The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.
Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.
The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
An order of insects comprising two suborders: Caelifera and Ensifera. They consist of GRASSHOPPERS, locusts, and crickets (GRYLLIDAE).
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A genus in the family Blattidae containing several species, the most common being P. americana, the American cockroach.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.

JIL-1 and Su(var)3-7 interact genetically and counteract each other's effect on position-effect variegation in Drosophila. (1/169)

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Evolution of a distinct genomic domain in Drosophila: comparative analysis of the dot chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila virilis. (2/169)

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Multiple functions for Drosophila Mcm10 suggested through analysis of two Mcm10 mutant alleles. (3/169)

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Introgression of Drosophila simulans nuclear pore protein 160 in Drosophila melanogaster alone does not cause inviability but does cause female sterility. (4/169)

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Statistical analysis of nondisjunction assays in Drosophila. (5/169)

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Step-by-step evolution of neo-sex chromosomes in geographical populations of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp. (6/169)

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Mutagenesis as a genetic research strategy. (7/169)

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Coupling between microtubule sliding, plus-end growth and spindle length revealed by kinesin-8 depletion. (8/169)

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Abstract: The Topors protein is a tumor suppressor in human that associates with and regulates a number of cell cycle regulators that including topoisomerase I and p53. It possesses both ubiquitin and SUMO ligase activity and its mutation or downregulation has been associated with some human cancers and diseases. The Drosophila homologue, dTopors, is an ubiquitin E3 ligase. We have investigated the role of Dtopors in sumoylating proteins in the male germ line. Although nuclear lamin localization is disrupted in dtopors mutants, we find no evidence of lamin modification by Dtopors. We observe an increase in the overall sumoylation of testis proteins and a corresponding decrease in the pool of free SUMO in homozygous dtopors versus heterozygous dtopors flies. Based on this result, we propose a model explaining the role of dtopors in altering germline sumoylation. We have constructed a SUMO-GFP transgenic protein to investigate how dtopors is altering the pool of SUMO in the cell. We demonstrate ...
This Load Balancer health test checks that the Cloudera Manager Agent on the Load Balancer host is heart beating correctly and that the process associated with the Load Balancer role is in the state expected by Cloudera Manager. A failure of this health test may indicate a problem with the Load Balancer process, a lack of connectivity to the Cloudera Manager Agent on the Load Balancer host, or a problem with the Cloudera Manager Agent. This test can fail either because the Load Balancer has crashed or because the Load Balancer will not start or stop in a timely fashion. Check the Load Balancer logs for more details. If the test fails because of problems communicating with the Cloudera Manager Agent on the Load Balancer host, check the status of the Cloudera Manager Agent by running /etc/init.d/cloudera-scm-agent status on the Load Balancer host, or look in the Cloudera Manager Agent logs on the Load Balancer host for more details. This test can be enabled or disabled using the Load Balancer ...
Definition of karyosome in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of karyosome. What does karyosome mean? Information and translations of karyosome in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Last Updated: 11th December 2017 The Balancer/Genotype Variant Report contains the information for an individual balancer/genotype variant. Genotype variants are chromosomal rearrangements which carry the same rearrangement as their parent aberration (listed in the Parent aberration field of the report), but they differ genetically from the parent aberration, e.g. carrying a different constellation of alleles and/or transposable element insertions. A genotype variant chromosome may also be a Balancer, which is a multiply inverted chromosome that suppresses recombination with the homologous chromosome. This allows the homologous chromosome (or part of it) to be maintained intact in a cross or stock. Balancers also typically carry a dominant marker and are often lethal or sterile when homozygous. This can increase their usefulness to researchers. If an individual genotype variant chromosome has been reported to be usable as a balancer this is indicated by the presence of the Described as Balancer ...
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The balancer supports stickyness. When a request is proxied to some back-end, then all following requests from the same user should be proxied to the same back-end. Many load balancers implement this feature via a table that maps client IP addresses to back-ends. This approach is transparent to clients and back-ends, but suffers from some problems: unequal load distribution if clients are themselves hidden behind proxies, stickyness errors when a client uses a dynamic IP address that changes during a session and loss of stickyness, if the mapping table overflows.. The module ...
The balancer supports stickyness. When a request is proxied to some back-end, then all following requests from the same user should be proxied to the same back-end. Many load balancers implement this feature via a table that maps client IP addresses to back-ends. This approach is transparent to clients and back-ends, but suffers from some problems: unequal load distribution if clients are themselves hidden behind proxies, stickyness errors when a client uses a dynamic IP address that changes during a session and loss of stickyness, if the mapping table overflows.. The module ...
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How to Configure Symfony to Work behind a Load Balancer or a Reverse Proxy: When you deploy your application, you may be behind a load balancer (e.g. an AWS Elastic Load Balancing) or a reverse proxy ...
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MISSION® 3′UTR Lenti GoClone™ Powered by SwitchGear Genomics™, 3′UTR, human, UTP6; Synonym: HUTR; find Sigma-Aldrich-HUTR00859 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich.
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Lenti ORF particles, BRDT (mGFP-tagged)-Human bromodomain, testis-specific (BRDT), transcript variant 2, 200 uL, |10^7 TU/mL, 200 µl.
Plasmid lenti MS2-P65-HSF1_Hygro from Dr. Feng Zhangs lab contains the insert MS2-P65-HSF1_2A_Hygro and is published in Nature. 2014 Dec 10. doi: 10.1038/nature14136. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Plasmid lenti dCAS-VP64_Blast from Dr. Feng Zhangs lab contains the insert dCAS9(D10A, N863A)-VP64_2A_Blast and is published in Nature. 2014 Dec 10. doi: 10.1038/nature14136. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
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The EB uses direct current similar to that of the human body to create an ionic field. The patient places their feet in the bioenergetic water to receive the flow of ions which increases cellular function. Studies have shown that more cellular ATP is produced during treatment which enhances the cells to work and detoxify at a higher rate.. ...
Lookup HS Codes for Colombia vi 28.10.00 Orthoboric acid. Avalara LandedCosts helps determine your duty rates and other import taxes for Colombia.
Analysis of chromosome localization of three molecular markers, 18S-5.8S-28S rDNA, 5S rDNA and a 180 bp satDNA, showed that B chromosomes in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans originated independen
The B24 chromosome in the Torrox population of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans is recurrently attached to a nucleolus in diplotene cells, indicating the activity of its distally located ribosoma
We analyzed the effect of B-chromosome presence on expression level of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in cerebral ganglion and gonad in both males and females of the grasshopper |i|Eyprepocnemis
The relative location of 2 repetitive DNAs, i.e. ribosomal (rDNA) and a tandemly repeated satellite DNA (satDNA), with respect to the centromere, suggested that B chromosomes in the grasshopper |i&
Modern day mystic, Episcopal priest, writer, and internationally known retreat leader, Cynthia Bourgeault divides her time between solitude at her seaside hermitage in Maine, and a demanding schedule traveling globally to teach and spread the recovery of the Christian contemplative and Wisdom path.. She has been a long-time advocate of the meditative practice of Centering Prayer and has worked closely with fellow teachers and colleagues including Thomas Keating, Bruno Barnhart, and Richard Rohr. Cynthia has actively participated in numerous inter-spiritual dialogues and events with luminaries and leaders such as A.H. Almaas, Kabir Helminski, Swami Atmarupananda, and Rami Shapiro.. Cynthia is a member of the GPIW (Global Peace Initiative for Women) Contemplative Council and recipient of the 2014 Contemplative Voices award from Shalem Institute. She is a founding Director of both The Contemplative Society and the Aspen Wisdom School. She continues to contribute to The Contemplative Society in her ...
A follower shaded Kenya and said: Kenya is such a damn dream killer & yall let her get away with every damn thing she doesnt care about any of yall I see why things never work out with her & men.. A follower posted this: Im happy for @cynthiabailey10. Shes glowing and everything. @porsha4real is looking pregnant. Baby number 2 must be in the oven now.. Someone else addressed the relationship between Porsha and Dennis McKinley: @porsha4real dont give in to him. Look at his facial expressions when you were both in the therapists office. He is so uninterested and you can see by the looks he gave you he has plenty of resentment. Move on girl, you and your daughter deserve so much better.. A follower said: Porsha dont let Kenya fool u into being your friend. Kenya is shady to the 100 power, and someone else posted this: If Porsha and Cynthia can make up. Surely Nene and Cynthia can make up.. Porsha made headlines just the other day when its been revealed that she shared a video on ...
Many people ask about Cynthia Robinson Height and Weight 2016, size, age, body statistics and measurements. Cynthia Robinson is an American Trumpet player, her
Cynthia Nixons wife was worried about her being bald on their wedding day.The former Sex and the City actress shaved her head for her role as a cancer sufferer in the stage play Wit before her May nuptials to long-term...
Rekan2 Milis, Permisi tanya, belakangan ini banyak vendor Link balancer/ Multi WAN router/Multi ISP. Kira2 bagaimana mekanisme kerja nya? Apakah sangat...
Pay attention, the intruder interrupted, and stepped around the desk. I want you. She slowly raised, then lowered the weapon, and Cynthias head bobbed in perfect rhythm. Oh... you like my new toy? the intruder whispered. Its the very latest in gas-powered automatics. It fires a tiny fl chette loaded with a powerful narcotic, and is quiet as a mild cough. One touch of the needle... and youre out like the proverbial light in less than two seconds. She waved the barrel from side to side, and again, Cynthias head followed. The only downside... it leaves a nasty bruise. She centered the weapons aim between Cynthias breasts. You dont want me to have to use this thing, do you? Cynthia shook her head. Youre going to do exactly what I tell you to do, arent you? Cynthia nodded. Hands behind the chair, she ordered ...
Cynthia Nixon and director Lynne Meadow, both cancer survivors, share the challenge and the music of Margaret Edson's Wit on Broadway.
Cynthia Nixon and director Lynne Meadow, both cancer survivors, share the challenge and the music of Margaret Edson's Wit on Broadway.
Laura Linney and Cynthia Nixon swap the two lead female roles in the latest revival of The Little Foxes. Between performances they talk Tony nominations, sexism, and the wisdom of Stockard Channing.
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Cynthia Witt, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
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Cynthia Zelis MD is a Family Practitioner who practices in Strongsville, OH. Get a full report about this doctors background by clicking here.
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Dr. Cynthia L. Lichterman is a specialist that offers services and treatment options in Individual & Relational Psychotherapy. Schedule an appointment with Dr. Lichterman at NorthShore.
If you use AWSs Elastic Load Balancer to allow your EC2 application to scale, like I do, then youll want to know about this gotcha recently reported in the AWS forums. By all appearances, it looks like something that should be fixed by Amazon. Until it is, you can reduce (but not eliminate) your exposure to this problem by keeping a small TTL for your ELBs DNS CNAME entry. Read on for details.. The Gotcha. As your ELB-balanced application experiences an increasing load, some of the traffic received by your back-end instances may be traffic that does not belong to your application. And, after your application experiences a sustained heavy load and then traffic subsides, some of your applications traffic may be lost or misdirected to other EC2 instances that are not yours.. Update March 2010: It appears AWS has changed the behavior of ELB so this is no longer a likely issue. See below for more details.. Why it Happens. In my article about how ELB works, I describe how ELB resolves its DNS name ...
Is Female Hormone Balancer the best supplement to treat hormonal imbalance in women NATURALLY? Menopause symptoms, hot flashes and night sweats remedies, progesterone natural estrogen pills side effects and more
Your Classic Load Balancer distributes incoming requests across your registered, healthy EC2 instances in one or more Availability Zones in a Region.
NEW YORK, Oct. 1, 2013 - Kemp Technologies today announced the availability of the LoadMaster 2400, the newest addition to Kemps hardware load balancer portfolio. As more web-based applications are being deployed, the demand for scalable and secure application delivery has risen. The LM 2400s improved SSL acceleration engine and increased throughput delivers on this need
Cynthia Marie Has A Rare Genome That Is Impervious To Disease And Toxins Cynthia Marie has a rare genome that is impervious to disease and toxins. When faced with something the body cant handle, instead of dying her body puts her into a coma until it excretes the toxin/germ out in her urine. According to Cynthia her DNA was sold like a commodity through Wall Street and hypothecated through various financial products. She is an extreme case of slave system we all live under and how the... ...
I pop the tab off the bottle and pour the contents of bottle one into bottle two. A quick glance at my image in the mirror and I look like the mad scientist in gray vogue. Although the final promised color is a golden red the wet product is hemorrhage-purple. Shocked, I grab the box and check again - Golden Sienna. Stamped with the Good Housekeeping seal of approval, Clairol, my image rests in your potion ...
Swamped, the staff scrambles to find empty beds. Dusk arrives and still no room available, we relocate for a temporary stay in recovery. Patients moan and intravenous bags hang on hooks. Tucked in a far cubicle, we order dinner and wait for a vacancy. Flat on her back I spoon feed Mom peas. One disappears down her gown ...
Dr. Chua focuses on listening carefully to each cancer patient, and applying knowledge and skills to help patients live as well as they can.
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Journal of Insect Science. 10 (118): 1-11. doi:10.1673/031.010.11801. PMC 3016996. PMID 20874599. "First of six chromosomes ... As other non-human extant hominidae have 48 chromosomes it is believed that the human chromosome 2 is the result of the merging ... It shows 22 homologous autosomal chromosome pairs, both the female (XX) and male (XY) versions of the two sex chromosomes, as ... The list of organisms by chromosome count describes ploidy or numbers of chromosomes in the cells of various plants, animals, ...
The ZZ/ZW sex system is used by most birds, as well as some reptiles and insects. In this system the Z is the larger chromosome ... of the Y chromosome during meiosis. Additionally, 10-25% of human X chromosome genes, and 3-7% of mouse X chromosome genes ... 2009). "Dosage analysis of Z chromosome genes using microarray in silkworm, Bombyx mori". Insect Biochemistry and Molecular ... A recent study revealed that four platypus X chromosomes, as well as a Y chromosome, are homologous to some regions on the ...
At a structural level, insect holocentric chromosomes have not been studied in details, but it is interesting to underline the ... The presence of holocentric chromosomes has been up till now assessed in about 800 species, including insects, plants, ... Among arthropods, the presence of holocentric chromosome has been reported in different species belonging to insects (Odonata, ... In contrast to C. elegans, other organisms with holocentric chromosomes, including both plants and insects, circumvent this ...
In insects, imprinting affects entire chromosomes. In some insects the entire paternal genome is silenced in male offspring, ... The imprinting produces effects similar to the mechanisms in other insects that eliminate paternally inherited chromosomes in ... on mouse chromosome 17 and KCNQ1OT1 on human chromosome 11p15.5, have been shown to be essential for the imprinting of genes in ... but do depend on which parent the chromosome originated from. This group of epigenetic changes that depend on the chromosome's ...
In field crickets, for example, insects with a single X chromosome develop as male, while those with two develop as female. In ... Platypus egg cells all have five X chromosomes, whereas sperm cells can either have five X chromosomes or five Y chromosomes. ... females have ten X chromosomes, and males have five X chromosomes and five Y chromosomes. ... Kaiser VB, Bachtrog D (2010). "Evolution of sex chromosomes in insects". Annual Review of Genetics. 44: 91-112. doi:10.1146/ ...
Insects. 8 (3): 68. doi:10.3390/insects8030068. PMC 5620688. PMID 28698508. "IPCN Chromosome Reports". Thulaja, Naidu Ratnala ( ... a condition in which the species has more than two complete sets of chromosomes. A result of polyploidy is that the phenotype ...
As the insect matures and reaches a new instar, they dig a wider, deeper and longer burrow with the diameter ranging between 1⁄ ... McClung, C. E. (1933). "The chromosomes of Schizodactylus monstrosus". Journal of Morphology. 55: 185-191. doi:10.1002/jmor. ... Hazra, A.K. & Tandon, S.K. (1991). "Ecology and behaviour of a sand burrowing insect, Schizodactylus monstrosus (Orthoptera: ... Islam, A.S. (1982). "Diurnal rhythm of hemocyte population in an insect, Schizodactylus monstrosus Drury". Experientia. 38 (5 ...
These cases are called Turner syndrome mosaics (45,X/46,XX). Sex linkage was first discovered in insects, e.g., T. H. Morgan's ... He called this chromosome an accessory chromosome, and insisted (correctly) that it was a proper chromosome, and theorized ( ... "Chromosome X: Chromosome summary - Homo sapiens". Ensembl Release 88. 2017-03-29. Retrieved 2017-05-19. "Human chromosome X: ... encoding protein Chromosome X open reading frame 57 CXorf40A: Chromosome X open reading frame 40 CXorf49: chromosome X open ...
Insects of the United States, Fauna of the Southeastern United States, Insects described in 1896). ... 209-. ISBN 978-1-58544-236-2. White, M.J.D. (1948). "The Chromosomes of the Parthenogenetic Mantid Brunneria borealis". ... Brunneria borealis is an elongated green insect with the typical raptorial forelimbs of a mantis. The adults have reduced-size ... Insects of the Texas Lost Pines. Texas A&M University Press. pp. ...
The flowers are insect pollinated. There are about 14,300 cleaned seeds/g. Germination, which is epigeal, begins to occur in 12 ... The species has 2n = 76 or 114 chromosomes. It flowers from mid to late spring, flowers appearing before leaves, often while ... Beneficial Insects, Timber Press. Anderson 2001 Natural Resources Conservation Service 2003 (Brinkman 1974). (Department of ...
B chromosomes are common in Bignoniaceae. Pollination is either entomophilous (via insects), ornithophilous (via birds), or ... The chromosome number does not vary much in Bignoniaceae. The haploid (base chromosome number) is 20 for nearly every species ... sampled, but some species have very small chromosomes, making an accurate count difficult. ...
No orthologs have been identified in fish, insects, or prokaryotes. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000143110 - Ensembl, May ... Genes on human chromosome 1, All stub articles, Human chromosome 1 gene stubs). ... Chromosome 1 open reading frame 162 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C1orf162 gene. It has been found to be ... The gene is located at p13.2 on chromosome 1 in humans and contains 8 exons. It is 11,026 bases long and is oriented on the ...
... insects and other animals have an XY sex-determination system. Humans have forty-six chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes ... The Y chromosome must carry at least one essential gene which determines testicular formation (originally termed TDF). A gene ... Other chromosomal systems exist in other taxa, such as the ZW sex-determination system in birds and the XO system in insects. ... Beyond the presence or absence of chromosomes or social/environmental factors, sexual differentiation can be regulated in part ...
In insects, polytene chromosomes are commonly found in the salivary glands; they are also referred to as "salivary gland ... They provide a high level of function in certain tissues such as salivary glands of insects. Polytene chromosomes were first ... Bridges CB (1935). "Salivary chromosome maps with a key to the banding of the chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster". Journal ... Polytene chromosomes are large chromosomes which have thousands of DNA strands. ...
John B, Lewis KR (May 1966). "Chromosome variability and geographic distribution in insects". Science. 152 (3723): 711-21. ... July 2008). "Replication of linkage on chromosome 7q22 and association of the regional Reelin gene with working memory in ...
"The structure of condensed chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis of insects". International Journal of Insect Morphology and ... Proverbs, M. D. (1982). "Sterile insect technique in codling moth control". Sterile Insect Technique and Radiation in Insect ... Sterilizing insects with ionizing radiation. pp. 233-268 In V. A. Dyck, J. Hendrichs, and A. S. Robinson (eds.), Sterile Insect ... Genetically modified insect Infertility Sterile insect technique Sterility (physiology) North, D T (1975). "Inherited Sterility ...
The International Silkworm Genome Consortium (2008) The genome of a lepidopteran model insect, the silkworm Bombyx mori. Insect ... Bombyx mori females are also one of the few organisms with homologous chromosomes held together only by the synaptonemal ... Insects of Turkey, Taxa named by Carl Linnaeus, Insects in culture, Animal models). ... Students have a chance to observe complete life cycles of insects from eggs to larvae to pupae to moths. The domestic silk moth ...
Insect common names, Endemic insects of New Zealand). ... Within this range are seven chromosome races. The Wellington ... Wētā is a loanword, from the Māori-language word wētā, which refers to this whole group of large insects; some types of wētā ... Giant wētā (wētā punga in Māori) are large by insect standards. They are heavy herbivorous Orthoptera with a body length of up ... Their diet consists of plants and small insects. The males have much larger jaws than the females, though both sexes will ...
The chromosome number is 2n = 32. The bracts in the inflorescence form effective shelters for the flowers from rain, their red- ... The shaggy hairiness of the calyx protects the flower against small, crawling insects. The nectar is additionally secured by a ...
... since humans have several times as many genes on the X chromosome than the Y chromosome. Only females are able to be carriers ... Examples: female sterility in Drosophila; and many polymorphic characters in insects, especially in relation to mimicry. ... is present on a sex chromosome (allosome) rather than a non-sex chromosome (autosome). In humans, these are termed X-linked ... Fur color in domestic cats: the gene that causes orange pigment is on the X chromosome; thus a Calico or tortoiseshell cat, ...
They scavenge for nutrient sources in things such as fruits, insects, and seeds. There are 31 pairs of chromosomes found in the ... There are 60 autosomal chromosomes and 2 sex chromosomes found in this species. Weksler et al., 2008 Musser, G.G.; Carleton, M. ... de Almeida, Eunice Judith Cardoso; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo (January 1991). "Pericentric inversions and sex chromosome ...
According to Greene, the chromosome characteristic is: 2n=12. Lasthenia conjugens relies upon insect pollination for ... An alternative conclusion is that members of one particular insect family, Sciaridae, are also efficient pollinators of L. ... conjugens, since it was the only insect family to visit the restoration colonies in significant numbers (the specialist bees ...
It has 62 chromosomes. This fish possesses powerful dentition that can cause serious bites. It has scales. Fink, William L. ( ... They usually feed on aquatic insects, small fish, and fruits. P. denticulata has pentacuspid teeth and a middle cusp that is ...
To date, there has been no protein expression found in organisms simpler than insects. TMEM268 maps on chromosome 9 at 9q32. ... Orthologs have been found in mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, sharks, fish, and a few insects. It was not found within ... CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list, Genes on human chromosome 9, Protein pages needing a picture, Human gene pages with ...
He was the first to study the giant chromosomes found in insect larvae. He studied the role of the nucleolus in protein ... Zelenin, A V; Zoshchuk N V (2000). "[The history of modern chromosome analysis. The founding contribution of the works of ... He examined the relationship between the quantity of heterochromatin (chromosomes with few genes) and the rate of growth of ... This banding method permits the accurate identification of all 22 autosomes and the X and Y chromosomes. This technique ...
The adult cells have one set of inactive H chromosomes and one set of euchromatin E chromosomes. These H chromosomes are ... This phenomenon occurs in certain mites, beetles and mealybugs and scale insects. When the males have a diploid number of ... In a few other species all the cells in an adult are haploid due to elimination of the paternal chromosomes at an early ... The paternal chromosomes are inactivated by heterochromatization in all the cells at an early embryonic stage. ...
Such groups include monotremes, Drosophila, some other insects, some fish, some reptiles, and some plants. In Drosophila ... Males have one Y chromosome and one X chromosome, while females have two X chromosomes. In mammals, the Y chromosome contains a ... The chromosome with this allele became the Y chromosome, while the other member of the pair became the X chromosome. Over time ... Only the tips of the Y and X chromosomes recombine. The tips of the Y chromosome that could recombine with the X chromosome are ...
Lampbrush chromosomes of tailed and tailless amphibians, birds and insects are described best of all. Chromosomes transform ... Chromosome Res. 2012. V. 20. P. 911-924. Chromosome Research - Special Issue (2012) "Lampbrush Chromosomes" Edited by Herbert ... Lampbrush chromosome are a special form of chromosome found in the growing oocytes (immature eggs) of most animals, except ... Giant chromosomes in the lampbrush form are useful model for studying chromosome organization, genome function and gene ...
Every insect has six legs, one pair found on each of the three thoracic segments while other arthropods have a variable number ... Collinearity is found between the order of the genes on the chromosome and the order in which the genes are expressed along the ... These genes are grouped similarly to the Hox complex found in insects. The mouse has four complexes, HoxA, HoxB, HoxC, and HoxD ... Each of the four mammalian Hox complexes has a rough counterpart in the insect complex. The theory behind this evolutionary ...
The chromosomes (karyotype) of Chilocorus stigma vary from one individual to another, in both the number of chromosomes ( ... Insects used as insect pest control agents, Beetles described in 1835). ... It is a beneficial insect, and is useful in both natural wood stands and commercial forests such as orchards and citrus groves ... The chromosomes. Chapman & Hall, London. p169 Detailed information on C. stigma (Articles with short description, Short ...
For example, the pattern of X chromosome inactivation is affected by placental status. There is some evidence that it affects ... ISBN 0-452-26672-6. Irles P, Bellés X, Piulachs MD (2009). "Identifying genes related to choriogenesis in insect panoistic ...
Martiniuk F, Hirschhorn R, Smith M (Oct 1980). "Assignment of the gene for human neutral alpha-glucosidase C to chromosome 15 ... "Temporal expression of HIV-1 envelope proteins in baculovirus-infected insect cells: implications for glycosylation and CD4 ... v t e (Genes on human chromosome 15, All stub articles, Protein stubs). ...
... particurally insects. As their common name suggests, they bear a strong, but superficial resemblance to true otters to which ... ". "Otter shrew , mammal , Britannica". Svartman, M.; Stanyon, R. (2012). "The Chromosomes of Afrotheria and Their Bearing on ...
I. DNA-content and chromosome sets in various species of Cyprinidae". Humangenetik. 7 (3): 240-244. doi:10.1007/BF00273173. ... Insect Molecular Biology. 10 (1): 57-67. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2583.2001.00231.x. ISSN 1365-2583. PMID 11240637. S2CID 46186732. ...
... reveals an intriguing sex chromosome conservation in Trionychidae". Chromosome Research. 21 (2): 137-147. doi:10.1007/s10577- ... insects, mollusks, and carrion. The giant musk turtle's feeding technique is to open its mouth rapidly leading to a powerful ...
... which have nuclei that divide without spindle formation or the appearance of chromosomes or it has a few amoebae-like giant ... Moniliformida Oligacanthorhynchida All species in the class Archiacanthocephala are terrestrial and use terrestrial insects and ... or the appearance of chromosomes, or it has a few amoebae-like giant nuclei.[clarification needed] Typically, there are eight ...
... is a protein coding that is located on the plus strand of chromosome 2. The locus for the gene is 2q11.2. It is also ... However, the protein is not found in arthropods, or insects, which is interesting because those organisms also existed in that ... "Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4". Nature. 434 (7034): 724-731. Bibcode:2005Natur. ...
Insects feed on the fruits and limit seed development. Paeonia delavayi has been listed as endangered by the China Plant Red ... Like all diploid peonies, it has ten chromosomes (2n=10). The leaves are arranged alternately around the stem. In the lower ...
Medusozoa and calcarea clades however have species with linear mitochondrial chromosomes. In terms of base pairs, the anemone ... Paternally inherited mitochondria have additionally been reported in some insects such as fruit flies, honeybees, and ... The genome of the mitochondrion of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus) consists of three circular chromosomes (lengths 1556, 84 and ...
Developing sperm carrying a Y chromosome can be supplied with essential proteins encoded by genes on the X chromosome. de ... They are required for fertility in male insects and mammals. In mammals, germ cells form syncytia of hundreds of germ cells ... 46 chromosomes in the human). Each spermatocyte undergoes two rounds of meiosis to produce in the first round, two haploid ... largely applies to insect models). However, there doesn't seem to be much synchrony despite the presence of ring canals. ...
However, in aerodynamics experiments with other insects, he found that viscosity at the scale of small insects meant even their ... Only fertilised queens can lay diploid eggs (one set of chromosomes from a drone, one from the queen) that mature into workers ... Harmless insects such as hoverflies often derive protection from resembling bumblebees, in Batesian mimicry, and may be ... Most bumblebees are social insects that form colonies with a single queen. The colonies are smaller than those of honey bees, ...
Since genealogical records are often kept on paper and stacked in high-density storage, they are prone to fire, mold, insect ... Autosomal DNA (atDNA), is found in the 22 non-sex chromosomes (autosomes) and is inherited from both parents; thus, it can ...
The majority of his research centered around the common fruit fly and other insects for developmental and genetic studies.[ ... This creates very large cells, but their genetic information cannot be organized and separated into chromosomes due to ... Thus, he and his team directly disproved previous thoughts that aneuploidy decreases survivability in various insects, ... which is a specialized environment where adult stem cells reside in some insects and amphibians. This area helps to keep stem ...
In this system, there is only one sex chromosome, referred to as X. Males only have one X chromosome (XO), while females have ... Almost all apterygote and Paleopteran insects (e.g., dragonflies, silverfish) Most exopterygote insects (e.g., grasshoppers, ... Its sperm normally contains either one X chromosome or no sex chromosomes at all. This system determines the sex of offspring ... These are thought to arise via the loss of the Y chromosome.[original research] XO sex determination can evolve from XY sex ...
Agricultural pest insects, Insects described in 1921, Macrosiphini, Insect pests of millets, All stub articles, Aphididae stubs ... "A chromosome-level draft genome of the grain aphid Sitobion miscanthi". GigaScience. 8 (8). doi:10.1093/gigascience/giz101. PMC ... Kalaisekar, A (2017). Insect pests of millets: systematics, bionomics, and management. London: Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-12-804243-4 ...
By pairing chromosomes of similar genomes, the chance for these recessive alleles to pair and become homozygous greatly ... "Insect Incest Produces Healthy Offspring". 8 December 2011. Gardner A, Ross L (August 2011). "The evolution of hermaphroditism ... Bed bugs: North Carolina State University found that bedbugs, in contrast to most other insects, tolerate incest and are able ... Cottony cushion scales: 'It turns out that females in these hermaphrodite insects are not really fertilizing their eggs ...
Insects in culture, Paraphyletic groups, Pest insects, Wasps). ... Females are diploid, meaning that they have 2n chromosomes and ... Like all insects, wasps have a hard exoskeleton which protects their three main body parts, the head, the mesosoma (including ... A wasp is any insect of the narrow-waisted suborder Apocrita of the order Hymenoptera which is neither a bee nor an ant; this ... Many of the solitary wasps are parasitoidal, meaning they lay eggs on or in other insects (any life stage from egg to adult) ...
Genes on human chromosome 2, Protein pages needing a picture, Genes on human chromosome 11, Genes on human chromosome 17, Genes ... Insects have arr1 and arr2, originally termed "visual arrestins" because they are expressed in photoreceptors, and one non- ... after the chromosome where its gene resides. In the HUGO database its gene is called arrestin-3. Fish and other vertebrates ... on human chromosome X, Peripheral membrane proteins). ...
Hence, TLRs have been proved in all animals from insects to mammals. TLRs are located either on the cellular surface (TLR1, ... Genes on human chromosome 3, Immune system, Human proteins, Genes mutated in mice). ...
... has a role in X chromosome inactivation, in maintenance of stem cell fate, and in imprinting. Aberrant expression of PRC2 ... The PRC2 is evolutionarily conserved, and has been found in mammals, insects, fungi, and plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a ...
The number of homologous chromosome sets varies from four (n=4) in some Physaria and Stenopetalum species, five (n=5) in other ... Some insect herbivores have developed counter adaptations such as rapid absorption of the glucosinates, quick alternative ... Parasitoid wasps that feed on such insect herbivores are attracted to the chemical compounds released by the plants, and thus ... Brassicaceae are almost exclusively pollinated by insects. A chemical mechanism in the pollen is active in many species to ...
v t e v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genes on human chromosome 1, Fc receptors, ... of the truncated alpha chain of human high-affinity receptor for IgE as a soluble form by baculovirus-infected insect cells. ... Walsh MT, Divane A, Whitehead AS (1996). "Fine mapping of the human pentraxin gene region on chromosome 1q23". Immunogenetics. ... "The human genes for the alpha and gamma subunits of the mast cell receptor for immunoglobulin E are located on human chromosome ...
Salmonids are carnivorous predators of the middle food chain, feeding on small crustaceans, aquatic insects and smaller fish, ... Ito, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Atushi; Abe, Syuiti (2006). "Hybrid Inviability and Chromosome Abnormality in Salmonid Fish". The ...
... in which males have four Y chromosomes and five X chromosomes. Males appear to be X1Y1X2Y2X3Y3X4Y4X5 (figure), while females ... It is covered in fur and spines and has a distinctive snout and a specialized tongue, which it uses to catch its insect prey at ... The tongue is very flexible, particularly at the end, allowing it to bend in U-turns and catch insects attempting to flee in ... The insect exoskeletons and soil are not digested, being ejected in the waste. Numerous physiological adaptations aid the ...
March 2005). "Functional characterization of two human olfactory receptors expressed in the baculovirus Sf9 insect cell system ... February 1994). "Olfactory receptor gene cluster on human chromosome 17: possible duplication of an ancestral receptor ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genes on human chromosome 17, Wikipedia articles ...
In Pristionchus species associated with insects, the nematodes usually live on their hosts in a dormant stage (the dauer larva ... Sex determination in Pristionchus species is by an X0 system, whereby males have one sex (X) chromosome and females/ ... They are known mainly as non-parasitic associates of insects, especially beetles, while others have been reported from soil, ... After the death of the host insect, the nematodes resume development, feeding and reproducing on the decaying host carcass. ...
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Seminars and Events at the Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP) and Vienna Biocenter (VBC).
... linkage map created from 2089 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism SNP markers placed the resistance locus on the chromosome 6B short ... J. Insect Physiol. 84, 22-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jinsphys.2015.10.001 ... For example, chromosome 1A short arm is reported to have H3, h4 ... Like in the case of the short arm of chromosome 1A, it is possible that the distal end of the short arm of chromosome 6B also ... The SNP markers placed the location of H34 on the distal end of the short arm of chromosome 6B (Li et al., 2013), close to the ...
Lampbrush chromosomes are a special form of chromosome found in the growing oocytes (immature eggs) of most animals, except ... Chromosomes transform into the lampbrush form during the diplotene stage of meiotic prophase I due to an active transcription ...
Many botanists formerly thought that a diploid number of chromosomes was the cause of sporophytic expression and a haploid ... Structure, function and evolution of sex-determining systems in Dipteran insects.. *C. Schütt, R. Nöthiger ... Sex in Relation to Chromosomes and Genes. @article{Bridges1925SexIR, title={Sex in Relation to Chromosomes and Genes}, author={ ... Reversal of an ancient sex chromosome to an autosome in Drosophila. *Beatriz Vicoso, D. Bachtrog ...
Almost all chromosomes present C-bands in one or both chromosomal ends. E: First meiotic metaphase of the same insect shown in ... The Y (heterochromatic) and X (euchromatic) chromosomes appear as univalents, as typically observed in hemipteran insects. C: ... Chromosome size and C-banding pattern are clearly different from those observed in 2C. Heterochromatic blocks are localized in ... As observed in other hemipterans, the bivalents form a ring with the univalent sex chromosomes (X and Y) in the center. F: ...
International Journal of Insect Science publishes entomological research, including evolution, genetics, morphology, ... The neo-XnY system of P. italosignus is the first reported case of an evolutionarily fixed multiple sex chromosome system in ... Mediterranean Species of the Spittlebug Genus Philaenus: Modes of Chromosome Evolution Anna Maryańska-Nadachowska, Valentina G ... X0 karyotype by means of independent fusions between autosomes and the original X chromosome. The neo-X1X2Y system (P. ...
In the genus Anopheles the rRNA genes are localized on the heterochromatic arm of both sex chromosomes. The association between ... rRNA genes and sex determining chromosomes also applies to the homomorphic karyotype of Culicinae mosquitoes, at least in those ... was used to localize the 18S-28S ribosomal RNA gene clusters on the chromosomes of 15 mosquito species belonging to the ... In: Wright, J. W. and Pal, R. (eds) Genetics of Insect Vectors of Disease, pp. 151-120. Elsevier, Amsterdam. ...
Recombinant Chromosome 21 Open Reading Frame 90 (C21ORF90) Protein (His tag). Species: Human. Source: Insect Cells. Order ... Insect Cells Purification tag / Conjugate This C21ORF90 protein is labelled with His tag. Application Crystallization (Crys), ... C21ORF90 (Chromosome 21 Open Reading Frame 90 (C21ORF90)) Protein Type Recombinant Protein Characteristics AA 1-65 Origin Human ... C21ORF90 Protein (Chromosome 21 Open Reading Frame 90) (AA 1-65) (His tag). Crystallography grade C21ORF90 Origin: Human Host: ...
... sex chromosomes; larvae; insect ecology; plant morphology; Simulium; Thailand. Abstract:. ... Larval polytene chromosomes of ... geographical distribution; karyotyping; females; insect taxonomy; chromosome inversions; sex linkage; males; phylogeny; ... Zea mays; plant development; plant architecture; chromosomes; corn; chromosome translocation. DOI:. 10.1534/genetics.108.091843 ... apical meristems; plant growth; insect pests; phytophagous insects; wild plants; oviposition; Solidago altissima subsp. ...
... insect_odb10 database) were completely present. We annotated 11,242 protein-coding genes including 98.6% of BUSCO complete ... Gray cells-multiple chromosomes in the Odocoileus virginianus assembly aligned to the same chromosome in another organism. Bold ... Chromosome length assembly sequences were aligned to the genomes of related species to reveal corresponding chromosomes. ... Chromosome ssions and fusions were detected between Chrom. ID Ungapped length (bp) No. of gaps No. of genes No. of repeats ...
We identified 2.4 Mb of the Y chromosome and seven new male-linked gene candidates, representing the most extensive coverage of ... the Y chromosome in any mosquito. By tracking full-length mRNA for > 15 days following blood feeding, we discover distinct ... extensive accumulation of long-terminal repeat retrotransposons throughout the evolution and degeneration of this chromosome. ... a key genetic marker in a wide range of insects and showing upregulation following a blood meal, was fragmented in the draft ...
This insect is used because genetically it is relatively simple, having four pairs of easily observed chromosomes containing ... Radiation such as x-rays will produce mutations and various frequencies and strengths of x-rays have bombarded these insects in ... Indeed, the late evolutionist Pierre-P. Grassé said, The fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster), the favorite pet insect of the ...
... genome assembly resolves 31 chromosomes and identifies a diamide resistance mutation. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology ... Kaiser, T. S.; von Haeseler, A.; Tessmar-Raible, K.; Heckel, D. G.: Timing strains of the marine insect Clunio marinus diverged ... Heckel, D. G.: The essential and enigmatic role of ABC transporters in Bt resistance of Noctuids and other insect pests of ... Biological function of solanaceous withanolides and their effects on herbivorous insects. Annual Plant Reviews 4 (2), S. 625 - ...
For humans, sex is a simple matter of chromosomes: two Xs and we become female; one X and a Y and we develop into males. But ... Cold-proof tongue allows early chameleon to catch early insect Chameleons are some of the most versatile of lizards. They live ... For humans and other mammals, sex is neatly determined by the X and Y chromosomes. If you have a Y you are male, and without it ... In some species, the female is the one with different chromosomes, in this case Z and W, and the male has two Zs. And some ...
nuclear chromosome Transmission electron micrograph of cell division in an insect spermatocyte captured in late anaphase - ... Normally, dividing cells form a single metaphase plate of paired chromosomes which are pulled apart by opposing microtubule ...
Insect Mol Biol. 24, 331-7.. Jiang, X., Peery, A., Hall, A.B., …Sharakhov, I.V.*, and Tu, Z.* 2014. Genome analysis of a major ... Six novel Y chromosome genes in Anopheles mosquitoes discovered by independently sequencing males and females. BMC Genomics, 14 ... Insect Mol Biol., 22, 433-441.. Hall, A.B., Qi , Y., Timoshevskiy, V. Sharakhova, M.V., Sharakhov, I.V. and Tu, Z. 2013. ... Insect Mol. Biol., 24, 240-52.. Biedler. J., Chen, X and Tu, Z. 2015 Horizontal transmission of an R4 clade non-long terminal ...
Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4 p.724 doi: 10.1038/nature03466 ... Recruitment of entomopathogenic nematodes by insect-damaged maize roots p.732 doi: 10.1038/nature03451 ...
chromosome 21 open reading frame 58 (C21orf58), chromosome 7 C21orf58 homolog (C7H21orf58) Bezeichner auf Proteinebene für ... C21orf58 Protein (Chromosome 21 Open Reading Frame 58) (AA 1-322) (His tag) ...
Yeah, turns out that there IS an organism that has a single pair of chromosomes. Ya wanna know what it is? Its the Jack Jumper ... insects, and arachnids; saltwater crocodiles; the blue ringed octopus; the stone fish; fucking koalas! If Gyaos and Gamera were ... From the tissue samples she sent him, his team found out that Gyaos only has one pair of chromosomes, which is impossible ... that has a single pair of chromosomes, is an ant in Australia. Because OF COURSE it would be in Australia! Its where all the ...
Juvenile Hormone Activates the Transcription of Cell-division-cycle 6 (Cdc6) for Polyploidy-dependent Insect Vitellogenesis and ... acts on mini-chromosome maintenance (Mcm) genes Mcm4 and Mcm7 to promote DNA replication and polyploidy for the massive ... Although juvenile hormone (JH) is known to prevent insect larval metamorphosis and stimulate adult reproduction, the molecular ... mechanisms of JH action in insect reproduction remain largely unknown. Earlier, we reported that the JH-receptor complex, ...
All of the examples I have seen of gynandromorphs have been insects and birds. Both have different chromosome systems to the ... The hawk has much bigger wings designed to allow it to turn on a sixpence so that it can hunt the insects that it preys on. ... Chromosome testing has shown that Mmamoriri is XX, but as the article notes there are other conditions well documented in ... It is primarily about the way in which the function of the Y chromosome has evolved in mammals. From my point of view, the most ...
JO - Journal of Insect Biotechnology and Sericology. JF - Journal of Insect Biotechnology and Sericology ... Tsuchida KZ, Banno Y, Hashid K. Methods for fluorescence in situ hybridization using oocyte and spermatocyte chromosomes of ... Methods for fluorescence in situ hybridization using oocyte and spermatocyte chromosomes of Bombyx mori. / Tsuchida, Ko Zo; ... Methods for fluorescence in situ hybridization using oocyte and spermatocyte chromosomes of Bombyx mori. In: Journal of ...
Future gene drive technologies that can be kept within specific areas and reversed if needed may offer ways to control insects ... for example chromosomes or organelles). ... as well as insects that transmit them. For example, GE ... greatly enhancing or reducing frequency of genes that affect insect or pathogen reproduction), and synthetic biology (re-design ...
Following insect footprints to improve crop resilience and monitor pollinator biodiversity. 17 minutes ago ... Unwinding chromosomes: A unique perspective on determinants of chromosomal width. 2 hours ago ...
Insects which carry this marker tend to spend more time outside, while most forms of malaria control target insects which are ... The 2La genetic marker is a chromosome inversion. In Anopheles mosquitoes, this genetic variation is present in two forms: the ... 5) Department of Parasites and Insect Vectors, Unit of Genetics and Genomics of Insect Vectors, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France ... Insect vectors: a mosquito capable of limiting viral infection. *Insecticide resistance genes affect vector competence for West ...
Chromosome-level genome assembly reveals homologous chromosomes and recombination in asexual rotifer Adineta vaga. Science ... I have been working with many empirical systems (vertebrates, insects, crustaceans, fungi, plants, helminths, bacteria), in the ... Sex chromosome degeneration by regulatory evolution. Current Biology 30: 3001-3006.. Lievens EJP, Y Michalakis, T Lenormand. ... adaptation, local adaptation, migration, speciation, (sex) chromosomes, clines, sex, parthenogenesis, meiosis, recombination, ...
... by which the detection of a marker locus on chromosome 3 of the plant, which marker locus is sufficiently close to the desired ... insect-repellant patent /. Jeremy Phillips / "Cultivated capsicums!" Peppers resist insect, breeders resist patent ... "Cultivated capsicums!" Peppers resist insect, breeders resist patent Jeremy Wednesday, August 27, 2014 - call for crowd-funding ... The insect resistance is derived from Mother Nature through the gene bank freely accessible to every grower and breeder. With ...
Chromosomes, Insect. B. He, Caudy, A., Parsons, L., Rosebrock, A., Pane, A., Raj, S., and Wieschaus, E., "Mapping the ... Chromosome Deletion. B. He, Caudy, A., Parsons, L., Rosebrock, A., Pane, A., Raj, S., and Wieschaus, E., "Mapping the ... Chromosome Mapping. B. He, Caudy, A., Parsons, L., Rosebrock, A., Pane, A., Raj, S., and Wieschaus, E., "Mapping the ... "Mapping the pericentric heterochromatin by comparative genomic hybridization analysis and chromosome deletions in Drosophila ...
We established that telomeres exist as chromosomal-ends in a model insect, the field cricket G. campestris, using terminal ... Bal 31 assays confirmed that telomeric repeats were located at the chromosome-ends. We tested whether rapid growth between day ... Some important features of vertebrate telomere biology are evident in an insect species dating back to the Triassic. The ...
  • Chromosomes transform into the lampbrush form during the diplotene stage of meiotic prophase I due to an active transcription of many genes. (toppr.com)
  • In the genus Anopheles the rRNA genes are localized on the heterochromatic arm of both sex chromosomes. (nature.com)
  • The association between rRNA genes and sex determining chromosomes also applies to the homomorphic karyotype of Culicinae mosquitoes, at least in those cases in which localization of the sex locus/loci has been determined. (nature.com)
  • This insect is used because genetically it is relatively simple, having four pairs of easily observed chromosomes containing only 13,000 genes (DNA). (icr.org)
  • The technologies include gene editing (site-specific changes to DNA in a genome), gene drives (greatly enhancing or reducing frequency of genes that affect insect or pathogen reproduction), and synthetic biology (re-design or construction of biological devices, for example chromosomes or organelles). (cimmyt.org)
  • In an adult organism, the genes on the Y-chromosome help produce the male gamete, the sperm cell. (asu.edu)
  • After RNAi of Hamsl 1 via microinjection of Hamsl 1 siRNA into the 3rd instar larvae of H. armigera , the expression levels of 15 Z-linked genes were detected by qPCR to verify whether Hamsl 1 regulates the dose of genes on Z chromosome. (insect.org.cn)
  • Conclusion】 This study preliminarily proves that Hams l1 gene is located on the Z chromosome of H. armigera and may regulate the dosage compensation by inhibiting the expression of Z-linked genes in male H. armigera . (insect.org.cn)
  • The overlapping gene pairs of A . aegypti were further compared with orthologs of other selected insects to conduct several hypothesis driven investigations relating to the evolution and rearrangement of overlapping genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our data further shows that synonymous and non-synonymous mutations have differential but non-significant effect on overlapping localization of orthologous genes in other insect genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Based on the results, our study suggests that overlapping genes may have played an important role in genome evolution of insects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2007 [ 5 ] compared overlapping genes of Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae with Apis mellifera (honey bee) and suggested that relocalization of overlapping genes may have played a significant role in genome evolution of these insects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although several other insect genome sequences are now available, overlapping genes of most of these insects have not been studied. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The new results that made me pick this post out of the file support the theory, that the male Y chromosome, despite considered being small, fragile and weak, is enduring and stable, due to having the important genes as duplicates on itself. (blogspot.com)
  • 24, XX female) we have established the existence of random X chromosome inactivation for dosage compensation of X-linked genes. (who.int)
  • The sex determination genetic cascade of Drosophila melanogaster is first discussed, followed by an analysis of the sex determination genes of other dipteran and non-dipteran insects. (uncommondescent.com)
  • In 1913, as an undergraduate, Sturtevant created one of the earliest genetic maps of a fruit fly chromosome, which showed the relative positions of genes along the chromosome. (asu.edu)
  • Genomic queries, leading to genes and other chromosome features. (legumeinfo.org)
  • The results reveal several puzzling aspects of Drosophila dot chromosome biology to be possible remnants of its former life as a sex chromosome, such as its minor feminizing role in sex determination or its targeting by a chromosome-specific regulatory mechanism. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Indeed, the late evolutionist Pierre-P. Grassé said, 'The fruitfly ( Drosophila melanogaster ), the favorite pet insect of the geneticists, whose geographical, biotopical, urban, and rural genotypes are now known inside out, seems not to have changed since the remotest times. (icr.org)
  • Mutations in the Drosophila gene greatwall cause improper chromosome condensation and delay cell cycle progression in larval neuroblasts. (rupress.org)
  • Localization of ecdysterone on polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. (wikidata.org)
  • Patterns of puffing activity in the salivary gland chromosomes of Drosophila. (wikidata.org)
  • Comparative study of the function of polytene chromosomes in laboratory stocks of Drosophila melanogaster and the l(3)tl mutant (lethal tumorous larvae). (wikidata.org)
  • In the 1920s and 1930s, Painter studied the chromosomes of the salivary gland giant chromosomes of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), with Hermann J. Muller. (asu.edu)
  • Structure, function and evolution of sex-determining systems in Dipteran insects. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To date, a few carboxypeptidases, aminopeptidases and serine proteases (mostly trypsins) connected with cuticle digestion, zymogen activation and histological differentiation during the ecdysis of lepidopteran, dipteran and hymenopteran insects have been identified. (bvsalud.org)
  • A haploid diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) genome assembly resolves 31 chromosomes and identifies a diamide resistance mutation. (mpg.de)
  • The puffs of salivary gland chromosomes of Drosophilia melanogaster. (wikidata.org)
  • Salivary elicitors secreted by herbivorous insects can be perceived by host plants to trigger plant immunity. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, how insects secrete other salivary components to subsequently attenuate the elicitor-induced plant immunity remains poorly understood. (bvsalud.org)
  • Our results illustrate the importance of salivary sheath proteins in mediating the interactions between plants and herbivorous insects. (bvsalud.org)
  • Under-replication of ribosomal cistrons in polytene chromosomes of Rhynchosciara . (nature.com)
  • Beginning in the 1980s, many studies of human populations used the Y-chromosome gene sequences to trace paternal lineages. (asu.edu)
  • Blackstripe topminnows in the Tombigbee River have a higher chromosome number than do other populations (Howell and Black, 1981). (outdooralabama.com)
  • Characterising acetylcholinesterase genotypes in resistant insect populations. (rothamsted.ac.uk)
  • These matrix-based methodologies are useful for several mosquito and insect populations but must be specifically tailored and altered for each laboratory based on the potential contaminants available at any given time. (cdc.gov)
  • Scientifically referred to as triatomine bugs, these blood-sucking insects can carry in their feces and pass on to humans the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi that causes Chagas disease, a lifelong infection that takes a heavy toll on community health in poor populations, particularly in El Salvador. (news-medical.net)
  • E: First meiotic metaphase of the same insect shown in 2D. (cdc.gov)
  • Normally, dividing cells form a single metaphase plate of paired chromosomes which are pulled apart by opposing microtubule spindle. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • However, little is known about these proteins in hemimetabolous insects. (bvsalud.org)
  • Previous reports suggest that electrical forces on cell structure proteins interfered with the chromosome separation during mitosis and induced apoptosis. (nature.com)
  • The 2La genetic marker is a chromosome inversion. (pasteur.fr)
  • The Y-chromosome is one of a pair of chromosomes that determine the genetic sex of individuals in mammals, some insects, and some plants. (asu.edu)
  • They allow the cell to distinguish the ends of chromosomes from abnormal double-stranded breaks, and they protect the genetic information from being lost after replication ( Barbero Barcenilla and Shippen, 2019 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • This manuscript focuses on a number of insects for which genetic and molecular data regarding sex determination mechanisms are available. (uncommondescent.com)
  • Chromosome length assembly sequences were aligned to the genomes of related species to reveal corresponding chromosomes. (researchgate.net)
  • This ability plays a key role in lengthening and maintaining telomeres, as HTTs typically get inserted at chromosome-ends ( Casacuberta, 2017 ), but they can also cause genome instability if these sequences replicate without control. (elifesciences.org)
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to localize the 18S-28S ribosomal RNA gene clusters on the chromosomes of 15 mosquito species belonging to the Anophelinae and Culicinae subfamilies. (nature.com)
  • Some important features of vertebrate telomere biology are evident in an insect species dating back to the Triassic. (datadryad.org)
  • Gene overlapping in insects may be a species-specific evolutionary process as evident from non-dependency of gene overlapping with species phylogeny. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dosage compensation mechanisms evolve to balance gene expression, but the degree and mechanism of regulation often vary by insect species. (bvsalud.org)
  • In hemipteran species, the small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus, is an injurious crop pest, with a sex chromosome type XX in females and XO in males. (bvsalud.org)
  • These effects should be even stronger in inbreeding species 3 and taxa with generally low Ne such as social insects 4 . (wurmlab.com)
  • The neo-XY system ( P. arslani, P. loukasi, P. signatus, P. maghresignus, and P. tarifa ) also originated from the 24 X0 karyotype by means of independent fusions between autosomes and the original X chromosome. (bioone.org)
  • This specimen from Argentina presents the lowest number of C-banded autosomes (four chromosomes). (cdc.gov)
  • Heterochromatic C-bands are clearly detected in four autosomes and in the Y sex chromosome. (cdc.gov)
  • Heterochromatic blocks are localized in most autosomes and in both sex chromosomes. (cdc.gov)
  • Lampbrush chromosomes are a special form of chromosome found in the growing oocytes (immature eggs) of most animals, except mammals. (toppr.com)
  • Painter also studied chromosomes in mammals. (asu.edu)
  • Human TSPEAR-AS2 Protein (raised in Insect Cells) purified by multi-step, protein-specific process to ensure crystallization grade. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA . (bvsalud.org)
  • Cells take much longer to transit the period of chromosome condensation from late G 2 through nuclear envelope breakdown. (rupress.org)
  • This way we were able to generate hybrid cells in vivo between molecularly distinct cell types and ask how these epigenetically distinct chromosomes will be recognized, separated, and segregated in hybrid cells. (nature.com)
  • The consequences of abrogated chromosome separation in either hybrid cells or zygotes should be studied through acute microtubule and nuclear envelope manipulations. (nature.com)
  • It is characterized most notably in insect, plant, and microbial cells. (unl.edu)
  • Transmission electron micrograph of cell division in an insect spermatocyte captured in late anaphase - telophase with cytokinesis in progress. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Tsuchida, KZ , Banno, Y & Hashid, K 1997, ' Methods for fluorescence in situ hybridization using oocyte and spermatocyte chromosomes of Bombyx mori ', Journal of Sericultural Science of Japan , vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 233-241. (elsevier.com)
  • The essential and enigmatic role of ABC transporters in Bt resistance of Noctuids and other insect pests of agriculture. (mpg.de)
  • The correlation of linkage groups with chromosomes in the mosquito, Culex pipiens L. Chromosoma , 37 , 43-52. (nature.com)
  • We identified 2.4 Mb of the Y chromosome and seven new male-linked gene candidates, representing the most extensive coverage of the Y chromosome in any mosquito. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The neo-X 1 X 2 Y system ( P. italosignus ) evolved from the 2n = 22 neo-XY karyotype by an additional fusion between the Y chromosome and one more autosomal pair. (bioone.org)
  • We generated a chromosome-level scaffold assembly including the Z chromosome and a portion of the W chromosome. (cimutect.com)
  • 2016. Radical remodeling of the Y chromosome in a recent radiation of malaria mosquitoes. (vt.edu)
  • Understanding genome structure of these mosquitoes has become one of the major interests among insect vector biologists. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Y (heterochromatic) and X (euchromatic) chromosomes appear as univalents, as typically observed in hemipteran insects. (cdc.gov)
  • Biological function of solanaceous withanolides and their effects on herbivorous insects. (mpg.de)
  • These mutant phenotypes are not caused by spindle aberrations, by global defects in chromosome replication, or by activation of a caffeine-sensitive checkpoint. (rupress.org)
  • However, the consequences of cell fusion on cell cycle progression, spindle assembly, chromosome segregation, cell fate, and other basic cell biological processes are incompletely understood. (nature.com)
  • In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the development of new microscopic and molecular techniques, including DNA sequencing, enabled scientists to confirm the hypothesis that chromosomes determine the sex of developing organisms. (asu.edu)
  • Losing telomeres leads to harmful anomalies, such as chromosomes fusing together: these structures are therefore conserved in all organisms with linear chromosomes, including (but not limited to) all animals, plants, insects and fungi ( de Lange, 2018 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • August Friedrich Leopold Weismann studied how the traits of organisms developed and evolved in a variety of organisms, mostly insects and aquatic animals, in Germany in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. (asu.edu)
  • Almost all chromosomes present C-bands in one or both chromosomal ends. (cdc.gov)
  • We established that telomeres exist as chromosomal-ends in a model insect, the field cricket G. campestris , using terminal restriction fragment and Bal 31 methods. (datadryad.org)
  • 14 However, studies of the effects of HMPA on human 15 and mice chromosomes 16 showed no greater frequency of HMPA induced chromosomal aberrations when compared with controls. (cdc.gov)
  • Future gene drive technologies that can be kept within specific areas and reversed if needed may offer ways to control insects that carry plant diseases or weeds that damage crops, and synthetic biology could someday create plants that are immune to invading viruses. (cimmyt.org)
  • It is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi , which is transmitted to animals and people by insect vectors that are found only in the Americas (mainly, in rural areas of Latin America where poverty is widespread). (news-medical.net)
  • Based on our results, we propose that the separation, independent alignment, and segregation of NB and GMC chromosomes depends on (1) biased interphase centrosome activity in the NB, connecting the active apical MTOC with NB-chromatin throughout interphase and early mitosis, and (2) nuclear envelopes, imposing physical boundaries between the NB and GMC chromatin. (nature.com)
  • The resulting linkage map created from 2,089 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism SNP markers placed the resistance locus on the chromosome 6B short arm, near where H34 has been reported. (frontiersin.org)
  • The insect resistance is derived from Mother Nature through the gene bank freely accessible to every grower and breeder. (blogspot.com)
  • For field crops, these traits may include resistance to diseases and insects, resistance to heat and drought, reducing the time to crop maturity, greater yield, and better agronomic quality. (justia.com)
  • Insects which carry this marker tend to spend more time outside, while most forms of malaria control target insects which are present indoors. (pasteur.fr)
  • 2015. Genome of Rhodnius prolixus , an insect vector of Chagas disease, reveals unique adaptations to hematophagy and parasite infection. (vt.edu)
  • Radiation such as x-rays will produce mutations and various frequencies and strengths of x-rays have bombarded these insects in the laboratory, producing, for example, wing abnormalities known as apterous , vestigial , dumpy , etc. (icr.org)
  • The development and application of new techniques for the study of human chromosomes has revealed that the genetics of sex determination in man appears to be different from any other system so far known and may still be accommodated within the limits of a balance theory. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Third, the beetles may not even be using the X/Y sex chromosomes that people have, so whatever is going on in beetle genetics may have nothing to do with humans. (uncommondescent.com)
  • The Legume Information System (LIS) is a research project of the USDA-ARS:Corn Insects and Crop Genetics Research in Ames, IA. (legumeinfo.org)
  • Mammalian-type dosage compensation mechanism in an insect - Gryllotalpa fossor (Scudder) - Orthoptera. (who.int)
  • The 23rd pair in gonadal cell called sex chromosome which is not always a perfect pair. (solutionsclass.com)
  • Transgenic rice plants with LsSP1 overexpression rescue the insect feeding defects caused by a deficiency of LsSP1 secretion, consistent with the potential role of LsSP1 in manipulating plant defenses. (bvsalud.org)
  • The central point of the idea is the bigger variance of males due to their XY chromosome. (blogspot.com)
  • Both cytogenetical (DNA replication and transcription) and biochemical (X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) studies have indicated that one of the two X chromosomes in the female soma (hepatic caeca) is late replicating and transcriptionally silent leaving the other X chromosome to remain active as in males thereby ensuring the production of almost the same amount of X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in both sexes. (who.int)
  • Timing strains of the marine insect Clunio marinus diverged and persist with gene flow. (mpg.de)
  • Digestion and absorption of old cuticles during insect molting are necessary for new cuticle formation, during which complicated enzyme catalysis is essential. (bvsalud.org)
  • A hybrid fly cell model to test the separation of chromosomes of different origin. (nature.com)
  • The Y-linked heterochromatin landscape reveals extensive accumulation of long-terminal repeat retrotransposons throughout the evolution and degeneration of this chromosome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In insects, sex chromosome differentiation often results in unequal gene dosages between sexes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Neural stem cell (NB) - ganglion mother cell (GMC) hybrids align the respective chromosomes independently, supported by NB- or GMC-derived centrosomes and their spindles. (nature.com)
  • Seven polymorphic sites in the beta-globin gene cluster were analyzed on a sample of 96 chromosomes of Venezuelan sickle cell patients from the State of Aragua. (embrapa.br)
  • abundance of latex, generally small size of chromosomes evidently have impeded cytological investigations. (berkeley.edu)
  • Suspected allergies to food, stinging insects, latex, and antibiotics can be screened and diagnosed. (medscape.com)
  • Telomeres are specialized structures that 'cap' and protect the ends of linear chromosomes. (elifesciences.org)
  • Application of RNAi in insect pest management: important progress and problems [J]. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 2019, 62(4): 506-515. (insect.org.cn)
  • The technologies have already proven effective for controlling bacterial, fungal, and viral plant pathogens, as well as insects that transmit them. (cimmyt.org)
  • The first sex-determination mutants to be found in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Hodgkin in which sex is also determined by an X:A ratio) were reported, marking the 25th anniversary of a paper marked by the absolute number of X chromosomes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Sturtevant, Morgan, and other researchers established that chromosomes play a role in the inheritance of traits. (asu.edu)