The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.
Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.
The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
An order of insects comprising two suborders: Caelifera and Ensifera. They consist of GRASSHOPPERS, locusts, and crickets (GRYLLIDAE).
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A genus in the family Blattidae containing several species, the most common being P. americana, the American cockroach.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.

JIL-1 and Su(var)3-7 interact genetically and counteract each other's effect on position-effect variegation in Drosophila. (1/169)

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Evolution of a distinct genomic domain in Drosophila: comparative analysis of the dot chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila virilis. (2/169)

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Multiple functions for Drosophila Mcm10 suggested through analysis of two Mcm10 mutant alleles. (3/169)

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Introgression of Drosophila simulans nuclear pore protein 160 in Drosophila melanogaster alone does not cause inviability but does cause female sterility. (4/169)

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Statistical analysis of nondisjunction assays in Drosophila. (5/169)

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Step-by-step evolution of neo-sex chromosomes in geographical populations of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp. (6/169)

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Mutagenesis as a genetic research strategy. (7/169)

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Coupling between microtubule sliding, plus-end growth and spindle length revealed by kinesin-8 depletion. (8/169)

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Abstract: The Topors protein is a tumor suppressor in human that associates with and regulates a number of cell cycle regulators that including topoisomerase I and p53. It possesses both ubiquitin and SUMO ligase activity and its mutation or downregulation has been associated with some human cancers and diseases. The Drosophila homologue, dTopors, is an ubiquitin E3 ligase. We have investigated the role of Dtopors in sumoylating proteins in the male germ line. Although nuclear lamin localization is disrupted in dtopors mutants, we find no evidence of lamin modification by Dtopors. We observe an increase in the overall sumoylation of testis proteins and a corresponding decrease in the pool of free SUMO in homozygous dtopors versus heterozygous dtopors flies. Based on this result, we propose a model explaining the role of dtopors in altering germline sumoylation. We have constructed a SUMO-GFP transgenic protein to investigate how dtopors is altering the pool of SUMO in the cell. We demonstrate ...
This Load Balancer health test checks that the Cloudera Manager Agent on the Load Balancer host is heart beating correctly and that the process associated with the Load Balancer role is in the state expected by Cloudera Manager. A failure of this health test may indicate a problem with the Load Balancer process, a lack of connectivity to the Cloudera Manager Agent on the Load Balancer host, or a problem with the Cloudera Manager Agent. This test can fail either because the Load Balancer has crashed or because the Load Balancer will not start or stop in a timely fashion. Check the Load Balancer logs for more details. If the test fails because of problems communicating with the Cloudera Manager Agent on the Load Balancer host, check the status of the Cloudera Manager Agent by running /etc/init.d/cloudera-scm-agent status on the Load Balancer host, or look in the Cloudera Manager Agent logs on the Load Balancer host for more details. This test can be enabled or disabled using the Load Balancer ...
Definition of karyosome in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of karyosome. What does karyosome mean? Information and translations of karyosome in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Last Updated: 11th December 2017 The Balancer/Genotype Variant Report contains the information for an individual balancer/genotype variant. Genotype variants are chromosomal rearrangements which carry the same rearrangement as their parent aberration (listed in the Parent aberration field of the report), but they differ genetically from the parent aberration, e.g. carrying a different constellation of alleles and/or transposable element insertions. A genotype variant chromosome may also be a Balancer, which is a multiply inverted chromosome that suppresses recombination with the homologous chromosome. This allows the homologous chromosome (or part of it) to be maintained intact in a cross or stock. Balancers also typically carry a dominant marker and are often lethal or sterile when homozygous. This can increase their usefulness to researchers. If an individual genotype variant chromosome has been reported to be usable as a balancer this is indicated by the presence of the Described as Balancer ...
Scopri le lenti fotocromatiche Transitions Light Intelligent Lenses. Le lenti Transitions, lenti intelligenti alla luce, si adattano automaticamente al mutare delle condizioni luminose, offrendo sia allinterno che in esterni la massima protezione dalla luce, dai raggi UV e dalla luce blu nociva.
It combines the benefits of a feed balancer and a joint supplement. Highly cost-effective.. It is the first and only feed balancer to include the scientifically recommended rate of glucosamine to help maintain mobility. This rate is 10 grams of glucosamine/500kg horse/day.. TopSpec Senior Feed Balancer is a very palatable Non-Heating feed that contains several supplements that provide the levels of micronutrients and digestive aids normally only found in high quality specialised supplements.. When TopSpec Senior Feed Balancer is fed there is therefore no need to add any further supplements.. This superb specification allows elderly horses to utilise far more nutrients from the forage and straights in their diet, which often means that their hard feed intake can be reduced with many resulting benefits. A complete specification is freely available.. ...
The balancer supports stickyness. When a request is proxied to some back-end, then all following requests from the same user should be proxied to the same back-end. Many load balancers implement this feature via a table that maps client IP addresses to back-ends. This approach is transparent to clients and back-ends, but suffers from some problems: unequal load distribution if clients are themselves hidden behind proxies, stickyness errors when a client uses a dynamic IP address that changes during a session and loss of stickyness, if the mapping table overflows.. The module ...
The balancer supports stickyness. When a request is proxied to some back-end, then all following requests from the same user should be proxied to the same back-end. Many load balancers implement this feature via a table that maps client IP addresses to back-ends. This approach is transparent to clients and back-ends, but suffers from some problems: unequal load distribution if clients are themselves hidden behind proxies, stickyness errors when a client uses a dynamic IP address that changes during a session and loss of stickyness, if the mapping table overflows.. The module ...
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A soy-free diet balancer designed to provide the essential nutrients that hay lacks. Wholesome Blends™ Balancer allows you to meet the unique needs of your horse in a way that you can be proud - we know Mother Nature is!
MISSION® 3′UTR Lenti GoClone™ Powered by SwitchGear Genomics™, 3′UTR, human, UTP6; Synonym: HUTR; find Sigma-Aldrich-HUTR00859 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich.
MISSION® 3′UTR Lenti GoClone™ Powered by SwitchGear Genomics™, 3′UTR, human, TXNDC3; Synonym: HUTR; find Sigma-Aldrich-HUTR01562 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich.
Lenti ORF particles, BRDT (mGFP-tagged)-Human bromodomain, testis-specific (BRDT), transcript variant 2, 200 uL, |10^7 TU/mL, 200 µl.
Plasmid lenti MS2-P65-HSF1_Hygro from Dr. Feng Zhangs lab contains the insert MS2-P65-HSF1_2A_Hygro and is published in Nature. 2014 Dec 10. doi: 10.1038/nature14136. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Plasmid lenti dCAS-VP64_Blast from Dr. Feng Zhangs lab contains the insert dCAS9(D10A, N863A)-VP64_2A_Blast and is published in Nature. 2014 Dec 10. doi: 10.1038/nature14136. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
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If this is your first visit, be sure to check out the FAQ by clicking the link above. You may have to register before you can post: click the register link above to proceed. To start viewing messages, select the forum that you want to visit from the selection below ...
Learn about configuration for apps hosted behind proxy servers and load balancers, which often obscure important request information.
TopSpec Joint Feed Balancer is available online with fast delivery from VioVet, the trusted supplier of veterinary medication, foods and animal care products.
The EB uses direct current similar to that of the human body to create an ionic field. The patient places their feet in the bioenergetic water to receive the flow of ions which increases cellular function. Studies have shown that more cellular ATP is produced during treatment which enhances the cells to work and detoxify at a higher rate.. ...
Lookup HS Codes for Colombia vi 28.10.00 Orthoboric acid. Avalara LandedCosts helps determine your duty rates and other import taxes for Colombia.
Analysis of chromosome localization of three molecular markers, 18S-5.8S-28S rDNA, 5S rDNA and a 180 bp satDNA, showed that B chromosomes in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans originated independen
The B24 chromosome in the Torrox population of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans is recurrently attached to a nucleolus in diplotene cells, indicating the activity of its distally located ribosoma
We analyzed the effect of B-chromosome presence on expression level of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in cerebral ganglion and gonad in both males and females of the grasshopper |i|Eyprepocnemis
The relative location of 2 repetitive DNAs, i.e. ribosomal (rDNA) and a tandemly repeated satellite DNA (satDNA), with respect to the centromere, suggested that B chromosomes in the grasshopper |i&
Modern day mystic, Episcopal priest, writer, and internationally known retreat leader, Cynthia Bourgeault divides her time between solitude at her seaside hermitage in Maine, and a demanding schedule traveling globally to teach and spread the recovery of the Christian contemplative and Wisdom path.. She has been a long-time advocate of the meditative practice of Centering Prayer and has worked closely with fellow teachers and colleagues including Thomas Keating, Bruno Barnhart, and Richard Rohr. Cynthia has actively participated in numerous inter-spiritual dialogues and events with luminaries and leaders such as A.H. Almaas, Kabir Helminski, Swami Atmarupananda, and Rami Shapiro.. Cynthia is a member of the GPIW (Global Peace Initiative for Women) Contemplative Council and recipient of the 2014 Contemplative Voices award from Shalem Institute. She is a founding Director of both The Contemplative Society and the Aspen Wisdom School. She continues to contribute to The Contemplative Society in her ...
Many people ask about Cynthia Robinson Height and Weight 2016, size, age, body statistics and measurements. Cynthia Robinson is an American Trumpet player, her
Cynthia Nixons wife was worried about her being bald on their wedding day.The former Sex and the City actress shaved her head for her role as a cancer sufferer in the stage play Wit before her May nuptials to long-term...
Rekan2 Milis, Permisi tanya, belakangan ini banyak vendor Link balancer/ Multi WAN router/Multi ISP. Kira2 bagaimana mekanisme kerja nya? Apakah sangat...
Pay attention, the intruder interrupted, and stepped around the desk. I want you. She slowly raised, then lowered the weapon, and Cynthias head bobbed in perfect rhythm. Oh... you like my new toy? the intruder whispered. Its the very latest in gas-powered automatics. It fires a tiny fl chette loaded with a powerful narcotic, and is quiet as a mild cough. One touch of the needle... and youre out like the proverbial light in less than two seconds. She waved the barrel from side to side, and again, Cynthias head followed. The only downside... it leaves a nasty bruise. She centered the weapons aim between Cynthias breasts. You dont want me to have to use this thing, do you? Cynthia shook her head. Youre going to do exactly what I tell you to do, arent you? Cynthia nodded. Hands behind the chair, she ordered ...
Cynthia Nixon and director Lynne Meadow, both cancer survivors, share the challenge and the music of Margaret Edson's Wit on Broadway.
Cynthia Nixon and director Lynne Meadow, both cancer survivors, share the challenge and the music of Margaret Edson's Wit on Broadway.
Laura Linney and Cynthia Nixon swap the two lead female roles in the latest revival of The Little Foxes. Between performances they talk Tony nominations, sexism, and the wisdom of Stockard Channing.
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Cynthia Witt, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
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Dr. Cynthia L. Lichterman is a specialist that offers services and treatment options in Individual & Relational Psychotherapy. Schedule an appointment with Dr. Lichterman at NorthShore.
See what Cynthia Smith (csmith2279) has discovered on Pinterest, the worlds biggest collection of everybodys favorite things.
Cynthia Zelis MD is a Family Practitioner who practices in Strongsville, OH. Get a full report about this doctors background by clicking here.
If you use AWSs Elastic Load Balancer to allow your EC2 application to scale, like I do, then youll want to know about this gotcha recently reported in the AWS forums. By all appearances, it looks like something that should be fixed by Amazon. Until it is, you can reduce (but not eliminate) your exposure to this problem by keeping a small TTL for your ELBs DNS CNAME entry. Read on for details.. The Gotcha. As your ELB-balanced application experiences an increasing load, some of the traffic received by your back-end instances may be traffic that does not belong to your application. And, after your application experiences a sustained heavy load and then traffic subsides, some of your applications traffic may be lost or misdirected to other EC2 instances that are not yours.. Update March 2010: It appears AWS has changed the behavior of ELB so this is no longer a likely issue. See below for more details.. Why it Happens. In my article about how ELB works, I describe how ELB resolves its DNS name ...
Is Female Hormone Balancer the best supplement to treat hormonal imbalance in women NATURALLY? Menopause symptoms, hot flashes and night sweats remedies, progesterone natural estrogen pills side effects and more
Cynthia Marie Has A Rare Genome That Is Impervious To Disease And Toxins Cynthia Marie has a rare genome that is impervious to disease and toxins. When faced with something the body cant handle, instead of dying her body puts her into a coma until it excretes the toxin/germ out in her urine. According to Cynthia her DNA was sold like a commodity through Wall Street and hypothecated through various financial products. She is an extreme case of slave system we all live under and how the... ...
I pop the tab off the bottle and pour the contents of bottle one into bottle two. A quick glance at my image in the mirror and I look like the mad scientist in gray vogue. Although the final promised color is a golden red the wet product is hemorrhage-purple. Shocked, I grab the box and check again - Golden Sienna. Stamped with the Good Housekeeping seal of approval, Clairol, my image rests in your potion ...
Swamped, the staff scrambles to find empty beds. Dusk arrives and still no room available, we relocate for a temporary stay in recovery. Patients moan and intravenous bags hang on hooks. Tucked in a far cubicle, we order dinner and wait for a vacancy. Flat on her back I spoon feed Mom peas. One disappears down her gown ...
Dr. Chua focuses on listening carefully to each cancer patient, and applying knowledge and skills to help patients live as well as they can.
Kinesiologist, Your journey to health starts Here. You have tried so many things, yet that persistent health issue lingers. TAKE A DEEP BREATH Together, we will explore your past, assess what your body is trying to...
Well, I am at it again. I am asking why the 11 year old Hispanic boy was included in the study. I was amazed at what I found as to what is presently available ...
After the state Democratic party put out a mailer accusing Nixon of ignoring anti-Semitism, and after it a apologized for doing so, Nixon said she was unlikely to take them up on their last-minute offer to send a mailer of her choosing, casting doubt on the partys intentions ...
Time to live for a connection to Logstash after which the connection will be re-established. Useful when Logstash hosts represent load balancers. Since the connections to Logstash hosts are sticky operating behind load balancers can lead to uneven load distribution between the instances. Specifying a TTL on the connection allows to achieve equal connection distribution between the instances. Specifying a TTL of 0 will disable this feature.. The default value is 0.. ...
An eCommerce site that crashes 7 times during the Christmas season, being down for up to five hours each time it crashes is a site that loses a lot of mone
John Evans the holder of multiple Guinness World Records and a unique performer who has become famous worldwide for balancing strange and heavy things on his head ...
Lenti ORF particles, Map2 (Myc-DDK-tagged) - Mouse microtubule-associated protein 2 (Mtap2), transcript variant 2, 200ul, >10^7 TU/mL NM_008632. ...
Lenti ORF particles, NTRK3 (Myc-DDK tagged) - Human neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3 (NTRK3), transcript variant 3 , 200ul, >10^7 TU/mL ...
i saw cynthia mckinney on cspan last night.. it wasnt a rerun.. it said today in the corner.. she was asking both rumsfeld and myers about the wargames, and they responded back.. i cant seem to find the transcript from the DoDs website or hers... basically myers said the wargames helped the response time, not hurt it.. she also asked him if that day was declared a special day of intrest, to which he asked if she meant before or after the attacks, to which she said before.. he said he didnt know, then looked at rumsfeld and shook his head like he had no idea of what she was getting at.. if anyone knows where i might find the transcript please let me know... ...
NPR coverage of The Good Earth by Pearl S. Buck, Stephanie Reents, and Cynthia Brantley Johnson. News, author interviews, critics picks and more.
This is Scientific Americans 60-Second Science. Im Cynthia Graber. This will just take a minute. Its the time of year to take a look backand thats just what the journal Science did as they listed their most important breakthroughs of 2008. At the v
Cynthia Starnes, MSW, LCSW Charlottesville Counselor - Charlottesville Therapist. Professional counseling services to the Charlottesville Albemarle community. Providing professional therapy and counseling to adults, teens and children
The Random with Two Choices load-balancing algorithm is NGINXs implementation of the power of two choices method. This biased random algorithm has been shown to be effective at balancing loads when each load balancer has an incomplete or delayed view of the traffic.
Insects. 8 (3): 68. doi:10.3390/insects8030068. PMC 5620688. PMID 28698508. "IPCN Chromosome Reports". Plants for a Future: ... in which there are more than two complete sets of chromosomes, unlike most other species. A side effect of polyploidy is a ...
Humans, many mammals, insects and other animals have an XY sex-determination system. Humans have forty-six chromosomes, ... including two sex chromosomes, XX in females and XY in males. The Y chromosome must carry at least one essential gene which ... Other chromosomal systems exist in other taxa, such as the ZW sex-determination system in birds and the XO system in insects. ... Beyond the presence or absence of chromosomes or social/environmental factors, sexual differentiation can be regulated in part ...
In insects, imprinting affects entire chromosomes. In some insects the entire paternal genome is silenced in male offspring, ... The imprinting produces effects similar to the mechanisms in other insects that eliminate paternally inherited chromosomes in ... on mouse chromosome 17 and KCNQ1OT1 on human chromosome 11p15.5, have been shown to be essential for the imprinting of genes in ... but do depend on which parent the chromosome originated from. This group of epigenetic changes that depend on the chromosome's ...
Biomarker John B, Lewis KR (May 1966). "Chromosome variability and geographic distribution in insects". Science. 152 (3723): ... July 2008). "Replication of linkage on chromosome 7q22 and association of the regional Reelin gene with working memory in ...
Grimaldi, David A.; Engel, Michael S. (2005). Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-82149-0.. . ... Bombyx mori females are also one of the few organisms with homologous chromosomes held together only by the synaptonemal ... In the US, teachers may sometimes introduce the insect life cycle to their students by raising silkworms in the classroom as a ... This fungus can spread to other insects.. *Grasserie, also known as nuclear polyhedrosis, milky disease, or hanging disease, is ...
As the insect matures and reaches a new instar, they dig a wider, deeper and longer burrow with the diameter ranging between 1/ ... McClung, C. E. (1933). "The chromosomes of Schizodactylus monstrosus". Journal of Morphology. 55: 185-191. doi:10.1002/jmor. ... Hazra, A.K. & Tandon, S.K. (1991). "Ecology and behaviour of a sand burrowing insect, Schizodactylus monstrosus (Orthoptera: ... Islam, A.S. (1982). "Diurnal rhythm of hemocyte population in an insect, Schizodactylus monstrosus Drury". Experientia. 38 (5 ...
The genome of a lepidopteran model insect, the silkworm Bombyx mori. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 38(12): 1036- ... Bombyx mori females are also one of the few organisms with homologous chromosomes held together only by the synaptonemal ... Students have a chance to observe complete life cycles of insects from eggs to larvae to pupae to moths. The domestic silk moth ... Silk moth pupae are edible insects and are eaten in some cultures: In Assam, they are boiled for extracting silk and the boiled ...
... is an elongated green insect with the typical raptorial forelimbs of a mantis. The adults have reduced-size ... 209-. ISBN 978-1-58544-236-2. White, M.J.D. (1948). "The Chromosomes of the Parthenogenetic Mantid Brunneria borealis". ... Insects of the Texas Lost Pines. Texas A&M University Press. pp. ...
B chromosomes are common in Bignoniaceae. Pollination is either entomophilous (via insects), ornithophilous (via birds), or ... The chromosome number does not vary much in Bignoniaceae. The haploid (base chromosome number) is 20 for nearly every species ... sampled, but some species have very small chromosomes, making an accurate count difficult. ...
He was the first to study the giant chromosomes found in insect larvae. He studied the role of the nucleolus in protein ... Zelenin, A V; Zoshchuk N V (2000). "[The history of modern chromosome analysis. The founding contribution of the works of ... He examined the relationship between the quantity of heterochromatin (chromosomes with few genes) and the rate of growth of ... This banding method permits the accurate identification of all 22 autosomes and the X and Y chromosomes. This technique ...
... since humans have several times as many genes on the X chromosome than the Y chromosome. Only females are able to be carriers ... Examples: female sterility in Drosophila; and many polymorphic characters in insects, especially in relation to mimicry. ... is present on a sex chromosome (allosome) rather than a non-sex chromosome (autosome). In humans, these are termed X-linked ... Fur color in domestic cats: the gene that causes orange pigment is on the X chromosome; thus a Calico or tortoiseshell cat, ...
"Genetic control of insect population. I. Cage studies of chromosome replacement by compound autosomes in Drosophila ... B chromosomes[edit]. B chromosomes refer to chromosomes that are not required for the viability or fertility of the organism, ... B chromosomes were first detected over a century ago.[63] Though typically smaller than normal chromosomes, their gene poor, ... Douglas RN, Birchler JA (2017). "B Chromosomes". In Bhat T, Wani A (eds.). Chromosome Structure and Aberrations. New Delhi: ...
The chromosomes (karyotype) of Chilocorus stigma vary from one individual to another, in both the number of chromosomes ( ... It is a beneficial insect, and is useful in both natural wood stands and commercial forests such as orchards and citrus groves ... In order to preserve the benefits of this insect, pesticide users are encouraged to use natural alternatives to pesticide in ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Jerry A. Powell and Charles L. Hogue (1980). California Insects. University of ...
... is a loanword, from the Māori word wētā, which refers to this whole group of large insects; some types of wētā (see below ... The North Island species each have a distinctive set of chromosomes (karyotype). When the territories of species overlap, as ... "Book of Insect Records". Archived from the original on 3 July 2006. Retrieved 20 May 2006. Morgan-Richards, M (1997). " ... Giant wētā (wētā punga in Māori) are large by insect standards. They are heavy herbivorous Orthoptera with a body length of up ...
Every insect has six legs, one pair found on each of the three thoracic segments while other arthropods have a variable number ... Collinearity is found between the order of the genes on the chromosome and the order in which the genes are expressed along the ... These genes are grouped similarly to the Hox complex found in insects. The mouse has four complexes, HoxA, HoxB, HoxC, and HoxD ... Each of the four mammalian Hox complexes has a rough counterpart in the insect complex. The theory behind this evolutionary ...
"Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (22): ... 2000). "Chromosome Mutation I: Changes in Chromosome Structure: Introduction". An Introduction to Genetic Analysis (7th ed.). ... or multiple chromosomes fuse, and cite the chromosome difference between humans and the other great apes as an example. ... Such hybrids are generally infertile, due to the two different sets of chromosomes being unable to pair up during meiosis. In ...
Fitz-Earle M, Holm DG, Suzuki DT (July 1973). "Genetic control of insect population. I. Cage studies of chromosome replacement ... Discussing B chromosomes in plants he wrote: In many cases these chromosomes have no useful function at all to the species ... B chromosomes refer to chromosomes that are not required for the viability or fertility of the organism, but exist in addition ... B chromosomes were first detected over a century ago. Though typically smaller than normal chromosomes, their gene poor, ...
October 29, 2002). "Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... Indeed, chromosome doubling within a species may be a common cause of reproductive isolation, as half the doubled chromosomes ... This allows the chromosomes from each parental species to form matching pairs during meiosis, since each parent's chromosomes ... An extreme case is the eusociality found in social insects, such as bees, termites and ants, where sterile insects feed and ...
"Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... One common approach is to look for regions of high linkage disequilibrium and low genetic variance along the chromosome, to ... especially with genes located nearby on the same chromosome. Recombination breaks up this linkage disequilibrium too slowly to ... "The Rate of Adaptation in Large Sexual Populations with Linear Chromosomes". Genetics. 196 (4): 1167-1183. doi:10.1534/genetics ...
"Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Bites from insects in the family Reduviidae (assassin bugs) can, via a parasite, infect humans with the trypanosomal Chagas ... In order for a bacterium to bind, take up and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome, it must become competent, that is, ... The DNA integrated into the host chromosome is usually (but with infrequent exceptions) derived from another bacterium of the ...
The diploid queen has 32 chromosomes and the haploid drones have 16 chromosomes. Drones produce sperm cells that contain their ... Grimaldi, D.; Engel M.S. (2005). The evolution of the insects. Cambridge University Press. p. 408. ISBN 0-521-82149-5.. CS1 ... Y chromosome. References[edit]. *^ King, R.C; Stansfield, W.D.; Mulligan, P.K. (2006). A dictionary of genetics (7th ed.). ... As long as a female has mated with only one male, all her daughters share a complete set of chromosomes from that male. In ...
The telomeres at the ends of the chromosomes, thought to be involved in ageing/senescence, consist of repetitive DNA, with the ... Similarly, insects have shorter repeat motifs in their telomeres that could arguably be considered microsatellites. ... This is likely due to homologous chromosomes with arms of unequal lengths causing instability during meiosis.[19] ... Direct estimates of microsatellite mutation rates have been made in numerous organisms, from insects to humans. In the desert ...
According to Greene, the chromosome characteristic is: 2n=12. Lasthenia conjugens relies upon insect pollination for ... An alternative conclusion is that members of one particular insect family, Sciaridae, are also efficient pollinators of L. ... conjugens, since it was the only insect family to visit the restoration colonies in significant numbers (the specialist bees ...
The chromosome number is 2n = 32. The bracts in the inflorescence form effective shelters for the flowers from rain, their red- ... The shaggy hairiness of the calyx protects the flower against small, crawling insects. The nectar is additionally secured by a ...
They scavenge for nutrient sources in things such as fruits, insects, and seeds. There are 31 pairs of chromosomes found in the ... There are 60 autosomal chromosomes and 2 sex chromosomes found in this species. Weksler et al., 2008 Musser, G.G.; Carleton, M. ... de Almeida, Eunice Judith Cardoso; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo (January 1991). "Pericentric inversions and sex chromosome ...
"Microorganisms associated with chromosome destruction and reproductive isolation between two insect species" (PDF). Nature. 346 ... 2003). "14: Insect pest control using Wolbachia and/or radiation". Insect Symbiosis. p. 230. ISBN 9780849341946. Forsman M, ... Outside of insects, Wolbachia infects a variety of isopod species, spiders, mites, and many species of filarial nematodes (a ... One study concluded that more than 16% of neotropical insect species carry bacteria of this genus, and as many as 25 to 70% of ...
It is insectivorous, catching and consuming insects while flying. It is found in Central America where its range includes Costa ... It is a diploid organism with two sets of each chromosome (2n=34). It has a dental formula of 1.1.1.33.1.2.3 for a total of 30 ...
It has 62 chromosomes. This fish possesses powerful dentition that can cause serious bites. It has scales. Froese, Rainer and ... They usually feed on aquatic insects, small fish, and fruits. P. denticulata has pentacuspid teeth and a middle cusp that is ...
The adult cells have one set of inactive H chromosomes and one set of euchromatin E chromosomes. These H chromosomes are ... This phenomenon occurs in certain mites, beetles and mealybugs and scale insects. When the males have a diploid number of ... In a few other species all the cells in an adult are haploid due to elimination of the paternal chromosomes at an early ... The paternal chromosomes are inactivated by heterochromatization in all the cells at an early embryonic stage. ...
1997 ), on chromosome 7, another by igl1, indole-3-glycerol phosphate lyase1(Frey et al. 1997, on chromosome 1, and another by ... Function Maize gene for first step in biosynthesis of benzoxazin, which aids in resistance to insect pests, pathogenic fungi ... AB chromosome translocation analyses place on short arm of chromosome 4 (4S; Simcox and Weber 1985 ). There is close linkage to ... Meihls, L. N.; Kaur, H.; Jander, G. (2012). "Natural Variation in Maize Defense against Insect Herbivores". Cold Spring Harbor ...
In recognition of his analysis of pattern formation during insect segmentation, and of his contribution to understanding how ... separate sexes and sex chromosomes, segregation distortion and repetitive DNA. ...
Usually organisms that have a higher rate of reproduction than their competitors have an evolutionary advantage. Consequently, organisms can evolve to become simpler and thus multiply faster and produce more offspring, as they require fewer resources to reproduce. A good example are parasites such as Plasmodium - the parasite responsible for malaria - and mycoplasma; these organisms often dispense with traits that are made unnecessary through parasitism on a host.[7] A lineage can also dispense with complexity when a particular complex trait merely provides no selective advantage in a particular environment. Loss of this trait need not necessarily confer a selective advantage, but may be lost due to the accumulation of mutations if its loss does not confer an immediate selective disadvantage.[8] For example, a parasitic organism may dispense with the synthetic pathway of a metabolite where it can readily scavenge that metabolite from its host. Discarding this synthesis may not necessarily allow ...
Insect, Apis mellifera aka honey bee 1.77×109 Fish, Tetraodon nigroviridis, type of Puffer fish 3.85×108 Smallest vertebrate ... Hans Winkler, Professor of Botany at the University of Hamburg, Germany, as a combination of the words gene and chromosome.. . ... "I propose the expression genome for the haploid chromosome set, which, together with the pertinent protoplasm, specifies the ... However, no single haploid chromosome set defines even the DNA of a species. Because of the huge variety of alleles carried by ...
The number of homologous chromosome sets varies from four (n=4) in some Physaria and Stenopetalum species, five (n=5) in other ... Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Insects. Ecological and Environmental Physiology Series. 3. Oxford biological.. ... Some insect herbivores have developed counter adaptations such as rapid absorption of the glucosinates, quick alternative ... Parasitoid wasps that feed on such insect herbivores are attracted to the chemical compounds released by the plants, and thus ...
"Insect Incest Produces Healthy Offspring". 8 December 2011.. *^ Gardner A, Ross L (August 2011). "The evolution of ... By pairing chromosomes of similar genomes, the chance for these recessive alleles to pair and become homozygous greatly ... Bed bugs: North Carolina State University found that bedbugs, in contrast to most other insects, tolerate incest and are able ... Cottony cushion scales: 'It turns out that females in these hermaphrodite insects are not really fertilizing their eggs ...
... is a 32 chromosome species that readily hybridizes with other 32 chromosome members of the Carya genus, such as Carya ... Various insects feed on the leaves stems and developing nuts. These include ambrosia beetles, twig girdlers, pecan nut ... ovata, Carya laciniosa, Carya cordiformis and has been reported to hybridize with 64 chromosome species such as Carya tomentosa ...
Genetically, there are 74 diploid chromosomes (36 pairs). Appearance[edit]. The crab-eating fox is predominantly greyish-brown ... It is an opportunist and an omnivore, preferring insects or meat from rodents and birds when available. Other foods readily ... while during the dry season it contains more insects.[9] The crab-eating fox contributes to the control of rodents and harmful ... consumed include turtle eggs, tortoises, fruit, eggs, crustaceans, insects, lizards and carrion. Their diet is varied and has ...
... plants are very liable to infestation by aphids, whitefly, and scale insects (e.g. California red scale). Also rather ... "Next generation haplotyping to decipher nuclear genomic interspecific admixture in Citrusspecies: analysis of chromosome 2" ... The Asian citrus psyllid is an aphid-like insect that feeds on the leaves and stems of citrus trees and other citrus-like ...
This article on a gene on human chromosome 17 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... "Temporal expression of HIV-1 envelope proteins in baculovirus-infected insect cells: implications for glycosylation and CD4 ... It is functionally similar to glycogen debranching enzyme, but is on a different chromosome, processed differently by the cell ...
Specimens from Primorskii Krai in Russia, were found to have a chromosome count of 2n=28. Using chromosome research, Iris ... The plant is self-fertile, being hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and it is pollinated by insects. The stamens ... having two sets of chromosomes. This can be used to identify hybrids and classification of groupings. It has a chromosome count ... It has a chromosome numbers of 2n=54, but they may be triploids. Iris setosa var. nasuensis was found near the city of Nasu on ...
Thus, a fly whose chromosomes are mutant in both copies of the Bicoid gene but who is born from a mother carrying one normal ... The protostomes include most invertebrate animals, such as insects, worms and molluscs, while the deuterostomes include the ... For instance, while spiders proceed directly from egg to adult form, many insects develop through at least one larval stage. ...
... called 46/47 XY/XXY mosaic wherein some of the patient's cells contain XY chromosomes, and some contain XXY chromosomes. The 46 ... "A new behavioral bioassay for an analysis of sexual attraction and pheromones in insects". Journal of Experimental Zoology. 192 ... where a fly possessing two X chromosomes is a female and a fly possessing a single X chromosome is a sterile male, a loss of an ... This may be caused by a nondisjunction event in an early mitosis, resulting in a loss of a chromosome from some trisomic cells. ...
"Flowers set more seeds when visited by wild insects, and the more plants that were visited by wild insects, the more likely ... Workers have two sets of chromosomes.[60] They are produced from an egg that the queen has selectively fertilized from stored ... "Journal of Insect Behavior. 23 (6): 459-471. doi:10.1007/s10905-010-9229-5. ISSN 0892-7553. PMC 2955239. PMID 21037953.. ... A honey bee (or honeybee) is a eusocial, flying insect within the genus Apis of the bee clade. They are known for construction ...
... or W chromosome rather than by the presence of two X chromosomes or two Z chromosomes.. basal body. An organelle formed from a ... Many organisms, such as bacteria, insects, and plants, are capable of naturally producing clones through asexual reproduction. ... chromosome. A threadlike strand of DNA in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order.. cilia. circadian rhythm. ... In eukaryotic cells, the part of the cell cycle during which the division of the nucleus takes place and duplicated chromosomes ...
After an insect attack tomato plants produce systemin, a plant peptide hormone . Systemin activates defensive mechanisms, such ... This trait/allele is physically linked (or is very close) to the desired allele along the chromosome. In introducing the ... The Potato Tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella) is an oligophagous insect that prefers to feed on plants of the family ... Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in relation to their host plants". Journal of Insect Behavior. 1 (3): 261-275. doi:10.1007/ ...
They mainly feed on seeds, shrubs, grass, fruit and flowers;[7][10] occasionally they also eat insects such as locusts. Lacking ... Upon view, the myocardial cells are observed to have large densely packed chromosomes within the nucleus.[69] ...
In biology, phylogenetics /ˌfaɪloʊdʒəˈnɛtɪks, -lə-/[1][2] (from Greek φυλή/φῦλον (phylé/phylon) "tribe, clan, race", and γενετικός (genetikós) "origin, source, birth")[3] is a part of systematics that addresses the inference of the evolutionary history and relationships among or within groups of organisms (e.g. species, or more inclusive taxa). These relationships are hypothesized by phylogenetic inference methods that evaluate observed heritable traits, such as DNA sequences, protein amino acid sequences, or morphology, often under a specified model of evolution of these traits. The result of such an analysis is a phylogeny (also known as a phylogenetic tree)-a diagrammatic hypothesis of relationships that reflects the evolutionary history of a group of organisms.[4] The tips of a phylogenetic tree can be living taxa or fossils, and represent the 'end', or the present, in an evolutionary lineage. A phylogenetic diagram can be rooted or unrooted. A rooted tree ...
Such groups include monotremes, Drosophila, some other insects, some fish, some reptiles, and some plants. In Drosophila ... Males have one Y chromosome and one X chromosome, while females have two X chromosomes. In mammals, the Y chromosome contains a ... Stevens proposed that chromosomes always existed in pairs and that the Y chromosome was the pair of the X chromosome discovered ... More than two Y chromosomesEdit. Greater degrees of Y chromosome polysomy (having more than one extra copy of the Y chromosome ...
These ten chromosomes form five unique pairs of XY in males and XX in females, i.e. males are X1Y1X2Y2X3Y3X4Y4X5Y5.[76] One of ... The platypus is a carnivore: it feeds on annelid worms, insect larvae, freshwater shrimp, and freshwater yabby (crayfish) that ... "In the platypus a meiotic chain of ten sex chromosomes shares genes with the bird Z and mammal X chromosomes". Nature. 432 ( ... the X chromosomes of the platypus has great homology to the bird Z chromosome.[77] The platypus genome also has both reptilian ...
One hypothesis for the origin of multicellularity is that a group of function-specific cells aggregated into a slug-like mass called a grex, which moved as a multicellular unit. This is essentially what slime molds do. Another hypothesis is that a primitive cell underwent nucleus division, thereby becoming a coenocyte. A membrane would then form around each nucleus (and the cellular space and organelles occupied in the space), thereby resulting in a group of connected cells in one organism (this mechanism is observable in Drosophila). A third hypothesis is that as a unicellular organism divided, the daughter cells failed to separate, resulting in a conglomeration of identical cells in one organism, which could later develop specialized tissues. This is what plant and animal embryos do as well as colonial choanoflagellates.[26][27] Because the first multicellular organisms were simple, soft organisms lacking bone, shell or other hard body parts, they are not well preserved in the fossil ...
Though an eater of carrion of all kinds, the carrion crow will eat insects, earthworms, grain, fruits, seeds, small mammals, ... situated on avian chromosome 18) in the hooded crow, which imparts the lighter plumage colouration on its torso.[8] Thus the ...
Male birds have two Z chromosomes (ZZ), and female birds have a W chromosome and a Z chromosome (WZ).[62] ... Some hunt insects by suddenly attacking from a branch. Those species that seek pest insects are considered beneficial ' ... Chromosomes. Birds have two sexes: either female or male. The sex of birds is determined by the Z and W sex chromosomes, rather ... Many birds glean for insects, invertebrates, fruit, or seeds. ... than by the X and Y chromosomes present in mammals. ...
... forelimbs and back suggest that it broke open the nest of social insects to prey on them (probably termites, as ants had not ... This change may have allowed these early mammals to hunt insects at night when dinosaurs were not active.[140] ...
"Bugging Out: The Must-Read Insect Books of the Summer". Wired.com. Conde Nast. Archived from the original on May 4, 2017 ... The Calcutta Chromosome (1997). *The Sparrow (1998). *Dreaming in Smoke (1999). *Distraction (2000) ...
The earliest evidence of behavioral modernity first appears during the Middle Paleolithic; undisputed evidence of behavioral modernity, however, only becomes common during the following Upper Paleolithic period.[1] Middle Paleolithic burials at sites such as Krapina in Croatia (dated to c. 130,000 BP) and the Qafzeh and Es Skhul caves in Israel (c. 100,000 BP) have led some anthropologists and archeologists (such as Philip Lieberman) to believe that Middle Paleolithic cultures may have possessed a developing religious ideology which included concepts such as an afterlife; other scholars suggest the bodies were buried for secular reasons.[3][4] According to recent[when?] archeological findings from Homo heidelbergensis sites in the Atapuerca Mountains, the practice of intentional burial may have begun much earlier during the late Lower Paleolithic, but this theory is widely questioned in the scientific community. Cut-marks on Neandertal bones from various sites - such as Combe Grenal and the ...
... vertebrate cytochromes c all have dipole moment of approximately 320 debye while cytochromes c of plants and insects have ... Genes on human chromosome 7. *Cellular respiration. *Cytochromes. *Programmed cell death. *Peripheral membrane proteins ...
Chromosomes are tiny packages which contain one DNA molecule and its associated proteins. Humans have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs ... The insecticide kills insects that eat the plants, but is harmless to people.[20] In these plants, the new genes are put into ... Chromosome. A package for carrying DNA in the cells. They contain a single long piece of DNA that is wound up and bunched ... Chromosomes all contain DNA made up of four nucleotides, abbreviated C (cytosine), G (guanine), A (adenine), or T (thymine), ...
Courtship is often facilitated through forming groups, called leks, in flies and many other insects. For example, male ... Mating in these cases involves the pairing of individuals, accompanied by the pairing of their homologous chromosomes and then ... In some terrestrial arthropods, including insects representing basal (primitive) phylogenetic clades, the male deposits ... In advanced groups of insects, the male uses its aedeagus, a structure formed from the terminal segments of the abdomen, to ...
The wolf-like canids are a group of large carnivores that are genetically closely related because their chromosomes number 78, ... insects, and seeds.[22][23][24] The dingo's competitors include the native quoll, the introduced European red fox and the feral ... insects, fish, crabs, and frogs (28 species).[23][24][22] The relative proportions of prey are much the same across Australia, ...
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Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect. Natsuko Kondo, Naruo Nikoh, Nobuyuki ... Insect-induced effects on plants and possible effectors used by galling and leaf-mining insects to manipulate their host-plant ... Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect ... Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect ...
To pull on or move a chromosome, focus on a chromosome near the top of the cell.. NOTE: These chromosomes are easier to ... Micromanipulation of Chromosomes in Insect Spermatocytes. Nicolas K.H. Lin1, Ryder Nance2, Jane Szybist2, Alan Cheville2, ... either apply tension to the chromosome or apply sufficient tension to detach a chromosome from the spindle. Once a chromosome ... Lin, N. K., Nance, R., Szybist, J., Cheville, A., Paliulis, L. V. Micromanipulation of Chromosomes in Insect Spermatocytes. J. ...
Captivated by Chromosomes. By Anna Azvolinsky , December 1, 2017 Peering through a microscope since age 14, Joseph Gall, now 89 ... tags: insects x developmental biology x culture x ecology x The Scientist. » insects, developmental biology, culture and ...
Research provides opportunities for biological control of insect-borne pathogens Researchers from INRA, CIRAD, CEA, the ... Presence of XX sex chromosomes increases risk of heart attacks and coronary artery disease New research at the University of ... Not every embryo contains 46 perfect chromosomes. Some have more, others have fewer. The result is a common abnormality known ... Scientists at Johns Hopkins say they have found that people born with abnormally short chromosome endcaps, or telomeres, have ...
Research provides opportunities for biological control of insect-borne pathogens Researchers from INRA, CIRAD, CEA, the ... Chromosome 6 News and Research. RSS Humans normally have 46 chromosomes in each cell, divided into 23 pairs. Two copies of ... Chromosome 6 likely contains between 1,100 and 1,600 genes.. Genes on chromosome 6 are among the estimated 20,000 to 25,000 ... Breakthrough chromosome imaging could aid in development of new treatments Chromosomes, each containing hundreds or thousands ...
This insect has one of the highest chromosome numbers among all animals. [115] ... Males have XY sex chromosomes and females have XX sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes are the largest chromosomes and ... The list of organisms by chromosome count describes ploidy or numbers of chromosomes in the cells of various plants, animals, ... Shared synteny of human chromosome 17 loci in Canids. *An atlas of the chromosome numbers in animals (1951); PDF downloads of ...
View this Polytene Chromosomes From An Insect Lm X1000 stock photo. Find premium, high-resolution images in Getty Images ...
Background The patterns of gene expression on highly differentiated sex chromosomes differ drastically from those on autosomes ... or insects [4, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16], and with a focus on adult tissues (so that little is known about the dynamics of sex-biased ... In proto-sex chromosomes (where X and Y chromosomes differ only at the sex-determining locus), male-beneficial mutations on the ... Sex-chromosome recombination in these rare XY females produces XY° sons with proto-sex chromosomes [31, 34]. ...
Texto completo: Disponível Coleções: Bases de dados internacionais Base de dados: MEDLINE Idioma: Inglês Revista: Insect Mol ... Texto completo: Disponível Coleções: Bases de dados internacionais Base de dados: MEDLINE Idioma: Inglês Revista: Insect Mol ... The evolutionary dynamics of the karyotype may affect the organization of rDNA genes within chromosomes. In this study, we ... Therefore, rDNA genes restricted to a single chromosome pair seem to be a plesiomorphic feature in ants, while multiple rDNA ...
Decoding gigantic insect genome could help tackle devastating locust crises. 27.11.2020. / Life Sciences ... To discover what each chromosome looks like in every cell in the human body will take far more work than one lab can take on ... But areas with few genes ("gene-poor") only come together if they share the same chromosome. One theory is that gene-rich areas ... In high school textbooks, human chromosomes are pictured as wonky Xs like two hotdogs jammed together. But those images are far ...
Decoding gigantic insect genome could help tackle devastating locust crises. 27.11.2020. / Life Sciences ... The number of exchanges will vary from one organism or chromosome to another (on average, one to five per chromosome, and up to ... 2n chromosomes (diploid cell) become n chromosomes (haploid cell). ... Each pair of chromosomes - one of paternal origin, the other maternal - is positioned independently of the other pairs on the ...
2007 X and Y chromosome inheritance and mixtures of rDNA intergenic spacer regions in Anopheles gambiae. Insect Mol. Biol. 16: ... 2013 Y chromosome evolution: emerging insights into processes of Y chromosome degeneration. Nat. Rev. Genet. 14: 113-124. ... Sex chromosomes play an important role in reproductive isolation; however, it is mostly the gene-rich X chromosome that has ... Analysis of Y chromosome sequence content in introgressed males. To assess whether introgression of the A. gambiae Y chromosome ...
Genes, Insect / physiology* * Humans * Immunohistochemistry * Insect Proteins / analysis * Insect Proteins / genetics * Insect ... Chromatid segregation at anaphase requires the barren product, a novel chromosome-associated protein that interacts with ...
Insects Neural Learning and Memory Center Discovered in Crustaceans. By Catherine Offord , December 1, 2017 ... Aggressive little marine predators, mantis shrimps possess a mushroom body that appears identical to the one found in insects. ...
... and Southern hybridization in ten insect species and two other arthropods. (TTAGG)n-containing telomeres were found in three ... n was a phylogenetically ancestral telomere motif in the insect lineage but was lost independently in different groups, being ... TTAGG Telomeric Repeats in Chromosomes of Some Insects and Other Arthropods. @article{Sahara2004TTAGGTR, title={TTAGG Telomeric ... Repeats in Chromosomes of Some Insects and Other Arthropods}, author={K. Sahara and F. Marec and W. Traut}, journal={Chromosome ...
Nutrient dilution and insect decline. A study finds that the dilution of nutrients in plants, alongside climate factors, drives ... RED1: a yeast gene required for the segregation of chromosomes during the reductional division of meiosis. B Rockmill and G S ... RED1: a yeast gene required for the segregation of chromosomes during the reductional division of meiosis ... Expression and DNA sequence of RED1, a gene required for meiosis I chromosome segregation in yeast ...
The Chromosomes of Insects. By BRIAN B. SPEAR. Science. 29 Jan 1982. : 498 Full AccessRestricted Access ...
B chromosomes were found in specimens belonging to both main races from nine out of 22 localities. Four types of X chromosomes ... Telomeric signals were usually detected at the distal and/or subdistal position of the autosomes; however, some chromosome ends ... Insects 2, 49-61 (2011). ... sex chromosome/s and in one type of B chromosome (see below) as ... n probes in both autosomes and sex chromosomes. Variation in the intensity of signals in chromosomes, including sex chromosomes ...
... Cell. 1996 May 31;85(5):745-59. doi: 10.1016/ ... Moreover, they provide direct evidence for long-range chromosome interactions and their impact on three-dimensional nuclear ... during larval development this insertion physically associates with other heterochromatic regions on the same chromosome in a ... Genes, Insect* * Heterochromatin / genetics * Heterochromatin / ultrastructure * In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence * Male * ...
2. Embryogenesis in insects.. Teaching Methods. Teaching Activities. Category. Activity. Number. Length. Student Hours. Comment ... Eukaryotic genomes; chromosomes and chromatin. - Gene expression and its regulation in eukaryotes. - History and basic ... Development of the insect body plan. - Hox genes and the evolution of body plans. - Vertebrate development. Practical exercises ...
See more stories about Olive Oil, Insects, Spirituality. ... Chromosomes. Neurons Regenerated through Suppression of ... Fish school, insects swarm and birds fly in murmurations. Now, new research finds that on the most basic level, this kind of ...
Gods Marvelous Insects. Did you know that the moth smells with its antennae? Whether we look at moths, ants, bombardier ... chromosome 2). This is thought to explain the difference in the 23 chromosomes humans have and the 24 chromosomes found in ... Our research on the human chromosome 2 is tentatively scheduled to be published in the Journal of Creation. A brief summary of ... Bergmans and my recent study on human telomeres related to chromosomes, evolution, and intelligent design is now in print in ...
12 Preparation of chromosomes 258. References 288. 13 Preparation of other specific insect organs and tissues 290 ... Although his research focused on the ecology of insects and insect-plant interactions, he also has an interest in insect ... This title is a much needed update of Barbosas self-published Manual of Basic Techniques in Insect Histology. It is a ... Insect Histology is designed as a resource for student and professional researchers, in academia and industry, who require ...
Genes, Insect / genetics. Male. Molecular Sequence Data. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Tephritidae / genetics*. Y ... The newly identified sequences of the B. oleae Y chromosome have no related sequences on the Drosophila sex chromosomes. This ... The sequences here isolated from the B. oleae Y chromosome have no known related sequences on the Y chromosomes of other ... Its Y chromosome is minute and highly heterochromatic, and displays high heteromorphism with the X chromosome.. METHODOLOGY/ ...
Chorion. The inner shell or covering of the insect egg.. Chromosomes. At cell division the dark-staining, rod-shaped structures ... Home , Insects , Entomological Glossary. Entomology Glossary: Huge List Of 578 Insect Terms. This is a collection of ... Comb. A group of spines on the leg of an insect specifically used for cleaning other parts of the insects body.. Commensalism. ... Tympanum. The auditory membrane or ear-drum of various insects.. Type. The type specimen of a species is the actual insect from ...
Insects Neural Learning and Memory Center Discovered in Crustaceans. By Catherine Offord , December 1, 2017 ... Captivated by Chromosomes. By Anna Azvolinsky , December 1, 2017 Peering through a microscope since age 14, Joseph Gall, now 89 ... Aggressive little marine predators, mantis shrimps possess a mushroom body that appears identical to the one found in insects. ...
One useful group of insects in which to examine the effects of male-killing are the butterflies. In East Africa, the African ... dorippus Z chromosome; light blue, chrysippus Z chromosome; yellow, W chromosome unfused; green, W chromosome fused. Wild-type ... 2012 Sex chromosome evolution in moths and butterflies. Chromosome Res. 20, 83-94. (doi:10.1007/s10577-011-9262-z). ... The lower pair shows the Z chromosomes of dorippus (dark blue) and chrysippus (light blue); the yellow W chromosome is always ...
In particular, chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) are most powerful tools for the detection and precise mapping of ... To further facilitate gene mapping, heterozygous chromosome segment substitution lines (HCSSLs) were also produced, which were ... To further facilitate gene mapping, heterozygous chromosome segment substitution lines (HCSSLs) were also produced, which were ... In particular, chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) are most powerful tools for the detection and precise mapping of ...
Karyotype evolution and flexible (conventional versus inverted) meiosis in insects with holocentric chromosomes: a case study ... Karyotype evolution and flexible (conventional versus inverted) meiosis in insects with holocentric chromosomes: a case study ... Karyotype evolution and flexible (conventional versus inverted) meiosis in insects with holocentric chromosomes: a case study ... T1 - Karyotype evolution and flexible (conventional versus inverted) meiosis in insects with holocentric chromosomes: a case ...
  • Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. (news-medical.net)
  • Because researchers use different approaches to predict the number of genes on each chromosome, the estimated number of genes varies. (news-medical.net)
  • Chromosome 6 likely contains between 1,100 and 1,600 genes. (news-medical.net)
  • Genes on chromosome 6 are among the estimated 20,000 to 25,000 total genes in the human genome. (news-medical.net)
  • Chromosomes, each containing hundreds or thousands of genes, act like a detailed instruction manual for how cells should develop and behave. (news-medical.net)
  • The evolutionary dynamics of the karyotype may affect the organization of rDNA genes within chromosomes . (bvsalud.org)
  • Furthermore, a survey of published rDNA cytogenetic data for 50 additional species was performed, which allowed us to detect the evolutionary patterns of these genes in ant chromosomes . (bvsalud.org)
  • Most of the species (48 out of 63) had rDNA genes restricted to a single chromosome pair in their intrachromosomal regions. (bvsalud.org)
  • The position of rDNA genes within the chromosomes appears to hinder their dispersal throughout the genome , as translocations and ectopic recombination are uncommon in intrachromosomal regions because they can generate meiotic abnormalities . (bvsalud.org)
  • Therefore, rDNA genes restricted to a single chromosome pair seem to be a plesiomorphic feature in ants , while multiple rDNA sites, observed in distinct subfamilies, may have independent origins in different genera. (bvsalud.org)
  • As a result, X chromosomes are often enriched in female-biased genes (feminization) and Z chromosomes in male-biased genes (masculinization). (springer.com)
  • This challenges the notion that sexually antagonistic genes play a central role in the initial stages of sex-chromosome evolution. (springer.com)
  • The same holds for female-heterogametic systems, in which W chromosomes are female limited, while Z chromosomes spend two thirds of their time in males and hence are expected to accumulate male-beneficial genes. (springer.com)
  • Sexually antagonistic genes are hypothesized to play a key role in the evolution of sex chromosomes. (springer.com)
  • With their high-resolution images, Zhuang and team determined that areas with lots of genes ("gene-rich") tend to flock to similar areas on any chromosome. (innovations-report.com)
  • During the formation of reproductive cells or gametes, sexual reproduction is accompanied by an exchange of genes between the two chromosomes inherited from the parents. (innovations-report.com)
  • In a gamete, on a given chromosome, there are genes inherited from both the father and mother (see illustration). (innovations-report.com)
  • This initial shuffling of the genes is followed by a random distribution of chromosomes at the next stage of meiosis. (innovations-report.com)
  • While the Anopheline Y had previously been implicated in male mating behavior, recent data from the Anopheles gambiae complex suggests that, apart from the putative primary sex-determiner, no other genes are conserved on the Y. Studying the functional basis of the evolutionary divergence of the Y chromosome in the gambiae complex is complicated by complete F1 male hybrid sterility. (genetics.org)
  • In contrast to comparable experiments in Drosophila , we find that the presence of a heterospecific Y chromosome has no significant effect on the expression of A. arabiensis genes, and transcriptional differences can be explained almost exclusively as a direct consequence of transcripts arising from sequence elements present on the A. gambiae Y chromosome itself. (genetics.org)
  • Exhaustive PCR surveys revealed that 31 and 30 of 214 Wolbachia genes examined were detected from the two insect populations, respectively. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Expression of Foreign Genes in Cultured Insect Cells Using a Recombinant Baculovirus Vector. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Compared with other sequenced insect genomes, the A. mellifera genome has high A+T and CpG contents, lacks major transposon families, evolves more slowly, and is more similar to vertebrates for circadian rhythm, RNA interference and DNA methylation genes, among others. (nih.gov)
  • Although the accumulation on the sex chromosome of genes responsible for postzygotic barriers is a well-known phenomenon, less attention has been given to the genomic distribution of genes responsible for prezygotic barriers. (g3journal.org)
  • Although we do not yet have direct evidence for the accumulation of ecological, behavioral, or fertilization prezygotic barrier genes on the X chromosome, faster-X evolution could make these barriers more likely to be X-linked. (g3journal.org)
  • [7] All Y-linked genes are expressed and (apart from duplicated genes) hemizygous (present on only one chromosome) except in the cases of aneuploidy such as XYY syndrome or XXYY syndrome . (wikipedia.org)
  • The Y chromosomes of humans and other mammals also contain other genes needed for normal sperm production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over time, genes that were beneficial for males and harmful to (or had no effect on) females either developed on the Y chromosome or were acquired through the process of translocation . (wikipedia.org)
  • a researcher at the University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences discovered that the linear arrangement of genes on a chromosome corresponds to the development of body segments in fruit flies ? (thefullwiki.org)
  • The high-quality and large-insert BAC libraries of the insects, together with the identified BACs containing genes of interest, provide valuable information, resources and tools for comprehensive understanding and studies of the insect genomes and for addressing many fundamental questions in Lepidoptera. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because sex chromosomes contain different numbers of genes, different species of organisms have developed different mechanisms to cope with this inequality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, human females have the same number of expressed X-linked genes as do human males (XY), both sexes having essentially one X chromosome per cell, from which to transcribe and express genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some lineages have evolved dosage compensation, an epigenetic mechanism which restores expression of X or Z specific genes in the heterogametic sex to the same levels observed in the ancestor prior to the evolution of the sex chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • With our work, we were able to demonstrate that new sex chromosomes arise when existing genes like Mdmd move from the Y chromosome to another chromosome," Daniel Bopp says. (eurekalert.org)
  • Resistance genes in wheat is the most effective and cost efficient way to control this insect. (usda.gov)
  • Deletion bin mapping assigned these markers and genes to the distal 14% of chromosome arm 1AS, where another Hf-resistance gene Hdic (derived from emmer wheat) was also mapped previously. (usda.gov)
  • Our results suggest that H9, H10, H11, Hdic, and the previously identified H9- or H11-linked genes may compose a cluster (or family) of Hf-resistance genes in the distal gene-rich region of wheat chromosome 1AS, and H10 most likely is the same gene as H9. (usda.gov)
  • Wheat cultivar 'Seneca' was reported to carry Hessian fly resistance genes H7 on chromosome 5D and H8, which had an unknown chromosome location. (usda.gov)
  • Phenotypic analyses showed at least two genes conditioning HF resistance in Seneca, but none of them was mapped on chromosome 5D as previously reported. (usda.gov)
  • Conservation and de novo acquisition of dosage compensation on newly evolved sex chromosomes in Drosophila, Genes & Development , 27:853-858. (berkeley.edu)
  • Creating the technology to produce transgenic insects has been a goal of insect molecular geneticists for years because of the great need to have effective tools to find, isolate and analyze insect genes and to genetically modify insects for the purposes of insect control. (biologists.org)
  • any of several threadlike bodies, consisting of chromatin, that carry the genes in a linear order: the human species has 23 pairs, designated 1 to 22 in order of decreasing size and X and Y for the female and male sex chromosomes respectively. (dictionary.com)
  • Kelly experienced changes in his gut microbiome, his cognitive abilities slowed down, certain genes would turn off and on, and his chromosome s experienced structural changes. (dictionary.com)
  • In the nucleus, preferred positions are observed from chromosomes to single genes, in relation to normal and pathological cellular states. (europa.eu)
  • Other ant species have more chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This species can have more B chromosomes than A chromosomes at times, but 2n=4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Broccoli , cabbage, kale , kohlrabi , brussels sprouts , and cauliflower are all the same species and have the same chromosome number. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although some contradictory cases have been reported, the large homogeneity of the chromosome number 2n = 22 is now known for 135 (33.5%) distinct species among genus Eucalyptus . (wikipedia.org)
  • All species in the genus Phaseolus have the same chromosome number, including common bean ( P. vulgaris ), runner bean ( P. coccineus ), tepary bean ( P. acutifolius ) and lima bean ( P. lunatus ). (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, species with genetic sex determination potentially benefit from an alternative option based on sex-chromosome differentiation: as Y chromosomes only occur in males, they may safely accumulate sexually antagonistic male-beneficial alleles without jeopardizing female fitness. (springer.com)
  • Y chromosome function, structure and evolution is poorly understood in many species, including the Anopheles genus of mosquitoes-an emerging model system for studying speciation that also represents the major vectors of malaria. (genetics.org)
  • Our results demonstrate that, despite their radically different structure, Y chromosomes of these two species of the gambiae complex that diverged an estimated 1.85 MYA function interchangeably, thus indicating that the Y chromosome does not harbor loci contributing to hybrid incompatibility. (genetics.org)
  • We studied the occurrence of the TTAGG telomere repeats by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and Southern hybridization in ten insect species and two other arthropods. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here we studied chromosome sets within a monophyletic group of previously non-karyotyped Polyommatus species. (spbu.ru)
  • We demonstrate that these species have a limited interspecific chromosome number variation from n = 16 to n = 25, which is consistent with the Brownian motion model prediction. (spbu.ru)
  • In some species, one of these lobes is of the harlequin type that differs from the other lobes by showing spermatogonial cells with meiotic pairing, nonspecific association of the autosomal bivalents, anomalous arrangement of the chromosomes in the metaphase plate, anomalous chromosome segregation, and cell fusion, resulting in the production of spermatozoa with highly variable chromosome numbers. (hindawi.com)
  • Their discovery, "Chromosome Size in Diploid Eukaryotic Species Centers on the Average Length with a Conserved Boundary," was recently published in the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution. (k-state.edu)
  • It details a project that compared 886 chromosomes in 68 random species of eukaryotes -- organisms whose cells contain a nucleus and are enclosed by cellular membranes. (k-state.edu)
  • The researchers found that the chromosome sizes within each eukaryotic species are actually similar rather than drastically different as previously believed. (k-state.edu)
  • Basically what this all means is that if the chromosome number of a species can be given, the relative sizes of all the chromosomes can instantly be known," Yu said. (k-state.edu)
  • The sex chromosomes of each species were omitted because of their vastly different evolutionary history from other chromosomes, Yu said. (k-state.edu)
  • It eliminated a scale effect and made it possible to compare a species with several dozen chromosomes to a species with much fewer chromosomes," said Xianran Li, research associate in agronomy. (k-state.edu)
  • By finding normal distribution in nearly all of the genomes they used, geneticists can now say that if a species has a particular number of chromosomes, the chromosomes have to be distributed in this order because it's dictated by the laws of mitosis, meiosis and cell division, according to Guihua Bai, adjunct professor of agronomy at K-State and research geneticist of the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service. (k-state.edu)
  • We report the chromosome-scale genome assembly of Callicarpa americana L. (American beautyberry), a species within the early-diverging Callicarpoideae clade of Lamiaceae, known for its metallic purple fruits and use as an insect repellent due to its production of terpenoids. (ufl.edu)
  • Differentiating characteristics of the karyotype are 2n = 8, with polytene chromosomes combined in chromocentres of different degrees of stability, species-specific chromosome band sequences, and location of active regions. (bioone.org)
  • The species is very polymorphous, with every chromosome arm having complex heterozygous inversions occurring in high frequency. (bioone.org)
  • Chromosome rearrangements found in the species are discussed and the relation with other Xenochironomus species is proposed. (bioone.org)
  • Species generally have a fixed number of chromosomes in the cell nuclei while between-species differences are common and often pronounced. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We show that within this species the diploid chromosome number gradually decreases from 2n = 106 in Spain to 2n = 56 in eastern Kazakhstan, resulting in a 6000 km-wide cline that originated recently (8,500 to 31,000 years ago). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Main karyotypic features of organisms, such as the number of chromosomes, are usually stable within species [ 1 , 2 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • At the same time, differences in karyotype characters between species, including diploid chromosome number (2n), are extremely common. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, the spread of domestic T. infestans spreading and adaptation to domicilies observed in a tri- throughout the non-Andean regions only involved insects atomine species. (cdc.gov)
  • Y is the sex-determining chromosome in many species , since it is the presence or absence of Y that determines the male or female sex of offspring produced in sexual reproduction . (wikipedia.org)
  • Manduca sexta, Heliothis virescens , and Heliconius erato represent three widely-used insect model species for genomic and fundamental studies in Lepidoptera. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Across species, different sexes are often characterized by different types and numbers of sex chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Building on work done by Ohno and his colleagues, Lyon eventually proved that either the maternal or paternal X chromosome is randomly inactivated in every cell of the female body in the species she was studying, which explained the heterogeneous fur patterns she observed in her mosaic mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each organism of a species is normally characterized by the same number of chromosomes in its somatic cells, 46 being the number normally present in humans, including 22 pairs of autosomes and the two sex chromosomes (XX or XY), which determine the sex of the organism. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Birds, some insects and a few other lizard species also rely on this sex-determination system. (scientificamerican.com)
  • With Sally Hughes-Schrader at Columbia University in New York City he studied chromosomes in an aphid species in which the offspring of fertilized eggs develop into females. (isciii.es)
  • Earwigs or Dermaptera constitute a comparatively small order of insects comprising about 1800 species. (tolweb.org)
  • The chromatin landscape of Drosophila miranda: comparisons between species, sexes and chromosomes. (berkeley.edu)
  • Sex-specific embryonic gene expression in species with newly evolved sex chromosomes. (berkeley.edu)
  • To maintain a constant number of chromosomes in species the gamete cells undergo meiosis. (reference.com)
  • Four antlion lacewings species and an owlfly one from two sister families have been studied and their chromosome number estimated: [1] Palpares libelluloides (2n = 26), [2] Distoleon tetragrammicus (2n. (eurekalert.org)
  • Varying between organisms, the number of chromosomes, the structures of organised and packaged DNA information, are normally a constant amount, thus allowing for the successful reproduction of a species. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the present study, conducted by Drs. Valentina Kuznetsova, Victor Krivokhatsky and Gadzhimurad Khabiev, Russian Academy of Sciences , four antlion lacewings species and an owlfly one from two sister families have been examined and their chromosome number estimated. (eurekalert.org)
  • The chromosome numbers of four antlion species (Myrmeleontidae) and an owlfly one (Ascalaphidae) from the Republic of Dagestan have been investigated in the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences , St. Petersburg. (eurekalert.org)
  • While most antlions possess lower chromosome numbers, 2n = 14 and 2n = 16, which are encountered in all subfamilies, there is the exception of the Palparinae subfamily with the studied Palpares libelluloides species' chromosome number counting 2n = 26. (eurekalert.org)
  • Instability, particularly if it is unpredictable, increases the uncertainty associated with describing accurately the phenotype of the insect and any attempt to model the behavior of a transgene over time in the genetically modified species. (biologists.org)
  • In plants, for instance, plant chemistry, insect associations, and number of chromosomes may be important indicators of species status. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some species have male or female heterogametic sex chromosomes while other species do not have sex chromosomes. (mdpi.com)
  • Uniparental disomy is the inheritance of two homologous chromosomes from one parent. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The term monosomy refers to the absence of one of a pair of homologous chromosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A single chromosome set consists of two chromosomes, one of which is donated from the mother and the other from the father.Humans have 23 sets of homologous chromosomes. (reference.com)
  • According to Yu, the most surprising finding is the extremely consistent distribution pattern of the chromosomes, a result from comparing the full sets of chromosomes -- called genomes -- of the 68 random eukaryotes. (k-state.edu)
  • From there the team looked specifically at the chromosomes of 68 random eukaryote genomes. (k-state.edu)
  • This volume focuses on the latest methods used to sequence, assemble, and analyze insect genomes. (springer.com)
  • bioinformatics analysis of epigenetic modifications, high-throughput scanning of insect genomes (TEEseq) for the presence of endosymbionts, and leveraging genome sequence information to design RNAi strategies. (springer.com)
  • The sample of the genomic sequences provides the first insight into the constitution and evolution of the insect genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A wide range of genomes are considered including those of bacteria, yeast, insects and humans. (le.ac.uk)
  • Interchromosomal duplications on the Bactrocera oleae Y chromosome imply a distinct evolutionary origin of the sex chromosomes compared to Drosophila. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, basic genome research on this insect is still far behind compared with other model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster , and assignment of fundamental information such as genome sequences, ESTs, BAC contigs, mutant phenotypes, and chromosomal locations on detailed linkage maps is an urgent priority. (genetics.org)
  • The genome-wide multi-layered architecture of chromosome pairing in early Drosophila embryos. (harvard.edu)
  • this is called X-inactivation), a two-fold increase in the transcription of a single male X chromosome (as observed in Drosophila melanogaster), and decreased transcription by half in both of the X chromosomes of a hermaphroditic organism (as observed in Caenorhabditis elegans). (wikipedia.org)
  • The epigenome of evolving Drosophila neo-sex chromosomes: dosage compensation and heterochromatin formation, PLoS Biology , 11:e1000711. (berkeley.edu)
  • Reversal of an ancient sex chromosome to an autosome in Drosophila. (berkeley.edu)
  • 43. Zhou Q & Bachtrog D (2012) Sex-specific adaptation drives early sex chromosome evolution in Drosophila. (berkeley.edu)
  • 40. Zhou Q & Bachtrog D (2012) Chromosome-wide gene silencing initiates Y degeneration in Drosophila. (berkeley.edu)
  • Insects such as Drosophila melanogaster undergo a derived form of segmentation termed long germband segmentation. (biologists.org)
  • Although we know much about Drosophila segmentation, we still know very little about how the blastoderm of short and intermediate germband insects is allocated into only the anterior segments, and how the remaining posterior segments are produced. (biologists.org)
  • In order to gain insight into this type of embryogenesis, we have investigated the expression and function of the homolog of the Drosophila gap gene hunchback in an intermediate germ insect, the milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus . (biologists.org)
  • The patterns of gene expression on highly differentiated sex chromosomes differ drastically from those on autosomes, due to sex-specific patterns of selection and inheritance. (springer.com)
  • The Y chromosome is strewn with repetitive DNA sequences, the majority of which are also interdispersed in the pericentromeric regions of the autosomes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This amounted to observing 886 chromosomes, 22 of which were human autosomes -- any chromosome other than a sex chromosome. (k-state.edu)
  • These analyses are fundamental in the design of control specimens present C-heterochromatic blocks in most of campaigns because their results will help determine the their 22 chromosomes, whereas non-Andean specimens have only 4-7 autosomes with C-banding. (cdc.gov)
  • pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes (XY in Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Montpellier, males, XX in females) (8). (cdc.gov)
  • The X and Y chromosomes are thought to have evolved from a pair of identical chromosomes, [14] [15] termed autosomes , when an ancestral animal developed an allelic variation, a so-called "sex locus" - simply possessing this allele caused the organism to be male. (wikipedia.org)
  • We sample a population of common frogs ( Rana temporaria ) with limited sex-chromosome differentiation (proto-sex chromosome), leaky genetic sex determination evidenced by the occurrence of XX males, and delayed gonadal development, meaning that XY individuals may first develop ovaries before switching to testes. (springer.com)
  • So, all the cells in our body carry the same genetic material (chromosomes), apart from a few exceptions such as gametes, antibody-producing cells, and also, unfortunately, tumor cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • In meiosis (from the Greek, meaning reduction), unlike mitosis, the genetic material is halved when transmitted from the mother cell to the daughter cells: 2n chromosomes (diploid cell) become n chromosomes (haploid cell). (innovations-report.com)
  • Our results demonstrate how a complex interplay between sex, colour pattern, male-killing, and a neo-W chromosome, has set up a genetic 'sink' that keeps the two subspecies apart. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Lines to the right of chromosomes represent BACs shown by FISH to bind in relative order and positions predicted from the genetic and physical maps. (nih.gov)
  • Because chromosomes are the genetic building blocks for an organism and its traits, the information will be beneficial to understanding the core components of biological evolution -- especially in genetics and genome evolution, said Jianming Yu, associate professor of agronomy at K-State. (k-state.edu)
  • in 1902, the Boveri-Sutton Chromosome Theory unified the genetic laws of Mendelian inheritance with the physical structures of chromosomes observed in cells? (thefullwiki.org)
  • Pallister-Killian syndrome is a rare congenital genetic disorder that cannot be detected through prenatal blood tests because it occurs only in the chromosomes of skin cells ? (thefullwiki.org)
  • microchromosomes are very tiny gene -rich chromosomes which are a typical genetic component in birds , and some groups of non-mammalian animals? (thefullwiki.org)
  • Ris' favorite comparisons of genetic material were of the chromosomes, nuclear membranes and cytoskeleton of eggs and sperm cells of animals including sea urchins, frogs, toads and salamanders. (isciii.es)
  • University Lecturer/Research Scientist who uses insects to model human genetic disease (eg Down's Syndrome, Cancer). (expertguide.com.au)
  • In: Lukhtanov VA, Kuznetsova VG, Grozeva S, Golub NV (Eds) Genetic and cytogenetic structure of biological diversity in insects. (eurekalert.org)
  • We hypothesise that the ability to invert the order of the meiotic events may be adaptive and can facilitate proper chromosome segregation in chromosomal heterozygotes, thus promoting rapid karyotype evolution. (spbu.ru)
  • We demonstrate that the majority of CI-induced mortality occurs during embryogenesis and that the pattern of paternal chromosome segregation during the first mitosis is a good predictor of CI phenotype. (biologists.org)
  • The latter class is the first documented example of asymmetric mitotic segregation of abnormal chromosomes. (biologists.org)
  • Accurate chromosome segregation is only possible because monumental topological problems posed by the sheer size and physical properties of DNA are overcome by highly conserved DNA motors, namely condensin and cohesin. (elifesciences.org)
  • Evolutionary insights into the genomic organization of major ribosomal DNA in ant chromosomes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Characterization of Y sequences, apart from elucidating the nature of the male determining factor, is also important to understand the evolutionary history of sex chromosomes within the Tephritidae. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We hypothesize how these repetitive sequences accumulated and were maintained on the Y chromosome during its evolutionary history. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our data reinforce the idea that the sex chromosomes of the Tephritidae may have distinct evolutionary origins with respect to those of the Drosophilidae and other Dipteran families. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In order to neutralize the large difference in gene dosage produced by differing numbers of sex chromosomes among the sexes, various evolutionary branches have acquired various methods to equalize gene expression among the sexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This chromosome has apparently assumed a prime role in sex determination only recently from an evolutionary viewpoint. (eurekalert.org)
  • Sex Chromosomes Demonstrate Complex Evolutionary Trajectories Across Bird Taxa. (berkeley.edu)
  • Comparative sex chromosome genomics in snakes: differentiation, evolutionary strata, and lack of global dosage compensation. (berkeley.edu)
  • SEX chromosomes often play an important role in speciation, though the molecular factors that influence this process remains an area of active investigation ( Ellegren 2011 ). (genetics.org)
  • Apart from these importin-4-like sequences, the other Y repetitive sequences are not shared with the X chromosome, suggesting molecular differentiation of these two chromosomes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Molecular Biology of Insect Disease Vectors: A Methods Manual , ed. (ajtmh.org)
  • Korenberg J. R. & Rykowski, M. C. Human genome organization: Alu, lines, and the molecular structure of metaphase chromosome bands. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Large-insert BAC libraries of these insects are critical resources for many molecular studies, including physical mapping and genome sequencing, but not available to date. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In a Tufts University study published in the Aug. 3 journal "Molecular Cell," two molecular biologists have used yeast artificial chromosomes to prove the hypothesis. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In a study published last month, researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology tracked an important part of the memory-making process at the molecular scale in engram cells' chromosome s. (dictionary.com)
  • High-resolution, 3D images of human chromosomes in single cells reveal how DNA structure might influence its function. (innovations-report.com)
  • In high school textbooks, human chromosomes are pictured as wonky Xs like two hotdogs jammed together. (innovations-report.com)
  • Last year, before Su graduated with his Ph.D., he and three current Ph.D. candidates in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences-Pu Zheng, Seon Kinrot and Bogdan Bintu-captured high-resolution 3D images of human chromosomes, the complex houses for our DNA. (innovations-report.com)
  • 2002. Genomic Structure and Evolution of the Ancestral Chromosome Fusion Site in 2q13-2q14.1 and Paralogous Regions on Other Human Chromosomes. (icr.org)
  • MEDFORD/SOMERVILLE, Mass. In the past ten years, researchers in genome stability have observed that many kinds of cancer are associated with areas where human chromosomes break. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The number of exchanges will vary from one organism or chromosome to another (on average, one to five per chromosome, and up to one hundred or so per cell). (innovations-report.com)
  • If the diploid number in a liver cell is 52, how many chromosomes are there in the egg of this organism? (reference.com)
  • To do that, cells divide and replicate their DNA, which is wrapped into labyrinthine libraries inside chromatin, the stuff inside chromosomes. (innovations-report.com)
  • With this technique, the team imaged about 2,000 chromatin loci per cell, a more than ten-fold increase from their previous work and enough to form a high-resolution image of what the structure of chromosomes looks like in its native habitat. (innovations-report.com)
  • In N. giraulti and N. longicornis , the paternal chromosomes mis-segregate, producing abnormal nuclei connected by chromatin bridges. (biologists.org)
  • Nucleolar expansion due to abnormal increases in polyamines could disrupt nearby chromatin, such as the inactive X chromosome, leading to expression of previously sequestered DNA. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the hypothesis it was proposed that enlargement of the nucleolus in response to cellular stress could disrupt neighboring chromatin, such as the inactive X chromosome. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chromatin The network of chromosomes, histones, and other proteins found in the eukaryotic nucleus during interphase. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Here, we used an F1 × F0 crossing scheme to overcome a severe bottleneck of male hybrid incompatibilities that enabled us to experimentally purify a genetically labeled A. gambiae Y chromosome in an A. arabiensis background. (genetics.org)
  • Swarms of insects, transporting genetically modified infectious viruses, attack the agricultural crops of a country and destroy its food production - this is not a science-fiction scenario, but a plan that is actually being prepared by DARPA, the Pentagon's Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. (fourwinds10.com)
  • In their editorial, published on 5 October, they cast serious doubt on the idea that DARPA's research, entitled "insect allies" was intended only for the use declared by the Agency - the protection of US agriculture against pathogens by using insects as the vectors of genetically modified infectious viruses. (fourwinds10.com)
  • Comparative FISH-mapping of TTAGG telomeric sequences to the chromosomes of leafcutter ants (Formicidae, Myrmicinae): is the insect canonical sequence conserved? (semanticscholar.org)
  • Moreover, as the identified Y sequences were not detected on the Y chromosomes of closely related tephritids, we can infer divergence in the repetitive nature of their sequence contents. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The identification of Y-linked sequences may tell us much about the repetitive nature, the origin and the evolution of Y chromosomes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A second-generation linkage map was constructed for the silkworm, Bombyx mori , focusing on mapping Bombyx sequences appearing in public nucleotide databases and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contigs. (genetics.org)
  • Birds are unique because in addition to their usual chromosome sequences, they contain one additional set of minichromosome sequences, according to Zhongwei Lin, research associate in agronomy. (k-state.edu)
  • Find this article online O'Keefe RT, Henderson SC, Spector DL (1992) Dynamic organization of DNA replication in mammalian cell nuclei: Spatially and temporally defined replication of chromosome-specific alpha-satellite DNA sequences. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The scientists were especially interested in their telomeres-protective DNA sequences at the ends of chromosome s that act a bit like the caps on the ends of shoelaces. (dictionary.com)
  • Here we show that a neo-W chromosome, a fusion between the W (female) chromosome and an autosome that controls both colour pattern and male-killing, links the two phenotypes thereby driving speciation across the hybrid zone. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Furthermore, the subset of those highly differentiated markers that exhibit restricted introgression across the cricket hybrid zone are also concentrated on the X chromosome (39 of 50 loci) and in a single 7-cM region of one autosome. (g3journal.org)
  • Most mammals have only one pair of sex chromosomes in each cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • All chromosomes normally appear as an amorphous blob under the microscope and only take on a well-defined shape during mitosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • It is entirely coincidental that the Y chromosome, during mitosis , has two very short branches which can look merged under the microscope and appear as the descender of a Y-shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the mitosis (M) phase, the duplicated chromosomes are segregated, migrating to opposite poles of the cell. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The final key checkpoint occurs at the end of mitosis, when the cycle stops if chromosomes are not properly attached to the mitotic spindle. (encyclopedia.com)
  • During mitosis, DNA is condensed into visible chromosomes (prophase) that arrange at the cell midplane (metaphase), separate (anaphase), and decondense into the interphase. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The proto-sex chromosome of common frogs does not show evidence of sexualization of gene expression, nor evidence for a faster rate of evolution. (springer.com)
  • In addition, Dr. Bergman's and my recent study on human telomeres related to chromosomes, evolution, and intelligent design is now in print in the April 2011 Journal of Creation . (icr.org)
  • Sexually antagonistic selection can drive both the evolution of sex chromosomes and speciation itself. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Although this mechanism of chromosome number evolution is possible in theory, it has not been well documented. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The discovered system represents the first clearly documented case of explosive chromosome number evolution through intraspecific and intrapopulation accumulation of multiple chromosomal changes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Sex determination, sex chromosomes and karyotype evolution in insects, submitted. (berkeley.edu)
  • Transposons drive sex chromosome evolution. (berkeley.edu)
  • Sex-biased gene expression at homomorphic sex chromosomes in emus, and its implication for sex chromosome evolution. (berkeley.edu)
  • Y chromosome evolution: emerging insights into processes of Y degeneration. (berkeley.edu)
  • 42. Bachtrog D (2013) Evolution of sex chromosomes. (berkeley.edu)
  • Camacho JPM: B chromosomes, in Gregory TR (ed): The Evolution of the Genome, pp 223-286 (Elsevier, San Diego 2005). (karger.com)
  • Evolution (af latin e = "ud" + volvere = rulle, altså "udrulning" eller udvikling) er en proces hvorved sammensætningen af arveanlæg i en population ændres over generationer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Darwin var den første der beskrev evolution som en proces drevet af naturlig udvælgelse , og dermed den første til at give en videnskabelig forklaring på de processer der fører til artsdannelse. (wikipedia.org)
  • På molekylært niveau defineres evolution som enhver proces der fører til at frekvensen af en bestemt genetisk variant ændres i en given befolkning af organismer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, women have two X chromosomes in the cell nuclei, while men have an X and a Y chromosome. (eurekalert.org)
  • Split into two chromatids, the chromosomes form homologous pairs, one inherited from the father and the other from the mother. (innovations-report.com)
  • The chromatids (half-chromosomes) of the large X chromosomes do not separate from each other in the first meiotic cell division in the testes. (isciii.es)
  • The entire whole X chromosome, with both chromatids still attached to each other at the kinetochore, stretches along the axis of the spindle fibers, parallel to them. (isciii.es)
  • A diploid cell is a cell that contains two sets of chromosomes.This is double the haploid chromosome number. (reference.com)
  • However, in 2004, experimental manipulation by Japanese researchers of a paternal methylation imprint controlling the Igf2 gene led to the birth of a mouse (named Kaguya) with two maternal sets of chromosomes, though it is not a true parthenogenone since cells from two different female mice were used. (wikipedia.org)
  • The post-integration behavior of existing insect vectors has not been extensively examined. (biologists.org)
  • The post-integration behavior of insect gene vectors is particularly relevant to a number of future applications of this technology. (biologists.org)
  • Males have XY sex chromosomes and females have XX sex chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sex chromosomes are the largest chromosomes and constitute 30% of the total length of the diploid set in females and about 25% in males. (wikipedia.org)
  • In proto-sex chromosomes (where X and Y chromosomes differ only at the sex-determining locus), male-beneficial mutations on the Y may spread even if detrimental to females, because linkage with the sex-determining locus makes them more likely to be transmitted to sons than to daughters. (springer.com)
  • The most common Wolbachia -induced phenotype in insects is cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), which occurs when sperm from infected males fertilize eggs from uninfected females. (biologists.org)
  • Males have one Y chromosome and one X chromosome , while females have two X chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in humans, females (XX) silence the transcription of one X chromosome of each pair, and transcribe all information from the other, expressed X chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • One logical way to equalize gene expression amongst males and females that follow a XX/XY sex differentiation scheme would be to decrease or altogether eliminate the expression of one of the X chromosomes in an XX, or female, homogametic individual, such that both males and females then express only one X chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ohno's studies of Barr bodies in female mammals with multiple X chromosomes revealed that such females used Barr bodies to inactivate all but one of their X chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although we think of females being XX (that is, having two X chromosomes) and males as being XY, it's the other way around in these giant monitor lizards. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In northern latitudes, females have X chromosomes, while males have an X and a Y chromosome. (eurekalert.org)
  • When specially bred, sterile insect males are released, they compete with the wild males for the females. (eurekalert.org)
  • In females, all chromosomes remain euchromatic and functional. (wikipedia.org)
  • We analyzed the effect of B-chromosome presence on expression level of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in cerebral ganglion and gonad in both males and females of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans . (karger.com)
  • The members of the genus Wolbachia are rickettsial endosymbitic bacteria belonging to the α- Proteobacteria , whose infections are prevalent among arthropods, including over 60 per cent of insects and some filarial nematodes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Some medical and hygienic pest insects, such as tsetse flies and mosquitoes, which vector devastating human pathogens, often also carry Wolbachia infections. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In this context, Wolbachia infections in pest insects are potentially of practical utility. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Fusion of ancestral chromosomes left distinctive remnants of telomeres , and a vestigial centromere . (wikipedia.org)
  • Previous analyses have shown that these numbers most likely evolved gradually from an ancestral karyotype, in accordance with the Brownian motion model of chromosome change accumulation. (spbu.ru)
  • Since Palparinae lacewings represent one of basal phylogenetic lineage of the Myrmeleontidae, it is hypothesized that higher chromosome numbers are ancestral for antlions. (eurekalert.org)
  • As short and intermediate germ segmentation is found throughout the insects, whereas the long germ type is restricted to the higher insects, it is likely that a form of short or intermediate germband segmentation is evolutionarily ancestral ( Davis and Patel, 2002 ). (biologists.org)
  • The diploid chromosome number is 2n = 14 with four pair of long acrocentric chromosomes ranging from 14.4 μm to 17.9 μm and three pair of short sub metacentric chromosomes ranging from 4.6 μm to 5.4 μm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organization of centromeric-proximal telomeres on the short arm of the 15 acrocentric chromosomes in Apis is hypothetical based on FISH studies. (nih.gov)
  • The Polyommatus butterflies have holocentric chromosomes, which are characterized by kinetic activity distributed along the entire chromosome length, and the highest range of haploid chromosome numbers (n) known within a single eukaryotic genus (from n = 10 to n = 226). (spbu.ru)
  • High dynamics of rDNA cluster location in kissing bug holocentric chromosomes (Triatominae, Heteroptera). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Characterization of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) chromosomes using repetitive DNA probes and fluorescence in situ hybridization. (semanticscholar.org)
  • METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A combined Representational Difference Analysis (RDA) and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) approach was used to investigate the Y chromosome to derive information on its sequence content. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Germ cells have only half the number of chromosomes as a diploid cell one of each pair - and are termed haploid (n). (reference.com)
  • Each pair of chromosomes in a diploid cell is considered to be one homologous chromosome set. (reference.com)
  • Scientists at Johns Hopkins say they have found that people born with abnormally short chromosome endcaps, or telomeres, have immune system cells that age and die prematurely. (news-medical.net)
  • and is not localized to the proto-sex chromosome nor near the candidate sex-determining gene Dmrt1 . (springer.com)
  • In the case of houseflies from southern latitudes, the gene that determines maleness lies on a so-called proto-sex chromosome. (eurekalert.org)
  • Chromosomes of higher organisms ( eukaryotes ) contain DNA and protein. (thefullwiki.org)
  • This is a collection of Terminology, Entomological and Arthropodal (See Insects or Arthropods ) in nature. (earthlife.net)
  • Y chromosome sequence content in heterogametic animals is transmitted in a clonal manner due to the lack of crossing over with the X across some or all of its length. (genetics.org)
  • Identification of a pentanucleotide telomeric sequence, (TTAGG)n, in the silkworm Bombyx mori and in other insects. (semanticscholar.org)
  • [11] Platypus sex chromosomes have strong sequence similarity with the avian Z chromosome , (indicating close homology ), [12] and the SRY gene so central to sex-determination in most other mammals is apparently not involved in platypus sex-determination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence Expression of Supernumerary B Chromosomes: Function or Fluff? (mdpi.com)
  • The Tufts researchers have found a highly flexible DNA sequence that increases fragility and stalls replication, which then causes the chromosome to break. (bio-medicine.org)
  • According to the observation of embryonic cells of egg, chromosome number of the itch mite is either 17 or 18. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, the Y chromosome contains a gene, SRY , which triggers embryonic development as a male. (wikipedia.org)
  • A condition known as mosaicism results from an error in the distribution of chromosomes between daughter cells during an early embryonic cell division, producing two and sometimes three populations of cells with different chromosome numbers in the same individual. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The sex chromosomes are labeled X and Y. Karyotyping is useful in determining the presence of chromosome defects. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Many of the sexual aberrations, such as sexual mosaics, sex-specific lethality and conversion of sexuality, can be explained by developmental defects including double fertilization of a binucleate egg, loss of a sex chromosome or perturbation of sex-determining gene expression, which occur accidentally or are induced by certain environmental conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • In some aspects, e.g. meiotic behaviour and mitotic instability leading to individual mosaicism (in the case of mitotically unstable Bs), polysomic As show similar characteristics to B chromosomes. (karger.com)
  • Diagram of a duplicated and condensed metaphase eukaryotic chromosome. (thefullwiki.org)
  • However, it is not known how quickly sexualization of gene expression and transcriptional degeneration evolve after sex-chromosome formation. (springer.com)
  • and insect basic leucine zipper proteins and their role in cyclic AMP dependent regulation of gene expression. (google.com)
  • The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes ( allosomes ) in mammals , including humans , and many other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, the Y chromosome contains the gene SRY , which triggers testis development. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this chapter it is used for insects (v. 21), various small mammals and reptiles (vv. (icr.org)
  • We implement extensive research projects covering not only mammals but also invertebrates such as insects, in fields ranging from regenerative medicine of the pancreas and liver to the development of novel methods of insect pest control. (kit.ac.jp)
  • Genomics: how to make a social insect. (nih.gov)
  • Cutting-edge and thorough, Insect Genomics: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource for graduate students, postdocs, and novice research scientists who are interested in learning more about this developing field. (springer.com)
  • A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based approach for integration of genome information has a definite advantage for facilitating further functional analysis. (genetics.org)
  • Each pair of chromosomes - one of paternal origin, the other maternal - is positioned independently of the other pairs on the equatorial plate, before migrating to the poles to produce two daughter cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Polysomy for A chromosomes and B chromosomes are two kinds of chromosome polymorphism frequently found in grasshoppers. (karger.com)
  • Remarkably, intrapopulational chromosome number polymorphism exists, the chromosome number range overlaps between some populations separated by hundreds of kilometers, and chromosomal heterozygotes are abundant. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Marker polymorphism results indicated that a small terminal segment of chromosome 1AS containing H9 or H10 was transferred from the donor parent to the wheat line Iris or Joy, and a small intercalary fragment carrying H11 was transferred from the resistant donor to the wheat line Karen. (usda.gov)
  • The ideogram (in blue) shows average chromosome lengths, positions and sizes of DAPI-positive (heterochromatin) bands. (nih.gov)
  • Two natural Spanish populations, Salobreña (Granada) and Torrox (Málaga) were assayed, the former harbouring a neutralized (non-driving) B-chromosome (B 2 ) and the latter a parasitic (driving) B-chromosome (B 24 ). (karger.com)
  • Moreover, they provide direct evidence for long-range chromosome interactions and their impact on three-dimensional nuclear architecture, while providing a cohesive explanation for the phenomenon of PEV. (nih.gov)
  • Although his research focused on the ecology of insects and insect-plant interactions, he also has an interest in insect histology. (wiley.com)
  • Interactions between endosymbionts and insects are widespread in nature [ 1 , 2 ], and are particularly important in members of the suborder Sternorrhyncha such as whiteflies, aphids, psyllids and mealybugs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cytogenetic markers reveal a reinforcement of variation in the tension zone between chromosome races in the brachypterous grasshopper Podisma sapporensis Shir. (nature.com)
  • Cytogenetic disorders with visible chromosomal abnormalities are evidenced by either an abnormal number of chromosomes or some alteration in the structure of one or more chromosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The recombination of chromosomes: a controlled game of love and chance? (innovations-report.com)
  • Home / Life Sciences / The recombination of chromosomes: a controlled game of love and chance? (innovations-report.com)
  • This discovery, published in the October 18, 2002 issue of Cell, has led to the development of a method, for which a patent application has been made, which henceforth allows scientists to stimulate and "target" in vivo recombination at specific sites on the chromosomes, near one or other gene. (innovations-report.com)
  • Chromosome end elongation by recombination in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Bell G, Burt A: B chromosomes: germ-line parasites which induce changes in host recombination. (karger.com)
  • Until one centromere becomes inactivated the new chromosome will have two active centromeres (dicentric). (thefullwiki.org)
  • D. capillifolius , D. sahariensis and D. syrticus are the other members of the genus with 2n = 18, whereas D. muricatus (2n = 20) and D. pusillus (2n = 22) have a slightly higher chromosome number. (wikipedia.org)
  • The higher chromosome numbers were inherited from the common ancestor of Myrmeleontidae + Ascalaphidae. (eurekalert.org)
  • Different lineages have evolved different mechanisms to cope with the differences in gene copy numbers between the sexes that are observed on sex chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This disease is caused by the flagellate proto- ly in domestic and peridomestic environments, occupying zoan Trypanosoma cruzi, and it is transmitted by blood- cracks and crevices in rural dwellings and domestic animal sucking insects of the subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera, enclosures. (cdc.gov)
  • Phylogenetic distribution of TTAGG telomeric repeats in insects. (semanticscholar.org)
  • however, some chromosome ends lacked signals, probably due to a low number of telomeric repeats. (nature.com)
  • While the cause for the disparate numbers is unknown, it may arise because of an XO sex determination mechanism , where males (2n=17) lack the sex chromosome and therefore have one less chromosome than the female (2n=18). (wikipedia.org)
  • She realized that the previous idea of Clarence Erwin McClung , that the X chromosome determines sex, was wrong and that sex determination is, in fact, due to the presence or absence of the Y chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the platypus relies on an XY sex-determination system based on five pairs of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hessian fly (HF) is a destructive insect pest of wheat that causes stunting and lodging. (usda.gov)
  • Hessian fly (HF), Mayetiola destructor, is a destructive insect pest in most wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growing areas worldwide. (usda.gov)
  • The Y chromosome carries the SRY gene, which determines the male sex. (eurekalert.org)
  • After the change of location, the Y chromosome is lost and the new sex chromosome with the Mdmd gene assumes the function of determining the male sex. (eurekalert.org)
  • For Polyommatus poseidonides we report the phenomenon of flexible meiosis in which the chromosome multivalents are able to undergo either conventional or inverted meiosis within the same individual. (spbu.ru)
  • By study of spermatogenesis in these and other spermatocytes, Ris established that the normal, if unusual, cycle of events in chromosomes in this modified male meiosis determines the life history of these aphids. (isciii.es)
  • These gametes are produced by meiosis, which halves the number of chromosomes in the diploid germ cells. (reference.com)
  • Meiosis is the reduction division because it reduces the number of chromosome. (reference.com)
  • In the males (which are XO), spermatocytes contain one oversized X chromosome and cell division is very unequal. (isciii.es)
  • In fact, polysomy is regarded as one of the main mechanisms for B chromosome origin. (karger.com)
  • Many different sex-determining mechanisms prevail among insects. (eurekalert.org)