In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A nucleic acid sequence that contains an above average number of ADENINE and THYMINE bases.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.
The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.
The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.

Telomere dysfunction provokes regional amplification and deletion in cancer genomes. (1/1089)

Telomere dysfunction and associated fusion-breakage in the mouse encourages epithelial carcinogenesis and a more humanized genomic profile that includes nonreciprocal translocations (NRTs). Here, array comparative genomic hybridization was used to determine the pathogenic significance of NRTs and to determine whether telomere dysfunction also drives amplifications and deletions of cancer-relevant loci. Compared to tumors arising in mice with intact telomeres, tumors with telomere dysfunction possessed higher levels of genomic instability and showed numerous amplifications and deletions in regions syntenic to human cancer hotspots. These observations suggest that telomere-based crisis provides a mechanism of chromosomal instability, including regional amplifications and deletions, that drives carcinogenesis. This model provides a platform for discovery of genes responsible for the major cancers affecting aged humans.  (+info)

Fine linkage mapping of the blood pressure quantitative trait locus region on rat chromosome 1. (2/1089)

To narrow the area known to contain the blood pressure quantitative trait locus (QTL) on rat chromosome 1, we constructed a fine linkage map covering the blood pressure OTL region on the chromosome using 22 genetic markers informative for stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats of the Izumo colony (SHRSP/Izm) and Wistar-Kyoto rats of the Izumo colony (WKY/Izm). Linkage mapping was done by genotyping 626 backcrossed rats from matings between SHRSP/Izm and WKY/Izm. Nineteen genetic markers informative for the two strains were selected from public databases. Two markers were newly isolated by screening a rat genomic library. One marker was mapped using a restriction endonuclease polymorphism. The region between DlWox29 and D1Smu11 was covered with 22 informative markers placed every 0.6 cM on average. In addition, 6 physiological candidates for a hypertension gene were mapped in this region either by linkage or by radiation hybrid (RH) mapping. This information should be essential for the construction and analysis of congenic strains for this QTL region.  (+info)

Conservation of relative chromosome positioning in normal and cancer cells. (3/1089)

Chromosomes exist in the interphase nucleus as individual chromosome territories. It is unclear to what extent chromosome territories occupy particular positions with respect to each other and how structural rearrangements, such as translocations, affect chromosome organization within the cell nucleus. Here we analyze the relative interphase positioning of chromosomes in mouse lymphoma cells compared to normal splenocytes. We show that in a lymphoma cell line derived from an ATM(-/-) mouse, two translocated chromosomes are preferentially positioned in close proximity to each other. The relative position of the chromosomes involved in these translocations is conserved in normal splenocytes. Relative positioning of chromosomes in normal splenocytes is not due to their random distribution in the interphase nucleus and persists during mitosis. These observations demonstrate that the relative arrangement of chromosomes in the interphase nucleus can be conserved between normal and cancer cells and our data support the notion that physical proximity facilitates rearrangements between chromosomes.  (+info)

Chromosomal association of Ran during meiotic and mitotic divisions. (4/1089)

Recent studies in Xenopus egg extracts indicate that the small G protein Ran has a central role in spindle assembly and nuclear envelope reformation. We determined Ran localization and dynamics in cells during M phase. By immunofluorescence, Ran is accumulated on the chromosomes of meiosis-II-arrested Xenopus eggs. In living cells, fluorescently labeled Ran associated with the chromosomes in Xenopus and remained associated during anaphase when eggs were artificially activated. Fluorescent Ran associated with chromosomes in mouse eggs, during meiotic maturation and early embryonic divisions in starfish, and to a lesser degree during mitosis of a cultured mammalian cell line. Chromosomal Ran undergoes constant flux. From photobleach experiments in immature starfish oocytes, chromosomal Ran has a k(off) of approximately 0.06 second(-1), and binding analysis suggests that there is a single major site. The chromosomal interactions may serve to keep Ran-GTP in the vicinity of the chromosomes for spindle assembly and nuclear envelope reformation.  (+info)

Male mouse recombination maps for each autosome identified by chromosome painting. (5/1089)

Linkage maps constructed from genetic analysis of gene order and crossover frequency provide few clues to the basis of genomewide distribution of meiotic recombination, such as chromosome structure, that influences meiotic recombination. To bridge this gap, we have generated the first cytological recombination map that identifies individual autosomes in the male mouse. We prepared meiotic chromosome (synaptonemal complex [SC]) spreads from 110 mouse spermatocytes, identified each autosome by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization of chromosome-specific DNA libraries, and mapped >2,000 sites of recombination along individual autosomes, using immunolocalization of MLH1, a mismatch repair protein that marks crossover sites. We show that SC length is strongly correlated with crossover frequency and distribution. Although the length of most SCs corresponds to that predicted from their mitotic chromosome length rank, several SCs are longer or shorter than expected, with corresponding increases and decreases in MLH1 frequency. Although all bivalents share certain general recombination features, such as few crossovers near the centromeres and a high rate of distal recombination, individual bivalents have unique patterns of crossover distribution along their length. In addition to SC length, other, as-yet-unidentified, factors influence crossover distribution leading to hot regions on individual chromosomes, with recombination frequencies as much as six times higher than average, as well as cold spots with no recombination. By reprobing the SC spreads with genetically mapped BACs, we demonstrate a robust strategy for integrating genetic linkage and physical contig maps with mitotic and meiotic chromosome structure.  (+info)

Gene density and transcription influence the localization of chromatin outside of chromosome territories detectable by FISH. (6/1089)

Genes can be transcribed from within chromosome territories; however, the major histocompatibilty complex locus has been reported extending away from chromosome territories, and the incidence of this correlates with transcription from the region. A similar result has been seen for the epidermal differentiation complex region of chromosome 1. These data suggested that chromatin decondensation away from the surface of chromosome territories may result from, and/or may facilitate, transcription of densely packed genes subject to coordinate regulation.To investigate whether localization outside of the visible confines of chromosome territories can also occur for regions that are not coordinately regulated, we have examined the spatial organization of human 11p15.5 and the syntenic region on mouse chromosome 7. This region is gene rich but its genes are not coordinately expressed, rather overall high levels of transcription occur in several cell types. We found that chromatin from 11p15.5 frequently extends away from the chromosome 11 territory. Localization outside of territories was also detected for other regions of high gene density and high levels of transcription. This is shown to be partly dependent on ongoing transcription. We suggest that local gene density and transcription, rather than the activity of individual genes, influences the organization of chromosomes in the nucleus.  (+info)

A divide-and-conquer approach to fragment assembly. (7/1089)

MOTIVATION: One of the major problems in DNA sequencing is assembling the fragments obtained by shotgun sequencing. Most existing fragment assembly techniques follow the overlap-layout-consensus approach. This framework requires extensive computation in each phase and becomes inefficient with increasing number of fragments. RESULTS: We propose a new algorithm which solves the overlap, layout, and consensus phases simultaneously. The fragments are clustered with respect to their Average Mutual Information (AMI) profiles using the k-means algorithm. This removes the unnecessary burden of considering the collection of fragments as a whole. Instead, the orientation and overlap detection are solved efficiently, within the clusters. The algorithm has successfully reconstructed both artificial and real data. AVAILABILITY: Available on request from the authors.  (+info)

A cluster of eight hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase genes belonging to the aldo-keto reductase supergene family on mouse chromosome 13. (8/1089)

A subclass of hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD) are NADP(H)-dependent oxidoreductases that belong to the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily. They are involved in prereceptor or intracrine steroid modulation, and also act as bile acid-binding proteins. The HSD family members characterized thus far in human and rat have a high degree of protein sequence similarity but exhibit distinct substrate specificity. Here we report the identification of nine murine AKR genes in a cluster on chromosome 13 by a combination of molecular cloning and in silico analysis of this region. These include four previously isolated mouse HSD genes (Akr1c18, Akr1c6, Akr1c12, Akr1c13), the more distantly related Akr1e1, and four novel HSD genes. These genes exhibit highly conserved exon/intron organization and protein sequence predictions indicate 75% amino acid similarity. The previously identified AKR protein active site residues are invariant among all nine proteins, but differences are observed in regions that have been implicated in determining substrate specificity. Differences also occur in tissue expression patterns, with expression of some genes restricted to specific tissues and others expressed at high levels in multiple tissues. Our findings dramatically expand the repertoire of AKR genes and identify unrecognized family members with potential roles in the regulation of steroid metabolism.  (+info)

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The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers and educators in the field of genetics. Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level.. Online ISSN: 1943-2631. ...
The CSS Resource comprises 22 mouse lines, each homozygous for a single A/J chromosome (Chr 1-19, X or Y and mitochondria) on a genetic background that is otherwise C57BL/J that were generated by Dr. Joseph Nadeau (Case Western Reserve University) and his colleagues. The CSS mice are available from The Jackson Laboratories. However, to save time and money, the MGH CSS Resource maintains CSS breeding colonies that are housed in the Simches-8 barrier facility, adjacent to a procedure room that will have equipment for basic standardized phenotyping, including behavioral and metabolic measurements. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic mapping of the T lymphocyte-specific transcription factor 7 gene on mouse Chromosome 11. AU - Kingsmore, S. F.. AU - Watson, M. L.. AU - Seldin, Michael F. PY - 1995/5. Y1 - 1995/5. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0029301425&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0029301425&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1007/BF00364808. DO - 10.1007/BF00364808. M3 - Article. C2 - 7626895. AN - SCOPUS:0029301425. VL - 6. SP - 378. JO - Mammalian Genome. JF - Mammalian Genome. SN - 0938-8990. IS - 5. ER - ...
The host genetic factors affecting susceptibility to disseminated candidiasis are incompletely defined. Peltz et al. (p. 4472-4479) used a next-generation computational genetic mapping program to identify genetic factors affecting inbred strain survival after disseminated candidiasis. Their analysis indicated that genetic variation within early classical complement pathway components (C1q, C1r, and C1s) affected survival. This result was verified by demonstrating that serum C1 binding to Candida albicans was strongly affected by C1rs alleles, as was survival in chromosome substitution strains. A combinatorial, conditional genetic model, involving an interaction between the C5 and C1r/s alleles, accurately predicted survival after disseminated candidiasis. Beyond its potential applicability to infectious diseases, this combinatorial genetic model could provide insight into the genetic architecture for susceptibility to autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases. ...
|p||em||strong||/strong||/em|The wild-derived inbred strain SPRET/Ei is often used in crosses with common inbred strains to create highly polymorphic panels for genetic mapping. SPRET/Ei may be useful for studies relating to inflammatory disorders.|/p|
BACKGROUND: Complex etiology and pathogenesis of pathophysiological components of the cardio-metabolic syndrome have been demonstrated in humans and animal models. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have generated extensive physiological, genetic and genome-wide gene expression profiles in a congenic strain of the spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat containing a large region (110 cM, 170 Mb) of rat chromosome 1 (RNO1), which covers diabetes and obesity quantitative trait loci (QTL), introgressed onto the genetic background of the normoglycaemic Brown Norway (BN) strain. This novel disease model, which by the length of the congenic region closely mirrors the situation of a chromosome substitution strain, exhibits a wide range of abnormalities directly relevant to components of the cardio-metabolic syndrome and diabetes complications, including hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, enhanced insulin secretion both in vivo and in vitro, insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and altered pancreatic
Salicylic acid (SA) is a phytohormone required for a full resistance against some pathogens in Arabidopsis, and NPR1 (Non-Expressor of Pathogenesis Related Genes 1) is the only gene with a strong effect on resistance induced by SA which has been described. There can be additional components of SA perception that escape the traditional approach of mutagenesis. An alternative to that approach is searching in the natural variation of Arabidopsis. Different methods of analyzing the variation between ecotypes have been tried and it has been found that measuring the growth of a virulent isolate of Pseudomonas syringae after the exogenous application of SA is the most effective one. Two ecotypes, Edi-0 and Stw-0, have been crossed, and their F2 has been studied. There are two significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in this population, and there is one QTL in each one of the existing mapping populations Col-4 ¿ Laer-0 and Laer-0 ¿ No-0. They have different characteristics: while one QTL is only ...
Each QTL identified in the crosses of inbred mice generally spans a large genomic distance, sometimes almost an entire chromosome. In complex phenotypes such as atherosclerosis, where a large number of genes are involved, transferring a target region onto an inbred background and creating congenic line is a powerful step toward identifying causative genes. Here we have analyzed the effect of the atherosclerosis QTL Aath4 by establishing a congenic line (Aath4aDBA/DBA), where the 5′ region of DBA Aath4 was backcrossed onto a 129S6-Apoe−/− background. As expected, the resulting Aath4aDBA/DBA males had significantly larger plaques, and macrophages isolated from these mice exhibited reduced efferocytosis as a consequence of allele-specific decrease in MERTK expression. Together, our results provide strong evidence that the increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis determined by the DBA allele of Aath4 is, at least in part, due to decreased MERTK expression.. MERTK is known to play a ...
Congenic strains are produced by transferring the transgene/KO allele to a new genetic background strain that is more appropriate for phenotypic analysis. The APF offer a speed congenics service that can establish a congenic strain within 18 months.
For over 40 years germ-cell mutagenesis experiments have generated many new mutations at the brown (b or Tyrp1) locus on mouse Chromosome (Chr) 4. These mutations, many of which are deletions, were recovered by the specific-locus mutagenesis technique. Previous analysis of a panel of brown deletions …
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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1. Selective Killing Of Cancer Cells By Suppression Of Geminin Activity Eukaryotic cells normally restrict genome duplication to once per cell division. In meta...
8220; We know at least one new download An Atlas accuracy every flavor. This Handbook is not environmental lover into how the drought shows. Mind Hacks reveals an inhibitor-1 search and nature thought that has wide entropy and server on website and care books.
The Ly-6 locus on mouse chromosome 15 encodes a family of 10-12 kDa proteins that are linked to the cell surface by a glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol anchor and have cell signaling and cell adhesion properties. Expression of Ly-6 proteins is tightly regulated during development; these proteins continu.... Full description. ...
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Autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) in humans and NOD mice results from interactions between multiple susceptibility genes (termed Idd) located within and outside the MHC. Despite sharing ∼88% of their genome with NOD mice, including the H2(g7) MHC haplotype and other important Idd genes, the closely related nonobese resistant (NOR) strain fails to develop T1D because of resistance alleles in residual genomic regions derived from C57BLKS mice mapping to chromosomes (Chr.) 1, 2, and 4. We previously produced a NOD background strain with a greatly decreased incidence of T1D as the result of a NOR-derived 44.31-Mb congenic region on distal Chr. 4 containing disease-resistance alleles that decrease the pathogenic activity of autoreactive B and CD4 T cells. In this study, a series of subcongenic strains for the NOR-derived Chr. 4 region was used to significantly refine genetic loci regulating diabetogenic B and CD4 T cell activity. Analyses of these subcongenic strains revealed the presence of at least two
Information on endogenous retroviruses fixed in the horse (Equus caballus) genome is scarce. The recent availability of a draft sequence of the horse genome enables the detection of such integrated viruses by similarity search. Using translated nucleotide fragments from gamma-, beta-, and delta-retroviral genera for initial searches, a full-length beta-retrovirus genome was retrieved from a horse chromosome 5 contig. The provirus, tentatively named EqERV-beta1 (for the first equine endogenous beta-retrovirus), was 10434 nucleotide (nt) in length with the usual retroviral genome structure of 5LTR-gag-pro-pol-env-3LTR. The LTRs were 1361 nt long, and differed approximately 1% from each other, suggestive of a relatively recent integration. Coding sequences for gag, pro and pol were present in three different reading-frames, as common for beta-retroviruses, and the reading frames were completely open, except that the env gene was interrupted by a single stopcodon. No reading frame was apparent ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Duncan Simpson.. Cohesins mediate sister chromatid cohesion, which is essential for chromosome segregation and postreplicative DNA repair. In addition, cohesins appear to regulate gene expression and enhancer-promoter interactions. These noncanonical functions remained unexplained because knowledge of cohesin-binding sites and functional interactors in metazoans was lacking. We show that the distribution of cohesins on mammalian chromosome arms is not driven by transcriptional activity. Instead, mammalian cohesins occupy a subset of DNase I hypersensitive sites, many of which contain sequence motifs resembling the consensus for CTCF , a DNA -binding protein with enhancer blocking function and boundary element activity. We find cohesins at most CTCF sites and show that CTCF is required for cohesin localization to these sites. Recruitment by CTCF suggests a rationale for noncanonical cohesin functions and, because CTCF binding is sensitive to ...
Accumulating evidence converges on the possibility that chromosomes interact with each other to regulate transcription in trans. To systematically explore the epigenetic dimension of such interactions, we devised a strategy termed circular chromosome conformation capture (4C). This approach involves …
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
View Fig4/Fig4 Tg(ACTB-Fig4*I41T)705Mm/0 involves: 129 * C3H * C57BL/6J * CAST/Ei * SJL: phenotypes, images, diseases, and references.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Disruption of an imprinted gene cluster by a targeted chromosomal translocation in mice. AU - Cleary, Michele A.. AU - Van Raamsdonk, Catherine D.. AU - Levorse, John. AU - Zheng, Binhai. AU - Bradley, Allan. AU - Tilghman, Shirley M.. PY - 2001/9/12. Y1 - 2001/9/12. N2 - Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic process in which the activity of a gene is determined by its parent of origin. Mechanisms governing genomic imprinting are just beginning to be understood. However, the tendency of imprinted genes to exist in chromosomal clusters suggests a sharing of regulatory elements. To better understand imprinted gene clustering, we disrupted a cluster of imprinted genes on mouse distal chromosome 7 using the Cre/IoxP recombination system. In mice carrying a site-specific translocation separating Cdkn1c and Kcnq1, imprinting of the genes retained on chromosome 7, including Kcnq1, Kcnq1ot1, Ascl2, H19 and Igf2, is unaffected, demonstrating that these genes are not regulated by elements ...
UW-Madison. We have used both classical genetics and sequence-based genomics in search of mouse modifiers of liver tumorigenesis. The dramatic 20-50-fold difference in tumor multiplicity between carcinogen-treated male C57BL/6 (B6) and C3H/HeJ (C3H) mice has been shown to map mainly to distal chromosome 1. We have bred congenic animals carrying 70cM of chromosome 1 from C3H on an otherwise B6 genetic background. Relative to B6 animals, these B6.C31 mice developed up to 14-fold more liver tumors. Analysis of recombinant animals carrying smaller portions of the C3H congenic region suggests the presence of two modifiers, one of which has a 5-8-fold effect on tumor multiplicity and lies in a 7 Mb region on distal chromosome 1. Ras mutations are more prevalent in C3H tumors than in B6. By comparing ras mutations in tumors from the B6.C31and parental strains, we have shown that the C3H alleles on distal chromosome 1 are not sufficient to recapitulate the high ras mutant frequency of C3H tumors, ...
Cary, North Carolina. Dr. David M. Stelly of Texas A&M University was selected as the recipient of the 2018 Cotton Biotechnology Award for his contributions known all over the world covering cytogenetics, chromosome substitution lines, and the widely used 63K SNP Chip genotyping tool. The award announcement was made by Dr. Don Jones of Cotton Incorporated at the Plant & Animal Genome Conference in San Diego.. Commenting on the research efforts of Dr. Stelly, Dr. Jonathan Wendel of Iowa State University lauded his history of accomplishments: His training was in classical plant cytogenetics, but over the years he has expanded into many different aspects of plant genomics, including comparative mapping, the development of new tools for germplasm characterization, the creation and genomic evaluation of chromosome substitution lines, and genome sequencing. Dr. Stelly has maintained a record of significant publication throughout his career, with more than 150 contributions to the scientific ...
A general experimental design that allows mapping of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) into a 1-cM interval is presented. The design consists of a series of strains, termed
As ruled by Opinion 2027 the scientific name of the Wild Horse can either be Equus ferus (as a species) or Equus ferus ferus (as a subspecies). It can not be Equus caballus ferus, as has erroneously been stated in Mammal Species of the World link: Equus caballus ferus (in error).. ...
Signals of dominance and submissiveness are central to conspecific communication in many species. For domestic animals, sensitivities to these signals in h
Abstract Book of the 33rd Conference of the International Society for Animal Genetics: P1000-P1041: Bioinformatics, statistical genetics, and genomic ...
The genome of a female Hereford cow has been sequenced by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium, a team of researchers led by the National Institutes of Health and the U.S. Department of Agriculture.[1] It is one of the largest genomes ever sequenced. The results, published in the journal Science on April 24, 2009,[2] are likely to have a major impact on livestock breeding.[3] They were obtained by more than 300 scientists in 25 countries after six years of effort.. The size of the bovine genome is 3 Gb (3 billion base pairs). It contains approximately 22,000 genes of which 14,000 are common to all mammalian species. Bovines share 80 percent of their genes with humans; cows are less similar to humans than rodents (humans and rodents belong to the clade of Supraprimates). They also have about 1,000 genes shared with dogs and rodents but not identified in humans.[4]. The charting of key DNA differences, also known as haplotypes, between several varieties of cattle could allow ...
Hypertension is a complex cardiovascular disease, and it is a daunting task to determine the degree to which each of a multitude of interrelated and environmentally influenced molecular and biochemical pathways contributes to the pathological rise in blood pressure. The overall purpose of the PhysGen studies, using chromosomal substitution techniques in the rat, is to expand our knowledge base related to the interrelationships among genes, environmental factors, and the regulatory systems that control blood pressure.. The specific purpose of the vascular protocol, described herein, was to uncover broad genomic regions that contain genes that may be involved in the regulation of vascular tone and the changes in vascular reactivity that occur in experimental models of hypertension when maintained on a high-salt diet. The summarized data presented here are derived from a first-pass high-throughput screening of several consomic strains of male rats and their parental strains. As such, these studies ...
100126308 Homo sapiens , 723941 Mus musculus , 100313266 Bos taurus , 100314080 Rattus norvegicus , 100315083 Equus caballus , 100315571 Macaca mulatta , 102464669 Ovis aries ...
The mule is an example of hybrid infertility; it is a hybrid between a male ass (Equus africanus) and a female horse (Equus caballus) and is somatically vigorous, but sterile. Photograph by Stephen Garton.. ...
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Domieszka opóźniająca wiązanie. CHRYSO®Tard CHR jest domieszką modyfikującą reakcję hydratacji cementu poprzez wytworzenie cieniutkiej warstewki otulającej ziarna cementu. Po zakończeniu procesu wiązania twardnienie przebiega szybko prowadząc do uzyskania dużych wytrzymałości końcowych.. ...
This weekend, Lisa, a client of ours and a single mom, called sobbing, Im so angry right now, I dont know what to do. I even hit my daughter- Im being so critical and I cant control myself! I told her everything would be OK and to take a deep breath: she did. She continued, I was outside of D.C.…. ...
The objective of this study was to confirm a quantitative trait locus for milk production described in a previous study on bovine chromosome 20 using an independent sample. A total of 1191 progeny tested bulls were analyzed for six microsatellite markers spanning bovine chromosome 20. Using multiple-marker regression, we obtained evidence (P , 0.5) for the presence of a quantitative traits locus in the same chromosomal region an affecting the same trait as described in the first study, therefore confirming genuine nature of this QTL.. ...
Deerhake, Marion Elizabeth, Quantitative trait loci analysis of blood pressure in an eight intercross mouse study (2008). Summer and Academic Year Student Reports. 2234 ...
Bovine chromosomes 2 (BTA2) and 5 (BTA5) of purebred, half-sib progeny sired by five Japanese black bulls were genotyped using microsatellite DNA markers. The data were subjected to linkage analysis for the detection and mapping of segregating quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing live weight, average daily gain and body measurements at weaning. Probability coefficients of inheriting allele 1 or 2 from the sire at specific chromosomal intervals were computed. The phenotypic data on progeny were regressed on these probability coefficients in a within-common-parent regression analysis. Fixed effects of sex, parity and season of birth as well as age as a covariate, were fitted in a linear model to the phenotypic data and subsequently analysed using QTL Express by generating an F-statistic through permutation tests at chromosome-wide significance thresholds over 10, 000 iterations at 1 cM intervals. Highly significant (P<0.01) segregating QTL for body measurements were detected on BTA2 for hip
The objective of this study was to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms using a bovine chromosome 14 high-density SNP panel after accounting for the effect of DGAT1. Linkage disequilibrium information and sire heterozygosity were used to select m
Chromosome conformation capture (3C) technologies can be used to investigate 3D genomic structures. However, high background noise, high costs, and a lack of straightforward noise evaluation in current methods impede the advancement of 3D genomic research. Here we developed a simple digestion-ligation-only Hi-C (DLO Hi-C) technology to explore the 3D landscape of the genome. This method requires only two rounds of digestion and ligation, without the need for biotin labeling and pulldown. Non-ligated DNA was efficiently removed in a cost-effective step by purifying specific linker-ligated DNA fragments. Notably, random ligation could be quickly evaluated in an early quality-control step before sequencing. Moreover, an in situ version of DLO Hi-C using a four-cutter restriction enzyme has been developed. We applied DLO Hi-C to delineate the genomic architecture of THP-1 and K562 cells and uncovered chromosomal translocations. This technology may facilitate investigation of genomic organization, gene
Cloning and characterization of highly polymorphic porcine microsatellites. The extension coat color locus and the loci for blood group O and tyrosine aminotransferase are on pig chromosome 6
TY - JOUR. T1 - Localization of the osteocalcin gene cluster on mouse Chromosome 3. AU - Desbois, C.. AU - Seldin, Michael F. AU - Karsenty, G.. PY - 1994/5. Y1 - 1994/5. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0028427906&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0028427906&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1007/BF00389550. DO - 10.1007/BF00389550. M3 - Article. C2 - 7915557. AN - SCOPUS:0028427906. VL - 5. SP - 321. EP - 322. JO - Mammalian Genome. JF - Mammalian Genome. SN - 0938-8990. IS - 5. ER - ...
It has been estimated that exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens may contribute significantly to the causation of a sizable fraction, perhaps a majority, of human cancers. Human carcinogens act through a variety of genotoxic and non-genotoxic mechanisms. Genotoxic carcinogens can attack biological macromolecules such as DNA and RNA either directly or indirectly through metabolism, resulting in the formation of adducts with these macromolecules. If DNA adducts escape cellular repair mechanisms and persist, they may lead to miscoding, resulting in permanent mutations. Non-genotoxic carcinogens act by the mechanisms such as induction of inflammation, immunosuppression, formation of reactive oxygen species, activation of receptors, and epigenetic silencing. Together, these genotoxic and non-genotoxic mechanisms can alter signal-transduction pathways that finally result in hypermutability, genomic instability, loss of proliferation control, and resistance to apoptosis - some of the ...
Following the latest advice from Public Health England regarding the coronavirus, the Horniman has taken the difficult decision to close the Museum to the public from Wednesday 18 March until further notice.. Our 16.5 acres of beautiful Gardens remain open. The Garden toilets are now open with an increased cleaning regimen however the Sound Garden remains closed.. We will continue to update horniman.ac.uk and our social media channels whilst the Museum is closed and will advertise its reopening well in advance.. We are asking the public to adhere to social distancing guidance in the Gardens.. We thank you for your understanding and patience during this difficult period. Your ongoing support is so very important to us, and we will continue to share stories and objects from the collections throughout this time.. Read more about the closures.. ...
K00693 GYS; glycogen synthase [EC:2.4.1.11] K00693 GYS; glycogen synthase [EC:2.4.1.11] K00750 GYG1; glycogenin [EC:2.4.1.186] K00750 GYG1; glycogenin [EC:2.4.1.186 ...
Hall MA, Norman PJ, Thiel B, Tiwari H, Peiffer A, Vaughan RW, Prescott S, Leppert M, Schork NJ, Lanchbury JS, Quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 18 control variation in levels of T and B lymphocyte subpopulations. Am J Hum Genet70(5):1172-82 ...
Hall MA, Norman PJ, Thiel B, Tiwari H, Peiffer A, Vaughan RW, Prescott S, Leppert M, Schork NJ, Lanchbury JS, Quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 18 control variation in levels of T and B lymphocyte subpopulations. Am J Hum Genet70(5):1172-82 ...
Our chromosome conformation capture kit simplifies chromatin folding studies enabling determination of DNA contact frequencies and chromosome conformation
Evidence of a locus on BTA5 involved in the expression of the rat-tail phenotype in the SEGFAM-population. In: 15th Day of the Doctoral Student : abstracts, 13 May 2014 Dummerstorf (Schriftenreihe / Leibniz-Institut für Nutztierbiologie , 23) : 29-32 ...
Evidence of a locus on BTA5 involved in the expression of the rat-tail phenotype in the SEGFAM-population. In: 15th Day of the Doctoral Student : abstracts, 13 May 2014 Dummerstorf (Schriftenreihe / Leibniz-Institut für Nutztierbiologie , 23) : 29-32 ...
Benirschke, K.; Hsu, T.C. (1974). An Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes. 8. New York, USA: Springer. pp. 153-6. ISBN 978-1-4615- ... Mammalian Species. The American Society of Mammalogists (375): 1-8. doi:10.2307/3504297.. ... The autosomes consist of five pairs of small to medium-sized metacentrics and submetacentrics.[16] The X chromosome is the ... The dromedary has 74 diploid chromosomes, the same as other camelids. ...
Benirschke, K.; Hsu, T.C. (1974). An Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes. 8. New York, USA: Springer. pp. 153-6. ISBN 978-1-4615- ... Mammalian Species (375): 1-8. doi:10.2307/3504297. JSTOR 3504297.. *^ Taylor, K.M.; Hungerford, D.A.; Snyder, R.L.; Ulmer, F.A. ... The autosomes consist of five pairs of small to medium-sized metacentrics and submetacentrics.[16] The X chromosome is the ... The dromedary has 74 diploid chromosomes, the same as other camelids. ...
Mammalian Chromosomes Newsletter. 4 (14). Hirschhorn K, Cooper HL, Firschein IL (1965). "Deletion of short arms of chromosome 4 ... Cooper H, Hirschhorn K (1961). "Apparent deletion of short arms of one chromosome (4 or 5) in a child with defects of midline ...
Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes. John Wiley & Sons, 14. apr. 2006 - 544 sider. ISBN 978-04-71779-04-9 ...
O'Brien, S.J.; Menninger, J.C.; Nash, W.G. (14 April 2006). Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes. John Wiley & Sons. p. 173. ISBN 978 ... In any case, that value was previously thought to be the highest chromosome number known for a mammal, but it has since been ... Contreras LC, Torres-Mura JC, Spotorno AE (1990). "The largest known chromosome number for a mammal, in a South American desert ... Ichthyomyini: Muridae) from the Andes of southern Ecuador" (PDF). International Journal of Mammalian Biology. 62: 43-52. ...
Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Liss. pp. 342-355. doi:10.1002/0471779059. ISBN 9780471779056. Robinson, T. ... The Pronolagus chromosomes have undergone four fusions and one fission from the Lagomorpha ancestral state (2n=48), which ... All species in this genus have 21 pairs of chromosomes (2n = 42). The karotype for P. rupestris has been published. ... Robinson, T. J. (1980). "Comparative chromosome studies in the family Leporidae (Lagomorpha, Mammalia)". Cytogenetics and Cell ...
Caspersson, Torbjörn; Zech, Lore (1972). "Identification of Mammalian Chromosomes". Acta Endocrinologica. 71 (2_Suppla): S67- ... Casperson and Zech had earlier developed a new way of staining the chromosomes using a quinacrine mustard stain that made ... Møller, A.; Nilsson, H.; Caspersson, T.; Lomakka, G. (1972). "Identification of human chromosome regions by aid of computerized ... also proved that the band-pattern on the quinacrine mustard stained chromosome was unique for each of the 24 human chromosome ...
Atlas of mammalian chromosomes. O'Brien, Stephen J., Menninger, Joan C., Nash, William G. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Liss. 2006. ISBN ... Martin's Pres NYC); in 2007, he published a comprehensive "Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes", a photo-compendium of the karyotype ... Nash, W. G.; O'Brien, S. J. (1982-04-16). "Genetic mapping in mammals: chromosome map of domestic cat". Science. 216 (4543): ... He is known for his research contributions in comparative genomics, virology, genetic epidemiology, mammalian systematics and ...
"Reconstruction of Ancient Chromosomes Offers Insight Into Mammalian Evolution". UC Davis. 2017-06-21. Retrieved 2019-03-20.. ...
This tall (that chromosome), intelligent (that chromosome again), functionally nonviolent (that chromosome still again) fellow ... Hsu, T. C. (1979). Human and mammalian cytogenetics : an historical perspective. New York: Springer-Verlag. pp. 41-42. ISBN 0- ... In the wake of the establishment of the normal number of human chromosomes, 47,XYY was the last of the common sex chromosome ... ISBN 1-4051-9087-6. The addition of a Y chromosome to a normal male chromosome constitution does not produce a discernible ...
2006). Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes. New York: Wiley-Liss. p. 547. ISBN 978-0-471-35015-6. Di Berardino, D.; Nicodemo, D.; ... Koulischer, L; Tijskens, J; Mortelmans, J (1971). "Mammalian cytogenetics. IV. The chromosomes of two male Camelidae: Camelus ... The Y is a small metacentric chromosome, while the X is a large metacentric chromosome. The hybrid camel, a hybrid between ... A 2007 study flow sorted camel chromosomes, building on the fact that camels have 37 pairs of chromosomes (2n=74), and found ...
Benirschke, K.; Hsu, T.C. (1974). An Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes. 8. New York, USA: Springer. pp. 153-6. ISBN 978-1-4615- ... The X chromosome is the largest in the metacentric and submetacentric group. There are 31 pairs of acrocentrics. The ... The dromedary has 74 diploid chromosomes, the same as other camelids. The autosomes consist of five pairs of small to medium- ... 6432-4. Kohler-Rollefson, I.U. (1991). "Camelus dromedarius" (PDF). Mammalian Species (375): 1-8. doi:10.2307/3504297. JSTOR ...
1-9 Hsu, T. C.; Benirschke, Kurt (1977). "Hypsignathus monstrosus (Hammer-headed fruit bat)". An Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes ... The Ryukyu spiny rat In this system, there is only one sex chromosome, referred to as X. Males only have one X chromosome (X0 ... Its sperm normally contain either one X chromosome or no sex chromosomes at all. In a variant of this system, most individuals ... Maternal gametes always contain an X chromosome, so the sex of the animals' offspring depends on whether a sex chromosome is ...
Instead of the typical mammalian karyotype where females have two X chromosomes and males have one each of X and Y, males have ... Thus, females have 36 chromosomes (34 autosomes and two sex chromosomes), and males have 35 chromosomes (34 autosomes but only ... An Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes. pp. 13-16. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-6436-2_4. ISBN 978-1-4684-7997-3. Primus, Ashley; Harvey, ... Langevin, P.; Barclay, R. (1990). "Hypsignathus monstrosus". Mammalian Species. 357 (357): 1-4. doi:10.2307/3504110. JSTOR ...
Chow JC, Yen Z, Ziesche SM, Brown CJ (2005). "Silencing of the mammalian X chromosome". Annual Review of Genomics and Human ... The underlying mechanisms involves at least one extra X chromosome in addition to a Y chromosome such that the total chromosome ... Jacobs described her discovery of this first reported human or mammalian chromosome aneuploidy in her 1981 William Allan ... In mammals with more than one X chromosome, the genes on all but one X chromosome are not expressed; this is known as X ...
Telomeres form the terminal region of mammalian chromosomes and are essential for stability and aging and play central roles in ... The expression of Xist from the future inactive X-chromosome, and its subsequent coating of the inactive X-chromosome, occurs ... "Telomeric repeat containing RNA and RNA surveillance factors at mammalian chromosome ends". Science. 318 (5851): 798-801. ... The inactivation of a X-chromosome in female placental mammals is directed by one of the earliest and best characterized long ...
Effron, M.; Bogart, M. H.; Kumamoto, A. T.; Benirschke, K. (1976). "Chromosome studies in the mammalian subfamily Antilopinae ...
O'Brien, Stephen J., Meninger, Joan C., Nash, William G. (2006). Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes. John Wiley & sons. p. 78. ISBN ... origins of an XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system.". Mammalian Genome 8 (6): 418-22. PMID 9166586. ,accessdate=. requires ,url=. ( ... "Chromosome painting shows that skunks (Mephitidae, Carnivora) have highly rearranged karyotypes". Chromosome Res. 16 (8): 1215- ... The 2n=6 chromosome number is conserved in the entire family Culicidae, except in Chagasia bathana which has 2n=8.[42]. ...
"Role of chromosomes in cancerogenesis, as studied in serial tissue culture of mammalian cells". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 71 (6): ... Advances in cytogenetics facilitated discovery of chromosome abnormalities in neoplasms, including the Philadelphia chromosome ... 2007). "The dynamics of cancer chromosomes and genomes". Cytogenet Genome Res. 118 (2-4): 237-246. doi:10.1159/000108306. PMID ... Hauschka TS (September 1961). "The chromosomes in ontogeny and oncogeny". Cancer Res. 21: 957-74. PMID 13712320.. ...
The mouse has approximately 2.7 billion base pairs and 20 chromosomes. They can also be manipulated in ways that are illegal ... They are the most commonly used mammalian model organism, more common than rats. The mouse genome has been sequenced, and ... the mouse is one of the most successful mammalian genera living on Earth today. Mice, in certain contexts, can be considered ...
Gartler, S. M.; Riggs, A. D. (1983-01-01). "Mammalian X-chromosome inactivation". Annual Review of Genetics. 17: 155-190. doi: ... that is located on X chromosome. Considering the fact that once one X chromosome is inactivated in a cell, all other cells ... The method is based on X chromosome inactivation and it takes the advantage of having different methylation status of a gene ... Thanks to these qualities of HUMARA gene, clonal origin of any tissue from a female mammalian organism can be determined. The ...
Gerrard DT, Filatov DA (2005). "Positive and negative selection on mammalian Y chromosomes". Mol. Biol. Evol. 22 (6): 1423-32. ... Foresta C, Ferlin A, Moro E (2000). "Deletion and expression analysis of AZFa genes on the human Y chromosome revealed a major ... Agate RJ, Choe M, Arnold AP (2004). "Sex differences in structure and expression of the sex chromosome genes CHD1Z and CHD1W in ... "Entrez Gene: KDM6A lysine demethylase 6A". Lahn BT, Page DC (October 1997). "Functional coherence of the human Y chromosome". ...
Gerrard DT, Filatov DA (June 2005). "Positive and negative selection on mammalian Y chromosomes". Molecular Biology and ... Foresta C, Ferlin A, Moro E (May 2000). "Deletion and expression analysis of AZFa genes on the human Y chromosome revealed a ... December 1996). "An H-YDb epitope is encoded by a novel mouse Y chromosome gene". Nature Genetics. 14 (4): 474-8. doi:10.1038/ ... Agate RJ, Choe M, Arnold AP (February 2004). "Sex differences in structure and expression of the sex chromosome genes CHD1Z and ...
Hsu T.C., & Pomerat, C.M. (1953). Mammalian chromosomes in vitro II: A method for spreading the chromosomes of cells in tissue ... Hsu, T. C. (1952). Mammalian chromosomes in vitro I: The karyotype of man. Journal of Heredity, 43, 167-172. ... The correct diploid chromosome number of 46 human chromosomes was first reported three years later by Joe Hin Tjio and Albert ... He was the 13th president of American Society for Cell Biology, and known as the Father of Mammalian Cytogenetics. Hsu was born ...
... and 10 and human chromosome 19". Mammalian Genome. 6 (3): 212-3. doi:10.1007/BF00293017. PMID 7749232.. ... Jones JM, Popma SJ, Mizuta M, Seino S, Meisler MH (March 1995). "Synaptotagmin genes on mouse chromosomes 1, 7, ...
"Reconstruction of Ancient Chromosomes Offers Insight Into Mammalian Evolution". UC Davis. 2017-06-21. Retrieved 2019-03-20. ... Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 25: 141-151. doi:10.1007/s10914-016-9366-5. S2CID 3268953. Fulwood, Ethan L.; Boyer, Doug M.; ...
This can lead to the transfer of one chromosome's gene to the other chromosome, leaving two of the same gene on one chromosome ... Platt, Roy N.; Vandewege, Michael W.; Ray, David A. (March 2018). "Mammalian transposable elements and their impacts on genome ... A tandem duplication then occurs, creating a chromosome with two copies of the same gene. Figure 1 provides a visualization of ... These genes are found in different locations throughout the genome, but only about 13% are on different chromosomes or on ...
"Reconstruction of Ancient Chromosomes Offers Insight Into Mammalian Evolution". UC Davis. Retrieved 2017-07-27. "Earth ... Lewin and his colleagues used an algorithm to computationally recreate the chromosomes of the first eutherian mammal, the long- ... "Reconstruction and evolutionary history of eutherian chromosomes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114 (27): ...
Huberman JA, Riggs AD (March 1968). "On the mechanism of DNA replication in mammalian chromosomes". Journal of Molecular ... Because eukaryotes have linear chromosomes, DNA replication is unable to reach the very end of the chromosomes. Due to this ... The new round of replication will form the chromosome of the cell that is born two generations after the dividing cell. This ... This shortens the telomeres of the daughter DNA chromosome. As a result, cells can only divide a certain number of times before ...
Smith CL, Cantor CR (1989). "Evolving strategies for making physical maps of mammalian chromosomes". Genome. 31 (2): 1055-8. ...
大多數人類基因擁有許多的外顯子,且人類的內含子比位在其兩端的外顯子更長。這些基因參差不齊地分佈在染色體中,每一個染色體皆含有一些基因較多的區段與基因較少的區段。這些區段的差異,則與染色體帶(chromosome bands)及GC含量相關。基因密度所顯現 ... Nei M, Xu P, Glazko G. Estimation of divergence times from multiprotein sequences for a few mammalian species and several ... Human
McLean PJ, Farb DH, Russek SJ (Aug 1995). "Mapping of the alpha 4 subunit gene (GABRA4) to human chromosome 4 defines an alpha ... GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated ...
Maggi CA (Sep 1995). "The mammalian tachykinin receptors". General Pharmacology. 26 (5): 911-44. doi:10.1016/0306-3623(94)00292 ... chromosome localization, and functional expression of cDNA clones". Biochemistry. 30 (44): 10640-6. doi:10.1021/bi00108a006. ...
This article on a gene on human chromosome 19 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. *v ... "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome Res. 14 ( ...
... in males with normal chromosomes because they have only one X chromosome and few of the same genes are on the Y chromosome. ... In cultured mammalian cells, such as the Chinese hamster ovary cell line, a number of genetic loci are present in a functional ... A chromosome in a diploid organism is hemizygous when only one copy is present.[2] The cell or organism is called a hemizygote ... Most eukaryotes have two matching sets of chromosomes; that is, they are diploid. Diploid organisms have the same loci on each ...
Mammalian Genome. 4 (2): 78-82. doi:10.1007/BF00290430. PMID 8431641.. ...
During mammalian development, the gonads are at first capable of becoming either ovaries or testes.[5] In humans, starting at ... In males, certain Y chromosome genes, particularly SRY, control development of the male phenotype, including conversion of the ...
In humans, PR is encoded by a single PGR gene residing on chromosome 11q22,[5][6][7] it has two isoforms, PR-A and PR-B, that ... interact with steroid hormone receptors to enhance their DNA binding in vitro and transcriptional activity in mammalian cells" ... "The progesterone receptor gene maps to human chromosome band 11q13, the site of the mammary oncogene int-2". Proceedings of ...
Lee SF, Shah S, Li H, Yu C, Han W, Yu G (November 2002). "Mammalian APH-1 interacts with presenilin and nicastrin and is ... "Genetic linkage evidence for a familial Alzheimer's seasesease locus on chromosome 14". Science. 258 (5082): 668-71. Bibcode: ... Jarriault S, Brou C, Logeat F, Schroeter EH, Kopan R, Israel A (September 1995). "Signalling downstream of activated mammalian ... in mammalian cells, deficiency of PSEN1 also causes the defect in the proteolytic release of NICD from a truncated Notch ...
condensed chromosome. • nuclear chromosome, telomeric region. • nucleus. • nuclear chromatin. • lateral element. • cytosol. • ... "Most mammalian mRNAs are conserved targets of microRNAs". Genome Res. 19 (1): 92-105. doi:10.1101/gr.082701.108. PMC 2612969 ... nuclear chromosome. • mitochondrial matrix. • nucleolus. • mitochondrion. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • chromatin. • ... condensed nuclear chromosome. • macromolecular complex. Biological process. • regulation of protein phosphorylation. • strand ...
Chromosome condensation[edit]. Phosphorylation of H3 at serine 10 (phospho-H3S10). The mitotic kinase aurora B phosphorylates ... Clarke HJ (1992). "Nuclear and chromatin composition of mammalian gametes and early embryos". Biochemistry and Cell Biology. 70 ... Rizzo PJ (Aug 2003). "Those amazing dinoflagellate chromosomes". Cell Research. 13 (4): 215-7. doi:10.1038/sj.cr.7290166. PMID ... Without histones, the unwound DNA in chromosomes would be very long (a length to width ratio of more than 10 million to 1 in ...
21] See the classic paper McClintock B 1951 "Chromosome Organization and Genic Expression" (Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. ... Research foci: drug resistance; cancer genomics; tumor microenvironment; growth control in mammalian cells; transcriptional and ... Carol Greider, who in 1992 discovered a relationship between cellular aging and damage to the ends of chromosomes, called ... Other research foci: autism genetics; mapping of the mammalian brain; neural correlates of decision making. ...
Gregory SG, Barlow KF, McLay KE (2006). "The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1". Nature. 441 (7091 ... "Specific repertoire of olfactory receptor genes in the male germ cells of several mammalian species". Genomics. 39 (3): 239-46 ...
Sonta, SI; Sandberg, AA (1977). "Chromosomes and causation of human cancer and leukemia: XXVIII. Value of detailed chromosome ... "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome Res. 14 ( ... The HADHB gene is located on chromosome 2, with its specific location being 2p23.[5] The gene contains 17 exons. HADHB encodes ... 2005). "Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4". Nature. 434 (7034): 724-31. doi:10.1038/ ...
Genetically, there are 74 diploid chromosomes (36 pairs). Appearance[edit]. The crab-eating fox is predominantly greyish-brown ... a b c Annalisa Berta; Cerdocyon thous, Mammalian Species, Issue 186, 23 November 1982, Pages 1-4, https://doi.org/10.2307/ ...
The activity of the PDH complex in mammalian tissues is largely determined by the phosphorylation of certain subunits within ... "A testis-specific form of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha subunit is coded for by an intronless gene on chromosome 4 ... Hiromasa, Y; Fujisawa, T; Aso, Y; Roche, TE (20 February 2004). "Organization of the cores of the mammalian pyruvate ... "The Status, Quality, and Expansion of the NIH Full-Length cDNA Project: The Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome Res. 14 ( ...
This article on a gene on the human X chromosome and/or its associated protein is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding ... "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome Res. 14 ( ... 2003). "A novel fusion gene, SS18L1/SSX1, in synovial sarcoma". Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 37 (2): 195-200. doi:10.1002/gcc. ... This translocation results in the fusion of the synovial sarcoma translocation gene on chromosome 18 to one of the SSX genes on ...
Douglas J., Albertson D.G., Barclay A.N. et al. RFLP and mapping of human MOX-1 gene on chromosome 3 (англ.) // Nucleic Acids ... The Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) (англ.) // Genome Res. (англ.)русск. : journal. - 2004. - Vol. 14, no. 10B. - P. 2121-2127 ...
The BDNF protein is encoded by a gene that is also called BDNF, found in humans on chromosome 11.[7][8] Structurally, BDNF ... BDNF itself is important for long-term memory.[15] Although the vast majority of neurons in the mammalian brain are formed ...
Alex Lopata (2009). "History of the Egg in Embryology". Journal of Mammalian Ova Research. 26: 2-9. doi:10.1274/jmor.26.2.. ... Thus, a fly whose chromosomes are mutant in both copies of the Bicoid gene but who is born from a mother carrying one normal ... Three years later, the Estonian, Karl Ernst von Baer, finally found the true mammalian egg in a pet dog (von Baer, 1827). ... Karl Ernst von Baer and Heinz Christian Pander proposed the germ layer theory of development; von Baer discovered the mammalian ...
Gardner PR, Raineri I, Epstein LB, White CW (Jun 1995). "Superoxide radical and iron modulate aconitase activity in mammalian ... The genes are located on chromosomes 21, 6, and 4, respectively (21q22.1, 6q25.3 and 4p15.3-p15.1). ...
Demuth, JP; De Bie, T; Stajich, JE; Cristianini, N; Hahn, MW (20 December 2006). "The evolution of mammalian gene families". ... "Three-Dimensional Maps of All Chromosomes in Human Male Fibroblast Nuclei and Prometaphase Rosettes". PLoS Biology 3 (5): e157 ... Mortazavi A, Williams BA, McCue K, Schaeffer L, Wold B (July 2008). "Mapping and quantifying mammalian transcriptomes by RNA- ...
"Molecular characterization of mammalian dicarbonyl/L-xylulose reductase and its localization in kidney". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (20 ... is an enzyme that in human is encoded by the DCXR gene located on chromosome 17. ...
"MutS homolog 4 localization to meiotic chromosomes is required for chromosome pairing during meiosis in male and female mice". ... "MSH4 acts in conjunction with MLH1 during mammalian meiosis". FASEB Journal 14 (11): 1539-47. PMID 10928988. doi:10.1096/fj. ... "MSH4 acts in conjunction with MLH1 during mammalian meiosis". FASEB Journal 14 (11): 1539-47. PMID 10928988. doi:10.1096/fj. ... supporting a role for this MutL homolog in mammalian meiotic recombination". Human Molecular Genetics 11 (15): 1697-706. PMID ...
2006). "The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1". Nature. 441 (7091): 315-21. PMID 16710414. doi: ... 2000). "Characterization of human HtrA2, a novel serine protease involved in the mammalian cellular stress response". Eur. J. ... "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome Res. 14 ( ...
1999). „Putative mammalian taste receptors: a class of taste-specific GPCRs with distinct topographic selectivity.". Cell. 96 ( ... Liao J, Schultz PG (2003). „Three sweet receptor genes are clustered in human chromosome 1.". Mamm. Genome. 14 (5): 291-301. ... 2004). „The receptors for mammalian sweet and umami taste.". Cell. 115 (3): 255-66. PMID 14636554. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(03) ... 2006). „The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1.". Nature. 441 (7091): 315-21. PMID 16710414. doi: ...
Haldane was also the first to construct human gene maps for haemophilia and colour blindness on the X chromosome and he was one ... Donald Prothero (1954-): American geologist, paleontologist, and author who specializes in mammalian paleontology and ... He won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1933 for discoveries relating the role the chromosome plays in heredity.[ ... The Nobel Prize-winning geneticist and stringent atheist Thomas Hunt Morgan was developing the chromosome theory of heredity by ...
The RNA world hypothesis is supported by RNA's ability to store, transmit, and duplicate genetic information, as DNA does. RNA can act as a ribozyme, a special type of enzyme. Because it can perform the tasks of both DNA and enzymes, RNA is believed to have once been capable of supporting independent life forms.[15] Some viruses use RNA as their genetic material, rather than DNA.[45] Further, while nucleotides were not found in experiments based on Miller-Urey experiment, their formation in prebiotically plausible conditions was reported in 2009;[22] the purine base known as adenine is merely a pentamer of hydrogen cyanide. Experiments with basic ribozymes, like Bacteriophage Qβ RNA, have shown that simple self-replicating RNA structures can withstand even strong selective pressures (e.g., opposite-chirality chain terminators).[46] Since there were no known chemical pathways for the abiogenic synthesis of nucleotides from pyrimidine nucleobases cytosine and uracil under prebiotic conditions, it ...
"Structure and function of the DNA ligases encoded by the mammalian LIG3 gene". Gene. 531 (2): 150-157. doi:10.1016/J.GENE. ... "Translocation of XRCC1 and DNA ligase III-alpha from centrosomes to chromosomes in response to DNA damage in mitotic human ... "An interaction between the mammalian DNA repair protein XRCC1 and DNA ligase III". Mol. Cell. Biol. 14 (1): 68-76. PMC 358357 ... "Structure and function of the DNA ligases encoded by the mammalian LIG3 gene". Gene 531 (2): 150-7. PMC 3881560. PMID 24013086 ...
2004). "The Status, Quality, and Expansion of the NIH Full-Length cDNA Project: The Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ... 2002). "The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 20". Nature. 414 (6866): 865-71. doi:10.1038/414865a. ... is mapped to human chromosome 20p11.2 by in situ hybridization (ISH and FISH)". Genomics. 14 (3): 740-4. doi:10.1016/S0888-7543 ...
Mammalian Chromosome Engineering: Methods and Protocols provides the reader with up-to date information on this rapidly ... Authoritative and cutting-edge, Mammalian Chromosome Engineering: Methods and Protocols serves as a bench-side resource for ... Mammalian Artificial Chromosomes and Clinical Applications for Genetic Modification of Stem Cells: An Overview ... the generation and engineering of synthetic artificial chromosomes, and the induced de novo platform artificial chromosome ...
John Wiley & Sons Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes Der Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes ist nicht nur eine herausragende Sammlung ... Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes. OBrien, Stephen J. / Graphodatsky, Alexander S. / Perelman, Polina L. (Herausgeber) ... Der Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes ist nicht nur eine herausragende Sammlung der Karyotypen gebänderter Metaphasechromosomen ... Die Neuauflage des Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes ist der Ausgangspunkt für eine Vielzahl neuer aufregender Forschungen.. ...
Centromeres of mammalian chromosomes.. Willard HF1.. Author information. 1. Department of Genetics, Stanford University, CA ... The centromere is the major cis-acting genetic locus involved in chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis. The mammalian ... Although direct functional assays of chromosome segregation are still lacking, the data are most consistent with a structural ...
Making better artificial chromosomes for mammalian cells. Project ID: HPRN-CT-2000-00089. Finanziato nellambito di: FP5-HUMAN ... Making better artificial chromosomes for mammalian cells. Dal 2000-09-01 al 2004-08-31 ...
What if researchers could go back in time 105 million years and accurately sequence the chromosomes of the first placental ... Reconstruction of ancient chromosomes offers insight into mammalian evolution. Published: 23 Jun 2017 , Last Updated: 23 Jun ... The rates of evolution of ancestral chromosomes differed greatly among the different mammal lineages, but some chromosomes ... "It is the first time that the history of each mammalian chromosome is delineated in such great detail, demonstrating that some ...
Here, we consider mammalian Bs, taking into account data on their DNA sequencing, transcriptional activity, positions in nuclei ... The intraspecific diversity of Bs makes this analysis a very important element of B chromosome studies. ... B chromosomes (Bs) revealed more than a hundred years ago remain to be some of the most mysterious elements of the eukaryotic ... Sequence Composition and Evolution of Mammalian B Chromosomes. Nikolay B. Rubtsov 1,2,* and Yury M. Borisov 3. ...
Evidence of a Large-Scale Functional Organization of Mammalian Chromosomes * A High-Resolution Single Nucleotide Polymorphism ... Chromosome mapping Is the Subject Area "Chromosome mapping" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells.. Cremer T1, Cremer C. ... The location of a gene within a chromosome territory seems to influence its access to the machinery responsible for specific ... The emerging view is that chromosomes are compartmentalized into discrete territories. ...
... Guijun Guan,1,2 Meisheng Yi,2,3 Tohru Kobayashi,2,4 Yunhan ... "A Syntenic Region Conserved from Fish to Mammalian X Chromosome," International Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol. 2014, ...
Mammalian Chromosome Engineering has 0 available edition to buy at Alibris ... Mammalian Chromosome Engineering by Gyula Hadlaczky starting at $120.62. ...
... Dynamic organization of chromosomes in the mammalian cell ... Schermelleh, Lothar (2003): Dynamic organization of chromosomes in the mammalian cell nucleus. Dissertation, LMU München: ... a model is presented on the chromosome positioning in mammalian nuclei depending on cell cycle and nuclear shape. ... a model is presented on the chromosome positioning in mammalian nuclei depending on cell cycle and nuclear shape. ...
To develop a method for activating genes located on cell chromosomes, an on/off switching unit regulated by the site-specific ... Efficient gene activation system on mammalian cell chromosomes using recombinant adenovirus producing Cre recombinase Gene. ... CV1 cell lines bearing the switching unit on a cell chromosome were isolated and activation of the lacZ gene was examined after ... To develop a method for activating genes located on cell chromosomes, an on/off switching unit regulated by the site-specific ...
The chromosome aberration test is designed to evaluate the potential of a test compound to induce structural chromosomal ... In Vitro Mammalian Chromosome Aberration Test. Understanding the implications of positive genetic toxicology results is crucial ... The chromosome aberration test (CAT) is designed to evaluate the potential of a test compound to induce structural chromosomal ...
To test whether yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) can be used in the investigation of mammalian development, we analyzed the ... Use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) in studies of mammalian development: production of beta-globin locus YAC mice ... Use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) in studies of mammalian development: production of beta-globin locus YAC mice ... Use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) in studies of mammalian development: production of beta-globin locus YAC mice ...
... Nat Genet. 1999 Jan;21(1):123-7. doi: 10.1038/5075. ... Gene targeting studies in mice confirmed roles for Mlh1 and Pms2 in mammalian meiosis. To assess the role of Msh5 in mammals, ... Meiosis in these mice is affected due to the disruption of chromosome pairing in prophase I. We found that this meiotic failure ...
Any genetic change we introduce to the single set of chromosomes will have an easy-to-determine effect. This will be useful for ... Mammal cells usually contain two sets of chromosomes - one set inherited from the mother and one from the father. The genetic ... However, as each cell contains two copies of each chromosome, determining the link between a genetic change and its physical ... The researchers hope that this technique will help advance mammalian genetics and our understanding of the gene-function ...
Mammalian Genome" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications ... Mouse chromosome 8. Mouse chromosome 8 Ceci, Jeffrey; Mills, Kathleen 2014-04-22 00:00:00 Mammalian Genome 7, S 143-S 158 (1997 ... Mammalian Genome 7, S 143-S 158 (1997). 9 Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1997 Jeffrey D. Ceci, 1 Kathleen A. Mills z ~Department ... Mammalian Genome Springer Journals http://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer-journals/mouse-chromosome-8-zL1ugCiIab ...
Mammalian Genome" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications ... Mouse Chromosome 14 J.H. Nadeau: Mouse Chromosome 14 $241 $242 J.H. Nadeau: Mouse Chromosome 14 J.H. Nadeau: Mouse Chromosome ... Mouse Chromosome 14 J.H. Nadeau: Mouse Chromosome 14 $247 $248 J.H. Nadeau: Mouse Chromosome 14 J.H. Nadeau: Mouse Chromosome ... Mouse Chromosome 14 J.H. Nadeau: Mouse Chromosome 14 $241 $242 J.H. Nadeau: Mouse Chromosome 14 J.H. Nadeau: Mouse Chromosome ...
An SRY-related sequence on the marsupial X chromosome: implications for the evolution of the mammalian testis-determining gene. ... Enrichment of brain-related genes on the mammalian X chromosome is ancient and predates the divergence of synapsid and ... An SRY-related sequence on the marsupial X chromosome: implications for the evolution of the mammalian testis-determining gene. ... An SRY-related sequence on the marsupial X chromosome: implications for the evolution of the mammalian testis-determining gene. ...
Mammalian Artificial Chromosomes: Methods & Protocols. Link: Mammalian Artificial Chromosomes: Methods & Protocols. Resource ...
We examined error-prone nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) in Msh2-deficient and wild-type Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. A DNA substrate containing a thymidine kinase (tk) gene fused to a neomycin-resistance (neo) gene was stably integrated into ce
Mapping of human X- and Y-borne genes in distantly related mammals and non-mammalian vertebrates has proved valuable to help ... Mammalian sex chromosomes evolved from an ancient autosomal pair. ... evolution mammalian Ornithorhynchus anatinus platypus X chromosome This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check ... Mammalian sex chromosomes evolved from an ancient autosomal pair. Mapping of human X- and Y-borne genes in distantly related ...
DT40 Cell Human Artificial Chromosome Mammalian Chromosome Human Artificial Chromosome Vector Acentric Chromosome These ... Brown W.R.A., Smith M.C.M., Dafhnis-Calas F., Malla S., Xu Z. (2006) Chromosome engineering in DT40 cells and mammalian ...
Small DNA circles found outside the chromosomes in mammalian cells and tissues, including human cells. ... The known DNA in cells are in nuclear chromosomes that are millions of base pair long linear stretches of DNA capped by ... MicroDNAs are 200-400 base pair long circles in the nucleus that are not attached to chromosomes, making them new DNA entities. ... Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have helped identify a new DNA entity in mammalian cells and ...
We demonstrate that mammalian telomeres are transcribed into telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA). TERRA molecules are ... and protect chromosome ends from telomere loss. Thus, telomeres are actively transcribed into TERRA, and SMG factors represent ... are essential for chromosome stability. Until now, telomeres have been considered to be transcriptionally silent. ... heterogeneous in length, are transcribed from several subtelomeric loci toward chromosome ends, and localize to telomeres. We ...
Publications] T.Okazaki: Properties and interaction of CENP-B and centromere satellite DNA in mammalian cells. Chromosome ... Publications] T.Okazaki: Properties and interaction of CENP-B and centromere satellite DNA in mammalian cells. Chromosome ... Properties and interaction of CENP-B and centromere satellite DNA in mammalian cells. Chromosome Segregation and Aneuploidy. ... COOKE Howard MRC,Human Genetics Unit, Head of Chromosome Biology, 染色体生物学部門, 主任研究員 HIETER Philip A The Johns Hopkins University ...
Repair of site-specific double-strand breaks in a mammalian chromosome by homologous and illegitimate recombination.. R G ... Repair of site-specific double-strand breaks in a mammalian chromosome by homologous and illegitimate recombination. ... Repair of site-specific double-strand breaks in a mammalian chromosome by homologous and illegitimate recombination. ... Repair of site-specific double-strand breaks in a mammalian chromosome by homologous and illegitimate recombination. ...
MAD2 haplo-insufficiency causes premature anaphase and chromosome instability in mammalian cells. Nature. 409:355-359. ... Each CENP-EΔ/Δ anaphase cell with polar chromosomes had only one or two. No polar chromosomes were observed in CENP-E+/+ cells ... CENP-E stimulates mammalian BubR1 kinase activity. Mammalian CENP-E interacts with the checkpoint kinase BubR1, as has been ... 3 A, inset). However, because the chromosome masses move to the poles during anaphase, only polar chromosomes whose arms are ...
QUANTITATIVE TRITIUM AUTORADIOGRAPHY OF MAMMALIAN CHROMOSOMES : I. The Basic Method Elton Stubblefield Elton Stubblefield ... Elton Stubblefield; QUANTITATIVE TRITIUM AUTORADIOGRAPHY OF MAMMALIAN CHROMOSOMES : I. The Basic Method . J Cell Biol 1 June ... The distribution of isotope along the chromosomes was different for each chromosome, and in some cases homologs also differed ... The area under each graph was directly proportional to the total number of grains counted above the corresponding chromosome in ...
Regulation of mammalian genome dynamics at the level of Chromosome Territories & Replication Forks Submitted by admin_sbs on 13 ... Regulation of mammalian genome dynamics at the level of Chromosome Territories & Replication Forks ...
  • Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells. (nih.gov)
  • The location of a gene within a chromosome territory seems to influence its access to the machinery responsible for specific nuclear functions, such as transcription and splicing. (nih.gov)
  • CV1 cell lines bearing the switching unit on a cell chromosome were isolated and activation of the lacZ gene was examined after infection with a Cre-producing recombinant adenovirus. (nih.gov)
  • These results showed that the system offers efficient activation of genes introduced into cell chromosomes and that the organization of the reporter units are important for efficiency and duration of the activated gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers hope that this technique will help advance mammalian genetics and our understanding of the gene-function relationship in the same way that a similar technique has helped geneticists understand the simpler zebrafish animal model. (healthcanal.com)
  • An SRY-related sequence on the marsupial X chromosome: implications for the evolution of the mammalian testis-determining gene. (pnas.org)
  • Comparisons between the gene maps of distantly related mammalian species can provide information about the evolution of genome arrangement and function in mammals. (edu.au)
  • However, recent reports each utilizing RNA-seq to gauge X-linked gene expression relative to autosomal gene expression also arrived at diametrically opposed conclusions regarding X chromosome dosage compensation in mammals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our analysis shows that the high number of paralogous gene families on the mammalian X chromosome relative to autosomes contributes to the ambiguity in RXE calculations, RNA-seq analysis that takes into account that single- and multi-copy genes are compensated differently supports the conclusion that, in many somatic tissues, the mammalian X is up-regulated compared to the autosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Heterokaryotypy may result from differential gene loss or gain as the sex chromosome complement evolves from an ancestral homologous pair. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In a parallel study, Daniel Bellott and colleagues reconstructed the evolution of the Y chromosome, using a comprehensive comparative analysis of the genomic sequence of X Y gene pairs from seven placental mammals and one marsupial. (nature.com)
  • They conclude that evolution streamlined the gene content of the human Y chromosome through selection to maintain the ancestral dosage of homologous X Y gene pairs that regulate gene expression throughout the body. (nature.com)
  • When such an X chromosome contributes to the child, the development will lead to a male, because of the SRY gene. (forumpro.info)
  • In general, the human Y chromosome is extremely gene poor-it is one of the largest gene deserts in the human genome. (forumpro.info)
  • However, comparisons of the human and chimpanzee Y chromosomes first published in show that the human Y chromosome has not lost any genes since the divergence of humans and chimpanzees between 6-7 million years ago, [22] and a scientific report in stated that only one gene had been lost since humans diverged from the rhesus macaque 25 million years ago. (forumpro.info)
  • Dec 01, · A concept for sex chromosome evolution The gene at the top of the SD cascade, the 'master sex regulator', can have a marked effect on genome evolution, in particular on the very chromosome on which it is located. (forumpro.info)
  • Disruption of the large non-coding RNA gene ASAR6 results in late replication, an under-condensed appearance during mitosis, and structural instability of human chromosome 6. (elsevier.com)
  • Similarly, disruption of the mouse Xist gene in adult somatic cells results in a late replication and instability phenotype on the X chromosome. (elsevier.com)
  • Comparisons of the gene content of sex chromosomes from the three major groups of extant mammals (placentals, marsupials, and monotremes) show that part of the X chromosome, and a corresponding region of the Y, is shared by all mammals and must be very ancient, but part was added relatively recently. (edu.au)
  • Evolution of the mammalian Y took place in several cycles of addition and attrition, as autosomal regions were added to the pseudoautosomal region of one sex chromosome, recombined onto the other, and degraded on the Y. This explains why most genes and pseudogenes on the Y chromosome have relatives on the X. The gene SRY itself is apparently no exception, being closely related to the highly conserved X-linked gene SOX3. (edu.au)
  • This process therefore provides a means for epigenetic reprogramming of sex chromatin presumably required for gene silencing in the male mammalian germ line. (princeton.edu)
  • Gene targeting studies in mice confirmed roles for Mlh1 and Pms2 in mammalian meiosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Mammalian artificial chromosomes (MACs) are being developed as alternatives to viral vectors for gene therapy applications, as they allow for the introduction of large payloads of genetic information in a non-integrating, autonomously replicating format. (unthsc.edu)
  • One class of MACs, the satellite DNA-based artificial chromosome expression vehicle (ACE), is uniquely suited for gene therapy applications, in that it can be generated de novo in cells, along with being easily purified and readily transferred into a variety of recipient cell lines and primary cells. (unthsc.edu)
  • The resulting assembly allowed us to refine gene content, evaluate copy number of ampliconic gene families, locate species-specific palindromes, examine the repetitive element content, and produce sequence alignments with human and chimpanzee Y Chromosomes. (sandiegozoo.org)
  • The position of chromosomes in the sperm nucleus might be crucial, because their location could determine the time at which particular chromatin domains are decondensed and remodelled, allowing some epigenetic level of control or influence over subsequent paternal gene expression in the embryo. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Gene Mapping to Chromosomes by Hybridization in Situ. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Chloramphenicol Acetyltransferase as a Reporter in Mammalian Gene Transfer. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • A chromosome rearrangement is a structural change in a chromosome such as a deletion, translocation, inversion, or gene amplification. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In most cases the segment of the chromosome that is duplicated contains only one gene, although it is possible for more than one gene to be amplified. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A cloned gene (ZFY) representing the putative testis-determining factor in mammals was hybridized to genomic DNA of reptiles with sex chromosomes and to DNA of reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination. (sciencemag.org)
  • 2006. The Paternal Gene of the DDK Syndrome Maps to the Schlafen Gene Cluster on Mouse Chromosome 11. (jax.org)
  • One form of myotonic dystrophy, dystrophia myotonica 1 (DM1), is caused by the expansion of a (CTG)(n) repeat within the dystrophia myotonica-protein kinase (DMPK) gene located in chromosome region 19q13.3. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the translocation that causes 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development, the SRY gene, which is normally found on the Y chromosome, is misplaced, almost always onto an X chromosome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An individual with an X chromosome that carries the SRY gene will develop as a male despite not having a Y chromosome, but will not be able to produce sperm to father biological children. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Der Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes ist nicht nur eine herausragende Sammlung der Karyotypen gebänder. (wiley-vch.de)
  • Der Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes ist nicht nur eine herausragende Sammlung der Karyotypen gebänderter Metaphasechromosomen von rund 850 Säugetierarten, sondern auch ein umfassendes Kompendium dieser genomischen Form. (wiley-vch.de)
  • Die Neuauflage des Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes ist der Ausgangspunkt für eine Vielzahl neuer aufregender Forschungen. (wiley-vch.de)
  • asking China's download atlas of mammalian chromosomes on the place's site establishment does the page's complex work as a reference ResearchGate in safe formation beginning and time analyses. (missouri.org)
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  • Since the publication of the first Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes in 1967 the continuous compilation of mammalian karyotypes has become a useful instrument in cytologic and taxonomic studies. (indigo.ca)
  • Telomeres, the DNA-protein complexes located at the end of linear eukaryotic chromosomes, are essential for chromosome stability. (epfl.ch)
  • Centromere is the chromosomal domain essential to the segregation of eukaryotic chromosomes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The sections that follow summarize key concepts concerning the structure of eukaryotic chromosomes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Most eukaryotic chromosomes include packaging proteins called histones which, aided by chaperone proteins, bind to and condense the DNA molecule to maintain its integrity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The centromere is the major cis-acting genetic locus involved in chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis. (nih.gov)
  • The platypus, a monotreme mammal distantly related to eutherians and marsupials, has an extraordinary sex chromosome system comprising five X and five Y chromosomes that form a translocation chain at male meiosis. (springer.com)
  • Loss or gain of even a single chromosome during meiosis most often results in the production of gametes that are unable to produce viable offspring (for review see Cohen, 2002 ). (rupress.org)
  • The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) monitors attachment to microtubules and tension on chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Meiosis in these mice is affected due to the disruption of chromosome pairing in prophase I. We found that this meiotic failure leads to a diminution in testicular size and a complete loss of ovarian structures. (elsevier.com)
  • The unique chromosome dynamics of meiosis have fascinated scientists for well over a century, but in recent years there has been a proliferation of new data concerning the pairing, recombination, and segregation of chromosomes. (springer.com)
  • In Meiosis , expert researchers explore recent advances in three main areas: quantitative genetic methods for analysis of homologous recombination and chromosome pairing, development of direct physical assays for DNA intermediates and products of recombination, and cytological methods for characterizing chromosome behaviors and the patterns by which specific proteins associate with meiotic chromosomes. (springer.com)
  • Meiosis: Volume 2, Cytological Methods , details methods for preparing and examining meiotic tissues, cells, and chromosomes by electron microscopy, indirect immunofluorescence, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and live-cell imaging. (springer.com)
  • Comprehensive and cutting-edge, Meiosis: Volume 2, Cytological Methods is an essential guidebook, providing up-to-date and critical new protocols for the study of meiotic chromosome dynamics. (springer.com)
  • The five overview and ten protocol chapters cover the engineering of chromosomes with extrachromosomal vectors and transposon systems, the manipulation of naturally occurred minichromosomes, the generation and engineering of synthetic artificial chromosomes, and the induced de novo platform artificial chromosome system. (springer.com)
  • The purpose of this work is to clone functional human centromere DNA using technology of the yeast artificial chromosome (YAC). (nii.ac.jp)
  • FISH analyzes of the transformed cell lines showed that transformants of alpha21-I YAC contained a stably maintained mammalian artificial chromosome but those of alpha21-II YAC was integrated at telomere or centromere. (nii.ac.jp)
  • To overcome these chromatin effects, we have employed a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) as expression vector to obtain stable cell lines suitable for protein production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this work, we explore the efficacy of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome based vector applied to production of the constant region of the human IgG1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • abstract = "A flow cytometer has been constructed which measures total fluorescence and the distribution of fluorescence along isolated, stained mammalian chromosomes. (elsevier.com)
  • Researchers from the RVC in the UK collaborated with academics from University of California, Davis (UC Davis), Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Konkuk University in Seoul and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, to go back in time by computationally recreating the chromosomes of the first eutherian mammal, the long-extinct shrew-like ancestor of all placental mammals. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • The rhesus macaque was one of 19 mammals included in a study reconstructing chromosome rearrangements during 105 million years of mammalian evolution. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • To recreate the chromosomes of these ancient relatives, the team began with the sequenced genomes of 19 existing placental mammals - all eutherian descendants - including human, goat, dog, orangutan, cattle, mouse and chimpanzee. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • The researchers then used a new algorithm they developed called DESCHRAMBLER which computed ("descrambled") the most likely order and orientation of 2,404 chromosome fragments that were common among the 19 placental mammals' genomes. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • Mapping of human X- and Y-borne genes in distantly related mammals and non-mammalian vertebrates has proved valuable to help deduce the evolution of this unique part of the genome. (springer.com)
  • The largest X chromosome (X 1 ), which lies at one end of the chain, has considerable homology to the human X. Using comparative mapping and the emerging chicken database, we demonstrate that part of the therian X chromosome, previously thought to be conserved across all mammals, was lost from the platypus X 1 to an autosome. (springer.com)
  • In eutherian mammals and marsupials, sex chromosome dosage compensation is achieved by global inactivation of one of the two X chromosomes in females. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They find evidence for two independent sex chromosome originations in mammals and one in birds. (nature.com)
  • In mammals, females have two X chromosomes (XX) and males a single X and a Y (XY). (forumpro.info)
  • In mammals, male sex determination, as well as spermatogenesis, is controlled by genes on the Y chromosome. (edu.au)
  • Sasaki, M. : An in vitro study of the somatic chromosomes in several mammals. (asesoriacastellon.com)
  • The already available data on the group suggests that further work on this apparently bizarre assemblage of mammals will provide important data to a better understanding on mammalian genome evolution. (unifi.it)
  • In chromosome fusion events that occur in nature in living mammals-a very rare event-the DNA signature always involves satDNA producing a DNA signature that occurs as either satDNA-satDNA or satDNA-teloDNA sequence. (icr.org)
  • The mammalian centromere is characterized by large amounts of tandemly repeated satellite DNA and by a number of specific centromere proteins, at least one of which has been shown to interact directly with centromeric satellite DNA sequences. (nih.gov)
  • Although direct functional assays of chromosome segregation are still lacking, the data are most consistent with a structural and possibly functional role for satellite DNA in the mammalian centromere. (nih.gov)
  • Brown W.R.A., Smith M.C.M., Dafhnis-Calas F., Malla S., Xu Z. (2006) Chromosome engineering in DT40 cells and mammalian centromere function. (springer.com)
  • Although DNA is believed to be the primary determinant of the functional centromere structure in mammalian cells, no conclusive intormation on the essential DNA structure is available until now. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] T.Okazaki: 'Properties and interaction of CENP-B and centromere satellite DNA in mammalian cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] T.Okazaki, H.Masumoto, K.Kitagawa, M.Ikeno, K.Yoda, M.Nakano, T.Nakamura, N.Suzuki, S.Egashira and K.Saitoh: 'Properties and interaction of CENP-B and centromere satellite DNA in mammalian cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • When examined by electron microscopy, the kinetochore fraction is seen to contain numerous small immunoperoxidase-positive masses which are morphologically similar to the centromere/kinetochore region of intact metaphase chromosomes. (rupress.org)
  • Fusion of ancestral chromosomes left distinctive remnants of telomeres , and a vestigial centromere . (wikipedia.org)
  • Using irradiation mutagenesis, we freed this test segment from the source chromosome and genetically assayed whether the liberated "test fragment" exhibited centromere activity. (genetics.org)
  • THE metazoan centromere was first identified cytologically as the region of the primary constriction of a metaphase chromosome ( F lemming 1880 ). (genetics.org)
  • During M phase, each chromosome is duplicated, and each replica remains attached to its original at the centromere portion of the chromosome. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Before this happens, each chromosome is duplicated (S phase), and both copies are joined by a centromere, resulting either in an X-shaped structure (pictured above), if the centromere is located equatorially, or a two-arm structure, if the centromere is located distally. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genetic information contained in these chromosome sets helps determine how our bodies develop. (healthcanal.com)
  • However, as each cell contains two copies of each chromosome, determining the link between a genetic change and its physical effect - or 'phenotype' - is immensely complex. (healthcanal.com)
  • Any genetic change we introduce to the single set of chromosomes will have an easy-to-determine effect. (healthcanal.com)
  • CHAPEL HILL, N.C. - Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have helped identify a new DNA entity in mammalian cells and provided evidence that their generation leaves behind deletions in different locations of the cells' genetic program, or genome. (healthcanal.com)
  • Spindle formation, chromosome segregation and the spindle checkpoint in mammalian oocytes and susceptibility to meiotic error", MUTATION RESEARCH-GENETIC TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MUTAGENESIS , vol. 651, 2008, pp. 14-29. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • In most individuals with 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development, the condition results from an abnormal exchange of genetic material between chromosomes translocation. (forumpro.info)
  • Moreover, we have utilized the assembled gorilla Y Chromosome sequence to design genetic markers for studying the male-specific dispersal of this endangered species. (sandiegozoo.org)
  • failure to do so leads to chromosome loss or damage and loss of linked genetic material. (genetics.org)
  • The dual problem of how to store this large amount of genetic information but also to keep it accessible for use and for faithful maintenance, copying, and distribution to daughter cells during cell division , is solved by using proteins to package the DNA into chromosomes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Molecular and Genetic Analysis of Mammalian. (hhmi.org)
  • Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Extra genetic material from the X chromosome interferes with male sexual development, preventing the testes from functioning normally and reducing the levels of testosterone (a hormone that directs male sexual development) in adolescent and adult males. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Deletions of small amounts of genetic material in certain areas of the Y chromosome lead to a condition called Y chromosome infertility. (medlineplus.gov)
  • EMBL scientists now show that there are actually two spindles, one for each set of parental chromosomes, meaning that the genetic information from each parent is kept apart throughout the first division. (eurekalert.org)
  • A chromosome is a long DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material of an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wilhelm Roux suggested that each chromosome carries a different genetic configuration, and Boveri was able to test and confirm this hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • 6) The telomeric chromosome ends are particularly prone to associate in certain somatic cell types and in meiotic prophase cells. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we consider mammalian Bs, taking into account data on their DNA sequencing, transcriptional activity, positions in nuclei of somatic and meiotic cells, and impact on genome functioning. (mdpi.com)
  • To address possible long-range movements of chromosome territories (CTs) during an entire interphase, fluorescence labeling of a small number of CTs was performed in living HeLa cells stably expressing histone H2B-GFP. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The Southern blot analyses showed that the latter type of cells contained a head-to-tail array of the switching units, and that consequently the lacZ-expressing units were excised from a cell chromosome and present as extrachromosomal circular DNAs. (nih.gov)
  • Mammal cells usually contain two sets of chromosomes - one set inherited from the mother and one from the father. (healthcanal.com)
  • Now, in research published today in the journal 'Nature', Drs Anton Wutz and Martin Leeb from the Wellcome Trust Centre for Stem Cell Research at the University of Cambridge report a technique that enables them to create stem cells containing just a single set of chromosomes from an unfertilised mouse egg cell. (healthcanal.com)
  • The technique has been used previously in zebrafish, but this is the first time it has been used successfully to generate such mammalian stem cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • Dr Wutz, a Wellcome Trust Senior Research Fellow, explains: "These embryonic stem cells are much simpler than normal embryonic mammalian stem cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • The known DNA in cells are in nuclear chromosomes that are millions of base pair long linear stretches of DNA capped by telomeres, like the plastic tips of shoelaces. (healthcanal.com)
  • In collaboration with Dr.Cooke, we constructed YAC arm vectors containing human telomere sequences and selectable markers for mammalian cells and both arms of alphoid YAC were replaced with these arms by recombination in vivo. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In mammalian cells, chromosomal double-strand breaks are efficiently repaired, yet little is known about the relative contributions of homologous recombination and illegitimate recombination in the repair process. (asm.org)
  • These results suggest that illegitimate recombination is an important competing pathway with homologous recombination for chromosomal double-strand break repair in mammalian cells. (asm.org)
  • Loss or gain of chromosomes during mitotic divisions leads to the production of cells with a DNA content greater or less than 2N, a condition known as aneuploidy, which is a hallmark of cancer cells. (rupress.org)
  • New vector for transfer of yeast artificial chromosomes to mammalian cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A modification vector has been constructed to facilitate the transfer of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) to mammalian cells in culture by targeting a dominant selectable marker (G418 resistance) to the right arm of pYAC4 clones. (ox.ac.uk)
  • It represents a surveillance mechanism that halts cells in M-phase in the presence of unattached chromosomes, associated with accumulation of checkpoint components, in particular, Mad2, at the kinetochores. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • 3. Differentiation Of Trophoblast Stem Cells Into Giant Cells Is Triggered By p57/Kip2 Inhibition Of CDK1 Activity Genome endoreduplication during mammalian development is a rare event for which the mechanism is unknown. (grantome.com)
  • Fisher's principle outlines why almost all species using sexual reproduction have a sex ratio of Some males with 47,XYY syndrome have an extra Y chromosome in only some of their cells. (forumpro.info)
  • The list of organisms by chromosome count describes ploidy or numbers of chromosomes in the cells of various plants , animals , protists , and other living organisms . (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the observation of embryonic cells of egg, chromosome number of the itch mite is either 17 or 18. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enhancing effect of tetrandrine on sister-chromatid exchanges induced by mitomycin C and cigarette-smoke condensate in mammalian cells. (cdc.gov)
  • 2) Ohno, S. : Sex chromosome behavior pattern in germ and somatic cells of Mesocricetus auratus. (asesoriacastellon.com)
  • The sex chromosomes were found at the nuclear edge in primary spermatocytes, which correlates with the known position of the XY body and their position in somatic cells, whereas, in spermatids, the sex chromosomes were much more centrally located, mirroring the position of these chromosomes in ejaculated spermatozoa. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Besides the essential sequences required for replication and maintenance, many BAC vectors harbor a variety of expression cassettes that allow visualization of BAC-containing sequences in transfected cells selection in mammalian cells and, hence, ease the generation of recombinant viruses that contain the mini-F. (hindawi.com)
  • Since the binding of DNA by histones interferes with this access, cells have evolved specific mechanism to destabilize nucleosomes in chromosome regions that must be transcribed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Covers methods for creating mammalian fibroblastic cell cultures and maintaining culture conditions for epithelial, neuronal, and hematopoietic cells among others. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Chromosome rearrangements can contribute to the transformation of a normal cell into a cancerous cell and are therefore found in many cancer cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Each cell of the body, except for the egg and the sperm cells, contains 23 pairs of chromosomes and 46 chromosomes in total. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The egg and sperm cells each contain 23 chromosomes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Y chromosome spans more than 59 million building blocks of DNA (base pairs) and represents almost 2 percent of the total DNA in cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some males with 47,XYY syndrome have an extra Y chromosome in only some of their cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 48,XXYY syndrome, a condition that leads to infertility, developmental and behavioral disorders, and other health problems in males, is caused by the presence of an extra X chromosome and an extra Y chromosome in a male's cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It was long thought that during an embryo's first cell division, one spindle is responsible for segregating the embryo's chromosomes into two cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • The chromosomes are then attached to long protein fibres - organised into a spindle - which pulls the chromosomes apart and triggers the formation of two new cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • During mitosis of animal cells, groups of such tubes grow dynamically and self-organise into a bi-polar spindle that surrounds the chromosomes. (eurekalert.org)
  • The microtubule fibres grow towards the chromosomes and connect with them, in preparation for chromosome separation to the daughter cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • In animal cells, chromosomes reach their highest compaction level in anaphase during chromosome segregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some use the term chromosome in a wider sense, to refer to the individualized portions of chromatin in cells, either visible or not under light microscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rapid progression of genetics and molecular biology has turned chromosomal engineering from science fiction to reality, with the successful production of transgenic animals with engineered chromosomes and chromosomes developed for pharmaceutical protein production which are now ready for the medical industry. (springer.com)
  • Mammalian Chromosome Engineering: Methods and Protocols provides the reader with up-to date information on this rapidly evolving field and strives to take the reader into the exciting realm of chromosomal engineering from the basic principles to the practical applications of these new technologies. (springer.com)
  • Researchers identified 162 chromosomal breakpoints - locations where a chromosome broke open, allowing for rearrangements - between the eutherian ancestor and the formation of humans as a species. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • The chromosome aberration test (CAT) is designed to evaluate the potential of a test compound to induce structural chromosomal abnormalities such as breaks and exchanges. (criver.com)
  • A chromosome rearrangement can delete or disrupt the functioning of genes that are located on the chromosomal pieces involved. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The following chromosomal conditions are associated with changes in the structure or number of copies of y chromosome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chromosomal conditions involving the sex chromosomes often affect sex determination (whether a person has the sexual characteristics of a male or a female), sexual development, and fertility. (medlineplus.gov)
  • ellOllle 9 Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1997 Naima Abbadi, Joseph H. Nadeau* Genetics Department, BRB-630, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-4955, USA No text report for Chromosome 14. (deepdyve.com)
  • Here, we present a much faster and more affordable strategy for sequencing and assembling mammalian Y Chromosomes of sufficient quality for most comparative genomics analyses and for conservation genetics applications. (sandiegozoo.org)
  • As a prerequisite, an in vivo replication labeling strategy was developed, that enabled the simultaneous visualization of early and mid-to-late replicating chromatin as well as single chromosome territories on the basis of a labeling/segregation approach. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • To analyze possible changes of chromosome arrangements from one cell cycle to the next, nuclei were photobleached in G2 maintaining a contiguous zone of unbleached chromatin at one nuclear pole. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • We also show that suppressors with morphogenetic defects in genitalia (SMG) proteins, which are effectors of nonsense-mediated messenger RNA decay, are enriched at telomeres in vivo, negatively regulate TERRA association with chromatin, and protect chromosome ends from telomere loss. (epfl.ch)
  • In mammalian males, the first meiotic prophase is characterized by formation of a separate chromatin domain called the sex body. (princeton.edu)
  • We utilized chromosome derivatives that placed a 290-kilobase "test segment" in three different contexts within the Drosophila melanogaster genome-immediately adjacent to (1) centromeric chromatin, (2) centric heterochromatin, or (3) euchromatin. (genetics.org)
  • Finally, a model is presented on the chromosome positioning in mammalian nuclei depending on cell cycle and nuclear shape. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Non-random chromosome positioning in mammalian sperm nuclei, with migration of the sex chromosomes during late spermatogenesis. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Chromosomes are highly organized and compartmentalized in cell nuclei. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Here, we analyse genome organization by chromosome position in mammalian sperm nuclei from three breeds of pig, as a model species. (kent.ac.uk)
  • We have mapped the preferential position of all chromosomes (bar one) in sperm nuclei in two dimensions and have established that the sex chromosomes are the most internally localized chromosomes in mature sperm. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Generation of stable cell clones for protein production using Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes offers a clear advantage over the use of conventional vectors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interestingly, large vectors that fulfill these criteria such as Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) have been widely used for generation of transgenic mice [ 4 ] but not for production of recombinant proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • however, this problem could also be overcome by the use of single or low-copy vectors, such as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). (hindawi.com)
  • X chromosome inactivation (XCI) in eutherians is initiated by the expression of the XIST non-coding RNA just prior to implantation of the embryo, leading to heterochromatinization of one of either parental X chromosome in the fetus [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These studies will allow us to determine the role of chromosome rearrangements in the formation of new mammal species and how such rearrangements result in adaptive changes that are specific to the different mammalian lineages. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • To counter this problem Henrik Kaessmann and colleagues have developed a new transcript assembly approach based on male-specific RNA/genomic sequencing data to explore Y evolution across 15 species representing all major mammalian lineages. (nature.com)
  • The structure, evolution and function of mammalian sex chromosomes, particularly the Y chromsome, is still poorly understood because few species have high quality sex chromosome assemblies. (forumpro.info)
  • Dec 19, · Mammalian X chromosomes are mainly euchromatic with a similar size and structure among species whereas Y chromosomes are smaller, have undergone substantial evolutionary changes and accumulated male specific genes and genes involved in sex determination. (forumpro.info)
  • Other ant species have more chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This species can have more B chromosomes than A chromosomes at times, but 2n=4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Broccoli , cabbage, kale , kohlrabi , brussels sprouts , and cauliflower are all the same species and have the same chromosome number. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although some contradictory cases have been reported, the large homogeneity of the chromosome number 2n = 22 is now known for 135 (33.5%) distinct species among genus Eucalyptus . (wikipedia.org)
  • All species in the genus Phaseolus have the same chromosome number, including common bean ( P. vulgaris ), runner bean ( P. coccineus ), tepary bean ( P. acutifolius ) and lima bean ( P. lunatus ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously, expensive and labor-intensive BAC-based techniques were used to sequence the Y for a handful of mammalian species. (sandiegozoo.org)
  • It can be used to reconstruct sex chromosomes in a heterogametic sex of any species. (sandiegozoo.org)
  • The coevolution of X and Y chromosomes can be explored by studying the similarities and differences among homologous genes in existing species. (readabstracts.com)
  • These observations suggest that all mammalian chromosomes contain "inactivation/stability centers" that control proper replication, condensation, and stability of individual chromosomes. (elsevier.com)
  • In this domain, the X and Y chromosomes are partially synapsed and transcriptionally silenced, a process termed meiotic sex-chromosome inactivation (MSCI). (princeton.edu)
  • Members of the Synthetic Yeast Genome Project have synthesized five additional yeast chromosomes from scratch. (the-scientist.com)
  • Depending on the extent of the loss or gain, and the dosage sensitivity of genes on the incipient sex chromosomes, natural selection may favor the evolution of compensating mechanisms to balance expression between the sexes and between the sex chromosomes and autosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • x y on x x Volume 1, Folio 8,1967 Order: RODENTIA Family: SCIURIDAE Marmota monax (Northeastern American woodchuck) 2n = 38 Volume 1, Folio 9,1967 Order: RODENTIA Family: SCIURIDAE Marmota monax (Northeastern American woodchuck) 2n=38 AUTOSOMES: 24 or 26 Metacentrics, submetacentrics or subtelocentrics 10 or 12 Acrocentrics or telocentrics SEX CHROMOSOMES: X Metacentric Y Acrocentric The classification of the element here placed as No. (asesoriacastellon.com)
  • The distribution of two autosomes and chromosomes X and Y in sperm heads was compared in primary and secondary spermatocytes and spermatids in porcine testes. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Mammalian Order: IAGOMORPHA Family: LEPORIDAE Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern cottontail) 2n=42 xv x X VolumeS, Folio 212, 1971 Order: RODENTIA Family: SCIURIDAE Ammospermophilus harrisii (Harris' antelope squirrel) 2n = 32 VolumeS, Folio 213, 1971 Order: Family: RODENTIA SCIURIDAE Ammospermophilus harrisii (Harris' antelope squirrel) 2n=32 AUTOSOMES: 30 Metacentrics and submetacentrics SEX CHROMOSOMES: X Submetacentric Y Acrocentric The X chromosome is one of the large submetacentric elements, but its identification is not unequivocal. (saharaincorporated.com)
  • Both males and females have 22 pairs of chromosomes, called the autosomes, that are numbered one to twenty-two in order of decreasing size. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For example, six of the reconstructed eutherian ancestral chromosomes showed no rearrangements for almost 100 million years until the appearance of the common ancestor of human and chimpanzee. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • Since these genes lie on the X in marsupials and eutherians, and also on the homologous region of chicken chromosome 4, this represents a loss from the monotreme X rather than an additional evolutionary stratum of the human X. (springer.com)
  • We have found previously two megabase-sized domains of alphoid DNA,alpha21-I and alpha21-II,in the human chromosome 21. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The sex chromosomes form one of the 23 pairs of human chromosomes in each cell. (forumpro.info)
  • See also: Category:Genes on human chromosome Y. (forumpro.info)
  • G-banding ideogram of human Y chromosome in resolution bphs. (forumpro.info)
  • The human sex chromosomes, a typical pair of mammal allosomes, determine the sex of an individual created in sexual reproduction. (forumpro.info)
  • As other non-human extant hominidae have 48 chromosomes it is believed that the human chromosome 2 is the end result of the merging of two chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The associations of human chromosomes HSA1/19 and 5/21 were found to be chromosome signatures for the group and provided further support for Afrotheria. (unifi.it)
  • This story proposes that in a common ancestor shared by humans and chimps, two small chromosomes somehow fused end to end to produce human chromosome 2 (Figure 1). (icr.org)
  • In 1991, scientists reported finding alleged evidence of a telomere-telomere fusion event on human chromosome 2, but it was not quite what they were expecting. (icr.org)
  • Our results inform the evolution of the hominine (human, chimpanzee, and gorilla) Y Chromosomes. (sandiegozoo.org)
  • Surprisingly, we found the gorilla Y Chromosome to be similar to the human Y Chromosome, but not to the chimpanzee Y Chromosome. (sandiegozoo.org)
  • S ullivan and W illard 1998 ), and arrays of alphoid repeat DNA integrated into human chromosomes are not able to assemble kinetochores ( W arburton and C ooke 1997 ). (genetics.org)
  • If all the DNA in a single human cell were stretched out straight and the strands representing all the chromosomes laid end-to-end, they would extend for well over 1 meter (3 feet). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Human Chromosome Analysis and Sorting. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • The number of human chromosomes was published in 1923 by Theophilus Painter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maintenance of ploidy is ensured through action of the mitotic checkpoint, which prevents the transition to anaphase until all chromosomes have made productive, bipolar attachments through their kinetochores to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle. (rupress.org)
  • Thayer, MJ 2012, ' Mammalian chromosomes contain cis-acting elements that control replication timing, mitotic condensation, and stability of entire chromosomes ', BioEssays , vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 760-770. (elsevier.com)
  • F. : Mitotic chromosomes of some North American Sciuridae. (saharaincorporated.com)
  • To understand the concept associated with an end-to-end fusion model, it is important to know what the ends of chromosomes, telomeres , look like. (icr.org)
  • The theory of sex chromosome evolution implies a successive expansion and decay of the region surrounding the sex-determining locus, with an inevitable progression from homomorphic to heteromorphic sex chromosomes. (forumpro.info)
  • Cohesins mediate sister chromatid cohesion, which is essential for chromosome segregation and postreplicative DNA repair. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The existence of highly ordered organizational patterns of the cell nucleus appears to be beyond any doubt and it is difficult to escape the conclusion that interphase chromosome topology is important for the complex regulation of the many varied and interrelated nuclear processes. (nih.gov)
  • However, it is worth emphasizing that a universally valid principle of chromosome arrangement does not exist and, therefore, any generalization of interphase patterns can be misleading. (nih.gov)
  • The factors of order according to which the chromosomes are arranged inside the nucleus are manifold: (1) Individual chromosomes remain in spatially separated domains throughout interphase, preventing an intermingling of the decondensed euchromatin. (nih.gov)
  • 3) In most cell types direct associations between interphase domains of homologous chromosomes are not observed. (nih.gov)
  • During interphase, the genes carried on the chromosomes are transcribed , to form proteins needed by the cell. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Various proteins act to stabilize DNA in interphase, while additional proteins are required to condense the chromosomes over a thousandfold to form the compact chromosomes required for mitosis and cell division. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Chromosomes of Afrotheria and Their Bearing on Mammalian Genome Evolution. (unifi.it)
  • Herein, we review the current knowledge on Afrotheria chromosomes and genome evolution. (unifi.it)
  • What if researchers could go back in time 105 million years and accurately sequence the chromosomes of the first placental mammal? (rvc.ac.uk)
  • the sequence of recorded values represents the distribution of fluorescence along the chromosome and is stored in the memory of a waveform recorder. (elsevier.com)
  • Instead, mammalian cohesins occupy a subset of DNase I hypersensitive sites, many of which contain sequence motifs resembling the consensus for CTCF , a DNA -binding protein with enhancer blocking function and boundary element activity. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The mammalian Y Chromosome sequence, critical for studying male fertility and dispersal, is enriched in repeats and palindromes, and thus, is the most difficult component of the genome to assemble. (sandiegozoo.org)
  • To determine whether mismatch repair acts on the template chromosome in a directed fashion to restore mismatches to the initial sequence, these experiments were repeated in mismatch repair-defective ( pms1, mlh1 , and msh2 ) backgrounds. (genetics.org)
  • Prokaryotic chromosomes have less sequence-based structure than eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Attention is paid to their length, the position of the centromeres , banding pattern, any differences between the sex chromosomes , and any other physical characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammalian sex chromosomes evolved from an ancient autosomal pair. (springer.com)
  • 10 autosomal and 2 allosomic (sex) chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A complex between the anaphase promoting factor/cylosome (APC/C), its accessory protein Cdc20 and proteins of the SAC renders APC/C inactive, usually until all chromosomes are properly assembled at the spindle equator (chromosome congression) and under tension from spindle fibres. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • A chromosome is a microscopic structure which is composed of proteins and DNA and is found in every cell of the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Y chromosome likely contains 50 to 60 genes that provide instructions for making proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • MicroDNAs are 200-400 base pair long circles in the nucleus that are not attached to chromosomes, making them new DNA entities. (healthcanal.com)
  • The diploid chromosome number is 2n = 14 with four pair of long acrocentric chromosomes ranging from 14.4 μm to 17.9 μm and three pair of short sub metacentric chromosomes ranging from 4.6 μm to 5.4 μm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The final pair of chromosomes, called the sex chromosomes, determine the sex of the individual. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Each person normally has one pair of sex chromosomes in each cell. (medlineplus.gov)
  • for example, in the condensation of chromosomes at metaphase. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Rearrangements are large scale modifications of the genome, such as inversions or transpositions of DNA segments, translocations between non homologous chromosomes, fusions or fissions of chromosomes, deletions or duplications of small or large portions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Schermelleh, Lothar (2003): Dynamic organization of chromosomes in the mammalian cell nucleus. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Is the Subject Area "Mammalian genomics" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Vogt E, Kirsich-Volders M, Parry J, Eichenlaub-Ritter U. Spindle formation, chromosome segregation and the spindle checkpoint in mammalian oocytes and susceptibility to meiotic error. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Aided by the rediscovery at the start of the 1900s of Gregor Mendel's earlier work, Boveri was able to point out the connection between the rules of inheritance and the behaviour of the chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In his famous textbook The Cell in Development and Heredity, Wilson linked together the independent work of Boveri and Sutton (both around 1902) by naming the chromosome theory of inheritance the Boveri-Sutton chromosome theory (the names are sometimes reversed). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Y chromosome is present in males, who have one X and one Y chromosome, while females have two X chromosomes. (forumpro.info)
  • Males have XY sex chromosomes and females have XX sex chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sex chromosomes are the largest chromosomes and constitute 30% of the total length of the diploid set in females and about 25% in males. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the cause for the disparate numbers is unknown, it may arise because of an XO sex determination mechanism , where males (2n=17) lack the sex chromosome and therefore have one less chromosome than the female (2n=18). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Y chromosome, which is found only in males, is difficult to decode even with the latest sequencing technologies. (phys.org)
  • Because only males have the Y chromosome, the genes on this chromosome tend to be involved in male sex determination and development. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Males with 47,XYY syndrome have one X chromosome and two Y chromosomes in each cell, for a total of 47 chromosomes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The age-related reduction in expression of components of the SAC in mammalian oocytes may act synergistically with spindle and other cell organelles' dysfunction, and a partial loss of cohesion between sister chromatids to predispose oocytes to errors in chromosome segregation. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • The role of the chromokinesin Kid in chromosome alignment and spindle assembly in mammalian mitosis. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Artistic 3D rendering of the dual spindle in the mammalian zygote. (eurekalert.org)
  • Normally there is only one bi-polar spindle per cell, however, this research suggests that during the first cell division there are two: one each for the maternal and paternal chromosomes. (eurekalert.org)
  • We have partially isolated the kinetochore and associated centromeric structures from mammalian metaphase chromosomes. (rupress.org)
  • The numbers on the branches from the first eutherian ancestor to Homo sapiens are the numbers of breakpoints in reconstructed ancestral chromosome fragments. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • The rates of evolution of ancestral chromosomes differed greatly among the different mammal lineages, but some chromosomes remained extremely stable over time. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • This 3-D model of the mouse genome depicts the interactions between chromosomes within an embryonic stem cell. (the-scientist.com)
  • During metaphase the X-shaped structure is called a metaphase chromosome, which is highly condensed and thus easiest to distinguish and study. (wikipedia.org)
  • We demonstrate that mammalian telomeres are transcribed into telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA). (epfl.ch)
  • By gaining a better understanding of the relationship between evolutionary breakpoints and cancer breakpoints, the essential molecular features of chromosomes that lead to their instability can be revealed. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • Box 1: The evolutionary dynamics of sex chromosomes. (forumpro.info)
  • Many of the unusual features of sex chromosomes are thought to reflect unique evolutionary dynamics related to their sex-biased transmission. (forumpro.info)
  • Evolutionary comparisons may be used to detect and test candidate genes for these functions, under the hypothesis that the rapid evolution of the mammalian Y chromosome causes it to contain few genes other than those with a critical function in male reproduction. (edu.au)
  • Sometimes a spontaneous break or breaks occur in a chromosome or chromosomes in a particular cell and can result in a deletion, inversion, or translocation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • When a piece of one chromosome is exchanged with a piece from another chromosome it is called a translocation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • At the same time, the evolution of therian (placental and marsupial) sex chromosomes is less widely understood. (phys.org)
  • Other genes on the Y chromosome are important for enabling men to father biological children (male fertility). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Authoritative and cutting-edge, Mammalian Chromosome Engineering: Methods and Protocols serves as a bench-side resource for current protocols and aims to help scientists to explore the many prospects for future research and vital applications. (springer.com)
  • Mills, Kathleen 2014-04-22 00:00:00 Mammalian Genome 7, S 143-S 158 (1997). (deepdyve.com)
  • Mammalian Genome 7, S 143-S 158 (1997). (deepdyve.com)
  • Nadeau, Joseph 2014-04-22 00:00:00 Mammalian Genome 7, $238-$250 (1997). (deepdyve.com)
  • Mammalian Genome 7, $238-$250 (1997). (deepdyve.com)
  • The number of attachment sites for each chromosome to the nuclear membrane is relatively low. (nih.gov)
  • Mammalian Y chromosomes, known for their roles in sex determination and male fertility, often contain repetitive sequences that make them harder to assemble than the rest of the genome. (nature.com)
  • A novel cloning strategy for sequences comprising mammalian replication origins, described by Mesner et al. (elsevier.com)
  • For reptiles with XX/XY or ZZ/ZW systems, the absence of sex differences in hybridization patterns raises the question of whether the ZFY sequences reside on their sex chromosomes. (sciencemag.org)
  • The differences in compensating mechanisms, or lack thereof, will likely reflect the relative content of haplosufficient vs. haploinsufficient genes on the sex chromosomes, but will also reflect early events of sex chromosome evolution, outcomes of sexual selection and sexual conflict, and the life history of the organism [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This zone was stably preserved until the onset of prophase whereas unbleached chromosome segments were often observed to become located at distant sites in the metaphase plates. (uni-muenchen.de)