Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, 1-3: The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.Chromosome Painting: A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Chromosomes, Human, 16-18: The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y: The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Ring Chromosomes: Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.Chromosomes, Human, 4-5: The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Chromosome Structures: Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.Chromosomes, Human, 19-20: The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Chromosomes, Artificial, Human: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Chromosome Fragility: Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Chromosome Duplication: An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Abnormalities, MultipleDNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Polytene Chromosomes: Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Cytogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Karyotype: The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Chromosome Fragile Sites: Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Sex Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).Genes, X-Linked: Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Monosomy: The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A new FISH protocol with increased sensitivity for physical mapping with short probes in plants. (1/1662)Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a well-established technique used for the detection of specific DNA regions, that has been applied to interphase nuclei, pachytene and metaphase chromosomes as well as to extended DNA fibres. This technique allows the physical mapping of specific DNA sequences both on individual chromosomes and extended fibres. A new FISH protocol is described here that enhances the sensitivity of the method. Probes for small unique DNA sequences of less than 2 kb give high signal-to-noise ratio with this method, and can be visualized easily by means of conventional fluorescence microscopy. (+info)
Quantitative trait loci for component physiological traits determining salt tolerance in rice. (2/1662)Rice (Oryza sativa) is sensitive to salinity, which affects one-fifth of irrigated land worldwide. Reducing sodium and chloride uptake into rice while maintaining potassium uptake are characteristics that would aid growth under saline conditions. We describe genetic determinants of the net quantity of ions transported to the shoot, clearly distinguishing between quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the quantity of ions in a shoot and for those that affect the concentration of an ion in the shoot. The latter coincide with QTL for vegetative growth (vigor) and their interpretation is therefore ambiguous. We distinguished those QTL that are independent of vigor and thus directly indicate quantitative variation in the underlying mechanisms of ion uptake. These QTL independently govern sodium uptake, potassium uptake, and sodium:potassium selectivity. The QTL for sodium and potassium uptake are on different linkage groups (chromosomes). This is consistent with the independent inheritance of sodium and potassium uptake in the mapping population and with the mechanistically different uptake pathways for sodium and potassium in rice under saline conditions (apoplastic leakage and membrane transport, respectively). We report the chromosomal location of ion transport and selectivity traits that are compatible with agronomic needs and we indicate markers to assist selection in a breeding program. Based upon knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of ion uptake in rice, we argue that QTL for sodium transport are likely to act through the control of root development, whereas QTL for potassium uptake are likely to act through the structure or regulation of membrane-sited transport components. (+info)
The Arabidopsis eer1 mutant has enhanced ethylene responses in the hypocotyl and stem. (3/1662)By screening for enhanced ethylene-response (eer) mutants in Arabidopsis, we isolated a novel recessive mutant, eer1, which displays increased ethylene sensitivity in the hypocotyl and stem. Dark-grown eer1 seedlings have short and thick hypocotyls even in the absence of added ethylene. This phenotype is suppressed, however, by the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor 1-aminoethoxyvinyl-glycine. Following ethylene treatment, the dark-grown eer1 hypocotyl response is greatly exaggerated in comparison with the wild type, indicating that the eer1 phenotype is not simply due to ethylene overproduction. eer1 seedlings have significantly elevated levels of basic-chitinase expression, suggesting that eer1 may be highly sensitive to low levels of endogenous ethylene. Adult eer1 plants display exaggerated ethylene-dependent stem thickening, which is an ethylene response previously unreported in Arabidopsis. eer1 also has enhanced responsiveness to the ethylene agonists propylene and 2,5-norbornadiene. The eer1 phenotype is completely suppressed by the ethylene-insensitive mutation etr1-1, and is additive with the constitutive ethylene-response mutation ctr1-3. Our findings suggest that the wild-type EER1 product acts to oppose ethylene responses in the hypocotyl and stem. (+info)
The molecular genetic linkage map of the model legume Medicago truncatula: an essential tool for comparative legume genomics and the isolation of agronomically important genes. (4/1662)BACKGROUND: The legume Medicago truncatula has emerged as a model plant for the molecular and genetic dissection of various plant processes involved in rhizobial, mycorrhizal and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions. Aiming to develop essential tools for such genetic approaches, we have established the first genetic map of this species. Two parental homozygous lines were selected from the cultivar Jemalong and from the Algerian natural population (DZA315) on the basis of their molecular and phenotypic polymorphism. RESULTS: An F2 segregating population of 124 individuals between these two lines was obtained using an efficient manual crossing technique established for M. truncatula and was used to construct a genetic map. This map spans 1225 cM (average 470 kb/cM) and comprises 289 markers including RAPD, AFLP, known genes and isoenzymes arranged in 8 linkage groups (2n = 16). Markers are uniformly distributed throughout the map and segregation distortion is limited to only 3 linkage groups. By mapping a number of common markers, the eight linkage groups are shown to be homologous to those of diploid alfalfa (M. sativa), implying a good level of macrosynteny between the two genomes. Using this M. truncatula map and the derived F3 populations, we were able to map the Mtsym6 symbiotic gene on linkage group 8 and the SPC gene, responsible for the direction of pod coiling, on linkage group 7. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Medicago truncatula is amenable to diploid genetic analysis and they open the way to map-based cloning of symbiotic or other agronomically-important genes using this model plant. (+info)
The molecular characterization of maize B chromosome specific AFLPs. (5/1662)The origin and evolution of B chromosomes could be explained by the specific DNA sequence on them. But the specific sequences known were quite limited. To investigate maize B chromosome sqicific DNA sequeces, maize genomes with and without B chromosomes were analyzed by AFLP. Only 5 markers were found specific to genomes with B chromosomes among about 2000 AFLP markers. Southern hybridization and sequence analysis revealed that only the sequence of M8-2D was a B chromosome specific sequence. This sequence contained the telomeric repeat unit AGG (+info)
Maize tertiary trisomic stocks derived from B-A translocations. (6/1662)Reciprocal translocations between supernumerary B chromosomes and the basic complement of A chromosomes in maize have resulted in a powerful set of tools to manipulate the dosage of chromosomal segments. From 15 B-A reciprocal translocation stocks that have the B-A chromosome genetically marked we have developed tertiary trisomic stocks. Tertiary trisomics are 2n + 1 aneuploids where the extra chromosome is a translocation element, in this case a B-A chromosome. Whereas B-A translocations produce aneuploidy in the sperm, the tertiary trisomic plant efficiently transmits hyperploid gametes maternally. Because the B-A tertiary trisomic stocks and the B-A translocation stocks from which they were derived are introgressed into the W22 inbred line, the effects of maternally and paternally transmitted trisomic B-A chromosomes can be compared. Data are presented on both the male and female transmission rates of the B-A chromosomes in the tertiary trisomic stocks. (+info)
Physical and genetic mapping in the grasses Lolium perenne and Festuca pratensis. (7/1662)A single chromosome of the grass species Festuca pratensis has been introgressed into Lolium perenne to produce a diploid monosomic substitution line 2n = 2x = 14. In this line recombination occurs throughout the length of the F. pratensis/L. perenne bivalent. The F. pratensis chromosome and recombinants between it and its L. perenne homeologue can be visualized using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). GISH junctions represent the physical locations of sites of recombination, enabling a range of recombinant chromosomes to be used for physical mapping of the introgressed F. pratensis chromosome. The physical map, in conjunction with a genetic map composed of 104 F. pratensis-specific amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), demonstrated: (1) the first large-scale analysis of the physical distribution of AFLPs; (2) variation in the relationship between genetic and physical distance from one part of the F. pratensis chromosome to another (e.g., variation was observed between and within chromosome arms); (3) that nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and centromeres greatly reduce recombination; (4) that coding sequences are present close to the centromere and NORs in areas of low recombination in plant species with large genomes; and (5) apparent complete synteny between the F. pratensis chromosome and rice chromosome 1. (+info)
A molecular cytogenetic map of sorghum chromosome 1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with mapped bacterial artificial chromosomes. (8/1662)We used structural genomic resources for Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench to target and develop multiple molecular cytogenetic probes that would provide extensive coverage for a specific chromosome of sorghum. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones containing molecular markers mapped across sorghum linkage group A were labeled as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Signals from single-, dual-, and multiprobe BAC-FISH to spreads of mitotic chromosomes and pachytene bivalents were associated with the largest sorghum chromosome, which bears the nucleolus organizing region (NOR). The order of individual BAC-FISH loci along the chromosome was fully concordant to that of marker loci along the linkage map. In addition, the order of several tightly linked molecular markers was clarified by FISH analysis. The FISH results indicate that markers from the linkage map positions 0.0-81.8 cM reside in the short arm of chromosome 1 whereas markers from 81.8-242.9 cM are located in the long arm of chromosome 1. The centromere and NOR were located in a large heterochromatic region that spans approximately 60% of chromosome 1. In contrast, this region represents only 0.7% of the total genetic map distance of this chromosome. Variation in recombination frequency among euchromatic chromosomal regions also was apparent. The integrated data underscore the value of cytological data, because minor errors and uncertainties in linkage maps can involve huge physical regions. The successful development of multiprobe FISH cocktails suggests that it is feasible to develop chromosome-specific "paints" from genomic resources rather than flow sorting or microdissection and that when applied to pachytene chromatin, such cocktails provide an especially powerful framework for mapping. Such a molecular cytogenetic infrastructure would be inherently cross-linked with other genomic tools and thereby establish a cytogenomics system with extensive utility in development and application of genomic resources, cloning, transgene localization, development of plant "chromonomics," germplasm introgression, and marker-assisted breeding. In combination with previously reported work, the results indicate that a sorghum cytogenomics system would be partially applicable to other gramineous genera. (+info)
مطالعه تنوع ژنتیکی جمعیتهای Triticum boeoticum تحت شرایط عادی و تنش کم آبی
به منظور مطالعه تنوع ژنتیکیبرخی از صفات زراعی و فیزیولوژیک و بررسی اثر تنش کم آبی روی آنها در 34 جمعیت از گونه Triticum boeoticumآزمایشی به صورت کرت-های خرد شده بر پایه بلوک-های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار با در نظر گرفتن شرایط واجد و بدون تنش کم آبی در کرت-های اصلی و جمعیت-ها در کرت-های فرعی در ایستگاه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز طی سال زراعی 90-1389 انجام شد. نتایج تجزیه واریانس بیانگر تفاوت معنی-دار بین جمعیت-ها در تمام صفات مورد بررسی و وجود تنوع ژنتیکی بین جمعیت-ها بود. عملکرد دانه و طول × عرض دومین برگ زیر سنبله در هر دو شرایط دارای بالاترین ضریب تنوع فنوتیپی و
Introgression of Aegilops speltoides segements in Triticum aestivum and the effect of the gametocidal genes - Nottingham...
Key Results Recombination in the gametes of the F₁ hybrids was at a level where it was possible to generate a genetic linkage map of Ae. speltoides. This was used to identify 294 wheat/Ae. speltoides introgressions. Introgressions from all seven linkage groups of Ae. speltoides were found, including both large and small segments. Comparative analysis showed that overall macro-synteny is conserved between Ae. speltoides and T. aestivum, but that Ae. speltoides does not contain the 4A/5A/7B translocations present in wheat. Aegilops speltoides has been reported to carry gametocidal genes, i.e. genes that ensure their transmission through the gametes to the next generation. Transmission rates of the seven Ae. speltoides linkage groups introgressed into wheat varied. A 100 % transmission rate of linkage group 2 demonstrates the presence of the gametocidal genes on this chromosome ...
From RNA-seq to large-scale genotyping - genomics resources for rye (Secale cereale L.) | BMC Plant Biology | Full Text
Simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs within 338,536 contigs of the line-specific assemblies were identified by MISA  under standard settings. Out of the five inbred lines, Lo225 was selected as reference dataset as it provided the highest number of SSR containing contigs. The MISA output of the four remaining lines was cross-matched with the Lo225 dataset to detect redundant SSRs. A non-redundant SSR dataset was generated by combining "unique" SSR motifs detected in Lo7, Lo152, Lo225, P87, and P105. Mononucleotide repeat motifs were discarded since monomer runs are known to be the most frequent sequencing errors in Roche/454 data. For experimental validation of in silico detected SSRs, primers flanking the SSR motifs were designed using Primer3 . Amplification of the fragments was performed in Lo7, Lo225, P87, and P105 as they are the parents of two mapping populations. Thus, polymorphisms detected between Lo7 and Lo225 and/or P87 and P105 enable the genetic mapping of discovered SSRs. ...
Tetraploid wheat species Triticum timopheevii and Triticum militinae in common wheat improvement in: Acta Agronomica Hungarica...
Peusha, H. O., Stephan, U., Hsam, S. L. K., Felsenstein, F. G., Enno, T. M., Zeller, F. J. 1995: Identification of genes for resistance to powdery mildew in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). IV. Breeding lines derived from wide crosses of Russian cultivars with species T. timopheevii Zhuk., T. militinae Zhuk. et Migush., T. dicoccum (Schrank.) Schuebl., Aegilops speltoides Taush. Russian J. Genetics, 31, 1-7.. Identification of genes for resistance to powdery mildew in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). IV. Breeding lines derived from wide crosses of Russian cultivars with species T. timopheevii Zhuk., T. militinae Zhuk. et Migush., T. dicoccum (Schrank.) Schuebl., Aegilops speltoides Taush () 31 Russian J. Genetics : 1 -7.. ...
Triticum aestivum L. cv Chinese Spring wheat - Biotechwiz
The sheer size of the wheat genome has been daunting in terms of whole genome sequencing. The Wheat genome is about five times the size of the human genome and hence was considered close to impossible to sequence. In Comparison to other important crop plants such as Soyabean and Rice, the difficulty of working with such a large genome has left wheat lagging behind in the race of genome sequencing. However, using advanced sequencing techniques employed by Roches 454 sequencers, the effort has managed to cover about 95% of the known wheat genes. The results of the study are now available for public use via Genbank, EMBL and CerealsDB. Nevertheless, there are those who warn that the gene map is far from complete and that the first high quality complete map data will be available only within five years. The full sequenced genome requires further read-throughs, assembly of the data into chromosomes and significant work to fully annotate the sequence data.. According to Dr. Neil Hall of the ...
Anther culture as an effective tool in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding, Russian Journal of Genetics | 10.1134...
دماهای کاردینال، واکنش به دما و دامنة بردباری دمایی جوانه زنی بذر در ارقام گندم (Triticum aestivum L.)
درک واکنش جوانهزنی بذر ژنوتیپهای زراعی به دما از دیدگاه زراعی حائز اهمیت است. ژنوتیپهایی که در دماهای پایین جوانهزنی خود را آغاز میکنند میتوانند برای موقعیتهایی (مانند کشتهای دیرهنگام پاییزه) مفید باشند که جوانهزنی با دماهای کم همزمان میگردد. از این رو، مطالعة حاضر به منظور یافتن دماهای کاردینال، بررسی واکنش به دما و دامنة بردباری دمایی جوانهزنی بذر 12 رقم از گندمهای مورد استفاده در شمال کشور انجام شد. علاوه بر این، تأثیر هفت دمای ثابت بین 5 و 37 درجه سانتیگراد بر ویژگیهای جوانهزنی این ارقام ارزیابی گردید. دمای پایة (Tb) ارقام گندم مورد
Stalin's half-man, half-ape super-warriors, page 3
However one thing we do know is that its fairly easy to mix DNA from different sources, even plants and animals, and after a bit of trial and error, have a successful product. We even know unusual chromosome counts can be supported successfully to create completely new classes of creatures. Mixing ape and human DNA is relatively easy once youve mapped the genes and allocated attributes. Fortunately, Stalins people had no clue about DNA. Unfortunately the world is full of well funded labs in the darkest (no pun intended) corners of the world where laws arent quite as strict as they are here in the US. In fact in many countries there are no laws whatsoever that address these issues and where they are a part of an internation agreement there is no active investigation and enforcement ...
Tropicos | Name - Triticum L.
Fulgi de Secara Solaris | Ekilibrium.ro
Plant Disease 1996 | Barley Chromosome Location and Expression of Dwarf Bunt Resistance in Wheat Addition Lines
Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is resistant to dwarf bunt of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) caused by Tilletia controversa. Nine wheat-barley addition lines were utilized to determine which barley chromosomes and chromosome arms carry resistance genes. The lines included six disomic addition lines, WB1, WB2, WB3, WB4 WB6, and WB7, and three ditelosomic addition lines, WB5S (containing the short arm of barley chromosome 5), WB6S (containing the short arm of barley chromosome 6), and WB6L (containing the long arm of barley chromosome 6). These lines, their parent cultivars, and susceptible winter wheat cv. Wanser were inoculated with spores of T. controversa at the two-leaf stage. The barley parent, Betzes, showed no infection and only 5 of 401 heads of addition line WB6 were infected. Lines WB1, WB2, WB3, WB4, and WB7, and cvs. Wanser and Chinese Spring showed a high incidence of infection. WB6S had significantly lower bunt incidence (0 to 1 %) than WB6L or WB5S. Lines WB6L and WB5S had a high ...
Comparison of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and diversity array technology (DArT) markers for assessing genetic diversity in...
Several molecular marker systems have been developed for assessing genetic diversity in crop germplasm collections. A trade-off often exists between the number of loci that can feasibly be sampled by a marker system and the amount of information provided by each locus. We compared the usefulness of two marker systems for revealing genetic diversity and population structure in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and diversity array technology (DArT) markers. DArTs survey many more loci per reaction than do SSRs; however, as bi-allelic, dominant markers, DArTs provide less polymorphism information per locus. Genetic differentiation was assessed in a randomly selected set of 436 cassava accessions, consisting of 155 African and 281 Latin American accessions. A genome-wide set of 36 SSR markers and a DArT array of approximately 1000 polymorphic clones were used to assess genetic diversity and differentiation. Cluster analyses were performed using principal coordinate ...
DSpace at EWHA: Chromosome characterization of Bombyx mori and Bombyx mandayina using pachytene chromosomes
The chromosome karyotyping of insects included Lepidoptera is very difficult because of the large number of chromosomes, small size, and lack of major constriction structure. This has been a great hindrance to the karyological analysis. In this study, using banding analysis on the pachytene chromosomes, all chromosomes were characterized, and idiograms of Bombyx mori and R mandarina were established. From the testes during meiosis, 81 and 56 cells were examined for the analysis of B. mori and R mandarina, respectively. The best preparation of pachytene chromosomes was obtained on the 3(rd) day of the 3(rd) larva and 2(nd) or 3(rd) day of the 4(th) larva of the B. mori male, and it revealed that there was a characteristic nucleolus structure in the 2(nd) chromosomes, which was supposed to be the Z sex chromosome. The length of the pachytene chromosome was variable during the developmental stage of the cell, so the physical length of each chromosome was relatively converted in comparison to the ...
Deletion Mapping of Homoeologous Group 6-Specific Wheat Expressed Sequence Tags | Genetics
Major cereal crops including wheat (T. aestivum L.), maize (Zea mays L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and rice (O. sativa L.) belong to the grass family Poaceae. Comparisons of genetic maps and DNA sequences have suggested that these grass genomes originated from a common ancestor 50-60 million years ago (Bennetzen and Freeling 1993; Kellogg 1998) and have similar gene composition and colinearity (Ahn and Tanksley 1993; Ahn et al. 1993). The number of functional genes in these crop plants is not known. The number of genes in rice estimated from genome sequence analysis ranges from 32,000 to 50,000 (Goff et al. 2002). In hexaploid wheat, the gene number estimates range from 75,000 to 150,000, or ∼10,000-20,000 gene loci per homoeologous group (Sidhu and Gill 2004). Here we report physical mapping of ,2000 loci (10-20% of the total) for wheat homoeologous group 6. We also show the general distribution of genes on the chromosomes.. Deletion mapping revealed significant differences among group 6 ...
PLOS ONE: Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) for Pan-Genomic Evolutionary Studies of Non-Model Organisms
BackgroundHigh-throughput tools for pan-genomic study, especially the DNA microarray platform, have sparked a remarkable increase in data production and enabled a shift in the scale at which biological investigation is possible. The use of microarrays to examine evolutionary relationships and processes, however, is predominantly restricted to model or near-model organisms.Methodology/Principal FindingsThis study explores the utility of Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) in evolutionary studies of non-model organisms. DArT is a hybridization-based genotyping method that uses microarray technology to identify and type DNA polymorphism. Theoretically applicable to any organism (even one for which no prior genetic data are available), DArT has not yet been explored in exclusively wild sample sets, nor extensively examined in a phylogenetic framework. DArT recovered 1349 markers of largely low copy-number loci in two lineages of seed-free land plants: the diploid fern Asplenium viride and the haploid moss
Development and initial evaluation of diversity array technology for soybean and mungbean - [email protected]
Diversity Array Technology (DArT), a technique for quickly generating large numbers of molecular markers, was established for two legume crops, soybean (Glycine max) and mungbean (Vigna radiata). For each crop, two genomic complexity reduction methods, utilizing PstI/TaqI and PstI/BstNI restriction digests, were selected for DNA clonal library development and for the isolation in each case of 7,680 DArT clones from genomic representations of pooled DNA samples. While the PstI/BstNI method produced more polymorphic clones than PstI/TaqI for the soybean library, there was no significant difference between the two methods for the mungbean library. Polymorphism frequencies in mungbean were around twice those in soybean, reflecting greater diversity in the mungbean samples. Even so, there were still nearly 1,500 unique polymorphic clones identified for soybean. The DArT marker transferability from soybean to mungbean (13.6%) was nearly five times higher than that from mungbean to soybean (3.1%). The ...
A Consensus Map in Cultivated Hexaploid Oat Reveals Conserved Grass Synteny with Substantial Subgenome Rearrangement
Hexaploid oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42) is a member of the Poaceae family and has a large genome (similar to 12.5 Gb) containing 21 chromosome pairs from three ancestral genomes. Physical rearrangements among parental genomes have hindered the development of linkage maps in this species. The objective of this work was to develop a single high-density consensus linkage map that is representative of the majority of commonly grown oat varieties. Data from a cDNA-derived single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) were collected from the progeny of 12 biparental recombinant inbred line populations derived from 19 parents representing oat germplasm cultivated primarily in North America. Linkage groups from all mapping populations were compared to identify 21 clusters of conserved collinearity. Linkage groups within each cluster were then merged into 21 consensus chromosomes, generating a framework consensus map of 7202 markers spanning 2843 cM. An additional ...
Molecular Assembly of Meiotic Proteins Asy1 and Zyp1 and Pairing Promiscuity in Rye (Secale cereale L.) and Its Synaptic Mutant...
The sy10 mutant is one of five nonallelic mutants of rye described to date showing indiscriminate synapsis (Fedotova et al. 1994; Sosnikhina et al. 1994a,b, 2001, 2002a,b). The sy10 mutation appears to not affect the timing or expression of Asy1 and Zyp1 proteins, so it is clearly not an allele of the ASY1 or ZYP1 orthologs of rye, despite some superficial phenotypic similarities with the mutants asy1 (Caryl et al. 2000) and zyp1 (Higgins et al. 2005). Both proteins form linear structures during zygotene, but these fail to assemble into coaligned ribbons at pachytene, which is characteristic of wild type. Interestingly, unsynapsed regions appear to comprise one linear signal each of the two proteins in coalignment at midmeiotic prophase, indicating that the asynaptic phenotype is not the direct result of failure of association of the two proteins per se. Clearly, the mutant phenotype is the result of a lesion in another gene, either responsible for building the tripartite structure of the SC or, ...
Development and molecular cytogenetic identification of new winter wheat - winter barley ('Martonvásári 9 kr1' - 'Igri')...
This paper describes a series of winter wheat - winter barley disomic addition lines developed from hybrids between winter wheat line Triticum aestivum L. Martonvásári 9 kr1 and the German 2-rowed winter barley cultivar Hordeum vulgare L. Igri. The barley chromosomes in a wheat background were identified from the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) patterns obtained with various combinations of repetitive DNA probes: GAA-HvT01 and pTa71-HvT01. The disomic addition lines 2H, 3H, and 4H and the 1HS isochromosome were identified on the basis of a 2-colour FISH with the DNA probe pairs GAA-pAs1, GAA-HvT01, and pTa71-HvT01. Genomic in situ hybridization was used to confirm the presence of the barley chromosomes in the wheat genome. The identification of the barley chromosomes in the addition lines was further confirmed with simple-sequence repeat markers. The addition lines were also characterized morphologically. ...
An Improved Consensus Linkage Map of Barley Based on Flow-Sorted Chro…
Frontiers | Comparative Analysis of WRKY Genes Potentially Involved in Salt Stress Responses in Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum...
WRKY transcription factors are involved in multiple aspects of plant growth, development and responses to biotic stresses. Although they have been found to play roles in regulating plant responses to environmental stresses, these roles still need to be explored, especially those pertaining to crops. Durum wheat is the second most widely produced cereal in the world. Complex, large and unsequenced genomes, in addition to a lack of genomic resources, hinder the molecular characterization of tolerance mechanisms.This paper describes the isolation and characterization of five TdWRKY genes from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. Durum). A PCR-based screening of a T. turgidum BAC genomic library using primers within the conserved region of WRKY genes resulted in the isolation of five BAC clones. Following sequencing fully the five BACs, fine annotation through Triannot pipeline revealed 74.6% of the entire sequences as transposable elements and a 3.2% gene content with genes organized as islands within
Empirical verification of heterogeneous DNA fragments generated from wheat genome-specific SSR primers
Due to the high polymorphisms between synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) and common wheat, SHW has been widely used in genetic studies. The transferability of simple sequence repeats (SSR) among common wheat and its donor species, Triticum turgidum and Aegilops tauschii, and their SHW suggested the possibility that some SSRs, specific for a single locus in common wheat, might appear in two or more loci in SHWs. This is an important genetic issue when using synthetic hexaploid wheat population and SSR for mapping. However, it is largely ignored and never empirically well verified. The present study addressed this issue by using the well-studied SSR marker Xgwm261 as an example. The Xgwm261 produced a 192 bp fragment specific to chromosome 2D in common wheat Chinese Spring, but generated a 176 bp fragment in the D genome of Ae. tauschii AS60. Chromosomal location and DNA sequence data revealed that the 176 bp fragment also donated by 2B chromosome of durum wheat Langdon. These results indicated that ...
The karyotype of Aegilops geniculata and its use to identify both addition and substitution lines of wheat | Molecular...
The annual allotetraploid species Aegilops geniculata harbors a number of traits relevant for wheat improvement. An effective cytogenetic method has yet to be developed to distinguish between each of its 14 chromosomes. A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) approach was adopted to describe the karyotype of Ae. geniculata. Each of its 14 chromosomes was unequivocally recognized using a cocktail of three probes, namely pTa-713, (AAC)5 and pTa71. FISH karyotyping was then used to detect and characterize selections from an Ae. geniculata × bread wheat wide cross of a chromosome 1Mg disomic addition line and three 4Mg(4B) substitution lines. The identity of the addition line was confirmed by the presence of Glu-M1, detected both using an SDS-PAGE separation of endosperm proteins and by applying a PCR assay directed at the Glu-M1 locus. The status of the substitution lines was validated by genotyping using a wheat single nucleotide polymorphism chip. FISH karyotyping based on pTa-713, (AAC)5 and pTa71
中国科学院昆明植物研究所机构知识库(KIB OpenIR): Mapping of 18-26S rDNA loci in four species of the genus Paris by fluorescence in situ...
18-26S rDNA loci were mapped on chromosomes in four species of Paris, and the number and position of rDNA sites in these species were compared for analysis of the distribution of the sites. All the plants were diploids, and the genome consisted of five chromosomes, A, B, C, D and E. (1) P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, 2n = 10 = 6m + 4t. Two 18-26S rDNA loci were detected on the short arms of C and D chromosomes; (2) P. forrestii, 2n = 10 = 6m + 4t. One locus was detected on the long arm of B chromosome, and also two loci on the short arms of C and D chromosomes; (3) P. axialis. 2n = 10 = 6m(2sat) + 4t(2sat) + 1 - 2B. Two loci were detected on the short arms of C and D chromosomes. One locus was detected in the cell with two B-chromosomes (B), but none was detected in that with only one B chromosome, indicating that rRNA gene existed on B chromsome, and an unequal division occurred during mitotic cycle of B-chromosomes. (4) P. daliensis, 2n = 10 = 4m + 2sm + 2st + 2t. One locus was detected on ...
IDEALS @ Illinois: Characterization of progeny derived from disomic alien addition lines from intersubgeneric cross between...
Disomic alien addition lines (DAALs, 2n=42) were obtained from an intersubgeneric cross between Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv. Dwight (2n=40, G1G1) and Glycine tomentella Hayata (PI 441001, 2n=78, D3D3CC). They are morphologically uniform but distinct from either of the parents. These DAALs were all derived from the same monosomic alien addition line (MAAL, 2n=41), and theoretically they should breed true because they had a pair of homologous chromosomes from G. tomentella and 40 soybean chromosomes. However, in some selfed progenies of DAALs the extra G. tomentella chromosomes were eliminated resulting in plants with 2n=40 chromosomes. These progeny lines (2n=40) have a wide variation in phenotypes. The objective of this research was to document the phenotypic and chromosomal variation among the progeny of these DAALs, and to understand the genetics behind this phenomenon. In the replicated field study, variation was observed among the disomic progenies for the qualitative traits such as flower, ...
Temporal variation in phonological and agronomic traits of some irrigated facultative/winter bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)...
A field experiment was conducted at the Seed and Plant Improvement Institute Research Field Station in Karaj, Iran, during the 2009-10 and 2010-11 growing seasons to estimate genetic progress and the variation in penological and agronomic characteristics in 13 irrigated facultative/winter bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars released in Iran between 1943 and 2011. Trends of temporal variation of the traits measured revealed that grain yield and some related phonological and agronomic traits have increased in the more recently released cultivars. Thousand grain weight decreased slightly compared to older cultivars. Number of days to heading and anthesis decreased in new cultivars, butgrain-filling period and days to physiological maturity did not change. Spike length also increased but plant height decreased in more recently released cultivars. These changes may explain the increase in grain yield of newly released facultative/winter bread wheat cultivars.
Triticum turgidum (Rivet wheat) | Plant Finder | GreenPlantSwap
Robin L, Van-Huan T (1935) - The James Lind Library The James Lind Library
The prophylactic treatment adopted was as follows for the period 15 August 1934 to 15 January 1935, the duration of the experiment:. The population of the village was divided into two lots of 135 subjects. The first lot (lot A) took a gametocidal treatment from 15 August 1934: 2 cg. of Praequine daily for five days, taken half an hour before the morning meal. This gametocidal treatment was repeated every two months, thus three times in total during the experiment.. At the same time and after the gametocidal treatment, lot A received preventive treatment with quinine chlorhydrate (o g. 50 (sic) every day for six out of seven days, taken half an hour before the meal).. The second lot (lot B) took the same gametocidal treatment as lot A. At the same time and after the gametocidal treatments, lot B received 10 cg. of Quinacrine every day for four days out of seven and this throughout the duration of the experiment.". Translation by Ulrich Tröhler. ...
A high-density Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) microarray for genome-wide genotyping in Eucalyptus. - Open Access Repository
After testing several genome complexity reduction methods we identified the PstI/TaqI method as the most effective for Eucalyptus and developed 18 genomic libraries from PstI/TaqI representations of 64 different Eucalyptus species. A total of 23,808 cloned DNA fragments were screened and 13,300 (56%) were found to be polymorphic among 284 individuals. After a redundancy analysis, 6,528 markers were selected for the operational array and these were supplemented with 1,152 additional clones taken from a library made from the E. grandis tree whose genome has been sequenced. Performance validation for diversity studies revealed 4,752 polymorphic markers among 174 individuals. Additionally, 5,013 markers showed segregation when screened using six inter-specific mapping pedigrees, with an average of 2,211 polymorphic markers per pedigree and a minimum of 859 polymorphic markers that were shared between any two pedigrees ...
Publication : USDA ARS
Citation: AKHUNOV, E.D., LAZO, G.R., CHAO, S., ANDERSON, O.D., GUSTAFSON, J.P., WALKER-SIMMONS, M.K., STEBER, C.M. THE ORGANIZATION AND RATE OF EVOLUTION OF THE WHEAT TRANSCRIPTOME ARE CORRELATED WITH RECOMBINATION RATES ALONG CHROMOSOME ARMS. GENOME RESEARCH. 2003. V. 13(5). P. 753-763. Interpretive Summary: Wheat is one of the most important crops both within the U.S. and worldwide. Development of new and improved varieties into the future will depend on the basic knowledge of the organization and function of the genes found on the wheat chromosomes. This paper describes relationships between wheat chromosome structure and the exchange of genetic information through recombining gene and chromosome segments and the distribution and fate of duplicated genes. It was found the the fastest changing portions of the wheat chromosomes are the distal ends of the chromosomes - regions where gene duplication and DNA exchange between chromosomes is occurring the most rapidly. The paper also discusses the ...
Triticum turgidum Germplasm 'Langdon Clone 9'
Investigations in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) using molecular and conventional breeding techniques for abiotic and...
Ape Chromosome Count to Human Transition (Page 1) - Genes, Genetics and DNA - Ask a Biologist Q&A
Wow, I count 14 question marks in one post. Is that a record?. Ill try to hit as many of the question marks as possible.. 1. So wouldnt the first human (with 46) have significant trouble reproducing? Not necessarily. Research has been performed to investigate just this question and found that fertility is effected only minimally. Essentially, it turns out that some centromeres are better at attracting the kinetochore machinery than others and thus outcompete the neighboring centromere for resources [a]. Thus, even in the case of a fusion, only one centromere will remain active.. 2. Could he or she reproduce with an ape mate? No. Nor would they likely be interested in doing so - any more than you are interested in mating with a gorilla. When a chromosomal fusion occurs in one individual human, they would look no different than any other human. All the same genes are still there, being expressed the same way. When the fusion of chromosomes 12 and 13 occurred in the human lineage, nobody would ...
Ape Chromosome Count to Human Transition (Page 1) - Genes, Genetics and DNA - Ask a Biologist Q&A
Wow, I count 14 question marks in one post. Is that a record?. Ill try to hit as many of the question marks as possible.. 1. So wouldnt the first human (with 46) have significant trouble reproducing? Not necessarily. Research has been performed to investigate just this question and found that fertility is effected only minimally. Essentially, it turns out that some centromeres are better at attracting the kinetochore machinery than others and thus outcompete the neighboring centromere for resources [a]. Thus, even in the case of a fusion, only one centromere will remain active.. 2. Could he or she reproduce with an ape mate? No. Nor would they likely be interested in doing so - any more than you are interested in mating with a gorilla. When a chromosomal fusion occurs in one individual human, they would look no different than any other human. All the same genes are still there, being expressed the same way. When the fusion of chromosomes 12 and 13 occurred in the human lineage, nobody would ...
Male sterility induced by the chemical hybridizing agent clofencet on wheat, Triticum aestivum and T. turgidum var. durum
INTRODUCTION. Wheat (Triticum spp.) is an autogamous plant with perfect flowers producing limited amounts of pollen, and it is characterized by a relatively short period of gynoecium receptivity. Genetic improvement of wheat has been a matter of considerable concern through the years, mainly to increase yields, minimize losses due to unfavorable environmental conditions, and develop resistance to pests and diseases (Pingali and Rajaram, 2000).. With 8,000 years of history, wheat is the main cereal in the diet of mankind. Its global production is currently 640 million tons a year, and production has increased in accordance with the increase in population. In the last fifty years. wheat production had increased nearly 1% per year. This is due to technological advances in genetically more productive cultivars and the adoptionof bettercultivationpractices. By 2025. it is expected that a yearly increase in yield of about 2.5% will be required to meet the needs of a growing population demanding more ...
how to know chromosome segments from the list of genes
Hello All I have list of genes i want to know which all genes will make one chromosome segments So For example i have gene A , B , C , D i want for example A,B, C forming one stretch of chromosome segment (1p15.1p20) 1p15.1p.20 will make one segment. If i have ramdom gene name i want which genes will fall in one stretch of segments.. ...
Sparrho | Construction and uses of new compound B-A-A maize chromosom
COLLINEARITY - Definition and synonyms of collinearity in the English dictionary
Hulless Wheat (Triticum aestivum) | Bountiful Gardens
[email protected]: Effect of fluoride toxicity on the growth yield and sterility behaviour of wheat triticum aestivum L and...
Flavonoid profiling among wild type and related GM wheat varieties
Pleiotropic effects are one of the main concerns regarding genetically modified organisms (GMOs). This includes unintended side effects of the transgene or its genome insertion site on the regulation of other endogenous genes, which could potentially cause the accumulation of different secondary met …
Stars Gish and Keeler die in old age - tribunedigital-baltimoresun
Misc Pattern Tip: trim darts - Fashion-Incubator
If youve ever thought to look at the darts -especially bodice darts- on better quality ready-to-wear, youll notice the darts are sewn and the excess fabric (from the fold line of the dart) has been removed. Contrary to the statements of others, the sewers do not sew the seams and then trim the fabric away to match. If a stitcher did that -or had to do that- either the stitcher or the pattern maker should be fired, the latter preferably. Okay, maybe thats a little harsh but you get the idea. Stitchers arent allowed to trim anything. They are only allowed to clip seams and corners. They shouldnt have to do it either, theyre not paid for cutting when that could have been done most accurately by the cutting department. The trimming of that dart best serves everyones interests if the pattern was cut with the excess removed from the outset. If the pattern has not been trimmed accordingly, the fabric subsequently then the darts are not trimmed away after completion by the stitchers either. ...
Winmau - Winmau | Pro-Line | Softip Darts
Winmau - Winmau | Pro-Line | Steeltip Darts
A Quick Guide to Dart Betting Odds
ಗೋಧಿ - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ
ಆಹಾರ ಧಾನ್ಯೊಡ್ ಒ೦ಜಿ ಧಾನ್ಯ ಗೋಧಿ. ಕನ್ನಡೊಡ್ ಗೋಧಿ ಪನ್ಪೆರ್. ಇ೦ಗ್ಲಿಶುಡು Wheat ಪನ್ಪೆರ್. ಉ೦ದು ತೂವರೆಗ್ ಕೆಸರಿ ಕ೦ದು ಬಣ್ಣ ಇಪ್ಪು೦ಡು. ನೆತ್ತ ವೈಜ್ಞಾನಿಕ ಪುದರ್ Triticum spp. ಪ೦ಜಾಬುಡು ಗೋಧಿನು ಜಾಸ್ತಿ ಬುಳೆಪೆರ್. ಅತ್ತಾವ್೦ದೆ ಗೋಧಿನ್ ಬಿಸ್ಕಿೞ್ ತಯಾರ್ ಮಲ್ಪರೆ, ಬೊಕ್ಕ ಕೋರಿಗ್, ಪೆತ್ತಗು ಆಹಾರ ತಯಾರ್ ಮಲ್ಪೆರೆ ಉಪಯೋಗಿಸುವೆರು. ಗೋಧಿ ತಿನ್ನು೦ಡ ಶರೀರ ಗಟ್ಟಿ ಆಪು೦ಡ್. ...
Transfer of rye chromosomes carrying Karnal bunt resistance to Triticum aestivum cv. WL711 - Murdoch University Research...
The disomic addition lines of chromosomes 4R and 6R of Secale cereale cv. Imperial rye in Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring were completely free from Karnal bunt disease of wheat under artificial inoculation. The rye chromosomes 4R and 6R were transferred into a high yielding but Karnal bunt susceptible bread wheat variety WL711 through backcrossing. The monosomic and disomic addition lines of 4R and 6R in WL711 also maintained resistance against a particular isolate of Karnal bunt during backcrossing whereas their euploid segregants were as susceptible as the recurrent parent. The 4R and 6R addition lines, however, were susceptible to a new isolate of Neovossia indica virulent on triticale. The work to substitute the rye chromosomes for their B and D wheat genome homoeologues is in progress.. ...
Nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency of 43 wheat alien chromosome addition lines evaluated by hydroponic culture - PubAg
Wild relatives of wheat may possess useful traits or genes for efficient use of nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P). Forty-three wheat addition lines with alien chromosomes from Leymus, Agropyron, Hordeum, Psathyrostachys, Aegilops, and Secale cereale, along with their common parent Chinese Spring (CS) were cultured by hydroponics, and their phenotypic variation, N/P uptake and utilization efficiency were investigated at seedling stage. The phenotypic variation showed that N deficiency decreased plant height, shoot dry weight, and total dry weight, while increased root length, number of leaves, SPAD value, and root to shoot ratio (R/S); while P deficiency decreased all the measured traits except root dry weight and R/S. Aegilops longissima 2S and Aegilops searsii 4SS addition lines were identified as both N- and P-efficient germplasm, of which Ae. longissima 2S addition line showed significant increased N and P uptake efficiency than CS under all treatments ...
Genome-Wide Duplication of Allotetraploid Brassica napus Produces Novel Characteristics and Extensive Ploidy Variation in Self...
Figure 7 Distribution of DNA content in self-pollinated plants derived from octoploid B. napus. A total of 588 self-pollinated individuals of 30 octoploid Y3560 plants were tested (A), and 414 inbred individuals of 19 octoploid Y3380 plants were detected (B). DNA content was detected by flow cytometry, and expressed as fluorescence intensity of the mitotic G1 phase. The green columns represent plants with DNA content lower than that of their octoploid parent, that is, the genome size of these progeny has shrunk. The orange columns represent individuals with DNA content close to that of the octoploid B. napus at a 99% confidence level (genome equilibrium). The pink columns represent plants with expanded genome size compared to the octoploid parent. The blue solid line indicates the normal distribution curve. ...
Synthesis of bridging hybrids in the process of introduction of diploid wheat genomes into hexaploid wheat - Biotechnologia -...
Wild related species are a useful reservoir of valuable genes for widening the genetic base of wheat and for the reduction of the vulnerability of wheat cultivars to pathogens, fungal diseases and environmental hazards. In this work, the action of prezygotic and postzygotic incrossability barriers was characterized, determining the possibilities of direct introduction of Am - genome from Triticum monococcum and D-genome from Triticum. tauschii into T. aestivum cultivars, with elimination of commonly performed bridging hybridisation with tetraploid wheat. As gene recipient parents, Polish cultivars of hexaploid wheat cv. Omega, cv. Igna (spring) and cv. Tercja (winter) were used. Application of wheat cultivars as female parents in hybridisation with T. tauschii yielded a very low percentage of effective pollination (0-1.2%). In reciprocal crosses prezygotic incompatibility barriers were more weakly expressed, and percentages of effective pollination (i.e. pollination which initiates the first ...
Taxonomy of wheat - Wikipedia
As with many grasses, polyploidy is common in wheat. There are two wild diploid (non-polyploid) wheats, T. boeoticum and T. urartu. T. boeoticum is the wild ancestor of domesticated einkorn, T. monococcum. Cells of the diploid wheats each contain 2 complements of 7 chromosomes, one from the mother and one from the father (2n=2x=14, where 2n is the number of chromosomes in each somatic cell, and x is the basic chromosome number). The polyploid wheats are tetraploid (4 sets of chromosomes, 2n=4x=28), or hexaploid (6 sets of chromosomes, 2n=6x=42). The tetraploid wild wheats are wild emmer, T. dicoccoides, and T. araraticum. Wild emmer is the ancestor of all the domesticated tetraploid wheats, with one exception: T. araraticum is the wild ancestor of T. timopheevi. There are no wild hexaploid wheats, although feral forms of common wheat are sometimes found. Hexaploid wheats developed under domestication. Genetic analysis has shown that the original hexaploid wheats were the result of a ...
Análisis de la diversidad genética en una colección de poblaciones autóctonas españolas de Brachypodium distachyon y su...
The main aim of this work is the evaluation of the genetic diversity existing in a collection of 23 wild populations of Brachypodium distachyon, collected in diverse regions of the Iberian Peninsula, using two recently marketed lines as reference. The estimation of this variability has been done with the use of two types of markers. The first is biochemical and consists in the study of the endosperm proteins. The second concerns the molecular analysis of inter-microsatellites (ISSRs). A preliminary evaluation of the response of immature zygotic embryos from samples of all the populations to the in vitro culture has also been carried out. Considering the results obtained and the autogamous reproduction system of Brachypodium distachyon, the collection analysed constitutes an excellent plant material for the production of pure lines, after domestication and mass selection, which would be a valuable resource in the recovery of degraded soils, and to bulk up material for development of ...
Western Wheat Quality Laboratory
Aegilops tauschii (2n=2 x=14, DD) is a rich source of genetic variability for hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n=6 x=42, AABBDD) improvement. This variability can be accessed through utilizing synthetic hexaploid wheat lines, which contain genomes from Ae. tauschii and T. turgidum (2n=4 x=28, AABB). Numerous desirable characteristics can and have been introgressed into common hexaploid wheat with this germplasm. In this work, the genetic variability in the two puroindoline genes (a and b) contained on the D genome, and the relationship that sequence polymorphisms in these genes have on endosperm texture among a population of 75 CIMMYT synthetic hexaploid accessions is described. Kernel texture was evaluated using the single kernel characterization system (SKCS). Kernel texture differed significantly (P=0.0001) among the synthetic hexaploid accessions (range 2.6 40.9) and the parent types, durum or Ae. tauschii. The interaction term between parent types was also a significant effect ...
Traits sex snps in Manchester y-chromosome linked
PDF | The Y chromosome has long been considered a genetic wasteland on a trajectory to completely that HPA was a Y-linked trait. Here, we used the plant Silene latifolia, where sex chromosomes actively growing leaves using the Qiagen RNeasy Plant Mini kit (Qiagen, Manchester, Y-SNPs in several females, indicating that recombination in male.. Snps y-chromosome sex linked traits in Manchester
Production of wheat-rye substitution lines and identification of chromosome composition of karyotypes using C-banding, GISH,...
Read "Production of wheat-rye substitution lines and identification of chromosome composition of karyotypes using C-banding, GISH, and SSR markers, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Get PDF - Genetic differentiation between two wild tetraploid wheats, Triticum dicoccoides and T. araraticum as revealed by...
Identification of chromosomes carrying genes for resistance to loose smut of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in India
Sorting & Identification of Plant Chromosomes | Purdue University Cytometry Laboratories
Triticale" is the world's first man made crop developed by crossing ?- IASPOINT
RFLP-based genetic map of the homoeologous group 3 chromosomes of wheat and rye. - PubMed - NCBI
MSA University - Mapping For SGDH Doubled Haploid Population of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) In Response to Salt Stress
ATP/ADP carrier protein - Triticum turgidum (Poulard wheat)
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Out of all these traits it seems that the most commonly mentioned trait across the internet to distinguish these types is that Common and Prickly (prickly usually not even being mentioned) spread by seed and the hybrid Russian does not. This is similar to how a horse and a donkey can mate and produce a mule, but mules are considered sterile... usually... Although we know that mismatched chromosome counts in offspring resulting from inter-species breeding often results in sterility of offspring in animals, the same isnt as reliably true for plants. In fact nowadays you can buy strawberries with pink flowers that were the result of plants in two separate genera and with different chromosome counts being hybridized and then back-crossed with strawberries to produce plants with mostly strawberry type characteristics but with the pink flower color of the non-strawberry parent. My point to all of this is that I think the idea that ALL Russian comfrey strains are sterile doesnt seem well founded. It ...
Changes in the organization of isozyme loci Me1 and Adh1 in-duced with triton X-100 in common wheat lines
The study of PCR-profiles of isozyme loci Me1 and Adh1 in common wheat lines obtained by means of treatment of initial cultivar Alem with detergent Tri-ton X-100 was carried out by the modified ISSR-amplification method. It was demonstrated that exposure to Triton X-100 causes changes of PCR-profiles of enzyme loci. The obtained data are suggestive of the role of chromatin and nuclear mem-brane interaction in structural-functional genome organization.
CRAN - Package dartR
Functions are provided that facilitate the import and analysis of snp and silicodart (presence/absence) data. The main focus is on data generated by DarT (Diversity Arrays Technology). However, once SNP or related fragment presence/absence data from any source is imported into a genlight object many of the functions can be used. Functions are available for input and output of SNP and silicodart data, for reporting on and filtering on various criteria (e.g. CallRate, Heterozygosity, Reproducibility, maximum allele frequency). Advanced filtering is based on Linkage Disequilibrium and HWE. Other functions are available for visualization after PCoA, or to facilitate transfer of data between genlight/genind objects and newhybrids, related, phylip packages etc.. ...
Process behind the organ-specific elimination of chromosomes in plants unveiled | EurekAlert! Science News
Commonly, each somatic cell in an organism holds the same amount of DNA. However, researchers have, for the first time, shed light on a process, which leads to tissue-specific differing DNA content in plants. With an unusually high efficiency rate of 100%, this programmed chromosome elimination mechanism could become a valuable genetic tool for plant breeding or medical applications.
Development and Identification of a 4HL.5DL Wheat/Barley Centric Fusion Using Gish, Fish and SSR Markers | SpringerLink
Forms of plant chromosomes - CSHL Scientific Digital Repository
Reteta batoane cu cacao, fructe si cereale
triticale (thing) by Gritchka - Everything2.com
CalPhotos: Triticum aestivum
What is Polyploidy? (with pictures)
The chromosomes. 6th ed, Chapman & Hall, London. p28 Stebbins G.L. 1950. Variation and evolution in plants. Chapter XII: The ... chromosome 1) to smallest (chromosome 22), with the sex chromosomes (X and Y) shown last. Historically, karyotypes have been ... These include: A translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, known as the Philadelphia chromosome, occurs in about 20% of adult ... Gains on chromosomes 6 and 8 are often used to refine the predictive value of the Monosomy 3 screen, with gain of 6p indicating ...
Some species are popular ornamental plants. An aquatic flowering plant with the common name wisteria or 'water wisteria' is in ... Both have eight chromosomes. The following is a list of accepted Wisteria species: Wisteria brachybotrys Siebold & Zucc. ... Once the plant is a few years old, a relatively compact, free-flowering form can be achieved by pruning off the new tendrils ... Planted in 1894, it is of the 'Chinese lavender' variety. The leaves are alternate, 15 to 35 cm long, pinnate, with 9 to 19 ...
The X chromosome is either acrocentric, with a long and a short arm, or subtelocentric, with a long and a vestigial arm. The ... In 24 hours, male Texas O. couesi move up to 153 m (502 ft) and females up to 126 m (413 ft). The diet includes both plant ... It has 56 chromosomes. There is much geographic variation in size, proportions, color, and skull features. Oryzomys couesi is ... An omnivore, it eats both plant and animal food, including seeds and insects. It breeds throughout the year; females give birth ...
David Gledhill The Names of Plants, p. 133, at Google Books Stearn, William (1973). A Gardenerer's Dictionary of Plant Names ( ... A 1977 analysis of the genome of 47 species of Oncocyclus irises showed that the species has a chromosome count of 2n=20. The ... It should be planted in March, then dug up in September or October and stored in wood shavings. The plants can be harmed by ... Handling the plant may cause a skin irritation or an allergic reaction. Sapir, Y. (2016). "Iris damascena". IUCN Red List of ...
Iris barnumiae subsp. demawendica
They are best re-planted in late September when temperatures are low and humidity is also low. This is also when the plants ... In 1977, 47 species of the irises in the Oncocyclus section were analysed, and found to have a chromosome count of 2n=20. The ... It is hardy (in UK), when planted in a south-facing border, at the base of a wall. In winter, it must not have its roots in ... Also handling the plant may cause a skin irritation or an allergic reaction. On 2 March 1991, Iran published a set of stamps ...
Kondo, Katsuhiko (May 1969). "Chromosome Numbers of Carnivorous Plants" (PDF). Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 96 (3): ... White pitcher plant Sarracenia minor Walt. : Hooded pitcher plant Sarracenia oreophila (Kearney) Wherry : Green pitcher plant ... The plants prefer strong, direct sunlight with no shade. In several cases, carnivorous plant enthusiasts have introduced S. ... Parrot pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea L. : Purple pitcher plant Sarracenia rosea Naczi, Case & R.B.Case Sarracenia rubra ...
... is a genus of the plant family Asteraceae. It consists of shrubs (and one geophyte) of arid environments in ... All have n = 18 chromosomes. All the North American species are obligate outcrossers. In cultivation, the species readily form ... Encelia species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the leaf miner Bucculatrix enceliae ...
Unlike other plants, the floral size of I. haynei, is not an advantage for larger flowers and taller plants in attracting ... It has a chromosome count: 2n=20. It was counted in 1977 by Avishai & Zohary, then published in 1980. It is written in Hebrew ... Weitz carried on planting trees, by 1960, he had planted 355,000 trees on 170 dunams with on a 2% not surviving. Although ... The creation of nature reserves and wild plant protection law has saved the plant from extinction, Some of the reserves were ...
This species has 11 chromosomes. Flowering occurs in late spring. The Plant List, Echinacea atrorubens (Nutt.) Nutt. in Flora ... The stems and foliage are usually hairy with appressed to ascending hairs 1.2 mm long (strigose), rarely some plants are ... Echinacea atrorubens, called the Topeka purple coneflower, is a North American species of plants in the sunflower family. It is ...
It is recommended (by Dykes) to be planted in October, with the rhizomes planted about 2 inches from the surface. It is ... It has a chromosome count: 2n=20. It was counted in June 1956, I. gatesii, Iris susiana, Iris lortetii, and Iris sofarana were ... They form creeping plants, that can spread up to 1 or 2 feet wide. It has 5 to 7, greyish green, or glaucous-green leaves, ... Also handling the plant may cause a skin irritation or an allergic reaction. "Iris gatesii Foster is an accepted name". ...
Taiwan Tricyrtis species are perennial herbaceous plants that grow at the edge of forests. They prefer shade or part shade and ... Chromosome Botany. 10: 61-66. Wan Pyo Hong, Sophia; L. Jury, Stephen (9 July 2012). "Phylogeny and Molecular Evolution of ... Tricyrtis is a genus of Asian flowering plants in the lily family, with approximately 20 known species. The species are ... Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families "Tricyrtis Wallich". Flora of China. Maki, Masayuki; Morita, Hiroko; Oiki, Syuji ...
Sex determination in Silene
Biologists have found that sex chromosomes in plants originated from pairs of autosomes. As these chromosomes diverge from ... A few, such as S. colpophylla, possess homomorphic sex chromosomes. Plants with sex-determining chromosomes, like Silene, can ... Ming, Ray; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Renner, Susanne S. (2011-01-01). "Sex chromosomes in land plants". Annual Review of Plant ... Moore, R. C.; Harkess, A. E.; Weingartner, L. A. (2016-07-01). "How to be a seXY plant model: A holistic view of sex-chromosome ...
Bendich, A. J. (2004). "Circular Chloroplast Chromosomes: The Grand Illusion". The Plant Cell Online. 16 (7): 1661-6. doi: ... 104: 1-9. Bendich, AJ (2004). "Circular Chloroplast Chromosomes: The Grand Illusion". The Plant Cell. 16 (7): 1661-1666. doi: ... Basal land plants such as liverworts, mosses and ferns have hundreds of different editing sites while flowering plants ... May, T. (2000). "14-3-3 Proteins Form a Guidance Complex with Chloroplast Precursor Proteins in Plants". The Plant Cell Online ...
In plants, eccDNA contains repeated sequences similar to those that are found in the centromeric regions of the chromosomes and ... Bendich, AJ (Jul 2004). "Circular chloroplast chromosomes: the grand illusion". The Plant Cell. 16 (7): 1661-6. doi:10.1105/tpc ... Plants also show uniparental mtDNA inheritance. Most plants inherit mtDNA maternally with one noted exception being the redwood ... "Cytogenomic analyses reveal the structural plasticity of the chloroplast genome in higher plants". The Plant Cell Online. 13 (2 ...
The plant is of average height (20-70 cm). It usually has 1-3 yellow inflorescences (heads) per stem, each on a peduncle of 10- ... It has twenty chromosomes (2n = 20). The rosette consists of pinnately lobed leaves, the end-lobe largest, oval, with a rounded ... Hymenonema graecum is a perennial herbaceous plant of 20-70 cm, that rests with its buds at or just under the surface of the ... Pierre Edmond Boissier and Theodor von Heldreich realised that the plants described by Linnaeus and by Bory and Chaubard, ...
The genome consists of 64 chromosomes. From experiments with different day lengths, maca is a short-day plant. Some sources ... One plant is capable of forming up to 1000 tiny seeds, 1600 of which weigh about one gram. Thus, only relatively few plants are ... Of the cultivated plants, maca is one of the most frost tolerant. Strong winds and sunlight also are characteristics of the ... The plants for cultivation are selected for preferred size and color, then placed 50-100 mm deep in pits with alternate layers ...
Arun Kumar Sharma
Chromosome Techniques - A Manual, Botanical Survey of India, Advances in Cell and Chromosome Research, Plant Genome: ... Sharma, A. K., & Sharma, A. (1999). Plant chromosomes: Analysis, manipulation and engineering. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic. ... Plant and Biotechnology Committee of the Department of Biotechnology, in 1997 and the Plant Science Research Committee of the ... Considered by many as the father of Indian cytology, he headed the Centre for Advanced Study on Cell and Chromosome at the ...
Cupid's dart is a short-lived perennial herbaceous plant, of 20-90 cm high. It has eighteen chromosomes (2n=18). There is a ... "RHS Plant Selector - Catananche caerulea 'Major'". Retrieved 26 June 2013. "AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural ... It is a popular garden plant and is often used in dried flower arrangements. Its vernacular names in French are catananche ... 2012). "Vascular Plant Communities in Portugal (Continental, the Azores and Madeira)". International Journal of Geobotanical ...
ISBN 0-521-31611-1. Bendich, A. J. (2004). "Circular Chloroplast Chromosomes: The Grand Illusion". The Plant Cell Online. 16 (7 ... Plants lack specialized immune cells-all plant cells participate in the plant immune response. Chloroplasts, along with the ... If a plant is injured, or something else causes a plant cell to revert to a meristematic state, chloroplasts and other plastids ... In C3 plants, RuBisCO is abundant in all chloroplasts, though in C4 plants, it is confined to the bundle sheath chloroplasts, ...
Then the plant dies back to the rhizome, to re-grow next year, similar to a bulb habit. As most irises are diploid, having two ... It has a chromosome count: 2n=20, it was counted in 1977, (published in 1980), by Avishai & Zohary. It is occasionally misspelt ... Also handling the plant may cause a skin irritation or an allergic reaction. "Iris grossheimii Woronow ex Grossh. is an ... They can form creeping plants. The leaves are narrow and falcate (sickle-shaped), they can be between 2 cm and 3 cm wide, and ...
"IPCN Chromosome Reports". Plants for a Future: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Nevade Sidram A., Sachin G. Lokapure and N.V. Kalyane. ... "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved June 13, 2015. "Hibiscus rosa-sinensis". Germplasm Resources ... However, plants in containers may be placed outside during the summer months or moved into shelter during the winter months. ... "RHS Plant Selector - Hibiscus rosa-sinensis 'Cooperi'". Baza Mendonça, Luciana & dos Anjos, Luiz (2005): Beija-flores (Aves, ...
Glossary of biology
It forms the woody part of the plant. yeast artificial chromosome . yolk . Z lines . zoology . zygote . Contents: 0-9 A B C D E ... Biomass can be used as a source of energy and it most often refers to plants or plant-based materials which are not used for ... xylem The plant tissue responsible for the conduction of water from roots to aerial parts of the plant. ... embryo sac The female gametophyte of a seed plant, within which the embryo develops. ... (in flowering plants) a large cell of ...
David Gledhill The Names of Plants, p. 66, at Google Books "Iridaceae Iris basaltica Dinsm". ipni.org (International Plant ... It has a chromosome count: 2n=20, which was first counted by Marc Simonet in 1954, and then by Avishai & Zohary in 1977. It is ... Also handling the plant may cause a skin irritation or an allergic reaction. "Iris basaltica Dinsm. is an accepted name". ... J. R. Goodin and David K. Northington (Editors) Plant Resources of Arid and Semiarid Lands: A Global Perspective, p. 179, at ...
It has a similar plant form to Iris iberica, with similar rhizomes and a plant height, of between 15-40 cm (6-16 in) tall. But ... It has a chromosome count: 2n=20, first counted by Marc Simonet in 1934, and then by Avishai & Zohary in 1977. The Latin ... They are best re-planted in late September when temperatures are low and humidity is also low. This is also when the plants ... Ward, Bobby J. (January 2005). "Plants Without Borders: Modern-Day Plant Hunters". The Rock Garden. Scottish Rock Garden Club ( ...
Plants form mats of rosettes. Its white rhizomes are stout and fleshy. The spade-shaped leaves have slender, grooved petioles ... There are forty eight chromosomes (2n = 48). C. novae-zelandiae differs from Caltha obtusa by the linear yellow rather than ... "Caltha novae-zelandiae". New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. Retrieved 2016-01-12. ... perennial herbaceous plant belonging to the family Ranunculaceae, that grows in open vegetations in mountainous areas, and is ...
Schlechtendalia is a genus of South American plants in the Barnadesieae within the daisy family. It is known in Portuguese as ... This species has sixteen chromosomes (2n=16). Schlechtendalia cancellata = Adenophyllum porophyllum var. cancellatum ... The species epithet luzulaefolia, refers to this plant having leaves similar to a woodrush. several instructive photos Flann, C ... bolão de ouro, meaning "gold bullion". It is a perennial herbaceous plant, with rigid, linear leaves with a pointy tip. The ...
It has thirty-four chromosomes (2n = 34). W. saharae has a light brown taproot, reminiscent of a parsnip. The youngest plants ... Local women use the plant as a perfume and "believe that the supernatural powers attributed to the plant make them more ... When damaged, the plants ooze a very sticky white latex, which, like in the other Cichorioideae, has a high triterpene content ... Older plants develop stems, which are initially green but eventually become woody and develop a corky, grey bark. With about 75 ...
Quantitative trait locus
Jannink, J; Bink, Mc; Jansen, Rc (August 2001). "Using complex plant pedigrees to map valuable genes". Trends in Plant Science ... These QTLs are often found on different chromosomes. The number of QTLs which explain variation in the phenotypic trait ... Plant Breeding and Genomics on eXtension.org. *INTERSNP - a software for genome-wide interaction analysis (GWIA) of case- ... It may indicate that plant height is controlled by many genes of small effect, or by a few genes of large effect. ...
"Circular chloroplast chromosomes: the grand illusion". The Plant Cell. 16 (7): 1661-6. doi:10.1105/tpc.160771. PMC 514151 ... Basal land plants such as liverworts, mosses and ferns have hundreds of different editing sites while flowering plants ... Plant Biochemistry (3rd ed.). Academic Press. 2005. p. 517. ISBN 9780120883912. .. *^ Biology 8th Edition Campbell & Reece. ... In land plants, some 11-14% of the DNA in their nuclei can be traced back to the chloroplast, up to 18% in Arabidopsis, ...
Darwin Medal - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In recognition of their major contributions to plant physiology including fundamental studies on insectivorous plants, much of ... separate sexes and sex chromosomes, segregation distortion and repetitive DNA. ... For his research on the population biology and evolution of plants which has greatly improved understanding of the adaptation ... For his work on extended oceanographical expeditions; and for his genetic studies in animals and plants. ...
... in males with normal chromosomes because they have only one X chromosome and few of the same genes are on the Y chromosome. ... for the recessive allele producing white flowers in pea plants). The genotype of an organism that is homozygous-recessive for a ... A chromosome in a diploid organism is hemizygous when only one copy is present. The cell or organism is called a hemizygote ... Most eukaryotes have two matching sets of chromosomes; that is, they are diploid. Diploid organisms have the same loci on each ...
... replication of the chromosome involves about 2 million DNA synthesis reactions for each arm of the chromosome over 40 to 80 min ... For example, Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen, Brucella abortus is an animal pathogen, and Sinorhizobium meliloti ... Chromosome replication and cell division only occurs in the stalked cell stage. Its name derives from its crescent shape caused ... The Caulobacter CB15 genome has 4,016,942 base pairs in a single circular chromosome encoding 3,767 genes. The genome ...
Evolution of biological complexity
Usually organisms that have a higher rate of reproduction than their competitors have an evolutionary advantage. Consequently, organisms can evolve to become simpler and thus multiply faster and produce more offspring, as they require fewer resources to reproduce. A good example are parasites such as Plasmodium - the parasite responsible for malaria - and mycoplasma; these organisms often dispense with traits that are made unnecessary through parasitism on a host. A lineage can also dispense with complexity when a particular complex trait merely provides no selective advantage in a particular environment. Loss of this trait need not necessarily confer a selective advantage, but may be lost due to the accumulation of mutations if its loss does not confer an immediate selective disadvantage. For example, a parasitic organism may dispense with the synthetic pathway of a metabolite where it can readily scavenge that metabolite from its host. Discarding this synthesis may not necessarily allow ...
... because the red fox has 34 metacentric chromosomes and from 0 to 8 small B chromosomes, the raccoon dog has 42 chromosomes ... Darwin, Charles (1868). The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication. Volume 1 (1st ed.). London: John Murray. pp. ... The wolf, dingo, dog, coyote, and golden jackal all have 78 chromosomes arranged in 39 pairs. This allows them to hybridize ... In The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication Charles Darwin wrote: ...
These inhibit the germination of most competing plants and kill beneficial soil fungi needed by many plants, such as many tree ... The number of homologous chromosome sets varies from four (n=4) in some Physaria and Stenopetalum species, five (n=5) in other ... "The Plant List.. *^ Turini TA, Daugovish O, Koike ST, Natwick ET, Ploeg A, Dara SK, Fennimore SA, Joseph S, LeStrange M, Smith ... "Frontiers in Plant Science. 7 (451): 451. doi:10.3389/fpls.2016.00451. PMC 4824781. PMID 27092164.. ...
In plant breeding, inbred lines are used as stocks for the creation of hybrid lines to make use of the effects of heterosis. ... By pairing chromosomes of similar genomes, the chance for these recessive alleles to pair and become homozygous greatly ... Inbreeding in plants also occurs naturally in the form of self-pollination. ... Plant Breeding. 117 (5): 429-35. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0523.1998.tb01968.x. hdl:10261/121301.. ...
Deletion in the 22q11.2 region of chromosome 22 has been associated with schizophrenia and autism. Schizophrenia and ... Mendel recognized that certain pea plant traits (seed coat color, flower color, and axial spots) seemed to be inherited ... The disease is caused by a defect in a single gene on chromosome 12 that codes for enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase , that ... and can be caused by any of a large number of mutations in the single gene on chromosome 12 that codes for the enzyme ...
International Journal of Plant Sciences, Volume 164 (6), p.959-986. *^ List of allergic plants in family Chenopodiaceae at ... Chromosome numberEdit. The basic chromosome number is (rarely 6) mostly 8-9 (rarely 17). ... International Journal of Plant Sciences, 168(6), p.931-956. *^ a b G. Kadereit, S. Hohmann, J.W. Kadereit (2006): A synopsis of ... Amaranthaceae is a family of flowering plants commonly known as the amaranth family, in reference to its type genus Amaranthus ...
Bioinformática, a enciclopedia libre
describen o uso de cromosomas artificiais de lévedo (YAC, Yeast Artificial Chromosome), e Kulesh et al. sentan as bases dos ... "Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana". Nature 408. Páxs. 796-815. ... "Cloning of Large Segments of Exogenous DNA into Yeast by Means of Artificial Chromosome Vectors" (PDF). Science 236 (4803). ... "The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22". Nature 402 (402). ISSN 0028-0836, págs. 489-495. ...
condensed chromosome. • nuclear chromosome, telomeric region. • nucleus. • nuclear chromatin. • lateral element. • cytosol. • ... In vertebrates and plants, five paralogs of RAD51 are expressed in somatic cells, including RAD51B (RAD51L1), RAD51C (RAD51L2 ... nuclear chromosome. • mitochondrial matrix. • nucleolus. • mitochondrion. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • chromatin. • ... condensed nuclear chromosome. • macromolecular complex. Biological process. • regulation of protein phosphorylation. • strand ...
In young plants, the outer seed coat can be eaten, and in very young plants, the seed pod can be eaten. ... V. faba has a diploid (2n) chromosome number of 12 (six homologous pairs). Five pairs are acrocentric chromosomes and one pair ... Vicia faba, also known in the culinary sense as the broad bean, fava bean, or faba bean is a species of flowering plant in the ... which can cover large sections of growing plants with infestations, typically starting at the tip of the plant. Severe ...
Singh RJ (2011). Genetic Resources, Chromosome Engineering, and Crop Improvement. Medicinal Plants. 6. Boca Raton: CRC Press. p ... The next step after farmers ensure soil is well suitable for planting and growing is planting the rhizome seed. In India, ... Domesticated plants and animals of Austronesia. References. *^ "Zingiber officinale". Germplasm Resources Information Network ( ... 3: Plants. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 389-426. ISBN 9780858835894. .. *^ a b Robert B, Trussel S (2013). "The ...
A tea plant will grow into a tree of up to 16 m (52 ft) if left undisturbed, but cultivated plants are generally pruned to ... In recent investigations, it has also been made clear that both varieties have the same chromosome number (n=15) and can be ... Tea plants are propagated from seed and cuttings; about 4 to 12 years are needed for a plant to bear seed and about three years ... Only the top 1-2 inches of the mature plant are picked. These buds and leaves are called 'flushes'. A plant will grow a new ...
Circular chromosomes, similar translation and transcription to Eukarya. Circular chromosomes, unique translation and ... Plants and other organisms consume the latter.. In the sulfur cycle, archaea that grow by oxidizing sulfur compounds ... after the cell's chromosome is replicated and the two daughter chromosomes separate, the cell divides. In the genus ... Multiple, linear chromosomes, similar translation and transcription to Archaea. Internal cell structure. No membrane-bound ...
Michael W. Young
A new gene located on chromosome 2 was named timeless (tim) and was successfully cloned and sequenced. They found strong ... The book described biological clocks as the reason why a strange plant he had seen years earlier produced flowers that closed ... by determining the sequence of the gene on the X chromosome, they found that the arrhythmic mutation produced a functionless ...
Bonner, James (1994). "Chapters from my life". Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. 45: 1-23. doi: ... Chromosome condensation. Phosphorylation of H3 at serine 10 (phospho-H3S10). The mitotic kinase aurora B phosphorylates ... Rizzo PJ (Aug 2003). "Those amazing dinoflagellate chromosomes". Cell Research. 13 (4): 215-7. doi:10.1038/sj.cr.7290166. PMID ... Without histones, the unwound DNA in chromosomes would be very long (a length to width ratio of more than 10 million to 1 in ...
... is a 32 chromosome species that readily hybridizes with other 32 chromosome members of the Carya genus, such as Carya ... Allen V. Barker; D. J. Pilbeam (2007). Handbook of plant nutrition. CRC Press. pp. 399-. ISBN 978-0-8247-5904-9. Retrieved 15 ... Thomas Jefferson planted pecan trees, C. illinoinensis (Illinois nuts), in his nut orchard at his home, Monticello, in Virginia ... Production potential drops significantly when planted further north than Tennessee. Most breeding efforts for northern-adapted ...
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Plant Biology. Plant genome sequencing; epigenetics and stem cell fate; stem cell signaling; plant-environment interactions ... 21] See the classic paper McClintock B 1951 "Chromosome Organization and Genic Expression" (Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. ... increase fruit yield in flowering plants, e.g., tomato. Other initiatives: genetics of aquatic plants for biofuel development; ... "Plant Biology - Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory". Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Retrieved 2018-08-08.. ...
Sperm - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The bee moves on to another plant and the pollen falls onto that plant. The sperm is moved down a pollen tube until it reaches ... Human sperm contains 23 chromosomes. A human needs 46 chromosomes, so a sperm cell is called a haploid as it only has half. The ... Some plants such as ferns and mosses have sperm that move. Flowering plant sperm cells cannot move by themselves. The flowering ... Thus, they rely on transportation to take their sperm cells to other plants. For example, a bee lands on a plant to collect the ...
Likewise, gray wolf Y-chromosomes have also been found in a few individual male Texan coyotes. This study suggested that ... "Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revision to the Regulations for the Nonessential Experimental Population of the ... based on the sex chromosomes, the male animal was a coyote-wolf hybrid sired by a male Mexican wolf. It has been ...
"Plant Scientist.. *^ Helgi Öpik; Stephen A. Rolfe; Arthur John Willis; Herbert Edward Street (2005). The physiology of ... "Next generation haplotyping to decipher nuclear genomic interspecific admixture in Citrusspecies: analysis of chromosome 2" ... Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of the World. 2. pp. 199-214. doi:10.1007/978-94-017-9276-9_10. ISBN 978-94-017-9275-2. .. ... Plants in the genus produce citrus fruits, including important crops such as oranges, lemons, grapefruits, pomelos, and limes. ...
Plantation bushes (guànmù, 灌木; taídì, 台地): Cultivated tea bushes, from the seeds or cuttings of wild tea trees and planted in ... This notion has recently been refuted through a systematic chromosome analysis of the species attributed to many East Asian ... Twigs and the fruits of the tea plant should not be found in the spent tea leaves; however, animal (and human) hair, strings, ... The tea produced from these plants are considered inferior due to the use of pesticides and chemical fertilizer in cultivation ...
New plants should be planted in September, It takes at least two years to grow a plant from seed to flowering plant. Iris ... Specimens from Primorskii Krai in Russia, were found to have a chromosome count of 2n=28. Using chromosome research, Iris ... or whenever the plant has spread so much that the centre of the plant, no longer produces any flowering stems. If the plant, is ... The plant has 3-4 flowers per stem (between 6 and 13 for the whole plant, in groups of 3,) and it blooms between June and July ...
Plant sex chromosomes: a non-degenerated y?
Recent research suggests that plant Y chromosomes may evolve differently and retain most of their an ... Animal Y chromosomes have undergone chromosome-wide degeneration in response to a lack of recombination, and ancient Ys contain ... Recent research suggests that plant Y chromosomes may evolve differently and retain most of their ancestral genes.. ... Animal Y chromosomes have undergone chromosome-wide degeneration in response to a lack of recombination, and ancient Ys contain ...
Process behind the organ-specific elimination of chromosomes in plants unveiled | EurekAlert! Science News
... this programmed chromosome elimination mechanism could become a valuable genetic tool for plant breeding or medical ... which leads to tissue-specific differing DNA content in plants. With an unusually high efficiency rate of 100%, ... Process behind the organ-specific elimination of chromosomes in plants unveiled Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop ... Process behind the organ-specific elimination of chromosomes in plants unveiled. Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop ...
Chromosome painting for plant biotechnology. - PubMed - NCBI
Chromosome painting for plant biotechnology.. Kato A1, Lamb JC, Albert PS, Danilova T, Han F, Gao Z, Findley S, Birchler JA. ... This chapter details the labeling procedures and chromosome preparation techniques used to produce high-quality FISH signals on ... Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is an invaluable tool for chromosome analysis and engineering. The ability to ...
Stable transfer of intact high molecular weight DNA into plant chromosomes | RTI
The transferred DNA appears to be intact in the majority of transformed tobacco plants analyzed and is faithfully ... vector has been developed that is capable of transferring at least 150 kb of foreign DNA into a plant nuclear genome. ... In conjunction with an enhanced system for Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation, a new binary bacterial artificial ... 1996). Stable transfer of intact high molecular weight DNA into plant chromosomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
Use of chromosome substitution lines in plant genetics - WUR
Use of chromosome substitution lines in plant genetics. When a chromosome of a line is replaced by the chromosome of another ... Use of chromosome substitution lines in plant genetics Status: Lopend Start project:. 1-jul-2016. Einde project:. 31-dec-2021. ... Chromosome substitution lines have rarely been used for plant genetics because these are difficult to produce. Through a ... line, one obtains chromosome substitution lines (CSLs). CSLs can be very powerful tools in plant genetics detect QTL or study ...
Wiley: Flow Cytometry with Plant Cells: Analysis of Genes, Chromosomes and Genomes - Jaroslav Dolezel, Johann Greilhuber, Jan...
Flow Cytometry with Plant Cells: Analysis of Genes, Chromosomes and Genomes. Jaroslav Dolezel (Editor), Johann Greilhuber ( ... Endopolyploidy in Plants and its Analysis by Flow Cytometry (M. Barow, G. Jovtchev). Chromosome Analysis and Sorting (J. ... Analysis of Plant Gene Expression Using Flow Cytometry and Sorting (D. Galbraith). Flower: A Plant DNA Flow Cytometry Database ... DNA Base Composition of Plant Genomes (A. Meister, M. Barow). Detection and Viability Assessment of Plant Pathogenic ...
Chromosome imbalances lead to predictable plant defects
Physical defects in plants can be predicted based on chromosome imbalances, a finding that may shed light on how the addition ... Plants with a normal number of chromosomes that were descended from plants with chromosome imbalances should have been normal ... Plants with excess chromosome 1 and a deficiency of chromosome 3 had increased stem diameter, for example. To test the finding ... plants were created that had both an excess of chromosome 1 and were deficient in chromosome 3, and stem diameter grew as ...
Genes | Free Full-Text | Chromosome Evolution in Connection with Repetitive Sequences and Epigenetics in Plants
... of repetitive sequences in plant chromosomes and highlighted their potential relevance to chromosome evolution in plants. We ... Furthermore, recent development in our understanding of the repetitive sequences and plant chromosome evolution has elucidated ... are found to be tightly linked with plant chromosome evolution. Different classes of repetitive sequences have distinct ... The evolution of chromosome size, structure and shape, number, and the change in DNA composition suggest the high plasticity of ...
The role of repetitive DNA in structure and evolution of sex chromosomes in plants.
These repetitive sequences often colonize specific chromosomal (Y or W chromosomes, B chromosomes) or subchromosomal (te ... Chromosomes, Plant / genetics*. Evolution, Molecular*. Plants / genetics*. Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid*. Sex Chromosomes ... Sex chromosomes, especially non-recombining regions of the Y chromosome, are subject to different evolutionary forces compared ... These repetitive sequences often colonize specific chromosomal (Y or W chromosomes, B chromosomes) or subchromosomal (telomeres ...
Engineered Plant Minichromosomes: A Resurrection of B Chromosomes? | Plant Cell
Jones, N., and Houben, A. (2003). B chromosomes in plants: Escapees from the A chromosome genome? Trends Plant Sci. 8: 417-423. ... A VERSUS B CHROMOSOMES. B chromosomes, the often neglected components of the karyotypes of numerous plant and animal species, ... Puertas, M.J. (2002). Nature and evolution of B chromosomes in plants: A non-coding but information-rich part of plant genomes ... In summary, the future for engineered plant chromosomes as a fascinating new tool for basic research on chromosomes and ...
The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Plastid Chromosome | Plant Cell
Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant Cell Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Plant Cell web ... The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Plastid Chromosome. Jude E. Maul, Jason W. Lilly, Liying Cui, Claude W. dePamphilis, Webb Miller ... The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Plastid Chromosome. Jude E. Maul, Jason W. Lilly, Liying Cui, Claude W. dePamphilis, Webb Miller ... The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Plastid Chromosome. Islands of Genes in a Sea of Repeats. Jude E. Maul, Jason W. Lilly, Liying ...
Comparative Sequence Analysis of Colinear Barley and Rice Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes | Plant Physiology
Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant Physiology Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Plant ... Colinearity of a large region from barley (Hordeum vulgare) chromosome 5H and rice (Oryza sativa) chromosome 3 has been ... 1991) Nuclear DNA content of some important plant species. Plant Mol Biol Rep 9:208-218. ... a new family of inverted repeat elements associated with the genes of both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Plant ...
Use of Two-Color Fluorescence-Tagged Transgenes to Study Interphase Chromosomes in Living Plants | Plant Physiology
... chromosome 1), 5:87 (chromosome 2), 5:117 (chromosome 3), 5:25 (chromosome 4), 5:123 (chromosome 4), and 5:106 (chromosome 5; ... chromosome 2), 25:26/16:125 (chromosome 2), and 5:106/16:112 (chromosome 5). In the case of chromosome 4, which did not have ... 107 on chromosome 3, 5:25/16:123 on chromosome 4, and 5:106/16:112 on chromosome 5; Fig. 5). In these lines, the cis-distances ... each chromosome arm contains at least one T-DNA insertion site, and, with the exception of chromosome 4, each chromosome has at ...
Feulgen banding of heterochromatin in plant chromosomes | Journal of Cell Science
Koeltz Botanical Books. Goldblatt:Index Plant Chromosome Numbers
Index to plant chromosome numbers 1988 - 1989. 1991.(Monogr. Syst. Bot., 40). 238 p. gr8vo. Paper bd. ... Index to plant chromosome numbers 2004 - 2006. Publ. 2010. (Regnum Vegetabile, 152). 256 p. gr8vo. Paper bd. (978-3-906166-89-6 ... Index to plant chromosome numbers 2001 - 2003. Publ. 2006. (Monographs in Systematic Botany, Volume 106). 242 p. gr8vo. Paper ... Index to plant chromosome numbers 1996 - 1997. 2000. (Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 81). ...
An introgression on wheat chromosome 4DL in RL6077 (Thatcher*6/PI 250413) confers adult plant resistance to stripe rust and...
Adult plant resistance (APR) to leaf rust and stripe rust derived from the wheat ( Triticum aestivumL.) line PI250413 was ... An introgression on wheat chromosome 4DL in RL6077 (Thatcher*6/PI 250413) confers adult plant resistance to stripe rust and ... Dyck PL, Samborski DJ (1979) Adult-plant leaf rust resistance in PI 250413, an introduction of common wheat. Can J Plant Sci 59 ... Adult plant resistance (APR) to leaf rust and stripe rust derived from the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) line PI250413 was ...
Complementation of plant mutants with large genomic DNA fragments by a transformation-competent artificial chromosome vector...
... plants from 142 plants treated with the 20D10 bacterium and 688 hygromycin-resistant plants from 127 plants treated with the ... Complementation of plant mutants with large genomic DNA fragments by a transformation-competent artificial chromosome vector ... Complementation of plant mutants with large genomic DNA fragments by a transformation-competent artificial chromosome vector ... Complementation of plant mutants with large genomic DNA fragments by a transformation-competent artificial chromosome vector ...
Frontiers | Classification of Grain Amaranths Using Chromosome-Level Genome Assembly of Ramdana, A. hypochondriacus | Plant...
Here, we report a chromosome-level assembly of A.hyp_K_white (AhKP) using low-coverage PacBio reads, contigs from the reported ... Here, we report a chromosome-level assembly of A.hyp_K_white (AhKP) using low-coverage PacBio reads, contigs from the reported ... More recently, a high-quality chromosome-level assembly of A. hypochondriacus (PI558499, Plainsman) was reported. ... More recently, a high-quality chromosome-level assembly of A. hypochondriacus (PI558499, Plainsman) was reported. ...
Sorting & Identification of Plant Chromosomes | Purdue University Cytometry Laboratories
Sorting & Identification of Plant Chromosomes. Scientists from the Department of Horticulture are using modern laser-based flow ... Home » Our Lab » Research » Current Research Projects » Sorting & Identification of Plant Chromosomes ... cytometry techniques for isolating plant protoplasts. Such applications are at the leading edge in this field. The approach ...
Frontiers | Addition of Aegilops U and M Chromosomes Affects Protein and Dietary Fiber Content of Wholemeal Wheat Flour | Plant...
Chromosomes 1Ug and 1Mg increased the proportion of polymeric glutenin proteins, while the addition of chromosomes 1Ub and 6Ub ... Chromosomes 1Ug and 1Mg increased the proportion of polymeric glutenin proteins, while the addition of chromosomes 1Ub and 6Ub ... and to a lesser extent by chromosomes 3, 4, 6Ug and 2Mb. Chromosomes 5Ug and 7Mb also affected the structure of wheat ... and to a lesser extent by chromosomes 3, 4, 6Ug and 2Mb. Chromosomes 5Ug and 7Mb also affected the structure of wheat ...
Alterations in the distribution of histone H3 phosphorylation in mitotic plant chromosomes in response to cold treatment and...
The timing correlates with chromosome condensation, and studies in plant meiosis suggest that it is inv ... The function of the phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser 10 in plant cell division is uncertain. ... Houben A, Field BL, Saunders VA (2001) Microdissection and chromosome painting of plant B chromosomes. Meth Cell Sci 23: 115- ... and studies in plant meiosis suggest that it is involved in sister chromatid cohesion. In mitosis, plant chromosomes are highly ...
Chromosome-scale assemblies of plant genomes using nanopore long reads and optical maps
5 Mb and contain scaffolds that represent entire chromosomes or chromosome arms. ... Consequently, creating genome assemblies for plant genomes is challenging. Here, we describe a strategy based on long reads ( ... MinION or PromethION sequencers) and optical maps (Saphyr system) that can produce chromosome-level assemblies and demonstrate ... Plant genomes are often characterized by a high level of repetitiveness and polyploid nature. ...
Genes determining pathogenicity to pea are clustered on a supernumerary chromosome in the fungal plant pathogen Nectria...
These pea pathogenicity (PEP) genes are within 25 kb of each other and are located on a supernumerary chromosome. Altogether, ... Three genes that contribute to the ability of the fungus Nectria haematococca to cause disease on pea plants have been ... Genes determining pathogenicity to pea are clustered on a supernumerary chromosome in the fungal plant pathogen Nectria ... 1 Graduate Program in Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology, Plant Pathology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL ...
Plant Disease 1996 | Barley Chromosome Location and Expression of Dwarf Bunt Resistance in Wheat Addition Lines
Barley Chromosome Location and Expression of Dwarf Bunt Resistance in Wheat Addition Lines. Chen-jian Hu, Department of Plants ... Nine wheat-barley addition lines were utilized to determine which barley chromosomes and chromosome arms carry resistance genes ... containing the short arm of barley chromosome 6), and WB6L (containing the long arm of barley chromosome 6). These lines, their ... Plant Dis. 80:1273-1276. Accepted for publication 26 July 1996. Copy right 1996 The American Phytopathological Society. DOI: ...
Karyotype Analysis of Chlorophytum comosum Chromosome--《Subtropical Plant Science》2005年01期
... the relative length of chromosome is 2n = 28 = 4L + 14M2 + 10M1. The total length of chromosome groups is 73.84μm, the total ... The results showed that the number of chromosome of Chlorophytum comosum is 2n = 2x = 28 = 4m + 14sm + 10st; ... The total volume of chromosome is 101.94μm3. ... The karyotype of Chlorophytum comosum chromosome belongs to3B ... The karyotype and the number of Chlorophytum comosum chromosome were studied. ...
Plant Cytogenetics: Genome Structure and Chromosome Function | NHBS Academic & Professional Books
Genome Structure and Chromosome Function: NHBS - Edited By: Hank W Bass and James A Birchler, Springer-Verlag ... Plant Cytogenetics Genome Structure and Chromosome Function Series: Plant Genetics and Genomics: Crops and Models Volume: 4 ... 3. Plant B Chromosomes-what makes them different?. Andreas Houben and Mariana Carchilan. 4. Cytogenetic Mapping in Plants. ... Topics covered by international experts include classical cytogenetics of plant genomes; plant chromosome structure; functional ...
World's First Cannabis Chromosome Map Reveals the Plant's Evolutionary History | Mount Sinai - New York
Worlds First Cannabis Chromosome Map Reveals the Plants Evolutionary History. The herbs past points to its future as a ... Both are found on chromosome 6 of the 10 chromosomes the cannabis genome is packaged into. There, the enzyme genes are ... The chromosome map now clearly shows that two distinct genes are at play, which should make it possible to separate them during ... "Plant genomes can contain millions of retroelement copies," says Dr. van Bakel, Assistant Professor of Genetics and Genomic ...
A Fast Air-dry Dropping Chromosome Preparation Method Suitable for FISH in Plants | Protocol
A protocol is described for the preparation of high-quality mitotic plant chromosome spreads by a fast air-dry dropping method ... images of mitotic metaphase chromosome spreads of the air-dry dropping plant chromosome preparation method on the example of ... A drop-spreading technique to produce cytoplasm-free mitotic preparations from plants with small chromosomes. Chromosome Res. 7 ... Efficient preparation of plant chromosomes for high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. Chromosome Res. 2, (5), 411-415 ( ...
A Fast Air-dry Dropping Chromosome Preparation Method Suitable for FISH in Plants | Protocol (Translated to Chinese)
A drop-spreading technique to produce cytoplasm-free mitotic preparations from plants with small chromosomes. Chromosome Res. 7 ... Efficient preparation of plant chromosomes for high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. Chromosome Res. 2, (5), 411-415 ( ... Aliyeva-Schnorr, L., Ma, L., Houben, A. A Fast Air-dry Dropping Chromosome Preparation Method Suitable for FISH in Plants. J. ... 1Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), 2School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary ...
Evolution of genome size and chromosome number in the carnivorous plant genus Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae), with a new estimate...
Evolution of genome size and chromosome number in the carnivorous plant genus Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae), with a new estimate ... Evolution of genome size and chromosome number in the carnivorous plant genus Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae), with a new estimate ... Evolution of genome size and chromosome number in the carnivorous plant genus Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae), with a new estimate ... Evolution of genome size and chromosome number in the carnivorous plant genus Genlisea... ...
Artificial chromosomesArabidopsisMeiosisCentromeresGeneticsDiploidGeneNucleusTelomeresSpeciesGenomesMeioticChromatinSequencesChromosomalIndividual chromosomesAbstractMetaphaseCentromereMitosisHybridizationSegregationGenomicEukaryotesEukaryoticBiologyRecombinationMolecularOrganismsEntire chromosomesPolyploidyGenes on chromosomesHaploidMammalianAneuploidyPolyploidProteinsOrganizationSister chromatidsEvolutionPairs of chromosomesBacterialGenomicsHybridsSequenceKaryotypeDistinctInterphaseComplement1995Mitotic chromosomeSmall chromosomesTransposable elementsReplicate and divideYeast chromosomesSpecific chromosomesWheatGenome sizeOrganismHeterochromatinHomoeologousNormal chromosomeStructureChanges in chromosomeDioecious plantLoci
- For plants, the bottom-up strategy has not yet yielded artificial chromosomes. (plantcell.org)
- Our limited understanding of centromere function and maintenance is one of the obstacles on the way to generating artificial chromosomes. (plantcell.org)
- For positional cloning, efforts have been devoted to producing numerous sets of DNA markers and genomic DNA libraries from various plant species by using artificial chromosomes propagated in either yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) or bacteria artificial chromosome (BAC and P1) ( 3 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
- Artificial chromosomes (ACs) are a promising next-generation vector for genetic engineering. (biomedcentral.com)
- The success of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) was a driving force for the development of artificial chromosomes in multicellular eukaryotes. (biomedcentral.com)
- The most common approach for developing artificial chromosomes is using a cloned centromeric DNA fragment as the backbone of the constructs. (biomedcentral.com)
- We used the Y-linked sequences to identify and sequence 17 sex-linked bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), which form 11 groups of non-overlapping sequence, covering a total sequence length of about 1.5 Mb. (preprints.org)
- Through a breeding methods known as "reverse breeding" it recently became much easier to generate chromosome substitution lines in Arabidopsis. (wur.nl)
- Dilkes, a co-author of the findings released in the early online version of the journal Genetics , was part of a team as a project scientist at the University of California-Davis Genome Center that studied chromosome dosage in the research plant Arabidopsis thaliana. (phys.org)
- Sixteen distinct sites distributed on all five Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) chromosomes have been tagged using different fluorescent proteins and one of two different bacterial operator-repressor systems: (1) a yellow fluorescent protein-Tet repressor fusion protein bound to tet operator sequences, or (2) a green or red fluorescent protein-Lac repressor fusion protein bound to lac operator sequences. (plantphysiol.org)
- Therefore, an initial mapping of target gene loci using DNA markers and subsequent isolation of large, overlapping genomic DNA fragments in the target region by chromosome walking or landing have become easier in several plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana ( 1 ) and rice ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
- In a previous report on an Arabidopsis genomic DNA library prepared by using a P1 phage vector ( 10 ), we suggested that if large DNA fragments could be transferred directly from P1-based clones into plants, it would greatly accelerate positional cloning of plant genes. (pnas.org)
- This possibility, combined with the genetic and genomics tools available for Arabidopsis thaliana, provides a powerful means to assess systematically the molecular and cytological consequences of aberrant numbers of specific chromosomes. (nih.gov)
- Here, we report on the generation of Arabidopsis plants in which chromosome 5 is present in triplicate. (nih.gov)
- In Arabidopsis, synthetic allotetraploids are meiotically stable ( 26 , 27 ), and the frequencies of aneuploidy and chromosome abnormalities are relatively low ( 27 ). (pnas.org)
- With a small genome of approximately 135 megabase pairs, Arabidopsis thaliana became the first plant to have its entire genetic makeup sequenced. (natureworldnews.com)
- Arabidopsis has only 4 chromosomes containing about 120 million base pairs. (blogspot.com)
- We have introduced large structural changes into Arabidopsis chromosomes and report their effects on crossover positioning. (biomedcentral.com)
- Using the model plant Arabidopsis , we investigate chromatin, gene expression, recombination, inheritance and natural variation in diploids, upon genome duplication in polyploids and after stress treatments. (oeaw.ac.at)
- Based on the recent finding that the frequency of meiotic recombination between two marker genes is significantly increased in auto- and allotetraploid Arabidopsis , compared to that in diploid plants, we are investigating the molecular basis for this difference and determining the role of cis- and trans-acting genetic factors in meiotic recombination. (oeaw.ac.at)
- Our recent studies described alteration in the expression of alien and host genes in a wheat-barley chromosome arm introgression line and the expression of plant genes in a human-Arabidopsis hybrid cell line. (cas.cz)
- The analysis of 43.3 megabases (Mb) of non-overlapping sequence reveals 6,756 protein coding genes, of which 3,161 show homology to proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana, another model plant. (nih.gov)
- To this end we make use of (fluorescent) microscopes to analyze the segregation of chromosomes during meiosis. (wur.nl)
- The timing correlates with chromosome condensation, and studies in plant meiosis suggest that it is involved in sister chromatid cohesion. (springer.com)
- Meiosis produces haploid cells, which contain just one member of every chromosome pair characteristic of an organism. (biologyreference.com)
- Plants, fungi, and some protists also perform meiosis. (biologyreference.com)
- In plants, meiosis creates a multicellular haploid organism, called a gametophyte , which in some groups is independent of the diploid plant. (biologyreference.com)
- During meiosis I, homologous chromosomes cross over, exchanging segments. (biologyreference.com)
- During meiosis, homologous chromosomes line up and exchange segments, a process called crossing over. (biologyreference.com)
- The coordination of the two meiotic chromosomal divisions gives meiosis its distinctive characteristics: a reduction in the number of chromosomes by half, accompanied by mixing of parental chromosomes, and swapping of regions between homologous chromosomes. (biologyreference.com)
- Because meiosis reduces chromosome content, a mechanism must ensure that every final haploid gamete has both the correct number and the correct set of chromosomes, with one member of each homologous pair. (biologyreference.com)
- Meiosis I guarantees this by keeping each chromatid pair together and aligning homologous pairs of duplicated sister chromosomes prior to the first chromosomal division. (biologyreference.com)
- The alignment and subsequent separation of pairs of homologous chromosomes during meiosis I thus sets up the mechanism that ensures that all four haploid gametes will contain the correct complement of chromosomes. (biologyreference.com)
- Interestingly, the mechanism whereby meiosis aligns homologs also results in reciprocal exchanges of DNA between aligned chromosomes. (biologyreference.com)
- Alignment of homologous chromosome pairs begins before meiosis I, when each duplicated set of chromosomes seeks its homologous partner pair within the oocyte or spermatocyte. (biologyreference.com)
- Using wheat chromosomes that carry rye centromeres, we show that the centromere associations in early meiosis are not based on homology and that the Ph1 locus has no effect on such associations. (genetics.org)
- In spite of the genetic synteny between homeologous chromosomes, bread wheat forms 21 bivalents at diakinesis and metaphase I (MI) of meiosis. (genetics.org)
- Here, we imaged live yeast cells to elucidate the stages of chromosome-microtubule interactions and their regulation by Ipl1 and Mps1 through meiosis I. Ipl1 was found to release kinetochore-microtubule (kMT) associations following meiotic entry, liberating chromosomes to begin homologous pairing. (sciencemag.org)
- This microtubule release and reattachment cycle could prevent catastrophic chromosome segregation errors in meiosis. (sciencemag.org)
- The mature 2n plant forms the haploid (n) gametes by meiosis, a type of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes to the haploid number. (blogspot.com)
- In the plant kingdom, this cycle of fertilization and meiosis involves an alternation of generations between the haploid gamete -producing stage (gametophyte) and the diploid organism (sporophyte). (biologyreference.com)
- Crossing over (CO) between homologous chromosomes is actively promoted during meiosis in all but a few eukaryotic species. (biomedcentral.com)
- Eukaryotic chromosome structure refers to the levels of packaging from the raw DNA molecules to the chromosomal structures seen during metaphase in mitosis or meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
- B chromosomes were labelled in yellow, centromeres in purple and tubulin in green. (eurekalert.org)
- These repetitive sequences often colonize specific chromosomal (Y or W chromosomes, B chromosomes) or subchromosomal (telomeres, centromeres) niches. (biomedsearch.com)
- The centromere has no effect on metaphase I chiasmate chromosome associations: homologs with identical or different centromeres, in the presence and absence of Ph1 , pair the same. (genetics.org)
- A FISH analysis of the behavior of centromeres and distal chromomeres in telocentric and bi-armed chromosomes demonstrates that it is not the centromeric, but rather the subtelomeric, regions that are involved in the correct partner recognition and selection. (genetics.org)
- According to the researcher and his colleagues, traditional chromothripsis occurs when the centromeres - tiny fibers that hold chromosomes together (sister chromatids) - snap. (natureworldnews.com)
- Attention is paid to their length, the position of the centromeres , banding pattern, any differences between the sex chromosomes , and any other physical characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
- CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) [page needed] Schubert V, Ruban A, Houben A (2016) Chromatin Ring Formation at Plant Centromeres. (wikipedia.org)
- Tracing the positions of essential parts of chromosomes (centromeres and telomeres ) through time allowed for the identification of specific genome rearrangement events that resulted in chromosome complement changes. (phys.org)
- Anaphase centromeres that join the sister chromatids split sister chromatids separate becoming individual chromosomes. (prezi.com)
- Researchers from the Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK) in Gatersleben have now finally been able to explain the underlying mechanisms. (eurekalert.org)
- CSLs can be very powerful tools in plant genetics detect QTL or study complex traits like epistasis. (wur.nl)
- Chromosome substitution lines have rarely been used for plant genetics because these are difficult to produce. (wur.nl)
- Following a brief introduction that highlights general considerations when analyzing plant cells by flow cytometric methods, the book goes on to discuss examples of application in plant genetics, genomic analysis, cell cycle analysis, marine organism analysis and breeding studies. (wiley.com)
- The book provides a unique combination of historical and modern subject matter, revealing the central role of plant cytogenetics in plant genetics and genomics as currently practiced. (nhbs.com)
- Plant genomes can contain millions of retroelement copies," says Dr. van Bakel, Assistant Professor of Genetics and Genomic Sciences and faculty member of the Icahn Institute for Data Science and Genomic Technology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. (mountsinai.org)
- We are looking for an applicant who is curious about molecular genetics and plant immunity and excited to apply cutting-edge and complex technology. (findaphd.com)
- Practical skills in chromatin genetics, plant molecular biology and/or plant immunity are advantageous but not required and specialised training will be provided. (findaphd.com)
- CalTech researcher Elliot Meyerowitz describes how plant genetics influences growth and productivity. (the-scientist.com)
- The study, to be published on July 21st in the open-access journal PLoS Genetics , offers an unprecedented view of chromosome complement (chromosome number) changes in a large group of related species. (phys.org)
- She has a PhD in plant genetics and sustainable agriculture from Iowa State University. (biofortified.org)
- Somatic regeneration from flower buds of haploid and mixoploid plants proved to be a successful approach for chromosome doubling, since diploid plants were obtained from the 4 regenerated lines. (csic.es)
- All other cells in the human body are diploid, containing two versions of each chromosome for a total of forty-six. (biologyreference.com)
- As noted, diploid cells contain pairs of chromosomes, each member of which carries the same set of genes. (biologyreference.com)
- This diploid cell contains one set of chromosomes contributed by its mother and one set of chromosomes contributed by its father. (biologyreference.com)
- FISH using probes specific to both 5S rDNA unit types showed differences in the distribution and intensity of signals on the chromosomes of polyploid wheat species and their diploid progenitors. (biomedcentral.com)
- Most polyploid plant species, including important crops like wheat, are allopolyploids that arose after hybridization between related diploid progenitors. (genetics.org)
- Many polyploid species have evolved genetic regulatory systems that ensure a diploid-like behavior with efficient disjunction of homologous chromosomes at the first division ( J enczewski and A lix 2004 ). (genetics.org)
- In flowering plants (angiosperms), there is a unique double fertilization where by one sperm nucleus fuses with the egg nucleus to form the diploid (2n) zygote, and the other sperm nucleus fuses with two polar nuclei to form the triploid nutritive tissue, or endosperm, which will nourish the embryo in the seed. (blogspot.com)
- Vascular plants, including flowering plants, conifers, and many, such as ferns, that do not produce seeds, have life cycles with the diploid sporophyte being the predominant generation. (biologyreference.com)
- The sex chromosomes are the largest chromosomes and constitute 30% of the total length of the diploid set in females and about 25% in males. (wikipedia.org)
- The diploid chromosome number is 2n = 14 with four pair of long acrocentric chromosomes ranging from 14.4 μm to 17.9 μm and three pair of short sub metacentric chromosomes ranging from 4.6 μm to 5.4 μm. (wikipedia.org)
- Since polyploidy occurs after endoreplication also in somatic cells of otherwise diploid plants, we are investigating the differences of gene expression in cells with increased DNA content and the factors that determine the degree of endoreplication. (oeaw.ac.at)
- Here, we assess the size and content of the SDR of the diploid dioecious herb Mercurialis annua , which has homomorphic sex chromosomes and shows signatures of mild Y-chromosome degeneration. (preprints.org)
- Dilkes said future research would focus on chromosome imbalances in crop plants such as corn and trying to understand how the excess or deficiency of a gene leads to a particular phenotypic characteristic. (phys.org)
- These limitations stimulated the development of a chromosome-based vector system suitable for transferring large genes, gene complexes, and/or multiple genes together with regulatory elements for safe, controlled, and persistent expression, avoiding rearrangements that are often linked with insertion events. (plantcell.org)
- This elegant in vivo approach was an important step toward constructing a gene delivery system based on engineered human chromosomes ( Lim and Farr, 2004 ). (plantcell.org)
- The leaf rust resistance gene in RL6077 is phenotypically similar to Lr34 which is located on chromosome 7D. (springer.com)
- It was previously hypothesized that the gene in RL6077 could be Lr34 translocated to another chromosome. (springer.com)
- Since no other known Lr genes exist on chromosome 4DL, the APR gene in RL6077 has been assigned the name Lr67 . (springer.com)
- Dyck PL (1987) The association of a gene for leaf rust resistance with the chromosome 7D suppressor of stem rust resistance in common wheat. (springer.com)
- To accelerate gene isolation from plants by positional cloning, vector systems suitable for both chromosome walking and genetic complementation are highly desirable. (pnas.org)
- Furthermore, it has the cis sequences required for Agrobacterium -mediated gene transfer into plants. (pnas.org)
- Molecular genetic approaches have been applied to analysis and cloning of plant genes, particularly those involved in complex biological processes such as developmental regulation and gene expression cascades ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
- This gene, PDA1, encodes a specific cytochrome P450 that confers resistance to pisatin, an antibiotic produced by pea plants. (nih.gov)
- This suggests that the short arm of barley chromosome 6 carries the dwarf bunt resistance gene(s). (apsnet.org)
- The finding is only one of many insights revealed by the long-awaited cannabis genome map detailing gene arrangement on the chromosomes, published November 8, 2018, in the journal Genome Research . (mountsinai.org)
- Drs. Hughes, Page, and van Bakel first got together in 2011 when they released the first draft of the cannabis genome, which was too fragmented to reveal gene position on chromosomes at the time. (mountsinai.org)
- The results indicate that trisomy 5 disrupts gene expression throughout the genome and supports the production and/or retention of truncated copies of chromosome 5. (nih.gov)
- One level, the folding and positioning of chromosomes inside the nucleus, has only recently been recognised as playing an important role in gene expression. (findaphd.com)
- In this PhD project, you will employ state-of-the-art molecular techniques including chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C), high-resolution microscopy and CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology. (findaphd.com)
- Our overarching long-term goal is to uncover novel principles in plant gene regulation and to identify novel targets for plant breeding against pests and for improved plant health. (findaphd.com)
- Through horizontal chromosome transfer (HCT) to a non-pathogenic strain, we also show that the accessory chromosome containing the SIX gene homologs is indeed a pathogenicity chromosome for cucurbit infection. (nature.com)
- The genome of Fo is typically divided into a set of eleven 'core' chromosomes, with sequences generally conserved in all Fusarium species, and responsible for housekeeping, and one or several transposon-rich and gene-poor 'accessory' chromosomes 13 . (nature.com)
- The terms chromosome and gene were used long before biologists really understood what these structures were. (encyclopedia.com)
- The Watson and Crick discovery made it possible to express biological concepts (such as the gene) and structures (such as the chromosome) in concrete chemical terms. (encyclopedia.com)
- Furthermore, alignments between thefive grass proto-chromosomes and the recently identified seveneudicot proto-chromosomes indicated that additional very activeepisodes of genome rearrangements and gene mobility occurredduring angiosperm evolution. (docslide.fr)
- Incontrast to mammals, paleogenomics has been poorly investigatedin plants as angiosperm species have undergone serial wholegenome or segmental duplications, diploidization, small-scale re-arrangements (translocations, gene conversions), and gene copyingevents that make comparative studies between and within themonocotyledon (mainly grasses) and eudicot families very chal-lenging. (docslide.fr)
- In addition, B. xylophilus possesses a unique complement of plant cell wall modifying proteins acquired by horizontal gene transfer, underscoring the impact of this process on the evolution of plant parasitism by nematodes. (plos.org)
- For example, chromosomal recombination can result in the loss of a gene on one chromosome and the gain of an extra copy on the sister chromosome. (creation.com)
- Gene duplication can involve not only whole genes, but also parts of genes, several genes, parts of a chromosome, or even entire chromosomes. (creation.com)
- Rice chromosome 1 is (G + C)-rich, especially in its coding regions, and is characterized by several gene families that are dispersed or arranged in tandem repeats. (nih.gov)
- Therefore, we concluded that the symbiotic genes have integrated into the chromosome after horizontal gene transfer from a different strain. (asm.org)
- So, scientists have to transform many plants, and hope that at least one individual didn't have the transgene interrupt a native gene. (biofortified.org)
- But in addition to proteins involved with packaging, chromosomes are associated with proteins involved with DNA replication, DNA repair, and gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
- The zygote then increases in cell number by mitosis, a type of cell division during which chromosomes in a nucleus are replicated and then separated to form two genetically identical daughter nuclei. (blogspot.com)
- Although most chromosomes are found in the nucleus of a cell, some are also found in the cell's mitochondria. (reference.com)
- The nucleus of a cell contains chromosomes, which are made from DNA, and the nucleolus. (reference.com)
- The threadlike structures found in a nucleus are called chromosomes. (reference.com)
- What Does the Nucleus Do in a Plant Cell? (reference.com)
- In prokaryotes, or cells without a nucleus, the chromosome is merely a circle of DNA. (encyclopedia.com)
- In eukaryotes, or cells with a distinct nucleus, chromosomes are much more complex in structure. (encyclopedia.com)
- Both plant and animals are eukaryotes with a membrane and nucleus. (reference.com)
- Eukaryotic chromosomes are also stored in the nucleus of the cell, while chromosomes of prokaryotic cells are not stored in a nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
- Scientists also discovered plant and animal cells have a central compartment called the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
- They soon realized chromosomes were found inside the nucleus and contained different information for many different traits. (wikipedia.org)
- An ultrastructural analysis of spread silver-stained meiotic nuclei of hexaploid wheat by H olm (1986) revealed that, at the beginning of the zygotene stage, telomeres aggregate and chromosome pairing and SC formation is initiated distally. (genetics.org)
- Telomeres are consumed during cell division and, over time, will become shorter and provide less cover for the chromosomes they are protecting. (medindia.net)
- Fusion of ancestral chromosomes left distinctive remnants of telomeres , and a vestigial centromere . (wikipedia.org)
- Chromosome loci that were positioned away from telomeres exhibited reduced motion in the presence of an actin polymerization inhibitor but were unaffected by the lack of Csm4. (biologists.org)
- Here we review the occurrence and role of repetitive DNA in Y chromosome evolution in various species with a focus on dioecious plants. (biomedsearch.com)
- The grass family is the fourth largest family of flowering plants (approximately 10,000 species) and includes wheat ( Triticum spp. (plantphysiol.org)
- Both Aegilops species had higher proportions of β-glucan compared to arabinoxylan (AX) than wheat lines, and elevated β-glucan content was also observed in wheat chromosome addition lines 5U, 7U, and 7M. (frontiersin.org)
- In order to modulate H3 phosphorylation, root meristems of different plant species were treated with the protein phosphatase inhibitor cantharidin or with ice-water. (springer.com)
- Some species of Genlisea possess ultrasmall nuclear genomes, the smallest known among angiosperms, and some have been found to have chromosomes of diminutive size, which may explain why chromosome numbers and karyotypes are not known for the majority of species of the genus. (jcvi.org)
- Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) are powerful QTL mapping populations that have been used to elucidate the molecular basis of interesting traits of wild species. (www.gov.uk)
- Studies on newly resynthesized Brassica napus and recently formed polyploids of Tragopogon suggest that genomic changes occur rapidly following allopolyploidization in some plant species ( 12 - 14 ). (pnas.org)
- Many plant species, including important crops like wheat, are polyploids that carry more than two sets of genetically related chromosomes capable of meiotic pairing. (genetics.org)
- Other ant species have more chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
- This species can have more B chromosomes than A chromosomes at times, but 2n=4. (wikipedia.org)
- Broccoli , cabbage, kale , kohlrabi , brussels sprouts , and cauliflower are all the same species and have the same chromosome number. (wikipedia.org)
- Although some contradictory cases have been reported, the large homogeneity of the chromosome number 2n = 22 is now known for 135 (33.5%) distinct species among genus Eucalyptus . (wikipedia.org)
- All species in the genus Phaseolus have the same chromosome number, including common bean ( P. vulgaris ), runner bean ( P. coccineus ), tepary bean ( P. acutifolius ) and lima bean ( P. lunatus ). (wikipedia.org)
- http://www.rbgkew.org.uk/cval/database1.html produces two counts for Chenopodium (the literature carries counts for at least 30 species of the genus) Anybody know of any other sources of plant chromosome count info on line? (ku.edu)
- Few plant species are dioecious and only a small fraction of these species are known to have sex chromosomes. (ox.ac.uk)
- However, chromosome microdissection requires sophisticated equipment and is difficult to apply to species with cytologically indistinguishable sex chromosomes. (ox.ac.uk)
- The 18-year-long project revealed that linking fragments of restored longleaf pine savanna by a natural passageway boosted the number of plant species by 14 percent in those patches by the end of the experiment. (sciencenews.org)
- Researchers from Trinity College Dublin have uncovered the evolutionary mechanisms that have caused increases or decreases in the numbers of chromosomes in a group of yeast species during the last 100-150 million years. (phys.org)
- The researchers show that, in yeasts, chromosome complement has decreased in all except one notable event, a whole genome duplication an event that doubled the complement of an ancestor of several of the species from 8 chromosomes to 16. (phys.org)
- The focus of this job will be on data analysis and writing up, as extensive genomic and transcriptomic resources have already been generated for several species with relatively young sex chromosomes. (bioblogia.net)
- We designed a plasmid vector that can be combined with a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone containing centromeric DNA sequences from a target plant species. (biomedcentral.com)
- Several different techniques have been developed to assemble AC constructs in mammalian and plant species. (biomedcentral.com)
- This results in a DNA molecule containing a large centromeric DNA fragment capped with telomeric DNA from the targeted animal or plant species. (biomedcentral.com)
- If one compares the pace of primateevolution of 90 million years (233 species) to 60 million years of thePoaceae (10,000 species), change in chromosome structure throughspeciation has accelerated significantly in plants. (docslide.fr)
- The rice species Oryza sativa is considered to be a model plant because of its small genome size, extensive genetic map, relative ease of transformation and synteny with other cereal crops. (nih.gov)
- Many dioecious plants have sex chromosomes that are cytologically heteromorphic, but about half of species lack cytological differences between males and females and are thus homomorphic. (preprints.org)
- The first dense molecular maps of B. humidicola provide strong support for cytogenetic evidence indicating a base chromosome number of six in this species. (biomedcentral.com)
- Targeted at beginners as well as experienced users, this handy reference explains the benefits and uses of flow cytometery in the study of plants and their genomes. (wiley.com)
- He has studied plant genomes for almost 30 years and is an expert on intraspecific variation of genome size. (wiley.com)
- He has constantly been developing novel techniques to study plant genomes, among them many methods based on flow cytometry. (wiley.com)
- The evolution of chromosome size, structure and shape, number, and the change in DNA composition suggest the high plasticity of nuclear genomes at the chromosomal level. (mdpi.com)
- Early DNA renaturation studies had indicated that the larger plant genomes contain more repetitive DNA and that some of this repetitive DNA was intermixed with genes ( Flavell and Smith, 1976 ). (plantphysiol.org)
- Plant genomes are often characterized by a high level of repetitiveness and polyploid nature. (nanoporetech.com)
- Consequently, creating genome assemblies for plant genomes is challenging. (nanoporetech.com)
- The introduction of short-read technologies 10 years ago substantially increased the number of available plant genomes. (nanoporetech.com)
- The authors hope it will inform and inspire students, researchers, and teachers to continue to employ plant cytogenetics to address fundamental questions about the cytology of plant chromosomes and genomes for years to come. (nhbs.com)
- The two trisomic F2 plants, 6-5 and 6-7,had structurally intact genomes as assessed by array CGH. (nih.gov)
- We hope it will inform and inspire students, researchers, and teachers to continue to employ plant cytogenetics to address fundamental questions about the cytology of plant chromosomes and genomes for years to come.Hank W. Bass is a Professor in the Department of Biological Science at Florida State University.James A. Birchler is a Professor in the Division of Biological Sciences at the University of Missouri. (slugbooks.com)
- The structural evolution of genomes in ancient polyploids included reductions in chromosome number, chromosome fusions, and various types of chromosomal rearrangements ( 8 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
- B. rapa and B. oleracea are also ancient polyploids, and large-scale chromosome rearrangements occurred in the A and C genomes following divergence from a common ancestor ( 31 ). (pnas.org)
- Three out of nine HCT strains investigated have undergone large-scale chromosome alterations, reflecting the remarkable plasticity of Fo genomes. (nature.com)
- GENOME analysis has been used to establish the evolutionary and homoeologous relationships of the three genomes (AA, BB, and DD) that make up hexaploid wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). Each of the 21 chromosomes has been identified and characterized by S ears (1954) ( 1966 ) with respect to genomic and homoeologous relationships. (genetics.org)
- A set of lines containing deletions for each of the three genomes and seven groups of hexaploid wheat chromosomes has been used to create a deletion map of the wheat genomes. (genetics.org)
- Today, there is an extensive catalogue of all plants' variants and their genomes. (natureworldnews.com)
- Han Tan explained in a recent release that now that it's understood how this disastrous process can be triggered, it could be applied in plant breeding as a way to create new genomes - similar to GMO design. (natureworldnews.com)
- A distinctive feature of plant cell division is the plant cell has three genomes (the nuclear, mitochondrial , and plastid genome) to replicate and divide. (blogspot.com)
- Plant mitochondrial genomes are much larger than the mitochondrial genomes of yeast or animals. (blogspot.com)
- Flow Cytometry with Plant Cells: Analysis of Genes, Chromosomes and Genomes Download via Hotfile Rapidshare Fileserve Megaupload & FileSonic, Flow Cytometry with Plant Cells: Analysis of Genes, Chromosomes and Genomes free torrent downloads included crack, serial, keygen. (renminbao.info)
- Please construct a book/download flow cytometry with plant cells analysis of genes chromosomes and genomes to Prepare and speak the Community kings Languages. (parkkultur-ruegen.de)
- comfortable and illogical: invalid book/download flow cytometry with plant cells analysis of genes chromosomes and genomes in items of eLearningPosted preferences. (parkkultur-ruegen.de)
- This chapter details the labeling procedures and chromosome preparation techniques used to produce high-quality FISH signals on somatic metaphase and meiotic pachytene spreads. (nih.gov)
- Immunostaining using an antibody specific to phosphorylated H3 at Ser 10 revealed a high level of H3 phosphorylation along the whole mitotic chromosome after cantharidin treatment, which resembles the distribution seen exclusively in first meiotic division. (springer.com)
- To ensure balanced segregation, homologous chromosome pairs must migrate to opposite poles at the first meiotic division and this means that they must recognize and pair with each other beforehand. (inserm.fr)
- Although understanding of the mechanisms by which meiotic chromosomes find and pair with their homologs has greatly advanced, it remains far from being fully understood. (inserm.fr)
- With a particular focus on plants, we present here an overview of understanding of these early, recombination-independent events that act in the pairing of homologous chromosomes during the first meiotic division. (inserm.fr)
- This effect on fertility is conditioned by the presence of more than two genetically related chromosome sets capable of meiotic pairing. (genetics.org)
- Three major meiotic processes-chromosome pairing ( i.e. , an interaction of chromosomes that results in the alignment of homologs), synapsis [ i.e ., the formation of the proteinaceous synaptonemal complex (SC) structure between each homologous pair], and crossing over-are involved in the formation of bivalents. (genetics.org)
- Each chromosome has a centromere-a constricted area of the condensed chromosome where the mitotic or meiotic spindle attaches to assure correct distribution of chromosomes during cell division-and a telomere, the end or tip of a chromosome, which contains tandem repeats of a short DNA sequence. (blogspot.com)
- Features reported here include distances between transgene alleles, distances between transgene inserts on different chromosomes, distances between transgene inserts on the same chromatin fiber, alignment of homologous chromosomes, and chromatin movement. (plantphysiol.org)
- Here, using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) with arm-specific DNA probes of chromosomes 1, 2 and 5, we visualized arm domains and established hierarchical levels of sperm chromatin structures. (biologists.org)
- The compact chromosome territories, which in sperm have a preferred intranuclear localization, have an extended conformation represented by a 2000 nm chromatin fiber. (biologists.org)
- Alien chromosome introgression lines are invaluable models to study the behaviour of alien chromatin in unnatural genetic background. (cas.cz)
- Many mechanisms have been proposed for chromosome loss, including chromosome fragmentation, degradation of chromatin, lagging chromosomes or bridges, non-congressed chromosomes at metaphase or failure of chromosome migration to the anaphase poles. (umanitoba.ca)
- Overall, interphase chromosome dynamics are modulated by the additive effects of cytoskeletal actin through forces mediated by the nuclear envelope and nuclear actin, probably through the function of actin in chromatin-remodeling complexes. (biologists.org)
- Some of the first scientists to recognize the structures now known as chromosomes were Schleiden, Virchow, and Bütschli, O. The term was coined by Heinrich Wilhelm Gottfried von Waldeyer-Hartz, referring to the term chromatin, which was introduced by Walther Flemming. (wikipedia.org)
- Repetitive DNA sequences, which represent a conspicuous fraction of every eukaryotic genome, particularly in plants, are found to be tightly linked with plant chromosome evolution. (mdpi.com)
- Different classes of repetitive sequences have distinct distribution patterns on the chromosomes. (mdpi.com)
- Mounting evidence shows that repetitive sequences may play multiple generative roles in shaping the chromosome karyotypes in plants. (mdpi.com)
- Furthermore, recent development in our understanding of the repetitive sequences and plant chromosome evolution has elucidated the involvement of a spectrum of epigenetic modification. (mdpi.com)
- In this review, we focused on the recent evidence relating to the distribution pattern of repetitive sequences in plant chromosomes and highlighted their potential relevance to chromosome evolution in plants. (mdpi.com)
- Li S-F, Su T, Cheng G-Q, Wang B-X, Li X, Deng C-L, Gao W-J. Chromosome Evolution in Connection with Repetitive Sequences and Epigenetics in Plants. (mdpi.com)
- In non-recombining regions of the Y chromosome repetitive DNA sequences are accumulated, representing a dominant and early process forming the Y chromosome, probably before genes start to degenerate. (biomedsearch.com)
- Here, we describe a strategy based on long reads (MinION or PromethION sequencers) and optical maps (Saphyr system) that can produce chromosome-level assemblies and demonstrate applicability by generating high-quality genome sequences for two new dicotyledon morphotypes, Brassica rapa Z1 (yellow sarson) and Brassica oleracea HDEM (broccoli), and one new monocotyledon, Musa schizocarpa (banana). (nanoporetech.com)
- Using the results of pyrosequencing and assembling, we obtained six 5S rDNA- containing contigs with a total length of 140,417 bp, and two sets (pools) of individual 5S rDNA sequences belonging to separate, but closely located genomic regions on the 5BS chromosome. (biomedcentral.com)
- Karyotype analysis of the S 10:11 generation detected aneuploidy and inter- and intragenomic rearrangements, chromosome breakage and fusion, rDNA changes, and loss of repeat sequences. (pnas.org)
- Forty-nine percent of these ESTs were found to be homoologous to sequences on rice chromosome 3, 12% had matches with sequences on other rice chromosomes, and 39% had no matches with rice sequences at all. (genetics.org)
- The chromosomes of eukaryotes consist of unique genes among a complex pattern of repeated DNA sequences. (blogspot.com)
- They are constructed of repetitive nucleotide sequences that sit at the ends of our chromosomes like the ribbon tails on a bow. (medindia.net)
- Additionally, engineered chromosomes could be used to address questions concerning the function of specific chromosomal domains (e.g., centromeric regions). (plantcell.org)
- Considerable progress has been made in developing mammalian chromosome-based vector systems either by engineering endogenous chromosomes (top-down approach) or by artificial composition of cloned chromosomal constituents into functional chromosomes (bottom-up approach). (plantcell.org)
- For fine-scale mapping of a mutation locus, it is usually necessary to analyze nearly a thousand progeny (usually F 2 plants) or even more if the locus falls in a "recombination cold spot," a chromosomal region of low recombination frequency ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
- 1. Plant Chromosomal Deletions, Insertions, and. (nhbs.com)
- Dynamic changes to the three-dimensional folding of chromosomes were linked to the differential regulation of individual genes, defined genomic regions and large chromosomal territories. (findaphd.com)
- These data indicate that early generations of resynthesized B. napus involved aneuploidy and gross chromosomal rearrangements, and that dosage balance mechanisms enforced chromosome number stability. (pnas.org)
- Each eukaryotic chromosome contains a single long DNA molecule that is coiled, folded, and compacted by its interaction with chromosomal proteins called histone. (blogspot.com)
- Interestingly, two independent cases of induced structural changes in the same chromosomal interval were found on both chromosomes 1 and 2. (biomedcentral.com)
- DNA methylation will be studied at DNA and chromosomal level as well as epigenetic state of histones in the introgressed chromosomes. (cas.cz)
- Because of the complex interactions between the bacterium and the plant, we expected this chromosomal sector to contain additional genes that are involved in the maintenance of an efficient symbiosis. (asm.org)
- Aneuploidy refers to losses and/or gains of individual chromosomes from the normal chromosome set. (nih.gov)
- Changes in copy number of individual chromosomes were detected in the S 0:1 generation and increased in subsequent generations, despite the fact that the mean chromosome number among lines was approximately 38. (pnas.org)
- Cobb J, Cargile B, Handel MA (1999) Acquisition of Competence to condense metaphase I chromosomes during spermatogenesis. (springer.com)
- For analysis of metaphase chromosomes, any tissue containing dividing cells can be used: Root tips from young seedlings, from newly grown roots at the edge of plant pots or hydroponic culture are all suitable. (scienceexchange.com)
- It is very important not to expose seedlings, roots and plants during germination and metaphase-arrest to chemicals and fumes, particularly fixatives (e.g. in a cold room also used for chemical storage) and to use clean labware with tight lids (disposable plastic is ideal), clean forceps, and distilled water. (scienceexchange.com)
- Treating material for too long in arresting agents, particularly colchicine, results in over-condensation of the metaphase chromosomes which might be desirable for counting chromosomes, but not for in situ hybridization where spatial resolution along chromosomes is wanted. (scienceexchange.com)
- We also discussed the possible connections between evolution and epigenetic alterations in chromosome structure and repatterning, such as heterochromatin formation, centromere function, and epigenetic-associated transposable element inactivation. (mdpi.com)
- To circumvent the necessity of de novo centromere formation, modification of existing chromosomes to generate a chromosome-based vector can be achieved by at least two different routes. (plantcell.org)
- The Ph1 locus in wheat was proposed to ensure homologous pairing by controlling the specificity of centromere associations that precede chromosome pairing. (genetics.org)
- This technique uses the natural centromere sequence of an organism to build an entirely new chromosome that would be passed on to successive generations. (biofortified.org)
- Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is an invaluable tool for chromosome analysis and engineering. (nih.gov)
- Most studies so far have used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to visualize interphase chromosomes in nonliving, fixed material (e.g. (plantphysiol.org)
- We compare the global transcript profiles of normal diploids and chromosome 5 trisomics, and assess genome integrity using array comparative genome hybridization. (nih.gov)
- A total of 1918 loci, detected by the hybridization of 938 expressed sequence tag unigenes (ESTs) from 26 Triticeae cDNA libraries, were mapped to wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) homoeologous group 4 chromosomes using a set of deletion, ditelosomic, and nulli-tetrasomic lines. (genetics.org)
- Using epifluorescence microscopy following two-color fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) with micro-dissected probes for the p-arms and q-arms of the large metacentric chromosome 1 and chromosome 2 (CHR1 and CHR2), and the large submetacentric chromosome 5 (CHR5), we dissected the internal organization of CTs, and describe here successive hierarchies of chromosome structures. (biologists.org)
- Chromosome segregation: spindle mechanics come to life. (biomedsearch.com)
- Segregation testing and genomics-based methods are increasingly popular and are the most promising approaches for isolation of multiple genes from plant sex chromosomes. (ox.ac.uk)
- Crossing over assures the correct segregation of the homologous chromosomes to both poles of the dividing meiocyte. (biomedcentral.com)
- Therefore, we developed a transformation-competent artificial chromosome (TAC) vector, pYLTAC7, that can accept and maintain large genomic DNA fragments stably in both Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium tumefaciens . (pnas.org)
- Plant transformation-competent vectors, such as the cosmid vector pOCA18 ( 8 ) and the λ-phage vector λTI2 ( 9 ), have been developed for construction of genomic libraries with inserts of 5-25 kb that are used for genetic complementation of mutants. (pnas.org)
- Our analysis reveals the complex genomic changes that can occur in aneuploids and underscores the importance of using multiple experimental approaches to investigate how chromosome numerical changes condition abnormal phenotypes and progressive genome instability. (nih.gov)
- A detailed structural organization of two closely located 5S rDNA-tagged genomic regions on the 5BS chromosome of bread wheat has been established. (biomedcentral.com)
- The genomic consequences of polyploidy have been extensively studied, but the mechanisms for chromosome stability and diploidization in polyploids remain largely unknown. (pnas.org)
- Polyploidy (i.e., whole genomic duplication) has played a significant role in the evolutionary history of all eukaryotes ( 1 ), and particularly in flowering plants ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
- We are looking for a postdoctoral researcher to work on an evolutionary genomic project focused on sex-chromosome evolution in plants. (bioblogia.net)
- Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is the nematode responsible for a devastating epidemic of pine wilt disease in Asia and Europe, and represents a recent, independent origin of plant parasitism in nematodes, ecologically and taxonomically distinct from other nematodes for which genomic data is available. (plos.org)
- The maize chromosomes are found in varying numbers in the first cells of the embryo but are then selectively eliminated to leave only the wheat genomic complement. (umanitoba.ca)
- Chromosome evolution is a fundamental aspect of evolutionary biology. (mdpi.com)
- 2007 ) open new venues for plant biotechnology and chromosome biology. (plantcell.org)
- The supervisory team (Dr Hans-Wilhelm Nuetzmann, Dr Volkan Cevik, Prof Laurence Hurst and Dr Selene Fernández Valverde) and staff at the Department of Biology and Biochemistry will offer complementary expertise and support in plant-pathogen, chromosome and genome biology of this project. (findaphd.com)
- https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6828-1000 By Steven Burgess and Iulia Gherman Synthetic biology certainly includes plants, but the field of plant synthetic biology is less developed compared to model heterotrophs or mammalian applications. (plos.org)
- In part 2 of our plant synthetic biology series we teamed up with Cameron Tout of the Legume Laboratory blog to introduce some of the tools of plant synbio and how these are being applied to agriculture. (plos.org)
- Functional characterisation of metal(loid) processes in planta through the integration of synchrotron techniques and plant molecular biology. (plantaeuropa.org)
- Population biology of fungal plant pathogens. (plantaeuropa.org)
- Bayesian approach for analysis of time-to-event data in plant biology. (plantaeuropa.org)
- Unfortunately, it has not been matched by an explosion of ample data analysis strategies.In this paper, we introduce the Bayesian approach in direction of time-to-event data in plant biology. (plantaeuropa.org)
- The book is a visual delight that will introduce readers to aspects of plant biology as well as how to prepare tissue to study those topics. (springer.com)
- Animal Y chromosomes have undergone chromosome-wide degeneration in response to a lack of recombination, and ancient Ys contain few functional genes. (biomedsearch.com)
- However, in addition to this, it is clear that many organisms, including plants, have also evolved a series of recombination-independent mechanisms to facilitate homolog recognition and pairing. (inserm.fr)
- In the majority of cases analyzed, the total recombination frequency over the chromosomes was unchanged. (biomedcentral.com)
- The loss of crossovers at the sites of structural change was compensated for by increases in recombination frequencies elsewhere on the chromosomes, mostly in single intervals of one to three megabases in size. (biomedcentral.com)
- In both cases, compensatory increases in recombination frequencies were of similar strength and took place in the same chromosome region. (biomedcentral.com)
- In contrast, deletions in chromosome arms carrying the nucleolar organizing region did not change recombination frequencies in the remainder of those chromosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Factors that influence CO position and hence local recombination frequency include features inherent to the chromosome as well as environmental factors of both endogenous and exogenous origin. (biomedcentral.com)
- The AGSR has been mapped to an area of reduced recombination on Brachiaria decumbens chromosome 5. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our work into the use of mapping populations based on chromosome substitution lines focuses less on molecular or microscopic techniques, but is aimed at defining challenging research questions and answering these using chromosome substitution lines by growing, crossing and phenotyping plants. (wur.nl)
- She has experience with classical cytogenetic techniques (chromosome aberrations, micronuclei) and molecular methods (comet analysis and gel electrophoresis in a constant electric field/CFGE). (omicsonline.org)
- Detailed analyses at the molecular level will reveal the evolution of chromosome structure and the distribution and physical location of additional breakpoints and rearrangements within homoeologous group 4 chromosomes of hexaploid wheat. (genetics.org)
- Together with the lack of proteins homologous to effectors from other plant parasitic nematodes, this confirms the distinctive molecular basis of plant parasitism in the Bursaphelenchus lineage. (plos.org)
- High resolution molecular karyotyping indicated that the six homologous chromosomes of the sexual female parent paired at random, whereas preferential pairing of subgenomes was observed in the apomictic male parent. (biomedcentral.com)
- Physical defects in plants can be predicted based on chromosome imbalances, a finding that may shed light on how the addition or deletion of genes and the organization of the genome affects organisms, according to a study involving a Purdue University researcher. (phys.org)
- The number of chromosomes varies among types of organisms. (reference.com)
- The list of organisms by chromosome count describes ploidy or numbers of chromosomes in the cells of various plants , animals , protists , and other living organisms . (wikipedia.org)
- Although some aspects of the research are specific to yeast, many of the mechanisms of chromosome number change in yeast are similar to those found in other organisms and therefore shed light on how chromosome complements evolve. (phys.org)
- Plants, like all dwelling organisms, metamorphose their our bodies throughout their lifetime. (plantaeuropa.org)
- This atlas presents beautiful photographs and 3D-reconstruction images of cellular structures in plants, algae, fungi, and related organisms taken by a variety of microscopes and visualization techniques. (springer.com)
Genes on chromosomes2
- This means that linking genes on chromosomes is analogous to assembling a huge puzzle where three-quarters of the pieces are nearly the same color. (mountsinai.org)
- This restricts the types of possible changes in chromosome complement to rearrangements of genes on chromosomes that maintain the same number of genes. (phys.org)
- These differences in DNA content indicate that a single chromosome from barley contains more DNA than one complete haploid rice genome. (plantphysiol.org)
- Both methods resulted in production of amphiploid plants as well as haploid hybrids (n = 28). (apsnet.org)
- Fayos O, Vallés MP, Garcés-Claver A, Mallor C, Castillo AM. Doubled haploid production from Spanish onion (Allium cepa L.) germplasm: embryogenesis induction, plant regeneration and chromosome doubling. (csic.es)
- A similar number of doubled haploid plants were recovered with 25 or 50 μM APM in liquid medium. (csic.es)
- However, the application of 25 μM in solid medium for 24 h produced the highest number of doubled haploid plants. (csic.es)
- In this study, doubled haploid plants were produced from the four Spanish cultivars, however further improvements are needed to increase their gynogenesis efficiency. (csic.es)
- For example, human gametes are haploid and contain twenty-three different chromosomes. (biologyreference.com)
- The number of chromosomes in a gamete (either egg or sperm) is the haploid number, n. (blogspot.com)
- Some carp and some ferns have more than 50 chromosomes in the haploid genome. (blogspot.com)
- 1. Be able to list four ways of getting haploid plants. (umanitoba.ca)
- The loss of chromosomes is gradual so that 3-5 days after pollination, 40% of dividing cells are haploid. (umanitoba.ca)
- Furthermore, apomictic F 1 RNAi transgenic plants with reduced PsASGR-BBML expression had reduced parthenogenic embryo development and transgenic sexual pearl millet plants expressing P. squamulatum PsASGR-BBML genes were induced to produce haploid offspring [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Although the phenotypic manifestations of aneuploidy are usually apparent, information about the underlying alterations in structure, expression, and interphase organization of unbalanced chromosome sets is still sparse. (nih.gov)
- Plants generally tolerate aneuploidy better than animals, and, through colchicine treatment and breeding strategies, it is possible to obtain inbred sibling plants with different numbers of chromosomes. (nih.gov)
- Seed yield and pollen viability were inversely correlated with increasing aneuploidy, and the greatest fertility was observed in two lines that were additive for parental chromosomes. (pnas.org)
- Chromosome disorders in sex cells cause infertility, miscarriage and irregular numbers of chromosomes (aneuploidy) in neonates. (phys.org)
- Furthermore, evidence for compensated aneuploidy was found in the apomictic parent, with only five homologous linkage groups identified for chromosome 5 and seven homologous linkage groups of chromosome 6. (biomedcentral.com)
- It is estimated that most flowering plants are polyploid, including most agricultural crops ( 3 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
- Our group is interested in the interplay between genetic and epigenetic changes, in epigenetic diversity in polyploid plants, in different ecotypes and after exposure to abiotic stress. (oeaw.ac.at)
- Chromosomes 1U g and 1M g increased the proportion of polymeric glutenin proteins, while the addition of chromosomes 1U b and 6U b led to its decrease. (frontiersin.org)
- We conclude that also a non-wilt-inducing Fo pathogen relies on effector proteins for successful infection and that the Forc pathogenicity chromosome contains all the information necessary for causing root rot of cucurbits. (nature.com)
- s qd, hrb27C and otu mutants also share a nurse cell chromosome organization defect, indicating that these proteins function together in other processes during oogenesis. (biologists.org)
- We report the identification of several proteins that interact with each other and regulate both grk RNA localization and nurse cell chromosome dynamics during oogenesis. (biologists.org)
- Today we know that a chromosome contains a single molecule of DNA along with several kinds of proteins. (encyclopedia.com)
- Plant and animal pathogens use related systems to target proteins to host cells ( 35 ), but such proteins have not been identified in rhizobia. (asm.org)
- Each chromosome consists enormously long linear DNA molecule associated with proteins that fold and pack the fine thread of DNA into a more compact structure. (wikipedia.org)
- Individual homozygous lines and progeny of intercrosses between lines have been used to study various aspects of interphase chromosome organization in root cells of living, untreated seedlings. (plantphysiol.org)
- These transgenic lines provide tools for in-depth analyses of interphase chromosome organization, expression, and dynamics in living plants. (plantphysiol.org)
- This allows visualization of fluorescent signals in nuclei of living plants that have not undergone any inducing treatments, which can potentially disturb interphase nuclear organization. (plantphysiol.org)
- 1 Mb), these methods are still insufficient to decipher genome organization at the chromosome level. (nanoporetech.com)
- Using pyrosequencing of BAC clones, in this work we studied the organization of two distinct 5S rDNA-tagged regions of the 5BS chromosome of bread wheat. (biomedcentral.com)
- Within this model of genome architecture in human sperm, structural organization of chromosomes remain largely unresolved. (biologists.org)
- The role of repetitive DNA in structure and evolution of sex chromosomes in plants. (biomedsearch.com)
- Evolution of genome size and chromosome number in the carnivorous plant genus Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae), with a new estimate of the minimum genome size in angiosperms. (jcvi.org)
- This study therefore examined the evolution of genome sizes and chromosome numbers in Genlisea in a phylogenetic context. (jcvi.org)
- Variation and evolution in plants. (wikipedia.org)
- Evolution of crop plants. (wikipedia.org)
- Gordon JL, Byrne KP, Wolfe KH (2011) Mechanisms of Chromosome Number Evolution in Yeast. (phys.org)
- These datasets are also suitable to address questions beyond sex-chromosome evolution (such as adaptation and speciation), and the successful candidate will be encouraged to do so (time permitting). (bioblogia.net)
- As well as being an important pathogen, the B. xylophilus genome thus provides a unique opportunity to study the evolution and mechanism of plant parasitism. (plos.org)
Pairs of chromosomes2
- In conjunction with an enhanced system for Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation, a new binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) vector has been developed that is capable of transferring at least 150 kb of foreign DNA into a plant nuclear genome. (rti.org)
- One of these clones, WG644, was hybridized to rice and barley bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries to select homologous clones. (plantphysiol.org)
- A bacterial artificial chromosome library for soybean PI 437654 and identification of clones associated with cyst nematode resistance. (nih.gov)
- We have constructed a soybean bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library using the plant introduction (PI) 437654. (nih.gov)
- The DNA sequence says these plants should be perfectly normal, but they are not. (phys.org)
- The underlying DNA sequence homology of the similar maternal and paternal chromosome pairs guides this search and eventual alignment along the entire length of each chromosome. (biologyreference.com)
- Here, we present a high-quality draft genome sequence from an inbred line of B. xylophilus , and use this to investigate the biological basis of its complex ecology which combines fungal feeding, plant parasitic and insect-associated stages. (plos.org)
- Here we report the essentially complete sequence of chromosome 1, the longest chromosome in the rice genome. (nih.gov)
- We summarize characteristics of the chromosome structure and the biological insight gained from the sequence. (nih.gov)
- The karyotype and the number of Chlorophytum comosum chromosome were studied. (cnki.com.cn)
- The karyotype of Chlorophytum comosum chromosome belongs to'3B' type. (cnki.com.cn)
- The objective of the study was to evaluate cytotoxic/clastogenic effect and anti-cytotoxic/anti-clastogenic potential of geraniol (ethanolic extract) evaluated by chromosome aberration test in barley (reconstructed karyotype MK14/2034) and cultured human lymphocytes. (omicsonline.org)
- The overall findings are consistent with a random and largely static arrangement of interphase chromosomes in nuclei of root cells. (plantphysiol.org)
- We have used these lines to analyze various aspects of interphase chromosome arrangement and movement in root cells of living, untreated seedlings. (plantphysiol.org)
- We use live cell imaging to determine the interphase 3D arrangement of transgene-encoded fluorescent tags on chromosome 5 in trisomic and triploid plants. (nih.gov)
- Although trisomy 5 does not grossly distort the interphase arrangement of fluorescent-tagged sites on chromosome 5, it may somewhat enhance associations between transgene alleles. (nih.gov)
- By the end of Interphase, after G2, the cell is large enough to begin dividing and has two full sets of DNA (chromosomes). (prezi.com)
- As Prof. Andreas Houben let us know: "Elimination of B chromosomes occurs due to mitotic chromosome nondisjunction. (eurekalert.org)
- de la Barre AE, Gerson V, Gout SMC, Creaven M, Allis CD, Dimitrov S (2000) Core histone N-termini play an essential role in mitotic chromosome condensation. (springer.com)
Replicate and divide1
- Goatgrass, a progenitor of our common wheat, can carry up to 8 of these supernumerary chromosomes. (eurekalert.org)
- Adult plant resistance (APR) to leaf rust and stripe rust derived from the wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) line PI250413 was previously identified in RL6077 (=Thatcher*6/PI250413). (springer.com)
- Dyck PL, Samborski DJ (1979) Adult-plant leaf rust resistance in PI 250413, an introduction of common wheat. (springer.com)
- The AX content in wheat was increased by the addition of chromosomes 5U g , 7U g , and 1U b while water-soluble AX was increased by the addition of chromosomes 5U, 5M, and 7M, and to a lesser extent by chromosomes 3, 4, 6U g , and 2M b . (frontiersin.org)
- Chromosomes 5U g and 7M b also affected the structure of wheat AX, as shown by the pattern of oligosaccharides released by digestion with endoxylanase. (frontiersin.org)
- Addition of Aegilops U- and M-genome chromosomes 5 and 7 improves seed protein and fiber content and composition in wheat. (frontiersin.org)
- Nine wheat-barley addition lines were utilized to determine which barley chromosomes and chromosome arms carry resistance genes. (apsnet.org)
- The incidence of bunt infection in wheat-barley hybrid plants was examined. (apsnet.org)
- Several loci have been identified that affect chromosome pairing in hexaploid wheat (reviewed by S ears 1976 ). (genetics.org)
- Distal chromosome pairing initiation in wheat explains the failure of homologous synapsis after colchicine-induced inhibition of bouquet formation ( C orredor and N aranjo 2007 ). (genetics.org)
- Several of the 21 chromosomes of hexaploid wheat contain translocations of considerable size ( G ale 1990 ). (genetics.org)
- It is reasonable to expect that undetected chromosome structural variations exist in hexaploid wheat. (genetics.org)
- E ndo (1988) ( 1990 ) ascertained that certain Aegilops chromosomes, particularly from Aegilops cylindrica host, when present as monosomic additions to wheat, caused random, mostly terminal, deletions in wheat chromosomes. (genetics.org)
- The characterization of paleo-duplicationsrepresented by 11,737 orthologs and 4,382 paralogs identified in fivespecies belonging to three of the agronomically most importantsubfamilies of grasses, that is, Ehrhartoideae (rice) Panicoideae (sor-ghum, maize), and Pooideae (wheat, barley), permitted us to proposea model for an ancestral genome with a minimal size of 33.6 Mbstructured in five proto-chromosomes containing at least 9,138 pre-dicted proto-genes. (docslide.fr)
- He has pioneered the use of flow cytometry in plant science for the analysis of nuclear genome size and regularly holds international training courses on the subject. (wiley.com)
- He is a taxonomist specializing in plant biosystematics, including genome size determination and has co-authored a book on taxonomy analysis. (wiley.com)
- The correlations of genome size with chromosome number and size, with the phylogeny of the group and with growth forms and habitats were also examined. (jcvi.org)
- This is substantially larger than estimates for other dioecious plants with homomorphic sex chromosomes, especially given the small genome size of M. annua . (preprints.org)
- Whilst we often think of somatic cells in an organism as containing the same DNA and therefore the same number of chromosomes, it is surprising, how often this is not the case. (eurekalert.org)
- B chromosomes are "selfish" chromosomes, which bring no apparent benefit to the organism. (eurekalert.org)
- This absence of specialized tissues for transporting water and dissolved food throughout the organism limits terrestrial forms to being very short plants, since the only way to move substances through the plant body is by osmosis and diffusion from surface moisture. (biologyreference.com)
- Ophioglossum reticulatum has 1,440 chromosomes, the highest number of any organism known to science. (britannica.com)
- Feulgen bands can be obtained at the sites of constitutive heterochromatin in the chromosomes of Anemone blanda, Fritillaria lanceolata and Scilla siberica, simply by means of a short or extended acid hydrolysis. (biologists.org)
- Grif VG, Valovich EM (1977) On the mechanism of revealing heterochromatin segments of chromosomes with cold. (springer.com)
- By using new cytogenetic tools to identify all of the homoeologous chromosomes, we conducted a cytological investigation of 50 resynthesized Brassica napus allopolyploids across generations S 0:1 to S 5:6 and in the S 10:11 generation. (pnas.org)
- Dosage balance requirements maintained chromosome numbers at or near the tetraploid level, and the loss and gain of chromosomes frequently involved homoeologous chromosome replacement and compensation. (pnas.org)
- Many previous studies have lacked the chromosome-specific markers necessary to identify all homoeologous chromosomes. (pnas.org)
- Little is known about the stability of homoeologous chromosomes and the mechanisms for chromosome change in large populations of resynthesized allopolyploids. (pnas.org)
- Sixty-five percent of these 1918 loci mapped to the long arms of homoeologous group 4 chromosomes, while 35% mapped to the short arms. (genetics.org)
- 2. Genome Structure and Chromosome. (nhbs.com)
- You will monitor and characterise the role of the three-dimensional chromosome structure during the interaction of A. thaliana with different microbial pathogens. (findaphd.com)
- The alignment is further mediated and cemented by a three-dimensional zipperlike structure surrounding each set of paired homologous chromosomes, the synaptonemal complex. (biologyreference.com)
- This study confirmed the complex structure of chromosome 4A that contains two reciprocal translocations and two inversions, previously identified. (genetics.org)
- A cellular structure known as the mitotic spindle forms, pulling pairs of replicated chromosomes apart so that the two cells receive identical sets of chromosomes. (blogspot.com)
- When taken together, these observations show that changes in the physical structure of the chromosome can have large effects on the positioning of COs within that chromosome. (biomedcentral.com)
- A chromosome is a structure that occurs within cells and that contains the cell's genetic material. (encyclopedia.com)
- This study partially fills the noticeable gaps between our knowledge of the elementary DNA-protamine structure and the higher-order chromosome packing in human sperm cells. (biologists.org)
- Readers can enjoy the visual tour within cells and will obtain new insights into plant cell structure. (springer.com)
- Commonly, many people think the structure of a chromosome is in an "X" shape. (wikipedia.org)
- Researchers have now been able to model the structure of chromosomes when they are active. (wikipedia.org)
- Structure of Chromosomes Revealed. (wikipedia.org)