In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
Basic functional unit of plants.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.
The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
The reproductive organs of plants.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Material prepared from plants.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.

A new FISH protocol with increased sensitivity for physical mapping with short probes in plants. (1/1662)

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a well-established technique used for the detection of specific DNA regions, that has been applied to interphase nuclei, pachytene and metaphase chromosomes as well as to extended DNA fibres. This technique allows the physical mapping of specific DNA sequences both on individual chromosomes and extended fibres. A new FISH protocol is described here that enhances the sensitivity of the method. Probes for small unique DNA sequences of less than 2 kb give high signal-to-noise ratio with this method, and can be visualized easily by means of conventional fluorescence microscopy.  (+info)

Quantitative trait loci for component physiological traits determining salt tolerance in rice. (2/1662)

Rice (Oryza sativa) is sensitive to salinity, which affects one-fifth of irrigated land worldwide. Reducing sodium and chloride uptake into rice while maintaining potassium uptake are characteristics that would aid growth under saline conditions. We describe genetic determinants of the net quantity of ions transported to the shoot, clearly distinguishing between quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the quantity of ions in a shoot and for those that affect the concentration of an ion in the shoot. The latter coincide with QTL for vegetative growth (vigor) and their interpretation is therefore ambiguous. We distinguished those QTL that are independent of vigor and thus directly indicate quantitative variation in the underlying mechanisms of ion uptake. These QTL independently govern sodium uptake, potassium uptake, and sodium:potassium selectivity. The QTL for sodium and potassium uptake are on different linkage groups (chromosomes). This is consistent with the independent inheritance of sodium and potassium uptake in the mapping population and with the mechanistically different uptake pathways for sodium and potassium in rice under saline conditions (apoplastic leakage and membrane transport, respectively). We report the chromosomal location of ion transport and selectivity traits that are compatible with agronomic needs and we indicate markers to assist selection in a breeding program. Based upon knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of ion uptake in rice, we argue that QTL for sodium transport are likely to act through the control of root development, whereas QTL for potassium uptake are likely to act through the structure or regulation of membrane-sited transport components.  (+info)

The Arabidopsis eer1 mutant has enhanced ethylene responses in the hypocotyl and stem. (3/1662)

By screening for enhanced ethylene-response (eer) mutants in Arabidopsis, we isolated a novel recessive mutant, eer1, which displays increased ethylene sensitivity in the hypocotyl and stem. Dark-grown eer1 seedlings have short and thick hypocotyls even in the absence of added ethylene. This phenotype is suppressed, however, by the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor 1-aminoethoxyvinyl-glycine. Following ethylene treatment, the dark-grown eer1 hypocotyl response is greatly exaggerated in comparison with the wild type, indicating that the eer1 phenotype is not simply due to ethylene overproduction. eer1 seedlings have significantly elevated levels of basic-chitinase expression, suggesting that eer1 may be highly sensitive to low levels of endogenous ethylene. Adult eer1 plants display exaggerated ethylene-dependent stem thickening, which is an ethylene response previously unreported in Arabidopsis. eer1 also has enhanced responsiveness to the ethylene agonists propylene and 2,5-norbornadiene. The eer1 phenotype is completely suppressed by the ethylene-insensitive mutation etr1-1, and is additive with the constitutive ethylene-response mutation ctr1-3. Our findings suggest that the wild-type EER1 product acts to oppose ethylene responses in the hypocotyl and stem.  (+info)

The molecular genetic linkage map of the model legume Medicago truncatula: an essential tool for comparative legume genomics and the isolation of agronomically important genes. (4/1662)

BACKGROUND: The legume Medicago truncatula has emerged as a model plant for the molecular and genetic dissection of various plant processes involved in rhizobial, mycorrhizal and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions. Aiming to develop essential tools for such genetic approaches, we have established the first genetic map of this species. Two parental homozygous lines were selected from the cultivar Jemalong and from the Algerian natural population (DZA315) on the basis of their molecular and phenotypic polymorphism. RESULTS: An F2 segregating population of 124 individuals between these two lines was obtained using an efficient manual crossing technique established for M. truncatula and was used to construct a genetic map. This map spans 1225 cM (average 470 kb/cM) and comprises 289 markers including RAPD, AFLP, known genes and isoenzymes arranged in 8 linkage groups (2n = 16). Markers are uniformly distributed throughout the map and segregation distortion is limited to only 3 linkage groups. By mapping a number of common markers, the eight linkage groups are shown to be homologous to those of diploid alfalfa (M. sativa), implying a good level of macrosynteny between the two genomes. Using this M. truncatula map and the derived F3 populations, we were able to map the Mtsym6 symbiotic gene on linkage group 8 and the SPC gene, responsible for the direction of pod coiling, on linkage group 7. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Medicago truncatula is amenable to diploid genetic analysis and they open the way to map-based cloning of symbiotic or other agronomically-important genes using this model plant.  (+info)

The molecular characterization of maize B chromosome specific AFLPs. (5/1662)

The origin and evolution of B chromosomes could be explained by the specific DNA sequence on them. But the specific sequences known were quite limited. To investigate maize B chromosome sqicific DNA sequeces, maize genomes with and without B chromosomes were analyzed by AFLP. Only 5 markers were found specific to genomes with B chromosomes among about 2000 AFLP markers. Southern hybridization and sequence analysis revealed that only the sequence of M8-2D was a B chromosome specific sequence. This sequence contained the telomeric repeat unit AGG  (+info)

Maize tertiary trisomic stocks derived from B-A translocations. (6/1662)

Reciprocal translocations between supernumerary B chromosomes and the basic complement of A chromosomes in maize have resulted in a powerful set of tools to manipulate the dosage of chromosomal segments. From 15 B-A reciprocal translocation stocks that have the B-A chromosome genetically marked we have developed tertiary trisomic stocks. Tertiary trisomics are 2n + 1 aneuploids where the extra chromosome is a translocation element, in this case a B-A chromosome. Whereas B-A translocations produce aneuploidy in the sperm, the tertiary trisomic plant efficiently transmits hyperploid gametes maternally. Because the B-A tertiary trisomic stocks and the B-A translocation stocks from which they were derived are introgressed into the W22 inbred line, the effects of maternally and paternally transmitted trisomic B-A chromosomes can be compared. Data are presented on both the male and female transmission rates of the B-A chromosomes in the tertiary trisomic stocks.  (+info)

Physical and genetic mapping in the grasses Lolium perenne and Festuca pratensis. (7/1662)

A single chromosome of the grass species Festuca pratensis has been introgressed into Lolium perenne to produce a diploid monosomic substitution line 2n = 2x = 14. In this line recombination occurs throughout the length of the F. pratensis/L. perenne bivalent. The F. pratensis chromosome and recombinants between it and its L. perenne homeologue can be visualized using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). GISH junctions represent the physical locations of sites of recombination, enabling a range of recombinant chromosomes to be used for physical mapping of the introgressed F. pratensis chromosome. The physical map, in conjunction with a genetic map composed of 104 F. pratensis-specific amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), demonstrated: (1) the first large-scale analysis of the physical distribution of AFLPs; (2) variation in the relationship between genetic and physical distance from one part of the F. pratensis chromosome to another (e.g., variation was observed between and within chromosome arms); (3) that nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and centromeres greatly reduce recombination; (4) that coding sequences are present close to the centromere and NORs in areas of low recombination in plant species with large genomes; and (5) apparent complete synteny between the F. pratensis chromosome and rice chromosome 1.  (+info)

A molecular cytogenetic map of sorghum chromosome 1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with mapped bacterial artificial chromosomes. (8/1662)

We used structural genomic resources for Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench to target and develop multiple molecular cytogenetic probes that would provide extensive coverage for a specific chromosome of sorghum. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones containing molecular markers mapped across sorghum linkage group A were labeled as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Signals from single-, dual-, and multiprobe BAC-FISH to spreads of mitotic chromosomes and pachytene bivalents were associated with the largest sorghum chromosome, which bears the nucleolus organizing region (NOR). The order of individual BAC-FISH loci along the chromosome was fully concordant to that of marker loci along the linkage map. In addition, the order of several tightly linked molecular markers was clarified by FISH analysis. The FISH results indicate that markers from the linkage map positions 0.0-81.8 cM reside in the short arm of chromosome 1 whereas markers from 81.8-242.9 cM are located in the long arm of chromosome 1. The centromere and NOR were located in a large heterochromatic region that spans approximately 60% of chromosome 1. In contrast, this region represents only 0.7% of the total genetic map distance of this chromosome. Variation in recombination frequency among euchromatic chromosomal regions also was apparent. The integrated data underscore the value of cytological data, because minor errors and uncertainties in linkage maps can involve huge physical regions. The successful development of multiprobe FISH cocktails suggests that it is feasible to develop chromosome-specific "paints" from genomic resources rather than flow sorting or microdissection and that when applied to pachytene chromatin, such cocktails provide an especially powerful framework for mapping. Such a molecular cytogenetic infrastructure would be inherently cross-linked with other genomic tools and thereby establish a cytogenomics system with extensive utility in development and application of genomic resources, cloning, transgene localization, development of plant "chromonomics," germplasm introgression, and marker-assisted breeding. In combination with previously reported work, the results indicate that a sorghum cytogenomics system would be partially applicable to other gramineous genera.  (+info)

lucas-small2020-10-302021-01-13 Chromosomes Count ...
101091924_1037645939984899_8788473037260324864_n2020-05-312020-05-31 Chromosomes Count ...
CCDB aims to combine existing data resources into an extensive central database that will be updated regularly by the community. Users and researchers are encouraged to contribute to the accuracy and completeness of the data in CCDB ...
به منظور مطالعه تنوع ژنتیکیبرخی از صفات زراعی و فیزیولوژیک و بررسی اثر تنش کم آبی روی آنها در 34 جمعیت از گونه Triticum boeoticumآزمایشی به صورت کرت-های خرد شده بر پایه بلوک-های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار با در نظر گرفتن شرایط واجد و بدون تنش کم آبی در کرت-های اصلی و جمعیت-ها در کرت-های فرعی در ایستگاه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز طی سال زراعی 90-1389 انجام شد. نتایج تجزیه واریانس بیانگر تفاوت معنی-دار بین جمعیت-ها در تمام صفات مورد بررسی و وجود تنوع ژنتیکی بین جمعیت-ها بود. عملکرد دانه و طول × عرض دومین برگ زیر سنبله در هر دو شرایط دارای بالاترین ضریب تنوع فنوتیپی و
Key Results Recombination in the gametes of the F₁ hybrids was at a level where it was possible to generate a genetic linkage map of Ae. speltoides. This was used to identify 294 wheat/Ae. speltoides introgressions. Introgressions from all seven linkage groups of Ae. speltoides were found, including both large and small segments. Comparative analysis showed that overall macro-synteny is conserved between Ae. speltoides and T. aestivum, but that Ae. speltoides does not contain the 4A/5A/7B translocations present in wheat. Aegilops speltoides has been reported to carry gametocidal genes, i.e. genes that ensure their transmission through the gametes to the next generation. Transmission rates of the seven Ae. speltoides linkage groups introgressed into wheat varied. A 100 % transmission rate of linkage group 2 demonstrates the presence of the gametocidal genes on this chromosome ...
Simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs within 338,536 contigs of the line-specific assemblies were identified by MISA [39] under standard settings. Out of the five inbred lines, Lo225 was selected as reference dataset as it provided the highest number of SSR containing contigs. The MISA output of the four remaining lines was cross-matched with the Lo225 dataset to detect redundant SSRs. A non-redundant SSR dataset was generated by combining unique SSR motifs detected in Lo7, Lo152, Lo225, P87, and P105. Mononucleotide repeat motifs were discarded since monomer runs are known to be the most frequent sequencing errors in Roche/454 data. For experimental validation of in silico detected SSRs, primers flanking the SSR motifs were designed using Primer3 [40]. Amplification of the fragments was performed in Lo7, Lo225, P87, and P105 as they are the parents of two mapping populations. Thus, polymorphisms detected between Lo7 and Lo225 and/or P87 and P105 enable the genetic mapping of discovered SSRs. ...
Peusha, H. O., Stephan, U., Hsam, S. L. K., Felsenstein, F. G., Enno, T. M., Zeller, F. J. 1995: Identification of genes for resistance to powdery mildew in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). IV. Breeding lines derived from wide crosses of Russian cultivars with species T. timopheevii Zhuk., T. militinae Zhuk. et Migush., T. dicoccum (Schrank.) Schuebl., Aegilops speltoides Taush. Russian J. Genetics, 31, 1-7.. Identification of genes for resistance to powdery mildew in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). IV. Breeding lines derived from wide crosses of Russian cultivars with species T. timopheevii Zhuk., T. militinae Zhuk. et Migush., T. dicoccum (Schrank.) Schuebl., Aegilops speltoides Taush () 31 Russian J. Genetics : 1 -7.. ...
The sheer size of the wheat genome has been daunting in terms of whole genome sequencing. The Wheat genome is about five times the size of the human genome and hence was considered close to impossible to sequence. In Comparison to other important crop plants such as Soyabean and Rice, the difficulty of working with such a large genome has left wheat lagging behind in the race of genome sequencing. However, using advanced sequencing techniques employed by Roches 454 sequencers, the effort has managed to cover about 95% of the known wheat genes. The results of the study are now available for public use via Genbank, EMBL and CerealsDB. Nevertheless, there are those who warn that the gene map is far from complete and that the first high quality complete map data will be available only within five years. The full sequenced genome requires further read-throughs, assembly of the data into chromosomes and significant work to fully annotate the sequence data.. According to Dr. Neil Hall of the ...
Comparison of genome sequences of wild emmer wheat and Aegilops tauschii suggests a novel scenario of the evolution of rearranged wheat chromosomes 4A, 5A,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative genomics of plant chromosomes. AU - Paterson, A. H.. AU - Bowers, J. E.. AU - Burow, M. D.. AU - Draye, X.. AU - Elsik, C. G.. AU - Jiang, C. X.. AU - Katsar, C. S.. AU - Lan, T. H.. AU - Lin, Y. R.. AU - Ming, R.. AU - Wright, R. J.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1105/tpc.12.9.1523. DO - 10.1105/tpc.12.9.1523. M3 - Article. C2 - 11006329. AN - SCOPUS:0033784032. VL - 12. SP - 1523. EP - 1539. JO - Plant Cell. JF - Plant Cell. SN - 1040-4651. IS - 9. ER - ...
Read Anther culture as an effective tool in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding, Russian Journal of Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Two intervarietal substitution lines of common wheat cv. Sava bearing chromosome 5B from Saratovskaya 29 and Diamant 2 donors and two near-isogenic lines (
Cumpara rapid si simplu Cafeluta de Cereale si Cicoare cu Vanilie. Cafeluta de Cereale si Cicoare cu Vanilie este un excelent energizant natural fara cofeina.
درک واکنش جوانه‏زنی بذر ژنوتیپ‏های زراعی به دما از دیدگاه زراعی حائز اهمیت است. ژنوتیپ‏هایی که در دماهای پایین جوانه‏زنی خود را آغاز می‏کنند می‏توانند برای موقعیت‏هایی (مانند کشت‏های دیرهنگام پاییزه) مفید باشند که جوانه‏زنی با دماهای کم همزمان می‏گردد. از این رو، مطالعة حاضر به منظور یافتن دماهای کاردینال، بررسی واکنش به دما و دامنة بردباری دمایی جوانه‏زنی بذر 12 رقم از گندم‏های مورد استفاده در شمال کشور انجام شد. علاوه بر این، تأثیر هفت دمای ثابت بین 5 و 37 درجه سانتی‏گراد بر ویژگی‏های جوانه‏زنی این ارقام ارزیابی گردید. دمای پایة (Tb) ارقام گندم مورد
However one thing we do know is that its fairly easy to mix DNA from different sources, even plants and animals, and after a bit of trial and error, have a successful product. We even know unusual chromosome counts can be supported successfully to create completely new classes of creatures. Mixing ape and human DNA is relatively easy once youve mapped the genes and allocated attributes. Fortunately, Stalins people had no clue about DNA. Unfortunately the world is full of well funded labs in the darkest (no pun intended) corners of the world where laws arent quite as strict as they are here in the US. In fact in many countries there are no laws whatsoever that address these issues and where they are a part of an internation agreement there is no active investigation and enforcement ...
必应词典为您提供CSSL的释义,n. 连续系统模拟语言; 网络释义: 连续系统模拟语言(continuous system simulation language);坎特伯雷技能短缺名单;染色体片段置换系(chromosome segment substitution lines);
LT: Triticum aestivum L. LT designated by Hitchcock in Amer. J. Bot. 10: 513. 1923; see also Hitchcock, Nom. Prop. Int. Bot. Congr. Cambridge (England) 1930: 121 (1929) ...
Fulgi de Secara Solaris sunt realizati din cereale integrale si au o valoare nutritiva deosebita. Prin tehnologia de fabricatie nu se modifica si nu se
Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is resistant to dwarf bunt of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) caused by Tilletia controversa. Nine wheat-barley addition lines were utilized to determine which barley chromosomes and chromosome arms carry resistance genes. The lines included six disomic addition lines, WB1, WB2, WB3, WB4 WB6, and WB7, and three ditelosomic addition lines, WB5S (containing the short arm of barley chromosome 5), WB6S (containing the short arm of barley chromosome 6), and WB6L (containing the long arm of barley chromosome 6). These lines, their parent cultivars, and susceptible winter wheat cv. Wanser were inoculated with spores of T. controversa at the two-leaf stage. The barley parent, Betzes, showed no infection and only 5 of 401 heads of addition line WB6 were infected. Lines WB1, WB2, WB3, WB4, and WB7, and cvs. Wanser and Chinese Spring showed a high incidence of infection. WB6S had significantly lower bunt incidence (0 to 1 %) than WB6L or WB5S. Lines WB6L and WB5S had a high ...
Several molecular marker systems have been developed for assessing genetic diversity in crop germplasm collections. A trade-off often exists between the number of loci that can feasibly be sampled by a marker system and the amount of information provided by each locus. We compared the usefulness of two marker systems for revealing genetic diversity and population structure in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and diversity array technology (DArT) markers. DArTs survey many more loci per reaction than do SSRs; however, as bi-allelic, dominant markers, DArTs provide less polymorphism information per locus. Genetic differentiation was assessed in a randomly selected set of 436 cassava accessions, consisting of 155 African and 281 Latin American accessions. A genome-wide set of 36 SSR markers and a DArT array of approximately 1000 polymorphic clones were used to assess genetic diversity and differentiation. Cluster analyses were performed using principal coordinate ...
The chromosome karyotyping of insects included Lepidoptera is very difficult because of the large number of chromosomes, small size, and lack of major constriction structure. This has been a great hindrance to the karyological analysis. In this study, using banding analysis on the pachytene chromosomes, all chromosomes were characterized, and idiograms of Bombyx mori and R mandarina were established. From the testes during meiosis, 81 and 56 cells were examined for the analysis of B. mori and R mandarina, respectively. The best preparation of pachytene chromosomes was obtained on the 3(rd) day of the 3(rd) larva and 2(nd) or 3(rd) day of the 4(th) larva of the B. mori male, and it revealed that there was a characteristic nucleolus structure in the 2(nd) chromosomes, which was supposed to be the Z sex chromosome. The length of the pachytene chromosome was variable during the developmental stage of the cell, so the physical length of each chromosome was relatively converted in comparison to the ...
Major cereal crops including wheat (T. aestivum L.), maize (Zea mays L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and rice (O. sativa L.) belong to the grass family Poaceae. Comparisons of genetic maps and DNA sequences have suggested that these grass genomes originated from a common ancestor 50-60 million years ago (Bennetzen and Freeling 1993; Kellogg 1998) and have similar gene composition and colinearity (Ahn and Tanksley 1993; Ahn et al. 1993). The number of functional genes in these crop plants is not known. The number of genes in rice estimated from genome sequence analysis ranges from 32,000 to 50,000 (Goff et al. 2002). In hexaploid wheat, the gene number estimates range from 75,000 to 150,000, or ∼10,000-20,000 gene loci per homoeologous group (Sidhu and Gill 2004). Here we report physical mapping of ,2000 loci (10-20% of the total) for wheat homoeologous group 6. We also show the general distribution of genes on the chromosomes.. Deletion mapping revealed significant differences among group 6 ...
The 21 wheat chromosomes differ in absolute size and arm ratio (B. S. Gill et al. 1991). The expectation was that larger chromosomes would have a greater number of EST loci than the smaller chromosomes. Similarly, the long arms would have greater numbers of EST loci than the short arms within a chromosome. Both expectations were realized with some exceptions. Among the 21 chromosomes, 3B and 2B rank first and second in size and they also ranked first and second in number of EST loci, with 972 and 948 EST loci, respectively. Chromosome 1D is the smallest in size, yet chromosomes 6D (584 EST loci, ranked eighteenth on the basis of size) and 4B (612 EST loci, ranked eleventh on the basis of size) had the fewest number of EST loci. As a rule, the long arms had greater numbers of EST loci than the shorter arms (data not shown) and, among the long arms, 5BL is the longest and had the highest number of mapped EST loci (636).. Because individual chromosomes within a homoeologous group were assumed to ...
BackgroundHigh-throughput tools for pan-genomic study, especially the DNA microarray platform, have sparked a remarkable increase in data production and enabled a shift in the scale at which biological investigation is possible. The use of microarrays to examine evolutionary relationships and processes, however, is predominantly restricted to model or near-model organisms.Methodology/Principal FindingsThis study explores the utility of Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) in evolutionary studies of non-model organisms. DArT is a hybridization-based genotyping method that uses microarray technology to identify and type DNA polymorphism. Theoretically applicable to any organism (even one for which no prior genetic data are available), DArT has not yet been explored in exclusively wild sample sets, nor extensively examined in a phylogenetic framework. DArT recovered 1349 markers of largely low copy-number loci in two lineages of seed-free land plants: the diploid fern Asplenium viride and the haploid moss
Diversity Array Technology (DArT), a technique for quickly generating large numbers of molecular markers, was established for two legume crops, soybean (Glycine max) and mungbean (Vigna radiata). For each crop, two genomic complexity reduction methods, utilizing PstI/TaqI and PstI/BstNI restriction digests, were selected for DNA clonal library development and for the isolation in each case of 7,680 DArT clones from genomic representations of pooled DNA samples. While the PstI/BstNI method produced more polymorphic clones than PstI/TaqI for the soybean library, there was no significant difference between the two methods for the mungbean library. Polymorphism frequencies in mungbean were around twice those in soybean, reflecting greater diversity in the mungbean samples. Even so, there were still nearly 1,500 unique polymorphic clones identified for soybean. The DArT marker transferability from soybean to mungbean (13.6%) was nearly five times higher than that from mungbean to soybean (3.1%). The ...
Hexaploid oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42) is a member of the Poaceae family and has a large genome (similar to 12.5 Gb) containing 21 chromosome pairs from three ancestral genomes. Physical rearrangements among parental genomes have hindered the development of linkage maps in this species. The objective of this work was to develop a single high-density consensus linkage map that is representative of the majority of commonly grown oat varieties. Data from a cDNA-derived single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) were collected from the progeny of 12 biparental recombinant inbred line populations derived from 19 parents representing oat germplasm cultivated primarily in North America. Linkage groups from all mapping populations were compared to identify 21 clusters of conserved collinearity. Linkage groups within each cluster were then merged into 21 consensus chromosomes, generating a framework consensus map of 7202 markers spanning 2843 cM. An additional ...
This paper describes a series of winter wheat - winter barley disomic addition lines developed from hybrids between winter wheat line Triticum aestivum L. Martonvásári 9 kr1 and the German 2-rowed winter barley cultivar Hordeum vulgare L. Igri. The barley chromosomes in a wheat background were identified from the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) patterns obtained with various combinations of repetitive DNA probes: GAA-HvT01 and pTa71-HvT01. The disomic addition lines 2H, 3H, and 4H and the 1HS isochromosome were identified on the basis of a 2-colour FISH with the DNA probe pairs GAA-pAs1, GAA-HvT01, and pTa71-HvT01. Genomic in situ hybridization was used to confirm the presence of the barley chromosomes in the wheat genome. The identification of the barley chromosomes in the addition lines was further confirmed with simple-sequence repeat markers. The addition lines were also characterized morphologically. ...
Detail záznamu - An Improved Consensus Linkage Map of Barley Based on Flow-Sorted Chromosomes and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
WRKY transcription factors are involved in multiple aspects of plant growth, development and responses to biotic stresses. Although they have been found to play roles in regulating plant responses to environmental stresses, these roles still need to be explored, especially those pertaining to crops. Durum wheat is the second most widely produced cereal in the world. Complex, large and unsequenced genomes, in addition to a lack of genomic resources, hinder the molecular characterization of tolerance mechanisms.This paper describes the isolation and characterization of five TdWRKY genes from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. Durum). A PCR-based screening of a T. turgidum BAC genomic library using primers within the conserved region of WRKY genes resulted in the isolation of five BAC clones. Following sequencing fully the five BACs, fine annotation through Triannot pipeline revealed 74.6% of the entire sequences as transposable elements and a 3.2% gene content with genes organized as islands within
Due to the high polymorphisms between synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) and common wheat, SHW has been widely used in genetic studies. The transferability of simple sequence repeats (SSR) among common wheat and its donor species, Triticum turgidum and Aegilops tauschii, and their SHW suggested the possibility that some SSRs, specific for a single locus in common wheat, might appear in two or more loci in SHWs. This is an important genetic issue when using synthetic hexaploid wheat population and SSR for mapping. However, it is largely ignored and never empirically well verified. The present study addressed this issue by using the well-studied SSR marker Xgwm261 as an example. The Xgwm261 produced a 192 bp fragment specific to chromosome 2D in common wheat Chinese Spring, but generated a 176 bp fragment in the D genome of Ae. tauschii AS60. Chromosomal location and DNA sequence data revealed that the 176 bp fragment also donated by 2B chromosome of durum wheat Langdon. These results indicated that ...
The annual allotetraploid species Aegilops geniculata harbors a number of traits relevant for wheat improvement. An effective cytogenetic method has yet to be developed to distinguish between each of its 14 chromosomes. A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) approach was adopted to describe the karyotype of Ae. geniculata. Each of its 14 chromosomes was unequivocally recognized using a cocktail of three probes, namely pTa-713, (AAC)5 and pTa71. FISH karyotyping was then used to detect and characterize selections from an Ae. geniculata × bread wheat wide cross of a chromosome 1Mg disomic addition line and three 4Mg(4B) substitution lines. The identity of the addition line was confirmed by the presence of Glu-M1, detected both using an SDS-PAGE separation of endosperm proteins and by applying a PCR assay directed at the Glu-M1 locus. The status of the substitution lines was validated by genotyping using a wheat single nucleotide polymorphism chip. FISH karyotyping based on pTa-713, (AAC)5 and pTa71
18-26S rDNA loci were mapped on chromosomes in four species of Paris, and the number and position of rDNA sites in these species were compared for analysis of the distribution of the sites. All the plants were diploids, and the genome consisted of five chromosomes, A, B, C, D and E. (1) P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, 2n = 10 = 6m + 4t. Two 18-26S rDNA loci were detected on the short arms of C and D chromosomes; (2) P. forrestii, 2n = 10 = 6m + 4t. One locus was detected on the long arm of B chromosome, and also two loci on the short arms of C and D chromosomes; (3) P. axialis. 2n = 10 = 6m(2sat) + 4t(2sat) + 1 - 2B. Two loci were detected on the short arms of C and D chromosomes. One locus was detected in the cell with two B-chromosomes (B), but none was detected in that with only one B chromosome, indicating that rRNA gene existed on B chromsome, and an unequal division occurred during mitotic cycle of B-chromosomes. (4) P. daliensis, 2n = 10 = 4m + 2sm + 2st + 2t. One locus was detected on ...
Tytuł projektu: Udostępnianie cyfrowe zasobów polskich czasopism z nauk przyrodniczych i rolniczych w bazie AGRO. Nr umowy: POPC.02.03.01-00-0038/18-00 (okres realizacji 2018-2021). Kwota dofinansowania: 7 442 980,00 z. W ramach Programu Operacyjnego Polska Cyfrowa na lata 2014-2020, Oś Priorytetowa nr 2 E-administracja i otwarty rząd Działanie nr 2.3 Cyfrowa dostępność i użyteczność informacji sektora publicznego Poddziałanie nr 2.3.1 Cyfrowe udostępnienie informacji sektora publicznego ze źródeł administracyjnych i zasobów nauki (typ projektu: cyfrowe udostępnienie zasobów nauki) Instytucja Finansująca: Centrum Projektów Polska Cyfrowa ...
Disomic alien addition lines (DAALs, 2n=42) were obtained from an intersubgeneric cross between Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv. Dwight (2n=40, G1G1) and Glycine tomentella Hayata (PI 441001, 2n=78, D3D3CC). They are morphologically uniform but distinct from either of the parents. These DAALs were all derived from the same monosomic alien addition line (MAAL, 2n=41), and theoretically they should breed true because they had a pair of homologous chromosomes from G. tomentella and 40 soybean chromosomes. However, in some selfed progenies of DAALs the extra G. tomentella chromosomes were eliminated resulting in plants with 2n=40 chromosomes. These progeny lines (2n=40) have a wide variation in phenotypes. The objective of this research was to document the phenotypic and chromosomal variation among the progeny of these DAALs, and to understand the genetics behind this phenomenon. In the replicated field study, variation was observed among the disomic progenies for the qualitative traits such as flower, ...
A field experiment was conducted at the Seed and Plant Improvement Institute Research Field Station in Karaj, Iran, during the 2009-10 and 2010-11 growing seasons to estimate genetic progress and the variation in penological and agronomic characteristics in 13 irrigated facultative/winter bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars released in Iran between 1943 and 2011. Trends of temporal variation of the traits measured revealed that grain yield and some related phonological and agronomic traits have increased in the more recently released cultivars. Thousand grain weight decreased slightly compared to older cultivars. Number of days to heading and anthesis decreased in new cultivars, butgrain-filling period and days to physiological maturity did not change. Spike length also increased but plant height decreased in more recently released cultivars. These changes may explain the increase in grain yield of newly released facultative/winter bread wheat cultivars.
Triticum turgidum (Rivet wheat). This species is an annual grass which has solid stems. The medium green leaves are flat and about 16mm. The glumes are yellow-brown.
The prophylactic treatment adopted was as follows for the period 15 August 1934 to 15 January 1935, the duration of the experiment:. The population of the village was divided into two lots of 135 subjects. The first lot (lot A) took a gametocidal treatment from 15 August 1934: 2 cg. of Praequine daily for five days, taken half an hour before the morning meal. This gametocidal treatment was repeated every two months, thus three times in total during the experiment.. At the same time and after the gametocidal treatment, lot A received preventive treatment with quinine chlorhydrate (o g. 50 (sic) every day for six out of seven days, taken half an hour before the meal).. The second lot (lot B) took the same gametocidal treatment as lot A. At the same time and after the gametocidal treatments, lot B received 10 cg. of Quinacrine every day for four days out of seven and this throughout the duration of the experiment.. Translation by Ulrich Tröhler ...
After testing several genome complexity reduction methods we identified the PstI/TaqI method as the most effective for Eucalyptus and developed 18 genomic libraries from PstI/TaqI representations of 64 different Eucalyptus species. A total of 23,808 cloned DNA fragments were screened and 13,300 (56%) were found to be polymorphic among 284 individuals. After a redundancy analysis, 6,528 markers were selected for the operational array and these were supplemented with 1,152 additional clones taken from a library made from the E. grandis tree whose genome has been sequenced. Performance validation for diversity studies revealed 4,752 polymorphic markers among 174 individuals. Additionally, 5,013 markers showed segregation when screened using six inter-specific mapping pedigrees, with an average of 2,211 polymorphic markers per pedigree and a minimum of 859 polymorphic markers that were shared between any two pedigrees ...
BackgroundSesame is an important oil crop widely cultivated in Africa and Asia continent. Characterization of genetic diversity and population structure of sesame genotypes in these continents can be used to designing breeding methods. In the present study, 300 sesame g...
Citation: AKHUNOV, E.D., LAZO, G.R., CHAO, S., ANDERSON, O.D., GUSTAFSON, J.P., WALKER-SIMMONS, M.K., STEBER, C.M. THE ORGANIZATION AND RATE OF EVOLUTION OF THE WHEAT TRANSCRIPTOME ARE CORRELATED WITH RECOMBINATION RATES ALONG CHROMOSOME ARMS. GENOME RESEARCH. 2003. V. 13(5). P. 753-763. Interpretive Summary: Wheat is one of the most important crops both within the U.S. and worldwide. Development of new and improved varieties into the future will depend on the basic knowledge of the organization and function of the genes found on the wheat chromosomes. This paper describes relationships between wheat chromosome structure and the exchange of genetic information through recombining gene and chromosome segments and the distribution and fate of duplicated genes. It was found the the fastest changing portions of the wheat chromosomes are the distal ends of the chromosomes - regions where gene duplication and DNA exchange between chromosomes is occurring the most rapidly. The paper also discusses the ...
The CC genome wild species, Oryza rhizomatis, possesses valuable traits for rice improvement. Unlike other CC genome wild rice, O. rhizomatis is less studied and none of the research has focused on the utilization of this resource in rice breeding. The transfer of novel genes governing the valuable traits from O. rhizomatis is difficult due to high genome incompatibility with O. sativa. Here we report the development of backcross progenies and complete sets of monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) for the first time from O. rhizomatis in O. sativa line IR31917-45-3-2. Autotetraploid IR31917-45-3-2 (4x = AAAA) was used to generate allotriploid F-1, and the F-1 plant was backcrossed to IR31917-45-3-2 (2x). Forty-seven BC1F1 and 73 BC2F1 plants were produced with chromosome numbers ranging from 24 to 33 (2x + 9) and 24 to 27 (2x + 3), respectively. A complete set of MAALs were identified by morphological, cytological and marker-based analysis. A total of 116 CC genome-specific InDel markers across ...
Secale cereale cv. Dongmu 70 was evaluated in two sites in Qinba mountain areas in 1998. S.cereale cv. Dongmu 70 showed good… Expand ...
Gramene genetic diversity database holds SSR and SNP allelic data and passport descriptions for rice, maize, and wheat germplasms.
Investigations in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) using molecular and conventional breeding techniques for abiotic and biotic ...
Wow, I count 14 question marks in one post. Is that a record?. Ill try to hit as many of the question marks as possible.. 1. So wouldnt the first human (with 46) have significant trouble reproducing? Not necessarily. Research has been performed to investigate just this question and found that fertility is effected only minimally. Essentially, it turns out that some centromeres are better at attracting the kinetochore machinery than others and thus outcompete the neighboring centromere for resources [a]. Thus, even in the case of a fusion, only one centromere will remain active.. 2. Could he or she reproduce with an ape mate? No. Nor would they likely be interested in doing so - any more than you are interested in mating with a gorilla. When a chromosomal fusion occurs in one individual human, they would look no different than any other human. All the same genes are still there, being expressed the same way. When the fusion of chromosomes 12 and 13 occurred in the human lineage, nobody would ...
Wow, I count 14 question marks in one post. Is that a record?. Ill try to hit as many of the question marks as possible.. 1. So wouldnt the first human (with 46) have significant trouble reproducing? Not necessarily. Research has been performed to investigate just this question and found that fertility is effected only minimally. Essentially, it turns out that some centromeres are better at attracting the kinetochore machinery than others and thus outcompete the neighboring centromere for resources [a]. Thus, even in the case of a fusion, only one centromere will remain active.. 2. Could he or she reproduce with an ape mate? No. Nor would they likely be interested in doing so - any more than you are interested in mating with a gorilla. When a chromosomal fusion occurs in one individual human, they would look no different than any other human. All the same genes are still there, being expressed the same way. When the fusion of chromosomes 12 and 13 occurred in the human lineage, nobody would ...
INTRODUCTION. Wheat (Triticum spp.) is an autogamous plant with perfect flowers producing limited amounts of pollen, and it is characterized by a relatively short period of gynoecium receptivity. Genetic improvement of wheat has been a matter of considerable concern through the years, mainly to increase yields, minimize losses due to unfavorable environmental conditions, and develop resistance to pests and diseases (Pingali and Rajaram, 2000).. With 8,000 years of history, wheat is the main cereal in the diet of mankind. Its global production is currently 640 million tons a year, and production has increased in accordance with the increase in population. In the last fifty years. wheat production had increased nearly 1% per year. This is due to technological advances in genetically more productive cultivars and the adoptionof bettercultivationpractices. By 2025. it is expected that a yearly increase in yield of about 2.5% will be required to meet the needs of a growing population demanding more ...
Hello All I have list of genes i want to know which all genes will make one chromosome segments So For example i have gene A , B , C , D i want for example A,B, C forming one stretch of chromosome segment (1p15.1p20) 1p15.1p.20 will make one segment. If i have ramdom gene name i want which genes will fall in one stretch of segments.. ...
Maize B-A translocations result from reciprocal interchanges between a supernumerary B chromosome and an arm of an essential A chromosome. Because of the freque
«Collinearity» In geometry, collinearity is a property of a set of points, specifically, the property of lying on a single line. A set of points with this property is ...
Hsam, S.L.K., Lapochkina, I.F., Zeller, F.J. 2003. Chromosomal location of genes for resistance to powdery mildew in common wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. em Thell.). 8. Gene Pm32 in a wheat- Aegilops speltoides translocation line. Euphytica. ...
Some of these are Heritage Wheats that go back to the 1700s. They are all modern wheat types in that they shed their hulls easily and can be easily threshed without equipment. They are all the same species, Triticum aestivum, while the truly ancient wheats are other species ...
The [email protected] Centre provides a platform for research students to deposit their Ph.D. theses and make it available to the entire scholarly community in open access ...
Pleiotropic effects are one of the main concerns regarding genetically modified organisms (GMOs). This includes unintended side effects of the transgene or its genome insertion site on the regulation of other endogenous genes, which could potentially cause the accumulation of different secondary met …
Lillian Gish, whose portrayals of fragile innocence graced the golden age of silent films and eventually extended into an eight-decade screen career, a testament to perpetuity that could last
If youve ever thought to look at the darts -especially bodice darts- on better quality ready-to-wear, youll notice the darts are sewn and the excess fabric (from the fold line of the dart) has been removed. Contrary to the statements of others, the sewers do not sew the seams and then trim the fabric away to match. If a stitcher did that -or had to do that- either the stitcher or the pattern maker should be fired, the latter preferably. Okay, maybe thats a little harsh but you get the idea. Stitchers arent allowed to trim anything. They are only allowed to clip seams and corners. They shouldnt have to do it either, theyre not paid for cutting when that could have been done most accurately by the cutting department. The trimming of that dart best serves everyones interests if the pattern was cut with the excess removed from the outset. If the pattern has not been trimmed accordingly, the fabric subsequently then the darts are not trimmed away after completion by the stitchers either. ...
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In plants it has also been suggested that the diffuse kinetochore of holocentric chromosomes may suppress the meiotic drive of ... Holocentric chromosomes have evolved several times during both animal and plant evolution, and are currently reported in about ... In plants, holocentric chromosomes have been found in zygnematophycean algae, in the genera Myristica (Myristicaceae), ... The presence of holocentric chromosomes has been up till now assessed in about 800 species, including insects, plants, ...
The list of organisms by chromosome count describes ploidy or numbers of chromosomes in the cells of various plants, animals, ... Animals Plants Other Eukaryotes Karyotype of a human being. It shows 22 homologous autosomal chromosome pairs, both the female ... Kondo K (May 1969). "Chromosome Numbers of Carnivorous Plants". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 96 (3): 322-328. doi: ... As other non-human extant hominidae have 48 chromosomes it is believed that the human chromosome 2 is the result of the merging ...
1] (87A&C Heat-shock puffs) [2] (High resolution spreads) Phaseolus Polytene chromosomes (Plants) (CS1 maint: uses authors ... Polytene chromosomes were first reported by E.G.Balbiani in 1881. Polytene chromosomes are found in dipteran flies: the best ... Polytene chromosomes are large chromosomes which have thousands of DNA strands. They provide a high level of function in ... Carvalheira, Gianna Maria Griz (2000). "Plant polytene chromosomes". Genetics and Molecular Biology. 23 (4): 1043-1050. doi: ...
Transmission of B chromosomes has also been studied in various grasshoppers. As in plants, it was found that the number of B ... In such cases, one does not speak of X and Y chromosomes, but of Z and W chromosomes. Males have two Z chromosomes (ZZ), ... There are two different X chromosomes and no Y chromosome (X1X20), and in meiosis I both X chromosomes are assigned to the same ... Much more numerous are studies on additional chromosomes, the B chromosomes, which show no homology with regular chromosomes ...
Silene latifolia plants are also either male (XY) or female (XX), with the Y chromosome being smaller, with fewer genes ... of the Y chromosome during meiosis. Additionally, 10-25% of human X chromosome genes, and 3-7% of mouse X chromosome genes ... Additionally, in plant species that lack dimorphic sex chromosomes, dosage compensation can occur when aberrant meiotic events ... Meadows, R (2012). "Sex chromosome equality in plants". PLOS Biology. 10 (4): e1001312. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001312. PMC ...
No orthologs have been found in invertebrate or plant species. C9orf43 divergence is moderate based on the molecular clock ... Chromosome 9 open reading frame 43 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C9orf43 gene. The gene is also known as ... "Entrez Gene: Chromosome 9 open reading frame 43". Butland SL, Devon RS, Huang Y, Mead CL, Meynert AM, Neal SJ, Lee SS, ... C9orf43 is located on the long arm of chromosome 9 at 9q32 and is expressed on the positive strand. The genomic sequence starts ...
Scientists also discovered plant and animal cells have a central compartment called the nucleus. They soon realized chromosomes ... males have both an X chromosome and a Y chromosome instead of a pair of X chromosomes as seen in females). Each chromosome ... Compared to prokaryotic chromosomes, eukaryotic chromosomes are much larger in size and are linear chromosomes. Eukaryotic ... "Eukaryotic Chromosome Structure". Retrieved 15 September 2014. "Structure of Chromosomes Revealed." University of ...
Holocentric chromosomes are found throughout the plant and animal kingdoms such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. ... The monocentric chromosome is a chromosome that has only one centromere in a chromosome and forms a narrow constriction. ... Monocentric chromosomes as compared to holocentric chromosomes where the entire length of the chromosome acts as the centromere ... Holocentric chromosomes do have an evolutionary advantage by preventing the loss of chromosome after a DNA double-strand break ...
... a paradigm for map-based gene cloning in plants with large genomes". Trends in Genetics. 11 (2): 63-68. doi:10.1016/S0168-9525( ... without any need for chromosome walking and its associated problems. Chromosome landing, together with the technology that has ... From the abstract of PMID 7716809: The strategy of chromosome walking is based on the assumption that it is difficult and time ... Primer walking Tanksley, Steven D.; Ganal, Martin W.; Martin, Gregory B. (February 1995). "Chromosome landing: ...
The chromosomes. 6th ed, Chapman & Hall, London. p28 Stebbins G.L. 1950. Variation and evolution in plants. Chapter XII: The ... chromosome 1) to smallest (chromosome 22), with the sex chromosomes (X and Y) shown last. Historically, karyotypes have been ... These include: A translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, known as the Philadelphia chromosome, occurs in about 20% of adult ... Gains on chromosomes 6 and 8 are often used to refine the predictive value of the Monosomy 3 screen, with gain of 6p indicating ...
A plant genome assembly represents the complete genomic sequence of a plant species, which is assembled into chromosomes and ... Next, using the map from the first step the contigs are assembled back into the chromosomes. The first complete plant genome ... 72.8% of the assembled sequences were successfully anchored onto the seven chromosomes. Another plant genome that combined NGS ... Plant Genome DataBase Japan (PGDBj) is a website that contains information related to genomes of model and crop plants from ...
Such groups include monotremes, Drosophila, some other insects, some fish, some reptiles, and some plants. In Drosophila ... Males have one Y chromosome and one X chromosome, while females have two X chromosomes. In mammals, the Y chromosome contains a ... The chromosome with this allele became the Y chromosome, while the other member of the pair became the X chromosome. Over time ... Only the tips of the Y and X chromosomes recombine. The tips of the Y chromosome that could recombine with the X chromosome are ...
When visualizing chromosomes, such as in a karyogram, cytogenetic banding is used to stain the chromosomes. Cytogenetic banding ... Atlas of plant and animal histology". Retrieved 2021-12-02. Enukashvily NI (January 2013). "Chapter Two ... Organisation of Chromosomes. Vol. 90. Academic Press. pp. 31-65. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-410523-2.00002-X. ISBN 9780124105232. ... "Chromosome structure: euchromatin and heterochromatin". International Review of Cytology. Academic Press. 108: 1-60. doi: ...
Charlesworth D (April 2016). "Plant Sex Chromosomes". Annual Review of Plant Biology. 67 (1): 397-420. doi:10.1146/annurev- ... Most plants, as well as many groups of animals, lack heteromorphic sex chromosomes. The absence of heteromorphic sex ... mitonuclear loci residing on the Z chromosome in hybrid Italian sparrows is consistent with compatible sex chromosomes being ... In the plant Arabidopsis arenosa some of the alleles conferring adaptation to drought and phytotoxic levels of metal have been ...
Chromosomes 2n=20. It is native to Europe. In the British Isles it has only been identified in England, where it became extinct ... List of extinct plants of the British Isles Natural History Museum London - Hairy Spurge JSTOR - Euphorbia villosa [Erich ... Euphorbia villosa, or hairy spurge, is a species of perennial, herbaceous plant in the family Euphorbiaceae. It grows to a ...
1. Mitotic chromosomes". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 304 (5): 583-606. doi:10.1007/s00606-017-1489-5. ISSN 2199-6881. v t ... "Allium bisotunense R.M.Fritsch , Plants of the World Online , Kew Science". Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 2020-12-05. " ... Like all species in the Melanocrommyum subgenus, this species is known to have 8 chromosomes. In addition, there is a mix of ... Allium bisotunense is a species of flowering plant in the family Amaryllidaceae and is endemic to Iran. They are cultivated in ...
It has 24 chromosomes. Gene flow is high between wild populations. The plant is one of the commercially important sources of ... Chapter 4 Rosewood Oil (PDF). Flavours and fragrances of plant origin. Food and Agriculture Organization. 1995. ISBN 92-5- ... Endangered plants, Trees of Brazil, Trees of Colombia, Trees of Ecuador, Trees of French Guiana, Trees of Guyana, Trees of Peru ...
"Join Plant Heritage , Conserving the diversity of garden plants". Baird, Merrily C (2001). Symbols of Japan: Thematic Motifs in ... Both have eight chromosomes. In East Asia and North America there are about nine species of wisteria. In North America, W. ... Some species are popular ornamental plants. The aquatic flowering plant commonly called wisteria or 'water wisteria' is in fact ... Once the plant is a few years old, a relatively compact, free-flowering form can be achieved by pruning off the new tendrils ...
... six sets of chromosomes) with the common name of bread wheat. Many agriculturally important plants of the genus Brassica are ... Some plants are triploid. As meiosis is disturbed, these plants are sterile, with all plants having the same genetic ... One Thousand Plant Transcriptomes Initiative (2019). "One thousand plant transcriptomes and the phylogenomics of green plants ... Each chromosome pair derived from the Triticum urartu parent is homoeologous to the opposite chromosome pair derived from the ...
Prior to these discoveries by her and others it had not been realised that plants had sex chromosomes. The fact that X and Y ... Blackburn, K. B. (1923). "Sex chromosomes in plants". Nature. 112 (2819): 687-688. Bibcode:1923Natur.112..687B. doi:10.1038/ ... Blackburn, K. B.; Heslop-Harrison, J. W. (1924). "A Preliminary Account of the Chromosomes and Chromosome Behaviour in the ... and established that female and male flowers of these plants had X and Y sex chromosomes (Blackburn 1923, 1924). She was the ...
The X chromosome is either acrocentric, with a long and a short arm, or subtelocentric, with a long and a vestigial arm. The ... In 24 hours, male Texas O. couesi move up to 153 m (502 ft) and females up to 126 m (413 ft). The diet includes both plant ... It has 56 chromosomes. There is much geographic variation in size, proportions, color, and skull features. Oryzomys couesi is ... An omnivore, it eats both plant and animal food, including seeds and insects. It breeds throughout the year; females give birth ...
... is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae. It belongs to the subfamily Faboideae. Genetic analysis ... Both have eight chromosomes. "Callerya". Taxonomy Browser. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 2010-01-01 ...
An ortholog was found within invertebrates, bacteria, plants, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, placental mammals ... Chromosome 1 open reading frame 194 (C1orf194) is a gene from Homo sapiens. The function of the protein coded by the gene is ... "C1orf194 chromosome 1 open reading frame 194 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". Retrieved 2017-02-19 ... KIAA1324 is the closest gene neighbor to C1orf194 located 86bp from the start of C1orf194 on the non-sense strand of chromosome ...
Biologists have found that sex chromosomes in plants originated from pairs of autosomes. As these chromosomes diverge from ... A few, such as S. colpophylla, possess homomorphic sex chromosomes. Plants with sex-determining chromosomes, like Silene, can ... Ming, Ray; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Renner, Susanne S. (2011-01-01). "Sex chromosomes in land plants". Annual Review of Plant ... Moore, R. C.; Harkess, A. E.; Weingartner, L. A. (2016-07-01). "How to be a seXY plant model: A holistic view of sex-chromosome ...
... plant), Plants described in 1966, Garden plants, Flora of Western Asia, Flora of Syria). ... A 1977 analysis of the genome of 47 species of Oncocyclus irises showed that the species has a chromosome count of 2n=20. The ... David Gledhill The Names of Plants, p. 133, at Google Books Stearn, William (1973). A Gardenerer's Dictionary of Plant Names ( ... It should be planted in March, then dug up in September or October and stored in wood shavings. The plants can be harmed by ...
Plant cells do not have centrosomes and the chromosomes can nucleate microtubule assembly into the mitotic apparatus. In plant ... but utilizing the technology on plant cells was originally difficult due to the high degree of chromosome compaction in plant ... Fluorescent stains such as DAPI can be used in both live plant and animal cells. These stains do not band chromosomes, but ... In both animal and plant cells chromosomes may de-condense during telophase I requiring them to re-condense in prophase II.: ...
... plant), Flora of Central Asia, Flora of Iran, Plants described in 1950, Garden plants of Asia, Plant subspecies). ... As most irises are diploid, having two sets of chromosomes, this can be used to identify hybrids and classification of ... They are best re-planted in late September when temperatures are low and humidity is also low. This is also when the plants ... It is hardy (in UK), when planted in a south-facing border, at the base of a wall. In winter, it must not have its roots in ...
Kondo, Katsuhiko (May 1969). "Chromosome Numbers of Carnivorous Plants" (PDF). Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 96 (3): ... Examination of the U.S. Pitcher-plant Trade With a Focus on the White-topped Pitcher-plant. Traffic Bulletin. Excerpts, Vol. 17 ... Some efforts have been made to curb the existing threats to plants. In 2003 the International Carnivorous Plant Society ran a ... Another challenge is maintaining all of the introduced plant material and determining an optimal site to plant them in. A ...
... is a genus of the plant family Asteraceae. It consists of shrubs (and one geophyte) of arid environments in ... All have n = 18 chromosomes. All the North American species are obligate outcrossers. In cultivation, the species readily form ... Encelia species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the leaf miner Bucculatrix enceliae ...
Ming, Ray; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Renner, Susanne S. (2011-06-02). "Sex Chromosomes in Land Plants". Annual Review of Plant ... She has also worked on dioecy and sex chromosomes in plants. The use of genetic tools enables Renner to track the movement of ... "Plant sex chromosomes defy evolutionary models - The Source - Washington University in St. Louis". The Source. 2021-04-23. ... Renner, Susanne S. (2005). "Relaxed molecular clocks for dating historical plant dispersal events". Trends in Plant Science. 10 ...
Plant Encyclopedia "Seersucker Plant". Plant Encyclopedia. 11 March 2011. Faden, R. B. (1981). "Peperomia peoppigii Miq.; A ... All members of the subtribe share a similar karyotype of 19 large chromosomes. The genus Geogenanthus is distinguished by a ... The surface as a whole has a "puckered" appearance; hence the common name seersucker plant. This plant is particularly unique ... The stem of the plant is covered in minute brown hairs and, underground, plants possess a short, branching rhizome. This ...
The majority of the plants in this species are diploid (n = 17), meaning they have two sets of chromosomes. Some plants found ... A variable plant, in some localities it is difficult to distinguish from other plants in the genus. The plant has diamond to ... A plant with two inflorescences Plant with inflorescences Detail of the inflorescence Multiple rosettes on a shady ledge A ... Plants with the eggs are usually in exposed areas, rather than partial shade. Once the larvae emerge from the eggs, they burrow ...
The wild tomato is a perennial plant, woody at the base, being up to 1 metre (3.3 ft) or more in diameter and up to 1m tall. ... Chromosome number: n=12. It is found in coastal and inland Andean valleys in northern Peru (between 100 and 2,500 metres (330 ... Plant Physiology. 143 (2): 1044-54. doi:10.1104/pp.106.089615. PMC 1803715. PMID 17172289. (Articles with short description, ... Short description matches Wikidata, Articles with 'species' microformats, Solanum, Endemic flora of Peru, Plants described in ...
"Molecular analysis of an auxin binding protein gene located on chromosome 4 of Arabidopsis". Plant Cell. 4 (2): 193-201. doi: ... This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro: IPR000526 (Plant proteins). ... coding for a putative receptor for the plant hormone auxin". EMBO J. 8 (9): 2453-61. PMC 401229. PMID 2555179. Palme K, Hesse T ...
... and flowering plants. Imprinting of whole chromosomes has been reported in mealybugs (Genus: Pseudococcus) and a fungus gnat ( ... Alleman M, Doctor J (June 2000). "Genomic imprinting in plants: observations and evolutionary implications". Plant Molecular ... on mouse chromosome 17 and KCNQ1OT1 on human chromosome 11p15.5, have been shown to be essential for the imprinting of genes in ... but do depend on which parent the chromosome originated from. This group of epigenetic changes that depend on the chromosome's ...
In animals they range more than 3,300-fold, and in land plants they differ by a factor of about 1,000. Protist genomes have ... I. DNA-content and chromosome sets in various species of Cyprinidae". Humangenetik. 7 (3): 240-244. doi:10.1007/BF00273173. ... Bennett MD, Leitch IJ (2005). "Genome size evolution in plants". In T.R. Gregory (ed.). The Evolution of the Genome. San Diego ... Animal Genome Size Database Plant DNA C-values Database Fungal Genome Size Database Fungal Database Archived 2008-03-10 at the ...
"Plants Profile for Cheilanthes tomentosa (woolly lipfern)". Retrieved 22 June 2016. Cobb, Farnsworth & Lowe ... The triploid sporophyte has a chromosome number of 90. Reproduction is apogamous: triploid spores are formed by mitosis, rather ... Christenhusz, Maarten J. M.; Fay, Michael F.; Byng, James W. (2018). Plant Gateway's the Global Flora: A practical flora to ... Plants described in 1833, Myriopteris, Ferns of Mexico, Taxa named by Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link). ...
In the last five years, millions of hectares have been newly planted in Brazil. Growth has been especially high in Central ... Carvalho-Silva, DR; Santos, FR; Rocha, J; Pena, SD (January 2001). "The Phylogeography of Brazilian Y-Chromosome Lineages". ...
The chemotaxonomy of the plant was completed in 2008. It's chromosome count is 2n = 32. It has a few common names including ' ... It is a low, to short prostrate plant, with often several from base, stems that sprawl, trail or spread, and very rarely ... Other differences between the two plants include; l. didymum has 2 stamens while L. coronopus has 6 and the fruits are very ... Later as the Lepidium species was formed, Ihsan Ali Al-Shehbaz then published the plant as Lepidium coronopus in 'Novon' Vol.14 ...
Šolić graduated biology on 24 August 1980 with thesis "Significant Biokovo plants with special emphasis on their protection" ... Mediterranean chromosome data - 27. Flora Mediterranea 27, 295-301 "In memoriam: Dr. sc. Marija s. Edita Šolić, dobitnica ... as well as live and herbaria plant collections. On 26 September 1972 at the Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, ...
... plant), Flora of Central Asia, Flora of China, Flora of Iran, Flora of Mongolia, Flora of Pakistan, Garden plants of Asia, ... It has a chromosome count: 2n=20. It was also counted as 2n=22, 44 by (Zahareva and Makeushenko 1968) and (Fedorov 1969). It is ... Eastop Aphids on the World's Herbaceous Plants and Shrubs, p. 553, at Google Books Czerepanov, S. K. 1995. Vascular plants of ... The multiple flowering plants were originally called Iris songarica var. multiflora, but this has been classified as a synonym ...
More recent analysis of chromosomes reveals that the New England plants do not appear to be closely related to E. leucolepis. ... USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Eupatorium novae-angliae". The PLANTS Database ( Greensboro, North Carolina: National ... The International Plant Names Index "Eupatorium leucolepis". Flora of North America. ... Plants described in 1937, Flora without expected TNC conservation status). ...
In lower plants, woody parts may not be present above ground. Like all diploid peonies, it has ten chromosomes (2n=10). The ... Garden plants, Flora of China, Plants described in 1892). ... Plants have creeping stolons and the roots are thick because ... Paeonia delavayi has been listed as endangered by the China Plant Red Data Book, and may be under threat if digging out roots ... Planting tree peonies in a sheltered position may help to prevent strong winds from breaking branches, particularly during ...
Also handling the plant may cause a skin irritation or an allergic reaction. "Iris schelkownikowii (Fomin) Fomin - The Plant ... It has a chromosome count of 2n=20. It was originally described as Iris acutiloba var. schelkownicowii by A.V. Fomin in 1904. ... Plant Science Research Division Plant Inventory, Issues 81-100 (1925), p. 7, at Google Books Royal Horticultural Society ... plant), Plants described in 1907, Flora of Azerbaijan, Flora of the Transcaucasus). ...
Some plant species have enormous mitochondrial genomes, with Silene conica mtDNA containing as many as 11,300,000 base pairs. ... Medusozoa and calcarea clades however have species with linear mitochondrial chromosomes. In terms of base pairs, the anemone ... Type 2, type 3 and type 5 mentioned in the plant and fungal genomes also exist in some protists, as do two unique genome types ... There are three different mitochondrial genome types found in plants and fungi. The first type is a circular genome that has ...
Only fertilised queens can lay diploid eggs (one set of chromosomes from a drone, one from the queen) that mature into workers ... Enhancing the wild bee population can be done by the planting of wildflower strips, and in New Zealand, bee nesting boxes have ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Beekeeping/Plants_for_Bumblebees Bumblebees of the world - find species by region, ... Bumblebee workers can lay unfertilised haploid eggs (with only a single set of chromosomes) that develop into viable male ...
The plant is held in place by removing half the leaf mass to reduce wind rock and by using the old roots as anchors in the soil ... It has a chromosome count: 2n=24. It is commonly known as the 'Hungarian iris'. It is known as 'skäggiris' in Swedish. It was ... Garden plants of Europe, Plants described in 1753, Taxa named by Carl Linnaeus). ... Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (the former USSR). Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934-1964. Flora SSSR. Mathew, B. ...
... , Chromosomes and Cancer. Vol. 15. Miami Beach, FL: University of Miami School of Medicine. Alter O, Golub GH ( ... In cells with nuclei (eukaryotes, i.e., animal, plant, fungal, and protist cells), the cell cycle is divided into two main ... In this checkpoint, the cell checks to ensure that the spindle has formed and that all of the chromosomes are aligned at the ... Thus, during this phase, the amount of DNA in the cell has doubled, though the ploidy and number of chromosomes are unchanged. ...
Reut". Plants of the World Online. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2020. Balao, ... Dianthus broteri is a complex of polyploid races, with 2n=2x=30, 2n=4x=60, 2n=6x=90 and 2n=12x=180 chromosomes detected in ... Dianthus broteri is a species of flowering plant in the carnation family Caryophyllaceae. It is native to Portugal and Spain, ... Plants described in 1852, Flora of Portugal, Flora of Spain, Taxa named by Pierre Edmond Boissier, Taxa named by George ...
USDA, NRCS (2014). "Symphyotrichum defoliatum". The PLANTS Database ( Greensboro, North Carolina: National ... Symphyotrichum defoliatum is an allopolyploid species likely derived from the backcrossing of S. falcatum (chromosome base ... Symphyotrichum defoliatum is a perennial herbaceous plant growing from a long rhizome to a maximum height of 150 centimeters (5 ... POWO (2021). "Symphyotrichum defoliatum (Parish) G.L.Nesom". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved ...
It is a native plant in Europe. Pyramidal bugle is a perennial, herbaceous plant growing from about 5 to 20 cm (2 to 8 in) tall ... The chromosome number is 2n = 32. The bracts in the inflorescence form effective shelters for the flowers from rain, their red- ... N.P (2002). "Plants and People of Nepal". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) "Medicinal use of Ajuga ... Ajuga pyramidalis, commonly known as pyramidal bugle, is a flowering plant of the genus Ajuga in the family Lamiaceae. ...
... in higher plants". The Plant Journal. 101 (3): 681-699. doi:10.1111/tpj.14567. PMID 31610059. Scarpato M, Angelini C, Cocca E, ... The chromosome has a very complex and hierarchical system of organizing the genome. This system of organization, which includes ... Changes in chromosome structure influence gene expression primarily by affecting the accessibility of genes to transcriptional ... Furthermore, the shape and density of certain areas of a chromosome can affect the shape and density of neighboring (or even ...
Non-heme iron is not as easily absorbed in the human system and is found in plant-based foods such as grains, beans, vegetables ... The gene responsible for hereditary hemochromatosis (known as HFE gene) is located on chromosome 6; the majority of hereditary ... Most humans who lived at that time were foragers and their diets consisted largely of game, fish and wild plants. ...
Plants of the World Online , Kew Science". Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 19 January 2022. Ward, J.M.; Breitwieser, I.; ... It has a chromosome no. = 2n=28. The genus name of Rachelia is in honour of Rachel Chisholm, born Kevern (1915-2017), New ... Mabberley, D.J. 2008: Mabberley's plant book, a portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses. Edition 3. ... The Latin specific epithet of glaria refers to the habitat (of the plant) and it is derived from the stem of "glara", meaning " ...
It is located on Chromosome 17 at 18,684,582-18,710,026, and the most common mRNA has 7 exons. This gene encode a protein of ... LOC51030 is highly conserved in chordates and also shows conservation in eukaryotes, including fungi and plants. ... The gene is found on chromosome 17 on the cytogenetic band 17p11.2. This gene has two paralog in the human genome, LOC201158, ... which is located on chromosome 17 at 17p12, and TVP23A, which is located on chromosome 16. The duplication appears to have ...
Organization and Molecular Evolution of Plant Organellar Genomes and Sex Chromosomes -Insights from the Case of the Liverwort ... Molecular Biology of Plant Virus RNA Genomes and its Application to Agriculture Hiroshi Okamoto - Studies on Experimental ... Regulation of Cell Cycle and Chromosome Segregation Noboru Karashima - History and Society in South India: The Cholas to ...
NAD kinases in plants and sea urchin eggs have also been found to bind calmodulin. Due to the essential role of NADPH in lipid ... Genes on human chromosome 1, EC 2.7.1, Cellular respiration, Metabolism). ... "Differential activation of NAD kinase by plant calmodulin isoforms. The critical role of domain I". The Journal of Biological ...
It is a true bug and sucks sap from cereal plants, making it a pest of wheat production. It has also been recorded as a pest of ... "A chromosome-level draft genome of the grain aphid Sitobion miscanthi". GigaScience. 8 (8). doi:10.1093/gigascience/giz101. PMC ...
Hybrid plants, Plants described in 1873, Ferns of the United States). ... A. × wherryi showed the same pattern, as it also contains chromosomes from both of those species. A specimen of A. stotleri was ... While A. bradleyi is easily outcompeted by other plants in more fertile habitats, it is well adapted to the thin, acidic soil ... These microsites are too small for most other vascular plants to survive, except for a few other spleenworts. Some mosses and ...
This chapter describes the flow of a chromosome analysis using an IBAS (Zeiss/Kontron) image analyzer. NIH Image is constructed ... The chapter also describes a basic image analysis procedure for plant chromosomes to obtain the density distribution of a ... This chapter describes the flow of a chromosome analysis using an IBAS (Zeiss/Kontron) image analyzer. NIH Image is constructed ... The application of image technology to human chromosome research began in the 1960s as diagnostic demands increased. Automatic ...
... was formed to sequence the whole genome of Arabidopsis and in 1999 the sequence of the first two chromosomes was reported. The ... Arabidopsis thaliana is an important model system for plant biologists. In 1996 an international collaboration (the Arabidopsis ... Sequence and analysis of chromosome 3 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana Nature. 2000 Dec 14;408(6814):820-2. doi: 10.1038/ ... arms of chromosome 3, and the two small contigs are located in the genetically defined centromere. This chromosome encodes ...
Search CHROMosome and Plant Cell Division in Space EXperiment on Amazon. *Search CHROMosome and Plant Cell Division in Space ...
Index to plant chromosome numbers 1988 - 1989. 1991.(Monogr. Syst. Bot., 40). 238 p. gr8vo. Paper bd. ... Index to plant chromosome numbers 2004 - 2006. Publ. 2010. (Regnum Vegetabile, 152). 256 p. gr8vo. Paper bd. (978-3-906166-89-6 ... Index to plant chromosome numbers 2001 - 2003. Publ. 2006. (Monographs in Systematic Botany, Volume 106). 242 p. gr8vo. Paper ... Index to plant chromosome numbers 1996 - 1997. 2000. (Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 81). ...
Renner, Susanne S. (2016): Pathways for making unisexual flowers and unisexual plants: Moving beyond the "two mutations linked ... on one chromosome" model. In: American Journal of Botany, Vol. 103, No. 4: pp. 587-589 ...
Polyploidy, an important mechanism of plant evolution, was investigated in Consolea, an endemic Caribbean opuntioid genus ... Standard chromosome counting and flow cytometric analyses were used to determine chromosome numbers and ploidy of each taxon. ... Male and female sexual morphs had similar DNA content, suggesting that there are no sex chromosomes. Cytomixis between cells ... In conclusion, C-DNA content and chromosome number separated Consolea species into two groups, which may correspond to two ...
Hi-C 2.0: An Optimized Hi-C Procedure for High-Resolution Genome-Wide Mapping of Chromosome Conformation. Houda Belaghzal, Job ... Hi-C 2.0: An Optimized Hi-C Procedure for High-Resolution Genome-Wide Mapping of Chromosome Conformation ... Hi-C 2.0: An Optimized Hi-C Procedure for High-Resolution Genome-Wide Mapping of Chromosome Conformation ... Hi-C 2.0: An Optimized Hi-C Procedure for High-Resolution Genome-Wide Mapping of Chromosome Conformation ...
Binding of H3K4me3 by a plant homeodomain (PHD) in RAG-2 induces conformational changes in RAG-1, allosterically stimulating ... This includes homology search, DNA strand invasion, repair DNA synthesis, and restoration of intact chromosomes. Aspects of DNA ... allosteric transmission of histone H3 Lys-4 trimethylation to the recombinase RAG-1 are separable functions of the RAG-2 plant ... and Dmc1 form specialized presynaptic filaments that are adapted for performing recombination between homologous chromosomes. ...
Crosses and Chromosomes. Do Now ( dihybrid cross) In fruit flies, red eyes are dominant to white, and wings are dominant to no ... Dihybrid Gametes • Pea plant cross: PpYy x PpYy • Gametes: reproductive haploid cells (sperm and egg) • One individual ... Chromosomes and DNA - . each chromosome contains a long strand of dna body cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes. ... Chromosomes and Inheritance - . autosomes vs. sex chromosomes. autosomes = the pairs of chromosomes that are the same in ...
Each animal or plant has two alleles of each gene. One allele is inherited from its mother and the other is inherited from its ... Heredity is the passage of DNA from the chromosomes of one generation to the chromosomes of the next. Chromosomes in your body ... Chromosomes are the keepers of the genetic material in eukaryotic cells. An organism has the same chromosomes for its entire ... One chromosome of each pair came from your mother and one from your father. There are many genes within each chromosome. ...
title = "Plant extracts induce chromosome aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary cells and human ... T1 - Plant extracts induce chromosome aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary cells and human ... Plant extracts induce chromosome aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary cells and human ... Plant extracts induce chromosome aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary cells and human ...
Plants All Subjects ... What are chromosomes made of. How are mitosis and meiosis ...
Tree peony (Paeonia ostii) has the largest chromosome of any sequenced plants to date. Here, the authors assemble its genome ... Maize root system architecture improvement for high-density planting Nature Plants, 1-2 ... A draft chromosome-scale genome assembly of a commercial sugarcane *Jeremy R. Shearman ... Genomic basis of the giga-chromosomes and giga-genome of tree peony Paeonia ostii ...
For vascular plants occurring in wildlands or otherwise outside of cultivation in California, the Jepson eFlora contains ... Chromosomes: 2n=14. Ecology: Disturbed places, rock or wall crevices, roadsides; Elevation: < 1500 m. Bioregional Distribution: ... Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange). List of species Centranthus ruber. ... Habit: Plant glabrous, glaucous; base generally woody. Stem: decumbent to erect, simple or branched, 3--9 dm, hollow. Leaf: 5-- ...
A high-quality chromosome-level Eutrema salsugineum genome, an extremophile plant model. ... A high-quality chromosome-level Eutrema salsugineum genome, an extremophile plant model. ... is an attractive model to study abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Two versions of E. salsugineum genomes that previously ... genome using long-read sequencing and chromosome conformation capture data. We generated Oxford Nanopore long reads at high ...
Identification of the chromosome complement and the spontaneous 1R/1V translocations in allotetraploid Secale cereale × ... Chromosome BandingChromosomes, PlantCytogeneticsDNA, PlantDNA, RibosomalGenome, PlantHybridization, GeneticPoaceaeSecale ... Introduction of chromosome segment carrying the seed storage protein genes from chromosome 1V of Dasypyrum villosum showed ... In addition we analyse rye chromosome pairs using FISH with chromosome-specific DNA sequences on S. cereale × D. villosum ...
Tabata, S., & Klein Lankhorst, R. M. (2000). Sequence and analysis of chromosome 5 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Nature, ... Tabata, S. ; Klein Lankhorst, R.M. / Sequence and analysis of chromosome 5 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In: Nature. 2000 ... Tabata, S & Klein Lankhorst, RM 2000, Sequence and analysis of chromosome 5 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, Nature, vol. ... Sequence and analysis of chromosome 5 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. / Tabata, S.; Klein Lankhorst, R.M. ...
Jeffrey Tomkins published Combinatorial genomic data refute the human chromosome 2 evolutionary fusion and build a model of ... University, an M.S. in Plant Science from the University of Idaho, ... to maintain chromosome stability. Centromeres are specic regions of chromosomes that play an important role in the assembly of ... tripeptidyl peptidase 1 (TPP1) gene on chromosome 11. The fth Tomkins ◀Interstitial telomeres and chromosome 2 fusion ▶ 2018 ...
Chromosome condensation induced by geminivirus infection of mature plant cells From documentsdelivere. d. .com - October 27, 11 ... of Infectious Clones of Grapevine Geminivirus A Directly into Greenhouse-Grown Grapevine and Nicotiana benthamiana Plants ...
Feasibility of physical map construction from fingerprinted bacterial artificial chromosome libraries of polyploid plant ...
Bustards may use plants to treat STIs during the breeding season. Male great bustards seek out two toxic plants during the ... The chromosome may contain regions that promote their DNAs spread by killing sperm that carry Y chromosomes. However, Y ... Genetically modified tobacco plant produces cocaine in its leaves * A 48,500-year-old virus has been revived from Siberian ... Ukraines nuclear plants face uncertain future after Russian attacks * Bluewalker 3 satellite is brighter than 99.8 per cent of ...
... egg masses and reproduction factor produced by Nacobbus aberrans in Chili plants, with respect to the control where this ... plants, animals, invertebrates, and humans. Some species of this genus have antifungal, antibacterial, and nematicidal activity ... Na, plants inoculated only with the nematode; Nematicide, plants with Nemacur®; plants with the bacteria at different ... Na, plants inoculated only with the nematode; Nematicide, plants with Nemacur®; plants with the bacteria at different ...
... plant reproduction; prenatal vertebrate development; postnatal vertebrate development; plant development and comparative ... Contents: Chromosome numbers; linkage groups, heritability, and hybridization; cells and tissues; vertebrate reproduction; ...
In plants and animals (including humans), chromosomes reside in the nucleus of cells. Humans have 22 pairs of numbered ... X Chromosome. The X chromosome is one of the two sex chromosomes that are involved in sex determination. Humans and most other ... Y Chromosome. The Y chromosome is one of the two sex chromosomes that are involved in sex determination. Humans and most other ... Sex Chromosome. A sex chromosome is a type of chromosome involved in sex determination. Humans and most other mammals have two ...
Donald Danforth Plant Science Center Apply Donald Danforth Plant Science Center filter ... Chromosomes (27) Apply Chromosomes filter *Circadian Rhythms (10) Apply Circadian Rhythms filter ... Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research Apply Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research filter ...
Plants and animals in the process of macro-evolution would be unfit for survival. For example, "if a leg of a reptile were to ... The Y chromosome is also unusual because, unlike most chromosomes it doesnt have a matching partner. We each get two copies of ... "Having the ancestral great ape Y chromosome helps us to understand how the chromosome evolved," said Vegesna. "For example, we ... get two X chromosomes and some of us (males) get one X and one Y. Partner chromosomes can exchange sections in a process called ...
Plants Why dandelion seeds are so good at spreading widely By James R. Riordon. November 14, 2022. ...
GC Content in Plant Genomes BUREŠ Petr ŠMARDA Petr HRALOVÁ Ivana FUNES-SORIANO Sara LYSÁK Martin ŘEPKA Radomír HELÁNOVÁ Klára ... Genome size variation in species with holokinetic chromosomes (Cyperaceae) HRALOVÁ Ivana BUREŠ Petr ROTREKLOVÁ Olga ŠMARDA Petr ... Is GC-content Correlated with Genome Size in Plants BUREŠ Petr ŠMARDA Petr HRALOVÁ Ivana HELÁNOVÁ Klára FUENTES-SORIANO Sara ... Correlation between GC content ond genome size in plants BUREŠ Petr ŠMARDA Petr HRALOVÁ Ivana FUENTES-SORIANO Sara LYSÁK Martin ...
  • This chromosome encodes 5,220 of the roughly 25,500 predicted protein-coding genes in the genome. (
  • Chromosomes, DNA and Genes: Tiny Things That Have a Huge Effect on Who We Are! (
  • There are many genes within each chromosome. (
  • Here, the authors assemble its genome and reveal the association of a list of candidate genes with fatty acid biosynthesis and the possible contribution of transposon and histone expansion to maintain the giga-chromosomes. (
  • The 5,874 genes encoded on chromosome 5 reveal several new functions in plants, and the patterns of gene organization provide insights into the mechanisms and extent of genome evolution in plants. (
  • human chromosome 2 are situated inside active genes negating the idea of fusion. (
  • The Y chromosome is important for male fertility and contains the genes critical for sperm production, but it is often neglected in genomic studies because it is so difficult to sequence and assemble," said Monika Cechova, a graduate student at Penn State at the time of the research and co-first author of the paper. (
  • Structure of genes and chromosomes. (
  • Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. (
  • Because researchers use different approaches to predict the number of genes on each chromosome, the estimated number of genes varies. (
  • Chromosome 1 likely contains 2,000 to 2,100 genes that provide instructions for making proteins. (
  • Researchers have identified several possible tumor suppressor genes in the deleted region of chromosome 1, and more research is needed to understand what role these genes play in neuroblastoma development. (
  • A chromosome consists of a long strand of DNA containing many genes. (
  • A human chromosome can have up to 500 million base pairs of DNA with thousands of genes. (
  • In eukaryotes (such as animals, plants, and fungi ), genes are contained within the cell nucleus. (
  • The characterized genes have proposed functions involved in plant defense and stress, energy and metabolism, protein transport, replication, and RNA binding. (
  • Chromosomal distributions revealed that the highest number of SOD genes was on chromosomes 1 and 10, with 2 members on each. (
  • The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of SOD genes and proteins in plants, especially in Sorghum taxa. (
  • Additionally, some disorders are brought on by recessive genes on the X chromosome and are more inclined to affect males, since males have just one X chromosome and thus do not have a dominant replica of the allele. (
  • "Cannabis labeling is instead probably driven primarily by a small number of key terpenes whose concentrations contribute to the characteristic aromas commonly associated with Sativa and Indica and whose variation we genetically mapped to tandem arrays of terpene synthase genes on chromosomes 5 and 6. (
  • By combining the data collected by the developed method and DNA analysis, we identified genes related to the vegetation fraction at four locations on the chromosome. (
  • The 84 PbbZIP genes were all located in the nucleus, and 77 of those genes were unevenly distributed across the 17 chromosomes of white pear. (
  • Also artificially constructing genes could lead to solution to world hunger: Clone the same cabbage plant a hundred times and you could feed an entire community with just one gene. (
  • Polymorphisms in the 2q33 and 3q21 chromosome regions including T-cell coreceptor and ligand genes may influence susceptibility to pemphigus foliaceus. (
  • Each animal or plant has two alleles of each gene. (
  • Autosomal" means that the gene in question is located on one of the numbered, or non-sex, chromosomes. (
  • Using genome editing techniques, I evaluate the effect of targeted gene expression levels on the shoot formation capabilities of plant protoplasts. (
  • The resistance gene Yr34 that controlled stripe rust in WAWHT2046 was 12.2 cM distal to the awn inhibitor B1 in chromosome 5AL (Bariana et al. (
  • The deletion in chromosome 1 involved in TAR syndrome eliminates at least 200,000 DNA building blocks (200 kilobases, or 200 kb) from the long (q) arm of the chromosome, including a gene called RBM8A . (
  • MIC-3 is a recently identified gene family shown to exhibit increased root-specific expression following nematode infection of cotton plants that are resistant to root-knot nematode. (
  • More papers have been published on unintended outcomes and risks of gene editing in medical research on human and animal cells and laboratory animals, compared with plants. (
  • Moreover, the problems found with human and animal gene editing are increasingly being confirmed in plant gene editing. (
  • A More Intuitive Phytozome Interface Phytozome v13 now hosts upwards of 250 plant genomes and provides users with the genome browsers, gene pages, search, BLAST and BioMart data warehouse interfaces they have come to rely on, with a more intuitive interface. (
  • gene, unit of hereditary information that occupies a fixed position (locus) on a chromosome. (
  • Analysis revealed deletion of DNA fragments with collinear gene order on chromosomes 1A, 2D, 5A, 5B, 5D and 7D of Chara HII mutants. (
  • T0 and T1 plants have been obtained and confirmed for the gene of interest. (
  • At the University of Michigan, Janaki focused on plant cytology ,the study of genetic composition and patterns of gene expression in plants. (
  • Accordingly, several ongoing projects are aiming to identify and monitor the effects of different anthropogenic pressures on natural ecosystems, including the evaluation of the biological effects of genotoxic contaminants, on several sentinel species within the Qatari coastal waters, at the gene, chromosome and cell level. (
  • Here, a chromosome-length genome sequence assembly and related gene predictions for the red raspberry cultivar 'Anitra' are presented, comprising PacBio long read sequencing scaffolded using Hi-C sequence data. (
  • The first step in dna splicing is to locate a specific gene of interest on a chromosome. (
  • In other words, if you had a gene for down syndrome, the genetically modified anti-biotic could mutate the malice chromosome into something less harmfull. (
  • Studies have identified a gene on chromosome 22 encoding for apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) which has been associated with a variety of nephropathies. (
  • Polyploidy, an important mechanism of plant evolution, was investigated in Consolea, an endemic Caribbean opuntioid genus represented by nine subdioecious species with very narrow distributions, including species classified as rare or threatened. (
  • Chromosome counts and male meiosis in two species of Pleurospermum Hoffm. (
  • The results suggest a loss of some DNA sequences after polyploidization in these Opuntia species, which provide useful guidelines to set conservation strategies and breeding approaches for these plants with adaptive advantages in arid and semiarid environments. (
  • Plants, animals and many other species within the domain Eukaryota are able to make offspring, or young, by sexual reproduction. (
  • Based on the specific hybridization patterns of ribosomal 5S, 35S DNA and rye species-specific pSc200 DNA probes, a set of genotypes with numerous Secale/Dasypyrum translocations of 1R/1V chromosomes were identified in successive generations of allotetraploid S. cereale × D. villosum hybrids. (
  • Plant species richness in continental southern Siberia: effects of pH and climate in the context of the species pool hypothesis. (
  • New analysis of the DNA sequence of the male-specific Y chromosomes from all living species of the great ape family helps to clarify our understanding of how this enigmatic chromosome evolved. (
  • A clearer picture of the evolution of the Y chromosome is important for studying male fertility in humans as well as our understanding of reproduction patterns and the ability to track male lineages in the great apes, which can help with conservation efforts for these endangered species. (
  • From the comparison, the team was able to clarify patterns of evolution that seem to fit with behavioral differences between the species and reconstruct a model of what the Y chromosome might have looked like in the ancestor of all great apes. (
  • We needed the Y chromosome of more great ape species to tease out the details of what was going on. (
  • Chromosome numbers of northern plant species. (
  • Also, a haploid chromosome count of x = 17 has been found for nearly all Ruellia species (over 50 spp. (
  • Vicia faba , commonly known as the broad bean , fava bean , or faba bean , is a species of vetch , a flowering plant in the pea and bean family Fabaceae . (
  • Hidden in small cavities of plants, the inconspicuous colonies of this species are frequently introduced to new habitats by global commerce. (
  • Algae have a very distinct structure from other species, like plants and mammals. (
  • Owing to close associations of different chromosomes at their heterochromatic regions, nuclear repatternings consisting of changes in the number and size of the chromocenters may occur with tissue differentiation in plant species. (
  • Study of the number, morphology and behavior of chromosomes of local target species. (
  • Rubus idaeus L. (red raspberry), is a perennial woody plant species of the Rosaceae family that is widely cultivated in the temperate regions of world and is thus an economically important soft fruit species. (
  • The seven chromosome scaffolds were anchored to a previously published genetic linkage map with a high degree of synteny and comparisons to genomes of closely related species within the Rosoideae revealed chromosome-scale rearrangements that have occurred over relatively short evolutionary periods. (
  • in chromosome numbers between humans and great apes. (
  • In humans, aneuploidy would be any number of chromosomes other than the usual 46. (
  • Humans have 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes (XX or XY). (
  • If you just compare the sequence identity-comparing the As, Ts, Cs, and Gs of the chromosomes-humans are more similar to chimpanzees, as you would expect," said Kateryna Makova, Pentz Professor of Biology at Penn State and one of the leaders of the research team. (
  • Dresden and Leipzig researchers find that stem cells in the developing brain of modern humans take longer to divide and make fewer errors when distributing their chromosomes to their daughter cells, compared to those of Neanderthals. (
  • Humans normally have 46 chromosomes in each cell, divided into 23 pairs. (
  • Humans, for example, are diploid organisms with just two sets of chromosomes (we inherit one set from our mother and one from our father), but polyploidy is common in both wild and cultivated plants. (
  • Humans began applying knowledge of genetics in prehistory with the domestication and breeding of plants and animals. (
  • We combine both Illumina (short reads) and PacBio (long reads) platforms to achieve whole genome de novo assemblies and re-sequencing for viruses, microbes , plants, animals and humans . (
  • The transfer of substances from the environment to plants, animals, and humans. (
  • The new genome assembly will provide a valuable resource for future genomic studies and facilitate comparative genomic analysis with other plants . (
  • Sometimes cleaved chromosomes do not recover and genomic stability is compromised - which in the long run might promote cancer. (
  • Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS . (
  • A set of 56 SNP locus/phenotype associations was identified and the genomic regions harboring these loci were distributed over nine of the 12 eggplant chromosomes. (
  • A chromosome-level genomic sequence of R. idaeus will be a valuable resource for the knowledge of its genome structure and function in red raspberry and will be a useful and important resource for researchers and plant breeders. (
  • Ongoing work includes integration of information to allow navigation via comparative genomics from genetics loci to chromosome, and development of crop genetics databases. (
  • report a high-quality chromosome-scale genome assembly of Phoebe bournei . (
  • We generated a chromosome level haplotype-resolved genome assembly with primary assembly of length 739.58 Mb and scaffold N50 of 58.1Mb, an improvement in contiguity in comparison to reference genomes for pedunculate oak ( Q. robur ) (scaffold N50 = 1.35 Mb) and valley oak ( Q. lobata ). (
  • Arabidopsis thaliana is an important model system for plant biologists. (
  • In 1996 an international collaboration (the Arabidopsis Genome Initiative) was formed to sequence the whole genome of Arabidopsis and in 1999 the sequence of the first two chromosomes was reported. (
  • The genome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has been sequenced by an international collaboration. (
  • it is the second largest Arabidopsis chromosome and represents 21% of the sequenced regions of the genome. (
  • Tabata, S & Klein Lankhorst, RM 2000, ' Sequence and analysis of chromosome 5 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana ', Nature , vol. 408, no. 6814, pp. 823-826. (
  • Preliminary work focuses on the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana , and lessons from this are applied to cassava ( Manihot esculenta ), sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas ), and horned melon ( Cucumis metuliferus ). (
  • In chapter three I utilise tetraploid plants to investigate for the presence of progressive heterosis in Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • In chapter five I investigate whether the induction of polyploidy, including whether a chromosome set is inherited maternally or paternally, can enhance salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • Mendel's Laws of heredity only work for alleles on different chromosomes. (
  • Effects of extracts from Vicia faba were compared with those of Zea mays for the induction of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and of chromosome aberrations (CAs) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. (
  • Numerical chromosome aberrations (aneuploidy and polyploidy) are more common among polyploids (e.g. sugarcane, wheat, oats, triticale, potato and banana) than in diploids, since the latter cannot easily tolerate aneuploidy [10]. (
  • Housed inside each flower, the anther produces pollen through a process known as meiosis, which involves cell division that gives rise to a half complement of chromosomes, known as haploidy. (
  • We think that this situation could provide the evolutionary pressure to accelerate change on the chimpanzee and bonobo Y chromosome, compared to other apes with different mating patterns, but this hypothesis, while consistent with our findings, needs to be evaluated in subsequent studies. (
  • Analysis of the chromosome-scale genome of Phoebe bournei reveals contrasting evolutionary fates of the TPS-a and TPS-b subfamilies. (
  • In this study, potato CRK ( StCRK ) family members were identified, and their physical and chemical characteristics, evolutionary characteristics, subcellular location, chromosome location and expression patterns were analyzed. (
  • Abstract Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) is a conserved transcription factor (TF) widely present in eukaryotes, and it plays an important role in regulating plant growth and stress responses. (
  • Instead, their DNA can be found in the cytoplasm in a region called the nucleoid or in circular chromosomes called plasmids. (
  • The 2 alleles a diploid organism has for a trait are located on 2 homologous chromosomes. (
  • These results, together with previously reported results showing that in some cases sequences homologous to those in T-DNA are present in plant DNA regions adjacent to left recombinational junctions, indicate that sequence homology between the incoming T-DNA and the plant chromosomal DNA has an important function in T-DNA integration. (
  • V. faba has a diploid (2n) chromosome number of 12 (six homologous pairs). (
  • An organism has the same chromosomes for its entire life. (
  • Polyploidy is when an organism possesses more than two sets of chromosomes. (
  • Some characteristics, or traits, result from interactions with the environment, others are determined from the genetic material in your chromosomes. (
  • Chromosomes are the keepers of the genetic material in eukaryotic cells . (
  • Although the causes of genetic instability are poorly understood, chromosome instability is believed to be one of the most common causes of tissue culture-induced variation. (
  • Unfortunately, the use of banana shoot tips as target tissues for genetic engineering strategies such as in vitro mutagenesis and genetic transformation can lead to chimeric plants [3]. (
  • The term 'somaclonal variation' was introduced to describe the genetic variation in plants regenerated from any form of cell culture. (
  • 1p36 deletion syndrome is caused by a deletion of genetic material from a specific region in the short (p) arm of chromosome 1. (
  • A 1q21.1 microduplication is a copied (duplicated) segment of genetic material at position q21.1 on one of the two copies of chromosome 1 in each cell. (
  • My PhD research investigates the genetic and physiological consequences of two different plant breeding phenomena: heterosis and polyploidy. (
  • a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is located usually on a chromosome and that is the functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits by specifying the structure of a particular polypeptide and especially a protein or controlling the function of other genetic material. (
  • Within organisms , genetic information generally is carried in chromosomes , where it is represented in the chemical structure of particular DNA molecules . (
  • There is now a broad scientific consensus that the current use of the Indica and Sativa labeling is misleading: these labels do not provide reliable information about the genetic or chemical makeup of the plant. (
  • pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes (XY in Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Montpellier, males, XX in females) (8). (
  • PDF] Chromosome numbers, nuclear DNA content, and polyploidy in Consolea (Cactaceae), an endemic cactus of the Caribbean Islands. (
  • Aneuploidy and polyploidy have traditionally been detected by chromosome counting in regenerated plants [11,12], but this is a time-consuming and laborious procedure. (
  • This was probably due to defects in mitosis and abnormal chromosome segregation as revealed by in situ analysis. (
  • Mechanistic aspects of RNA silencing are remarkably well conserved among organisms as diverse as protists, fungi, plants and animals, indicating that it has important functions. (
  • As for diploid or polyploid organisms, we generally assemble one set of chromosomes. (
  • The two largest (13.5 and 9.2 Mb) correspond to the top (long) and the bottom (short) arms of chromosome 3, and the two small contigs are located in the genetically defined centromere. (
  • Analysis of the sequence of chromosome 5 yields further insights into centromere structure and the sequence determinants of heterochromatin condensation. (
  • We propose a working hypothesis in which RNAi would be involved in heterochromatin formation at the centromere and therefore in chromosome segregation. (
  • Five pairs are acrocentric chromosomes and one pair is metacentric . (
  • The two largest macrochromosome pairs as well as the Z (female) chromosome are submetacentric, while the third-largest chromosome pair is acrocentric and the fourth-largest is metacentric. (
  • The W chromosomes are acrocentric too, as are the larger microchromosomes, the smaller ones probably being telocentric. (
  • The sequence of the last three chromosomes and an analysis of the whole genome are reported in this issue. (
  • Here we present the sequence of chromosome 3, organized into four sequence segments (contigs). (
  • Here we report the complete sequence of chromosome 5. (
  • The sequence of chromosomes 2 and 4 have been reported previously and that of chromosomes 1 and 3, together with an analysis of the complete genome sequence, are reported in this issue. (
  • Researchers have reconstructed the ancestral sequence of the great ape Y chromosome by comparing three existing (gorilla, human, and chimpanzee) and two newly generated (orangutan and bonobo) Y chromosome assemblies. (
  • Academic - A chromosome-level genome sequence assembly of the red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. (
  • A chromosome-level genome sequence assembly of the red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.). PLOS ONE, 17(3): 1-15. (
  • We report the sequencing and assembly of the E. salsugineum (Shandong accession) genome using long-read sequencing and chromosome conformation capture data. (
  • For the first time, we show the advantages of FISH to reveal chromosome rearrangements in the tetraploid Secale × Dasypyrum hybrids. (
  • Three different methods of back cross breeding were undertaken in attempts to transfer the caducous bract from the hexaploid plants to tetraploid commercial cultivars. (
  • The separation of these chromosomes during meiosis leads to the 50/50 chance of a gamete having one version or the other. (
  • Ploidy levels and genome sizes have significant implications in plant evolution and crop improvement. (
  • A research team led by André Marques at the Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research in Cologne, Germany, has uncovered the profound effects of an atypical mode of chromosome arrangement on genome organization and evolution. (
  • During fungal infection the host plant recognizes pathogen effectors, which trigger a host defense response. (
  • The orangutan Y chromosome, on the other hand, which serves as an outgroup to ground the comparisons, looked about like what you expect based on its known relationship to the other great apes. (
  • The chapter also describes a basic image analysis procedure for plant chromosomes to obtain the density distribution of a chromatid, or condensation pattern, as an example of digital chromosome image analysis. (
  • The application of image technology to human chromosome research began in the 1960s as diagnostic demands increased. (
  • These are what the chromosomes of a human look like. (
  • Chromosome pairs like these are in every human cell. (
  • functional nature of telomere-like sequences scattered around the internal regions of human chromosomes. (
  • A team of biologists and computer scientists at Penn State sequenced and assembled the Y chromosome from orangutan and bonobo and compared those sequences to the existing human, chimpanzee, and gorilla Y sequences. (
  • Chromosome 1 is the largest human chromosome, spanning about 249 million DNA building blocks (base pairs) and representing approximately 8 percent of the total DNA in cells. (
  • The studies listed below are on human and animal cells, laboratory animals, livestock animals, and plants. (
  • Number of chromosomes found in human body cells and sex cells. (
  • There are 23 pairs of chromosomes in the cell of human body. (
  • We also cooperate with projects evaluating the impact of human activities on plant communities and soil biodiversity in both natural and urban areas. (
  • Using flow cytometry, variation in chromosome number could be detected in embryogenic cell suspensions and in plants regenerated from them. (
  • Results obtained by flow cytometry were verified by chromosome counting in meristem root-tip cells. (
  • Flow-cytometry based DNA content analysis revealed that the ploidy levels were maintained in in vitro regenerated plants. (
  • One chromosome of each pair came from your mother and one from your father. (
  • The karyotype of the swan goose is 2n=80, consisting of four pairs of macrochromosomes, 35 pairs of microchromosomes, and a pair of sex chromosomes. (
  • Compared to the greylag goose, there seems to have been some rearrangement on the fourth-largest chromosome pair. (
  • The 23rd pair in gonadal cell called sex chromosome which is not always a perfect pair. (
  • Women have a perfect pair having XX - chromosomes. (
  • But men have a pair having XY-chromosomes. (
  • It is hard to tell which alleles belong to which set of chromosomes in heterozygous regions. (
  • This is the first report for in vitro plant regeneration in E. ochreata. (
  • It inhabits steppe to taiga and mountain valleys near freshwater, grazing on plants such as sedges (Cyperaceae), and rarely swimming. (
  • Aneuploidy is an abnormality in the number of chromosomes in a cell due to loss or duplication. (
  • Restriction fragments containing T-DNA/plant DNA junctions were cloned from one of the cell lines, which has a single copy of the T-DNA in a unique region of its genome. (
  • Light plays a critical role in the regulation of plant cell wall formation. (
  • This study reveals a PHYB-PIF4-MYC2/MYC4 module that inhibits secondary cell wall thickening in stem fiber cells via NST1 -directed transcriptional regulatory networks, providing new insights into plant cell wall formation in response to shaded conditions. (
  • For the first time, a hypotriploid banana embryogenic cell line with 2n = 28 (i.e. with loss of five chromosomes) was reported. (
  • In cell suspensions or calli the number of dividing cells is rather low, and chromosome observation difficult. (
  • The present paper studies the possibility of verifying the stability of the ploidy level of embryogenic cell suspensions prior the formation of embryos or plants. (
  • 1q21.1 microdeletion is a chromosomal change in which a small piece of the long (q) arm of chromosome 1 is deleted in each cell. (
  • A cell with one of every kind of chromosome. (
  • Because when a parent cell divides in to daughter cells then it gives equal number of chromosomes to. (
  • Current Plant Biology. (
  • Also listed as Public Health C102 and Plant Biology C103. (
  • The National Agricultural Food Research Organization (NARO) and Ishikawa Prefectural University have jointly developed a method to rapidly produce DNA markers in polyploid crops such as potato and sweetpotato, which are difficult to select ideal individuals because of innumerable chromosome combinations in breeding. (
  • A deletion in the 1q21.1 region of chromosome 1 is involved in most cases of thrombocytopenia-absent radius (TAR) syndrome. (
  • Heredity is the passage of DNA from the chromosomes of one generation to the chromosomes of the next. (
  • 1 P450 enzymes are widely distributed in natural product biosynthetic pathways from bacteria, fungi, and plants. (
  • 1993. Chromosome numbers of New World Acanthaceae. (
  • Crosses and Chromosomes Do Now (dihybrid cross) In fruit flies, red eyes are dominant to white, and wings are dominant to no wings Draw a Punnett square representing a cross between two flies heterozygous for both traits. (
  • research group led by Dr. Soichi Sano, a specially appointed lecturer in the Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka Metropolitan University, revealed that men with hematopoietic mosaic loss of Y chromosome (mLOY) - meaning men with an increase, in the blood, of cells that have lost the male sex chromosome - have a worse prognosis for heart failure due to fibrosis progression in the heart. (
  • RNAi-deficient TbAGO1-/- cells showed numerous defects in chromosome segregation and mitotic spindle assembly. (
  • A fantastic case of active transport is the most important hair cells in plants. (
  • Index to plant chromosome numbers 1996 - 1997. (
  • Chromosome behavior in Calycanthus . (
  • In addition we analyse rye chromosome pairs using FISH with chromosome-specific DNA sequences on S. cereale × D. villosum hybrids. (
  • The Y chromosome contains a lot of repetitive sequences, which are challenging for DNA sequencing, assembling sequences, and aligning sequences for comparison. (
  • Amplification of mouse chromosome 4 in chemically induced and invasive mouse lung adenocarcinoma. (
  • Mendel took pea plants having different characteristics, like a tall plant and a short plant. (