questionnaires or cognitive tests. Treatment may involve addressing underlying conditions or stressors, practicing self-care, and developing strategies to manage fatigue and improve productivity.
Some common treatments for mental fatigue include:
* Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors that contribute to fatigue
* Mindfulness techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing, to reduce stress and improve focus
* Relaxation techniques, such as yoga or progressive muscle relaxation, to manage physical tension and promote relaxation
* Medications, such as stimulants or antidepressants, to help improve focus and energy levels
* Lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep, to improve overall physical and mental health.
It is important to seek professional help if symptoms of mental fatigue are impacting daily life or causing significant distress, as untreated mental fatigue can lead to more severe conditions like depression or burnout. With proper diagnosis and treatment, individuals can learn to manage mental fatigue and improve their overall well-being.
Examples of communicable diseases include:
1. Influenza (the flu)
3. Tuberculosis (TB)
6. Hepatitis B and C
8. Whooping cough (pertussis)
Communicable diseases can be spread through various means, including:
1. Direct contact with an infected person: This includes touching, hugging, shaking hands, or sharing food and drinks with someone who is infected.
2. Indirect contact with contaminated surfaces or objects: Pathogens can survive on surfaces for a period of time and can be transmitted to people who come into contact with those surfaces.
3. Airborne transmission: Some diseases, such as the flu and TB, can be spread through the air when an infected person talks, coughs, or sneezes.
4. Infected insect or animal bites: Diseases such as malaria and Lyme disease can be spread through the bites of infected mosquitoes or ticks.
Prevention and control of communicable diseases are essential to protect public health. This includes:
1. Vaccination: Vaccines can prevent many communicable diseases, such as measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), and influenza.
2. Personal hygiene: Frequent handwashing, covering the mouth when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick can help prevent the spread of diseases.
3. Improved sanitation and clean water: Proper disposal of human waste and adequate water treatment can reduce the risk of disease transmission.
4. Screening and testing: Identifying and isolating infected individuals can help prevent the spread of disease.
5. Antibiotics and antiviral medications: These drugs can treat and prevent some communicable diseases, such as bacterial infections and viral infections like HIV.
6. Public education: Educating the public about the risks and prevention of communicable diseases can help reduce the spread of disease.
7. Contact tracing: Identifying and monitoring individuals who have been in close contact with someone who has a communicable disease can help prevent further transmission.
8. Quarantine and isolation: Quarantine and isolation measures can be used to control outbreaks by separating infected individuals from those who are not infected.
9. Improved healthcare infrastructure: Adequate healthcare facilities, such as hospitals and clinics, can help diagnose and treat communicable diseases early on, reducing the risk of transmission.
10. International collaboration: Collaboration between countries and global organizations is crucial for preventing and controlling the spread of communicable diseases that are a threat to public health worldwide, such as pandemic flu and SARS.
Some common examples of respiratory tract diseases include:
1. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
2. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the airways (bronchi) that can cause coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing.
3. Asthma: A chronic condition that causes inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A progressive condition that makes it difficult to breathe due to damage to the lungs over time.
5. Tuberculosis: An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis that primarily affects the lungs.
6. Laryngitis: Inflammation of the voice box (larynx) that can cause hoarseness and difficulty speaking.
7. Tracheitis: Inflammation of the trachea, or windpipe, that can cause coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing.
8. Croup: An infection of the throat and lungs that can cause a barky cough and difficulty breathing.
9. Pleurisy: Inflammation of the lining around the lungs (pleura) that can cause chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing.
10. Pertussis (whooping cough): An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis that can cause coughing fits and difficulty breathing.
These are just a few examples of the many different types of respiratory tract diseases that exist. Each one has its own unique symptoms, causes, and treatment options.
The exact cause of depressive disorder is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. Some common risk factors for developing depressive disorder include:
* Family history of depression
* Traumatic events, such as abuse or loss
* Chronic stress
* Substance abuse
* Chronic illness or chronic pain
There are several different types of depressive disorders, including:
* Major depressive disorder (MDD): This is the most common type of depression, characterized by one or more major depressive episodes in a person's lifetime.
* Persistent depressive disorder (PDD): This type of depression is characterized by persistent, low-grade symptoms that last for two years or more.
* Bipolar disorder: This is a mood disorder that involves periods of both depression and mania or hypomania.
* Postpartum depression (PPD): This is a type of depression that occurs in women after childbirth.
* Severe depression: This is a severe and debilitating form of depression that can interfere with daily life and relationships.
Treatment for depressive disorder typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, such as antidepressant medications and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Other forms of therapy, such as psychodynamic therapy or interpersonal therapy, may also be effective. Lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep, can also help manage symptoms.
It's important to seek professional help if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of depressive disorder. With proper treatment, many people are able to recover from depression and lead fulfilling lives.
There are several symptoms of RA, including:
1. Joint pain and stiffness, especially in the hands and feet
2. Swollen and warm joints
3. Redness and tenderness in the affected areas
4. Fatigue, fever, and loss of appetite
5. Loss of range of motion in the affected joints
6. Firm bumps of tissue under the skin (rheumatoid nodules)
RA can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, blood tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays or ultrasound. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and biologic agents. Lifestyle modifications such as exercise and physical therapy can also be helpful in managing symptoms and improving quality of life.
There is no cure for RA, but early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can help to slow the progression of the disease and reduce symptoms. With proper management, many people with RA are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.
Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.
There are several ways to measure body weight, including:
1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.
It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.
Types of Kidney Diseases:
1. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI): A sudden and reversible loss of kidney function that can be caused by a variety of factors, such as injury, infection, or medication.
2. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): A gradual and irreversible loss of kidney function that can lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
3. End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD): A severe and irreversible form of CKD that requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.
4. Glomerulonephritis: An inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste products.
5. Interstitial Nephritis: An inflammation of the tissue between the tubules and blood vessels in the kidneys.
6. Kidney Stone Disease: A condition where small, hard mineral deposits form in the kidneys and can cause pain, bleeding, and other complications.
7. Pyelonephritis: An infection of the kidneys that can cause inflammation, damage to the tissues, and scarring.
8. Renal Cell Carcinoma: A type of cancer that originates in the cells of the kidney.
9. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS): A condition where the immune system attacks the platelets and red blood cells, leading to anemia, low platelet count, and damage to the kidneys.
Symptoms of Kidney Diseases:
1. Blood in urine or hematuria
2. Proteinuria (excess protein in urine)
3. Reduced kidney function or renal insufficiency
4. Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet (edema)
5. Fatigue and weakness
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Abdominal pain
8. Frequent urination or polyuria
9. Increased thirst and drinking (polydipsia)
10. Weight loss
Diagnosis of Kidney Diseases:
1. Physical examination
2. Medical history
3. Urinalysis (test of urine)
4. Blood tests (e.g., creatinine, urea, electrolytes)
5. Imaging studies (e.g., X-rays, CT scans, ultrasound)
6. Kidney biopsy
7. Other specialized tests (e.g., 24-hour urinary protein collection, kidney function tests)
Treatment of Kidney Diseases:
1. Medications (e.g., diuretics, blood pressure medication, antibiotics)
2. Diet and lifestyle changes (e.g., low salt intake, increased water intake, physical activity)
3. Dialysis (filtering waste products from the blood when the kidneys are not functioning properly)
4. Kidney transplantation ( replacing a diseased kidney with a healthy one)
5. Other specialized treatments (e.g., plasmapheresis, hemodialysis)
Prevention of Kidney Diseases:
1. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
2. Monitoring blood pressure and blood sugar levels
3. Avoiding harmful substances (e.g., tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption)
4. Managing underlying medical conditions (e.g., diabetes, high blood pressure)
5. Getting regular check-ups and screenings
Early detection and treatment of kidney diseases can help prevent or slow the progression of the disease, reducing the risk of complications and improving quality of life. It is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of kidney diseases and seek medical attention if they are present.
These diseases can cause a wide range of symptoms such as fatigue, weight changes, and poor wound healing. Treatment options vary depending on the specific condition but may include lifestyle changes, medications, or surgery.
Mobility limitations can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, affecting their ability to perform daily activities such as bathing, dressing, grooming, cooking, and cleaning, as well as their ability to participate in social and recreational activities. They may also limit a person's access to healthcare services, education, employment, and other resources.
There are several types of mobility limitations, including:
1. Physical mobility limitation: resulting from physical disabilities or injuries that affect the musculoskeletal system, such as paralysis, amputations, or muscular dystrophy.
2. Cognitive mobility limitation: resulting from cognitive impairments such as dementia, Alzheimer's disease, or traumatic brain injury.
3. Environmental mobility limitation: resulting from environmental barriers such as stairs, uneven terrain, or lack of accessibility features in buildings and public spaces.
4. Technological mobility limitation: resulting from the lack of accessible transportation options, such as inadequate public transportation or the absence of wheelchair-accessible vehicles.
Assessing mobility limitations involves a comprehensive evaluation of an individual's physical, cognitive, and environmental factors to identify any barriers to movement and develop strategies for improving mobility and independence. This may involve working with healthcare professionals such as physicians, occupational therapists, and rehabilitation specialists to create a personalized treatment plan that addresses the individual's specific needs and goals.
Overall, addressing mobility limitations is essential for promoting health equity, improving quality of life, and enabling individuals with disabilities or chronic conditions to participate fully in their communities. By recognizing and addressing the various factors that contribute to mobility limitations, we can help create a more inclusive and accessible society for all.
1. Heart Disease: High blood sugar levels can damage the blood vessels and increase the risk of heart disease, which includes conditions like heart attacks, strokes, and peripheral artery disease.
2. Kidney Damage: Uncontrolled diabetes can damage the kidneys over time, leading to chronic kidney disease and potentially even kidney failure.
3. Nerve Damage: High blood sugar levels can damage the nerves in the body, causing numbness, tingling, and pain in the hands and feet. This is known as diabetic neuropathy.
4. Eye Problems: Diabetes can cause changes in the blood vessels of the eyes, leading to vision problems and even blindness. This is known as diabetic retinopathy.
5. Infections: People with diabetes are more prone to developing skin infections, urinary tract infections, and other types of infections due to their weakened immune system.
6. Amputations: Poor blood flow and nerve damage can lead to amputations of the feet or legs if left untreated.
7. Cognitive Decline: Diabetes has been linked to an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia.
8. Sexual Dysfunction: Men with diabetes may experience erectile dysfunction, while women with diabetes may experience decreased sexual desire and vaginal dryness.
9. Gum Disease: People with diabetes are more prone to developing gum disease and other oral health problems due to their increased risk of infection.
10. Flu and Pneumonia: Diabetes can weaken the immune system, making it easier to catch the flu and pneumonia.
It is important for people with diabetes to manage their condition properly to prevent or delay these complications from occurring. This includes monitoring blood sugar levels regularly, taking medication as prescribed by a doctor, and following a healthy diet and exercise plan. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can also help identify any potential complications early on and prevent them from becoming more serious.
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
The exact cause of cachexia is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to a combination of factors such as inflammation, hormonal imbalances, and changes in metabolism. Treatment for cachexia often focuses on addressing the underlying cause of the wasting, such as managing cancer or HIV/AIDS, as well as providing nutritional support and addressing any related complications.
In the medical field, cachexia is a serious condition that requires careful management to improve quality of life and outcomes for patients. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the signs and symptoms of cachexia and to provide appropriate treatment and support to affected individuals.
In hypochromic anemia, the RBCs are smaller than normal and have a lower concentration of hemoglobin. This can lead to a decrease in the amount of oxygen being carried to the body's tissues, which can cause fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
There are several possible causes of hypochromic anemia, including:
1. Iron deficiency: Iron is essential for the production of hemoglobin, so a lack of iron can lead to a decrease in hemoglobin levels and the development of hypochromic anemia.
2. Vitamin deficiency: Vitamins such as vitamin B12 and folate are important for the production of red blood cells, so a deficiency in these vitamins can lead to hypochromic anemia.
3. Chronic disease: Certain chronic diseases, such as kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer, can lead to hypochromic anemia.
4. Inherited disorders: Certain inherited disorders, such as thalassemia and sickle cell anemia, can cause hypochromic anemia.
5. Autoimmune disorders: Autoimmune disorders, such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia, can cause hypochromic anemia by destroying red blood cells.
Hypochromic anemia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as complete blood counts (CBCs) and serum iron studies. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the anemia and may include dietary changes, supplements, medication, or blood transfusions.
There are several types of osteoporosis, including:
1. Postmenopausal osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis is caused by hormonal changes that occur during menopause. It is the most common form of osteoporosis and affects women more than men.
2. Senile osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis is caused by aging and is the most common form of osteoporosis in older adults.
3. Juvenile osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis affects children and young adults and can be caused by a variety of genetic disorders or other medical conditions.
4. secondary osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis is caused by other medical conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, or ulcerative colitis.
The symptoms of osteoporosis can be subtle and may not appear until a fracture has occurred. They can include:
1. Back pain or loss of height
2. A stooped posture
3. Fractures, especially in the spine, hips, or wrists
4. Loss of bone density, as determined by a bone density test
The diagnosis of osteoporosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests, such as X-rays or bone density tests. Treatment for osteoporosis can include medications, such as bisphosphonates, hormone therapy, or rANK ligand inhibitors, as well as lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise and a balanced diet.
Preventing osteoporosis is important, as it can help to reduce the risk of fractures and other complications. To prevent osteoporosis, individuals can:
1. Get enough calcium and vitamin D throughout their lives
2. Exercise regularly, especially weight-bearing activities such as walking or running
3. Avoid smoking and excessive alcohol consumption
4. Maintain a healthy body weight
5. Consider taking medications to prevent osteoporosis, such as bisphosphonates, if recommended by a healthcare provider.
Coronary disease is often caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking, obesity, and a lack of physical activity. It can also be triggered by other medical conditions, such as diabetes and kidney disease.
The symptoms of coronary disease can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:
* Chest pain or discomfort (angina)
* Shortness of breath
* Swelling of the legs and feet
* Pain in the arms and back
Coronary disease is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and cardiac imaging. Treatment for coronary disease may include lifestyle changes, medications to control symptoms, and surgical procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.
Preventative measures for coronary disease include:
* Maintaining a healthy diet and exercise routine
* Quitting smoking and limiting alcohol consumption
* Managing high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and other underlying medical conditions
* Reducing stress through relaxation techniques or therapy.
1. Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM): This type of malnutrition is caused by a lack of protein and energy in the diet. It is common in developing countries and can lead to weight loss, weakness, and stunted growth in children.
2. Iron deficiency anemia: This type of malnutrition is caused by a lack of iron in the diet, which is necessary for the production of hemoglobin in red blood cells. Symptoms include fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
3. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies: Malnutrition can also be caused by a lack of essential vitamins and minerals such as vitamin A, vitamin D, calcium, and iodine. Symptoms vary depending on the specific deficiency but can include skin problems, impaired immune function, and poor wound healing.
4. Obesity: This type of malnutrition is caused by consuming too many calories and not enough nutrients. It can lead to a range of health problems including diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease.
Signs and symptoms of malnutrition can include:
* Weight loss or weight gain
* Fatigue or weakness
* Poor wound healing
* Hair loss
* Skin problems
* Increased infections
* Poor appetite or overeating
* Digestive problems such as diarrhea or constipation
* Impaired immune function
Treatment for malnutrition depends on the underlying cause and may include:
* Dietary changes: Eating a balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrient-rich foods can help to correct nutrient deficiencies.
* Nutritional supplements: In some cases, nutritional supplements such as vitamins or minerals may be recommended to help address specific deficiencies.
* Medical treatment: Certain medical conditions that contribute to malnutrition, such as digestive disorders or infections, may require treatment with medication or other interventions.
Prevention is key, and there are several steps you can take to help prevent malnutrition:
* Eat a balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrient-rich foods.
* Avoid restrictive diets or fad diets that limit specific food groups.
* Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water.
* Avoid excessive alcohol consumption, which can interfere with nutrient absorption and lead to malnutrition.
* Maintain a healthy weight through a combination of a balanced diet and regular exercise.
It is important to note that malnutrition can be subtle and may not always be easily recognizable. If you suspect you or someone you know may be experiencing malnutrition, it is important to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
The symptoms of MS can vary widely depending on the location and severity of the damage to the CNS. Common symptoms include:
* Weakness, numbness, or tingling in the limbs
* Vision problems, such as blurred vision, double vision, or loss of vision
* Difficulty with balance and coordination
* Tremors or spasticity
* Memory and concentration problems
* Mood changes, such as depression or mood swings
* Bladder and bowel problems
There is no cure for MS, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These treatments include:
* Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) - These medications are designed to reduce the frequency and severity of relapses, and they can also slow the progression of disability. Examples of DMTs include interferons, glatiramer acetate, natalizumab, fingolimod, dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide, and alemtuzumab.
* Steroids - Corticosteroids can help reduce inflammation during relapses, but they are not a long-term solution.
* Pain management medications - Pain relievers, such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), can help manage pain caused by MS.
* Muscle relaxants - These medications can help reduce spasticity and tremors.
* Physical therapy - Physical therapy can help improve mobility, balance, and strength.
* Occupational therapy - Occupational therapy can help with daily activities and assistive devices.
* Speech therapy - Speech therapy can help improve communication and swallowing difficulties.
* Psychological counseling - Counseling can help manage the emotional and psychological aspects of MS.
It's important to note that each person with MS is unique, and the best treatment plan will depend on the individual's specific symptoms, needs, and preferences. It's essential to work closely with a healthcare provider to find the most effective treatment plan.
Glycosuria can also occur in healthy individuals who consume a diet high in sugar or refined carbohydrates, but this is not considered a pathological condition. In contrast, renal glycosuria is a sign of underlying kidney dysfunction and may be indicative of more severe complications if left untreated.
There are several types of avitaminosis, including:
1. Scurvy: A condition caused by a lack of vitamin C, leading to symptoms such as bleeding gums, joint pain, and weakened immune system.
2. Beriberi: A condition caused by a lack of vitamin B1 (thiamine), leading to symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and heart failure.
3. Pellagra: A condition caused by a lack of vitamin B3 (niacin), leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia.
4. Anemia: A condition caused by a lack of vitamins and minerals necessary for red blood cell production, leading to symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
5. Rickets: A condition caused by a lack of vitamin D and calcium, leading to softening of the bones in children.
6. Osteomalacia: A condition caused by a lack of vitamin D and calcium, leading to softening of the bones in adults.
7. Vitamin B12 deficiency: A condition caused by a lack of vitamin B12, leading to symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and neurological problems.
The treatment for avitaminosis depends on the specific type and severity of the condition. In some cases, dietary changes may be sufficient, while in other cases, supplements or medication may be necessary. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
There are several types of dyslipidemias, including:
1. Hyperlipidemia: Elevated levels of lipids and lipoproteins in the blood, which can increase the risk of CVD.
2. Hypolipidemia: Low levels of lipids and lipoproteins in the blood, which can also increase the risk of CVD.
3. Mixed dyslipidemia: A combination of hyperlipidemia and hypolipidemia.
4. Familial dyslipidemia: An inherited condition that affects the levels of lipids and lipoproteins in the blood.
5. Acquired dyslipidemia: A condition caused by other factors, such as poor diet or medication side effects.
Dyslipidemias can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including fasting blood sugar (FBS), lipid profile, and apolipoprotein testing. Treatment for dyslipidemias often involves lifestyle changes, such as dietary modifications and increased physical activity, as well as medications to lower cholesterol and triglycerides.
In conclusion, dyslipidemias are abnormalities in the levels or composition of lipids and lipoproteins in the blood that can increase the risk of CVD. They can be caused by a variety of factors and diagnosed through several tests. Treatment often involves lifestyle changes and medications to lower cholesterol and triglycerides.
There are two main types of heart failure:
1. Left-sided heart failure: This occurs when the left ventricle, which is the main pumping chamber of the heart, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the lungs and other organs.
2. Right-sided heart failure: This occurs when the right ventricle, which pumps blood to the lungs, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the body's tissues and organs.
Symptoms of heart failure may include:
* Shortness of breath
* Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet
* Swelling in the abdomen
* Weight gain
* Coughing up pink, frothy fluid
* Rapid or irregular heartbeat
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
Treatment for heart failure typically involves a combination of medications and lifestyle changes. Medications may include diuretics to remove excess fluid from the body, ACE inhibitors or beta blockers to reduce blood pressure and improve blood flow, and aldosterone antagonists to reduce the amount of fluid in the body. Lifestyle changes may include a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction techniques. In severe cases, heart failure may require hospitalization or implantation of a device such as an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or a left ventricular assist device (LVAD).
It is important to note that heart failure is a chronic condition, and it requires ongoing management and monitoring to prevent complications and improve quality of life. With proper treatment and lifestyle changes, many people with heart failure are able to manage their symptoms and lead active lives.
Vitamin D deficiency can occur due to several reasons, including:
1. Limited sun exposure: Vitamin D is produced in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight. People who live in regions with limited sunlight, such as far north or south latitudes, may experience vitamin D deficiency.
2. Poor dietary intake: Vitamin D is found in few foods, such as fatty fish, egg yolks, and fortified dairy products. People who follow a restrictive diet or do not consume enough of these foods may develop vitamin D deficiency.
3. Inability to convert vitamin D: Vitamin D undergoes two stages of conversion in the body before it becomes active. The first stage occurs in the skin, and the second stage occurs in the liver. People who have a genetic disorder or certain medical conditions may experience difficulty converting vitamin D, leading to deficiency.
4. Certain medications: Some medications, such as anticonvulsants and glucocorticoids, can interfere with vitamin D metabolism and lead to deficiency.
5. Increased demand: Vitamin D deficiency can occur in people who have high demands for vitamin D, such as pregnant or lactating women, older adults, and individuals with certain medical conditions like osteomalacia or rickets.
Vitamin D deficiency can cause a range of health problems, including:
1. Osteomalacia (softening of the bones)
2. Rickets (a childhood disease that causes softening of the bones)
3. Increased risk of fractures
4. Muscle weakness and pain
5. Fatigue and malaise
6. Depression and seasonal affective disorder
7. Autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis
8. Cardiovascular disease
9. Certain types of cancer, such as colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer
If you suspect you may have a vitamin D deficiency, it's important to speak with your healthcare provider, who can diagnose the deficiency through a blood test and recommend appropriate treatment. Treatment for vitamin D deficiency typically involves taking supplements or increasing exposure to sunlight.
1. Ischemic stroke: This is the most common type of stroke, accounting for about 87% of all strokes. It occurs when a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked, reducing blood flow to the brain.
2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing bleeding in the brain. High blood pressure, aneurysms, and blood vessel malformations can all cause hemorrhagic strokes.
3. Transient ischemic attack (TIA): Also known as a "mini-stroke," a TIA is a temporary interruption of blood flow to the brain that lasts for a short period of time, usually less than 24 hours. TIAs are often a warning sign for a future stroke and should be taken seriously.
Stroke can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the location and severity of the damage to the brain. Some common symptoms include:
* Weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg
* Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
* Sudden vision loss or double vision
* Dizziness, loss of balance, or sudden falls
* Severe headache
* Confusion, disorientation, or difficulty with memory
Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability and can have a significant impact on the quality of life for survivors. However, with prompt medical treatment and rehabilitation, many people are able to recover some or all of their lost functions and lead active lives.
The medical community has made significant progress in understanding stroke and developing effective treatments. Some of the most important advances include:
* Development of clot-busting drugs and mechanical thrombectomy devices to treat ischemic strokes
* Improved imaging techniques, such as CT and MRI scans, to diagnose stroke and determine its cause
* Advances in surgical techniques for hemorrhagic stroke
* Development of new medications to prevent blood clots and reduce the risk of stroke
Despite these advances, stroke remains a significant public health problem. According to the American Heart Association, stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the United States and the leading cause of long-term disability. In 2017, there were over 795,000 strokes in the United States alone.
There are several risk factors for stroke that can be controlled or modified. These include:
* High blood pressure
* Diabetes mellitus
* High cholesterol levels
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet
In addition to these modifiable risk factors, there are also several non-modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as age (stroke risk increases with age), family history of stroke, and previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).
The medical community has made significant progress in understanding the causes and risk factors for stroke, as well as developing effective treatments and prevention strategies. However, more research is needed to improve outcomes for stroke survivors and reduce the overall burden of this disease.
1. Abdominal obesity (excess fat around the waistline)
2. High blood pressure (hypertension)
3. Elevated fasting glucose (high blood sugar)
4. High serum triglycerides (elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood)
5. Low HDL cholesterol (low levels of "good" cholesterol)
Having three or more of these conditions is considered a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome X. It is estimated that approximately 34% of adults in the United States have this syndrome, and it is more common in women than men. Risk factors for developing metabolic syndrome include obesity, lack of physical activity, poor diet, and a family history of type 2 diabetes or CVD.
The term "metabolic syndrome" was first introduced in the medical literature in the late 1980s, and since then, it has been the subject of extensive research. The exact causes of metabolic syndrome are not yet fully understood, but it is believed to be related to insulin resistance, inflammation, and changes in body fat distribution.
Treatment for metabolic syndrome typically involves lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, regular physical activity, and a healthy diet. Medications such as blood pressure-lowering drugs, cholesterol-lowering drugs, and anti-diabetic medications may also be prescribed if necessary. It is important to note that not everyone with metabolic syndrome will develop type 2 diabetes or CVD, but the risk is increased. Therefore, early detection and treatment are crucial in preventing these complications.
In the medical field, fatigue is often evaluated using a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to determine its underlying cause. Treatment for fatigue depends on the underlying cause, but may include rest, exercise, stress management techniques, and medication.
Some common causes of fatigue in the medical field include:
1. Sleep disorders, such as insomnia or sleep apnea
2. Chronic illnesses, such as diabetes, heart disease, or arthritis
3. Infections, such as the flu or a urinary tract infection
4. Medication side effects
5. Poor nutrition or hydration
6. Substance abuse
7. Chronic stress
8. Depression or anxiety
9. Hormonal imbalances
10. Autoimmune disorders, such as thyroiditis or lupus.
Fatigue can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as:
2. Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
3. Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid)
4. Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid)
5. Chronic fatigue syndrome
9. Heart failure
10. Liver or kidney disease.
It is important to seek medical attention if fatigue is severe, persistent, or accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, pain, or difficulty breathing. A healthcare professional can diagnose and treat the underlying cause of fatigue, improving overall quality of life.
Types of Nutrition Disorders:
1. Malnutrition: This occurs when the body does not receive enough nutrients to maintain proper bodily functions. Malnutrition can be caused by a lack of access to healthy food, digestive problems, or other underlying health issues.
2. Obesity: This is a condition where excess body fat accumulates to the point that it negatively affects health. Obesity can increase the risk of various diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.
3. Anorexia Nervosa: This is an eating disorder characterized by a fear of gaining weight or becoming obese. People with anorexia nervosa may restrict their food intake to an extreme degree, leading to malnutrition and other health problems.
4. Bulimia Nervosa: This is another eating disorder where individuals engage in binge eating followed by purging or other compensatory behaviors to rid the body of calories consumed. Bulimia nervosa can also lead to malnutrition and other health issues.
5. Diabetes Mellitus: This is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels. Type 2 diabetes, in particular, has been linked to poor dietary habits and a lack of physical activity.
6. Cardiovascular Disease: Poor dietary habits and a lack of physical activity can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, which includes heart disease and stroke.
7. Osteoporosis: A diet low in calcium and vitamin D can contribute to the development of osteoporosis, a condition characterized by brittle bones and an increased risk of fractures.
8. Gout: This is a type of arthritis caused by high levels of uric acid in the blood. A diet rich in purine-containing foods such as red meat, seafood, and certain grains can increase the risk of developing gout.
9. Dental Problems: Poor dietary habits, particularly a diet high in sugar, can contribute to dental problems such as cavities and gum disease.
10. Mental Health Disorders: Malnutrition and other health problems caused by poor dietary habits can also contribute to mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety.
In conclusion, poor dietary habits can have significant negative effects on an individual's overall health and well-being. It is essential to adopt healthy dietary habits such as consuming a balanced diet, limiting processed foods and sugars, and increasing physical activity to maintain good health and prevent chronic diseases.
Some common examples of digestive system diseases include:
1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): This is a chronic condition characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits such as constipation or diarrhea.
2. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): This includes conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, which cause chronic inflammation in the digestive tract.
3. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): This is a condition where stomach acid flows back up into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.
4. Peptic Ulcer: This is a sore on the lining of the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) that can cause pain, nausea, and vomiting.
5. Diverticulosis: This is a condition where small pouches form in the wall of the colon, which can become inflamed and cause symptoms such as abdominal pain and changes in bowel habits.
6. Constipation: This is a common condition where the stool is hard and difficult to pass, which can be caused by a variety of factors such as poor diet, dehydration, or certain medications.
7. Diabetes: This is a chronic condition that affects how the body regulates blood sugar levels, which can also affect the digestive system and cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
8. Celiac Disease: This is an autoimmune disorder where the immune system reacts to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye, causing inflammation and damage to the small intestine.
9. Lipidosis: This is a condition where there is an abnormal accumulation of fat in the body, which can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting.
10. Sarcoidosis: This is a chronic inflammatory disease that can affect various organs in the body, including the digestive system, causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss.
It's important to note that this list is not exhaustive and there are many other conditions that can cause abdominal pain. If you are experiencing persistent or severe abdominal pain, it's important to seek medical attention to determine the underlying cause and receive proper treatment.
There are several factors that can contribute to the development of pressure ulcers, including:
1. Pressure: Prolonged pressure on a specific area of the body can cause damage to the skin and underlying tissue.
2. Shear: Movement or sliding of the body against a surface can also contribute to the development of pressure ulcers.
3. Friction: Rubbing or friction against a surface can damage the skin and increase the risk of pressure ulcers.
4. Moisture: Skin that is wet or moist is more susceptible to pressure ulcers.
5. Incontinence: Lack of bladder or bowel control can lead to prolonged exposure of the skin to urine or stool, increasing the risk of pressure ulcers.
6. Immobility: People who are unable to move or change positions frequently are at higher risk for pressure ulcers.
7. Malnutrition: A diet that is deficient in essential nutrients can impair the body's ability to heal and increase the risk of pressure ulcers.
8. Smoking: Smoking can damage blood vessels and reduce blood flow to the skin, increasing the risk of pressure ulcers.
9. Diabetes: People with diabetes are at higher risk for pressure ulcers due to nerve damage and poor circulation.
10. Age: The elderly are more susceptible to pressure ulcers due to decreased mobility, decreased blood flow, and thinning skin.
Pressure ulcers can be classified into several different stages based on their severity and the extent of tissue damage. Treatment for pressure ulcers typically involves addressing the underlying cause and providing wound care to promote healing. This may include changing positions frequently, using support surfaces to reduce pressure, and managing incontinence and moisture. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to clean and close the wound.
Prevention is key in avoiding pressure ulcers. Strategies for prevention include:
1. Turning and repositioning frequently to redistribute pressure.
2. Using support surfaces that are designed to reduce pressure on the skin, such as foam mattresses or specialized cushions.
3. Maintaining good hygiene and keeping the skin clean and dry.
4. Managing incontinence and moisture to prevent skin irritation and breakdown.
5. Monitoring nutrition and hydration to ensure adequate intake.
6. Encouraging mobility and physical activity to improve circulation and reduce immobility.
7. Avoiding tight clothing and bedding that can constrict the skin.
8. Providing proper skin care and using topical creams or ointments to prevent skin breakdown.
In conclusion, pressure ulcers are a common complication of immobility and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Understanding the causes and risk factors for pressure ulcers is essential in preventing and managing these wounds. Proper assessment, prevention, and treatment strategies can improve outcomes and reduce the burden of pressure ulcers on patients and healthcare systems.
There are many different types of liver diseases, including:
1. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD): A condition caused by excessive alcohol consumption that can lead to inflammation, scarring, and cirrhosis.
2. Viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, B, and C are viral infections that can cause inflammation and damage to the liver.
3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A condition where there is an accumulation of fat in the liver, which can lead to inflammation and scarring.
4. Cirrhosis: A condition where the liver becomes scarred and cannot function properly.
5. Hemochromatosis: A genetic disorder that causes the body to absorb too much iron, which can damage the liver and other organs.
6. Wilson's disease: A rare genetic disorder that causes copper to accumulate in the liver and brain, leading to damage and scarring.
7. Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma): Cancer that develops in the liver, often as a result of cirrhosis or viral hepatitis.
Symptoms of liver disease can include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, and swelling in the legs. Treatment options for liver disease depend on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medication, or surgery. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.
Prevention of liver disease includes maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and B, and managing underlying medical conditions such as obesity and diabetes. Early detection and treatment of liver disease can help to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for patients.
Disease progression can be classified into several types based on the pattern of worsening:
1. Chronic progressive disease: In this type, the disease worsens steadily over time, with a gradual increase in symptoms and decline in function. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease.
2. Acute progressive disease: This type of disease worsens rapidly over a short period, often followed by periods of stability. Examples include sepsis, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke.
3. Cyclical disease: In this type, the disease follows a cycle of worsening and improvement, with periodic exacerbations and remissions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Recurrent disease: This type is characterized by episodes of worsening followed by periods of recovery. Examples include migraine headaches, asthma, and appendicitis.
5. Catastrophic disease: In this type, the disease progresses rapidly and unpredictably, with a poor prognosis. Examples include cancer, AIDS, and organ failure.
Disease progression can be influenced by various factors, including:
1. Genetics: Some diseases are inherited and may have a predetermined course of progression.
2. Lifestyle: Factors such as smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet can contribute to disease progression.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, allergens, and other environmental stressors can influence disease progression.
4. Medical treatment: The effectiveness of medical treatment can impact disease progression, either by slowing or halting the disease process or by causing unintended side effects.
5. Co-morbidities: The presence of multiple diseases or conditions can interact and affect each other's progression.
Understanding the type and factors influencing disease progression is essential for developing effective treatment plans and improving patient outcomes.
The exact cause of osteoarthritis is not known, but it is thought to be due to a combination of factors such as genetics, wear and tear on joints over time, and injuries or trauma to the joint. Osteoarthritis can affect any joint in the body, but it most commonly affects the hands, knees, hips, and spine.
The symptoms of osteoarthritis can vary depending on the severity of the condition and which joint is affected. Common symptoms include:
* Pain or tenderness in the joint
* Stiffness, especially after periods of rest or inactivity
* Limited mobility or loss of flexibility
* Grating or crackling sensations when the joint is moved
* Swelling or redness in the affected joint
* Muscle weakness or wasting
There is no cure for osteoarthritis, but there are several treatment options available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These include:
* Pain relief medications such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
* Physical therapy to improve mobility and strength
* Lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, regular exercise, and avoiding activities that exacerbate the condition
* Bracing or orthotics to support the affected joint
* Corticosteroid injections or hyaluronic acid injections to reduce inflammation and improve joint function
* Joint replacement surgery in severe cases where other treatments have failed.
Early diagnosis and treatment of osteoarthritis can help manage symptoms, slow the progression of the disease, and improve quality of life for individuals with this condition.
Crohn's disease can affect any part of the GI tract, from the mouth to the anus, and causes symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss. Ulcerative colitis primarily affects the colon and rectum and causes symptoms such as bloody stools, abdominal pain, and weight loss.
Both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic conditions, meaning they cannot be cured but can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment options for IBD include anti-inflammatory medications, immunosuppressants, and biologics. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged portions of the GI tract.
There is no known cause of IBD, although genetics, environmental factors, and an abnormal immune response are thought to play a role. The condition can have a significant impact on quality of life, particularly if left untreated or poorly managed. Complications of IBD include malnutrition, osteoporosis, and increased risk of colon cancer.
Preventing and managing IBD requires a comprehensive approach that includes medication, dietary changes, stress management, and regular follow-up with a healthcare provider. With proper treatment and lifestyle modifications, many people with IBD are able to manage their symptoms and lead active, fulfilling lives.
There are many different approaches to weight loss, and what works best for one person may not work for another. Some common strategies for weight loss include:
* Caloric restriction: Reducing daily caloric intake to create a calorie deficit that promotes weight loss.
* Portion control: Eating smaller amounts of food and avoiding overeating.
* Increased physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise, such as walking, running, swimming, or weightlifting, to burn more calories and build muscle mass.
* Behavioral modifications: Changing habits and behaviors related to eating and exercise, such as keeping a food diary or enlisting the support of a weight loss buddy.
Weight loss can have numerous health benefits, including:
* Improved blood sugar control
* Reduced risk of heart disease and stroke
* Lowered blood pressure
* Improved joint health and reduced risk of osteoarthritis
* Improved sleep quality
* Boosted mood and reduced stress levels
* Increased energy levels
However, weight loss can also be challenging, and it is important to approach it in a healthy and sustainable way. Crash diets and other extreme weight loss methods are not effective in the long term and can lead to nutrient deficiencies and other negative health consequences. Instead, it is important to focus on making sustainable lifestyle changes that can be maintained over time.
Some common misconceptions about weight loss include:
* All weight loss methods are effective for everyone.
* Weight loss should always be the primary goal of a fitness or health program.
* Crash diets and other extreme weight loss methods are a good way to lose weight quickly.
* Weight loss supplements and fad diets are a reliable way to achieve significant weight loss.
The most effective ways to lose weight and maintain weight loss include:
* Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is high in nutrient-dense foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats.
* Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, running, swimming, or weight training.
* Getting enough sleep and managing stress levels.
* Aiming for a gradual weight loss of 1-2 pounds per week.
* Focusing on overall health and wellness rather than just the number on the scale.
It is important to remember that weight loss is not always linear and can vary from week to week. It is also important to be patient and consistent with your weight loss efforts, as it can take time to see significant results.
Overall, weight loss can be a challenging but rewarding process, and it is important to approach it in a healthy and sustainable way. By focusing on overall health and wellness rather than just the number on the scale, you can achieve a healthy weight and improve your overall quality of life.
1. Osteoarthritis: A degenerative joint disease that affects the cartilage and bone in the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and limited mobility.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation in the joints, leading to pain, swelling, and deformity.
3. Fibromyalgia: A chronic condition characterized by widespread muscle pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbances.
4. Tendinitis: Inflammation of a tendon, which can cause pain and stiffness in the affected area.
5. Bursitis: Inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that cushion joints, leading to pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
6. Carpal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the median nerve in the wrist, leading to numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and fingers.
7. Sprains and strains: Injuries to the ligaments or muscles, often caused by sudden twisting or overstretching.
8. Back pain: Pain in the back that can be caused by a variety of factors, such as muscle strain, herniated discs, or spinal stenosis.
9. Osteoporosis: A condition characterized by weak and brittle bones, leading to an increased risk of fractures.
10. Clubfoot: A congenital deformity in which the foot is turned inward and downward.
These are just a few examples of musculoskeletal diseases, and there are many more conditions that can affect the muscles, bones, and joints. Treatment options for these conditions can range from conservative methods such as physical therapy and medication to surgical interventions. It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe symptoms in your musculoskeletal system.
Chronic lung disease
Preventing Chronic Disease
Chronic kidney disease
Chronic Lyme disease
Chronic liver disease
Chronic Respiratory Disease
Chronic wasting disease
Chronic granulomatous disease
Anemia of chronic disease
Chronic disease in China
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Chronic disease in Northern Ontario
Chronic airway-digestive inflammatory disease
Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive, severe early-onset
Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease
Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder
COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Effect of oxygen on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Childhood chronic illness
Childhood chronic pain
Chronic myelogenous leukemia
Chronic care management
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy
Chronic active EBV infection
Chronic venous insufficiency
Deaths in December 2014
Nursing in Japan
List of ICD-9 codes 390-459: diseases of the circulatory system
Robot research initiative
Veterans benefits for post-traumatic stress disorder in the United States
Catherine Jane Wood
Firestone Institute for Respiratory Health
Joan Beauchamp Procter
Follicular dendritic cells
Impact of alcohol on aging
Diseases of poverty
Sleep and Chronic Disease | CDC
Chronic Lyme Disease | NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Mineral & Bone Disorder in Chronic Kidney Disease - NIDDK
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Preventing Chronic Disease: July 2008: 07 0106
Chronic kidney disease: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Scientists & Staff - Chronic Disease Epidemiology Group
Promise in Chronic Kidney Disease for 3 New Agents
Chronic Kidney Disease in Children Differential Diagnoses
What Is Hypertension-Induced Chronic Kidney Disease?
Antioxidants for chronic kidney disease
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Sports Injuries - Acute, Chronic & Common Injuries | NIAMS
Evaluating chronic disease management: Recommendations for funders and users | RAND
CDC Reports on Disability, Chronic Disease | MedPage Today
Chronic Disease and the Internet | Pew Research Center
PCD Disseminates Public Health Interventions Addressing Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
Grant Abstract: Chronic Dental Disease and Cardiovascular Disease
Chronic lung disease in infants | HealthLink BC
Frontiers | Optimism's Explicative Role for Chronic Diseases
Fogarty awards five new chronic disease training grants - Fogarty International Center @ NIH
The Mediterranean Way of Eating: Evidence for Chronic Disease Preventi
Progress in Chronic Disease Prevention Summary of a Workshop on Scre
Obstructive pulmonary disease4
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects more than 24 million people in the United States. (nationaljewish.org)
- Preventable CRDs include asthma and respiratory allergies, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), occupational lung diseases, cancer, sleep apnoea and pulmonary hypertension. (who.int)
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive life-threatening lung disease that causes breathlessness (initially with exertion) and predisposes to exacerbations and serious illness. (who.int)
- There have also been studies examining the role of cadmium in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in smokers (ATSDR 1999). (cdc.gov)
- Individuals who have schistosomiasis and sickle cell disease have an elevated risk of pulmonary hypertension, or high blood pressure within the lungs. (who.int)
- TY48, RIMD 2001001, CIP 111916 T ), Tsukamurella toyonakaense , from a patient given a misdiagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease caused by unidentified mycobacteria. (cdc.gov)
- We reported a case of pulmonary disease caused by a novel mycobacteria species identified by using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
- We performed MLST and WGS of culture isolates from 8 patients given diagnoses of NTM pulmonary disease caused by unidentified mycobacteria. (cdc.gov)
- Comparison of chest computed tomography findings over time for patient who had chronic pulmonary disease caused by Tsukamurella toyonakaense . (cdc.gov)
- The patient with Tsukamurella infection was an 82-year-old woman who had received a diagnosis of NTM pulmonary disease 23 years earlier. (cdc.gov)
- Therefore, she was given a diagnosis of NTM pulmonary disease caused by unidentified mycobacteria. (cdc.gov)
- 20 years on the basis of evidence regarding successful treatment of NTM pulmonary disease with erythromycin ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
Preventing Chronic Disease1
- However, the this issue of Preventing Chronic Disease , we answer fre- suppression rules may be overly restrictive when rates quently asked questions about choropleth map design to are classified categorical y or when the rate for an index display cancer incidence data. (cdc.gov)
Coronary heart d3
- Notably, hypertension, stroke, coronary heart disease and irregular heartbeats ( cardiac arrhythmias ) have been found to be more common among those with disordered sleep than their peers without sleep abnormalities. (cdc.gov)
- Inactive adults with a disability were 50% more likely to report one or more chronic diseases, such as coronary heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes , according to Dianna Carroll, PhD, of the CDC in Atlanta, and colleagues. (medpagetoday.com)
- these Americans are at greater risk for adverse health outcomes such as type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease and overall morbidity and mortality (4-6). (cdc.gov)
- What Is Hypertension-Induced Chronic Kidney Disease? (medicinenet.com)
- Hypertension -induced chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a long-standing kidney condition that develops over time due to persistent or uncontrolled high blood pressure ( hypertension ). (medicinenet.com)
- What are the signs and symptoms of hypertension-induced chronic kidney disease? (medicinenet.com)
- Early chronic kidney disease (CKD) also may not have symptoms. (medicinenet.com)
- How do doctors diagnose hypertension-induced chronic kidney disease? (medicinenet.com)
- Anyone who has high blood pressure is more likely to develop chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the absence of treatment. (medicinenet.com)
- There is no cure for hypertension-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD). (medicinenet.com)
- Agents from three novel drug classes showed promising safety and efficacy in patients with varying severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in three phase 2 studies recently `presented at the European Renal Association Congress. (medscape.com)
- In 704 randomized patients with end-stage kidney disease on hemodialysis, a monthly injection of osocimab for up to 12 months cut clotting risk by 29%-34% and reduced the incidence of major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding events. (medscape.com)
- Unexplained anemia or short stature is sometimes the only presentation in a child with chronic kidney disease (CKD). (medscape.com)
- US Renal Data System 2014 Annual Data Report: Epidemiology of Kidney Disease in the United States. (medscape.com)
- National Kidney Foundation K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for nutrition in chronic renal failure. (medscape.com)
- K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification. (medscape.com)
- Genetic susceptibility to chronic kidney disease - some more pieces for the heritability puzzle. (medscape.com)
- Predictors of rapid progression of glomerular and nonglomerular kidney disease in children and adolescents: the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) cohort. (medscape.com)
- National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease in children and adolescents: evaluation, classification, and stratification. (medscape.com)
- Eknoyan G. The importance of early treatment of the anaemia of chronic kidney disease. (medscape.com)
- Greenberg JH, Kakajiwala A, Parikh CR, Furth S. Emerging biomarkers of chronic kidney disease in children. (medscape.com)
- The Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) Guideline for Bone Metabolism and Disease in CKD: association with mortality in dialysis patients. (medscape.com)
- Anemia of chronic kidney disease means that kidney disease has caused your anemia. (stlukesonline.org)
- Anemia is common in people who have chronic kidney disease. (stlukesonline.org)
- Anemia may develop early in kidney disease, but you may not have symptoms until the late stages of the disease. (stlukesonline.org)
- Your doctor can decide if you have anemia of chronic kidney disease when you have both anemia and chronic kidney disease and there is no other reason for anemia. (stlukesonline.org)
- The two main treatments for anemia in kidney disease are iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agent (ESA). (stlukesonline.org)
- Research Summary: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects 30 million people in the U.S. and is independently associated with a 2-fold increased risk of cognitive impairment, especially vascular-mediated cognitive impairment. (uvm.edu)
- The Global Kidney Health Atlas study reports that chronic kidney disease (CKD) isn't getting the attention it deserves, despite the fact that CKD affects 1 in 10 people worldwide and untreated kidney failure claims 1 million lives each year. (aacc.org)
- However, our Atlas shows that, across countries of all incomes, many governments are not making kidney disease a priority," said Adeera Levin, MD, FRCPC, ISU president and a professor of medicine at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, B.C., in a statement . (aacc.org)
- This makes no sense, as the costs for treating people with end stage kidney disease are enormous, along with the devastating effect it has on patients and their families," added Levin. (aacc.org)
- About a quarter of all of the respondents said they had an active CKD detection program, and less than half were able to assess acute kidney disease prevalence in their respective populations. (aacc.org)
- The Atlas report "mandates a resounding opportunity to join forces globally, regionally, and locally toward improving kidney health now rather than waiting until kidney diseases become one of the top 10 global causes of death, a potential development that is quite foreseeable," they observed. (aacc.org)
- The editorial mentions the work of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes foundation, which is seeking to develop evidence-based clinical guidelines that could be implemented at the regional and local level. (aacc.org)
- The kidney is the principal organ targeted by chronic exposure to cadmium. (cdc.gov)
- Fast Five Quiz: Is Your Knowledge of Chronic Kidney Disease Sufficient? (medscape.com)
- Chronic kidney disease (CKD) encompasses all degrees of decreased renal function and/or albuminuria, from damaged/at risk through mild, moderate, and severe CKD. (medscape.com)
- The presence of albumin in the urine often symptomatic of kidney disease. (cdc.gov)
- Adapted from the National Kidney Foundation's KDOQI guidelines for evaluation and stratification of chronic kidney disease (www.kidney.org). (cdc.gov)
- This study assesses the psychological well-being from a 14 years old teenager suffering from a chronic kidney disease. (bvsalud.org)
- They also showed family negligence, need of reviewing the parental configurations and public health policies' regarding chronic kidney disease patients, together with special education including home activities. (bvsalud.org)
- We can conclude chronic kidney disease patients need high-quality health service and special attention, so they can achieve social acceptance and reduce problems in their development. (bvsalud.org)
- May be reduced chronic kidney disease teenagers' health requires reception by family, school and professional team who can provide these cares. (bvsalud.org)
- Chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) affect the airways and other structures of the lungs altering how one can breathe. (who.int)
- The major risk factors for chronic respiratory diseases include tobacco smoke and other forms of indoor air pollution, allergens, household chemicals and outdoor pollution. (who.int)
- WHO also leads the Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD) , a voluntary alliance of national and international organizations, institutions, and agencies working towards the common goal of reducing the global burden of chronic respiratory diseases. (who.int)
- Source: Institute of Health Information and Statistics of CR (IHIS CR), Survey on activity of health establishment in out-patient-care (TB and respiratory diseases). (who.int)
- Coverage: Data relates to followed-up patients for diagnoses J41-J47 (ICD-10) in ambulatory departments for TB and respiratory diseases. (who.int)
Prev Chronic Dis3
- Chronic granulomatous disease is a disorder that causes the immune system to malfunction, resulting in a form of immunodeficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
- Individuals with chronic granulomatous disease may have recurrent bacterial and fungal infections. (medlineplus.gov)
- The features of chronic granulomatous disease usually first appear in childhood, although some individuals do not show symptoms until later in life. (medlineplus.gov)
- People with chronic granulomatous disease typically have at least one serious bacterial or fungal infection every 3 to 4 years. (medlineplus.gov)
- Individuals with chronic granulomatous disease may develop a type of fungal pneumonia, called mulch pneumonitis, which causes fever and shortness of breath after exposure to decaying organic materials such as mulch, hay, or dead leaves. (medlineplus.gov)
- Exposure to these organic materials and the numerous fungi involved in their decomposition causes people with chronic granulomatous disease to develop fungal infections in their lungs. (medlineplus.gov)
- Inflammation can occur in many different areas of the body in people with chronic granulomatous disease. (medlineplus.gov)
- Other common areas of inflammation in people with chronic granulomatous disease include the stomach, colon, and rectum, as well as the mouth, throat, and skin. (medlineplus.gov)
- Rarely, people with chronic granulomatous disease develop autoimmune disorders, which occur when the immune system malfunctions and attacks the body's own tissues and organs. (medlineplus.gov)
- Chronic granulomatous disease is estimated to occur in 1 in 200,000 to 250,000 people worldwide. (medlineplus.gov)
- Mutations in the CYBA , CYBB , NCF1 , NCF2 , or NCF4 gene can cause chronic granulomatous disease. (medlineplus.gov)
- Mulch pneumonitis in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease. (bvsalud.org)
- Notably, insufficient sleep has been linked to the development and management of a number of chronic diseases and conditions, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and depression. (cdc.gov)
- The CONCORD phase 2 study randomized 170 adults who were at least 45 years old with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 25-60 mL/min/1.73m 2 , a UACR of 30-3000 mg/g, established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or mild-to-moderate heart failure , and either type 2 diabetes or hypertension to runcaciguat or placebo. (medscape.com)
- The report, " Chronic Disease and the Internet ," is based on a national telephone survey which included 2,253 adults, 36% of whom are living with chronic disease (heart conditions, lung conditions, high blood pressure, diabetes, cancer). (pewresearch.org)
- The authors review the major chronic diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers, and examine how a Mediterranean-style diet may help reduce risk or prevent these diseases. (routledge.com)
- Your kidneys can also be affected as severe periodontal disease increases the risk of developing diabetes, and can make it more difficult to manage blood sugar levels. (losethebackpain.com)
- The good news lies with other studies which have found diabetes patients who receive treatment for periodontal disease may be able to control the condition with less insulin. (losethebackpain.com)
- Our staff works with community partners to implement policy and environmental strategies that prevent chronic conditions such as obesity, diabetes, heart disease and cancer. (healthvermont.gov)
- Phthalates are associated with cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, and diabetes. (naturalnews.com)
- The disease is emerging as a silent world epidemic as risk factors for CKD such as diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure, and smoking continue to rise, the authors cautioned. (aacc.org)
- The participants were interviewed once every two years and were asked if they had been diagnosed with diabetes, heart disease, cancer, lung disease, or stroke. (naric.com)
- During the 14 years that this study covered, about 21% of the participants developed heart disease, 15% developed diabetes, 14% developed cancer, 9% developed lung disease, and 8% had a stroke. (naric.com)
- Getting more preventive care: The participants who were diagnosed with diabetes, heart disease, cancer, or lung disease were more likely to get flu shots after being diagnosed than before their diagnosis. (naric.com)
- Later that year, San Diego County was awarded funding through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) 2-year initiative, Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW), to help reduce obesity and prevent chronic disease (14). (cdc.gov)
- CKD is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide , and it is one of a small number of noncommunicable diseases that have shown an increase in associated deaths over the past 2 decades. (medscape.com)
- A person with COPD may have emphysema, chronic bronchitis, or both. (nationaljewish.org)
- COPD was once deemed to be a disease with a hopeless prognosis, but is now known to be very treatable. (nationaljewish.org)
- The symptoms of COPD include breathlessness, abnormal amounts of mucus in the airways, and a chronic cough. (who.int)
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (cdc.gov)
- The opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the US Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
- And when it affects the liver, it is called inherited liver disease. (nationaljewish.org)
- The Food and Drug Administration approved lusutrombopag (Mulpleta, Shionogi Inc.) for thrombocytopenia in adults with chronic liver disease who are scheduled to undergo a medical or dental procedure. (hematology.org)
- Retrieved from https://www.hematology.org/education/clinicians/drug-resources/fda-alerts/2018/fda-approves-lusutrombopag-thrombocytopenia-adults-chronic-liver-disease . (hematology.org)
- Participants encouraged prospective cohort studies of persons with chronic liver diseases in which the use of various screening modalities and regimens could be assessed and suggested that cost-effectiveness studies of AFP screening could be useful in decision-making. (cdc.gov)
- New research is shedding light on global disparities in mortality rates from late-stage liver disease, also called cirrhosis. (medicalxpress.com)
- Cambridge-based company Owlstone Medical, co-founded by alumnus Billy Boyle, has experienced trial success for its liver disease breath test, following a study involving patients from Addenbrooke's Hospital. (medicalxpress.com)
- Patients suffering from chronic liver disease don't respond to vaccination and are at high risk of viral infections. (medicalxpress.com)
- Clinical manifestations of chronic GVHD are similar to autoimmune collagen vascular disease and the two main types of cutaneous chronic GVHD are lichenoid and sclerodermatous. (bvsalud.org)
- Persons with sleep apnea have been found to be at increased risk for a number of cardiovascular diseases. (cdc.gov)
- A number of researchers have connected higher rates of dental infections in patients with chronic heart disease and with higher rates of myocardial infarction, or heart attack. (losethebackpain.com)
- When patients present with hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC) at the symptomatic stage, the disease is rapidly fatal, with a mean survival time of less than 4 months (1). (cdc.gov)
- Oral manifestations are diagnosed in approximately 80% of patients with chronic GVHD. (bvsalud.org)
- Expected in October is PCD's first collection sharing articles that highlight the use of geospatial information systems to increase understanding of the role of place and space in shaping the distribution of chronic disease to aid in identifying appropriate public health responses for chronic disease prevention and treatment. (cdc.gov)
- This PCD special collection documents research, translation, case studies, and analytic tools that have a spatial perspective and highlights the innovative and effective incorporation of place and space into chronic disease surveillance, prevention, and treatment. (cdc.gov)
- National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion: programmatic efforts to reduce risk factors for chronic diseases. (cdc.gov)
- The National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) works to reduce the risk factors for chronic diseases, especially for groups affected by health disparities, that is, differences in health across geographic, racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups (2). (cdc.gov)
- Scientific evidence accumulated over decades validates the idea that a plant-based dietary pattern, such as the traditional Mediterranean way of eating, promotes health and plays an important role in risk reduction and prevention of several chronic diseases. (routledge.com)
- The Mediterranean Way of Eating: Evidence for Chronic Disease Prevention and Weight Management offers evidence-based information about an enjoyable, healthy way of eating that has stood the test of time, along with practical suggestions for incorporating the Mediterranean diet into your daily life. (routledge.com)
- As chronic diseases have assumed an increasingly common role in premature death and illness, interest in the role of sleep health in the development and management of chronic diseases has grown. (cdc.gov)
- For more than 100 years, National Jewish Health has been committed to finding new treatments and cures for diseases. (nationaljewish.org)
- More than any other group, people living with chronic disease remain strongly connected to offline sources of medical assistance and advice such as health professionals, friends, family, and books. (pewresearch.org)
- However, once they have internet access, people living with chronic disease report significant benefits from the health resources found online. (pewresearch.org)
- Looking at the population as a whole, 51% of American adults living with chronic disease have looked online for any of the health topics included in the survey, such as information about a specific disease, a certain medical procedure, or health insurance. (pewresearch.org)
- By comparison, 66% of adults who report no chronic conditions use the internet to gather health information. (pewresearch.org)
- In fact, when demographic factors are controlled, internet users living with chronic disease are slightly more likely than other internet users to access health information online. (pewresearch.org)
- Population health, place, and space: spatial perspectives in chronic disease research and practice. (cdc.gov)
- NCCDPHP has a rich portfolio of public health efforts to reduce the potential of developing chronic disease and to improve the health and quality of life for those living with chronic disease. (cdc.gov)
- The second part of the book addresses the protective effects of foods and food components, discussing how Mediterranean diets may confer health benefits for reducing disease risk and managing weight. (routledge.com)
- To date lot is known for which diseases optimism is relevant, instead much less is known about how optimism interacts with other factors, both biological and psychological, in determining health status. (frontiersin.org)
- The research on optimism and health status has already shed light on important mechanisms regarding chronic diseases' management, however, further studies are needed to deepen the knowledge. (frontiersin.org)
- We provide support to hospital-sponsored Community Health Teams, Care Collaboratives and other community-based groups, networking with a wide range of partners to identify gaps in services and promote available supports for people at-risk for or who are managing chronic illness. (healthvermont.gov)
- In an article in Natural Health 365 , Australian researchers reported finding evidence that phthalates can lead to chronic diseases. (naturalnews.com)
- In a recent NIDILRR-funded study, a researcher looked at the effect of a new chronic disease diagnosis on health behaviors among middle-aged and older adults. (naric.com)
- The researcher wanted to see whether being diagnosed with a chronic disease might motivate people to improve their health behavior. (naric.com)
- The participants who developed a chronic disease showed several improvements in their health behaviors. (naric.com)
- The conference was sponsored by the Alaska Area Native Health Service of the Indian Health Service, the Fox Chase Cancer Center, and CDC's Arctic Investigations Program, Center for Infectious Diseases. (cdc.gov)
- System dynamics has been applied to health care delivery and population health for chronic conditions affecting oral health and to various public health initiatives. (cdc.gov)
- Call your provider if you develop symptoms of chronic thyroiditis or hypothyroidism. (medlineplus.gov)
- Choi AI, Rodriguez RA, Bacchetti P, Bertenthal D, Hernandez GT, O''Hare AM. White/black racial differences in risk of end-stage renal disease and death. (medscape.com)
- discuss the factors leading to the development of renal disease associated with chronic low-level cadmium exposure. (cdc.gov)
- In animals, chronic ingestion of cadmium causes increased systolic blood pressure in the absence of significant renal disease. (cdc.gov)
Least one chronic2
- People with a disability were more likely to report at least one chronic illness and were less likely to participate in recommended physical activities, researchers reported. (medpagetoday.com)
- According to the U.S. Census, an estimated 80% of adults 65 and older have at least one chronic disease, and about half have at least two. (naric.com)
- The most familiar diseases in this group are emphysema and chronic bronchitis . (nationaljewish.org)
- Chronic renal insufficiency in children: the 2001 Annual Report of the NAPRTCS. (medscape.com)
- This publication provides a major resource to guide the evaluation of disease management interventions in European settings and so contributes to strengthening the evidence-base required to inform the selection of efficient and effective interventions to address the growing burden of chronic disease in Europe. (rand.org)
- The problem facing policy makers is selecting interventions that have greatest potential for reducing both disease and costs. (cdc.gov)
- The prevalence of multimorbidity, the co-occurrence of two or more chronic conditions, varies depending on exactly how it is defined. (medicalxpress.com)
- WASHINGTON, DC - MARCH 24, 2010 - Only 62% of adults living with chronic disease go online, compared with 81% of adults who report no chronic diseases. (pewresearch.org)
- The International Center for Nutrition Research suggests chronic dental infections cause rheumatic joint pain, chronic fatigue, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), skin rashes, chronic sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, low-grade fever and may even be related to failure in resolving cancer. (losethebackpain.com)
- Some observant healthcare practitioners now suggest one of the critical steps to healing degenerative disease is the removal of all root canals. (losethebackpain.com)
- The main objective of this pilot clinical trial was to evaluate outcome measures for the assessment of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) robenacoxib in cats with degenerative joint disease-associated pain (DJD-pain). (nature.com)
- Degenerative joint disease (DJD) and osteoarthritis (OA), types of chronic musculoskeletal disorder (CMSD) 1 , affect up to 90% of cats across all ages based on radiographic evidence 2 . (nature.com)
- Chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) is the most common consequence of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, and it is associated with morbidity and mortality. (bvsalud.org)
- Chronic' means long term, 'obstructive' means it is hard to get air out of the lungs. (nationaljewish.org)
- Gigi's sister, Bella , and brother, Anwar , both suffer from Lyme disease - a tick-borne illness that leads to exhaustion, joint pain and fatigue. (j-14.com)
- Back in 2018, while clapping back at nasty internet trolls who were hating on Gigi's weight, she revealed that she had a condition called Hashimoto's disease. (j-14.com)
- In chronic bronchitis, the airway walls are swollen and produce more mucus. (nationaljewish.org)
- In many cases the intestinal wall is inflamed, causing a form of inflammatory bowel disease that varies in severity but can lead to stomach pain, diarrhea, bloody stool, nausea, and vomiting. (medlineplus.gov)
- Likewise, sleep apnea and hardening of the arteries ( atherosclerosis ) appear to share some common physiological characteristics, further suggesting that sleep apnea may be an important predictor of cardiovascular disease. (cdc.gov)
- Hashimoto disease is a common thyroid gland disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
- Hashimoto disease is most common in people with a family history of thyroid disease. (medlineplus.gov)
- Chronic thyroiditis is caused by a reaction of the immune system against the thyroid gland. (medlineplus.gov)
- In rare cases, the disease may be related to other hormone problems caused by the immune system. (medlineplus.gov)
- When a person has Hashimoto's disease, the immune system attacks their thyroid, which prevents it from producing enough hormones. (j-14.com)
- The deck is stacked against people living with chronic disease. (pewresearch.org)
- People can reduce the impact of these chronic diseases by engaging in healthy behaviors as they age. (naric.com)
- For participants who developed a chronic disease during the study period, the researcher looked at how many people changed their behavior within the two-year period after the diagnosis happened. (naric.com)
- The researcher looked for the changes that were beyond the natural behavior changes seen in people who did not report a chronic disease. (naric.com)
- The biggest change was seen for those who had lung disease: 40% of participants who developed lung disease were smokers before their diagnosis, but only 27% continued to smoke after the diagnosis. (naric.com)
- Chronic lung disease (CLD) of infancy, also known as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) , is a form of lung disease that affects mostly premature newborns and infants. (choc.org)
- Besides risking the loss of your teeth, the bacteria behind periodontal disease can travel. (losethebackpain.com)
- Globally, it is estimated that about 3 million deaths were caused by the disease in 2015 (that is, 5% of all deaths globally in that year). (who.int)