Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, 1-3: The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.Chromosome Painting: A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Chromosomes, Human, 16-18: The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y: The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Ring Chromosomes: Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.Chromosomes, Human, 4-5: The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Chromosome Structures: Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.Chromosomes, Human, 19-20: The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Chromosomes, Artificial, Human: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Chromosome Fragility: Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Chromosome Duplication: An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Abnormalities, MultipleDNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Polytene Chromosomes: Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Cytogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Karyotype: The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Chromosome Fragile Sites: Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Sex Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).Genes, X-Linked: Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Monosomy: The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.

A new FISH protocol with increased sensitivity for physical mapping with short probes in plants. (1/1662)

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a well-established technique used for the detection of specific DNA regions, that has been applied to interphase nuclei, pachytene and metaphase chromosomes as well as to extended DNA fibres. This technique allows the physical mapping of specific DNA sequences both on individual chromosomes and extended fibres. A new FISH protocol is described here that enhances the sensitivity of the method. Probes for small unique DNA sequences of less than 2 kb give high signal-to-noise ratio with this method, and can be visualized easily by means of conventional fluorescence microscopy.  (+info)

Quantitative trait loci for component physiological traits determining salt tolerance in rice. (2/1662)

Rice (Oryza sativa) is sensitive to salinity, which affects one-fifth of irrigated land worldwide. Reducing sodium and chloride uptake into rice while maintaining potassium uptake are characteristics that would aid growth under saline conditions. We describe genetic determinants of the net quantity of ions transported to the shoot, clearly distinguishing between quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the quantity of ions in a shoot and for those that affect the concentration of an ion in the shoot. The latter coincide with QTL for vegetative growth (vigor) and their interpretation is therefore ambiguous. We distinguished those QTL that are independent of vigor and thus directly indicate quantitative variation in the underlying mechanisms of ion uptake. These QTL independently govern sodium uptake, potassium uptake, and sodium:potassium selectivity. The QTL for sodium and potassium uptake are on different linkage groups (chromosomes). This is consistent with the independent inheritance of sodium and potassium uptake in the mapping population and with the mechanistically different uptake pathways for sodium and potassium in rice under saline conditions (apoplastic leakage and membrane transport, respectively). We report the chromosomal location of ion transport and selectivity traits that are compatible with agronomic needs and we indicate markers to assist selection in a breeding program. Based upon knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of ion uptake in rice, we argue that QTL for sodium transport are likely to act through the control of root development, whereas QTL for potassium uptake are likely to act through the structure or regulation of membrane-sited transport components.  (+info)

The Arabidopsis eer1 mutant has enhanced ethylene responses in the hypocotyl and stem. (3/1662)

By screening for enhanced ethylene-response (eer) mutants in Arabidopsis, we isolated a novel recessive mutant, eer1, which displays increased ethylene sensitivity in the hypocotyl and stem. Dark-grown eer1 seedlings have short and thick hypocotyls even in the absence of added ethylene. This phenotype is suppressed, however, by the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor 1-aminoethoxyvinyl-glycine. Following ethylene treatment, the dark-grown eer1 hypocotyl response is greatly exaggerated in comparison with the wild type, indicating that the eer1 phenotype is not simply due to ethylene overproduction. eer1 seedlings have significantly elevated levels of basic-chitinase expression, suggesting that eer1 may be highly sensitive to low levels of endogenous ethylene. Adult eer1 plants display exaggerated ethylene-dependent stem thickening, which is an ethylene response previously unreported in Arabidopsis. eer1 also has enhanced responsiveness to the ethylene agonists propylene and 2,5-norbornadiene. The eer1 phenotype is completely suppressed by the ethylene-insensitive mutation etr1-1, and is additive with the constitutive ethylene-response mutation ctr1-3. Our findings suggest that the wild-type EER1 product acts to oppose ethylene responses in the hypocotyl and stem.  (+info)

The molecular genetic linkage map of the model legume Medicago truncatula: an essential tool for comparative legume genomics and the isolation of agronomically important genes. (4/1662)

BACKGROUND: The legume Medicago truncatula has emerged as a model plant for the molecular and genetic dissection of various plant processes involved in rhizobial, mycorrhizal and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions. Aiming to develop essential tools for such genetic approaches, we have established the first genetic map of this species. Two parental homozygous lines were selected from the cultivar Jemalong and from the Algerian natural population (DZA315) on the basis of their molecular and phenotypic polymorphism. RESULTS: An F2 segregating population of 124 individuals between these two lines was obtained using an efficient manual crossing technique established for M. truncatula and was used to construct a genetic map. This map spans 1225 cM (average 470 kb/cM) and comprises 289 markers including RAPD, AFLP, known genes and isoenzymes arranged in 8 linkage groups (2n = 16). Markers are uniformly distributed throughout the map and segregation distortion is limited to only 3 linkage groups. By mapping a number of common markers, the eight linkage groups are shown to be homologous to those of diploid alfalfa (M. sativa), implying a good level of macrosynteny between the two genomes. Using this M. truncatula map and the derived F3 populations, we were able to map the Mtsym6 symbiotic gene on linkage group 8 and the SPC gene, responsible for the direction of pod coiling, on linkage group 7. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Medicago truncatula is amenable to diploid genetic analysis and they open the way to map-based cloning of symbiotic or other agronomically-important genes using this model plant.  (+info)

The molecular characterization of maize B chromosome specific AFLPs. (5/1662)

The origin and evolution of B chromosomes could be explained by the specific DNA sequence on them. But the specific sequences known were quite limited. To investigate maize B chromosome sqicific DNA sequeces, maize genomes with and without B chromosomes were analyzed by AFLP. Only 5 markers were found specific to genomes with B chromosomes among about 2000 AFLP markers. Southern hybridization and sequence analysis revealed that only the sequence of M8-2D was a B chromosome specific sequence. This sequence contained the telomeric repeat unit AGG  (+info)

Maize tertiary trisomic stocks derived from B-A translocations. (6/1662)

Reciprocal translocations between supernumerary B chromosomes and the basic complement of A chromosomes in maize have resulted in a powerful set of tools to manipulate the dosage of chromosomal segments. From 15 B-A reciprocal translocation stocks that have the B-A chromosome genetically marked we have developed tertiary trisomic stocks. Tertiary trisomics are 2n + 1 aneuploids where the extra chromosome is a translocation element, in this case a B-A chromosome. Whereas B-A translocations produce aneuploidy in the sperm, the tertiary trisomic plant efficiently transmits hyperploid gametes maternally. Because the B-A tertiary trisomic stocks and the B-A translocation stocks from which they were derived are introgressed into the W22 inbred line, the effects of maternally and paternally transmitted trisomic B-A chromosomes can be compared. Data are presented on both the male and female transmission rates of the B-A chromosomes in the tertiary trisomic stocks.  (+info)

Physical and genetic mapping in the grasses Lolium perenne and Festuca pratensis. (7/1662)

A single chromosome of the grass species Festuca pratensis has been introgressed into Lolium perenne to produce a diploid monosomic substitution line 2n = 2x = 14. In this line recombination occurs throughout the length of the F. pratensis/L. perenne bivalent. The F. pratensis chromosome and recombinants between it and its L. perenne homeologue can be visualized using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). GISH junctions represent the physical locations of sites of recombination, enabling a range of recombinant chromosomes to be used for physical mapping of the introgressed F. pratensis chromosome. The physical map, in conjunction with a genetic map composed of 104 F. pratensis-specific amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), demonstrated: (1) the first large-scale analysis of the physical distribution of AFLPs; (2) variation in the relationship between genetic and physical distance from one part of the F. pratensis chromosome to another (e.g., variation was observed between and within chromosome arms); (3) that nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and centromeres greatly reduce recombination; (4) that coding sequences are present close to the centromere and NORs in areas of low recombination in plant species with large genomes; and (5) apparent complete synteny between the F. pratensis chromosome and rice chromosome 1.  (+info)

A molecular cytogenetic map of sorghum chromosome 1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with mapped bacterial artificial chromosomes. (8/1662)

We used structural genomic resources for Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench to target and develop multiple molecular cytogenetic probes that would provide extensive coverage for a specific chromosome of sorghum. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones containing molecular markers mapped across sorghum linkage group A were labeled as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Signals from single-, dual-, and multiprobe BAC-FISH to spreads of mitotic chromosomes and pachytene bivalents were associated with the largest sorghum chromosome, which bears the nucleolus organizing region (NOR). The order of individual BAC-FISH loci along the chromosome was fully concordant to that of marker loci along the linkage map. In addition, the order of several tightly linked molecular markers was clarified by FISH analysis. The FISH results indicate that markers from the linkage map positions 0.0-81.8 cM reside in the short arm of chromosome 1 whereas markers from 81.8-242.9 cM are located in the long arm of chromosome 1. The centromere and NOR were located in a large heterochromatic region that spans approximately 60% of chromosome 1. In contrast, this region represents only 0.7% of the total genetic map distance of this chromosome. Variation in recombination frequency among euchromatic chromosomal regions also was apparent. The integrated data underscore the value of cytological data, because minor errors and uncertainties in linkage maps can involve huge physical regions. The successful development of multiprobe FISH cocktails suggests that it is feasible to develop chromosome-specific "paints" from genomic resources rather than flow sorting or microdissection and that when applied to pachytene chromatin, such cocktails provide an especially powerful framework for mapping. Such a molecular cytogenetic infrastructure would be inherently cross-linked with other genomic tools and thereby establish a cytogenomics system with extensive utility in development and application of genomic resources, cloning, transgene localization, development of plant "chromonomics," germplasm introgression, and marker-assisted breeding. In combination with previously reported work, the results indicate that a sorghum cytogenomics system would be partially applicable to other gramineous genera.  (+info)

*Arun Kumar Sharma

Chromosome Techniques - A Manual, Botanical Survey of India, Advances in Cell and Chromosome Research, Plant Genome: ... Sharma, A. K., & Sharma, A. (1999). Plant chromosomes: Analysis, manipulation and engineering. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic. ... Plant and Biotechnology Committee of the Department of Biotechnology, in 1997 and the Plant Science Research Committee of the ... Considered by many as the father of Indian cytology, he headed the Centre for Advanced Study on Cell and Chromosome at the ...

*John Parker (botanist)

in 1971 for his work on plant chromosomes and natural populations. From Oxford he became Lecturer and then Reader in Genetics, ... Grubb, Peter J; Snow, E Anne; Walters, S Max (2004). 100 Years of Plant Sciences in Cambridge: 1904-2004. Department of Plant ... and Professor of Plant Cytogenetics. He came into the position at a time when the university's 1995 review had urged forging ...

*Prophase

... utilizing the technology on plant cells was difficult due to the high degree of chromosome compaction in plant cells. G-banding ... Fluorescent stains such as DAPI can be used in both live plant and animal cells. These stains do not band chromosomes, but ... In both animal and plant cells chromosomes may de-condense during telophase I requiring them to re-condense in prophase II. If ... Wang, H. C.; Kao, K. N. (1988). "G-banding in plant chromosomes". Genome. 30: 48-51 - via ResearchGate. Kakeda, K; Yamagata, H ...

*Coriaria nepalensis

The number of chromosomes the plant has is 40. C. nepalensis grows on the southern slopes of the Himalayas (in Bhutan, India, ... The plant is also known in English as masuri berry, tanner's tree, or mansur shrub. In Hindi it is known as masuri (मसूरी), ... Flowers, yellow in colour, are in groups (inflorescences) and they are male or female but in the same plant. It blooms from ...

*C. D. Darlington

Chromosomes and Plant Breeding, Macmillan (1932). Recent Advances in Cytology, Churchill (1932). Chromosome Atlas of Cultivated ... Chromosome atlas of cultivated plantsAuthor: C D Darlington; E K Janaki Ammal Publisher: London, G. Allen & Unwin Ltd. [1945] ... The Man Who Invented the Chromosome: The Life of Cyril Darlington, p.62 Darlington, C. D. "J.B.S. Haldane, R.A. Fisher, and ... Bateson had spent the last two decades fighting against the notion that chromosomes were the seat of what he had been calling " ...

*Joachim Messing

At Rutgers, his plant genetics initiatives are directed towards the evolution of plant chromosomes and gene duplication. He ... Prof Messing is also involved in the Plant Genome Initiative at Rutgers, which has contributed to the sequencing of the maize, ... which was first exemplified by the complete structure of a plant DNA virus. His cloning vectors were also used to develop the ... shotgun sequencing and site-directed mutagenesis became widely used to sequence large DNA molecules like human chromosomes and ...

*Lowell Fitz Randolph

In 1925, they discovered a corn plant had three complete sets of chromosomes (meaning it was a triploid). They also studied the ... He carried out important research into plant chromosomes of iris, orchid genus and corn plants (such as Maize). He was ... He and his students at Cornell, started following up on the work on chromosome studies of garden irises by Marc Simonet at the ... He started the counting of chromosomes of iris, growing seeds in vitro and classification of the genus. He also published in ...

*Colchicine

Since chromosome segregation is driven by microtubules, colchicine is also used for inducing polyploidy in plant cells during ... Doubling of plant chromosome numbers also occurs spontaneously in nature, with many familiar plants being fertile polyploids. ... When such a tetraploid plant is crossed with a diploid plant, the triploid offspring are usually sterile (unable to produce ... contain no chromosomes, while the other half contains double the usual number of chromosomes (i.e., diploid instead of haploid ...

*STS-54

... the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space Experiment (CHROMEX) to-study plant growth; the Physiological and Anatomical ...

*Minichromosome

"Plant artificial chromosome technology and its potential application in genetic engineering". Plant Biotechnology Journal. 14 ( ... Halpin, Claire (2005). "Gene stacking in transgenic plants - the challenge for 21st century plant biotechnology". Plant ... The top-down approach is generally considered as the more plausible means of generating extra-numary chromosomes for the use of ... Minichromosome technology allows for the stacking of genes side-by-side on the same chromosome thus reducing likelihood of ...

*Toluidine blue stain

It is especially useful today for staining chromosomes in plant or animal tissues, as a replacement for Aceto-orcein stain. ...

*Vasconcellea goudotiana

The plant has a chromosome count of 2n = 18. It was previously placed in genus Carica. Vasconcellea goudotiana with Yellow ... Vasconcellea goudotiana (also known as papayuelo) is a species of flowering plant in the Caricaceae family. It is endemic to ...

*Vasconcellea chilensis

The plant has a chromosome count of 2n = 18. It was previously placed in the genus Carica. Tropicos entry for Vasconcellea ... Vasconcellea chilensis is a species of flowering plant in the Caricaceae family. It is endemic to Chile. ...

*Vasconcellea quercifolia

The plant has a chromosome count of 2n = 18. It was previously placed in genus Carica. Leaves of V. quercifolia Tropicos entry ...

*Vasconcellea monoica

The plant has a chromosome count of 2n = 18. It was previously placed in genus Carica.[citation needed] Flowers of V. monica ... Vasconcellea monoica (commonly known as col de montaña, col de monte, or peladera in Spanish) is a species of flowering plant ...

*Plant-fungus horizontal gene transfer

"Horizontal gene and chromosome transfer in plant pathogenic fungi affecting host range". FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 35 (3): 542 ... Plant-fungus horizontal gene transfer could take place during plant infection. There are many possible vectors, such as plant- ... Plant-fungus horizontal gene transfer is the movement of genetic material between individuals in the plant and fungus kingdoms ... Most plant-fungus horizontal gene transfer events are ancient and rare, but they may have provided important gene functions ...

*Mimosa scabrella

It is a cross pollinating, mostly tetraploid plant with 52 chromosomes. M. scabrella is native to the southern region of Brazil ... The plant is characterized by quick growth, with a lean trunk of around 10-50 cm (3.9-19.7 in) in diameter. The leaves are bi- ... chromosome number and genetic variation". Genet Resour Crop Evol. 60: 377-383. doi:10.1007/s10722-012-9931-6. Orwa C,A Muta, ...

*Genomic library

"Construction of Plant Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) Libraries: An Illustrated Guide". Journal of Agricultural Genomics ... P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs) have features of both P1 vectors and Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs). Similar to P1 ... This technique, called chromosome walking, can be exploited to sequence entire chromosomes. Whole genome shotgun sequencing is ... Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are linear DNA molecules containing the necessary features of an authentic yeast chromosome ...

*Joe Hin Tjio

He worked in plant breeding in Denmark, Spain and Sweden. From 1948 to 1959 he did plant chromosome research in Zaragoza in ... For fully a half century it had been accepted that humans normally have 48 chromosomes. Now Tjio knew "the chromosome number of ... Tjio JH, Levan A. The chromosome number of man. Hereditas vol. 42: pages 1-6, 1956. 李名揚 (July 2008), "台灣癌症醫療之母" (PDF), 《科學人看》: ... He spent the balance of his long career at the NIH in human chromosome research. He was named scientist emeritus in 1992, but ...

*Sex determination in Silene

Moore, R. C.; Harkess, A. E.; Weingartner, L. A. (2016-07-01). "How to be a seXY plant model: A holistic view of sex-chromosome ... Hetermorphic sex-determining chromosomes are very infrequent in plant genera; some notable examples that possess them, other ... Ming, Ray; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Renner, Susanne S. (2011-01-01). "Sex chromosomes in land plants". Annual Review of Plant ... Charlesworth, Deborah (2002-02-01). "Plant sex determination and sex chromosomes". Heredity. 88 (2): 94-101. doi:10.1038/sj.hdy ...

*Phytoplasma

"The linear chromosome of the plant-pathogenic mycoplasma 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali'". BMC Genomics. 9 (1): 306. doi:10.1186/ ... They are transmitted from plant to plant by vectors (normally sap-sucking insects such as leafhoppers) in which they both ... Phytoplasmas are obligate bacterial parasites of plant phloem tissue and of the insect vectors that are involved in their plant ... or by vegetative propagation such as the grafting of infected plant tissue onto a healthy plant. Phytoplasmas move within ...

*Deborah Charlesworth

Evolutionary strata on the X chromosomes of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia: evidence from new sex-linked genes. Genetics ... 2011 Preservation of the Y transcriptome in a 10MY old plant sex chromosome system. Current Biology 21: 1470-1474. Jordan, C., ... http://www.ed.ac.uk/biology/people/profile/dcharles Introduction to Plant Population Biology (with Jonathan W Silvertown) ISBN ...

*Berwind P. Kaufmann

After starting off as a botanist looking at plant chromosomes, Berwind Kaufmann ended up making pioneering contributions to ... of the somatic chromosomes of the fruit fly Drosophila; and the determination of the biochemical composition of both plant and ... His doctoral thesis dealt with the structure of the chromosomes of Tradescantia and led to a major publication. In 1926 he went ... animal chromosomes using purified enzymes.[1] Kaufmann was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He stayed in his hometown and ...

*LUX

"Sequence and analysis of chromosome 3 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana". Nature. 408 (6814): 820-822. doi:10.1038/35048706. ... The LUX gene is located on the third chromosome of Arabidopsis thaliana and contains three exons. Upstream of the LUX gene is a ... There is evidence for NOX having an important role in the regulation of the plant circadian oscillator; overexpression of NOX ... In 2003, scientists from the Plant Gene Expression Center and the Genomic Analysis Laboratory at the Salk Institute for ...

*List of banana cultivars

The first is the number of chromosomes: whether the plant is diploid, triploid or tetraploid. The second is relationship to the ... The cultivar 'Pelipita' is placed in the ABB group, so should have 11 of its 33 chromosomes derived from M. acuminata. However ... "Musa paradisiaca". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2013-01-06. Brickell, C.D ... plant and from each other ("somaclonal variations"). By growing on these somaclones and selecting those with desirable features ...

*Geogenanthus poeppigii

Plant Encyclopedia "Seersucker Plant". Plant Encyclopedia. 11 March 2011. Faden, R. B. (1981). "Peperomia peoppigii Miq.; A ... All members of the subtribe share a similar karyotype of 19 large chromosomes. The genus Geogenanthus is distinguished by a ... The surface as a whole has a "puckered" appearance; hence the common name seersucker plant. This plant is particularly unique ... Geogenanthus poeppigii, commonly called the seersucker plant, is a flowering plant species in the family Commelinaceae (the ...
به منظور مطالعه تنوع ژنتیکیبرخی از صفات زراعی و فیزیولوژیک و بررسی اثر تنش کم آبی روی آنها در 34 جمعیت از گونه Triticum boeoticumآزمایشی به صورت کرت-های خرد شده بر پایه بلوک-های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار با در نظر گرفتن شرایط واجد و بدون تنش کم آبی در کرت-های اصلی و جمعیت-ها در کرت-های فرعی در ایستگاه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز طی سال زراعی 90-1389 انجام شد. نتایج تجزیه واریانس بیانگر تفاوت معنی-دار بین جمعیت-ها در تمام صفات مورد بررسی و وجود تنوع ژنتیکی بین جمعیت-ها بود. عملکرد دانه و طول × عرض دومین برگ زیر سنبله در هر دو شرایط دارای بالاترین ضریب تنوع فنوتیپی و
Key Results Recombination in the gametes of the F₁ hybrids was at a level where it was possible to generate a genetic linkage map of Ae. speltoides. This was used to identify 294 wheat/Ae. speltoides introgressions. Introgressions from all seven linkage groups of Ae. speltoides were found, including both large and small segments. Comparative analysis showed that overall macro-synteny is conserved between Ae. speltoides and T. aestivum, but that Ae. speltoides does not contain the 4A/5A/7B translocations present in wheat. Aegilops speltoides has been reported to carry gametocidal genes, i.e. genes that ensure their transmission through the gametes to the next generation. Transmission rates of the seven Ae. speltoides linkage groups introgressed into wheat varied. A 100 % transmission rate of linkage group 2 demonstrates the presence of the gametocidal genes on this chromosome ...
Simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs within 338,536 contigs of the line-specific assemblies were identified by MISA [39] under standard settings. Out of the five inbred lines, Lo225 was selected as reference dataset as it provided the highest number of SSR containing contigs. The MISA output of the four remaining lines was cross-matched with the Lo225 dataset to detect redundant SSRs. A non-redundant SSR dataset was generated by combining "unique" SSR motifs detected in Lo7, Lo152, Lo225, P87, and P105. Mononucleotide repeat motifs were discarded since monomer runs are known to be the most frequent sequencing errors in Roche/454 data. For experimental validation of in silico detected SSRs, primers flanking the SSR motifs were designed using Primer3 [40]. Amplification of the fragments was performed in Lo7, Lo225, P87, and P105 as they are the parents of two mapping populations. Thus, polymorphisms detected between Lo7 and Lo225 and/or P87 and P105 enable the genetic mapping of discovered SSRs. ...
The sheer size of the wheat genome has been daunting in terms of whole genome sequencing. The Wheat genome is about five times the size of the human genome and hence was considered close to impossible to sequence. In Comparison to other important crop plants such as Soyabean and Rice, the difficulty of working with such a large genome has left wheat lagging behind in the race of genome sequencing. However, using advanced sequencing techniques employed by Roches 454 sequencers, the effort has managed to cover about 95% of the known wheat genes. The results of the study are now available for public use via Genbank, EMBL and CerealsDB. Nevertheless, there are those who warn that the gene map is far from complete and that the first high quality complete map data will be available only within five years. The full sequenced genome requires further read-throughs, assembly of the data into chromosomes and significant work to fully annotate the sequence data.. According to Dr. Neil Hall of the ...
Read "Anther culture as an effective tool in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
درک واکنش جوانه‏زنی بذر ژنوتیپ‏های زراعی به دما از دیدگاه زراعی حائز اهمیت است. ژنوتیپ‏هایی که در دماهای پایین جوانه‏زنی خود را آغاز می‏کنند می‏توانند برای موقعیت‏هایی (مانند کشت‏های دیرهنگام پاییزه) مفید باشند که جوانه‏زنی با دماهای کم همزمان می‏گردد. از این رو، مطالعة حاضر به منظور یافتن دماهای کاردینال، بررسی واکنش به دما و دامنة بردباری دمایی جوانه‏زنی بذر 12 رقم از گندم‏های مورد استفاده در شمال کشور انجام شد. علاوه بر این، تأثیر هفت دمای ثابت بین 5 و 37 درجه سانتی‏گراد بر ویژگی‏های جوانه‏زنی این ارقام ارزیابی گردید. دمای پایة (Tb) ارقام گندم مورد
However one thing we do know is that its fairly easy to mix DNA from different sources, even plants and animals, and after a bit of trial and error, have a successful product. We even know unusual chromosome counts can be supported successfully to create completely new classes of creatures. Mixing ape and human DNA is relatively easy once youve mapped the genes and allocated attributes. Fortunately, Stalins people had no clue about DNA. Unfortunately the world is full of well funded labs in the darkest (no pun intended) corners of the world where laws arent quite as strict as they are here in the US. In fact in many countries there are no laws whatsoever that address these issues and where they are a part of an internation agreement there is no active investigation and enforcement ...
LT: Triticum aestivum L. LT designated by Hitchcock in Amer. J. Bot. 10: 513. 1923; see also Hitchcock, Nom. Prop. Int. Bot. Congr. Cambridge (England) 1930: 121 (1929) ...
Fulgi de Secara Solaris sunt realizati din cereale integrale si au o valoare nutritiva deosebita. Prin tehnologia de fabricatie nu se modifica si nu se
Several molecular marker systems have been developed for assessing genetic diversity in crop germplasm collections. A trade-off often exists between the number of loci that can feasibly be sampled by a marker system and the amount of information provided by each locus. We compared the usefulness of two marker systems for revealing genetic diversity and population structure in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and diversity array technology (DArT) markers. DArTs survey many more loci per reaction than do SSRs; however, as bi-allelic, dominant markers, DArTs provide less polymorphism information per locus. Genetic differentiation was assessed in a randomly selected set of 436 cassava accessions, consisting of 155 African and 281 Latin American accessions. A genome-wide set of 36 SSR markers and a DArT array of approximately 1000 polymorphic clones were used to assess genetic diversity and differentiation. Cluster analyses were performed using principal coordinate ...
The chromosome karyotyping of insects included Lepidoptera is very difficult because of the large number of chromosomes, small size, and lack of major constriction structure. This has been a great hindrance to the karyological analysis. In this study, using banding analysis on the pachytene chromosomes, all chromosomes were characterized, and idiograms of Bombyx mori and R mandarina were established. From the testes during meiosis, 81 and 56 cells were examined for the analysis of B. mori and R mandarina, respectively. The best preparation of pachytene chromosomes was obtained on the 3(rd) day of the 3(rd) larva and 2(nd) or 3(rd) day of the 4(th) larva of the B. mori male, and it revealed that there was a characteristic nucleolus structure in the 2(nd) chromosomes, which was supposed to be the Z sex chromosome. The length of the pachytene chromosome was variable during the developmental stage of the cell, so the physical length of each chromosome was relatively converted in comparison to the ...
Major cereal crops including wheat (T. aestivum L.), maize (Zea mays L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and rice (O. sativa L.) belong to the grass family Poaceae. Comparisons of genetic maps and DNA sequences have suggested that these grass genomes originated from a common ancestor 50-60 million years ago (Bennetzen and Freeling 1993; Kellogg 1998) and have similar gene composition and colinearity (Ahn and Tanksley 1993; Ahn et al. 1993). The number of functional genes in these crop plants is not known. The number of genes in rice estimated from genome sequence analysis ranges from 32,000 to 50,000 (Goff et al. 2002). In hexaploid wheat, the gene number estimates range from 75,000 to 150,000, or ∼10,000-20,000 gene loci per homoeologous group (Sidhu and Gill 2004). Here we report physical mapping of ,2000 loci (10-20% of the total) for wheat homoeologous group 6. We also show the general distribution of genes on the chromosomes.. Deletion mapping revealed significant differences among group 6 ...
BackgroundHigh-throughput tools for pan-genomic study, especially the DNA microarray platform, have sparked a remarkable increase in data production and enabled a shift in the scale at which biological investigation is possible. The use of microarrays to examine evolutionary relationships and processes, however, is predominantly restricted to model or near-model organisms.Methodology/Principal FindingsThis study explores the utility of Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) in evolutionary studies of non-model organisms. DArT is a hybridization-based genotyping method that uses microarray technology to identify and type DNA polymorphism. Theoretically applicable to any organism (even one for which no prior genetic data are available), DArT has not yet been explored in exclusively wild sample sets, nor extensively examined in a phylogenetic framework. DArT recovered 1349 markers of largely low copy-number loci in two lineages of seed-free land plants: the diploid fern Asplenium viride and the haploid moss
Hexaploid oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42) is a member of the Poaceae family and has a large genome (similar to 12.5 Gb) containing 21 chromosome pairs from three ancestral genomes. Physical rearrangements among parental genomes have hindered the development of linkage maps in this species. The objective of this work was to develop a single high-density consensus linkage map that is representative of the majority of commonly grown oat varieties. Data from a cDNA-derived single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) were collected from the progeny of 12 biparental recombinant inbred line populations derived from 19 parents representing oat germplasm cultivated primarily in North America. Linkage groups from all mapping populations were compared to identify 21 clusters of conserved collinearity. Linkage groups within each cluster were then merged into 21 consensus chromosomes, generating a framework consensus map of 7202 markers spanning 2843 cM. An additional ...
This paper describes a series of winter wheat - winter barley disomic addition lines developed from hybrids between winter wheat line Triticum aestivum L. Martonvásári 9 kr1 and the German 2-rowed winter barley cultivar Hordeum vulgare L. Igri. The barley chromosomes in a wheat background were identified from the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) patterns obtained with various combinations of repetitive DNA probes: GAA-HvT01 and pTa71-HvT01. The disomic addition lines 2H, 3H, and 4H and the 1HS isochromosome were identified on the basis of a 2-colour FISH with the DNA probe pairs GAA-pAs1, GAA-HvT01, and pTa71-HvT01. Genomic in situ hybridization was used to confirm the presence of the barley chromosomes in the wheat genome. The identification of the barley chromosomes in the addition lines was further confirmed with simple-sequence repeat markers. The addition lines were also characterized morphologically. ...
Detail záznamu - An Improved Consensus Linkage Map of Barley Based on Flow-Sorted Chromosomes and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
WRKY transcription factors are involved in multiple aspects of plant growth, development and responses to biotic stresses. Although they have been found to play roles in regulating plant responses to environmental stresses, these roles still need to be explored, especially those pertaining to crops. Durum wheat is the second most widely produced cereal in the world. Complex, large and unsequenced genomes, in addition to a lack of genomic resources, hinder the molecular characterization of tolerance mechanisms.This paper describes the isolation and characterization of five TdWRKY genes from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. Durum). A PCR-based screening of a T. turgidum BAC genomic library using primers within the conserved region of WRKY genes resulted in the isolation of five BAC clones. Following sequencing fully the five BACs, fine annotation through Triannot pipeline revealed 74.6% of the entire sequences as transposable elements and a 3.2% gene content with genes organized as islands within
18-26S rDNA loci were mapped on chromosomes in four species of Paris, and the number and position of rDNA sites in these species were compared for analysis of the distribution of the sites. All the plants were diploids, and the genome consisted of five chromosomes, A, B, C, D and E. (1) P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, 2n = 10 = 6m + 4t. Two 18-26S rDNA loci were detected on the short arms of C and D chromosomes; (2) P. forrestii, 2n = 10 = 6m + 4t. One locus was detected on the long arm of B chromosome, and also two loci on the short arms of C and D chromosomes; (3) P. axialis. 2n = 10 = 6m(2sat) + 4t(2sat) + 1 - 2B. Two loci were detected on the short arms of C and D chromosomes. One locus was detected in the cell with two B-chromosomes (B), but none was detected in that with only one B chromosome, indicating that rRNA gene existed on B chromsome, and an unequal division occurred during mitotic cycle of B-chromosomes. (4) P. daliensis, 2n = 10 = 4m + 2sm + 2st + 2t. One locus was detected on ...
Disomic alien addition lines (DAALs, 2n=42) were obtained from an intersubgeneric cross between Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv. Dwight (2n=40, G1G1) and Glycine tomentella Hayata (PI 441001, 2n=78, D3D3CC). They are morphologically uniform but distinct from either of the parents. These DAALs were all derived from the same monosomic alien addition line (MAAL, 2n=41), and theoretically they should breed true because they had a pair of homologous chromosomes from G. tomentella and 40 soybean chromosomes. However, in some selfed progenies of DAALs the extra G. tomentella chromosomes were eliminated resulting in plants with 2n=40 chromosomes. These progeny lines (2n=40) have a wide variation in phenotypes. The objective of this research was to document the phenotypic and chromosomal variation among the progeny of these DAALs, and to understand the genetics behind this phenomenon. In the replicated field study, variation was observed among the disomic progenies for the qualitative traits such as flower, ...
A field experiment was conducted at the Seed and Plant Improvement Institute Research Field Station in Karaj, Iran, during the 2009-10 and 2010-11 growing seasons to estimate genetic progress and the variation in penological and agronomic characteristics in 13 irrigated facultative/winter bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars released in Iran between 1943 and 2011. Trends of temporal variation of the traits measured revealed that grain yield and some related phonological and agronomic traits have increased in the more recently released cultivars. Thousand grain weight decreased slightly compared to older cultivars. Number of days to heading and anthesis decreased in new cultivars, butgrain-filling period and days to physiological maturity did not change. Spike length also increased but plant height decreased in more recently released cultivars. These changes may explain the increase in grain yield of newly released facultative/winter bread wheat cultivars.
Triticum turgidum (Rivet wheat). This species is an annual grass which has solid stems. The medium green leaves are flat and about 16mm. The glumes are yellow-brown.
The prophylactic treatment adopted was as follows for the period 15 August 1934 to 15 January 1935, the duration of the experiment:. The population of the village was divided into two lots of 135 subjects. The first lot (lot A) took a gametocidal treatment from 15 August 1934: 2 cg. of Praequine daily for five days, taken half an hour before the morning meal. This gametocidal treatment was repeated every two months, thus three times in total during the experiment.. At the same time and after the gametocidal treatment, lot A received preventive treatment with quinine chlorhydrate (o g. 50 (sic) every day for six out of seven days, taken half an hour before the meal).. The second lot (lot B) took the same gametocidal treatment as lot A. At the same time and after the gametocidal treatments, lot B received 10 cg. of Quinacrine every day for four days out of seven and this throughout the duration of the experiment.". Translation by Ulrich Tröhler. ...
After testing several genome complexity reduction methods we identified the PstI/TaqI method as the most effective for Eucalyptus and developed 18 genomic libraries from PstI/TaqI representations of 64 different Eucalyptus species. A total of 23,808 cloned DNA fragments were screened and 13,300 (56%) were found to be polymorphic among 284 individuals. After a redundancy analysis, 6,528 markers were selected for the operational array and these were supplemented with 1,152 additional clones taken from a library made from the E. grandis tree whose genome has been sequenced. Performance validation for diversity studies revealed 4,752 polymorphic markers among 174 individuals. Additionally, 5,013 markers showed segregation when screened using six inter-specific mapping pedigrees, with an average of 2,211 polymorphic markers per pedigree and a minimum of 859 polymorphic markers that were shared between any two pedigrees ...
In the workshop, various approaches to sequencing the wheat genome were considered. These included selected BAC/CBCS, MF, HC, and/or a combination approach. The discussion was focused on the relative efficiency of each strategy in relation to cost and division of labor among the international participants.. The WGS approach was considered too difficult mainly because of the large size and highly repetitive nature of the wheat genome. Several participants proposed a selected BAC approach, in which the gene-containing BACs were isolated by hybridization with ESTs and fingerprinted to construct MTPs and the gene-rich MTPs were sequenced. It was argued that a global physical map should be considered rather than only the gene-rich regions for greater impact on map-based cloning of agriculturally important genes. For gene filtration, preliminary results showed that MF could enrich wheat genes by 2- to 3-fold (Li et al. 2004) or even 5-fold (P. Rabinowicz, A. Bedell, M. A. Budiman, N. Lakey, A. ...
Citation: AKHUNOV, E.D., LAZO, G.R., CHAO, S., ANDERSON, O.D., GUSTAFSON, J.P., WALKER-SIMMONS, M.K., STEBER, C.M. THE ORGANIZATION AND RATE OF EVOLUTION OF THE WHEAT TRANSCRIPTOME ARE CORRELATED WITH RECOMBINATION RATES ALONG CHROMOSOME ARMS. GENOME RESEARCH. 2003. V. 13(5). P. 753-763. Interpretive Summary: Wheat is one of the most important crops both within the U.S. and worldwide. Development of new and improved varieties into the future will depend on the basic knowledge of the organization and function of the genes found on the wheat chromosomes. This paper describes relationships between wheat chromosome structure and the exchange of genetic information through recombining gene and chromosome segments and the distribution and fate of duplicated genes. It was found the the fastest changing portions of the wheat chromosomes are the distal ends of the chromosomes - regions where gene duplication and DNA exchange between chromosomes is occurring the most rapidly. The paper also discusses the ...
Investigations in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) using molecular and conventional breeding techniques for abiotic and biotic ...
Wow, I count 14 question marks in one post. Is that a record?. Ill try to hit as many of the question marks as possible.. 1. So wouldnt the first human (with 46) have significant trouble reproducing? Not necessarily. Research has been performed to investigate just this question and found that fertility is effected only minimally. Essentially, it turns out that some centromeres are better at attracting the kinetochore machinery than others and thus outcompete the neighboring centromere for resources [a]. Thus, even in the case of a fusion, only one centromere will remain active.. 2. Could he or she reproduce with an ape mate? No. Nor would they likely be interested in doing so - any more than you are interested in mating with a gorilla. When a chromosomal fusion occurs in one individual human, they would look no different than any other human. All the same genes are still there, being expressed the same way. When the fusion of chromosomes 12 and 13 occurred in the human lineage, nobody would ...
Wow, I count 14 question marks in one post. Is that a record?. Ill try to hit as many of the question marks as possible.. 1. So wouldnt the first human (with 46) have significant trouble reproducing? Not necessarily. Research has been performed to investigate just this question and found that fertility is effected only minimally. Essentially, it turns out that some centromeres are better at attracting the kinetochore machinery than others and thus outcompete the neighboring centromere for resources [a]. Thus, even in the case of a fusion, only one centromere will remain active.. 2. Could he or she reproduce with an ape mate? No. Nor would they likely be interested in doing so - any more than you are interested in mating with a gorilla. When a chromosomal fusion occurs in one individual human, they would look no different than any other human. All the same genes are still there, being expressed the same way. When the fusion of chromosomes 12 and 13 occurred in the human lineage, nobody would ...
INTRODUCTION. Wheat (Triticum spp.) is an autogamous plant with perfect flowers producing limited amounts of pollen, and it is characterized by a relatively short period of gynoecium receptivity. Genetic improvement of wheat has been a matter of considerable concern through the years, mainly to increase yields, minimize losses due to unfavorable environmental conditions, and develop resistance to pests and diseases (Pingali and Rajaram, 2000).. With 8,000 years of history, wheat is the main cereal in the diet of mankind. Its global production is currently 640 million tons a year, and production has increased in accordance with the increase in population. In the last fifty years. wheat production had increased nearly 1% per year. This is due to technological advances in genetically more productive cultivars and the adoptionof bettercultivationpractices. By 2025. it is expected that a yearly increase in yield of about 2.5% will be required to meet the needs of a growing population demanding more ...
Hello All I have list of genes i want to know which all genes will make one chromosome segments So For example i have gene A , B , C , D i want for example A,B, C forming one stretch of chromosome segment (1p15.1p20) 1p15.1p.20 will make one segment. If i have ramdom gene name i want which genes will fall in one stretch of segments.. ...
Some of these are Heritage Wheats that go back to the 1700s. They are all "modern" wheat types in that they shed their hulls easily and can be easily threshed without equipment. They are all the same species, Triticum aestivum, while the truly ancient wheats are other species ...
The [email protected] Centre provides a platform for research students to deposit their Ph.D. theses and make it available to the entire scholarly community in open access ...
Lillian Gish, whose portrayals of fragile innocence graced the golden age of silent films and eventually extended into an eight-decade screen career, a testament to perpetuity that could last
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The disomic addition lines of chromosomes 4R and 6R of Secale cereale cv. Imperial rye in Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring were completely free from Karnal bunt disease of wheat under artificial inoculation. The rye chromosomes 4R and 6R were transferred into a high yielding but Karnal bunt susceptible bread wheat variety WL711 through backcrossing. The monosomic and disomic addition lines of 4R and 6R in WL711 also maintained resistance against a particular isolate of Karnal bunt during backcrossing whereas their euploid segregants were as susceptible as the recurrent parent. The 4R and 6R addition lines, however, were susceptible to a new isolate of Neovossia indica virulent on triticale. The work to substitute the rye chromosomes for their B and D wheat genome homoeologues is in progress.. ...
Wild relatives of wheat may possess useful traits or genes for efficient use of nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P). Forty-three wheat addition lines with alien chromosomes from Leymus, Agropyron, Hordeum, Psathyrostachys, Aegilops, and Secale cereale, along with their common parent Chinese Spring (CS) were cultured by hydroponics, and their phenotypic variation, N/P uptake and utilization efficiency were investigated at seedling stage. The phenotypic variation showed that N deficiency decreased plant height, shoot dry weight, and total dry weight, while increased root length, number of leaves, SPAD value, and root to shoot ratio (R/S); while P deficiency decreased all the measured traits except root dry weight and R/S. Aegilops longissima 2S and Aegilops searsii 4SS addition lines were identified as both N- and P-efficient germplasm, of which Ae. longissima 2S addition line showed significant increased N and P uptake efficiency than CS under all treatments ...
Wild related species are a useful reservoir of valuable genes for widening the genetic base of wheat and for the reduction of the vulnerability of wheat cultivars to pathogens, fungal diseases and environmental hazards. In this work, the action of prezygotic and postzygotic incrossability barriers was characterized, determining the possibilities of direct introduction of Am - genome from Triticum monococcum and D-genome from Triticum. tauschii into T. aestivum cultivars, with elimination of commonly performed bridging hybridisation with tetraploid wheat. As gene recipient parents, Polish cultivars of hexaploid wheat cv. Omega, cv. Igna (spring) and cv. Tercja (winter) were used. Application of wheat cultivars as female parents in hybridisation with T. tauschii yielded a very low percentage of effective pollination (0-1.2%). In reciprocal crosses prezygotic incompatibility barriers were more weakly expressed, and percentages of effective pollination (i.e. pollination which initiates the first ...
Aegilops tauschii (2n=2 x=14, DD) is a rich source of genetic variability for hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n=6 x=42, AABBDD) improvement. This variability can be accessed through utilizing synthetic hexaploid wheat lines, which contain genomes from Ae. tauschii and T. turgidum (2n=4 x=28, AABB). Numerous desirable characteristics can and have been introgressed into common hexaploid wheat with this germplasm. In this work, the genetic variability in the two puroindoline genes (a and b) contained on the D genome, and the relationship that sequence polymorphisms in these genes have on endosperm texture among a population of 75 CIMMYT synthetic hexaploid accessions is described. Kernel texture was evaluated using the single kernel characterization system (SKCS). Kernel texture differed significantly (P=0.0001) among the synthetic hexaploid accessions (range 2.6 40.9) and the parent types, durum or Ae. tauschii. The interaction term between parent types was also a significant effect ...
Read "Production of wheat-rye substitution lines and identification of chromosome composition of karyotypes using C-banding, GISH, and SSR markers, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Mori, N.; Liu, Y.G.; Nakamura, C.; Tsunewaki, K., 1991: Genetic differentiation between two wild tetraploid wheats, Triticum dicoccoides and T. araraticum as revealed by RFLP analysis of organellar and nuclear DNA
Mathur, H.C.; Chaudhary, H.B.; Singh, S.R., 1997: Identification of chromosomes carrying genes for resistance to loose smut of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in India
Scientists from the Department of Horticulture are using modern laser-based flow cytometry techniques for isolating plant protoplasts. Such applications are at the leading edge in this field. The approach allows identification and physical isolation of single plant chromosomes. ...
Triticale is a man-made crop developed by crossing wheat (Triticum turgidum or Triticum aestivum) with rye (Secale cereale).. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Out of all these traits it seems that the most commonly mentioned trait across the internet to distinguish these types is that Common and Prickly (prickly usually not even being mentioned) spread by seed and the hybrid Russian does not. This is similar to how a horse and a donkey can mate and produce a mule, but mules are considered sterile... usually... Although we know that mismatched chromosome counts in offspring resulting from inter-species breeding often results in sterility of offspring in animals, the same isnt as reliably true for plants. In fact nowadays you can buy strawberries with pink flowers that were the result of plants in two separate genera and with different chromosome counts being hybridized and then back-crossed with strawberries to produce plants with mostly strawberry type characteristics but with the pink flower color of the non-strawberry parent. My point to all of this is that I think the idea that ALL Russian comfrey strains are sterile doesnt seem well founded. It ...
Functions are provided that facilitate the import and analysis of snp and silicodart (presence/absence) data. The main focus is on data generated by DarT (Diversity Arrays Technology). However, once SNP or related fragment presence/absence data from any source is imported into a genlight object many of the functions can be used. Functions are available for input and output of SNP and silicodart data, for reporting on and filtering on various criteria (e.g. CallRate, Heterozygosity, Reproducibility, maximum allele frequency). Advanced filtering is based on Linkage Disequilibrium and HWE. Other functions are available for visualization after PCoA, or to facilitate transfer of data between genlight/genind objects and newhybrids, related, phylip packages etc.. ...
The 4H(4D) wheat/barley substitution line was crossed with the Chinese Spring ph1b mutant genotype in order to induce wheat-barley homoeologous recombinations. F3 and F4seeds of the 4H(4D) ×...
CSHL Scientific Digital Repository is powered by EPrints 3.4 which is developed by the School of Electronics and Computer Science at the University of Southampton. More information and software credits ...
Ingrediente reteta batoane cu cacao: ⦁ 150 gr faina de orez ⦁ 150 gr faina integrala ⦁ 50 gr fulgi de cocos pudra ⦁ 100 gr musli cu cereale si fructe
A grain created in Sweden in the 1930s, a hybrid of rye and wheat. It is one of the ingredients of Puffed Kashi. The export market for triticale i...
This image has a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0) license. If you have questions, contact Steve Matson ssmat[AT]sbcglobal.net ...
Polyploidy is a condition in which an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes. It is found naturally in several types of...
The HTR12 protein is a centromere-specific histone H3 variant in A. thaliana, and was shown to colocalize with the 180 bp repetitive sequences of all centromeres (Talbert et al., 2002). The Zea mays centromeric histone H3, CENH3 was also detected at the kinetochore regions of the centromere and colocalized with centromere-specific tandem repeat CentC and with centromeric retroelement CRM (Zhong et al., 2002). These results indicate wide conservation of CENP-A-like proteins and their close relationship to the centromeric satellites. In our study, the spatial relationship between HTR12 protein and 180 bp repetitive sequences was investigated by sequential combination of immunolabeling and FISH. In the cell cultures studied here, drastic changes in the copy numbers of 180 bp repetitive sequences had occurred, however, all chromosomes carried the 180 bp repetitive sequences despite their variation in size (Fig. 1E,F). For chromosomes with low numbers of 180 bp repetitive sequences, ...
The development of array-based high-throughput genotyping methods created significant opportunities to increase the number of genetic populations for linkage analysis. In the present study, a strategy was proposed for mapping QTLs (quantitative trait loci) based on DArT (diversity arrays technology) genotyping system. A consensus linkage map was constructed with both DArT and SSR markers by utilizing a subgroup DH population, and a second linkage map was constructed with SSR markers alone and a more extensive full DH population. Resistance to barley net-type net blotch disease was analyzed using the subpopulation data with the high-density consensus linkage map and the full-population data with the low-density SSR linkage map, respectively. Two interactive QTLs were detected either by the sub- or full population. Simulation studies were conducted to validate the strategy presented in this chapter. In addition, a computer program written in C++ is freely available on the web to deal with the data ...
Freeman, JS and Potts, BM and Shepherd, M and Vaillancourt, RE (2006) Parental and consensus linkage maps of Eucalyptus globulus using AFLP and microsatellite markers. Silvae Genetica, 55 (4-5). pp. 202-217. ISSN 0037-5349 ...
Development of a high quality reference sequence is a daunting task in crops like wheat with large (~17Gb), highly repetitive (>80%) and polyploid genome. To achieve complete sequence assembly of such genomes, development of a high quality physical map is a necessary first step. However, due to the lack of recombination in certain regions of the chromosomes, genetic mapping, which uses recombination frequency to map marker loci, alone is not sufficient to develop high quality marker scaffolds for a sequence ready physical map. Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping, which uses radiation induced chromosomal breaks, has proven to be a successful approach for developing marker scaffolds for sequence assembly in animal systems. Here, the development and characterization of a RH panel for the mapping of D-genome of wheat progenitor Aegilops tauschii is reported. Radiation dosages of 350 and 450 Gy were optimized for seed irradiation of a synthetic hexaploid (AABBDD) wheat with the D-genome of Ae. tauschii accession
Author Summary The number of chromosomes in organisms often changes over evolutionary time. To study how the number changes, we compare several related species of yeast that share a common ancestor roughly 150 million years ago and have varying numbers of chromosomes. By inferring ancestral genome structures, we examine the changes in location of centromeres and telomeres, key elements that biologically define chromosomes. Their locations change over time by rearrangements of chromosome segments. By following these rearrangements, we trace an evolutionary path between existing centromeres and telomeres to those in the ancestral genomes, allowing us to identify the specific evolutionary events that caused changes in chromosome number. We show that, in these yeasts, chromosome number has generally decreased over time except for one notable exception: an event in an ancestor of several species where the whole genome was duplicated. Chromosome number reduction occurs by the simultaneous removal of a
OLIVEIRA, Tadeu Silva de et al. Estimates of kinetic degradability parameters and passage of materials originated from intercropping of brachiaria grass and corn and soybean crops. R. Bras. Zootec. [online]. 2011, vol.40, n.12, pp.2903-2910. ISSN 1806-9290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982011001200038.. The study was conducted to determine the kinetic parameters of in situ DM and NDF and the passage of particles of forages produced from the intercropping of brachiaria grass with corn and soybean crops. Three experiments were performed, as follows: Experiment 1 - Brachiaria grass intercropped with corn at different plant ages; Experiment 2 - Cultivation of brachiaria grass intercropped with corn set in different sowing arrangements; and Experiment 3 - Intercropping of brachiaria grass and soybean. Passage kinetic of particles was determined by the recovery of markers in feces. In order to obtain the ruminal degradation of DM and NDF, nylon bags were used at zero time, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, ...
I was unable to find a count for Chenopodium quinoa (a much counted species) MBG VAST file, which suggests that IPCN incorporation is incomplete. Since the user interface forces a species-by-species check (no tabular output) its difficult to determine how many counts are available in this dataset (maybe someone from MBG can comment). A check of the Kew DNA database at: http://www.rbgkew.org.uk/cval/database1.html produces two counts for Chenopodium (the literature carries counts for at least 30 species of the genus) Anybody know of any other sources of plant chromosome count info on line? This demonstrates the tendency to put data of local disciplinary interest (type specimens) on line while ignoring systematic data that might have a broader application. , Date: Mon, 22 Feb 1999 16:40:58 +1200 , Reply-to: Murray Dawson ,DawsonM at LANDCARE.CRI.NZ, , From: Murray Dawson ,DawsonM at LANDCARE.CRI.NZ, , Subject: Chromosome numbers in plants -Reply , To: Multiple recipients of list TAXACOM , ...
Oryza longistaminata (AA genome) is a wild rice species that is phenotypically inferior to cultivated rice but possesses useful alleles that can be used to improve agronomically important traits. Inte
In bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), crop height is an important determinant of agronomic performance. The aim of this study was to identify genes controlling variation in crop height segregating in elite European winter wheat germplasm. Four doubled haploid populations derived from the crosses Avalon à  Cadenza, Savannah à  Rialto, Spark à  Rialto and Charger à  Badger were selected, re ...
replace your repo IP with my 10.16.91.1 [base] name=CentOS-$releasever - Base #mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=os baseurl=http://10.16.91.1/CentOS/$releasever/os/$basearch/ gpgcheck=1 gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-5 #released updates [updates] name=CentOS-$releasever - Updates #mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=updates baseurl=http://10.16.91.1/CentOS/$releasever/updates/$basearch/ gpgcheck=1 gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-5 #packages used/produced in the build but not released [addons] name=CentOS-$releasever - Addons #mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=addons baseurl=http://10.16.91.1/CentOS/$releasever/addons/$basearch/ gpgcheck=1 gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-5 #additional packages that may be useful [extras] name=CentOS-$releasever - Extras ...
replace your repo IP with my 10.16.91.1 [base] name=CentOS-$releasever - Base #mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=os baseurl=http://10.16.91.1/CentOS/$releasever/os/$basearch/ gpgcheck=1 gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-5 #released updates [updates] name=CentOS-$releasever - Updates #mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=updates baseurl=http://10.16.91.1/CentOS/$releasever/updates/$basearch/ gpgcheck=1 gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-5 #packages used/produced in the build but not released [addons] name=CentOS-$releasever - Addons #mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=addons baseurl=http://10.16.91.1/CentOS/$releasever/addons/$basearch/ gpgcheck=1 gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-5 #additional packages that may be useful [extras] name=CentOS-$releasever - Extras ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Triticum durum (Desf.) genotípusok fagyállóságának tesztelése a martonvásári fitotronban. AU - Szucs, Péter. AU - Veisz, O.. AU - Bedő, Z.. AU - Szunics, LáSzló. PY - 1998/4. Y1 - 1998/4. N2 - In the experiments the frost resistance of eight T. durum wheat varieties of various origins and of sixteen T. durum genotypes bred in Martonvásár was evaluated in the phytotron after freezing at -13°C and -15°C. In order to determine the degree of frost resistance the number of plants surviving freezing was recorded and each plant was scored on a 0-5 scale. For some of the T. durum genotypes tested in the freezing experiment the grain yield was also determined in field experiments. The bread wheat variety Mv 15, which has excellent frost resistance and was used as the control, exhibited approx. 94% survival at both freezing temperatures. When frozen at -15°C the varieties Odmadur 1, Odmadur 2 and Martondur 1 and many of the T. durum lines bred in Martonvásár showed ...
Photo/image Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum), Family: Poaceae. Location Hobro, Jylland, Danmark. Photographer: JC Schou, Photoid 25561
In meiosis 1, it is said that chromosome numbers become halved in the two daughter cells. For example, in a 2n human cell there are 46 chromosomes. During...
Rights: This volume was digitized and made accessible online due to deterioration of the original print copy. If you are the author of this work and would like to have online access removed, please contact the Library Administration Office, 785-532-7400, [email protected] ...
QTL mapping is an important step in gene fine mapping, map-based cloning, and the efficient use of gene information in molecular breeding. Questions are frequently met and asked in the application of QTL mapping in practical ...
Adamski, Tadeusz et al. Segregation distortion in homozygous lines obtained via anther culture and maize doubled haploid methods in comparison to single seed descent in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Electron. J. Biotechnol., Jan 2014, vol.17, no.1, p.2-2. ISSN 0717- ...
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genomic pipeline runtimes.One of the key projects being undertaken at TGAC is the analysis of the wheat genome, where DRAGEN can be of great benefit.
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards) GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. Secale. Published online. Accessed 26 Sept. 2013 ...
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Triticum wheat stacks Wheat stacks come ready to be beautiful anywhere you put them. Try them as easy centerpieces, corner pieces, or wall arrangements and you will love the results. They come ready to go. All you have to do is take them out of the box and give them a twist to create the perfect wheat arrangement for you party or event.
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File Title: Compensating effects and gene action estimates for the components of grain yield in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. em Thell ...
dont list the dir in the files section, use /* instead to point out , the files in the dir , , If you list the dir itself, it will be owned by the rpm and removed , together with it. , , perfect thanks ...
Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a major forage legume that has a strong self-incompatibility system and exhibits high genetic diversity within populations. For several crop species, integrated consensus linkage maps that combine information from multiple mapping populations have been developed. For red clover, three genetic linkage maps have been published, but the information in these existing maps has not been integrated. A consensus linkage map was constructed using six mapping populations originating from eight parental accessions. Three of the six mapping populations were established for this study. The integrated red clover map was composed of 1804 loci, including 1414 microsatellite loci, 181 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) loci and 204 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) loci, in seven linkage groups. The average distance between loci and the total length of the consensus map were 0.46 cM and 836.6 cM, respectively. The locus order on the consensus map correlated
The deployment of diverse sources of resistance in new cultivars underpins durable control of rust diseases. Aus27430 exhibited a moderate level of stripe rust resistance against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) pathotypes currently prevalent in Australia. Aus27430 was crossed with the susceptible parent Avocet S (AvS) and subsequent filial generations were raised. Monogenic segregation observed among Aus27430/AvS F3 families was confirmed through stripe rust screening of an F6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, and the resistance locus was temporarily named YrAW5. Selective genotyping using an Illumina iSelect 90K wheat SNP bead chip array located YrAW5 in chromosome 6A. Genetic mapping of the RIL population with linked 90K SNPs that were converted into PCR-based marker assays, as well as SSR markers previously mapped to chromosome 6A, confirmed the chromosomal assignment for YrAW5. Comparative analysis of other stripe rust resistance genes located in chromosome 6A led to the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel quantitative trait locus, qCL1, involved in semi-dwarfism derived from Japanese rice cultivar Nipponbare. AU - Hori, Kiyosumi. AU - Yamamoto, Toshio. AU - Ebana, Kaworu. AU - Takeuchi, Yoshinobu. AU - Yano, Masahiro. PY - 2009/10/5. Y1 - 2009/10/5. N2 - To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with culm length in Japanese japonica rice varieties, we conducted QTL analyses using a set of reciprocal backcrossed inbred lines (BILs) from crosses between Nipponbare and Koshihikari. We detected five QTLs in the two BILs that are involved in the culm-length difference between Nipponbare and Koshihikari. A QTL located on the short arm of chromosome 1, qCL1, was commonly detected near the simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker RM8068 in both BILs in three growing seasons. The Nipponbare allele of qCL1 shortened from 1.9 to 3.0 cm of culm length. Substitution lines (SLs) of Koshihikari in which the QTL was replaced with the Nipponbare allele exhibited decreased lengths of ...
Background Genetic markers and linkage mapping are basic prerequisites for marker-assisted selection and map-based cloning. In the case of the key grassland species Lolium spp., numerous mapping populations have been developed and characterised for various traits. Although some genetic linkage maps of these populations have been aligned with each other using publicly available DNA markers, the number of common markers among genetic maps is still low, limiting the ability to compare candidate gene and QTL locations across germplasm. Results A set of 204 expressed sequence tag (EST)-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers has been assigned to map positions using eight different ryegrass mapping populations. Marker properties of a subset of 64 EST-SSRs were assessed in six to eight individuals of each mapping population and revealed 83% of the markers to be polymorphic in at least one population and an average number of alleles of 4.88. EST-SSR markers polymorphic in multiple populations ...
Wheat is an allopolyploid which has two or more sets of related chromosomes as the result of doubling chromosomes following sexual hybridization between closely related species. Hexaploid (bread) wheat contains A, B and D genomes and tetraploid (pasta) wheat contains A and B genomes. Despite their genome complexity, wheat behave as iploids during meiosis (each chromosome only pairs with its identical, homologue, and not with related or homoelogous chromosomes). Chromosome pairing is controlled in wheat by the Ph1 locus, which suppresses homoeologous chromosome pairing. Therefore the hybridization be tween polyploid wheat and related species caused inter-specific hybrids without chromosome pairing between wheat and related species. However, in the absence of the Ph1 locus (ph1 mutant) the chance of pairing between related chromosomes is increased. In this work, we exploit the ph1 mutant to development new wheat germplas m carrying introgressions from Hordeum chilense, a wild barley with high ...
Common bread wheat, Triticum aestivum, has one of the most complex genomes known to science, with 6 copies of each chromosome, enormous numbers of near-identical sequences scattered throughout, and an overall haploid size of more than 15 billion bases. Multiple past attempts to assemble the genome have produced assemblies that were well short of the estimated genome size. Here we report the first near-complete assembly of T. aestivum, using deep sequencing coverage from a combination of short Illumina reads and very long Pacific Biosciences reads. The final assembly contains 15,344,693,583 bases and has a weighted average (N50) contig size of 232,659 bases. This represents by far the most complete and contiguous assembly of the wheat genome to date, providing a strong foundation for future genetic studies of this important food crop. We also report how we used the recently published genome of Aegilops tauschii, the diploid ancestor of the wheat D genome, to identify 4,179,762,575 bp of T. aestivum that
Common bread wheat, Triticum aestivum, has one of the most complex genomes known to science, with 6 copies of each chromosome, enormous numbers of near-identical sequences scattered throughout, and an overall haploid size of more than 15 billion bases. Multiple past attempts to assemble the genome have produced assemblies that were well short of the estimated genome size. Here we report the first near-complete assembly of T. aestivum, using deep sequencing coverage from a combination of short Illumina reads and very long Pacific Biosciences reads. The final assembly contains 15,344,693,583 bases and has a weighted average (N50) contig size of 232,659 bases. This represents by far the most complete and contiguous assembly of the wheat genome to date, providing a strong foundation for future genetic studies of this important food crop. We also report how we used the recently published genome of Aegilops tauschii, the diploid ancestor of the wheat D genome, to identify 4,179,762,575 bp of T. aestivum that
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Looking for diploidization? Find out information about diploidization. The process by which a tetraploid organism attains the diploid state, involving repeated chromosome loss Explanation of diploidization
Background: Mapping and map-based cloning of genes that control agriculturally and economically important traits remain great challenges for plants with complex highly repetitive genomes such as those within the grass tribe, Triticeae. Mapping limitations in the Triticeae are primarily due to low frequencies of polymorphic gene markers and poor genetic recombination in certain genetic regions. Although the abundance of repetitive sequence may pose common problems in genome analysis and sequence assembly of large and complex genomes, they provide repeat junction markers with random and unbiased distribution throughout chromosomes. Hence, development of a high-throughput mapping technology that combine both gene-based and repeat junction-based markers is needed to generate maps that have better coverage of the entire genome. Results: In this study, the available genomics resource of the diploid Aegilop tauschii, the D genome donor of bread wheat, were used to develop genome specific markers that ...
Data from a survey of Western Australian grain growers are used to characterise the use and perceptions of durum wheat. The main objective was to identify opportunities for extension to increase the level of durum wheat adoption throughout the grain growing regions of WA. Perceptions of durum wheat characteristics were elicited along with other variables used to model the economic value of durum wheat in the local cropping system. Logistic regression analysis found that perceptions of the yield potential were most influential, with almost half of respondents believing current durum wheat varieties were unsuitable for Western Australian conditions. Perceptions of durum rust resistance were also significant in the adoption decision. Informational variables were shown to be of influence; however, critically, past use was not a significant predictor of future use. Before broad extension and promotion of the trialing of durum can be successful, efforts in Western Australia will need to focus on research to
Biology Assignment Help, Chromosomes, Chromosomes Karl Nageli and Hofmeister observed chromosomes in pollen mother cells of Tradescantia. Chromosome name proposed by Waldeyer. During cell division, chromatin threads become condensed to form thick structures called ch
A sophisticated sequencing study reveals genetic changes that emerged in wheat as it became domesticated by agricultural societies in the Fertile Crescent, roughly 10,000 years ago. The findings provide scientists with a better understanding of traits in modern wheat - the variety used to make bread and pasta - and could inform efforts to improve the yield and quality of this key food source. The domestication of wild wheat caused a shift in traits, which mostly relate to seed dormancy, spike morphology, and grain development. For example, while the spikes of wild wheat shatter at maturity, all domesticated wheat spikes remain intact, which enables easier harvest. Here, Raz Avni and colleagues used 3-D genetic sequencing data and software to reconstruct the 14 chromosomes of wild tetraploid wheat, Triticum turgidum. The team then compared genes responsible for shattering in domesticated wheat to the corresponding genes in wild wheat, in order to understand genetic changes underlying the ...
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is believed to play a role in plant growth, reproduction, and resistance to pathogens and pests. PPO causes browning of grains in cereals. In this study, genetic mapping of sorghum grain for phenol color reaction (PHR) was performed using a recombinant inbred line population. Only one locus was detected between SSR markers SM06072 and Xtxp176 on chromosome 6. Two linked orthologous genes (Sb06PPO1 and Sb06PPO2) within the mapped region were discovered and cloned. Transformation experiments using Nipponbare (a PHR negative rice cultivar) showed that Sb06PPO1 from LTR108 and two Sb06PPO2 alleles from both varieties could complement Nipponbare, whereas Sb06PPO1 from 654 could not ...
Six wheat genotypes (three female and three male) were crossed for the study of some quantitative traits in wheat. Analysis of variance showed a highly significant difference for all the characters except flag leaf area, which was significant. Testers revealed that LU26S was the best general combiner only for plant height. Mehraj showed a good general combining ability effect on plant height, flag leaf area, peduncle length, and 1000-grain weight. Farid 2006 was the best male parent as general combiner for plant height, peduncle length, spike length, number of grains per spike, and grain yield per plant. The wheat parental lines revealed that 9381 was the best general combiner for plant height, flag leaf area, peduncle length, 1000-grain weight, and grain yield per plant. Whereas 9428 was the best general combiner for flag leaf area, spike length, and number of spikelets per spike. Among crosses, LU26S × 9272, LU26S × 9381, Mehraj × 9272, and Mehraj × 9381 showed a significant effect of ...
METHOD FOR QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE DETECTION OF COMMON WHEAT - Disclosed are: a method for detecting common wheat among from wheat varieties contained in a sample of interest such as a food raw material or a processed food specifically, with high sensitivity, and in a qualitative and/or quantitative manner; a method for discriminating between common wheat and a wheat variety other than common wheat (e.g., durum wheat) contained in a food raw material or a processed food and detecting the common wheat in a qualitative and/or quantitative manner; and a primer set, a nucleic acid probe, and a detection kit, each of which can be used in the methods employing a PCR method. Specifically disclosed are: a method for detecting the occurrence of common wheat in a sample of interest, which comprises carrying out a PCR method using a nucleic acid extracted from the sample as a template and using a primer comprising the nucleotide sequence represented by SEQ ID NO:5 and a primer comprising the ...
The medicinal and pharmacological screening of wheatgrass juice (Triticum aestivum L.): an investigation into chlorophyll content and antimicrobial activity
Hypersensitive adult plant resistance genes Lr48 and Lr49 were named based on their genetic independence of the known adult plant resistance genes. This study was planned to determine genomic locations of these genes. Recombinant inbred line populations derived from crosses involving CSP44 and VL404, sources of Lr48 and Lr49, respectively, and the susceptible parent WL711, were used to determine the genomic locations of these genes. Bulked segregant analyses were performed using multiplex-ready PCR technology. Lr48 in genotype CSP44 was mapped on chromosome arm 2BS flanked by marker loci Xgwm429b (6.1 cM) and Xbarc7 (7.3 cM) distally and proximally, respectively. Leaf rust resistance gene Lr13, carried by the alternate parent WL711, was proximal to Lr48 and was flanked by Xksm58 (5.1 cM) and Xstm773-2 (8.7 cM). Lr49 was flanked by Xbarc163 (8.1 cM) and Xwmc349 (10.1 cM) on chromosome arm 4BL. The likely presence of the durable leaf rust resistance gene Lr34 in both CSP44 and VL404 was confirmed ...
Domestication has induced major genetic changes in crop plants to satisfy human needs and as a consequence of adaptation to agroecosystems. This adaptation might have affected root exudate composition, which can influence the interactions in the rhizosphere. Here, using two different soil types (sand, soil), we provide an original example of the impact of domestication and crop evolution on root exudate composition through metabolite profiling of root exudates for a panel of 10 wheat genotypes that correspond to the key steps in domestication of tetraploid wheat (wild emmer, emmer, durum wheat). Our data show that soil type can dramatically affect the composition of root exudates in the rhizosphere. Moreover, the composition of the rhizosphere metabolites is associated with differences among the genotypes of the wheat domestication groups, as seen by the high heritability of some of the metabolites. Overall, we show that domestication and breeding have had major effects on root exudates in the
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been extensively used to explore the relationships between complex traits, genotypes, and environments. Complex traits can vary across different genotypes of a species, and the genetic regulators of trait variation can be mapped on the genome using quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from genetically and phenotypically divergent parents. Most RILs have been derived from crossing two parents from globally distant locations. However, the genetic diversity between local C. elegans populations can be as diverse as between global populations and could thus provide means of identifying genetic variation associated with complex traits relevant on a broader scale. To investigate the effect of local genetic variation on heritable traits, we developed a new RIL population derived from 4 parental wild isolates collected from 2 closely located sites in France: Orsay and Santeuil. We crossed these 4 genetically diverse parental
The genetic architecture of crop domestication is generally characterized by three trends: relatively few genomic regions with major QTL effects are involved, QTL are often clustered, and alleles derived from the crop do not always contribute to the crop phenotype. We have investigated the genetic architecture of lettuce using a recombinant inbred line population from a cross between a crop Lactuca sativa (Salinas) and its wild relative L. serriola. Few genomic regions with major QTL, plus various intermediate QTL, largely control the transition from wild to cultivated Crisphead lettuce. Allelic effects of all major QTL were in the expected direction, but there were intermediate QTL where the crop contributed to the wild phenotype and vice versa. We found two main regions with clusters of QTL, one on linkage group 3, where the crop allele induced lower seed output, another on linkage group 7, where the crop allele caused a delay in flowering time. Potentially, knowledge of genetic changes due ...

Artificial chromosome vector - The General Hospital CorporationArtificial chromosome vector - The General Hospital Corporation

... particularly a plant, the telomere itself, the centromere ... includes plant cells, plant protoplasts, plant calli, and plant ... The artificial chromosomes also include a plant selectable marker, a plant centromere, and a plant ARS to allow replication and ... The artificial chromosome also contains a plant selectable marker, a plant centromere, a plant ARS, and cloning sites. To allow ... functional artificial plant chromosome requires the isolation of the three essential elements from plant chromosomes, and this ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/5270201.html

Stable transfer of intact high molecular weight DNA into plant chromosomes | RTIStable transfer of intact high molecular weight DNA into plant chromosomes | RTI

... vector has been developed that is capable of transferring at least 150 kb of foreign DNA into a plant nuclear genome. The ... In conjunction with an enhanced system for Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation, a new binary bacterial artificial ... 1996). Stable transfer of intact high molecular weight DNA into plant chromosomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of ... The ability to introduce high molecular weight DNA into plant chromosomes should accelerate gene identification and genetic ...
more infohttps://www.rti.org/publication/stable-transfer-intact-high-molecular-weight-dna-plant-chromosomes

The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Plastid Chromosome | Plant CellThe Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Plastid Chromosome | Plant Cell

Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant Cell Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Plant Cell web ... The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Plastid Chromosome. Jude E. Maul, Jason W. Lilly, Liying Cui, Claude W. dePamphilis, Webb Miller ... The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Plastid Chromosome. Jude E. Maul, Jason W. Lilly, Liying Cui, Claude W. dePamphilis, Webb Miller ... The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Plastid Chromosome. Islands of Genes in a Sea of Repeats. Jude E. Maul, Jason W. Lilly, Liying ...
more infohttp://www.plantcell.org/content/14/11/2659.abstract

The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Plastid Chromosome | Plant CellThe Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Plastid Chromosome | Plant Cell

Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant Cell Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Plant Cell web ... The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Plastid Chromosome. Jude E. Maul, Jason W. Lilly, Liying Cui, Claude W. dePamphilis, Webb Miller ... The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Plastid Chromosome. Jude E. Maul, Jason W. Lilly, Liying Cui, Claude W. dePamphilis, Webb Miller ... The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Plastid Chromosome. Islands of Genes in a Sea of Repeats. Jude E. Maul, Jason W. Lilly, Liying ...
more infohttp://www.plantcell.org/content/14/11/2659

Koeltz Botanical Books. Goldblatt:Index Plant Chromosome NumbersKoeltz Botanical Books. Goldblatt:Index Plant Chromosome Numbers

Index to plant chromosome numbers 1988 - 1989. 1991.(Monogr. Syst. Bot., 40). 238 p. gr8vo. Paper bd. ... Index to plant chromosome numbers 2001 - 2003. Publ. 2006. (Monographs in Systematic Botany, Volume 106). 242 p. gr8vo. Paper ... Index to plant chromosome numbers 2004 - 2006. Publ. 2010. (Regnum Vegetabile, 152). 256 p. gr8vo. Paper bd. (978-3-906166-89-6 ... Index to plant chromosome numbers 1996 - 1997. 2000. (Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 81). ...
more infohttps://koeltz.com/de/goldblattindex-plant-chromosome-numbers

Sorting & Identification of Plant Chromosomes | Purdue University Cytometry LaboratoriesSorting & Identification of Plant Chromosomes | Purdue University Cytometry Laboratories

Sorting & Identification of Plant Chromosomes. Scientists from the Department of Horticulture are using modern laser-based flow ... Home » Our Lab » Research » Current Research Projects » Sorting & Identification of Plant Chromosomes ... cytometry techniques for isolating plant protoplasts. Such applications are at the leading edge in this field. The approach ...
more infohttp://flowcyt.cyto.purdue.edu/flowcyt/research/sorting.htm

Feulgen banding of heterochromatin in plant chromosomes | Journal of Cell ScienceFeulgen banding of heterochromatin in plant chromosomes | Journal of Cell Science

Feulgen banding of heterochromatin in plant chromosomes Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Journal of Cell ... Feulgen bands can be obtained at the sites of constitutive heterochromatin in the chromosomes of Anemone blanda, Fritillaria ...
more infohttp://jcs.biologists.org/content/62/1/171

Plant sex chromosomes: a non-degenerated y?Plant sex chromosomes: a non-degenerated y?

Recent research suggests that plant Y chromosomes may evolve differently and retain most of their an ... Animal Y chromosomes have undergone chromosome-wide degeneration in response to a lack of recombination, and ancient Ys contain ... Recent research suggests that plant Y chromosomes may evolve differently and retain most of their ancestral genes.. ... Animal Y chromosomes have undergone chromosome-wide degeneration in response to a lack of recombination, and ancient Ys contain ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Plant-sex-chromosomes-non-degenerated/21959153.html

Alterations in the distribution of histone H3 phosphorylation in mitotic plant chromosomes in response to cold treatment and...Alterations in the distribution of histone H3 phosphorylation in mitotic plant chromosomes in response to cold treatment and...

The timing correlates with chromosome condensation, and studies in plant meiosis suggest that it is inv ... The function of the phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser 10 in plant cell division is uncertain. ... Houben A, Field BL, Saunders VA (2001) Microdissection and chromosome painting of plant B chromosomes. Meth Cell Sci 23: 115- ... and studies in plant meiosis suggest that it is involved in sister chromatid cohesion. In mitosis, plant chromosomes are highly ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1020940313841

Chromosome painting for plant biotechnology.  - PubMed - NCBIChromosome painting for plant biotechnology. - PubMed - NCBI

Chromosome painting for plant biotechnology.. Kato A1, Lamb JC, Albert PS, Danilova T, Han F, Gao Z, Findley S, Birchler JA. ... This chapter details the labeling procedures and chromosome preparation techniques used to produce high-quality FISH signals on ... Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is an invaluable tool for chromosome analysis and engineering. The ability to ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21181525?dopt=Abstract

Plant Chromosome Engineering. Methods and Protocols. 2010. (Methods in Molecular Biology, 701). illus. col. illus. 340 p. gr8vo...Plant Chromosome Engineering. Methods and Protocols. 2010. (Methods in Molecular Biology, 701). illus. col. illus. 340 p. gr8vo...

Plant Chromosome Engineering. Methods and Protocols. 2010. (Methods in Molecular Biology, 701). illus. col. illus. 340 p. gr8vo ... Due February 2011.- This volume examines topics such as transformation procedures, chromosome painting, production of ... chromosome sorting and analysis, protocols for generating chromosomal rearrangements, enhancer trapping, and means of studying ... chromosomes in vivo. The chapters include brief introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and ...
more infohttp://www.koeltz.com/product.aspx?pid=200352

Plant Cell Chromosomes Plant Cell Nucleus Plant Cell Chromosomes Diagram - camilleyvette.comPlant Cell Chromosomes Plant Cell Nucleus Plant Cell Chromosomes Diagram - camilleyvette.com

plant cell chromosomes plant cell nucleus plant cell chromosomes diagram.. chromosomes plant cell during meiosis i homologous ... plant cell chromosomes picture which part of contains new page 1 parts,plant cell chromosomes definition do cells have cake on ... a diploid pea plant cell contains 14 chromosomes diagram bacteria animal and cells do contain,plant cell chromosomes definition ... plant cell chromosomes picture definition parts does cells contain contains,plant cell chromosomes definition parts diagram ...
more infohttp://camilleyvette.com/plant-cell-chromosomes/plant-cell-chromosomes-plant-cell-nucleus-plant-cell-chromosomes-diagram/

Plant Cell Chromosomes Plant And Animal Cell Plant Cell Nucleus Chromosomes - camilleyvette.comPlant Cell Chromosomes Plant And Animal Cell Plant Cell Nucleus Chromosomes - camilleyvette.com

plant cell chromosomes plant and animal cell plant cell nucleus chromosomes.. plant cell parts chromosomes division biology ... plant cell project chromosomes does cells contain diagram of a typical parts,parts of a cell plant chromosomes picture diploid ... does plant cells contain chromosomes cell labeled a diploid pea contains 14 do have plants animals fungi,chromosomes plant cell ... plant cell contains chromosomes project cake do cells contain,which structure in the plant cell contains chromosomes and animal ...
more infohttp://camilleyvette.com/plant-cell-chromosomes/plant-cell-chromosomes-plant-and-animal-cell-plant-cell-nucleus-chromosomes/

Karyotype Analysis of Chlorophytum comosum Chromosome--《Subtropical Plant Science》2005年01期Karyotype Analysis of Chlorophytum comosum Chromosome--《Subtropical Plant Science》2005年01期

... the relative length of chromosome is 2n = 28 = 4L + 14M2 + 10M1. The total length of chromosome groups is 73.84μm, the total ... The results showed that the number of chromosome of Chlorophytum comosum is 2n = 2x = 28 = 4m + 14sm + 10st; ... The total volume of chromosome is 101.94μm3. ... The karyotype of Chlorophytum comosum chromosome belongs to3B ... The karyotype and the number of Chlorophytum comosum chromosome were studied. ...
more infohttp://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-YRDT200501009.htm

Use of chromosome substitution lines in plant genetics - WURUse of chromosome substitution lines in plant genetics - WUR

Use of chromosome substitution lines in plant genetics. When a chromosome of a line is replaced by the chromosome of another ... Use of chromosome substitution lines in plant genetics Status: Lopend Start project:. 1-jul-2016. Einde project:. 31-dec-2021. ... Chromosome substitution lines have rarely been used for plant genetics because these are difficult to produce. Through a ... line, one obtains chromosome substitution lines (CSLs). CSLs can be very powerful tools in plant genetics detect QTL or study ...
more infohttps://www.wur.nl/nl/project/Use-of-chromosome-substitution-lines-in-plant-genetics.htm

The Fruit Blog: Fruit Genetics Friday #7: Plant Sex Chromosomes Part II: StrawberriesThe Fruit Blog: Fruit Genetics Friday #7: Plant Sex Chromosomes Part II: Strawberries

Fruit Genetics Friday #7: Plant Sex Chromosomes Part II: Strawberries A couple weeks back, in the very infrequent Fruit ... f---m (X chromosome). F---M (Y chromosome). So a female would be XX, or (fm)/(fm), so no maleness promoted and no femaleness ... g---a (Z chromosome). G---A (W chromosome). So the sexes are female (ZW) and male (ZZ). This actually fits with some old ... Hermaphrodites are generally a mutation of the Y chromosome (which well call the Y+ chromosome), so that the suppression of ...
more infohttp://thefruitblog.blogspot.com/2008/09/fruit-genetics-friday-7-plant-sex.html

Forms of plant chromosomes  - CSHL Scientific Digital RepositoryForms of plant chromosomes - CSHL Scientific Digital Repository

Belling, John (1927) Forms of plant chromosomes. The Journal of Heredity, 18 (8). p. 371. ...
more infohttp://repository.cshl.edu/id/eprint/33833/

Epub Plant Chromosome Engineering: Methods And ProtocolsEpub Plant Chromosome Engineering: Methods And Protocols

epub Plant Chromosome Engineering: Methods Review 7( 1989): 318-334. social Bitcointalk: The flat anyone environment of Dr. ... Epub Plant Chromosome Engineering: Methods And Protocols. Epub Plant Chromosome Engineering: Methods And Protocols. by Teresa ... The epub Plant Chromosome Engineering: Methods and is and is j needs and has them to topic fragment images through the variety ... epub Plant Chromosome Engineering:, mindsets and How-tos on emerging of Holden found experiences. Latest: let me give some ...
more infohttp://www.wwpc-iplaw.com/stats_OLD/data/ebook.php?q=epub-Plant-Chromosome-Engineering%3A-Methods-and-Protocols.html

Sorting & Identification of Plant Chromosomes | Purdue University Cytometry LaboratoriesSorting & Identification of Plant Chromosomes | Purdue University Cytometry Laboratories

Sorting & Identification of Plant Chromosomes. Scientists from the Department of Horticulture are using modern laser-based flow ... Home » Our Lab » Research » Current Research Projects » Sorting & Identification of Plant Chromosomes ... cytometry techniques for isolating plant protoplasts. Such applications are at the leading edge in this field. The approach ...
more infohttp://cyto.purdue.edu/flowcyt/research/sorting.htm

Altered gene expression in alien plant chromosome introgression linesAltered gene expression in alien plant chromosome introgression lines

Home Research Projects Altered gene expression in alien plant chromosome introgression lines ... in the expression of alien and host genes in a wheat-barley chromosome arm introgression line and the expression of plant genes ... Alien chromosome introgression lines are invaluable models to study the behaviour of alien chromatin in unnatural genetic ... will be studied at DNA and chromosomal level as well as epigenetic state of histones in the introgressed chromosomes. The ...
more infohttps://olomouc.ueb.cas.cz/en/research/projects/altered-gene-expression-in-alien-plant-chromosome

Alpha Planet Chromosomes Pattern» Art Print by Artsy Craftery Design Studio | CurioosAlpha Planet Chromosomes Pattern» Art Print by Artsy Craftery Design Studio | Curioos

Alpha Planet Chromosomes Pattern» - This limited edition Giclée Art Print, designed by Artsy Craftery Design Studio, comes with ... Alpha Planet Chromosomes Pattern is one of my Hearts hand-painted papers design, digitally manipulated into a repeating ...
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Chromosome-scale assemblies of plant genomes using nanopore long reads and optical mapsChromosome-scale assemblies of plant genomes using nanopore long reads and optical maps

5 Mb and contain scaffolds that represent entire chromosomes or chromosome arms. ... Consequently, creating genome assemblies for plant genomes is challenging. Here, we describe a strategy based on long reads ( ... MinION or PromethION sequencers) and optical maps (Saphyr system) that can produce chromosome-level assemblies and demonstrate ... Plant genomes are often characterized by a high level of repetitiveness and polyploid nature. ...
more infohttps://nanoporetech.com/resource-centre/chromosome-scale-assemblies-plant-genomes-using-nanopore-long-reads-and-optical

Alpha Planet Chromosomes Pattern» Acrylic Glass Print by Artsy Craftery Design Studio | CurioosAlpha Planet Chromosomes Pattern» Acrylic Glass Print by Artsy Craftery Design Studio | Curioos

Alpha Planet Chromosomes Pattern» - This limited edition Acrylic Glass Print, designed by Artsy Craftery Design Studio, comes ... Alpha Planet Chromosomes Pattern is one of my Hearts hand-painted papers design, digitally manipulated into a repeating ...
more infohttps://www.curioos.com/product/acrylic/alpha-planet-chromosomes-pattern

Worlds First Cannabis Chromosome Map Reveals the Plants Evolutionary History |  Mount Sinai - New YorkWorld's First Cannabis Chromosome Map Reveals the Plant's Evolutionary History | Mount Sinai - New York

Worlds First Cannabis Chromosome Map Reveals the Plants Evolutionary History. The herbs past points to its future as a ... Both are found on chromosome 6 of the 10 chromosomes the cannabis genome is packaged into. There, the enzyme genes are ... The chromosome map now clearly shows that two distinct genes are at play, which should make it possible to separate them during ... "Plant genomes can contain millions of retroelement copies," says Dr. van Bakel, Assistant Professor of Genetics and Genomic ...
more infohttps://www.mountsinai.org/about/newsroom/2018/worlds-first-cannabis-chromosome-map-reveals-the-plants-evolutionary-history

Plant Cytogenetics: Genome Structure and Chromosome Function (Plant Genetics and Genomics: Crops and Models) - 9780387708683 |...Plant Cytogenetics: Genome Structure and Chromosome Function (Plant Genetics and Genomics: Crops and Models) - 9780387708683 |...

Genome Structure and Chromosome Function (Plant Genetics and Genomics: Crops and Models), - 9780387708683. Find the lowest ... Plant Cytogenetics: Genome Structure and Chromosome Function (Plant Genetics and Genomics: Crops and Models). *List Price: $ ... include classical cytogenetics of plant genomes; plant chromosome structure; functional, molecular cytology; and genome ... and teachers to continue to employ plant cytogenetics to address fundamental questions about the cytology of plant chromosomes ...
more infohttps://www.slugbooks.com/9780387708683-plant-cytogenetics-genome-structure-and.html
  • We hope it will inform and inspire students, researchers, and teachers to continue to employ plant cytogenetics to address fundamental questions about the cytology of plant chromosomes and genomes for years to come.Hank W. Bass is a Professor in the Department of Biological Science at Florida State University.James A. Birchler is a Professor in the Division of Biological Sciences at the University of Missouri. (slugbooks.com)
  • The authors hope it will inform and inspire students, researchers, and teachers to continue to employ plant cytogenetics to address fundamental questions about the cytology of plant chromosomes and genomes for years to come. (nhbs.com)
  • Considered by many as the father of Indian cytology, he headed the Centre for Advanced Study on Cell and Chromosome at the University and is known for his contributions to the studies on the physical and chemical nature of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosome Painting: Principles, Strategies and Scope, Chromosome Techniques: Theory and Practice, Chromosome Techniques - A Manual, Botanical Survey of India, Advances in Cell and Chromosome Research, Plant Genome: Biodiversity and Evolution (2 volumes), and Cytology of Different Species of Palms and Its Bearing on the Solution of the Problems of Phylogeny and Speciation are some of his notable works. (wikipedia.org)
  • The zygote then increases in cell number by mitosis, a type of cell division during which chromosomes in a nucleus are replicated and then separated to form two genetically identical daughter nuclei. (blogspot.com)
  • One level, the folding and positioning of chromosomes inside the nucleus, has only recently been recognised as playing an important role in gene expression. (findaphd.com)
  • Drs. Hughes, Page, and van Bakel first got together in 2011 when they released the first draft of the cannabis genome, which was too fragmented to reveal gene position on chromosomes at the time. (mountsinai.org)
  • In this PhD project, you will employ state-of-the-art molecular techniques including chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C), high-resolution microscopy and CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology. (findaphd.com)
  • Our overarching long-term goal is to uncover novel principles in plant gene regulation and to identify novel targets for plant breeding against pests and for improved plant health. (findaphd.com)
  • Our work into the use of mapping populations based on chromosome substitution lines focuses less on molecular or microscopic techniques, but is aimed at defining challenging research questions and answering these using chromosome substitution lines by growing, crossing and phenotyping plants. (wur.nl)
  • If you appreciate to be, a economic epub Plant Chromosome Engineering: Methods damage will compare so you can help the isPermalink after you are made your physis to this account. (wwpc-iplaw.com)
  • 1 Mb), these methods are still insufficient to decipher genome organization at the chromosome level. (nanoporetech.com)
  • In addition, chapters are included on several methods in plant cytogenetics, informatics, and even laboratory exercises for aspiring or practiced instructors. (slugbooks.com)
  • This breadth of coverage, together with the inclusion of methods and instruction, is intended to convey a deep and useful appreciation for plant cytogenetics. (slugbooks.com)
  • Replication of chromosomes assures that genetic information is correctly maintained as cells divide. (blogspot.com)
  • Cantharidin and ice-water also affected spindle assembly and chromosome length, but these effects did not seem to be directly linked to changes in H3 phosphorylation. (springer.com)
  • Using pyrosequencing of BAC clones, in this work we studied the organization of two distinct 5S rDNA-tagged regions of the 5BS chromosome of bread wheat. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A detailed structural organization of two closely located 5S rDNA-tagged genomic regions on the 5BS chromosome of bread wheat has been established. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Individual homozygous lines and progeny of intercrosses between lines have been used to study various aspects of interphase chromosome organization in root cells of living, untreated seedlings. (plantphysiol.org)
  • These transgenic lines provide tools for in-depth analyses of interphase chromosome organization, expression, and dynamics in living plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Alien chromosome introgression lines are invaluable models to study the behaviour of alien chromatin in unnatural genetic background. (cas.cz)
  • This reference book provides information on plant cytogenetics for students, instructors, and researchers. (slugbooks.com)
  • Sharma pioneered researches in cytogenetics and cytochemistry in India and is credited with developing new research techniques for the study of chromosome structure of plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently, he became head of the Botany Department at Reading University (1992 - 1996) before moving to Cambridge in 1996 as Director of the Botanic Garden, Curator of the University Herbarium (1999 - 2010) and Professor of Plant Cytogenetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using the results of pyrosequencing and assembling, we obtained six 5S rDNA- containing contigs with a total length of 140,417 bp, and two sets (pools) of individual 5S rDNA sequences belonging to separate, but closely located genomic regions on the 5BS chromosome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DNA methylation will be studied at DNA and chromosomal level as well as epigenetic state of histones in the introgressed chromosomes. (cas.cz)
  • 1. Plant Chromosomal Deletions, Insertions, and. (nhbs.com)
  • Chromosomes contain the genetic information of cells. (blogspot.com)
  • To maintain the genetic information of a cell, it is essential that chromosomes correctly replicate and divide as a cell divides. (blogspot.com)
  • This is followed by cytokinesis, the process of cytoplasmic division, which results in two daughter cells, each having the same number of chromosomes and genetic composition as the parent cell. (blogspot.com)
  • His studies proved that organogenesis, differentiation and reproduction return variable chemical composition of chromosomes while maintaining the genetic skeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Plant Cell. (plantcell.org)
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Plant Cell web site. (plantcell.org)
  • The function of the phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser 10 in plant cell division is uncertain. (springer.com)
  • Bradbury EM (1992) Reversible histone modifications and the chromosome cell cycle. (springer.com)
  • He became the assistant lecturer at the University in 1948 where he spent his entire academic life, superannuating in 1990 as the head of the department and project coordinator for the Centre for Advanced Study on Cell and Chromosome of the university in 1990. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sharma was the founder of the Centre for Advanced Study on Cell and Chromosome which was established during his tenancy as the head of the department of Botany at the University of Kolkata. (wikipedia.org)
  • The supervisory team (Dr Hans-Wilhelm Nuetzmann, Dr Volkan Cevik, Prof Laurence Hurst and Dr Selene Fernández Valverde) and staff at the Department of Biology and Biochemistry will offer complementary expertise and support in plant-pathogen, chromosome and genome biology of this project. (findaphd.com)
  • We investigate the use of chromosome substitution lines in fundamental and applied research. (wur.nl)
  • At the time, the only two fruit crops I knew of with sex chromosomes were papaya and kiwi. (blogspot.com)
  • The knowledge obtained will contribute to the efforts aiming at improving the efficiency of the alien introgression breeding of agricultural crops and to the development of a shuttle vector between animal and plant cells. (cas.cz)
  • The chromosome map is an important foundational resource for further research which, despite cannabis' widespread use, has lagged behind other crops due to restrictive legislation," says Tim Hughes, PhD, a professor in the Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research and co-leader of the study. (mountsinai.org)
  • In conjunction with an enhanced system for Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation, a new binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) vector has been developed that is capable of transferring at least 150 kb of foreign DNA into a plant nuclear genome. (rti.org)
  • He propounded the concept of speciation in asexual organisms and the some of techniques he developed for the study of chromosomes with respect to their physical and chemical nature, such as repetitive DNA orcein banding, multiple DNA analysis and analysis of chemical nature of chromosomes, are being practiced globally. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists from the Department of Horticulture are using modern laser-based flow cytometry techniques for isolating plant protoplasts. (purdue.edu)