The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.
Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.
The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
An order of insects comprising two suborders: Caelifera and Ensifera. They consist of GRASSHOPPERS, locusts, and crickets (GRYLLIDAE).
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A genus in the family Blattidae containing several species, the most common being P. americana, the American cockroach.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.

JIL-1 and Su(var)3-7 interact genetically and counteract each other's effect on position-effect variegation in Drosophila. (1/169)

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Evolution of a distinct genomic domain in Drosophila: comparative analysis of the dot chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila virilis. (2/169)

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Multiple functions for Drosophila Mcm10 suggested through analysis of two Mcm10 mutant alleles. (3/169)

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Introgression of Drosophila simulans nuclear pore protein 160 in Drosophila melanogaster alone does not cause inviability but does cause female sterility. (4/169)

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Statistical analysis of nondisjunction assays in Drosophila. (5/169)

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Step-by-step evolution of neo-sex chromosomes in geographical populations of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp. (6/169)

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Mutagenesis as a genetic research strategy. (7/169)

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Coupling between microtubule sliding, plus-end growth and spindle length revealed by kinesin-8 depletion. (8/169)

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Abstract: The Topors protein is a tumor suppressor in human that associates with and regulates a number of cell cycle regulators that including topoisomerase I and p53. It possesses both ubiquitin and SUMO ligase activity and its mutation or downregulation has been associated with some human cancers and diseases. The Drosophila homologue, dTopors, is an ubiquitin E3 ligase. We have investigated the role of Dtopors in sumoylating proteins in the male germ line. Although nuclear lamin localization is disrupted in dtopors mutants, we find no evidence of lamin modification by Dtopors. We observe an increase in the overall sumoylation of testis proteins and a corresponding decrease in the pool of free SUMO in homozygous dtopors versus heterozygous dtopors flies. Based on this result, we propose a model explaining the role of dtopors in altering germline sumoylation. We have constructed a SUMO-GFP transgenic protein to investigate how dtopors is altering the pool of SUMO in the cell. We demonstrate ...
Definition of karyosome in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of karyosome. What does karyosome mean? Information and translations of karyosome in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Last Updated: 11th December 2017 The Balancer/Genotype Variant Report contains the information for an individual balancer/genotype variant. Genotype variants are chromosomal rearrangements which carry the same rearrangement as their parent aberration (listed in the Parent aberration field of the report), but they differ genetically from the parent aberration, e.g. carrying a different constellation of alleles and/or transposable element insertions. A genotype variant chromosome may also be a Balancer, which is a multiply inverted chromosome that suppresses recombination with the homologous chromosome. This allows the homologous chromosome (or part of it) to be maintained intact in a cross or stock. Balancers also typically carry a dominant marker and are often lethal or sterile when homozygous. This can increase their usefulness to researchers. If an individual genotype variant chromosome has been reported to be usable as a balancer this is indicated by the presence of the Described as Balancer ...
It combines the benefits of a feed balancer and a joint supplement. Highly cost-effective.. It is the first and only feed balancer to include the scientifically recommended rate of glucosamine to help maintain mobility. This rate is 10 grams of glucosamine/500kg horse/day.. TopSpec Senior Feed Balancer is a very palatable Non-Heating feed that contains several supplements that provide the levels of micronutrients and digestive aids normally only found in high quality specialised supplements.. When TopSpec Senior Feed Balancer is fed there is therefore no need to add any further supplements.. This superb specification allows elderly horses to utilise far more nutrients from the forage and straights in their diet, which often means that their hard feed intake can be reduced with many resulting benefits. A complete specification is freely available.. ...
The balancer supports stickyness. When a request is proxied to some back-end, then all following requests from the same user should be proxied to the same back-end. Many load balancers implement this feature via a table that maps client IP addresses to back-ends. This approach is transparent to clients and back-ends, but suffers from some problems: unequal load distribution if clients are themselves hidden behind proxies, stickyness errors when a client uses a dynamic IP address that changes during a session and loss of stickyness, if the mapping table overflows.. The module ...
The balancer supports stickyness. When a request is proxied to some back-end, then all following requests from the same user should be proxied to the same back-end. Many load balancers implement this feature via a table that maps client IP addresses to back-ends. This approach is transparent to clients and back-ends, but suffers from some problems: unequal load distribution if clients are themselves hidden behind proxies, stickyness errors when a client uses a dynamic IP address that changes during a session and loss of stickyness, if the mapping table overflows.. The module ...
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A soy-free diet balancer designed to provide the essential nutrients that hay lacks. Wholesome Blends™ Balancer allows you to meet the unique needs of your horse in a way that you can be proud - we know Mother Nature is!
Lenti ORF particles, BRDT (mGFP-tagged)-Human bromodomain, testis-specific (BRDT), transcript variant 2, 200 uL, |10^7 TU/mL, 200 µl.
Plasmid lenti MS2-P65-HSF1_Hygro from Dr. Feng Zhangs lab contains the insert MS2-P65-HSF1_2A_Hygro and is published in Nature. 2014 Dec 10. doi: 10.1038/nature14136. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Plasmid lenti dCAS-VP64_Blast from Dr. Feng Zhangs lab contains the insert dCAS9(D10A, N863A)-VP64_2A_Blast and is published in Nature. 2014 Dec 10. doi: 10.1038/nature14136. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
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If this is your first visit, be sure to check out the FAQ by clicking the link above. You may have to register before you can post: click the register link above to proceed. To start viewing messages, select the forum that you want to visit from the selection below ...
Learn about configuration for apps hosted behind proxy servers and load balancers, which often obscure important request information.
The EB uses direct current similar to that of the human body to create an ionic field. The patient places their feet in the bioenergetic water to receive the flow of ions which increases cellular function. Studies have shown that more cellular ATP is produced during treatment which enhances the cells to work and detoxify at a higher rate.. ...
Lookup HS Codes for Colombia vi 28.10.00 Orthoboric acid. Avalara LandedCosts helps determine your duty rates and other import taxes for Colombia.
Analysis of chromosome localization of three molecular markers, 18S-5.8S-28S rDNA, 5S rDNA and a 180 bp satDNA, showed that B chromosomes in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans originated independen
The B24 chromosome in the Torrox population of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans is recurrently attached to a nucleolus in diplotene cells, indicating the activity of its distally located ribosoma
We analyzed the effect of B-chromosome presence on expression level of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in cerebral ganglion and gonad in both males and females of the grasshopper |i|Eyprepocnemis
The relative location of 2 repetitive DNAs, i.e. ribosomal (rDNA) and a tandemly repeated satellite DNA (satDNA), with respect to the centromere, suggested that B chromosomes in the grasshopper |i&
Cynthia Nixons wife was worried about her being bald on their wedding day.The former Sex and the City actress shaved her head for her role as a cancer sufferer in the stage play Wit before her May nuptials to long-term...
Many people ask about Cynthia Robinson Height and Weight 2016, size, age, body statistics and measurements. Cynthia Robinson is an American Trumpet player, her
Pay attention, the intruder interrupted, and stepped around the desk. I want you. She slowly raised, then lowered the weapon, and Cynthias head bobbed in perfect rhythm. Oh... you like my new toy? the intruder whispered. Its the very latest in gas-powered automatics. It fires a tiny fl chette loaded with a powerful narcotic, and is quiet as a mild cough. One touch of the needle... and youre out like the proverbial light in less than two seconds. She waved the barrel from side to side, and again, Cynthias head followed. The only downside... it leaves a nasty bruise. She centered the weapons aim between Cynthias breasts. You dont want me to have to use this thing, do you? Cynthia shook her head. Youre going to do exactly what I tell you to do, arent you? Cynthia nodded. Hands behind the chair, she ordered ...
Cynthia Nixon and director Lynne Meadow, both cancer survivors, share the challenge and the music of Margaret Edson's Wit on Broadway.
Cynthia Nixon and director Lynne Meadow, both cancer survivors, share the challenge and the music of Margaret Edson's Wit on Broadway.
Laura Linney and Cynthia Nixon swap the two lead female roles in the latest revival of The Little Foxes. Between performances they talk Tony nominations, sexism, and the wisdom of Stockard Channing.
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Cynthia Warner, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Cynthia Dillon, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
See what Cynthia Smith (csmith2279) has discovered on Pinterest, the worlds biggest collection of everybodys favorite things.
Cynthia Zelis MD is a Family Practitioner who practices in Strongsville, OH. Get a full report about this doctors background by clicking here.
Is Female Hormone Balancer the best supplement to treat hormonal imbalance in women NATURALLY? Menopause symptoms, hot flashes and night sweats remedies, progesterone natural estrogen pills side effects and more
Cynthia Marie Has A Rare Genome That Is Impervious To Disease And Toxins Cynthia Marie has a rare genome that is impervious to disease and toxins. When faced with something the body cant handle, instead of dying her body puts her into a coma until it excretes the toxin/germ out in her urine. According to Cynthia her DNA was sold like a commodity through Wall Street and hypothecated through various financial products. She is an extreme case of slave system we all live under and how the... ...
I pop the tab off the bottle and pour the contents of bottle one into bottle two. A quick glance at my image in the mirror and I look like the mad scientist in gray vogue. Although the final promised color is a golden red the wet product is hemorrhage-purple. Shocked, I grab the box and check again - Golden Sienna. Stamped with the Good Housekeeping seal of approval, Clairol, my image rests in your potion ...
Swamped, the staff scrambles to find empty beds. Dusk arrives and still no room available, we relocate for a temporary stay in recovery. Patients moan and intravenous bags hang on hooks. Tucked in a far cubicle, we order dinner and wait for a vacancy. Flat on her back I spoon feed Mom peas. One disappears down her gown ...
Dr. Chua focuses on listening carefully to each cancer patient, and applying knowledge and skills to help patients live as well as they can.
Kinesiologist, Your journey to health starts Here. You have tried so many things, yet that persistent health issue lingers. TAKE A DEEP BREATH Together, we will explore your past, assess what your body is trying to...
Well, I am at it again. I am asking why the 11 year old Hispanic boy was included in the study. I was amazed at what I found as to what is presently available ...
Time to live for a connection to Logstash after which the connection will be re-established. Useful when Logstash hosts represent load balancers. Since the connections to Logstash hosts are sticky operating behind load balancers can lead to uneven load distribution between the instances. Specifying a TTL on the connection allows to achieve equal connection distribution between the instances. Specifying a TTL of 0 will disable this feature.. The default value is 0.. ...
An eCommerce site that crashes 7 times during the Christmas season, being down for up to five hours each time it crashes is a site that loses a lot of mone
John Evans the holder of multiple Guinness World Records and a unique performer who has become famous worldwide for balancing strange and heavy things on his head ...
Lenti ORF particles, Map2 (Myc-DDK-tagged) - Mouse microtubule-associated protein 2 (Mtap2), transcript variant 2, 200ul, >10^7 TU/mL NM_008632. ...
Lenti ORF particles, LCK (Myc-DDK tagged) - Human lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (LCK), transcript variant 2 , 200ul, >10^7 TU/mL ...
i saw cynthia mckinney on cspan last night.. it wasnt a rerun.. it said today in the corner.. she was asking both rumsfeld and myers about the wargames, and they responded back.. i cant seem to find the transcript from the DoDs website or hers... basically myers said the wargames helped the response time, not hurt it.. she also asked him if that day was declared a special day of intrest, to which he asked if she meant before or after the attacks, to which she said before.. he said he didnt know, then looked at rumsfeld and shook his head like he had no idea of what she was getting at.. if anyone knows where i might find the transcript please let me know... ...
NPR coverage of The Good Earth by Pearl S. Buck, Stephanie Reents, and Cynthia Brantley Johnson. News, author interviews, critics picks and more.
This is Scientific Americans 60-Second Science. Im Cynthia Graber. This will just take a minute. Its the time of year to take a look backand thats just what the journal Science did as they listed their most important breakthroughs of 2008. At the v
The Random with Two Choices load-balancing algorithm is NGINXs implementation of the power of two choices method. This biased random algorithm has been shown to be effective at balancing loads when each load balancer has an incomplete or delayed view of the traffic.
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Update! From Bobbi: Vicki S and Barb P -Youve won the Valentines Swag!. Congratulations!. Please email me your preferred SNAIL mail to: [email protected] Have a Great Weekend!. Happy Monday, everyone!!! I hope that you enjoyed a fabulous weekend! And speaking of fabulous…guest author Bobbi Romans is at the blog today!. Bobbi is taking over while I am diving into some edits (I am in serious edit land right now as I finish up two stories). Shes going to dish about her new release and the fun contest that shes got going! Welcome to you, Bobbi!. ***. Wheee, Im such a Cynthia Eden fan girl and to be at her place? Im over the moon. When I first spoke with Cynthia, I was vying to pitch to someone at conference. They were slap booked up. Cynthia continued working and as cancellations came in, continued swapping me around the schedule until lo and behold, boom there I was.. While this played out, I knew I recognized Cynthias name…but hadnt placed it. That night I Googled when the next ...
List of wholesalers , traders for horse feed balancer, 855 horse feed balancer manufacturers & horse feed balancer suppliers from China.
Waste isnt waste until we waste it, says American rapper Will.I.Am. This sentiment is exactly what has inspired Cynthia Otiyo-Abilas new side project called TRANSFORMATION DECLOTHED. The Nigeria-based denim designer makes upcycled jeans for the conscious fashion consumer. The jeans featured here are her first garment in the project refashioned completely from old, torn up jeans sourced from her husbands closet and from people who drop off their unwanted denim at her studio. Cynthia has deconstructed the existing pieces of jean material and used a suit collar and patch pockets as design elements.. Twyg caught up with Cynthia about her concept.. ...
Sex and the City actress Cynthia Nixon, 46, has married her girlfriend Christine Marinoni, 45, in New York, People magazine revealed today (May 28, 2012). The couple got engaged three years ago, at a rally to support same sex marriages....
August 1965: John writing to Cynthia during The Beatles American Tour. ...what he said about it. Its not that much bother really, is it? When you think about it - cause Im sure Dot [the Lennons housekeeper] and Lil [Cynthias mother] and Bennigs, Tommy, Jordy, etc. can understand something as simple as us wanting to be alone for a day - I dont mean Julian - I mean dont pack him off to Dots or anywhere - I really miss him as a person now - do you know what I mean, hes not so much The Baby or My Baby anymore, hes a real living part of me now, you know hes Julian and everything and I cant wait to see him, I miss him more then Ive ever done before - I think its been a slow process my feeling like a real father! I hope all this is clear and understandable. I spend hours in dressing rooms and things thinking about the times Ive wasted not being with him - and playing with him - you know I keep thinking of THOSE stupid bastard times when I keep reading bloody newspapers and other ...
Cynthia Thompson is the Business Development Manager for SGP International, a leading developer of departmental data reconciliation and custom designed data management solutions. Thompson can be reached at (212) 685-0819 or at [email protected]
To set up a load balancer with a Compute Engine backend, your VMs need to be in instance groups. This guide describes how to create a managed instance group with Linux VMs that have Apache running.. The managed instance group provides VMs running the backend servers of an external HTTPS load balancer. For demonstration purposes, backends serve their own hostnames.. In this example, you create eight virtual machine instances (VMs): four to serve video content and four to serve all other content. You use a startup script to install Apache web server software with a unique home page for each instance. Note that you can use any web server on your VMs; Apache is installed in this example as a convenience.. ...
Did you just roll your eyes?) In all seriousness, a colleagues look of disdain or contempt may seem innocuous. But it absolutely is not.. Eye rolling is just one - among many - uncivil behaviors that may contribute to unhealthy or toxic workplaces. And research has proven that such environments in healthcare can have dangerous consequences for patients, including harm, injury, or even death.. So how does one address such a serious issue? For more than two decades, that question has been the lifes work of Cynthia Clark, PhD, RN, ANEF, FAAN, Strategic Nursing Advisor for ATI Nursing Education.. And, she finally found a solution.. For the past year, Dr. Clark has led a team of instructional designers, psychometricians, and computer programmers to address the issue of civility. Their goal? To create an interactive and engaging learning solution that will give nursing students the skills to:. ...
Fermentation + Macrobiotic Principles = Eat Local & Seasonal Microbes by Cynthia Briscoe Macrobiotic guidelines are founded upon natural order. One such
Access to medicine is a topic of widespread interest. However, some issues that impact such access are presently inadequately understood. In particular, international laws require most nations to provide patents on drugs, resulting in premium prices that limit access. In Access to Medicine in the Global Economy, Professor Cynthia Ho explains such laws and their impact for a diverse group of readers, from scholars and policy makers to students in a variety of disciplines.
CYNTHIA: One of the things that I was adamant about when we scheduled the first surgery, that I was gonna straight home from the hospital. I was not gonna go to any rehabilitation, any other facility. And with my husband being with me 24/7, he really was a good caregiver. He still is. And I did not realize how difficult it was gonna be for me at home. And as an example, at night if I had to get up to go to the bathroom, I could not get out of bed by myself. He had to help me by lifting the left leg and then gently bringing it down so that I could put it on the floor. And then get on the walker and then trudge off to the bathroom. And he would stay awake the whole time. And when I would come back then he would get up again and help me back into bed ...
Find contact and company information for business people in our free business information database. This directory covers Cynthia Stanley
Looking for a doctor? I know a great one at Atrius Health Id recommend. View the profile at http://www.atriushealth.org/clinicians/cynthia-tefft-675 #findadoctor Cynthia Tefft
Visit findatopdoc.com for all information on Dr. Cynthia E. Epstein M.D., Pulmonologist (Pediatric) in Norfolk, Va, 23507. Profile, Reviews, Appointments, Insurances.
See awards (2), education (2) and hospital affiliation for Dr. Cynthia G Jerome. She has 26 years of experience in White Plains, NY.
Dr. Cynthia Pauley is your Bellevue dentist with a distinguished record of experience and education. Voted Top Dentist 8 years in a row by Seattle Met Magazine, Dr. Pauley is the preferred choice.
Cynthia Mabe Sandlin MD is a Anesthesiologist who practices in Boise, ID. Get a full report about this doctors background by clicking here.
The Worlds #1 Diagnostic Wheel Balancer, it provides a tire assembly road test while mounted on the unit. Locates and eliminates virtually every cause of whe...
Bio Balancer is a synthetic compound developed to mimic the composition of the exudates of plants. As such, it is the ultimate food for beneficial bacteria.
RE: Section 508I agree, that was a smart thing for Cynthia to do. Asif./ -----Original Message----- From: [email protected] [mailto:[email protected]]On Behalf Of Denise Wood Sent: Monday, October 22, 2001 1:13 PM To: Joe Clark; [email protected] Subject: RE: Section 508 Joe I too was initially a little confused/concerned as to why Cynthia felt the need to address these matters via email rather than publicly through a discussion forum. However, I was pleased that she made the offer to respond to individual concerns privately as I respect her opinion. I gave Cynthias response some thought after receiving the email and it occurred to me that she may be concerned about exposing an individual organisation to potential litigation by going into detail about specific cases in a public forum. Any such discussion would have to be vague and full of hypotheticals to protect the individuals seeking advice. Whereas people who are genuinely in need of specific advice would be able to get ...
Got the oil pump, timing cover and balancer on. Good thing I have a microwave/convection oven in the garage, had to heat up the balancer hub to get it on the crank since the balancer bolt thread is so deep on these motors, my regular damper installer tool wasnt going to work. Also the FedEx guy showed up just in time so I could install the 3/8 NPT x -10 fittings for the oiling ports in the block. Looks like one of the fittings might be very close to the guard on the back of the alternator once the hose is attached to it, will need to investigate that further. I got all the pistons miked and the shortest rods paired up with the tallest pistons, smallest pistons in the smallest bores, etc. Its going pretty smooth now. Just not fast enough ...
Apache by default identifies the useragent with the connections client_ip value, and the connection remote_host and remote_logname are derived from this value. These fields play a role in authentication, authorization and logging and other purposes by other loadable modules.. mod_remoteip overrides the client IP of the connection with the advertised useragent IP as provided by a proxy or load balancer, for the duration of the request. A load balancer might establish a long lived keepalive connection with the server, and each request will have the correct useragent IP, even though the underlying client IP address of the load balancer remains unchanged.. When multiple, comma delimited useragent IP addresses are listed in the header value, they are processed in Right-to-Left order. Processing halts when a given useragent IP address is not trusted to present the preceding IP address. The header field is updated to this remaining list of unconfirmed IP addresses, or if all IP addresses were trusted, ...
The question was popped, the answer was Yes! and now youre engaged to be married. Congratulations on the incredible news. Of course, you want your wedding day to be absolutely perfect to the smallest of details: the font on the invitations, color of the bridesmaids dresses, and the flower arrangements at the reception. Eyes and […] ...
From neonatal care to cancer and cardiovascular issues, from asthma to ear, nose and throat, from neuroscience to infectious disease, we care for more kids than any other hospital in Minnesota.. Learn more about our quality of care and clinical outcomes at Childrens.. ...
In this concept cloud, the sizes of the concepts are based not only on the number of corresponding publications, but also how relevant the concepts are to the overall topics of the publications, how long ago the publications were written, whether the person was the first or senior author, and how many other people have written about the same topic. The largest concepts are those that are most unique to this person ...
You know how some people are fussy eaters? The ones you hesitate to invite to your table because youll end up making three dinners instead of one? Well, Im learning that plants are worse, much worse. At least some are. Very picky. Very. As a neophyte gardener, for that is essentially how I must describe…
Lamorinda Weekly is a weekly community newspaper for Lafayette, Moraga and Orinda in California USA. 26,600 printed copies delivered to 23,000 houses or 65,000 people.
On the Rambler, Cynthia and Kate waited, hearts pounding. The interference was too great for cameras; even the intermittent radio contact they received was subject to heavy static, no surprise given the distance and amount of metal between them. They had tried to make small talk early in their vigil, but found it difficult; there was little to discuss, other than the peril their shipmates might be in, and voicing their fears merely seemed to make them that much more real. Theyd lapsed once more into a tense silence, broken only by the crackling of the radio, the sole, tenuous contact linking them with the explorers and the Lonesome Road. Cynthia had brought her rifle with her, the absolute latest and best piece of military equipment the Empire could field, so new that only the Emperors Own was carrying them; she busied herself taking it apart and putting it back together again, checking every moving piece and oiling it twice, working the action until Kate thought the incessant clicking would ...
Find babysitters & nannies your family will love. Just tell us your needs, and well connect you with the best matches nearby. Start your FREE search today.
Im a Karaoke Hostess, DJ, Singer and more. I love my work and find life and people quite entertaining. Ive raised 5 fabulous children and have...
Volume 59, Issue 2, February 2014, Pages: 471-482, Cynthia A. Moylan, Herbert Pang, Andrew Dellinger, Ayako Suzuki, Melanie E. Garrett, Cynthia D. Guy, Susan K. Murphy, Allison E. Ashley-Koch, Steve S. Choi, Gregory A. Michelotti, Daniel D. Hampton, Yuping Chen, Hans L. Tillmann, Michael A. Hauser, Manal F. Abdelmalek and Anna Mae Diehl. Version of Record online : 13 DEC 2013, DOI: 10.1002/hep.26661. ...
Adenovirus 36 (AdV36) causes increased adiposity (leading to obesity) and metabolic changes in animals. Causation in humans has not been established, but the in...
Mehmet Murat Ildan. [Note: Todays word/prompt is Streets. I am doing a sort of photo challenge at WordPress.com to get back into photography, which has gone on the backburner since Ive had so many vision issues.]. © 2016 C. Bertelsen. ...
The Silicon Valley General Counsel Associations All Hands Meeting Baker Botts is a Presentation Sponsor for this 29th annual event which is the largest single gathering of inside counsel in the Silicon Valley ...
I was so very fortunate to have worked closely with Cornellia Aihara for eight years, managing the Vega Study Center kitchen, training staff, resident students
Constant stress (both physical and emotional) and poor nutrition can both lead to the disruption of proper adrenal gland function. Symptoms that your adrenals may be overworked are fatigue, weakness, feeling run down, metabolic imbalances, immune system problems and thyroid gland issues. When suffering from adrenal fat
Insects. 8 (3): 68. doi:10.3390/insects8030068. "IPCN Chromosome Reports". Plants for a Future: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Nevade ... in which there are more than two complete sets of chromosomes, unlike most other species. A side effect of polyploidy is a ...
Biomarker John, Bernard; Kenneth R. Lewis (1966). "Chromosome Variability and Geographic Distribution in Insects". Science. 152 ... "Replication of linkage on chromosome 7q22 and association of the regional Reelin gene with working memory in schizophrenia ...
... is an elongated green insect with the typical raptorial forelimbs of a mantis. The adults have reduced-size ... 209-. ISBN 978-1-58544-236-2. White, M.J.D. (1948). "The Chromosomes of the Parthenogenetic Mantid Brunneria borealis". ... Insects of the Texas Lost Pines. Texas A&M University Press. pp. ...
Grimaldi, David A.; Engel, Michael S. (2005). Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-82149-0.. . ... Bombyx mori females are also one of the few organisms with homologous chromosomes held together only by the synaptonemal ... In the US, teachers may sometimes introduce the insect life cycle to their students by raising silkworms in the classroom as a ... This fungus can spread to other insects.. *Grasserie, also known as nuclear polyhedrosis, milky disease, or hanging disease, is ...
"The genome of a lepidopteran model insect, the silkworm Bombyx mori". Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 38 (12): 1036- ... Bombyx mori females are also one of the few organisms with homologous chromosomes held together only by the synaptonemal ... Students have a chance to observe complete life cycles of insect from egg stage to larvae, pupa, moth. The silkworm has been ... This fungus can spread to other insects. Grasserie, also known as nuclear polyhedrosis, milky disease, or hanging disease, is ...
first2= missing ,last2= in Authors list (help) Islam, A. (1982). "Diurnal rhythm of hemocyte population in an insect, ... McClung, C. E. (1933). "The chromosomes of schizodactylus monstrosus". Journal of Morphology. 55: 185. doi:10.1002/jmor. ... Fletcher, T. B. (1914). Some South Indian Insects. Government Press, Madras. Chakravorty, Jharna (2009). Entomophagy, an ethnic ... "Ecology and Behaviour of a Sand Burrowing Insect, Schizodactylus monstrosus (Orthoptera: Schizodactylidae)". Advances in ...
"Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (22): ... Bites from the insect Reduviidae (assassin bug) can, via a parasite, infect humans with the trypanosomal Chagas disease, which ... In order for a bacterium to bind, take up and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome, it must become competent, that is, ... The DNA integrated into the host chromosome is usually (but with infrequent exceptions) derived from another bacterium of the ...
He was the first to study the giant chromosomes found in insect larvae. He studied the role of the nucleolus in protein ... Zelenin, A V; Zoshchuk N V (2000). "[The history of modern chromosome analysis. The founding contribution of the works of ... He examined the relationship between the quantity of heterochromatin (chromosomes with few genes) and the rate of growth of ... This banding method permits the accurate identification of all 22 autosomes and the X and Y chromosomes. This technique ...
The chromosomes (karyotype) of Chilocorus stigma vary from one individual to another, in both the number of chromosomes ( ... It is a beneficial insect, and is useful in both natural wood stands and commercial forests such as orchards and citrus groves ... In order to preserve the benefits of this insect, pesticide users are encouraged to use natural alternatives to pesticide in ... Jerry A. Powell and Charles L. Hogue (1980). California Insects. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520037823. p. 299 " ...
Using observations of insect chromosomes she discovered that, in some species, chromosomes are different among the sexes. The ... one with a large chromosome and one with a small chromosome. When the sperm with the large chromosome fertilized eggs, they ... Stevens proposed that chromosomes always existed in pairs and that the Y chromosome was the pair of the X chromosome discovered ... The experiments completed to determine this used a range of insects. She identified the Y chromosome in the mealworm, Tenebrio ...
... with one X and one Y chromosome (XY). Genes on the X or Y chromosome are called sex-linked. In ZW sex-determination system used ... Examples: female sterility in Drosophila; and many polymorphic characters in insects, especially in relation to mimicry. ... but since humans have many more genes on the female X chromosome than on the male Y chromosome, these are much more common than ... Each son born to a carrier mother has a 50% probability of inheriting the X-chromosome carrying the mutant allele. There are a ...
It has 62 chromosomes. This fish possesses powerful dentition that can cause serious bites. It has scales. Froese, Rainer and ... They usually feed on aquatic insects, small fish, and fruits. P. denticulata has pentacuspid teeth and a middle cusp that is ...
"Genetic control of insect population. I. Cage studies of chromosome replacement by compound autosomes in Drosophila ... B chromosomes[edit]. B chromosomes refer to chromosomes that are not required for the viability or fertility of the organism, ... B chromosomes were first detected over a century ago.[63] Though typically smaller than normal chromosomes, their gene poor, ... Douglas RN, Birchler JA (2017). "B Chromosomes". In Bhat T, Wani A (eds.). Chromosome Structure and Aberrations. New Delhi: ...
"Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (22): ... 2000). "Chromosome Mutation I: Changes in Chromosome Structure: Introduction". An Introduction to Genetic Analysis (7th ed.). ... or multiple chromosomes fuse, and cite the chromosome difference between humans and the other great apes as an example. ... Such hybrids are generally infertile, due to the two different sets of chromosomes being unable to pair up during meiosis. In ...
October 29, 2002). "Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... Indeed, chromosome doubling within a species may be a common cause of reproductive isolation, as half the doubled chromosomes ... This allows the chromosomes from each parental species to form matching pairs during meiosis, since each parent's chromosomes ... An extreme case is the eusociality found in social insects, such as bees, termites and ants, where sterile insects feed and ...
Every insect has six legs, one pair found on each of the three thoracic segments while other arthropods have a variable number ... Collinearity is found between the order of the genes on the chromosome and the order in which the genes are expressed along the ... These genes are grouped similarly to the Hox complex found in insects. The mouse has four complexes, HoxA, HoxB, HoxC, and HoxD ... Each of the four mammalian Hox complexes has a rough counterpart in the insect complex. The theory behind this evolutionary ...
The diploid queen has 32 chromosomes and the haploid drones have 16 chromosomes. Drones produce sperm cells that contain their ... Grimaldi, D.; Engel M.S. (2005). The evolution of the insects. Cambridge University Press. p. 408. ISBN 0-521-82149-5.. CS1 ... Y chromosome. References[edit]. *^ King, R.C; Stansfield, W.D.; Mulligan, P.K. (2006). A dictionary of genetics (7th ed.). ... As long as a female has mated with only one male, all her daughters share a complete set of chromosomes from that male. In ...
The telomeres at the ends of the chromosomes, thought to be involved in ageing/senescence, consist of repetitive DNA, with the ... Similarly, insects have shorter repeat motifs in their telomeres that could arguably be considered microsatellites. ... This is likely due to homologous chromosomes with arms of unequal lengths causing instability during meiosis.[19] ... Direct estimates of microsatellite mutation rates have been made in numerous organisms, from insects to humans. In the desert ...
Humans, many mammals, insects and other animals have an XY sex-determination system. Humans have forty-six chromosomes, ... including two sex chromosomes, XX in females and XY in males. It is obvious that the Y chromosome must carry at least one ... chromosomes, gonads, hormones, anatomy, and psyche. Sex differences range greatly and include physiologically differentiating. ...
According to Greene, the chromosome characteristic is: 2n=12. Lasthenia conjugens relies upon insect pollination for ... An alternative conclusion is that members of one particular insect family, Sciaridae, are also efficient pollinators of L. ... conjugens, since it was the only insect family to visit the restoration colonies in significant numbers (the specialist bees ...
"Microorganisms associated with chromosome destruction and reproductive isolation between two insect species" (PDF). Nature. 346 ... Bourtzis, Kostas; Miller, Thomas A. (eds.). "14: Insect pest control using Wolbachia and/or radiation". Insect Symbiosis. p. ... Outside of insects, Wolbachia infects a variety of isopod species, spiders, mites, and many species of filarial nematodes (a ... One study concluded that more than 16% of neotropical insect species carry bacteria of this genus, and as many as 25 to 70% of ...
The X chromosome is either acrocentric, with a long and a short arm, or subtelocentric, with a long and a vestigial arm. The ... An omnivore, it eats both plant and animal food, including seeds and insects. It breeds throughout the year; females give birth ... It has 56 chromosomes. There is much geographic variation in size, proportions, color, and skull features. Oryzomys couesi is ... The karyotype includes 56 chromosomes and a fundamental number of 56 autosomal arms (2n = 56, FNa = 56). The autosomes include ...
... has a role in X chromosome inactivation, in maintenance of stem cell fate, and in imprinting. Aberrant expression of PRC2 ... The PRC2 is evolutionary conserved, and has been found in mammals, insects, and plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a plant model ...
The jack jumper ant genome is contained on a single pair of chromosomes (males have just one chromosome, as they are haploid). ... They prey on small insects and use their barbless stinger to kill other insects by injecting venom. Other ants and predatory ... Workers will mostly collect small insects, sap-sucking insects along with the honeydew which is taken to their nest to feed ... Ultrarush initiation of insect immunotherapy may be used, but results show higher risks of allergic reactions. Despite ...
The adult cells have one set of inactive H chromosomes and one set of euchromatin E chromosomes. These H chromosomes are ... This phenomenon occurs in certain mites, beetles and mealybugs and scale insects. When the males have a diploid number of ... In a few other species all the cells in an adult are haploid due to elimination of the paternal chromosomes at an early ... The paternal chromosomes are inactivated by heterochromatization in all the cells at an early embryonic stage. ...
"C12orf66 chromosome 12 open reading frame 66 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2017-02-25 ... The list of C12orf66 orthologs includes mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, marine worms, mollusks, insects, and fungi ... C12orf66 variant 1 is 36 Mbp in length spanning the base pairs 64,186,312 - 64,222,296 on chromosome 12. There are 3 total ...
... but organisms may inherit one or two X chromosomes. In field crickets, for example, insects with a single X chromosome develop ... Many insects use a sex determination system based on the number of sex chromosomes. This is called X0 sex-determination-the 0 ... Chromosomes are passed on from one generation to the next in this process. Each cell in the offspring has half the chromosomes ... Kaiser VB, Bachtrog D (2010). "Evolution of sex chromosomes in insects". Annu. Rev. Genet. 44: 91-112. doi:10.1146/annurev- ...
Drosophila, like all insects, has eight Hox genes. These are clustered into two complexes, both of which are located on ... In many animals, the organization of the Hox genes in the chromosome is the same as the order of their expression along the ... A major function of abd-A in insects is to repress limb formation. In abd-A loss-of-function mutants, abdominal segments A2 ... Interestingly, the order of the genes on the chromosome is the same as the expression of the genes in the developing embryo, ...
The diploid chromosome number (2n) of Thapsia villosa is 22, 33, 44, or 66. Unlike most members of the family Apiaceae, Thapsia ... The flowers are pollinated by a variety of insects. The flowers develop into winged fruits that dry out around August, while ...
To date, there has been no protein expression found in organisms simpler than insects. TMEM268 maps on chromosome 9 at 9q32. ... Orthologs have been found in mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, sharks, fish, and a few insects. It was not found within ...
In recognition of his analysis of pattern formation during insect segmentation, and of his contribution to understanding how ... separate sexes and sex chromosomes, segregation distortion and repetitive DNA. ...
Usually organisms that have a higher rate of reproduction than their competitors have an evolutionary advantage. Consequently, organisms can evolve to become simpler and thus multiply faster and produce more offspring, as they require fewer resources to reproduce. A good example are parasites such as Plasmodium - the parasite responsible for malaria - and mycoplasma; these organisms often dispense with traits that are made unnecessary through parasitism on a host.[7] A lineage can also dispense with complexity when a particular complex trait merely provides no selective advantage in a particular environment. Loss of this trait need not necessarily confer a selective advantage, but may be lost due to the accumulation of mutations if its loss does not confer an immediate selective disadvantage.[8] For example, a parasitic organism may dispense with the synthetic pathway of a metabolite where it can readily scavenge that metabolite from its host. Discarding this synthesis may not necessarily allow ...
The number of homologous chromosome sets varies from four (n=4) in some Physaria and Stenopetalum species, five (n=5) in other ... Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Insects. Ecological and Environmental Physiology Series. 3. Oxford biological.. ... Some insect herbivores have developed counter adaptations such as rapid absorption of the glucosinates, quick alternative ... Parasitoid wasps that feed on such insect herbivores are attracted to the chemical compounds released by the plants, and thus ...
"Insect Incest Produces Healthy Offspring". 8 December 2011.. *^ Gardner A, Ross L (August 2011). "The evolution of ... By pairing chromosomes of similar genomes, the chance for these recessive alleles to pair and become homozygous greatly ... Bed bugs: North Carolina State University found that bedbugs, in contrast to most other insects, tolerate incest and are able ... Cottony cushion scales: 'It turns out that females in these hermaphrodite insects are not really fertilizing their eggs ...
... is a 32 chromosome species that readily hybridizes with other 32 chromosome members of the Carya genus, such as Carya ... Various insects feed on the leaves stems and developing nuts. These include ambrosia beetles, twig girdlers, pecan nut ... ovata, Carya laciniosa, Carya cordiformis and has been reported to hybridize with 64 chromosome species such as Carya tomentosa ...
Genetically, there are 74 diploid chromosomes (36 pairs). Appearance[edit]. The crab-eating fox is predominantly greyish-brown ... It is an opportunist and an omnivore, preferring insects or meat from rodents and birds when available. Other foods readily ... while during the dry season it contains more insects.[9] The crab-eating fox contributes to the control of rodents and harmful ... consumed include turtle eggs, tortoises, fruit, eggs, crustaceans, insects, lizards and carrion. Their diet is varied and has ...
... plants are very liable to infestation by aphids, whitefly, and scale insects (e.g. California red scale). Also rather ... "Next generation haplotyping to decipher nuclear genomic interspecific admixture in Citrusspecies: analysis of chromosome 2" ... The Asian citrus psyllid is an aphid-like insect that feeds on the leaves and stems of citrus trees and other citrus-like ...
This article on a gene on human chromosome 17 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... "Temporal expression of HIV-1 envelope proteins in baculovirus-infected insect cells: implications for glycosylation and CD4 ... It is functionally similar to glycogen debranching enzyme, but is on a different chromosome, processed differently by the cell ...
Specimens from Primorskii Krai in Russia, were found to have a chromosome count of 2n=28. Using chromosome research, Iris ... The plant is self-fertile, being hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and it is pollinated by insects. The stamens ... having two sets of chromosomes. This can be used to identify hybrids and classification of groupings. It has a chromosome count ... It has a chromosome numbers of 2n=54, but they may be triploids. Iris setosa var. nasuensis was found near the city of Nasu on ...
Thus, a fly whose chromosomes are mutant in both copies of the Bicoid gene but who is born from a mother carrying one normal ... The protostomes include most invertebrate animals, such as insects, worms and molluscs, while the deuterostomes include the ... For instance, while spiders proceed directly from egg to adult form, many insects develop through at least one larval stage. ...
... called 46/47 XY/XXY mosaic wherein some of the patient's cells contain XY chromosomes, and some contain XXY chromosomes. The 46 ... "A new behavioral bioassay for an analysis of sexual attraction and pheromones in insects". Journal of Experimental Zoology. 192 ... where a fly possessing two X chromosomes is a female and a fly possessing a single X chromosome is a sterile male, a loss of an ... This may be caused by a nondisjunction event in an early mitosis, resulting in a loss of a chromosome from some trisomic cells. ...
"Flowers set more seeds when visited by wild insects, and the more plants that were visited by wild insects, the more likely ... Workers have two sets of chromosomes.[60] They are produced from an egg that the queen has selectively fertilized from stored ... "Journal of Insect Behavior. 23 (6): 459-471. doi:10.1007/s10905-010-9229-5. ISSN 0892-7553. PMC 2955239. PMID 21037953.. ... A honey bee (or honeybee) is a eusocial, flying insect within the genus Apis of the bee clade. They are known for construction ...
After an insect attack tomato plants produce systemin, a plant peptide hormone . Systemin activates defensive mechanisms, such ... This trait/allele is physically linked (or is very close) to the desired allele along the chromosome. In introducing the ... The Potato Tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella) is an oligophagous insect that prefers to feed on plants of the family ... Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in relation to their host plants". Journal of Insect Behavior. 1 (3): 261-275. doi:10.1007/ ...
They mainly feed on seeds, shrubs, grass, fruit and flowers;[7][10] occasionally they also eat insects such as locusts. Lacking ... Upon view, the myocardial cells are observed to have large densely packed chromosomes within the nucleus.[69] ...
Such groups include monotremes, Drosophila, some other insects, some fish, some reptiles, and some plants. In Drosophila ... Males have one Y chromosome and one X chromosome, while females have two X chromosomes. In mammals, the Y chromosome contains a ... Stevens proposed that chromosomes always existed in pairs and that the Y chromosome was the pair of the X chromosome discovered ... More than two Y chromosomesEdit. Greater degrees of Y chromosome polysomy (having more than one extra copy of the Y chromosome ...
These ten chromosomes form five unique pairs of XY in males and XX in females, i.e. males are X1Y1X2Y2X3Y3X4Y4X5Y5.[76] One of ... The platypus is a carnivore: it feeds on annelid worms, insect larvae, freshwater shrimp, and freshwater yabby (crayfish) that ... "In the platypus a meiotic chain of ten sex chromosomes shares genes with the bird Z and mammal X chromosomes". Nature. 432 ( ... the X chromosomes of the platypus has great homology to the bird Z chromosome.[77] The platypus genome also has both reptilian ...
One hypothesis for the origin of multicellularity is that a group of function-specific cells aggregated into a slug-like mass called a grex, which moved as a multicellular unit. This is essentially what slime molds do. Another hypothesis is that a primitive cell underwent nucleus division, thereby becoming a coenocyte. A membrane would then form around each nucleus (and the cellular space and organelles occupied in the space), thereby resulting in a group of connected cells in one organism (this mechanism is observable in Drosophila). A third hypothesis is that as a unicellular organism divided, the daughter cells failed to separate, resulting in a conglomeration of identical cells in one organism, which could later develop specialized tissues. This is what plant and animal embryos do as well as colonial choanoflagellates.[26][27] Because the first multicellular organisms were simple, soft organisms lacking bone, shell or other hard body parts, they are not well preserved in the fossil ...
Though an eater of carrion of all kinds, the carrion crow will eat insects, earthworms, grain, fruits, seeds, small mammals, ... situated on avian chromosome 18) in the hooded crow, which imparts the lighter plumage colouration on its torso.[8] Thus the ...
Male birds have two Z chromosomes (ZZ), and female birds have a W chromosome and a Z chromosome (WZ).[62] ... Some hunt insects by suddenly attacking from a branch. Those species that seek pest insects are considered beneficial ' ... Chromosomes. Birds have two sexes: either female or male. The sex of birds is determined by the Z and W sex chromosomes, rather ... Many birds glean for insects, invertebrates, fruit, or seeds. ... than by the X and Y chromosomes present in mammals. ...
... forelimbs and back suggest that it broke open the nest of social insects to prey on them (probably termites, as ants had not ... This change may have allowed these early mammals to hunt insects at night when dinosaurs were not active.[140] ...
"Bugging Out: The Must-Read Insect Books of the Summer". Wired.com. Conde Nast. Archived from the original on May 4, 2017 ... The Calcutta Chromosome (1997). *The Sparrow (1998). *Dreaming in Smoke (1999). *Distraction (2000) ...
The earliest evidence of behavioral modernity first appears during the Middle Paleolithic; undisputed evidence of behavioral modernity, however, only becomes common during the following Upper Paleolithic period.[1] Middle Paleolithic burials at sites such as Krapina in Croatia (dated to c. 130,000 BP) and the Qafzeh and Es Skhul caves in Israel (c. 100,000 BP) have led some anthropologists and archeologists (such as Philip Lieberman) to believe that Middle Paleolithic cultures may have possessed a developing religious ideology which included concepts such as an afterlife; other scholars suggest the bodies were buried for secular reasons.[3][4] According to recent[when?] archeological findings from Homo heidelbergensis sites in the Atapuerca Mountains, the practice of intentional burial may have begun much earlier during the late Lower Paleolithic, but this theory is widely questioned in the scientific community. Cut-marks on Neandertal bones from various sites - such as Combe Grenal and the ...
... vertebrate cytochromes c all have dipole moment of approximately 320 debye while cytochromes c of plants and insects have ... Genes on human chromosome 7. *Cellular respiration. *Cytochromes. *Programmed cell death. *Peripheral membrane proteins ...
Chromosomes are tiny packages which contain one DNA molecule and its associated proteins. Humans have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs ... The insecticide kills insects that eat the plants, but is harmless to people.[20] In these plants, the new genes are put into ... Chromosome. A package for carrying DNA in the cells. They contain a single long piece of DNA that is wound up and bunched ... Chromosomes all contain DNA made up of four nucleotides, abbreviated C (cytosine), G (guanine), A (adenine), or T (thymine), ...
Courtship is often facilitated through forming groups, called leks, in flies and many other insects. For example, male ... Mating in these cases involves the pairing of individuals, accompanied by the pairing of their homologous chromosomes and then ... In some terrestrial arthropods, including insects representing basal (primitive) phylogenetic clades, the male deposits ... In advanced groups of insects, the male uses its aedeagus, a structure formed from the terminal segments of the abdomen, to ...
The wolf-like canids are a group of large carnivores that are genetically closely related because their chromosomes number 78, ... insects, and seeds.[22][23][24] The dingo's competitors include the native quoll, the introduced European red fox and the feral ... insects, fish, crabs, and frogs (28 species).[23][24][22] The relative proportions of prey are much the same across Australia, ...
... potential roles for sex chromosome genes". BMC Neuroscience. 10: 24. doi:10.1186/1471-2202-10-24.. ... including mechanisms for stridulation not unlike those found in some insects.[5] ... such as the activation of genes on the z chromosome, might also play a role in normal male song development.[69] ...
After an insect attack tomato plants produce systemin, a plant peptide hormone . Systemin activates defensive mechanisms, such ... Tomato Genome Sequencing Project - Sequencing of the twelve tomato chromosomes.. *Tomato core collection database - Phenotypes ... The Potato Tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella) is an oligophagous insect that prefers to feed on plants of the family ... Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in relation to their host plants". Journal of Insect Behavior. 1 (3): 261-275. doi:10.1007/ ...
... a hypothesis that was first proposed by Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire for insects in comparison to vertebrates. Thus insects, for ... 20: Nervous system". The insects: structure and function. Cambridge University Press. pp. 533-568. ISBN 978-0-521-57890-5. .. ... In insects, many neurons have cell bodies that are positioned at the edge of the brain and are electrically passive-the cell ... Arthropods, such as insects and crustaceans, have a nervous system made up of a series of ganglia, connected by a ventral nerve ...
... flies and lines carrying the modified chromosome FM7 as well as the chromosome balancers CyO and TM3… ... Metabolic profiling of insect cell lines: Unveiling cell line determinants behind systems productivity Pathway enrichment ... 2015). .... Targeted inver- sions might also be used to create balancer chromo- somes, which have proven highly useful in some ... Progeny receiving two balancer chromosomes may not be viable [3, 4, 6, 10] (Note: For interpretation of .... Additionally, the ...
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Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect. Natsuko Kondo, Naruo Nikoh, Nobuyuki ... Insect-induced effects on plants and possible effectors used by galling and leaf-mining insects to manipulate their host-plant ... Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect ... Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect ...
To pull on or move a chromosome, focus on a chromosome near the top of the cell.. NOTE: These chromosomes are easier to ... Micromanipulation of Chromosomes in Insect Spermatocytes. Nicolas K.H. Lin1, Ryder Nance2, Jane Szybist2, Alan Cheville2, ... either apply tension to the chromosome or apply sufficient tension to detach a chromosome from the spindle. Once a chromosome ... Lin, N. K., Nance, R., Szybist, J., Cheville, A., Paliulis, L. V. Micromanipulation of Chromosomes in Insect Spermatocytes. J. ...
Captivated by Chromosomes. By Anna Azvolinsky , December 1, 2017 Peering through a microscope since age 14, Joseph Gall, now 89 ... tags: insects x developmental biology x culture x ecology x The Scientist. » insects, developmental biology, culture and ...
Research provides opportunities for biological control of insect-borne pathogens Researchers from INRA, CIRAD, CEA, the ... Presence of XX sex chromosomes increases risk of heart attacks and coronary artery disease New research at the University of ... Not every embryo contains 46 perfect chromosomes. Some have more, others have fewer. The result is a common abnormality known ... Scientists at Johns Hopkins say they have found that people born with abnormally short chromosome endcaps, or telomeres, have ...
Research provides opportunities for biological control of insect-borne pathogens Researchers from INRA, CIRAD, CEA, the ... Chromosome 6 News and Research. RSS Humans normally have 46 chromosomes in each cell, divided into 23 pairs. Two copies of ... Chromosome 6 likely contains between 1,100 and 1,600 genes.. Genes on chromosome 6 are among the estimated 20,000 to 25,000 ... Breakthrough chromosome imaging could aid in development of new treatments Chromosomes, each containing hundreds or thousands ...
View this Polytene Chromosomes From An Insect Lm X1000 stock photo. Find premium, high-resolution images in Getty Images ...
This insect has one of the highest chromosome numbers among all animals. [115] ... Males have XY sex chromosomes and females have XX sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes are the largest chromosomes and ... The list of organisms by chromosome count describes ploidy or numbers of chromosomes in the cells of various plants, animals, ... Shared synteny of human chromosome 17 loci in Canids. *An atlas of the chromosome numbers in animals (1951); PDF downloads of ...
Background The patterns of gene expression on highly differentiated sex chromosomes differ drastically from those on autosomes ... or insects [4, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16], and with a focus on adult tissues (so that little is known about the dynamics of sex-biased ... In proto-sex chromosomes (where X and Y chromosomes differ only at the sex-determining locus), male-beneficial mutations on the ... Sex-chromosome recombination in these rare XY females produces XY° sons with proto-sex chromosomes [31, 34]. ...
Decoding gigantic insect genome could help tackle devastating locust crises. 27.11.2020. / Life Sciences ... To discover what each chromosome looks like in every cell in the human body will take far more work than one lab can take on ... But areas with few genes ("gene-poor") only come together if they share the same chromosome. One theory is that gene-rich areas ... In high school textbooks, human chromosomes are pictured as wonky Xs like two hotdogs jammed together. But those images are far ...
Decoding gigantic insect genome could help tackle devastating locust crises. 27.11.2020. / Life Sciences ... The number of exchanges will vary from one organism or chromosome to another (on average, one to five per chromosome, and up to ... 2n chromosomes (diploid cell) become n chromosomes (haploid cell). ... Each pair of chromosomes - one of paternal origin, the other maternal - is positioned independently of the other pairs on the ...
Genes, Insect / physiology* * Humans * Immunohistochemistry * Insect Proteins / analysis * Insect Proteins / genetics * Insect ... Chromatid segregation at anaphase requires the barren product, a novel chromosome-associated protein that interacts with ...
The Chromosomes of Insects. By BRIAN B. SPEAR. Science. 29 Jan 1982. : 498 Full AccessRestricted Access ...
Insects Neural Learning and Memory Center Discovered in Crustaceans. By Catherine Offord , December 1, 2017 ... Aggressive little marine predators, mantis shrimps possess a mushroom body that appears identical to the one found in insects. ...
Nutrient dilution and insect decline. A study finds that the dilution of nutrients in plants, alongside climate factors, drives ... RED1: a yeast gene required for the segregation of chromosomes during the reductional division of meiosis. B Rockmill and G S ... RED1: a yeast gene required for the segregation of chromosomes during the reductional division of meiosis ... Expression and DNA sequence of RED1, a gene required for meiosis I chromosome segregation in yeast ...
2. Embryogenesis in insects.. Teaching Methods. Teaching Activities. Category. Activity. Number. Length. Student Hours. Comment ... Eukaryotic genomes; chromosomes and chromatin. - Gene expression and its regulation in eukaryotes. - History and basic ... Development of the insect body plan. - Hox genes and the evolution of body plans. - Vertebrate development. Practical exercises ...
See more stories about Olive Oil, Insects, Spirituality. ... Chromosomes. Neurons Regenerated through Suppression of ... Fish school, insects swarm and birds fly in murmurations. Now, new research finds that on the most basic level, this kind of ...
12 Preparation of chromosomes 258. References 288. 13 Preparation of other specific insect organs and tissues 290 ... Although his research focused on the ecology of insects and insect-plant interactions, he also has an interest in insect ... This title is a much needed update of Barbosas self-published Manual of Basic Techniques in Insect Histology. It is a ... Insect Histology is designed as a resource for student and professional researchers, in academia and industry, who require ...
Insects Neural Learning and Memory Center Discovered in Crustaceans. By Catherine Offord , December 1, 2017 ... Captivated by Chromosomes. By Anna Azvolinsky , December 1, 2017 Peering through a microscope since age 14, Joseph Gall, now 89 ... Aggressive little marine predators, mantis shrimps possess a mushroom body that appears identical to the one found in insects. ...
Gods Marvelous Insects. Did you know that the moth smells with its antennae? Whether we look at moths, ants, bombardier ... chromosome 2). This is thought to explain the difference in the 23 chromosomes humans have and the 24 chromosomes found in ... Our research on the human chromosome 2 is tentatively scheduled to be published in the Journal of Creation. A brief summary of ... Bergmans and my recent study on human telomeres related to chromosomes, evolution, and intelligent design is now in print in ...
Structure, expression, and chromosome mapping of LATS2, a mammalian homologue of the Drosophila tumor suppressor gene lats/ ... We mapped the MmLATS2 gene to mouse chromosome 14 by interspecific backcross analysis. We also mapped the HsLATS2 gene (by ...
Genes, Insect / genetics. Male. Molecular Sequence Data. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Tephritidae / genetics*. Y ... The newly identified sequences of the B. oleae Y chromosome have no related sequences on the Drosophila sex chromosomes. This ... The sequences here isolated from the B. oleae Y chromosome have no known related sequences on the Y chromosomes of other ... Its Y chromosome is minute and highly heterochromatic, and displays high heteromorphism with the X chromosome.. METHODOLOGY/ ...
Sahara, K., F. Marec and W. Traut, 1999 TTAGG telomeric repeats in chromosomes of some insects and other arthropods. Chromosome ... The chromosome corresponding to LG24 is the second largest chromosome, which also harbors the largest autosomal heterochromatic ... Correlation of genetic and physical lengths of each chromosome. The average relative size of all chromosomes is defined as 1. ... However, chromosome organization is quite different between B. mori and T. castaneum (n = 28 in B. mori and n = 10 in T. ...
One useful group of insects in which to examine the effects of male-killing are the butterflies. In East Africa, the African ... dorippus Z chromosome; light blue, chrysippus Z chromosome; yellow, W chromosome unfused; green, W chromosome fused. Wild-type ... 2012 Sex chromosome evolution in moths and butterflies. Chromosome Res. 20, 83-94. (doi:10.1007/s10577-011-9262-z). ... The lower pair shows the Z chromosomes of dorippus (dark blue) and chrysippus (light blue); the yellow W chromosome is always ...
... is located on the insect chromosome.. The ftsZ+ insects and the ftsZ− insects of M. alternatus examined in this study were ... b) Male chromosomes in the meiotic metaphase I. (c) Sperm nuclei. Wolbachia genes are visualized in yellow, and insect ... 2002b Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 99, 14 ... h) In situ hybridization of Wolbachia genes on insect chromosomes. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis, using a 5.5 kb ...
In particular, chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) are most powerful tools for the detection and precise mapping of ... To further facilitate gene mapping, heterozygous chromosome segment substitution lines (HCSSLs) were also produced, which were ... To further facilitate gene mapping, heterozygous chromosome segment substitution lines (HCSSLs) were also produced, which were ... In particular, chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) are most powerful tools for the detection and precise mapping of ...
Although many species of insects have sperm showing polymegaly, which vary only in size and have a normal chromosome complement ... T. H. Yosida, "Studies on the chromosomes of coleopteran and hemipteran insects, with special regard to the quantitative ... E. Wilson, "Studies on chromosomes VII. A review of the chromosomes of Nezara with some more general considerations," Journal ... E. Wilson, "Studies on chromosomes IV. The accessory chromosome in Syromastes and Pyrrhocoris, with comparative review of the ...
Microorganism associated with chromosome destruction and reproductive isolation between two insect species. Nature 346, 558-560 ... The PSR chromosome, however, is segregated along with the maternal chromosomes into the two daughter nuclei. The mechanism by ... Chromosome segregation is ultimately determined by the spindle checkpoint, which ensures that all chromosomes are attached to ... A second possibility is that Wolbachia produces the most extensive chromosome damage to the paternal chromosomes in N. ...
Robinson, G. E., et al. Creating a Buzz About Insect Genomes. Science. 331, 1386-1386 (2011). ... Sharakhova, M. V., et al. Imaginal discs--a new source of chromosomes for genome mapping of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes ... George, P., Sharakhova, M. V., Sharakhov, I. V. High-throughput Physical Mapping of Chromosomes using Automated in situ ... Novikov, D., Kireev, I., Belmont, A. S. High-pressure treatment of polytene chromosomes improves structural resolution. Nature ...
Honeybees lack sex chromosomes and X-specific dosage compensation. Sex-specific information is transferred in both species from ... The striped boxes indicate insect- and vertebrate-specific genes and show that there are far fewer in insects. 1:1:1 ... Insights into social insects from the genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera.. Honeybee Genome Sequencing Consortium. ... Binding sites of rDNA probes (distal short arms of chromosomes 6 and 12) are shown in red. The karyotype (below the ideogram) ...
  • Other ant species have more chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This species can have more B chromosomes than A chromosomes at times, but 2n=4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Broccoli , cabbage, kale , kohlrabi , brussels sprouts , and cauliflower are all the same species and have the same chromosome number. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although some contradictory cases have been reported, the large homogeneity of the chromosome number 2n = 22 is now known for 135 (33.5%) distinct species among genus Eucalyptus . (wikipedia.org)
  • All species in the genus Phaseolus have the same chromosome number, including common bean ( P. vulgaris ), runner bean ( P. coccineus ), tepary bean ( P. acutifolius ) and lima bean ( P. lunatus ). (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, species with genetic sex determination potentially benefit from an alternative option based on sex-chromosome differentiation: as Y chromosomes only occur in males, they may safely accumulate sexually antagonistic male-beneficial alleles without jeopardizing female fitness. (springer.com)
  • Their discovery, "Chromosome Size in Diploid Eukaryotic Species Centers on the Average Length with a Conserved Boundary," was recently published in the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution. (k-state.edu)
  • It details a project that compared 886 chromosomes in 68 random species of eukaryotes -- organisms whose cells contain a nucleus and are enclosed by cellular membranes. (k-state.edu)
  • The researchers found that the chromosome sizes within each eukaryotic species are actually similar rather than drastically different as previously believed. (k-state.edu)
  • Basically what this all means is that if the chromosome number of a species can be given, the relative sizes of all the chromosomes can instantly be known," Yu said. (k-state.edu)
  • The sex chromosomes of each species were omitted because of their vastly different evolutionary history from other chromosomes, Yu said. (k-state.edu)
  • It eliminated a scale effect and made it possible to compare a species with several dozen chromosomes to a species with much fewer chromosomes," said Xianran Li, research associate in agronomy. (k-state.edu)
  • By finding normal distribution in nearly all of the genomes they used, geneticists can now say that if a species has a particular number of chromosomes, the chromosomes have to be distributed in this order because it's dictated by the laws of mitosis, meiosis and cell division, according to Guihua Bai, adjunct professor of agronomy at K-State and research geneticist of the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service. (k-state.edu)
  • Cytogenetics of nine species of Mediterranean blennies and additional evidence for an unusual multiple sex-chromosome system in Parablennius tentacularis (Perciformes, Blennidae). (springer.com)
  • In some species, one of these lobes is of the harlequin type that differs from the other lobes by showing spermatogonial cells with meiotic pairing, nonspecific association of the autosomal bivalents, anomalous arrangement of the chromosomes in the metaphase plate, anomalous chromosome segregation, and cell fusion, resulting in the production of spermatozoa with highly variable chromosome numbers. (hindawi.com)
  • Species generally have a fixed number of chromosomes in the cell nuclei while between-species differences are common and often pronounced. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We show that within this species the diploid chromosome number gradually decreases from 2n = 106 in Spain to 2n = 56 in eastern Kazakhstan, resulting in a 6000 km-wide cline that originated recently (8,500 to 31,000 years ago). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Main karyotypic features of organisms, such as the number of chromosomes, are usually stable within species [ 1 , 2 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • At the same time, differences in karyotype characters between species, including diploid chromosome number (2n), are extremely common. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Y is the sex-determining chromosome in many species , since it is the presence or absence of Y that determines the male or female sex of offspring produced in sexual reproduction . (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the case of Ronderosia bergii , in which further large pericentromeric inversion in the neo-Y also took place, making this species particularly interesting for investigating sex chromosome evolution. (nature.com)
  • Here, we characterized the satellite DNAs (satDNAs) and transposable elements (TEs) of the species to investigate the quantitative differences in repeat composition between male and female genomes putatively associated with sex chromosomes. (nature.com)
  • Finally, the species is an example of the action of repetitive DNAs in the generation of variability for sex chromosomes after the suppression of recombination, and helps understand sex chromosome evolution at the intrapopulation level. (nature.com)
  • Each organism of a species is normally characterized by the same number of chromosomes in its somatic cells, 46 being the number normally present in humans, including 22 pairs of autosomes and the two sex chromosomes (XX or XY), which determine the sex of the organism. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • With Sally Hughes-Schrader at Columbia University in New York City he studied chromosomes in an aphid species in which the offspring of fertilized eggs develop into females. (isciii.es)
  • Birds, some insects and a few other lizard species also rely on this sex-determination system. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Earwigs or Dermaptera constitute a comparatively small order of insects comprising about 1800 species. (tolweb.org)
  • Four antlion lacewings species and an owlfly one from two sister families have been studied and their chromosome number estimated: [1] Palpares libelluloides (2n = 26), [2] Distoleon tetragrammicus (2n. (eurekalert.org)
  • Varying between organisms, the number of chromosomes, the structures of organised and packaged DNA information, are normally a constant amount, thus allowing for the successful reproduction of a species. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the present study, conducted by Drs. Valentina Kuznetsova, Victor Krivokhatsky and Gadzhimurad Khabiev, Russian Academy of Sciences , four antlion lacewings species and an owlfly one from two sister families have been examined and their chromosome number estimated. (eurekalert.org)
  • The chromosome numbers of four antlion species (Myrmeleontidae) and an owlfly one (Ascalaphidae) from the Republic of Dagestan have been investigated in the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences , St. Petersburg. (eurekalert.org)
  • While most antlions possess lower chromosome numbers, 2n = 14 and 2n = 16, which are encountered in all subfamilies, there is the exception of the Palparinae subfamily with the studied Palpares libelluloides species' chromosome number counting 2n = 26. (eurekalert.org)
  • any of several threadlike bodies, consisting of chromatin, that carry the genes in a linear order: the human species has 23 pairs, designated 1 to 22 in order of decreasing size and X and Y for the female and male sex chromosomes respectively. (dictionary.com)
  • Species-specific localization of DNA from pericentromeric heterochromatin on polytene chromosomes. (deepdyve.com)
  • Localization of DvirIII in the pericentromeric regions of chromosomes and in the telomeric region of chromosome 5 was observed in both species. (deepdyve.com)
  • In order to study the three-dimensional organization of pericentromeric heterochromatin region of polytene chromosomes of ovarian nurse cells of D. virilis and D. kanekoi, 3S FISH DvirIII was performed with nurse cells of these species. (deepdyve.com)
  • The chromatin landscape of Drosophila miranda: comparisons between species, sexes and chromosomes. (berkeley.edu)
  • Sex-specific embryonic gene expression in species with newly evolved sex chromosomes. (berkeley.edu)
  • To maintain a constant number of chromosomes in species the gamete cells undergo meiosis. (reference.com)
  • That means that XO flies are males -- although they are often sterile because the Y chromosome carries genes necessary for gametogenesis in many species. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Allosomes determine sex in the human species, and all sex characteristics in males and females are initiated by genes on the 23rd chromosome pair. (courierpress.com)
  • In plants, for instance, plant chemistry, insect associations, and number of chromosomes may be important indicators of species status. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some species have male or female heterogametic sex chromosomes while other species do not have sex chromosomes. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore we reveal that an ancient chromosome duplication shared by all Leishmania species may have contributed to the adaptation of these globally important parasites to parasitism of vertebrates. (prolekare.cz)
  • Species with heteromorphic sex chromosomes face the challenge of large-scale imbalance in gene dose. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Correlation of sex-biased gene expression on the Z chromosome across all three bird species further suggests that the degree of compensation has been partly conserved across 100 million years of avian evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The bacterium invades a member of a species, most often an insect, and eventually makes its way into the host's eggs or sperm. (redorbit.com)
  • Split into two chromatids, the chromosomes form homologous pairs, one inherited from the father and the other from the mother. (innovations-report.com)
  • Sex chromosomes in plants and animals and fungal mating-type chromosomes often show exceptional genome features, with extensive suppression of homologous recombination and cytological differentiation between members of the diploid chromosome pair. (genetics.org)
  • SEX chromosomes often show exceptional genome features with extensive suppression of homologous recombination and cytological differentiation between members of the diploid chromosome pair ( Bergero and Charlesworth 2009 ). (genetics.org)
  • In the language of the geneticist, trisomy refers to the presence of an additional chromosome that is homologous with one of the existing pairs so that that particular chromosome is present in triplicate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The term monosomy refers to the absence of one of a pair of homologous chromosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Each pair of chromosomes in a diploid cell is considered to be one homologous chromosome set. (reference.com)
  • A single chromosome set consists of two chromosomes, one of which is donated from the mother and the other from the father.Humans have 23 sets of homologous chromosomes. (reference.com)
  • The mammalian, snake, and bird sex chromosomes all descended from different autosomal ancestors -- the sex chromosomes in one taxon are not homologous to those from the other taxa. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The first 22 are called autosomal chromosomes, and are homologous with each other, which basically means they have the same size, structure and position. (courierpress.com)
  • Uniparental disomy is the inheritance of two homologous chromosomes from one parent. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The patterns of gene expression on highly differentiated sex chromosomes differ drastically from those on autosomes, due to sex-specific patterns of selection and inheritance. (springer.com)
  • The Y chromosome is strewn with repetitive DNA sequences, the majority of which are also interdispersed in the pericentromeric regions of the autosomes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The S chromosomes are composed of two autosomes (A1 and A2) and two X chromosomes (X1 and X2). (genetics.org)
  • This amounted to observing 886 chromosomes, 22 of which were human autosomes -- any chromosome other than a sex chromosome. (k-state.edu)
  • The X and Y chromosomes are thought to have evolved from a pair of identical chromosomes, [14] [15] termed autosomes , when an ancestral animal developed an allelic variation, a so-called "sex locus" - simply possessing this allele caused the organism to be male. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long story short, a new Y chromosome may evolve when one of the autosomes fuses to the X chromosome. (scienceblogs.com)
  • As I mentioned above, sex is determined by the ratio of X chromosomes to autosomes. (scienceblogs.com)
  • According to Yu, the most surprising finding is the extremely consistent distribution pattern of the chromosomes, a result from comparing the full sets of chromosomes -- called genomes -- of the 68 random eukaryotes. (k-state.edu)
  • From there the team looked specifically at the chromosomes of 68 random eukaryote genomes. (k-state.edu)
  • Compared with other sequenced insect genomes, the A. mellifera genome has high A+T and CpG contents, lacks major transposon families, evolves more slowly, and is more similar to vertebrates for circadian rhythm, RNA interference and DNA methylation genes, among others. (nih.gov)
  • This volume focuses on the latest methods used to sequence, assemble, and analyze insect genomes. (springer.com)
  • bioinformatics analysis of epigenetic modifications, high-throughput scanning of insect genomes (TEEseq) for the presence of endosymbionts, and leveraging genome sequence information to design RNAi strategies. (springer.com)
  • We demonstrate that the majority of CI-induced mortality occurs during embryogenesis and that the pattern of paternal chromosome segregation during the first mitosis is a good predictor of CI phenotype. (biologists.org)
  • The latter class is the first documented example of asymmetric mitotic segregation of abnormal chromosomes. (biologists.org)
  • X chromosome(s) elimination is achieved by an abnormal anaphase segregation so that X sister chromatids do not reach the poles and are not included in the daughter nuclei. (biologists.org)
  • Importantly, the eliminating X chromosomes show a retardation in anaphase chromatid segregation and high levels of H3S10 phosphorylation in the chromosome arms. (biologists.org)
  • The precise cellular/molecular mechanisms underlying the differential segregation behaviour of Sciara chromosomes during X p somatic elimination have not been conclusively elucidated. (biologists.org)
  • During oocyte meiosis, the cytoskeleton dynamics, especially spindle organization, are critical for chromosome congression and segregation. (springer.com)
  • Free tubulins in the cytoplasm assemble and organize to form a meiotic spindle, which is involved in chromosome alignment and correct chromosome segregation during oocyte meiosis. (springer.com)
  • Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. (news-medical.net)
  • We sample a population of common frogs ( Rana temporaria ) with limited sex-chromosome differentiation (proto-sex chromosome), leaky genetic sex determination evidenced by the occurrence of XX males, and delayed gonadal development, meaning that XY individuals may first develop ovaries before switching to testes. (springer.com)
  • So, all the cells in our body carry the same genetic material (chromosomes), apart from a few exceptions such as gametes, antibody-producing cells, and also, unfortunately, tumor cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • In meiosis (from the Greek, meaning reduction), unlike mitosis, the genetic material is halved when transmitted from the mother cell to the daughter cells: 2n chromosomes (diploid cell) become n chromosomes (haploid cell). (innovations-report.com)
  • Our results demonstrate how a complex interplay between sex, colour pattern, male-killing, and a neo-W chromosome, has set up a genetic 'sink' that keeps the two subspecies apart. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization of 20 markers on the genetic map to the polytene chromosomes of the Hessian fly indicated good correspondence between the linkage groups and the four Hessian fly chromosomes. (genetics.org)
  • 3% of the chromosome A2 genetic map. (genetics.org)
  • Because chromosomes are the genetic building blocks for an organism and its traits, the information will be beneficial to understanding the core components of biological evolution -- especially in genetics and genome evolution, said Jianming Yu, associate professor of agronomy at K-State. (k-state.edu)
  • Lines to the right of chromosomes represent BACs shown by FISH to bind in relative order and positions predicted from the genetic and physical maps. (nih.gov)
  • Ris' favorite comparisons of genetic material were of the chromosomes, nuclear membranes and cytoskeleton of eggs and sperm cells of animals including sea urchins, frogs, toads and salamanders. (isciii.es)
  • In: Lukhtanov VA, Kuznetsova VG, Grozeva S, Golub NV (Eds) Genetic and cytogenetic structure of biological diversity in insects. (eurekalert.org)
  • In starting with the basics, all human beings, with the exception of those who have abnormal genetic conditions, have exactly 23 pairs of chromosomes. (courierpress.com)
  • in 1902, the Boveri-Sutton Chromosome Theory unified the genetic laws of Mendelian inheritance with the physical structures of chromosomes observed in cells? (thefullwiki.org)
  • Pallister-Killian syndrome is a rare congenital genetic disorder that cannot be detected through prenatal blood tests because it occurs only in the chromosomes of skin cells ? (thefullwiki.org)
  • microchromosomes are very tiny gene -rich chromosomes which are a typical genetic component in birds , and some groups of non-mammalian animals? (thefullwiki.org)
  • Despite strong interest in the genetics of these chromosomes, their large regions of suppressed recombination often are enriched in transposable elements and therefore can be challenging to assemble. (genetics.org)
  • Males have XY sex chromosomes and females have XX sex chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sex chromosomes are the largest chromosomes and constitute 30% of the total length of the diploid set in females and about 25% in males. (wikipedia.org)
  • In proto-sex chromosomes (where X and Y chromosomes differ only at the sex-determining locus), male-beneficial mutations on the Y may spread even if detrimental to females, because linkage with the sex-determining locus makes them more likely to be transmitted to sons than to daughters. (springer.com)
  • The most common Wolbachia -induced phenotype in insects is cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), which occurs when sperm from infected males fertilize eggs from uninfected females. (biologists.org)
  • Males have one Y chromosome and one X chromosome , while females have two X chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over time, genes that were beneficial for males and harmful to (or had no effect on) females either developed on the Y chromosome or were acquired through the process of translocation . (wikipedia.org)
  • Although we think of females being XX (that is, having two X chromosomes) and males as being XY, it's the other way around in these giant monitor lizards. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In northern latitudes, females have X chromosomes, while males have an X and a Y chromosome. (eurekalert.org)
  • When specially bred, sterile insect males are released, they compete with the wild males for the females. (eurekalert.org)
  • We analyzed the effect of B-chromosome presence on expression level of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in cerebral ganglion and gonad in both males and females of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans . (karger.com)
  • In Sciara , during the early syncytial divisions that follow the zygote constitution (A m A p X m X p X p ), a first elimination event occurs when one or two paternally derived X chromosomes (X p ) are discarded from all somatic cells depending on the future sex of the embryo (XX females or XO males, respectively). (biologists.org)
  • The X chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes ( allosomes ) in many organisms, including mammals (the other is the Y chromosome ), and is found in both males and females. (wikidoc.org)
  • Males have two of the same chromosomes (ZZ) and females have differing pairs (ZW). (courierpress.com)
  • In females, all chromosomes remain euchromatic and functional. (worldebookfair.com)
  • In some aspects, e.g. meiotic behaviour and mitotic instability leading to individual mosaicism (in the case of mitotically unstable Bs), polysomic As show similar characteristics to B chromosomes. (karger.com)
  • An S144A-S146A double mutant not only bound inappropriately to mitotic microtubules but also increased their stability and interfered with chromosome congression. (sciencemag.org)
  • The other is that kinesins are involved in spindle assembly and chromosome alignment in mitotic cells. (springer.com)
  • This initial shuffling of the genes is followed by a random distribution of chromosomes at the next stage of meiosis. (innovations-report.com)
  • By study of spermatogenesis in these and other spermatocytes, Ris established that the normal, if unusual, cycle of events in chromosomes in this modified male meiosis determines the life history of these aphids. (isciii.es)
  • Finally, at late larval stages, the whole paternal chromosome complement is discarded during male meiosis I. As a consequence, only maternal chromosomes are retained in the sperm nucleus, and these chromosomes will be then recognized as paternal after fertilization. (biologists.org)
  • Importantly, studies on S. coprophila translocations and chromosome identification in S. reynoldsi led to the conclusion that it is the paternally derived non-disjoined X m chromosome from male meiosis II that is later eliminated from the soma and germline of the embryo ( Crouse, 1943 ). (biologists.org)
  • Henking was studying the testicles of Pyrrhocoris and noticed that one chromosome did not take part in meiosis . (wikidoc.org)
  • These gametes are produced by meiosis, which halves the number of chromosomes in the diploid germ cells. (reference.com)
  • Meiosis is the reduction division because it reduces the number of chromosome. (reference.com)
  • Haddad C. R., Vítková M., Henriques S., Vargas J.G.P. Hedin M. (2013): Evolution of karyotype, sex chromosomes, and meiosis in mygalomorph spiders (Araneae: Mygalomorphae). (cuni.cz)
  • High-resolution, 3D images of human chromosomes in single cells reveal how DNA structure might influence its function. (innovations-report.com)
  • In high school textbooks, human chromosomes are pictured as wonky Xs like two hotdogs jammed together. (innovations-report.com)
  • Last year, before Su graduated with his Ph.D., he and three current Ph.D. candidates in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences-Pu Zheng, Seon Kinrot and Bogdan Bintu-captured high-resolution 3D images of human chromosomes, the complex houses for our DNA. (innovations-report.com)
  • 2002. Genomic Structure and Evolution of the Ancestral Chromosome Fusion Site in 2q13-2q14.1 and Paralogous Regions on Other Human Chromosomes. (icr.org)
  • MEDFORD/SOMERVILLE, Mass. In the past ten years, researchers in genome stability have observed that many kinds of cancer are associated with areas where human chromosomes break. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Apart from these importin-4-like sequences, the other Y repetitive sequences are not shared with the X chromosome, suggesting molecular differentiation of these two chromosomes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Suppressed recombination of the mating-type chromosomes is revealed to span nearly 90% of their lengths, with extreme levels of rearrangements, transposable element accumulation, and differentiation between the two mating types. (genetics.org)
  • These results imply differential amplification of satDNAs on neo-Y chromosome and a minor role of TEs in sex chromosome differentiation. (nature.com)
  • Comparative sex chromosome genomics in snakes: differentiation, evolutionary strata, and lack of global dosage compensation. (berkeley.edu)
  • The list of organisms by chromosome count describes ploidy or numbers of chromosomes in the cells of various plants , animals , protists , and other living organisms . (wikipedia.org)
  • Insect Histology is designed as a resource for student and professional researchers, in academia and industry, who require basic information on the procedures that are essential for the histological display of the tissues of insects and related organisms. (wiley.com)
  • They also found that the chromosomes of these different organisms share a similar distribution pattern. (k-state.edu)
  • In other words, human beings could be listed among the organisms potentially affected by the insect-borne infectious viruses. (fourwinds10.com)
  • Chromosomes of higher organisms ( eukaryotes ) contain DNA and protein. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Polysomy for A chromosomes and B chromosomes are two kinds of chromosome polymorphism frequently found in grasshoppers. (karger.com)
  • A new Robertsonian fusions in the multiple chromosome polymorphism of a Mediterranean population of Gobius pagamellus (Gobiidae, Perciformes). (springer.com)
  • Remarkably, intrapopulational chromosome number polymorphism exists, the chromosome number range overlaps between some populations separated by hundreds of kilometers, and chromosomal heterozygotes are abundant. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Marker polymorphism results indicated that a small terminal segment of chromosome 1AS containing H9 or H10 was transferred from the donor parent to the wheat line Iris or Joy, and a small intercalary fragment carrying H11 was transferred from the resistant donor to the wheat line Karen. (usda.gov)
  • Forman M., Nguyen P., Hula V., Král J. (2013): Sex chromosome pairing and extensive NOR polymorphism in Wadicosa fidelis (Araneae: Lycosidae). (cuni.cz)
  • The recombination of chromosomes: a controlled game of love and chance? (innovations-report.com)
  • Home / Life Sciences / The recombination of chromosomes: a controlled game of love and chance? (innovations-report.com)
  • This discovery, published in the October 18, 2002 issue of Cell, has led to the development of a method, for which a patent application has been made, which henceforth allows scientists to stimulate and "target" in vivo recombination at specific sites on the chromosomes, near one or other gene. (innovations-report.com)
  • However, 28-178 was located in the middle of the short arm of Hessian fly chromosome A2 whereas 23-201 was located in the middle of the long arm of chromosome A2, suggesting the presence of severe recombination suppression over its proximal region. (genetics.org)
  • Despite the fundamental roles that sex chromosomes play, their genic content is particularly prone to degenerative influences of recombination suppression and enforced heterozygosity ( Bergero and Charlesworth 2009 ). (genetics.org)
  • Bell G, Burt A: B chromosomes: germ-line parasites which induce changes in host recombination. (karger.com)
  • Fig. 5: SatDNAs located on neo-X chromosome and its variants found on male embryos. (nature.com)
  • Molecular Biology of Insect Disease Vectors: A Methods Manual , ed. (ajtmh.org)
  • In a Tufts University study published in the Aug. 3 journal "Molecular Cell," two molecular biologists have used yeast artificial chromosomes to prove the hypothesis. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In a study published last month, researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology tracked an important part of the memory-making process at the molecular scale in engram cells' chromosome s. (dictionary.com)
  • Korenberg J. R. & Rykowski, M. C. Human genome organization: Alu, lines, and the molecular structure of metaphase chromosome bands. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The number of exchanges will vary from one organism or chromosome to another (on average, one to five per chromosome, and up to one hundred or so per cell). (innovations-report.com)
  • If the diploid number in a liver cell is 52, how many chromosomes are there in the egg of this organism? (reference.com)
  • The proto-sex chromosome of common frogs does not show evidence of sexualization of gene expression, nor evidence for a faster rate of evolution. (springer.com)
  • This challenges the notion that sexually antagonistic genes play a central role in the initial stages of sex-chromosome evolution. (springer.com)
  • Sexually antagonistic genes are hypothesized to play a key role in the evolution of sex chromosomes. (springer.com)
  • In addition, Dr. Bergman's and my recent study on human telomeres related to chromosomes, evolution, and intelligent design is now in print in the April 2011 Journal of Creation . (icr.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The identification of Y-linked sequences may tell us much about the repetitive nature, the origin and the evolution of Y chromosomes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Sexually antagonistic selection can drive both the evolution of sex chromosomes and speciation itself. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Although we do not yet have direct evidence for the accumulation of ecological, behavioral, or fertilization prezygotic barrier genes on the X chromosome, faster-X evolution could make these barriers more likely to be X-linked. (g3journal.org)
  • Although this mechanism of chromosome number evolution is possible in theory, it has not been well documented. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The discovered system represents the first clearly documented case of explosive chromosome number evolution through intraspecific and intrapopulation accumulation of multiple chromosomal changes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Bachtrog D (2013) Y-chromosome evolution: emerging insights into processes of Y-chromosome degeneration. (nature.com)
  • Blackmon H, Demuth JP (2015) The fragile Y hypothesis: Y chromosome aneuploidy as a selective pressure in sex chromosome and meiotic mechanism evolution. (nature.com)
  • Camacho JPM: B chromosomes, in Gregory TR (ed): The Evolution of the Genome, pp 223-286 (Elsevier, San Diego 2005). (karger.com)
  • Transposons drive sex chromosome evolution. (berkeley.edu)
  • Sex-biased gene expression at homomorphic sex chromosomes in emus, and its implication for sex chromosome evolution. (berkeley.edu)
  • 42. Bachtrog D (2013) Evolution of sex chromosomes. (berkeley.edu)
  • A few weeks ago PNAS published a paper on the evolution of snake sex chromosomes. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Given my passing interest in sex chromosome evolution , I decided to check it out. (scienceblogs.com)
  • One popular model of sex-chromosome evolution postulates that the sex-determining locus first arises when an autosomal gene involved in environmental sex determination acquires a new mutation that consistently gives rise to either male (in the case of the XX:XY system) or female (in the case of the ZZ:ZW system) development. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Evolution (af latin e = "ud" + volvere = rulle, altså "udrulning" eller udvikling) er en proces hvorved sammensætningen af arveanlæg i en population ændres over generationer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Darwin var den første der beskrev evolution som en proces drevet af naturlig udvælgelse , og dermed den første til at give en videnskabelig forklaring på de processer der fører til artsdannelse. (wikipedia.org)
  • På molekylært niveau defineres evolution som enhver proces der fører til at frekvensen af en bestemt genetisk variant ændres i en given befolkning af organismer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Král J., Kořínková T., Forman M., Krkavcová L. (2011): Insights into the meiotic behavior and evolution of multiple sex chromosome systems in spiders. (cuni.cz)
  • A few months ago I wrote the following: I should point out that the mammalian Y chromosome is an anomaly in origin and sex determination. (scienceblogs.com)
  • To help unravel the multitude of biochemical, ultrastructural and lifestyle differences that distinguish these specialised life cycle stages we characterised and contrasted the transcriptomes of insect and mammalian adapted forms. (prolekare.cz)
  • Find this article online O'Keefe RT, Henderson SC, Spector DL (1992) Dynamic organization of DNA replication in mammalian cell nuclei: Spatially and temporally defined replication of chromosome-specific alpha-satellite DNA sequences. (thefullwiki.org)
  • According to the observation of embryonic cells of egg, chromosome number of the itch mite is either 17 or 18. (wikipedia.org)
  • A condition known as mosaicism results from an error in the distribution of chromosomes between daughter cells during an early embryonic cell division, producing two and sometimes three populations of cells with different chromosome numbers in the same individual. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • At later embryonic stages, a single X p chromosome is discarded from all germ nuclei in both sexes. (biologists.org)
  • Here we show that a neo-W chromosome, a fusion between the W (female) chromosome and an autosome that controls both colour pattern and male-killing, links the two phenotypes thereby driving speciation across the hybrid zone. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Furthermore, the subset of those highly differentiated markers that exhibit restricted introgression across the cricket hybrid zone are also concentrated on the X chromosome (39 of 50 loci) and in a single 7-cM region of one autosome. (g3journal.org)
  • The old Y will fuse to an autosome (the order of these fusions can be reversed) and the homolog of the fused autosome will become a new Y. The new Y will degrade over time to look like a typical Y chromosome. (scienceblogs.com)
  • While the cause for the disparate numbers is unknown, it may arise because of an XO sex determination mechanism , where males (2n=17) lack the sex chromosome and therefore have one less chromosome than the female (2n=18). (wikipedia.org)
  • She realized that the previous idea of Clarence Erwin McClung , that the X chromosome determines sex, was wrong and that sex determination is, in fact, due to the presence or absence of the Y chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the platypus relies on an XY sex-determination system based on five pairs of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This chromosome has apparently assumed a prime role in sex determination only recently from an evolutionary viewpoint. (eurekalert.org)
  • It was first suggested that the X chromosome was involved in sex determination by Clarence Erwin McClung in 1901. (wikidoc.org)
  • In fact, every single sex determination system and sex chromosome system that I know of differs from all of the others in some manner. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The equational division and lagging of the extra chromosomes, when univalents, could favour the appearance of abnormal meiotic products, and the formation of bivalents, when there are two or more extra chromosomes, inhibits this process. (karger.com)
  • The diploid chromosome number is 2n = 14 with four pair of long acrocentric chromosomes ranging from 14.4 μm to 17.9 μm and three pair of short sub metacentric chromosomes ranging from 4.6 μm to 5.4 μm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organization of centromeric-proximal telomeres on the short arm of the 15 acrocentric chromosomes in Apis is hypothetical based on FISH studies. (nih.gov)
  • Germ cells have only half the number of chromosomes as a diploid cell one of each pair - and are termed haploid (n). (reference.com)
  • and is not localized to the proto-sex chromosome nor near the candidate sex-determining gene Dmrt1 . (springer.com)
  • In the case of houseflies from southern latitudes, the gene that determines maleness lies on a so-called proto-sex chromosome. (eurekalert.org)
  • The ideogram (in blue) shows average chromosome lengths, positions and sizes of DAPI-positive (heterochromatin) bands. (nih.gov)
  • A cis -acting locus ( CE ) within the heterochromatin proximal to the centromere is known to regulate X chromosome elimination. (biologists.org)
  • METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A combined Representational Difference Analysis (RDA) and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) approach was used to investigate the Y chromosome to derive information on its sequence content. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Gene Mapping to Chromosomes by Hybridization in Situ. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Characterization of Y sequences, apart from elucidating the nature of the male determining factor, is also important to understand the evolutionary history of sex chromosomes within the Tephritidae. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Moreover, as the identified Y sequences were not detected on the Y chromosomes of closely related tephritids, we can infer divergence in the repetitive nature of their sequence contents. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We hypothesize how these repetitive sequences accumulated and were maintained on the Y chromosome during its evolutionary history. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Birds are unique because in addition to their usual chromosome sequences, they contain one additional set of minichromosome sequences, according to Zhongwei Lin, research associate in agronomy. (k-state.edu)
  • Distribution of non-telomeric sites of the (TTAGGG) n telomeric sequences in vertebrate chromosomes. (springer.com)
  • The scientists were especially interested in their telomeres-protective DNA sequences at the ends of chromosome s that act a bit like the caps on the ends of shoelaces. (dictionary.com)
  • The Y chromosome carries the SRY gene, which determines the male sex. (eurekalert.org)
  • After the change of location, the Y chromosome is lost and the new sex chromosome with the Mdmd gene assumes the function of determining the male sex. (eurekalert.org)
  • Therefore, the odd-even effect might be a consequence of the concomitant operation of both aspects of extra chromosome meiotic behaviour. (karger.com)
  • Kořínková T., Král J. (2011): Structure and meiotic behaviour of B chromosomes in Sphaerium corneum/S. nucleus complex (Bivalvia: Sphaeriidae). (cuni.cz)
  • Genomics: how to make a social insect. (nih.gov)
  • Cutting-edge and thorough, Insect Genomics: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource for graduate students, postdocs, and novice research scientists who are interested in learning more about this developing field. (springer.com)
  • However, it is not known how quickly sexualization of gene expression and transcriptional degeneration evolve after sex-chromosome formation. (springer.com)
  • and insect basic leucine zipper proteins and their role in cyclic AMP dependent regulation of gene expression. (google.com)
  • Many of the sexual aberrations, such as sexual mosaics, sex-specific lethality and conversion of sexuality, can be explained by developmental defects including double fertilization of a binucleate egg, loss of a sex chromosome or perturbation of sex-determining gene expression, which occur accidentally or are induced by certain environmental conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • We then use a digital measure of gene expression (RNA-seq) on brain transcriptome and confirm a global lack of dosage compensation on the Z chromosome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Once the child is conceived, either male or female, then every single somatic cell in the human body gets a copy of the sex chromosomes. (courierpress.com)
  • Humans normally have 46 chromosomes in each cell, divided into 23 pairs. (news-medical.net)
  • Two copies of chromosome 6, one copy inherited from each parent, form one of the pairs. (news-medical.net)
  • Chromosome 6 spans about 171 million base pairs (the building blocks of DNA) and represents between 5.5 percent and 6 percent of the total DNA in cells. (news-medical.net)
  • D. carota has nine chromosome pairs (2n = 2x = 18). (wikipedia.org)
  • Each pair of chromosomes - one of paternal origin, the other maternal - is positioned independently of the other pairs on the equatorial plate, before migrating to the poles to produce two daughter cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • The DNA in the human Y chromosome is composed of about 59 million base pairs . (wikipedia.org)
  • Stevens proposed that chromosomes always existed in pairs and that the Y chromosome was the pair of the X chromosome discovered in 1890 by Hermann Henking . (wikipedia.org)
  • The X chromosome in humans spans more than 153 million base pairs (the building material of DNA ). (wikidoc.org)
  • Scientists at Johns Hopkins say they have found that people born with abnormally short chromosome endcaps, or telomeres, have immune system cells that age and die prematurely. (news-medical.net)
  • Since Palparinae lacewings represent one of basal phylogenetic lineage of the Myrmeleontidae, it is hypothesized that higher chromosome numbers are ancestral for antlions. (eurekalert.org)
  • The number of possible ancestors on the X chromosome inheritance line at a given ancestral generation follows the Fibonacci sequence. (wikidoc.org)
  • As short and intermediate germ segmentation is found throughout the insects, whereas the long germ type is restricted to the higher insects, it is likely that a form of short or intermediate germband segmentation is evolutionarily ancestral ( Davis and Patel, 2002 ). (biologists.org)
  • In particular, chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) are most powerful tools for the detection and precise mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs). (frontiersin.org)
  • To further facilitate gene mapping, heterozygous chromosome segment substitution lines (HCSSLs) were also produced, which were heterozygous in the target regions. (frontiersin.org)
  • We showed highly differentiated neo-XY sex chromosomes owing to major amplification of satDNAs in neo-Y. Furthermore, chromosomal mapping of satDNAs suggests high turnover of neo-sex chromosomes in R. bergii at the intrapopulation level, caused by multiple paracentric inversions, amplifications, and transpositions. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 2: FISH mapping of 13 satDNAs and telomere probes on neo-Y chromosome. (nature.com)
  • Deletion bin mapping assigned these markers and genes to the distal 14% of chromosome arm 1AS, where another Hf-resistance gene Hdic (derived from emmer wheat) was also mapped previously. (usda.gov)
  • The same holds for female-heterogametic systems, in which W chromosomes are female limited, while Z chromosomes spend two thirds of their time in males and hence are expected to accumulate male-beneficial genes. (springer.com)
  • He called this chromosome an accessory chromosome , and insisted (correctly) that it was a proper chromosome, and theorized (incorrectly) that it was the male-determining chromosome. (wikidoc.org)
  • D. capillifolius , D. sahariensis and D. syrticus are the other members of the genus with 2n = 18, whereas D. muricatus (2n = 20) and D. pusillus (2n = 22) have a slightly higher chromosome number. (wikipedia.org)
  • The higher chromosome numbers were inherited from the common ancestor of Myrmeleontidae + Ascalaphidae. (eurekalert.org)
  • The idea that the Y chromosome was named after its similarity in appearance to the letter "Y" is mistaken. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also possible to make a photomicrograph of a cell nucleus, cut it apart, and rearrange it so that the individual chromosomes are in order and labeled. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Namely, the signal was detected in the local chromocenter at one pole of the nucleus in D. virilis, while the signal from the telomeric region of chromosome 5 was detected on another pole. (deepdyve.com)
  • At the same time, DvirIII signals in D. kanekoi are localized in two separate areas in the nucleus: the first belongs to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 2 and another to pericentromeric regions of the remaining chromosomes. (deepdyve.com)