Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Chromosome Painting: A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, 1-3: The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, 16-18: The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y: The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.Ring Chromosomes: Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromosomes, Human, 4-5: The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Chromosome Structures: Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.Chromosomes, Human, 19-20: The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Chromosomes, Artificial, Human: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Chromosome Fragility: Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Chromosome Duplication: An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Abnormalities, MultiplePolyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Polytene Chromosomes: Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Genes, X-Linked: Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Cytogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Karyotype: The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Chromosome Fragile Sites: Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Sex Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).Monosomy: The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Cricetulus: A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Philadelphia Chromosome: An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Azure Stains: PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.Chromosome Breakpoints: The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.

Telomere dysfunction provokes regional amplification and deletion in cancer genomes. (1/1089)

Telomere dysfunction and associated fusion-breakage in the mouse encourages epithelial carcinogenesis and a more humanized genomic profile that includes nonreciprocal translocations (NRTs). Here, array comparative genomic hybridization was used to determine the pathogenic significance of NRTs and to determine whether telomere dysfunction also drives amplifications and deletions of cancer-relevant loci. Compared to tumors arising in mice with intact telomeres, tumors with telomere dysfunction possessed higher levels of genomic instability and showed numerous amplifications and deletions in regions syntenic to human cancer hotspots. These observations suggest that telomere-based crisis provides a mechanism of chromosomal instability, including regional amplifications and deletions, that drives carcinogenesis. This model provides a platform for discovery of genes responsible for the major cancers affecting aged humans.  (+info)

Fine linkage mapping of the blood pressure quantitative trait locus region on rat chromosome 1. (2/1089)

To narrow the area known to contain the blood pressure quantitative trait locus (QTL) on rat chromosome 1, we constructed a fine linkage map covering the blood pressure OTL region on the chromosome using 22 genetic markers informative for stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats of the Izumo colony (SHRSP/Izm) and Wistar-Kyoto rats of the Izumo colony (WKY/Izm). Linkage mapping was done by genotyping 626 backcrossed rats from matings between SHRSP/Izm and WKY/Izm. Nineteen genetic markers informative for the two strains were selected from public databases. Two markers were newly isolated by screening a rat genomic library. One marker was mapped using a restriction endonuclease polymorphism. The region between DlWox29 and D1Smu11 was covered with 22 informative markers placed every 0.6 cM on average. In addition, 6 physiological candidates for a hypertension gene were mapped in this region either by linkage or by radiation hybrid (RH) mapping. This information should be essential for the construction and analysis of congenic strains for this QTL region.  (+info)

Conservation of relative chromosome positioning in normal and cancer cells. (3/1089)

Chromosomes exist in the interphase nucleus as individual chromosome territories. It is unclear to what extent chromosome territories occupy particular positions with respect to each other and how structural rearrangements, such as translocations, affect chromosome organization within the cell nucleus. Here we analyze the relative interphase positioning of chromosomes in mouse lymphoma cells compared to normal splenocytes. We show that in a lymphoma cell line derived from an ATM(-/-) mouse, two translocated chromosomes are preferentially positioned in close proximity to each other. The relative position of the chromosomes involved in these translocations is conserved in normal splenocytes. Relative positioning of chromosomes in normal splenocytes is not due to their random distribution in the interphase nucleus and persists during mitosis. These observations demonstrate that the relative arrangement of chromosomes in the interphase nucleus can be conserved between normal and cancer cells and our data support the notion that physical proximity facilitates rearrangements between chromosomes.  (+info)

Chromosomal association of Ran during meiotic and mitotic divisions. (4/1089)

Recent studies in Xenopus egg extracts indicate that the small G protein Ran has a central role in spindle assembly and nuclear envelope reformation. We determined Ran localization and dynamics in cells during M phase. By immunofluorescence, Ran is accumulated on the chromosomes of meiosis-II-arrested Xenopus eggs. In living cells, fluorescently labeled Ran associated with the chromosomes in Xenopus and remained associated during anaphase when eggs were artificially activated. Fluorescent Ran associated with chromosomes in mouse eggs, during meiotic maturation and early embryonic divisions in starfish, and to a lesser degree during mitosis of a cultured mammalian cell line. Chromosomal Ran undergoes constant flux. From photobleach experiments in immature starfish oocytes, chromosomal Ran has a k(off) of approximately 0.06 second(-1), and binding analysis suggests that there is a single major site. The chromosomal interactions may serve to keep Ran-GTP in the vicinity of the chromosomes for spindle assembly and nuclear envelope reformation.  (+info)

Male mouse recombination maps for each autosome identified by chromosome painting. (5/1089)

Linkage maps constructed from genetic analysis of gene order and crossover frequency provide few clues to the basis of genomewide distribution of meiotic recombination, such as chromosome structure, that influences meiotic recombination. To bridge this gap, we have generated the first cytological recombination map that identifies individual autosomes in the male mouse. We prepared meiotic chromosome (synaptonemal complex [SC]) spreads from 110 mouse spermatocytes, identified each autosome by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization of chromosome-specific DNA libraries, and mapped >2,000 sites of recombination along individual autosomes, using immunolocalization of MLH1, a mismatch repair protein that marks crossover sites. We show that SC length is strongly correlated with crossover frequency and distribution. Although the length of most SCs corresponds to that predicted from their mitotic chromosome length rank, several SCs are longer or shorter than expected, with corresponding increases and decreases in MLH1 frequency. Although all bivalents share certain general recombination features, such as few crossovers near the centromeres and a high rate of distal recombination, individual bivalents have unique patterns of crossover distribution along their length. In addition to SC length, other, as-yet-unidentified, factors influence crossover distribution leading to hot regions on individual chromosomes, with recombination frequencies as much as six times higher than average, as well as cold spots with no recombination. By reprobing the SC spreads with genetically mapped BACs, we demonstrate a robust strategy for integrating genetic linkage and physical contig maps with mitotic and meiotic chromosome structure.  (+info)

Gene density and transcription influence the localization of chromatin outside of chromosome territories detectable by FISH. (6/1089)

Genes can be transcribed from within chromosome territories; however, the major histocompatibilty complex locus has been reported extending away from chromosome territories, and the incidence of this correlates with transcription from the region. A similar result has been seen for the epidermal differentiation complex region of chromosome 1. These data suggested that chromatin decondensation away from the surface of chromosome territories may result from, and/or may facilitate, transcription of densely packed genes subject to coordinate regulation.To investigate whether localization outside of the visible confines of chromosome territories can also occur for regions that are not coordinately regulated, we have examined the spatial organization of human 11p15.5 and the syntenic region on mouse chromosome 7. This region is gene rich but its genes are not coordinately expressed, rather overall high levels of transcription occur in several cell types. We found that chromatin from 11p15.5 frequently extends away from the chromosome 11 territory. Localization outside of territories was also detected for other regions of high gene density and high levels of transcription. This is shown to be partly dependent on ongoing transcription. We suggest that local gene density and transcription, rather than the activity of individual genes, influences the organization of chromosomes in the nucleus.  (+info)

A divide-and-conquer approach to fragment assembly. (7/1089)

MOTIVATION: One of the major problems in DNA sequencing is assembling the fragments obtained by shotgun sequencing. Most existing fragment assembly techniques follow the overlap-layout-consensus approach. This framework requires extensive computation in each phase and becomes inefficient with increasing number of fragments. RESULTS: We propose a new algorithm which solves the overlap, layout, and consensus phases simultaneously. The fragments are clustered with respect to their Average Mutual Information (AMI) profiles using the k-means algorithm. This removes the unnecessary burden of considering the collection of fragments as a whole. Instead, the orientation and overlap detection are solved efficiently, within the clusters. The algorithm has successfully reconstructed both artificial and real data. AVAILABILITY: Available on request from the authors.  (+info)

A cluster of eight hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase genes belonging to the aldo-keto reductase supergene family on mouse chromosome 13. (8/1089)

A subclass of hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD) are NADP(H)-dependent oxidoreductases that belong to the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily. They are involved in prereceptor or intracrine steroid modulation, and also act as bile acid-binding proteins. The HSD family members characterized thus far in human and rat have a high degree of protein sequence similarity but exhibit distinct substrate specificity. Here we report the identification of nine murine AKR genes in a cluster on chromosome 13 by a combination of molecular cloning and in silico analysis of this region. These include four previously isolated mouse HSD genes (Akr1c18, Akr1c6, Akr1c12, Akr1c13), the more distantly related Akr1e1, and four novel HSD genes. These genes exhibit highly conserved exon/intron organization and protein sequence predictions indicate 75% amino acid similarity. The previously identified AKR protein active site residues are invariant among all nine proteins, but differences are observed in regions that have been implicated in determining substrate specificity. Differences also occur in tissue expression patterns, with expression of some genes restricted to specific tissues and others expressed at high levels in multiple tissues. Our findings dramatically expand the repertoire of AKR genes and identify unrecognized family members with potential roles in the regulation of steroid metabolism.  (+info)

Read "Chromosome substitution strains: gene discovery, functional analysis, and systems studies, Mammalian Genome" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
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The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers and educators in the field of genetics. Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level.. Online ISSN: 1943-2631. ...
The CSS Resource comprises 22 mouse lines, each homozygous for a single A/J chromosome (Chr 1-19, X or Y and mitochondria) on a genetic background that is otherwise C57BL/J that were generated by Dr. Joseph Nadeau (Case Western Reserve University) and his colleagues. The CSS mice are available from The Jackson Laboratories. However, to save time and money, the MGH CSS Resource maintains CSS breeding colonies that are housed in the Simches-8 barrier facility, adjacent to a procedure room that will have equipment for basic standardized phenotyping, including behavioral and metabolic measurements. ...
The host genetic factors affecting susceptibility to disseminated candidiasis are incompletely defined. Peltz et al. (p. 4472-4479) used a next-generation computational genetic mapping program to identify genetic factors affecting inbred strain survival after disseminated candidiasis. Their analysis indicated that genetic variation within early classical complement pathway components (C1q, C1r, and C1s) affected survival. This result was verified by demonstrating that serum C1 binding to Candida albicans was strongly affected by C1rs alleles, as was survival in chromosome substitution strains. A combinatorial, conditional genetic model, involving an interaction between the C5 and C1r/s alleles, accurately predicted survival after disseminated candidiasis. Beyond its potential applicability to infectious diseases, this combinatorial genetic model could provide insight into the genetic architecture for susceptibility to autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases. ...
BACKGROUND: Complex etiology and pathogenesis of pathophysiological components of the cardio-metabolic syndrome have been demonstrated in humans and animal models. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have generated extensive physiological, genetic and genome-wide gene expression profiles in a congenic strain of the spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat containing a large region (110 cM, 170 Mb) of rat chromosome 1 (RNO1), which covers diabetes and obesity quantitative trait loci (QTL), introgressed onto the genetic background of the normoglycaemic Brown Norway (BN) strain. This novel disease model, which by the length of the congenic region closely mirrors the situation of a chromosome substitution strain, exhibits a wide range of abnormalities directly relevant to components of the cardio-metabolic syndrome and diabetes complications, including hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, enhanced insulin secretion both in vivo and in vitro, insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and altered pancreatic
Salicylic acid (SA) is a phytohormone required for a full resistance against some pathogens in Arabidopsis, and NPR1 (Non-Expressor of Pathogenesis Related Genes 1) is the only gene with a strong effect on resistance induced by SA which has been described. There can be additional components of SA perception that escape the traditional approach of mutagenesis. An alternative to that approach is searching in the natural variation of Arabidopsis. Different methods of analyzing the variation between ecotypes have been tried and it has been found that measuring the growth of a virulent isolate of Pseudomonas syringae after the exogenous application of SA is the most effective one. Two ecotypes, Edi-0 and Stw-0, have been crossed, and their F2 has been studied. There are two significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in this population, and there is one QTL in each one of the existing mapping populations Col-4 ¿ Laer-0 and Laer-0 ¿ No-0. They have different characteristics: while one QTL is only ...
Each QTL identified in the crosses of inbred mice generally spans a large genomic distance, sometimes almost an entire chromosome. In complex phenotypes such as atherosclerosis, where a large number of genes are involved, transferring a target region onto an inbred background and creating congenic line is a powerful step toward identifying causative genes. Here we have analyzed the effect of the atherosclerosis QTL Aath4 by establishing a congenic line (Aath4aDBA/DBA), where the 5′ region of DBA Aath4 was backcrossed onto a 129S6-Apoe−/− background. As expected, the resulting Aath4aDBA/DBA males had significantly larger plaques, and macrophages isolated from these mice exhibited reduced efferocytosis as a consequence of allele-specific decrease in MERTK expression. Together, our results provide strong evidence that the increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis determined by the DBA allele of Aath4 is, at least in part, due to decreased MERTK expression.. MERTK is known to play a ...
Congenic strains are produced by transferring the transgene/KO allele to a new genetic background strain that is more appropriate for phenotypic analysis. The APF offer a speed congenics service that can establish a congenic strain within 18 months.
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The Ly-6 locus on mouse chromosome 15 encodes a family of 10-12 kDa proteins that are linked to the cell surface by a glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol anchor and have cell signaling and cell adhesion properties. Expression of Ly-6 proteins is tightly regulated during development; these proteins continu.... Full description. ...
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Autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) in humans and NOD mice results from interactions between multiple susceptibility genes (termed Idd) located within and outside the MHC. Despite sharing ∼88% of their genome with NOD mice, including the H2(g7) MHC haplotype and other important Idd genes, the closely related nonobese resistant (NOR) strain fails to develop T1D because of resistance alleles in residual genomic regions derived from C57BLKS mice mapping to chromosomes (Chr.) 1, 2, and 4. We previously produced a NOD background strain with a greatly decreased incidence of T1D as the result of a NOR-derived 44.31-Mb congenic region on distal Chr. 4 containing disease-resistance alleles that decrease the pathogenic activity of autoreactive B and CD4 T cells. In this study, a series of subcongenic strains for the NOR-derived Chr. 4 region was used to significantly refine genetic loci regulating diabetogenic B and CD4 T cell activity. Analyses of these subcongenic strains revealed the presence of at least two
Information on endogenous retroviruses fixed in the horse (Equus caballus) genome is scarce. The recent availability of a draft sequence of the horse genome enables the detection of such integrated viruses by similarity search. Using translated nucleotide fragments from gamma-, beta-, and delta-retroviral genera for initial searches, a full-length beta-retrovirus genome was retrieved from a horse chromosome 5 contig. The provirus, tentatively named EqERV-beta1 (for the first equine endogenous beta-retrovirus), was 10434 nucleotide (nt) in length with the usual retroviral genome structure of 5LTR-gag-pro-pol-env-3LTR. The LTRs were 1361 nt long, and differed approximately 1% from each other, suggestive of a relatively recent integration. Coding sequences for gag, pro and pol were present in three different reading-frames, as common for beta-retroviruses, and the reading frames were completely open, except that the env gene was interrupted by a single stopcodon. No reading frame was apparent ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Duncan Simpson.. Cohesins mediate sister chromatid cohesion, which is essential for chromosome segregation and postreplicative DNA repair. In addition, cohesins appear to regulate gene expression and enhancer-promoter interactions. These noncanonical functions remained unexplained because knowledge of cohesin-binding sites and functional interactors in metazoans was lacking. We show that the distribution of cohesins on mammalian chromosome arms is not driven by transcriptional activity. Instead, mammalian cohesins occupy a subset of DNase I hypersensitive sites, many of which contain sequence motifs resembling the consensus for CTCF , a DNA -binding protein with enhancer blocking function and boundary element activity. We find cohesins at most CTCF sites and show that CTCF is required for cohesin localization to these sites. Recruitment by CTCF suggests a rationale for noncanonical cohesin functions and, because CTCF binding is sensitive to ...
Accumulating evidence converges on the possibility that chromosomes interact with each other to regulate transcription in trans. To systematically explore the epigenetic dimension of such interactions, we devised a strategy termed circular chromosome conformation capture (4C). This approach involves …
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
View Fig4/Fig4 Tg(ACTB-Fig4*I41T)705Mm/0 involves: 129 * C3H * C57BL/6J * CAST/Ei * SJL: phenotypes, images, diseases, and references.
UW-Madison. We have used both classical genetics and sequence-based genomics in search of mouse modifiers of liver tumorigenesis. The dramatic 20-50-fold difference in tumor multiplicity between carcinogen-treated male C57BL/6 (B6) and C3H/HeJ (C3H) mice has been shown to map mainly to distal chromosome 1. We have bred congenic animals carrying 70cM of chromosome 1 from C3H on an otherwise B6 genetic background. Relative to B6 animals, these B6.C31 mice developed up to 14-fold more liver tumors. Analysis of recombinant animals carrying smaller portions of the C3H congenic region suggests the presence of two modifiers, one of which has a 5-8-fold effect on tumor multiplicity and lies in a 7 Mb region on distal chromosome 1. Ras mutations are more prevalent in C3H tumors than in B6. By comparing ras mutations in tumors from the B6.C31and parental strains, we have shown that the C3H alleles on distal chromosome 1 are not sufficient to recapitulate the high ras mutant frequency of C3H tumors, ...
A general experimental design that allows mapping of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) into a 1-cM interval is presented. The design consists of a series of strains, termed
As ruled by Opinion 2027 the scientific name of the Wild Horse can either be Equus ferus (as a species) or Equus ferus ferus (as a subspecies). It can not be Equus caballus ferus, as has erroneously been stated in Mammal Species of the World link: Equus caballus ferus (in error).. ...
Signals of dominance and submissiveness are central to conspecific communication in many species. For domestic animals, sensitivities to these signals in h
Abstract Book of the 33rd Conference of the International Society for Animal Genetics: P1000-P1041: Bioinformatics, statistical genetics, and genomic ...
The genome of a female Hereford cow has been sequenced by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium, a team of researchers led by the National Institutes of Health and the U.S. Department of Agriculture.[1] It is one of the largest genomes ever sequenced. The results, published in the journal Science on April 24, 2009,[2] are likely to have a major impact on livestock breeding.[3] They were obtained by more than 300 scientists in 25 countries after six years of effort.. The size of the bovine genome is 3 Gb (3 billion base pairs). It contains approximately 22,000 genes of which 14,000 are common to all mammalian species. Bovines share 80 percent of their genes with humans; cows are less similar to humans than rodents (humans and rodents belong to the clade of Supraprimates). They also have about 1,000 genes shared with dogs and rodents but not identified in humans.[4]. The charting of key DNA differences, also known as haplotypes, between several varieties of cattle could allow ...
Hypertension is a complex cardiovascular disease, and it is a daunting task to determine the degree to which each of a multitude of interrelated and environmentally influenced molecular and biochemical pathways contributes to the pathological rise in blood pressure. The overall purpose of the PhysGen studies, using chromosomal substitution techniques in the rat, is to expand our knowledge base related to the interrelationships among genes, environmental factors, and the regulatory systems that control blood pressure.. The specific purpose of the vascular protocol, described herein, was to uncover broad genomic regions that contain genes that may be involved in the regulation of vascular tone and the changes in vascular reactivity that occur in experimental models of hypertension when maintained on a high-salt diet. The summarized data presented here are derived from a first-pass high-throughput screening of several consomic strains of male rats and their parental strains. As such, these studies ...
100126308 Homo sapiens , 723941 Mus musculus , 100313266 Bos taurus , 100314080 Rattus norvegicus , 100315083 Equus caballus , 100315571 Macaca mulatta , 102464669 Ovis aries ...
The mule is an example of hybrid infertility; it is a hybrid between a male ass (Equus africanus) and a female horse (Equus caballus) and is somatically vigorous, but sterile. Photograph by Stephen Garton.. ...
This weekend, Lisa, a client of ours and a single mom, called sobbing, "Im so angry right now, I dont know what to do. I even hit my daughter- Im being so critical and I cant control myself!" I told her everything would be OK and to take a deep breath: she did. She continued, "I was outside of D.C.…. ...
The objective of this study was to confirm a quantitative trait locus for milk production described in a previous study on bovine chromosome 20 using an independent sample. A total of 1191 progeny tested bulls were analyzed for six microsatellite markers spanning bovine chromosome 20. Using multiple-marker regression, we obtained evidence (P , 0.5) for the presence of a quantitative traits locus in the same chromosomal region an affecting the same trait as described in the first study, therefore confirming genuine nature of this QTL.. ...
Deerhake, Marion Elizabeth, "Quantitative trait loci analysis of blood pressure in an eight intercross mouse study" (2008). Summer and Academic Year Student Reports. 2234 ...
Bovine chromosomes 2 (BTA2) and 5 (BTA5) of purebred, half-sib progeny sired by five Japanese black bulls were genotyped using microsatellite DNA markers. The data were subjected to linkage analysis for the detection and mapping of segregating quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing live weight, average daily gain and body measurements at weaning. Probability coefficients of inheriting allele 1 or 2 from the sire at specific chromosomal intervals were computed. The phenotypic data on progeny were regressed on these probability coefficients in a within-common-parent regression analysis. Fixed effects of sex, parity and season of birth as well as age as a covariate, were fitted in a linear model to the phenotypic data and subsequently analysed using QTL Express by generating an F-statistic through permutation tests at chromosome-wide significance thresholds over 10, 000 iterations at 1 cM intervals. Highly significant (P<0.01) segregating QTL for body measurements were detected on BTA2 for hip
The objective of this study was to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms using a bovine chromosome 14 high-density SNP panel after accounting for the effect of DGAT1. Linkage disequilibrium information and sire heterozygosity were used to select m
Cloning and characterization of highly polymorphic porcine microsatellites. The extension coat color locus and the loci for blood group O and tyrosine aminotransferase are on pig chromosome 6
TY - JOUR. T1 - Localization of the osteocalcin gene cluster on mouse Chromosome 3. AU - Desbois, C.. AU - Seldin, Michael F. AU - Karsenty, G.. PY - 1994/5. Y1 - 1994/5. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0028427906&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0028427906&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1007/BF00389550. DO - 10.1007/BF00389550. M3 - Article. C2 - 7915557. AN - SCOPUS:0028427906. VL - 5. SP - 321. EP - 322. JO - Mammalian Genome. JF - Mammalian Genome. SN - 0938-8990. IS - 5. ER - ...
It has been estimated that exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens may contribute significantly to the causation of a sizable fraction, perhaps a majority, of human cancers. Human carcinogens act through a variety of genotoxic and non-genotoxic mechanisms. Genotoxic carcinogens can attack biological macromolecules such as DNA and RNA either directly or indirectly through metabolism, resulting in the formation of adducts with these macromolecules. If DNA adducts escape cellular repair mechanisms and persist, they may lead to miscoding, resulting in permanent mutations. Non-genotoxic carcinogens act by the mechanisms such as induction of inflammation, immunosuppression, formation of reactive oxygen species, activation of receptors, and epigenetic silencing. Together, these genotoxic and non-genotoxic mechanisms can alter signal-transduction pathways that finally result in hypermutability, genomic instability, loss of proliferation control, and resistance to apoptosis - some of the ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Following the latest advice from Public Health England regarding the coronavirus, the Horniman has taken the difficult decision to close the Museum to the public from Wednesday 18 March until further notice.. Our 16.5 acres of beautiful Gardens remain open. The Garden toilets are now open with an increased cleaning regimen however the Sound Garden remains closed.. We will continue to update horniman.ac.uk and our social media channels whilst the Museum is closed and will advertise its reopening well in advance.. We are asking the public to adhere to social distancing guidance in the Gardens.. We thank you for your understanding and patience during this difficult period. Your ongoing support is so very important to us, and we will continue to share stories and objects from the collections throughout this time.. Read more about the closures.. ...
extracellular matrix, collagen V binding, heparin binding, extracellular matrix organization, positive regulation of cell-substrate adhesion
K00693 GYS; glycogen synthase [EC:2.4.1.11] K00693 GYS; glycogen synthase [EC:2.4.1.11] K00750 GYG1; glycogenin [EC:2.4.1.186] K00750 GYG1; glycogenin [EC:2.4.1.186 ...
Hall MA, Norman PJ, Thiel B, Tiwari H, Peiffer A, Vaughan RW, Prescott S, Leppert M, Schork NJ, Lanchbury JS, Quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 18 control variation in levels of T and B lymphocyte subpopulations. Am J Hum Genet70(5):1172-82 ...
Evidence of a locus on BTA5 involved in the expression of the rat-tail phenotype in the SEGFAM-population. In: 15th Day of the Doctoral Student : abstracts, 13 May 2014 Dummerstorf (Schriftenreihe / Leibniz-Institut für Nutztierbiologie , 23) : 29-32 ...
Evidence of a locus on BTA5 involved in the expression of the rat-tail phenotype in the SEGFAM-population. In: 15th Day of the Doctoral Student : abstracts, 13 May 2014 Dummerstorf (Schriftenreihe / Leibniz-Institut für Nutztierbiologie , 23) : 29-32 ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Hypertension.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address. ...
The ability to sense gravity is enhanced by an extracellular structure that overlies the macular sensory epithelium. This complex consists of high density particles, otoconia, embedded within a gelatinous membrane. The tilted mouse specifically lacks otoconia, yet has no other detectable anatomic lesions. Furthermore, the penetrance of the tilted phenotype is nearly 100%. This mouse provides a model to identify genes that are involved in the development and function of vestibular otoconia. Using SSLP markers, we have mapped the tilted (tlt) gene on mouse Chromosome (Chr) 5 between D5Mit421 and D5Mit353/D5Mit128/D5Mit266/D5Mit267 by analysis of the progeny of an intersubspecific F2 intercross. We also mapped the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (Fgfr3) gene, a potential candidate for tlt, and the Huntingtons disease homolog (Hdh) gene to D5Mit268, approximately 4.3 centiMorgans (cM) from the tilted locus. This study excludes both Fgfr3 and Hdh as candidate genes for tlt and identifies closely linked
SM/J mice carry a number of rare polymorphic alleles and are often matched to other strains for quantitative trait locus analysis. These mice are susceptible to diet-induced obesity and diet-induced atherosclerosis. SM/J mice exhibit a hyperresponsiveness to B cell mitogens. Small in size at birth and through weaning, SM/J mice attain a normal body weight as they age.
Virology Highlights features highlighted articles published in Virology, with posts summarizing the research in the authors words.
Understanding the genetic component of scoliosis in humans has relied on the assumption that spine development is conserved across species. Since evolutionary conserved genes tend to lie within synteny blocks (HSBs) and genes which are not conserved lie within evolutionary breakpoint regions (EBRs), HSB analysis may be used to determine if spine development is conserved across species. We hypothesized that vertebral patterning genes are conserved in amniotes and their location is within stable or
Note: Not all QTL on a chromosome are shown due to space; Go to a chromosome for more complete QTL reports; Click on a QTL name to see more details on that QTL ...
Note: Not all QTL on a chromosome are shown due to space; Go to a chromosome for more complete QTL reports; Click on a QTL name to see more details on that QTL ...
Norgard, E. A., Jarvis, J. P., Roseman, C. C., Maxwell, T. J., Kenney-Hunt, J. P., Samocha, K. E., Pletscher, L. S., Wang, B., Fawcett, G. L., Leatherwood, C. J., Wolf, J. B. and Cheverud, J. M., 2009. Replication of long-bone length QTL in the F9-F10 LG,SM advanced intercross. Mammalian Genome ...
Digital Morphology account of a juvenile heterozygous house mouse, Mus musculus, featuring CT-generated animations of the whole specimen
House mice do not hibernate; instead, they gather food and store it for later. Mice are commensal rodents who depend on man for food and...
Organisms that differ in genotype at (ideally) one specified locus. Strictly speaking these are conisogenics. Thus one homozygous strain can be spoken of as being congenic to another
GLASKARAFFE, GESCHLIFFEN MIT 2 verschiedenen Stopfen - EUR 10,00. Geschliffene Glaskaraffe mit 2 versch. Stopfen - leider nicht die Originalen 274354442339
In addition to that quick fix, i decided to test the accuracy of SupportMixs chromosome paintings by juxtaposing them over the MDLP-World22 chromosome graphs. Due to time limitations, i used only first 7 chromosomes of my own SNP data. At first, i ran the MDLP-World22 modification of DIYDodecad v2.1 in byseg mode on "windows" of 500 contiguous SNPs along a chromosome, slided by increments of 50. After that i cut out chromosome paintings of each chromosome from SupportMixs graphic output and aligned them to the scale of corresponding DIYDodecad chromosome graphs: ...
The chromosome aberration test is designed to evaluate the potential of a test compound to induce structural chromosomal abnormalities such as breaks and exchanges.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Cystatin S gene maps to rat Chromosome 3, to which D1mgh18 is re-assigned from Chromosome 1. AU - Duran Alonso, M. Beatriz. AU - Shiels, Paul. AU - McCallion, Andrew S. AU - Bennett, Neil K.. AU - Payne, Anthony P.. AU - Szpirer, Josiane. AU - Szpirer, Claude. AU - Brodie, Martin J.. AU - Davies, R. Wayne. AU - Sutcliffe, Roger G.. PY - 1997/12. Y1 - 1997/12. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0031543282&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0031543282&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 9383294. AN - SCOPUS:0031543282. VL - 8. SP - 946. EP - 947. JO - Mammalian Genome. JF - Mammalian Genome. SN - 0938-8990. IS - 12. ER - ...
Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, William Harvey Research Institute, Centre for Endocrinology, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK. Imprinted genes are an unusual group of around 100 transcripts whose expression depends upon their parental origin. This epigenetically regulated class of genes are historically known for their actions in developmental growth pathways, but it is increasing clear that their misregulation - in both humans and in animal models - has consequences for lifetime metabolic health. It is currently unclear why imprinted gene disruption causes metabolic disease in adulthood. One possibility is that imprinted genes act in developmental pathways to define the future body plan and mediate set points of central energy homeostasis. Another explanation is that the products are continuously required in metabolic tissues to maintain their functions. Using the example of imprinted genes on mouse chromosome 12 (the human Temple Syndrome/Kagami-Ogata Syndrome ...
The present study tested the hypothesis that the Dahl SS (salt-sensitive) rat has vascular dysfunction due, in part, to the up-regulation of the CYP4A/20-HETE (cytochrome P450 ω-hydroxylase 4A)/20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) system. To assess the role of vascular 20-HETE, SS rats were compared with SS-5(BN) consomic rats, carrying CYP4A alleles on chromosome ...
Brown, W.R., M.J. Dobson, and P. MacKinnon. "Telomere cloning and mammalian chromosome analysis." Journal of Cell Science 95.4 (1990): 521-526. Web. 15 Jan. 2018. ...
Encyclopedia of Business, 2nd ed. Chr. Hansen Group A/S Company Profile, Information, Business Description, History, Background Information on Chr. Hansen Group A/S: Ca-Ch
The effect of MB on the cell cycle of IMR90 cells. IMR90, normal human cells, were synchronized by contact inhibition and used to seed new cultures. One group o
Chránič Westige Slush woman L, Tento dámsky chránič zápästia Westige Slush white padne bez problému pod väčšinu rukavíc a umožní úplne voľný pohyb vašich rúk. Je vyrobený z...
Davenport, Iowa (PRWEB) May 28, 2016 -- Brian Bourke, CHRS, health care consulting manager at Honkamp Krueger & Co., P.C. (HK), will be speaking at the
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Life history traits such as fecundity are important to evolution because they make up components of lifetime fitness. Due to their polygenic architectures, such traits are difficult to investigate with genetic mapping. Therefore, little is known about their molecular basis. One possible way toward finding the underlying genes is to map intermediary molecular phenotypes, such as gene expression traits. We set out to map candidate quantitative trait genes for egg fecundity in the chicken by combining quantitative trait locus mapping in an advanced intercross of wild by domestic chickens with expression quantitative trait locus mapping in the same birds. We measured individual egg fecundity in 232 intercross chickens in two consecutive trials, the second one aimed at measuring brooding. We found 12 loci for different aspects of egg fecundity. We then combined the genomic confidence intervals of these loci with expression quantitative trait loci from bone and hypothalamus in the same intercross. ...
Identifying the genes underlying genetically complex traits is of fundamental importance for medicine, agriculture, and evolutionary biology. However, the level of resolution offered by traditional quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping is usually coarse. We analyze here a trait closely related to fitness, ovariole number. Our initial interspecific mapping between Drosophila sechellia (8 ovarioles/ovary) and D. simulans (15 ovarioles/ovary) identified a major QTL on chromosome 3 and a minor QTL on chromosome 2. To refine the position of the major QTL, we selected 1038 additional recombinants in the region of interest using flanking morphological markers (selective phenotyping). This effort generated approximately one recombination event per gene and increased the mapping resolution by approximately seven times. Our study thus shows that using visible markers to select for recombinants can efficiently increase the resolution of QTL mapping. We resolved the major QTL into two epistatic QTL, QTL3a ...
Descrição: We constructed a metric linkage disequilibrium (LD) map of bovine chromosome 6 (BTA6) on the basis of data from 220 SNPs genotyped on 433 Australian dairy bulls. This metric LD map has distances in LD units (LDUs) that are analogous to centimorgans in linkage maps. The LD map of BTA6 has a total length of 8.9 LDUs. Within the LD map, regions of high LD (represented as blocks) and regions of low LD (steps) are observed, when plotted against the integrated map in kilobases. At the most stringent block definition, namely a set of loci with zero LDU increase over the span of these markers, BTA6 comprises 40 blocks, accounting for 41% of the chromosome. At a slightly lower stringency of block definition (a set of loci covering a maximum of 0.2 LDUs on the LD map), up to 81% of BTA6 is spanned by 46 blocks and with 13 steps that are likely to reflect recombination hot spots. The mean swept radius (the distance over which LD is likely to be useful for mapping) is 13.3 Mb, confirming ...
Di Nicolantonio, R., Kostka, V., Kwitek, A., Jacob, H., Thomas, W.G. and Harrap, S.B. 2006, Fine mapping of Lvm1: a quantitative trait locus controlling heart size independently of blood pressure, Pulmonary pharmacology & therapeutics, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 70-73, doi: 10.1016/j.pupt.2005.02.010. ...
The project was announced on June 11 by MetaMorphix Inc. of Savage, Maryland. The company acquired preliminary (1x) coverage of the cow genome as well as a map of 600,000 cow single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), when it purchased the animal genomics and genotyping business of Celera Genomics of Rockville, Maryland in March. Celera retains a minority business interest in MetaMorphix. Using the preliminary map of likely bovine SNPs, MetaMorphixs genomics division, MMI Genomics in Davis, California, is working with two cattle subsidiaries of the international agribusiness company Cargill to develop a physical map that covers the entire cow genome and also to locate genetic markers associated with cattle traits. Weve taken a different approach than the public projects that are looking into the bovine genome, says Sue Denise, the research and development director of MMI Genomics (formerly the AgGen division of Celera). With this initial sequencing on a substantial amount of the bovine genome, ...
In this study, conducted on a random sample of individuals from the isolated population of Campora, we detected a genome-wide significant linkage between BMI and a new locus on chr1q24. Interestingly, this linkage is also detected when focusing on obesity, and it is replicated for both BMI and obesity in the neighboring village of Gioi. However, in these three latter analyses, the linkage is located 7.7 cM away from the initial signal, at a position where no linkage is observed on the first BMI analysis. Whether this suggests the implication of two different loci remains an open question. Following Göring et al. (32), who demonstrated that "the chromosomal position and genotype-phenotype relationship of a locus cannot both be estimated reliably by use of a single data set of current realistic size" in linkage analysis, our results may well be generated by a single locus. We believe that having significant replication P values and detecting a linkage with obesity in Campora at the same marker as ...
Institutions: University College London, Dept of Paediatrics, Royal Free & University College Medical School. The teetering mouse is characterised by ataxia and a spike and wave pattern on EEG that is similar to that seen in other mouse models of absence epilepsy such as ducky. The teetering gene (tn) has been mapped to the distal end of mouse chromosome 11, in a region homologous to human 17q25.3. An interspecific intercross is being carried out to refine the location of tn and a positional candidate approach will be used to identify the gene containing the causative mutation.. Thusfar over 250 affected (tn/tn) F2 teetering offspring from the (B6C3Fe-a/a-tn x CAST/Ei) F1 intercross have been typed for a panel of 7 markers spanning the most telomeric 10cM of chromosome 11. Results of this screen have narrowed the tn critical region to 1cM between D11Mit104 (79cM) and D11Mit69 (80cM). In order to more finely map tn, novel SSLP and SSCP polymorphisms in the region are being sought using inter-B1 ...
I work with rat tumors and try to establish their karyotype. Is there anyone who knows wher I can get such paints?? Bernd K lsch Cell-biology 45147 Essen, Germany e-mail: ttu3a0 at aixrs1.hrz.uni-essen.de knowq s where I can ...
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Chromosomal regions of bovine chromosome one were scanned for the detection and mapping of segregating QTL influencing preweaning withers height, hip height, hip width, body length, chest width, chest depth, shoulder width, lumbar width, thurl width, pin bone width, rump length, cannon circumference, heart girth, abdominal width and abdominal girth. QTL analysis was performed by genotyping 132 half-sib progeny of 5 Japanese Black sires using 108 microsatellite DNA markers. Genotyped data on progeny and their sires were combined in a multi-point approach to calculate Identity-By-Descent (IBD) probability coefficients of inheriting allele 1 or 2 from the sire at specific chromosomal locations.The phenotypic data on progeny were regressed on these IBD coefficients in a within-common-parent regression analysis. A linear model containing the fixed effects of sex, parity and season of birth as well as age as a covariate, was fitted to the IBD coefficients and phenotypic data. Data were analyzed using ...
Sepsis remains one of the leading causes of death in intensive care units (Vincent et al, 2006) and new therapeutic approaches are urgently needed (Riedemann et al, 2003). We previously showed that SPRET/Ei mice are highly resistant to the lethal effects of LPS (Mahieu et al, 2006), as well as to certain bacterial infections (Dejager et al, 2010a). LPS‐induced lethal inflammation and bacterial infections are often used to study the pathogenesis of sepsis (Dejager et al, 2011). We believe that SPRET/Ei mice could be useful for gaining deeper understanding of the complex pathology of sepsis and for identifying novel therapeutic possibilities.. The great genetic diversity between Mus spretus and Mus musculus has already been instrumental in the identification of genetic loci that contribute to resistance phenotypes of Mus spretus‐derived strains (Dejager et al, 2009), such as resistance to infection with Salmonella typimurium (Dejager et al, 2010a) and Yersinia pestis (Blanchet et al, 2011). ...
Head-body length: 7 feet. Shoulder height: 4 feet. Tail length: 3 feet (Lowry Park Zoo). Przewalskis wild horse is stocky with short legs and a short neck, looking very pony-like (Burton 1962). Its head is massive with a long face and a powerful jaw. The upper and lower incisors are used for cutting vegetation, while its many hypsodont cheek teeth are used for grinding. With eyes set far back in the skull, it is able to view a wide field, making the only blind spot directly behind its head. The ears are fairly long and erect, but can be moved for the localization of sounds (Lowry Park Zoo).. A stiff, erect blackish mane runs down the back. The legs are slender. The tail hairs are of graduated lengths. In the summer its pelage is short and smooth. back and sides are reddish-brown. The coloration turns to a yellowish white on its belly. In the winter its pelage becomes longer and lighter in color (Denver Zoo 1997).. ...
International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
QTL mapping of sex ratio phenotype revealed six independently segregating quantitative trait loci on five separate chromosomes, explaining 19% of the variation
The spatial arrangement of some genetic elements relative to chromosome territories and in parallel with the cell nucleus was investigated in human lymphocytes. The structure of the chromosome territories was studied in chromosomes containing regions ( clusters) of highly expressed genes (HSA 9, 17) and those without such clusters ( HSA 8, 13). In chromosomes containing highly expressed regions, the elements pertaining to these regions were found close to the centre of the nucleus on the inner sides of chromosome territories; those pertaining to regions with low expression were localized close to the nuclear membrane on the opposite sides of the territories. In chromosomes with generally low expression ( HSA 8, 13), the elements investigated were found symmetrically distributed over the territories. Based on the investigations of the chromosome structure, the following conclusions are suggested: (1) Chromosome territories have a non-random internal 3D structure with defined average mutual ...
Introduction Changes in atrioventricular conduction time (PR-interval) can indicate an increased risk of important cardiac dysfunctions, including atrial fibrillation. Therefore, understanding the genetics of PR-interval could have important clinical implications. The present study identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) associated with differences in PR-interval between recombinant inbred (RI; AXB/BXA) mice.. Methods 28 AXB/BXA RI and parental strains (8-12 wks; 20-30g; n=4/strain) were instrumented with an ETA-F20 (DSI) transmitter. ECG was recorded continuously for 30 minutes from quiescent mice. PR-interval was measured using specialist software (Ponemah v4.8). QTL mapping was performed using Web QTL (www.genenetwork.org).. Results Significant differences in PR-interval were found between strains (range 0.03 ± 0.0001 (AXB5) vs. 0.04 ± 0.0003 ms (BXA2) and the distribution of PR-intervals was continuous suggesting a complex trait. A significant QTL was identified on chromosome 16 (peak ...
QTL reports provide phenotype and disease descriptions, mapping, and strain information as well as links to markers and candidate genes.
QTL reports provide phenotype and disease descriptions, mapping, and strain information as well as links to markers and candidate genes.
Canine chromosomes contains more mathematical germinal cell possibilities than the human chromosome! Amazing! Genetics depend on genes that contain DNA, strung into a chromosome that...
Cambio (UK) sell mouse paints which are labelled with Cy 3, biotin, or FITC. Alternativly you could make your own if you can get hold of some monochromosomal mouse hybrids and pcr the mouse chromosome ...
Complete information for ADIPQTL2 gene (Genetic Locus), Circulating Adiponectin QTL On Chromosome 5, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
This page provides quick access to the Comparative mapping functions available in the Map Viewer. Currently, comparative maps are calculated using HomoloGene orthology predictions. Once the gene pairs have been established, blocks of conserved syteny can be established using the positions of each gene object in their respective builds. Data used to calculate the Gene Table View is available from our FTP site.. ...
Like GRCh37, the updated reference assembly provides alternate sequence representation for variant regions in the form of alternate loci (alt loci) scaffolds. The alt loci are stand-alone, accessioned sequences for which chromosomal context is provided via alignment to the reference chromosomes. All alternate loci include at least one anchor sequence, a component also found on the reference chromosomes, to ensure these alignments are of high quality. Alt loci belong to alternate loci assembly units: the assembly unit ALT_REF_LOCI_1 contains the first alternate sequence representation for any genomic locus, ALT_REF_LOCI_2 contains the second alternate sequence representation and so forth. GRCh38 contains 261 alt loci scaffolds, in 35 alternate assembly units. 72 of these alternate loci were previously available as NOVEL patches to GRCh37. The LRC/KIR complex on chr. 19 has the largest number of alternate sequence representations (35), followed by the MHC on chr. 6 (7 ...
Scc2 is important for repression of DSB proximal genes. (A) Schematic illustration of the region immediately surrounding the DSB on Chr. VI (adapted from Sacchc
R-11에 대하여 나토에서 SS-1b Scud-A라고 부르면서 처음 스커드라는 용어가 사용되었다. 초기 R-1 미사일은 나토에서 SS-1 스쿠너(SS-1 Scunner)라 불렸으나 이것은 거의 독일의 V-2의 복제로 매우 다른 외양을 가졌다. R-11은 V-2로부터 얻은 기술을 사용하였으나 V-2나 R-1보다 작았으며 새로 설계되었다. R-11은 Makeyev OKE에 의하여 개발되었으며 1957년에 실전 배치되었다. R-11에서 가장 발전된 부분은 A.M. Isaev에 의하여 설계된 엔진이다. V-2의 다중실(multi-chamber) 구조보다 훨씬 단순하며, 진동 방지 장치를 채용하여 차후 러시아의 우주로켓의 더 큰 엔진을 위한 선구자 역할을 하였다. 발전형은 1961년의 스커드-비(R-300 Elbrus / SS-1c Scud-B)와 1965년의 스커드-씨(SS-1d Scud-C)이며, 이 두 종은 일반적인 고폭탄과 80 kiloton의 핵무기, 화학 무기 등을 탄두로 사용할 수 있었다. 1980년에 ...
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And in case theres anyone out there wondering what CSS is, and more importantly what it can do, heres a site that demonstrates the power and flexibility of CSS ...
Benirschke, K.; Hsu, T.C. (1974). An Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes. 8. New York, USA: Springer. pp. 153-6. ISBN 978-1-4615- ... Mammalian Species. The American Society of Mammalogists (375): 1-8. doi:10.2307/3504297.. ... The autosomes consist of five pairs of small to medium-sized metacentrics and submetacentrics.[16] The X chromosome is the ... The dromedary has 74 diploid chromosomes, the same as other camelids. ...
Benirschke, K.; Hsu, T.C. (1974). An Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes. 8. New York, USA: Springer. pp. 153-6. ISBN 978-1-4615- ... Mammalian Species (375): 1-8. doi:10.2307/3504297. JSTOR 3504297.. *^ Taylor, K.M.; Hungerford, D.A.; Snyder, R.L.; Ulmer, F.A. ... The autosomes consist of five pairs of small to medium-sized metacentrics and submetacentrics.[16] The X chromosome is the ... The dromedary has 74 diploid chromosomes, the same as other camelids. ...
Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes. John Wiley & Sons, 14. apr. 2006 - 544 sider. ISBN 978-04-71779-04-9 ...
Mammalian Chromosomes Newsletter. 4 (14). Hirschhorn K, Cooper HL, Firschein IL (1965). "Deletion of short arms of chromosome 4 ... Cooper H, Hirschhorn K (1961). "Apparent deletion of short arms of one chromosome (4 or 5) in a child with defects of midline ...
This tall (that chromosome), intelligent (that chromosome again), functionally nonviolent (that chromosome still again) fellow ... Hsu, T. C. (1979). Human and mammalian cytogenetics : an historical perspective. New York: Springer-Verlag. pp. 41-42. ISBN 0- ... In the wake of the establishment of the normal number of human chromosomes, 47,XYY was the last of the common sex chromosome ... ISBN 1-4051-9087-6. The addition of a Y chromosome to a normal male chromosome constitution does not produce a discernible ...
"Reconstruction of Ancient Chromosomes Offers Insight Into Mammalian Evolution". UC Davis. 2017-06-21. Retrieved 2019-03-20.. ...
Chow JC, Yen Z, Ziesche SM, Brown CJ (2005). "Silencing of the mammalian X chromosome". Annual Review of Genomics and Human ... The underlying mechanisms involves at least one extra X chromosome in addition to a Y chromosome such that the total chromosome ... Jacobs described her discovery of this first reported human or mammalian chromosome aneuploidy in her 1981 William Allan ... In mammals with more than one X chromosome, the genes on all but one X chromosome are not expressed; this is known as X ...
Telomeres form the terminal region of mammalian chromosomes and are essential for stability and aging and play central roles in ... The expression of Xist from the future inactive X-chromosome, and its subsequent coating of the inactive X-chromosome, occurs ... "Telomeric repeat containing RNA and RNA surveillance factors at mammalian chromosome ends". Science. 318 (5851): 798-801. ... The inactivation of a X-chromosome in female placental mammals is directed by one of the earliest and best characterized long ...
Effron, M.; Bogart, M. H.; Kumamoto, A. T.; Benirschke, K. (1976). "Chromosome studies in the mammalian subfamily Antilopinae ...
O'Brien, Stephen J., Meninger, Joan C., Nash, William G. (2006). Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes. John Wiley & sons. p. 78. ISBN ... origins of an XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system.". Mammalian Genome 8 (6): 418-22. PMID 9166586. ,accessdate=. requires ,url=. ( ... "Chromosome painting shows that skunks (Mephitidae, Carnivora) have highly rearranged karyotypes". Chromosome Res. 16 (8): 1215- ... The 2n=6 chromosome number is conserved in the entire family Culicidae, except in Chagasia bathana which has 2n=8.[42]. ...
Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Liss. pp. 342-355. doi:10.1002/0471779059. ISBN 9780471779056. Robinson, T. ... The Pronolagus chromosomes have undergone four fusions and one fission from the Lagomorpha ancestral state (2n=48), which ... All species in this genus have 21 pairs of chromosomes (2n = 42). The karotype for P. rupestris has been published. ... doi:10.1080/02541858.1982.11447806 . Robinson, T. J. (1980). "Comparative chromosome studies in the family Leporidae ( ...
The mouse has approximately 2.7 billion base pairs and 20 chromosomes. They can also be manipulated in ways that are illegal ... They are the most commonly used mammalian model organism, more common than rats. The mouse genome has been sequenced, and ... the mouse is one of the most successful mammalian genera living on Earth today. Mice, in certain contexts, can be considered ...
... and 10 and human chromosome 19". Mammalian Genome. 6 (3): 212-3. doi:10.1007/BF00293017. PMID 7749232.. ... Jones JM, Popma SJ, Mizuta M, Seino S, Meisler MH (March 1995). "Synaptotagmin genes on mouse chromosomes 1, 7, ...
Gartler, S. M.; Riggs, A. D. (1983-01-01). "Mammalian X-chromosome inactivation". Annual Review of Genetics. 17: 155-190. doi: ... that is located on X chromosome. Considering the fact that once one X chromosome is inactivated in a cell, all other cells ... The method is based on X chromosome inactivation and it takes the advantage of having different methylation status of a gene ... Thanks to these qualities of HUMARA gene, clonal origin of any tissue from a female mammalian organism can be determined. The ...
Cremer T, Cremer C (April 2001). "Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells". Nature ... DNA usually occurs as linear chromosomes in eukaryotes, and circular chromosomes in prokaryotes. The set of chromosomes in a ... such as in chromosome 1. Chromosome 1 is the largest human chromosome with approximately 220 million base pairs, and would be ... Recombination involves the breaking and rejoining of two chromosomes (M and F) to produce two rearranged chromosomes (C1 and C2 ...
Goldsby RE, Singh M, Preston BD (January 1998). "Mouse DNA polymerase delta gene (Pold1) maps to chromosome 7". Mammalian ... is from base pair 50,384,290 to base pair 50,418,018 on chromosome 19.[26] The mouse orthologue maps to mouse chromosome 7.[27] ... nuclear chromosome, telomeric region. • delta DNA polymerase complex. • cytosol. Biological process. • nucleotide-excision ... discovered a third DNA polymerase activity in mammalian cells that was called polymerase delta (δ).[10] It was purified from ...
Gerrard DT, Filatov DA (2005). "Positive and negative selection on mammalian Y chromosomes". Mol. Biol. Evol. 22 (6): 1423-32. ... Foresta C, Ferlin A, Moro E (2000). "Deletion and expression analysis of AZFa genes on the human Y chromosome revealed a major ... Agate RJ, Choe M, Arnold AP (2004). "Sex differences in structure and expression of the sex chromosome genes CHD1Z and CHD1W in ... Lahn BT, Page DC (1997). "Functional coherence of the human Y chromosome". Science. 278 (5338): 675-80. doi:10.1126/science. ...
Gerrard DT, Filatov DA (2005). "Positive and negative selection on mammalian Y chromosomes". Mol. Biol. Evol. 22 (6): 1423-1432 ... Foresta C, Ferlin A, Moro E (2000). "Deletion and expression analysis of AZFa genes on the human Y chromosome revealed a major ... Agate RJ, Choe M, Arnold AP (2004). "Sex differences in structure and expression of the sex chromosome genes CHD1Z and CHD1W in ... 2000). "Population genetic implications from sequence variation in four Y chromosome genes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 ( ...
"Role of chromosomes in cancerogenesis, as studied in serial tissue culture of mammalian cells". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 71 (6): ... Advances in cytogenetics facilitated discovery of chromosome abnormalities in neoplasms, including the Philadelphia chromosome ... 2007). "The dynamics of cancer chromosomes and genomes". Cytogenet Genome Res. 118 (2-4): 237-246. doi:10.1159/000108306. PMID ... Hauschka TS (September 1961). "The chromosomes in ontogeny and oncogeny". Cancer Res. 21: 957-74. PMID 13712320.. ...
Hsu T.C., & Pomerat, C.M. (1953). Mammalian chromosomes in vitro II: A method for spreading the chromosomes of cells in tissue ... Hsu, T. C. (1952). Mammalian chromosomes in vitro I: The karyotype of man. Journal of Heredity, 43, 167-172. ... The correct diploid chromosome number of 46 human chromosomes was first reported three years later by Joe Hin Tjio and Albert ... He was the 13th president of American Society for Cell Biology, and known as the Father of Mammalian Cytogenetics. Hsu was born ...
"Reconstruction of Ancient Chromosomes Offers Insight Into Mammalian Evolution". UC Davis. Retrieved 2017-07-27. ... Lewin and his colleagues used an algorithm to computationally recreate the chromosomes of the first eutherian mammal, the long- ... "Reconstruction and evolutionary history of eutherian chromosomes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114 (27): ...
Huberman, Joel A.; Riggs, Arthur D. (March 1968). "On the mechanism of DNA replication in mammalian chromosomes". Journal of ... Because eukaryotes have linear chromosomes, DNA replication is unable to reach the very end of the chromosomes. Due to this ... This shortens the telomeres of the daughter DNA chromosome. As a result, cells can only divide a certain number of times before ... In bacteria, which have a single origin of replication on their circular chromosome, this process creates a "theta structure" ( ...
Smith CL, Cantor CR (1989). "Evolving strategies for making physical maps of mammalian chromosomes". Genome. 31 (2): 1055-8. ...
... since mammalian sex chromosomes contain too many repetitive sequences to be sequenced by conventional approaches. The ... "Mammalian Y chromosomes retain widely expressed dosage-sensitive regulators". Nature. 508 (7497): 494-499. doi:10.1038/ ... The first RFLP that Page found was from a site of homology between the X chromosome and Y chromosome, a coincidence that would ... Page continued to map the Y chromosome. He had already published DNA-based deletion maps of the Y chromosome in 1986, and went ...
The Cancer Chromosome Aberration Project (cCAP) is a CGAP supported initiative used for defining chromosome structure and to ... "Mammalian Gene Collection". Retrieved 2014-09-07. "SAGE genie". Retrieved 2014-09-07. "Gene Finder". Retrieved 2014-09-07. " ... "The Cancer Chromosome Aberration Project (CCAP)". Retrieved 2014-09-05. "All About the FISH-mapped BACs". Retrieved 2014-09-07 ... U. Brinkmann; G. Vasmatzis; B. Lee; N. Yerushalmi; M. Essand; I. Pastan (September 1998). "PAGE-1, an X chromosome-linked GAGE- ...
大多數人類基因擁有許多的外顯子,且人類的內含子比位在其兩端的外顯子更長。這些基因參差不齊地分佈在染色體中,每一個染色體皆含有一些基因較多的區段與基因較少的區段。這些區段的差異,則與染色體帶(chromosome bands)及GC含量相關。基因密度所顯現 ... Nei M, Xu P, Glazko G. Estimation of divergence times from multiprotein sequences for a few mammalian species and several ... Human
However, only a few studies have examined the relationship between chromosome segregation errors during early cleavage and ... These results suggest that early chromosome segregation error causing micronuclei formation affects ploidy and development to ... aneuploidy resulting from chromosome segregation error is considered responsible for pregnancy loss. ... Mogessie, B. & Schuh, M. Actin protects mammalian eggs against chromosome segregation errors. Science 357(6353), eaal1647 (2017 ...
Willard HF (1990) Centromeres of mammalian chromosomes. Trends Genet 6:410-416. [ Links ]. ... Furthermore, among the species of the cluster, D. buzzatii has a primitive pattern of chromosome inversions (Ruiz and Wasserman ... Madi-Ravazzi L, Bicudo HE and Manzato JA (1997) Reproductive compatibility and chromosome pairing in the Drosophila buzzatii ... Machado LP, Madi-Ravazzi L and Tadei WJ (2006) Reproductive relationships and degree of synapsis in the polytene chromosomes of ...
Mammalian Chromosome Engineering: Methods and Protocols provides the reader with up-to date information on this rapidly ... Authoritative and cutting-edge, Mammalian Chromosome Engineering: Methods and Protocols serves as a bench-side resource for ... Mammalian Artificial Chromosomes and Clinical Applications for Genetic Modification of Stem Cells: An Overview ... the generation and engineering of synthetic artificial chromosomes, and the induced de novo platform artificial chromosome ...
John Wiley & Sons Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes Der Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes ist nicht nur eine herausragende Sammlung ... Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes. OBrien, Stephen J. / Graphodatsky, Alexander S. / Perelman, Polina L. (Herausgeber) ... Der Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes ist nicht nur eine herausragende Sammlung der Karyotypen gebänderter Metaphasechromosomen ... Die Neuauflage des Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes ist der Ausgangspunkt für eine Vielzahl neuer aufregender Forschungen.. ...
Centromeres of mammalian chromosomes.. Willard HF1.. Author information. 1. Department of Genetics, Stanford University, CA ... The centromere is the major cis-acting genetic locus involved in chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis. The mammalian ... Although direct functional assays of chromosome segregation are still lacking, the data are most consistent with a structural ...
Making better artificial chromosomes for mammalian cells. Project ID: HPRN-CT-2000-00089. Finanziato nellambito di: FP5-HUMAN ... Making better artificial chromosomes for mammalian cells. Dal 2000-09-01 al 2004-08-31 ...
What if researchers could go back in time 105 million years and accurately sequence the chromosomes of the first placental ... Reconstruction of ancient chromosomes offers insight into mammalian evolution. Published: 23 Jun 2017 , Last Updated: 23 Jun ... The rates of evolution of ancestral chromosomes differed greatly among the different mammal lineages, but some chromosomes ... "It is the first time that the history of each mammalian chromosome is delineated in such great detail, demonstrating that some ...
Here, we consider mammalian Bs, taking into account data on their DNA sequencing, transcriptional activity, positions in nuclei ... The intraspecific diversity of Bs makes this analysis a very important element of B chromosome studies. ... B chromosomes (Bs) revealed more than a hundred years ago remain to be some of the most mysterious elements of the eukaryotic ... Sequence Composition and Evolution of Mammalian B Chromosomes. Nikolay B. Rubtsov 1,2,* and Yury M. Borisov 3. ...
Evidence of a Large-Scale Functional Organization of Mammalian Chromosomes * A High-Resolution Single Nucleotide Polymorphism ... Chromosome mapping Is the Subject Area "Chromosome mapping" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells.. Cremer T1, Cremer C. ... The location of a gene within a chromosome territory seems to influence its access to the machinery responsible for specific ... The emerging view is that chromosomes are compartmentalized into discrete territories. ...
... Guijun Guan,1,2 Meisheng Yi,2,3 Tohru Kobayashi,2,4 Yunhan ... "A Syntenic Region Conserved from Fish to Mammalian X Chromosome," International Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol. 2014, ...
Mammalian Chromosome Engineering has 0 available edition to buy at Alibris ... Mammalian Chromosome Engineering by Gyula Hadlaczky starting at $120.62. ...
The chromosome aberration test is designed to evaluate the potential of a test compound to induce structural chromosomal ... In Vitro Mammalian Chromosome Aberration Test. Understanding the implications of positive genetic toxicology results is crucial ... The chromosome aberration test (CAT) is designed to evaluate the potential of a test compound to induce structural chromosomal ...
To test whether yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) can be used in the investigation of mammalian development, we analyzed the ... Use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) in studies of mammalian development: production of beta-globin locus YAC mice ... Use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) in studies of mammalian development: production of beta-globin locus YAC mice ... Use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) in studies of mammalian development: production of beta-globin locus YAC mice ...
Two distinct pathways remove mammalian cohesin from chromosome arms in prophase and from centromeres in anaphase.. Waizenegger ... We propose that in vertebrates, a cleavage-independent pathway removes cohesin from chromosome arms during prophase, whereas a ... How anaphase is controlled in vertebrates is unknown because their cohesins dissociate from chromosomes before anaphase. We ...
Any genetic change we introduce to the single set of chromosomes will have an easy-to-determine effect. This will be useful for ... Mammal cells usually contain two sets of chromosomes - one set inherited from the mother and one from the father. The genetic ... However, as each cell contains two copies of each chromosome, determining the link between a genetic change and its physical ... The researchers hope that this technique will help advance mammalian genetics and our understanding of the gene-function ...
Mammalian Genome" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications ... Mouse chromosome 8. Mouse chromosome 8 Ceci, Jeffrey; Mills, Kathleen 2014-04-22 00:00:00 Mammalian Genome 7, S 143-S 158 (1997 ... Mammalian Genome 7, S 143-S 158 (1997). 9 Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1997 Jeffrey D. Ceci, 1 Kathleen A. Mills z ~Department ... Mammalian Genome Springer Journals http://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer-journals/mouse-chromosome-8-zL1ugCiIab ...
Mammalian Genome" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications ... Mouse Chromosome 14 J.H. Nadeau: Mouse Chromosome 14 $241 $242 J.H. Nadeau: Mouse Chromosome 14 J.H. Nadeau: Mouse Chromosome ... Mouse Chromosome 14 J.H. Nadeau: Mouse Chromosome 14 $247 $248 J.H. Nadeau: Mouse Chromosome 14 J.H. Nadeau: Mouse Chromosome ... Mouse Chromosome 14 J.H. Nadeau: Mouse Chromosome 14 $241 $242 J.H. Nadeau: Mouse Chromosome 14 J.H. Nadeau: Mouse Chromosome ...
Mammalian Genome" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications ... Mouse Chromosome 18. Mouse Chromosome 18 Radice, Glenn L. 1999-10-01 00:00:00 Mammalian Genome 10, 959 (1999). Incorporating ... To date, contributions in generating the previous Mouse Chromosome 18 Commit- null mutations in seven genes on Chr 18 have ... Add Journal to My Library Mammalian Genome , Volume 10 (10) - Oct 1, 1999 ...
Mammalian Genome" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications ... Mouse Chromosome 9. Mouse Chromosome 9 Wakana, Shigeharu ; Imai, Kenji 1999-10-01 00:00:00 Mammalian Genome 10, 949 (1999). ... The latest mapping data on these crosses as well as data on the crosses of Copeland-Jenkins, Kozak, Seldin, and Chromosome 9 ... 1). A syntenic relationship between mouse Chr 9 and human chro- mosomes can be best overviewed in Fig. 1. As a rough summary, ...
Mammalian Genome" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications ... Mouse chromosome 9. Mouse chromosome 9 Wakana, Shigeharu; Imai, Kenji 2009-03-17 00:00:00 Mammalian Genome 8, S180-S199 (1998 ... Mammalian Genome 8, S180-S199 (1998). Mammalian enOllle Incorporating Mouse Genome 9 Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1998 ... Add Journal to My Library Mammalian Genome , Volume 8 (1) - Mar 17, 2009 ...
An SRY-related sequence on the marsupial X chromosome: implications for the evolution of the mammalian testis-determining gene. ... Enrichment of brain-related genes on the mammalian X chromosome is ancient and predates the divergence of synapsid and ... An SRY-related sequence on the marsupial X chromosome: implications for the evolution of the mammalian testis-determining gene. ... An SRY-related sequence on the marsupial X chromosome: implications for the evolution of the mammalian testis-determining gene. ...
Mammalian Artificial Chromosomes: Methods & Protocols. Link: Mammalian Artificial Chromosomes: Methods & Protocols. Resource ...
We examined error-prone nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) in Msh2-deficient and wild-type Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. A DNA substrate containing a thymidine kinase (tk) gene fused to a neomycin-resistance (neo) gene was stably integrated into ce
Mapping of human X- and Y-borne genes in distantly related mammals and non-mammalian vertebrates has proved valuable to help ... Mammalian sex chromosomes evolved from an ancient autosomal pair. ... evolution mammalian Ornithorhynchus anatinus platypus X chromosome This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check ... Mammalian sex chromosomes evolved from an ancient autosomal pair. Mapping of human X- and Y-borne genes in distantly related ...
  • in this study, ploidy of blastomeres of 2-cell embryos was investigated by single-cell genome sequencing after live-cell imaging of 1st mitosis to link the imaging data of chromosome segregation and ploidy of embryo. (nature.com)
  • abstract = "A flow cytometer has been constructed which measures total fluorescence and the distribution of fluorescence along isolated, stained mammalian chromosomes. (elsevier.com)
  • An enduring question surrounding sex chromosome evolution is whether effective hemizygosity in the heterogametic sex leads inevitably to dosage compensation of sex-linked genes, and whether this compensation has been observed in a variety of organisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The differences in compensating mechanisms, or lack thereof, will likely reflect the relative content of haplosufficient vs. haploinsufficient genes on the sex chromosomes, but will also reflect early events of sex chromosome evolution, outcomes of sexual selection and sexual conflict, and the life history of the organism [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Evolutionary comparisons may be used to detect and test candidate genes for these functions, under the hypothesis that the rapid evolution of the mammalian Y chromosome causes it to contain few genes other than those with a critical function in male reproduction. (edu.au)
  • At the same time, the evolution of therian (placental and marsupial) sex chromosomes is less widely understood. (phys.org)
  • The main conclusions are that this phylogeny is compatible with the occurrence during evolution of simple chromosome rearrangements - inversions, fusions, reciprocal translocation, acquisition or loss of heterochromatin - and that it is entirely consistent with the known primate phylogeny based on physical morphology and molecular evolution. (springer.com)
  • A remarkable observation made by Dutrillaux is that different primate phyla seem to have adopted different chromosome rearrangements in the course of evolution: inversions for the Pongidae, Robertsonian fusions for the lemurs, etc. (springer.com)
  • Our results inform the evolution of the hominine (human, chimpanzee, and gorilla) Y Chromosomes. (sandiegozoo.org)
  • Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 2:117-131. (wikipedia.org)
  • By gaining a better understanding of the relationship between evolutionary breakpoints and cancer breakpoints, the essential molecular features of chromosomes that lead to their instability can be revealed. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • Since these genes lie on the X in marsupials and eutherians, and also on the homologous region of chicken chromosome 4, this represents a loss from the monotreme X rather than an additional evolutionary stratum of the human X. (springer.com)
  • We propose that the deletion and transposition events are caused by evolutionary accidents during mating-type switching, combined with natural selection to keep MAT and HML on the same chromosome. (pnas.org)
  • It needs to be noted that the number of rearrangements that have become fixed in evolutionary history seems relatively low, due to 180 million years of the mammalian radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In both cases the folded state of chromosomes determines which functionally related DNA sequences are spatially close to each other, which in turn enables their function ( 5 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • The distribution of alpha satellite sequences in African green monkey chromosomes. (springer.com)
  • To do so, Page and his colleagues developed a new sequencing technique, single-haplotype iterative mapping and sequencing (SHIMS), since mammalian sex chromosomes contain too many repetitive sequences to be sequenced by conventional approaches. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of SHIMS allowed Page to identify long palindromic sequences on the long arm of the Y chromosome, which he would go on to show made the Y chromosome vulnerable to the deletions that cause spermatogenic failure (an inability to produce sperm). (wikipedia.org)
  • When a few of these sequences are deleted, DNA is still copied from other intact origins, but when many are deleted, chromosome replication slows down dramatically. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1960, J. H. Taylor showed that the active and inactive X chromosomes replicate in a different pattern, with the active X replicating earlier than the inactive X, whereas all the other pairs of chromosomes replicate in the same temporal pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, contributions in generating the previous Mouse Chromosome 18 Commit- null mutations in seven genes on Chr 18 have resulted in embry- tee Reports on which the current consensus map is largely based. (deepdyve.com)
  • Synteny between mouse Chr 9 and human chromosomes Map position (MP) changes As of the submission time, 135 human orthologs of mouse Chr 9 A change of MP to Tgfbr2 (from 52 to 69) has been made based genes have been identified and mapped (see Table 1/Map and Fig. on re-evaluation of the existing data. (deepdyve.com)
  • As a rough summary, How to use the CCR9 consensus map mouse Chr 9 segments in an MP range below are homologous to The CCR9 consensus map is made by compiling data from a large following human chromosomes (HSA): MP 1-3 to HSA 11, MP number of individual mapping studies. (deepdyve.com)
  • In the electronic version of CCR9, the generating earlier Mouse Chromosome 9 Committee Reports on which the mapping information is presented in two different formats, which current consensus map is largely based. (deepdyve.com)
  • EMBO J 7, Mouse Chromosome 17. (deepdyve.com)
  • 1994) mouse Chromosome 17 using recombinant t haplotypes. (deepdyve.com)
  • potassium channel beta subunit Kcnabl to The Kv[31 cDNA has been isolated from human, rat, and mouse mouse Chromosome 3 [5- (deepdyve.com)
  • Mutations in alpha subunits of voltage-gated ion channels Chromosome (Chr) 3: Cen-I12 (D3Nds6)-7.5 ± Map position: have been associated with several human neurological disorders 2.2-D3Nds38, D3Mit69, D3Mit172, D3Mit335-4.8 ± 1.8-Kcnabl, and with the mouse mutants motor endplate disease and tot- D3Mit228-0.7 ± 0.7-D3Mit241-1.4 ± 1.0-D3Mit277-0.7 ± 0.7- tering . (deepdyve.com)
  • Deimling, Otto 2009-03-23 00:00:00 We have performed a high-resolution linkage analysis for the conserved segment on distal mouse Chromosome (Chr) 8 that is homologous to human Chr 16q. (deepdyve.com)
  • When the X-linked enzyme, hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase (HGPRT), was found to increase significantly in activity during the morula stage of preimplantation mouse embryonic development (Epstein 1970), it was obvious that this enzyme would be a useful marker for studying the control of X-chromosome expression. (springer.com)
  • Biochemical studies on X-chromosome activity in preimplantation mouse embryos. (springer.com)
  • Nevertheless, because of its remarkable adaptability to almost any environment, the mouse is one of the most successful mammalian genera living on Earth today. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mouse has approximately 2.7 billion base pairs and 20 chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)