In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.
The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.
Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A characteristic symptom complex.
The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, elements such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, that are required for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance in progeny cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.

Insertion of excised IgH switch sequences causes overexpression of cyclin D1 in a myeloma tumor cell. (1/1049)

Oncogenes are often dysregulated in B cell tumors as a result of a reciprocal translocation involving an immunoglobulin locus. The translocations are caused by errors in two developmentally regulated DNA recombination processes: V(D)J and IgH switch recombination. Both processes share the property of joining discontinuous sequences from one chromosome and releasing intervening sequences as circles that are lost from progeny cells. Here we show that these intervening sequences may instead insert in the genome and that during productive IgH mu-epsilon switch recombination in U266 myeloma tumor cells, a portion of the excised IgH switch intervening sequences containing the 3' alpha-1 enhancer has inserted on chromosome 11q13, resulting in overexpression of the adjacent cyclin D1 oncogene.  (+info)

Multipoint oligogenic analysis of age-at-onset data with applications to Alzheimer disease pedigrees. (2/1049)

It is usually difficult to localize genes that cause diseases with late ages at onset. These diseases frequently exhibit complex modes of inheritance, and only recent generations are available to be genotyped and phenotyped. In this situation, multipoint analysis using traditional exact linkage analysis methods, with many markers and full pedigree information, is a computationally intractable problem. Fortunately, Monte Carlo Markov chain sampling provides a tool to address this issue. By treating age at onset as a right-censored quantitative trait, we expand the methods used by Heath (1997) and illustrate them using an Alzheimer disease (AD) data set. This approach estimates the number, sizes, allele frequencies, and positions of quantitative trait loci (QTLs). In this simultaneous multipoint linkage and segregation analysis method, the QTLs are assumed to be diallelic and to interact additively. In the AD data set, we were able to localize correctly, quickly, and accurately two known genes, despite the existence of substantial genetic heterogeneity, thus demonstrating the great promise of these methods for the dissection of late-onset oligogenic diseases.  (+info)

Abnormalities at 14q32.1 in T cell malignancies involve two oncogenes. (3/1049)

The TCL1 oncogene on human chromosome 14q32.1 is involved in the development of T cell leukemia in humans. Its expression in these leukemias is activated by chromosomal translocations and inversions at 14q32.1. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a new member of the TCL1 gene family, TCL1b, located approximately 16 kb centromeric of TCL1. The 1.2-kb TCL1b cDNA encodes a 14-kDa protein of 128 aa and shows 60% similarity to Tcl1. Expression profiles of TCL1 and TCL1b genes are very similar: both genes are expressed at very low levels in normal bone marrow and peripheral lymphocytes but are activated in T cell leukemia by rearrangements of the 14q32.1 region. Thus, translocations and inversions at 14q32. 1 in T cell malignancies involve two oncogenes.  (+info)

Detection of t(14;18) carrying cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood from patients affected by non-lymphoid diseases. (4/1049)

AIMS/BACKGROUND: To assess the presence of bcl-2/JH rearrangements in bone marrow and peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients affected by diseases other than malignant lymphomas. The t(14;18) (q32;q21) translocation, which juxtaposes the bcl-2 oncogene on chromosome 18 and the JH segment of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) genes on chromosome 14, is found frequently in follicular lymphomas. METHODS: A sensitive semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect t(14;18) translocation in bone marrow aspirates and peripheral blood lymphocytes from 48 patients. In 137 additional individuals peripheral blood lymphocytes only were tested. RESULTS: Cells carrying bcl-2/JH rearrangements were detected in about a quarter of the bone marrow samples and half of the peripheral blood lymphocyte samples. In seven patients, t(14;18) positive cells were found in both the bone marrow and peripheral blood lymphocyte samples. The size of the PCR products and bcl-2/JH DNA sequence analysis showed that the same t(14;18) carrying clone was present in the bone marrow and the corresponding peripheral blood lymphocyte samples in three of these seven patients. Some patients had more than one bcl-2/JH rearrangement. There was no significant correlation between age and the translocation incidence. Cells carrying the t(14;18) translocation were present in peripheral blood lymphocyte samples with a similar incidence--between 47% and 52% in all age groups from 20 to 79 years. Patients older than 80 years had a lower (37%) but not significantly different incidence. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that patients affected by non-lymphoid diseases may have several t(14;18) carrying cells and some of them undergo a clonal expansion. Whether individuals with t(14;18) positive cells are at a higher risk of lymphoid malignancies remains unanswered and further epidemiological studies are required.  (+info)

De novo deletion (14)(q11.2q13) including PAX9: clinical and molecular findings. (5/1049)

A 3 year old boy with a de novo deletion (14)(q11.2q13) of paternal origin encompassing the region from D14S264 to D14S70 is described. The patient presented with severe psychomotor retardation, bilateral cleft lip/palate, bilateral colobomas of the optic nerves and retinas, agenesis of the corpus callosum, pes calcaneovarus, reduced oesophageal peristalsis, and swallowing difficulties. This is the first reported case of PAX9 hemizygosity in humans. Haploinsufficiency of the PAX9 gene might be expected to cause some of the developmental defects and the dysphagia. Another haploinsufficiency candidate gene, the bZIP transcription factor gene NRL, which is specifically expressed in neuronal cells and the eye during embryogenesis, was excluded from the deletion interval.  (+info)

Rec8p, a meiotic recombination and sister chromatid cohesion phosphoprotein of the Rad21p family conserved from fission yeast to humans. (6/1049)

Our work and that of others defined mitosis-specific (Rad21 subfamily) and meiosis-specific (Rec8 subfamily) proteins involved in sister chromatid cohesion in several eukaryotes, including humans. Mutation of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe rec8 gene was previously shown to confer a number of meiotic phenotypes, including strong reduction of recombination frequencies in the central region of chromosome III, absence of linear element polymerization, reduced pairing of homologous chromosomes, reduced sister chromatid cohesion, aberrant chromosome segregation, defects in spore formation, and reduced spore viability. Here we extend the description of recombination reduction to the central regions of chromosomes I and II. We show at the protein level that expression of rec8 is meiosis specific and that Rec8p localizes to approximately 100 foci per prophase nucleus. Rec8p was present in an unphosphorylated form early in meiotic prophase but was phosphorylated prior to meiosis I, as demonstrated by analysis of the mei4 mutant blocked before meiosis I. Evidence for the persistence of Rec8p beyond meiosis I was obtained by analysis of the mutant mes1 blocked before meiosis II. A human gene, which we designate hrec8, showed significant primary sequence similarity to rec8 and was mapped to chromosome 14. High mRNA expression of mouse and human rec8 genes was found only in germ line cells, specifically in testes and, interestingly, in spermatids. hrec8 was also expressed at a low level in the thymus. Sequence similarity and testis-specific expression indicate evolutionarily conserved functions of Rec8p in meiosis. Possible roles of Rec8p in the integration of different meiotic events are discussed.  (+info)

Correlation of bcl-2 rearrangement with clinical characteristics and outcome in indolent follicular lymphoma. (7/1049)

The t(14;18) translocation, which involves the bcl-2 oncogene, occurs in follicular lymphomas (FL) at two common sites: the major breakpoint region (MBR) and the minor cluster region (mcr). The biological and clinical significance of these breakpoints is unknown. The bcl-2 breakpoint site was determined in 247 previously untreated patients (49% men; median age 52 years) with indolent FL (155 grade I, 83 grade II, and 8 grade III) to correlate it with pretreatment characteristics, response, and outcome. The bcl-2 breakpoint site was determined by a polymerase chain reaction method of peripheral blood (all cases), bone marrows (149 cases), and fresh lymph node biopsy specimens (68 cases). The breakpoint site occurred at MBR in 175 cases (71%) and at mcr in 27 (11%). In 45 cases (18%), no breakpoint was detected (germline). No significant relationship was found between the rearrangements and the expression of BLC-2 and BAX proteins. Patients' germline for MBR and mcr tended to present more frequently with stage IV disease and higher beta2-microglobulin (beta2M) levels, whereas mcr-rearranged patients presented more frequently with early stage and normal beta2M. The complete response rate of germline patients was significantly lower than that of MBR and mcr patients. An estimated 3-year failure-free survival (FFS) for mcr, MBR, and germline cases was 95%, 76%, and 57%, respectively (P <.001). The bcl-2 breakpoint site was independent of serum beta2M and lactate dehydrogenase in its correlation with FFS. In conclusion, the bcl-2 rearrangement site is an important prognostic factor in indolent FL, useful to identify patients who may require different treatment.  (+info)

Structural organization of the human Elk1 gene and its processed pseudogene Elk2. (8/1049)

In the ets gene family of transcription factors, ELK1 belongs to the subfamily of Ternary Complex Factors (TCFs) which bind to the Serum Response Element (SRE) in conjunction with a dimer of Serum Response Factors (SRFs). The primary structure of the human Elk1 gene was determined by genomic cloning. The gene structure of Elk1 spans 15.2 kb and consists of seven exons and six introns. The coding sequence resides on exons 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. Sequencing of cDNA clones isolated from human hippocampus library revealed that the second exon was often skipped by an alternative splicing event. All introns commenced with nucleotides GT at the 5' boundary and ended with nucleotides AG at the 3' boundary, in agreement with the proposed consensus sequence for intron spliced donor and acceptance sites. Sequence inspection of the 5'-flanking region revealed the absence of a 'TATA' box and the presence of putative cis-acting regulatory elements such as Sp1, GATA-1, CCAAT, and c-Myb. Moreover, the sequence analysis of Elk2 locus on 14q32.3 confirmed that Elk2 gene corresponds to a processed pseudogene of Elk1 which has been reported between alpha 1 gene (IGHA1) and pseudo gamma gene (IGHGP) of immunoglobulin heavy chain. Furthermore, the results of Southern analysis using DNAs from human-mouse hybrid cell lines carrying a part of 14q32 region revealed that there is another locus hybridizing to Elk1 cDNA on 14q32.2 --> qter region in addition to Elk2 locus between IGHA1 and IGHGP loci.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Deletions and epimutations affecting the human 14q32.2 imprinted region in individuals with paternal and maternal upd(14)-like phenotypes. AU - Kagami, Masayo. AU - Sekita, Yoichi. AU - Nishimura, Gen. AU - Irie, Masahito. AU - Kato, Fumiko. AU - Okada, Michiyo. AU - Yamamori, Shunji. AU - Kishimoto, Hiroshi. AU - Nakayama, Masahiro. AU - Tanaka, Yukichi. AU - Matsuoka, Kentarou. AU - Takahashi, Tsutomu. AU - Noguchi, Mika. AU - Tanaka, Yoko. AU - Masumoto, Kouji. AU - Utsunomiya, Takeshi. AU - Kouzan, Hiroko. AU - Komatsu, Yumiko. AU - Ohashi, Hirofumi. AU - Kurosawa, Kenji. AU - Kosaki, Kenjiro. AU - Ferguson-Smith, Anne C.. AU - Ishino, Fumitoshi. AU - Ogata, Tsutomu. PY - 2008/2. Y1 - 2008/2. N2 - Human chromosome 14q32.2 carries a cluster of imprinted genes including paternally expressed genes (PEGs) such as DLK1 and RTL1 and maternally expressed genes (MEGs) such as MEG3 (also known as GTL2), RTL1as (RTL1 antisense) and MEG8 (refs. 1,2), together with the intergenic ...
浜松市城西浄化センターにおけるMBRの初期運転について (第46回下水道研究発表会講演集) (2009 ...
Definition of robertsonian translocation in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is robertsonian translocation? Meaning of robertsonian translocation as a legal term. What does robertsonian translocation mean in law?
Robertsonian translocations (RBT) are associated with an increased risk of aneuploidy. Single RBT carriers are the most common balanced rearrangement among the carrier couples with the history of spontaneous abortion. However, double Robertsonian translocations (DRBT), in which two balanced RBT occur simultaneously, are an extremely rare condition. A 9-year-old mentally normal ...
A Robertsonian translocation is a chromosomal abnormality that generally doesnt cause health problems. However, it can affect pregnancy, especially when it results in a fetus with a genetic condition that is incompatible with life. Well tell you what you can do if you have or suspect you have this translocation.
It is clear that, although we have learned much about the biology of MM, many questions remain. All of the available data suggest that IgH translocations are present in a majority (∼50-60%) of tumors, yet are not sufficient to exert the full malignant potential of the clone. Although early dysregulation of cyclin D1, D2, or D3 may represent a unifying event, it seems likely that two distinct pathways exist in the pathogenesis of MM. One pathway appears to involve an early IgH translocation that usually includes one of the four recurrent partners (11q13, 4p16, 16q23, 6p21), and mostly is associated with a nonhyperdiploid chromosome content. The second pathway infrequently, if ever, involves an early IgH translocation but mostly is associated with a hyperdiploid chromosome content, perhaps a reflection of intrinsic genetic instability, although we have virtually no understanding of this pathway. The timing and nature of additional genetic events that are involved in early pathogenesis is ...
It is clear that, although we have learned much about the biology of MM, many questions remain. All of the available data suggest that IgH translocations are present in a majority (∼50-60%) of tumors, yet are not sufficient to exert the full malignant potential of the clone. Although early dysregulation of cyclin D1, D2, or D3 may represent a unifying event, it seems likely that two distinct pathways exist in the pathogenesis of MM. One pathway appears to involve an early IgH translocation that usually includes one of the four recurrent partners (11q13, 4p16, 16q23, 6p21), and mostly is associated with a nonhyperdiploid chromosome content. The second pathway infrequently, if ever, involves an early IgH translocation but mostly is associated with a hyperdiploid chromosome content, perhaps a reflection of intrinsic genetic instability, although we have virtually no understanding of this pathway. The timing and nature of additional genetic events that are involved in early pathogenesis is ...
I am a 42-year-old woman struggling with infertility from a Robertsonian Translocation. My husband is 36 and we have been trying to get pregnant for two years
I am a 42-year-old woman struggling with infertility from a Robertsonian Translocation. My husband is 36 and we have been trying to get pregnant for two years
Enables deprecated DOS compatible mode, in this mode library checks for cylinders boundary, cases about CHS addressing and another obscure things.. ...
Hi there, I am researching chromosome 2 fusion theory. The theory that chromosome 2 and 3 was fused by a Robertsonian Translocation in two human-chimp common ancestors which mated giving us our chromosome 2 and 46 chromosomes instead of the other higher primates 48.. I was attempting to understand what the odds of this occurring were, to which end I want to know the odds that a chimp baby will be born with this mutation. I understand that 1 in 1000 human babies are born with a Robertsonian Translocation, is it the same for chimps?. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evidence for involvement of a Robertsonian translocation 13 chromosome in formation of a ring chromosome 13. AU - Stetten, G.. AU - Tuck-Muller, C. M.. AU - Blakemore, Karin. AU - Wong, C.. AU - Kazazian, Haig. AU - Antonarakis, S. E.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0025670533&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0025670533&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 2077349. AN - SCOPUS:0025670533. VL - 7. SP - 479. EP - 484. JO - Molecular Biology and Medicine. JF - Molecular Biology and Medicine. SN - 0735-1313. IS - 6. ER - ...
Background: Robertsonian translocations are structural chromosomal abnormalities caused by fusion of two acrocentric chromosomes. In carriers of such translocatio...
Chromosome translocations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of normal, healthy humans increase with age, but the effects of gender, race, and cigarette smoking on background translocation yields have not been examined systematically. Further, the shape of the relationship between age and translocation frequency (TF) has not been definitively determined. We collected existing data from 16 laboratorie
Tcl1兔多克隆抗体(ab32813)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Q&A. Q:什麼是自體免疫檢查?. A:少數人的免疫系統會攻擊自己的胚胎,造成胚胎無法著床或反覆流產。. 用抽血檢查即可知道體內是否具有特殊抗體。. Q:我需要做自體免疫檢查嗎?. A:1.累計植入10顆外表漂亮之胚胎或5顆囊胚沒成. 2.不明原因不孕、高齡、卵巢早衰(老)、體質過敏者. 3.反覆流產或習慣性流產. 以上只要有任一項符合,建議您做自體免疫篩檢。. Q:什麼時候可以做檢查?. A:無月經週期限制,任何時間皆可。. 因某些自體免疫反應可能是於懷孕後才啟動,建議可於懷孕時或剛流產後檢驗. ...
Looking for online definition of Robertsonian in the Medical Dictionary? Robertsonian explanation free. What is Robertsonian? Meaning of Robertsonian medical term. What does Robertsonian mean?
A familial lympho-epithelial thymoma with constitutional chromosomal translocation t (14;20) (q24;p13) is presented: the thymoma and its particular translocation are present in the mother and the two sons of her offspring. The small number of cases do not allow establishing any relation between thymoma and this particular translocation. Concerning genetic counseling, an annual thoracic radiography is necessary for all the other family members, carriers or not of the translocation.
IGH translocations induce up-regulation of different oncogenes order propecia 1 mg on line hair loss 6 months after giving birth, it is Learning Objectives possible that all IGH translocations involved in MM converge on a ● To understand that myeloma should no longer be considered common pathway that is essential in the pathogenesis of the disease as a single entity and cause the inhibition of differentiation and an increase in cell ● To understand that better tools for diagnosis and monitoring survival and proliferation order 5 mg propecia with visa hair loss in men quilters. Gene expression profiling (GEP) analysis treatment efficacy are being implemented has demonstrated that expression of the cyclin proteins (CCND1, ● To understand that the treatment goal is to find the best CCND2, and CCND3) is increased in almost all MM patients, possible balance among efficacy, toxicity, and cost supporting the hypothesis that there is a potential unifying event in its pathogenesis. The ...
Kagami M, Sekita Y, Nishimura G, Irie M, Kato F, Okada M, Yamamori S, Kishimoto H, Nakayama M, Tanaka Y, Matsuoka K, Takahashi T, Noguchi M, Tanaka Y, Masumoto K, Utsunomiya T, Kouzan H, Komatsu Y, Ohashi H, Kurosawa K, Kosaki K, Ferguson-Smith AC, Ishino F, Ogata T. Deletions imprinted region: implications for the development of paternal and maternal upd(14)-likeand epimutations affecting the human chromosome 14q32.2 phenotypes. Nat Genet 40: 237-242, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impact of primary molecular cytogenetic abnormalities and risk of progression in smoldering multiple myeloma. AU - Rajkumar, S. V.. AU - Gupta, V.. AU - Fonseca, R.. AU - Dispenzieri, A.. AU - Gonsalves, W. I.. AU - Larson, D.. AU - Ketterling, R. P.. AU - Lust, J. A.. AU - Kyle, R. A.. AU - Kumar, S. K.. PY - 2013/8/1. Y1 - 2013/8/1. N2 - We studied 351 patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) in whom the underlying primary molecular cytogenetic subtype could be determined based on cytoplasmic immunoglobulin fluorescent in situ hybridization studies. Hundred and fifty-four patients (43.9%) had trisomies, 127 (36.2%) had immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) translocations, 14 (4%) both trisomies and IgH translocations, 53 (15.1%) no abnormalities detected and 3 (0.9%) had monosomy13/del(13q) in the absence of any other abnormality. Among 127 patients with IgH translocations, 57 were t(11;14), 36 t(4;14), 11 musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma (MAF) translocations, and 23 other or ...
Author Summary Each time a mammalian cell duplicates its genome in preparation for cell division it activates thousands of so called
Background:This study was conducted to analyze the frequency, expression patterns, and the impact of individual proteins BCL2, BCL6, and p53 on overall survival (OS) in adult, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) Patients. BCL2 gene was further investigated for potential alterations at the DNA level and correlated with OS. Materials and Methods: A total of 117 adult well-characterized DLBCL cases were included. The panel of antibodies comprised CD45, CD20, CD79a, CD3, BCL2, BCL6, and p53. PCR was also employed to correlate the events at the DNA level in BCL2. Results: The mean and median ages were 47.74 and 49 with a M:F ratio of 2.07:1. The incidence of BCL2, BCL6, and p53 expression was observed in 64.10%, 37.60%, and 52.13% of cases, respectively. Amplifiable quality DNA was available from 90 cases. BCL2/IGH translocation was found in 35/90 Patients (38.88%) with 24 cases showing BCL2 (MBR)/IGH and 11 cases BCL2 (mcr)/IGH translocation. No association between BCL2 overexpression and BCL2 /IGH
The chromosomal translocation t(1;19)(q23;p13) and its variant form der(19)t(1;19) found in 3-5% of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) results in the expression of the E2A-PBX1 fusion transcript. Although strongly associated with a pre-B immunophenotype, we report the occurrence of t(1;19) in bone m …
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When a fusion sequence combines upper-case and lower-case nucleotides, this indicates the approximate location of the boundary between both partner genes ...
When a fusion sequence combines upper-case and lower-case nucleotides, this indicates the approximate location of the boundary between both partner genes ...
Maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) for chromosome 14 [upd(14)mat] may cause a characteristic phenotype with growth and developmental deficiency and precocious puberty. We report the case of a Japanese infant with an isochromosome 14 [i(14q)] and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The infant is o …
Translocation is the exchange of chromosome segments, usually between nonhomologous chromosomes. There are two primary types of translocations: reciprocal translocations and Robertsonian translocations. A reciprocal translocation occurs when segments from nonhomologous chromosomes break off, with segment attaching to the other chromosome and vice-versa. A Robertsonian translocation occurs when two acrocentric chromosomes (chromosomes with tiny short arms, meaning the centromere is near one end) fuse at the centromere and lose their short arms.. Reciprocal translocations usually involve only two chromosomes, meaning the total chromosome number is unchanged. Reciprocal translocation are typically harmless, despite being more common in individuals so retarded that they require institutional care. There are three kinds of reciprocal translocation: alternate; adjacent-1; and adjacent-2.. Robertsonian translocations lead to a balanced karyotype with only 45 chromosomes. Because acrocentric short arms ...
A Robertsonian translocation 45,XY, t(13q; 14q) was detected in the leukocyte cultures of a phenotypically normal male. Silver staining technique for nucleolus organizer regions revealed that both acrocentrics involved in the translocation had lost their nucleolus organizers.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mantle cell lymphoma with a novel t(11;12)(q13;p11.2). T2 - a proposed alternative mechanism of CCND1 up-regulation. AU - Menke, Joshua R.. AU - Vasmatzis, George. AU - Murphy, Stephen. AU - Yang, Lin. AU - Menke, David M.. AU - Tun, Han W. AU - King, Rebecca. AU - Smoley, Stephanie A.. AU - Ketterling, Rhett P.. AU - Sukov, William R.. PY - 2017/6/1. Y1 - 2017/6/1. N2 - Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is typically characterized by t(11;14), which places the [email protected] enhancer elements upstream of CCND1. This fusion results in up-regulation of CCND1 and consequently its protein product cyclin D1. Recent studies have shown that in MCL, mutations or translocations occurring within the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of the CCND1 gene can result in a truncated mRNA transcript that is more stable and associated with more aggressive disease. We identified a case of MCL showing cyclin D1 overexpression by immunohistochemistry and a t(11;12)(q13;p11.2) by conventional cytogenetic studies. ...
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Syvanen M, Ducore J. Whole genome comparisons reveals a possible chimeric origin for a major metazoan assemblage. Journal of Biological Systems, (18) 261-75. 2010. Zunino SJ, Storms DH, Ducore JM. Novel in vivo model of inducible multi-drug resistance in acute lymphoblastic leukemia with chromosomal translocation t(4;11). Cancer Lett. 2010 Oct 1;296(1):49-54. Epub 2010 Apr 9.. Zunino SJ, Storms DH, Ducore JM. Parthenolide treatment activates stress signaling proteins in high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells with chromosomal translocation t(4;11). Int J Oncol. 2010 Nov;37(5):1307-13.. Gofman I, Ducore JM. Risk Factors for the Development of Obesity in Children Surviving ALL and NHL. Journal of Pediatric Hematologyl Oncology, 31(2): 101-107. 2008. Zunino SJ, Ducore JM, Storms DH. Parthenolide induces significant apoptosis and production of reactive oxygen species in high-risk pre-B leukemia cells. Cancer Letters, 254(1): 119-27. 2007. Winter S, Holdsworth MT, Devidas M, Raisch OW, ...
Do You Have Follicular Lymphoma? Join friendly people sharing true stories in the I Have Follicular Lymphoma group. Find forums, advice and chat with groups who share this life experience. A Follicular Lymphoma anonymous support group with informatio...
Robertsonian translocation: Two breaks occur in separate chromosomes, usually the 14th and 21st chromosomes. There is rearrangement of the genetic material so that some of the 14th chromosome is replaced by extra 21st chromosome. So while the number of chromosomes remain normal, there is a triplication of the 21st chromosome material ...
Liang X, Jones A, Giller RH, Swisshelm K, McGavran L, Meltesen L, Carstens B, McGranahan AN, Albano EA. Primary high-grade B-cell lymphoma of the breast with concurrent IGH-BCL2 and MYC-IGL translocations in an adolescent patient. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2011 Sep-Oct; 14(5):402-6 ...
Changes in how follicular lymphoma is managed have led to substantial improvement in prognosis and over all survival for patients with the disease.
For patients with Relapsed/Refractory Follicular Lymphoma, second-line therapies are often successful in providing another remission.
New Insights into Transformed Follicular Lymphoma from the National LymphoCare Study - From the Blood Journals, News - ASH Clinical News
FDA granted approval to Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals inhibitor Aliqopa (copanlisib) for the treatment of adults with relapsed follicular lymphoma.
A CASE OF TRISOMY OF THE SHORT ARMS OF CHROMOSOME NO 4 WITH TRANSLOCATION T (4 P 21 P; 4 Q 21 Q) IN THE MOTHER = UN CAS DE TRISOMIE DES BRAS COURTS DU CHROMOSOME NO 4 AVEC TRANSLOCATION T (4 P 21 P; 4 Q 21 Q) CHEZ LA MERE)FURBETTA M; ROSI G; COSSU P et al.1975; HUMANGENETIK; DTSCH.; DA. 1975; VOL. 26; NO 2; PP. 87-91; BIBL. 13 REF.Article ...
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After a fairly normal and easy labor and delivery, Cal made his debut! He wasnt breathing well on his own and needed respiratory support. Because we knew he might be born with some abnormalities, we had lots of doctors ready to care for him right when he was born. A heart echo was one of the things they did right away, and the results came back showing quite a few defects with his little heart. At that point it was pretty clear he had the unbalanced chromosome translocation, but the microarray test results confirming this would take over a week to get back ...
This section includes notable fireplace mantels crafted in richly textured wood. Our featured mantels are traditional in form, and designed to enrich your s
Follicular lymphoma is the most common form of low-grade NHL and the second most common type of lymphoma overall diagnosed in the United States. Most follicular lymphoma diagnoses occur in adults over the age of 60, with equal rates of occurrence in male and female individuals; this specific lymphoma is rare in young people.. Follicular lymphoma affects B-cell lymphocytes and is indolent, which means it grows very slowly. Like most lymphomas, follicular lymphoma usually begins in the lymph nodes. The cells can spread into the blood and bone marrow. Other internal organs, including the liver and spleen, may also be affected.. Because follicular lymphoma grows so slowly, doctors may not treat it right away and instead adopt a watchful waiting approach. Over time, some follicular lymphomas transform into an aggressive (fast-growing) diffuse B-cell type of lymphoma, so its important for people with follicular lymphoma to be monitored closely. Learn more about the several treatment options that ...
LGFL - Low-Grade Follicular Lymphoma. Looking for abbreviations of LGFL? It is Low-Grade Follicular Lymphoma. Low-Grade Follicular Lymphoma listed as LGFL
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fusion of the nucleoporin gene NUP98 to HOXA9 by the chromosome translocation t(7;11)(p15;p15) in human myeloid leukaemia. AU - Nakamura, Takuro. AU - Largaespada, David A.. AU - Lee, Maxwell P.. AU - Johnson, Laura A.. AU - Ohyashiki, Kazuma. AU - Toyama, Keisuke. AU - Chen, Sai Juan. AU - Willman, Cheryl L.. AU - Chen, I. Ming. AU - Feinberg, Andrew P.. AU - Jenkins, Nancy A.. AU - Copeland, Neal G.. AU - Shaughnessy, John D.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1996/2. Y1 - 1996/2. N2 - Expression of Hoxa7 and Hoxa9 is activated by proviral integration in BXH2 murine myeloid leukaemias. This result, combined with the mapping of the HOXA locus to human chromosome 7p15, suggested that one of the HOXA genes might be involved in the t(7;11)(p15;p15) translocation found in some human myeloid leukaemia patients. Here we show that in three patients with t(7;11), the chromosome rearrangement creates a genomic fusion between the HOXA9 gene and the ...
Results Screening 16 different regions we detected additional genomic aberrations in 92% of the cases of mantle cell lymphoma. Common gains included 3q26, 8q24, 15q23, 7p15, and common losses 13q14, 11q22-q23, 9p21, 1p22, 17p13, 6q27, and 8p22. Deletions 8p22, 9p21, 13q14, and gain of 7p15 were associated with evidence of clonal heterogeneity. While there was no correlation of additional genomic aberrations and VH-mutation status, gain of 15q23 and deletion 6q27 were associated with lower disease stage (p=0.01 and p=0.04, respectively). Patients with deletion 13q14 had shorter overall survival times (p=0.01), and there was a strong trend towards inferior outcome in patients with deletion 9p21 (p=0.07). In multivariable analysis, loss of 13q14 and an International Prognosis Index score ≥ 3 turned out to be significantly associated with inferior clinical outcome (p=0.002 and p,0.001, respectively). ...
Maternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 15 or a deletion of 15q11.2-q13 from the paternally derived chromosome 15 is strongly supportive of the clinical diagnosis of PWS. Paternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 15 or a deletion of 15q11.2-q13 from the maternally derived chromosome 15 is strongly supportive of the clinical diagnosis of AS. The occurence of uniparental disomy is, however, rare in AS ...
The genesis of human follicular lymphoma (FL) is a multistep process. The initial event is thought to be the chromosomal translocation t(14;18)(q32;q21) juxtaposing the bcl-2 proto-oncogene with the immunoglobulin (Ig) H chain locus joining segment (JH) as an error of D-J or V-D joining in the pre-B cell. However, FL is recognized clinically as a tumor of surface Ig (sIg)-positive B cells with morphologic and phenotypic similarities to the centrocyte of the secondary immune response. Thus, additional steps must be involved in the clonal expansion of the FL tumor cell beyond the activation of bcl-2 as a consequence of the t(14;18) translocation. Like the normal centrocyte, somatic mutations accumulate in the variable (V) genes of FL tumor B cells. To determine if clonal expansion of FL occurs before or after the development of the malignant follicle, we sought to examine the evolution of the FL V gene from its unmutated germline (GL) counterpart. To obtain the GL gene we first cloned the ...
Clinical trial for follicular lymphoma | Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma | Lymphoma , ME-401 in Subjects With Follicular Lymphoma After Failure of Two or More Prior Therapies (TIDAL)
Follicular lymphoma is a cancer of the B-cells that accounts for around one third of all cases of lymphoma. The cancer is a form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that usually affects adults, with an average age-at-diagnosis of 60. Follicular lymphoma is more common among women than among men.
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) represents the fourth most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. It is characterized by aggressive course and frequent relapses. The main aim of this review is to evaluate current treatment approach towards...
The follicular lymphoma BAC libraries and data is a publicly funded data resource. You are free to use the data supplied by or through this web site in your scientific analysis. If you publish or use this data, you are required to attribute the original source of the data as belonging to the High Resolution Analysis of Follicular Lymphoma Genomes Project.. Please see our Open Access Data Release Policy page for more information.. ...
This FLIPI calculator for follicular lymphoma stratifies survival rate in patients diagnosed with follicular lymphoma and certain adverse outcome factors.
The ICD-10 Code C90.12 is the code used for Plasma cell leukemia in relapse .An alternative description for this code is Plasma cell leukemia in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Translocation t(1;19)(q23;p13) in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia-a distinct subtype with favorable prognosis. AU - Yilmaz, Musa. AU - Kantarjian, Hagop M.. AU - Toruner, Gokce. AU - Yin, C. Cameron. AU - Kanagal-Shamanna, Rashmi. AU - Cortes, Jorge E.. AU - Issa, Ghayyas. AU - Short, Nicholas J.. AU - Khoury, Joseph D.. AU - Garcia-Manero, Guillermo. AU - Ravandi, Farhad. AU - Kadia, Tapan. AU - Konopleva, Marina. AU - Wierda, William G.. AU - Jain, Nitin. AU - Estrov, Zeev. AU - Sasaki, Koji. AU - Pierce, Sherry. AU - OBrien, Susan M.. AU - Jabbour, Elias J.. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - The recurring translocation t(1;19) (q23;p13) with TCF3-PBX1 rearrangements are uncommon in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and their prognostic impact remains to be described in the era of modern chemotherapies. We investigated 427 adult patients with newly diagnosed pre-B ALL, 16 (4%) had t(1;19)(q23;p13) at diagnosis. All 16 patients achieved complete remission after induction ...
Balanced translocation definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
Roche has won European approval for cancer drug Gazyvaro as a treatment for some patients with previously treated follicular lymphoma, the most common type of indolent non-Hodgkins lymphoma. - News - PharmaTimes
Earn CME: https://naccme.com/program/7333In this presentation from the Persistent Challenges in the Management of Follicular Lymphoma symposium at the 2019 Great Debates & Updates in Hematologic Malignancies in New York, Dr. John P. Leonard provides an update on upfront and maintenance therapy advances in the treatment of follicular lymphoma.© 2019 Imedex, an HMP Company - Lymphoma - 28680
Follicular lymphoma core concepts. Gene expression lifestyle wellness nutrition diet supplements remission natural regression tumor suppressor genes
Finding a Clinical, Molecular Risk Model That Predicts Disease Progression in Follicular Lymphoma - From the Blood Journals, News, Written in Blood - ASH Clinical News
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has issued final draft guidance recommending that use of Roche’s Gazyvaro to treat follicular lymphoma be funded for NHS use via the Cancer Drug Fund. - News - PharmaTimes
Follicular Lymphoma Market Report provides in-depth information about market overview, top vendors, Key market highlights, product types, market drivers, challenges, trends, Elevator Wire Rope Market landscape, Market size and forecast, five forces analysis, Key leading countries/Region.
FOLLICULAR LYMPHOMA description, symptoms and related genes. Get the complete information in our medical search engine for phenotype-genotype relation
Gazyva plus Revlimid seems to be a promising treatment for relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma, according to the results of a clinical trial.
after the update to osx mountain lion my mbr was out of sync and i couldnt boot my gentoo (amd64) anymore (or windows for that matter). thought i share my experiences here how to get the dual/triple boot back (i.e. the mbr back in sync ...
All strawberry (Fragaria) species have a base haploid count of seven chromosomes; Fragaria vesca is diploid, having two pairs ... Evidence from archaeological excavations suggests that Fragaria vesca has been consumed by humans since the Stone Age. Woodland ... of these chromosomes for a total of 14. ... 14-15 weeks in climate-controlled greenhouses) ease of ...
The gene paralog FAM71F1 and the gene LINC01000 directly neighbor FAM71F2 on chromosome 7. The gene spans 30,627 base pairs and ... FAM71F2 gene is located on chromosome 7 in humans (7q32.1), starting at 128,671,636 and ending at 128,702,262 on the positive ... The time of divergence between eight orthologs from the human FAM71F2 is shown in Figure 5. It is not found in birds or in ... Isoform a is the longest of the mRNA transcripts and spans 5,775 base pairs that translates into a 309 amino acids sequence. It ...
The TMEM251 gene is located on human chromosome 14, at 14q32.12, on the plus strand. The gene size is 1,277 base pairs. It ... The promoter region starts 500 base pairs upstream of the 5' UTR of TMEM251 mRNA transcript and contains part of this 5' UTR. ... "Q8N6I4 - TM251_HUMAN". UniProt. UnitProt. Retrieved 9 May 2015. "Human BLAT Search". UCSC Genome Browser. UCSC. Retrieved 9 May ... EST Profile data shows the tissue expression of TMEM251 in humans. TMEM251 has no paralogs in humans. It does have orthologs ...
In humans, it is encoded by the ALOX15 gene located on chromosome 17p13.3. This 11 kilobase pair gene consists of 14 exons and ... 1992) demonstrated that genes for 12-lipoxygenase and 15-lipoxygenase are located on human chromosome 17, whereas the most ... Consequently, human ALOX15 is now referred to as arachidonate-15-lipoxygenase-1, 15-lipoxygenase-1, 15-LOX-1, 15-LO-1, human 12 ... The distribution of Alox15 in sub-human primates and, in particular, rodents differs significantly from that of human ALOX15; ...
The MORN1 gene is located on Chromosome 1 at locus 1p36.33 and contains 7 MORN repeats. It has 1641 base pairs in 14 exons in ... 2006). "The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1". Nature. 441 (7091): 315-21. Bibcode:2006Natur.441.. ... MORN1 containing repeat 1, also known as Morn1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MORN1 gene. The function of Morn1 ... MORN1 is nearby the SKI gene which encodes the SKI protein, LOC100129534, and RER1 gene on the positive strand of chromosome 1. ...
The SLX4IP gene is located on the short arm (p) of chromosome 20 at position 12.2 (20p12.2). The human SLX4IP gene contains 14 ... exons, with the cDNA being 204,000 base pairs orientated on the plus strand. This codes for a protein of 408 amino acids with a ... Orthologs for the human SLX4IP gene have also been identified in 283 other organisms. The SLX4IP protein is expressed at its ... July 2009). "Human SLX4 is a Holliday junction resolvase subunit that binds multiple DNA repair/recombination endonucleases". ...
Chromosome 18 open reading frame 63 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the C18orf63 gene. This protein is not yet well ... This gene is located at band 22, sub-band 3, on the long arm of chromosome 18. It is composed of 5065 base pairs spanning from ... "C18orf63 chromosome 18 open reading frame 63 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2018-02-19 ... "Human BLAT Search". genome.ucsc.edu. Retrieved 2018-04-27. Li X, Wang W, Wang J, Malovannaya A, Xi Y, Li W, Guerra R, Hawke DH ...
This gene is found on the plus strand of chromosome 17 at locus 17q11.2. It spans from base pairs 31,254,928 to 31,272,124. ... "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs". Genome ... This missing region corresponds to 85 base pairs near the end of the 5' UTR. Variant one is more abundant than Variant two with ... Transmembrane protein 98 is a single-pass membrane protein that in humans is encoded by the TMEM98 gene. The function of this ...
The isoelectric point of EFHC2 is estimated to be 7.13 in humans. Relative to other proteins expressed in humans, EFHC2 has ... The first ninety base pairs compose the five prime untranslated region and the last 1913 base pairs compose the three prime ... EFHC2 is located on the negative strand (sense strand) of the X chromosome at p11.3. EFHC2 is one of a few, select number of ... A related protein, EFHC1 is encoded by a gene on chromosome 6. It has been suggested that both proteins are involved in the ...
"MutS homolog 4 localization to meiotic chromosomes is required for chromosome pairing during meiosis in male and female mice". ... MutS protein homolog 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MSH4 gene. The MSH4 and MSH5 proteins form a hetero- ... indicating that it is not needed for establishing the preceding stages of pairing and synapsis of homologous chromosomes. In an ... Yi W, Wu X, Lee TH, Doggett NA, Her C (Jul 2005). "Two variants of MutS homolog hMSH5: prevalence in humans and effects on ...
Uncharacterized protein C14orf80 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the chromosome 14 open reading frame 80, C14orf80, ... Of the mRNA variants that have been found experimentally, the longest is 1,719 base pairs and produces a protein with 426 amino ... DeGrado-Warren J1, Dufford M, Chen J, Bartel PL, Shattuck D, Frech GC.) High-Throughput Proteomic Mapping of Human Interaction ... C14orf80 is 9,393 base pairs long and contains 11 exons that can be alternatively spliced to form different mRNA variants. ...
If two given DNA markers are far apart on the initial chromosome, then it is likely that they will appear in distinct fragments ... First of all, desired chromosomes are broken into several segments with X-rays, after which they are implanted in rodent cells ... Radiation hybrid mapping (also known as RH mapping) is a technique for mapping mammalian chromosomes. Radiation hybrid mapping ... which clone the chromosomes. Then these clones are analyzed for the presence of certain DNA markers. ...
It is located on the human chromosome 4 at 4q35.1. The function of the protein encoded by this gene is not well understood, but ... The total span of the gene, including 5' and 3' UTR, is 3149 base pairs. The gene is flanked on the left by NUDT13 (nudix ... Overall in the human body, this gene is expressed at levels slightly below the average human gene expression level. The protein ... A Systematic Exploration of the Human Interactome. Cell, 162(2), 425-440. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.06.043 "ABHD8_HUMAN". UniProt ...
Chromosome X Open Reading Frame 38 (CXorf38) is a protein which, in humans, is encoded by the CXorf38 gene. CXorf38 appears in ... Including 5' and 3' untranslated regions, isoform 1 is 18,515 base pairs long, spanning chromosome X at 40,626,921 - 40,647,554 ... UCSC entry on CXorf38 variant 1 "CXorf38 chromosome X open reading frame 38 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm ... However, unlike mice, there is a positive clustering of escape genes in humans, which suggests that human XCI escape could be ...
In humans, Robertsonian translocations occur in the five acrocentric chromosome pairs (chromosome pairs where the short arms ... or non-homologous chromosomes (i.e. two different chromosomes, not belonging to a homologous pair). A feature of chromosomes ... This type of translocation is cytologically visible, and can reduce chromosome number (from 23 to 22 pairs, in humans) if the ... In humans, when a Robertsonian translocation joins the long arm of chromosome 21 with the long arm of chromosomes 14 or 15, the ...
The SLC2A1 gene is located on the p arm of chromosome 1 in position 34.2 and has 10 exons spanning 33,802 base pairs. The gene ... GLUT 1 of humans and mice have 98% identity at the amino acid level. GLUT 1 is encoded by the SLC2 gene and is one of a family ... "SLC2A1 - Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - SLC2A1 gene & protein". www ... where it can also function as a receptor for human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) I and II. One good source of GLUT1 is ...
The human NDUFB1 gene codes for a subunit of Complex I of the respiratory chain, which transfers electrons from NADH to ... The NDUFB1 gene, located on the q arm of chromosome 14 in position 32.12, is 5,687 base pairs long. The NDUFB1 protein weighs 7 ... NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NDUFB1 gene. NADH ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
In humans, CHST14 is positioned on the long arm (q) of chromosome 15 at position 15.1, from base pair 40,470,961 to base pair ... Human CHST14 genome location and CHST14 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Otsuki T, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Hayashi K, ... August 2010). "Loss-of-function mutations of CHST14 in a new type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome". Human Mutation. 31 (8): 966-74. ... Mikami T, Mizumoto S, Kago N, Kitagawa H, Sugahara K (September 2003). "Specificities of three distinct human chondroitin/ ...
... in the SLC39A9 gene can occur due to genetic deletion of the q24.1-24.3 band of base pairs within the human chromosome 14. This ... ZIP9 influxes zinc ions into the cytosol and its gene is expressed almost in every tissue of human body. The sub-cellular ... Role of human ZIP9 in testosterone-induced prostate and breast cancer cell apoptosis". Endocrinology. 155 (11): 4250-65. doi: ... A study in 2014, elucidated the intermediary role of ZIP9 in causing human breast and prostate cancer, as it induced the ...
The CCDC47 gene itself is located on the minus strand of human chromosome 17 and contains 13 exon splice sites and 14 distinct ... In regards to the mRNA, translation begins at base pair 337 and ends at 1728. There is a strong stem loop located in the 5' UTR ... Coiled-coil domain 47 (CCDC47) is a gene located on human chromosome 17, specifically locus 17q23.3 which encodes for the ... Percent identity of human CCDC47 to a specific ortholog declines with increasing years of divergence, as expected. Homologous ...
... a novel gene encoding a protein involved in meiotic chromosome pairing and location of STAG3-related genes flanking the ... "Chromatid cohesion defects may underlie chromosome instability in human colorectal cancers". Proceedings of the National ... Stromal antigen 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STAG3 gene. STAG3 protein is a component of a cohesin complex ... STAG3 appears to participate in sister-chromatid cohesion throughout the meiotic process in human oocytes. A homozygous 1-bp ...
Covering a total of 45,038 base pairs (bp) along the chromosome, the TMEM229B gene has a total of 3 exons in its primary ... Transmembrane protein 229b is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMEM229b gene. The TMEM229B gene is also known as ... The TMEM229B gene is located on the sense strand (-) of chromosome 14 at location 14q24.1 and spans the chromosomal locus ... The gene is highly conserved in vertebrates, including portions of the approximately 3,000 base pairs of 3'UTR. Expressed ...
... and its gene pair SRARP are located 5 kb apart on the opposite strands of chromosome 1p36.13. HSPB7 is widely expressed ... in humans is a protein encoded by a gene of the same name with four exons that is located on chromosome 1p36.13.,. HSPB7 ... "HSPB7_HUMAN". UniProt. Vos MJ, Kanon B, Kampinga HH (August 2009). "HSPB7 is a SC35 speckle resident small heat shock protein ... HSPB7 is a member of human small heat shock protein (HSPB) family, which contains eleven family members of chaperone proteins. ...
... a member of the paired box-containing class of developmental control genes, is mapped to human chromosome 20p11.2 by in situ ... Paired box protein Pax-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PAX1 gene. This gene is a member of the paired box (PAX ... 1989). "Conservation of the paired domain in metazoans and its structure in three isolated human genes". EMBO J. 8 (4): 1183-90 ... 2002). "The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 20". Nature. 414 (6866): 865-71. doi:10.1038/414865a. ...
Paired box gene 9, also known as PAX9, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PAX9 gene. It is also found in other ... The gene PAX9 which can be found on chromosome 14 encodes a group of transcription factors that play an important role in early ... In humans, a frameshift mutation in the paired domain of PAX9 was discovered in those affected with oligodontia. Multiple ... "A novel missense mutation in the paired domain of PAX9 causes non-syndromic oligodontia". Human Genetics. 114 (3): 242-9. doi: ...
For example, diploid human cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes including 1 pair of sex chromosomes (46 total), half of ... Recombination among the 23 pairs of human chromosomes is responsible for redistributing not just the actual chromosomes, but ... The paired and replicated chromosomes are called bivalents (two chromosomes) or tetrads (four chromatids), with one chromosome ... The paired chromosomes are called bivalent or tetrad chromosomes. The pachytene stage (/ˈpækɪtiːn/ PAK-i-teen), also known as ...
Humans have one pair fewer chromosomes than the great apes. Human chromosome 2 appears to have resulted from the fusion of two ... The typical human karyotypes contain 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes (allosomes). The most ... The karyotype of humans includes only 46 chromosomes. The other great apes have 48 chromosomes. Human chromosome 2 is now known ... In primates, the great apes have 24x2 chromosomes whereas humans have 23x2. Human chromosome 2 was formed by a merger of ...
It contains approximately 1 Gbp (giga base pairs) or 10 9 base pairs. This genome size is close to the average observed for ... Jha, A. N.; Hutchinson, T. H.; Mackay, J. M.; Elliott, B. M.; Pascoe, P. L.; Dixon, D. R. (1995). "The chromosomes Of ... The ciliary photoreceptor cells resemble molecularly and morphologically the rods and cones of the human eye. Additional, they ... A pair of these eyes mediate phototaxis in the early Platynereis dumerilii trochophore larva. In the later nectochaete larva, ...
... human)] - Gene - NCBI". "AceView: Gene:C14orf45, a comprehensive annotation of human, mouse and worm genes with mRNAs or ... The mRNA is 3123 base pairs long and has 12 exons, the protein is 529 amino acids long and has a molecular weight of 61987 Da ... which is located on the plus strand of chromosome 14 at 14q24.3. CCDC176 is neighbored by ALDH6A1 and ENTPD5 at the same locus ... The most prevalent and most likely interaction is with LIG4, a human gene that encodes the protein DNA Ligase IV. Two ...
This article on a gene on human chromosome 2 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... "Clustering of two fragile sites and seven homeobox genes in human chromosome region 2q31→q32.1". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 90 (1-2 ... Homeobox protein Hox-D8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXD8 gene.[5][6][7] ... Goodman FR (2003). "Limb malformations and the human HOX genes". Am. J. Med. Genet. 112 (3): 256-65. doi:10.1002/ajmg.10776. ...
The institute is also the first develop a test to detect chromosome translocations in human embryos to increase the success ... 2009 First Paired Kidney Exchange in New Jersey Performed, Family Health Magazine, Spring/Summer 2006 - accessed July 11, 2009 ... Human cloning is a long way off, but bioengineered kids are already here, Washington Monthly, March 2002 - accessed July 11, ... The division performed the first paired kidney exchange in New Jersey at Saint Barnabas Medical Center in 2005. Over time, it ...
They are usually found in pairs (diplococci) and do not form spores and are nonmotile.[2] As a significant human pathogenic ... For a bacterium to bind, take up, and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome, it must enter a special physiological state ... The genome of S. pneumoniae is a closed, circular DNA structure that contains between 2.0 and 2.1 million base pairs depending ... pneumoniae can be found in the human upper respiratory system. A study of competition in vitro revealed S. pneumoniae ...
When adenine is deaminated, it becomes hypoxanthine, which can pair with cytosine. During replication, the cytosine will pair ... It further contends that only a minority of the genetic material is kept in circular chromosomes while the rest is in branched ... but not human mtDNA).[21] ... Hypoxanthine can bind to cytosine, and when the XC base pair is ... Chloroplast DNAs are circular, and are typically 120,000-170,000 base pairs long.[4][7][8] They can have a contour length of ...
... except that the sequences at these loci may differ between the two chromosomes in a matching pair and that a few chromosomes ... For organisms in which the male is heterogametic, such as humans, almost all X-linked genes are hemizygous in males with normal ... chromosomes because they have only one X chromosome and few of the same genes are on the Y chromosome. Transgenic mice ... A chromosome in a diploid organism is hemizygous when only one copy is present.[2] The cell or organism is called a hemizygote ...
Paired box gene 8, also known as PAX8, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PAX8 gene.[5] ... Pilz AJ, Povey S, Gruss P, Abbott CM (1993). "Mapping of the human homologs of the murine paired-box-containing genes". ... Poleev A, Fickenscher H, Mundlos S, Winterpacht A, Zabel B, Fidler A, Gruss P, Plachov D (November 1992). "PAX8, a human paired ... Members of this gene family typically encode proteins which contain a paired box domain, an octapeptide, and a paired-type ...
... is a multigene haplotype that covers a majority of the human major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6 (not to be ... 1 million base pairs centromeric from DQ2.5 may also be associated with Type 1 diabetes. In addition the BAT1 and MICB variant ... These unique chromosomes are produced by recombination of each unique chromosome passed by each grandparent to each parent. ... At 4.7 million nucleotides in length, A1::DQ2 is the second longest haplotype identified within the human genome.[1] A1::DQ2 ...
By pairing chromosomes of similar genomes, the chance for these recessive alleles to pair and become homozygous greatly ... "American Journal of Human Genetics. 64 (1): 225-31. doi:10.1086/302198. PMC 1377721. PMID 9915962.. ... Van Den Berghe, Pierre L (2010). "Human inbreeding avoidance: Culture in nature". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 6: 91-102. doi ... HumansEdit. See also: Incest, Incest taboo, Pedigree collapse, and Cousin marriage ...
... so each human chromosome can be identified by a characteristic color using whole-chromosome probe mixtures and a variety of ... Each probe for the detection of mRNA and lncRNA is composed of 20 oligonucleotide pairs, each pair covering a space of 40-50 bp ... The chromosomes can be seen in blue. The chromosome that is labeled with green and red spots (upper left) is the one where the ... Then, an interphase or metaphase chromosome preparation is produced. The chromosomes are firmly attached to a substrate, ...
Presenilin-1 (PS-1) is a presenilin protein that in humans is encoded by the PSEN1 gene.[5] Presenilin-1 is one of the four ... Kang DE, Soriano S, Xia X, Eberhart CG, De Strooper B, Zheng H, Koo EH (September 2002). "Presenilin couples the paired ... "Genetic linkage evidence for a familial Alzheimer's seasesease locus on chromosome 14". Science. 258 (5082): 668-71. Bibcode: ... Tanahashi H, Tabira T (February 1999). "Isolation of human delta-catenin and its binding specificity with presenilin 1". ...
Sigurdsson S, Van Komen S, Petukhova G, Sung P (Nov 2002). "Homologous DNA pairing by human recombination factors Rad51 and ... condensed chromosome. • nuclear chromosome, telomeric region. • nucleus. • nuclear chromatin. • lateral element. • cytosol. • ... nuclear chromosome. • mitochondrial matrix. • nucleolus. • mitochondrion. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • chromatin. • ... condensed nuclear chromosome. • macromolecular complex. Biological process. • regulation of protein phosphorylation. • strand ...
... even though the fox genome has 16 pairs of metacentric autosomes and the dog has 37 pairs of acrocentric autosomes.[10] ... These were foxes that were eager to have human contact. By the 10th generation 18 percent of fox pups were in this "elite" ... Using 320 microsatellites Trut and co-workers showed that all 16 fox autosomes and one X chromosome were covered, and that ... This page was last edited on 14 January 2019, at 01:22 (UTC). ...
... usually have a single circular chromosome,[129] with as many as 5,751,492 base pairs in Methanosarcina acetivorans,[130 ... making up about one in ten of all the prokaryotes in the human gut.[197] In termites and in humans, these methanogens may in ... Circular chromosomes, similar translation and transcription to Eukarya. Circular chromosomes, unique translation and ... after the cell's chromosome is replicated and the two daughter chromosomes separate, the cell divides.[154] In the genus ...
... is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome ... See also: Category:Genes on human chromosome 16.. The following is a partial list of genes on human chromosome 16. For complete ... "Chromosome 16". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2017-05-06.. *. "Chromosome 16". Human Genome Project Information Archive ... Human chromosome 16 pair after G-banding.. One is from mother, one is from father. ...
... each human diploid cell (containing 23 pairs of chromosomes) has about 1.8 meters of DNA; wound on the histones, the diploid ... This involves the wrapping of DNA around nucleosomes with approximately 50 base pairs of DNA separating each pair of ... of the human genome in five human cell lines". Genome Research. 17 (6): 691-707. doi:10.1101/gr.5704207. PMC 1891331. PMID ... is a transcription factor which activates histone gene transcription on chromosomes 1 and 6 of human cells. NPAT is also a ...
Genetically, there are 74 diploid chromosomes (36 pairs). Appearance[edit]. The crab-eating fox is predominantly greyish-brown ... its habitat is slowly shrinking due to human activity such as agriculture, as well as feral dogs' encroachment on its territory ... The adult female gives birth to one or two litters per year, and the breeding pair is monogamous. The pair ranges the plains ... It either hunts individually or lives in pairs; it eats crabs, lizards and different flying animals. It is easy to domesticate ...
Likewise, gray wolf Y-chromosomes have also been found in a few individual male Texan coyotes.[11] This study suggested that ... By late 2012, it was estimated that there were at least 75 wolves and four breeding pairs living in the recovery areas, with 27 ... The Mexican wolf persisted longer in Mexico, as human settlement, ranching and predator removal came later than in the ... A pair of Mexican wolves with pups at Sevilleta Wolf Management Facility in Socorro, New Mexico ...
Pu'er with chrysanthemum is the most common pairing, and referred as guk pou or guk bou (菊普; Cantonese Yale: guk1 pou2; pinyin ... Larger specimens of this shape are sometimes called "human-head tea" (人頭茶), due in part to its size and shape, and because in ... This notion has recently been refuted through a systematic chromosome analysis of the species attributed to many East Asian ... Wild trees (gŭshù, 古树; literally "old tree"): Teas from old wild trees, grown without human intervention, are the highest ...
Crosland, M.W.J., Crozier, R.H. Myrmecia pilosula, an ant with only one pair of chromosomes. Science. 1986, 231 (4743): 1278. ... Ijdo, J. W., Baldini, A., Ward, D. C., Reeders, S. T., & Wells, R. A. Origin of human chromosome 2: an ancestral telomere- ... 選擇可以作用在基因而非個體的層級,即使降低個體的適應度,自私DNA仍然可以演化,造成基因組內部衝突。例子包括跳躍子、減數分裂驅動者(meiotic drivers)、殺手X染色體(killer X chromosomes)、自私粒線體(
Genes on human chromosome 11. *Genes on human chromosome 14. *Genes on human chromosome 20 ... In 1943, with the help of Arda Green, the pair illustrated that glycogen phosphorylase existed in either the a or b forms ... The cloning of the human liver glycogen phosphorylase (HLGP) revealed a new allosteric binding site near the subunit interface ... This phosphorylation is added onto the glycogen phosphorylase b serine 14. In the liver, glucagon activates another G-protein- ...
HumansEdit. Humans are bilaterals and deuterostomes. In humans, the term embryo refers to the ball of dividing cells from the ... Pair-rule genes define 7 segments of the embryo within the confines of the second broad segment that was defined by the gap ... Thus, a fly whose chromosomes are mutant in both copies of the Bicoid gene but who is born from a mother carrying one normal ... As of today, human embryology is taught as a cornerstone subject in medical schools, as well as in biology and zoology programs ...
"MutS homolog 4 localization to meiotic chromosomes is required for chromosome pairing during meiosis in male and female mice". ... Yi W, Wu X, Lee TH, Doggett NA, Her C (Jul 2005). "Two variants of MutS homolog hMSH5: prevalence in humans and effects on ... Her C, Wu X, Griswold MD, Zhou F (Feb 2003). "Human MutS homologue MSH4 physically interacts with von Hippel-Lindau tumor ... Räschle M, Dufner P, Marra G, Jiricny J (Jun 2002). "Mutations within the hMLH1 and hPMS2 subunits of the human MutLalpha ...
"A Y Chromosome Census of the British Isles" (PDF).. *^ Härke, Heinrich; Thomas, Mark G; Stumpf, Michael P H. "Integration ... earthsky.org/human-world/jawbone-is-earliest-evidence-of-modern-humans-in-europe ... The Acts of Union between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland were a pair of Parliamentary Acts passed by both ... including the Swedish king Erik XIV. This created endless worries over her succession, especially in the 1560s when she nearly ...
... chromosome translocation in a human leukemia T-cell line indicates that putative regulatory regions are not altered". Proc. ... 3.2) Paired box. PAX (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) ... to the human c-myc oncogene; presence of a long inverted repeat ... Astrin SM, Laurence J (1992). "Human immunodeficiency virus activates c-myc and Epstein-Barr virus in human B lymphocytes". Ann ... HMGB (1, 2, 3) • HNF (1A, 1B) • LEF1 • SOX (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 21) • SRY • SSRP1 • TCF (3, 4) ...
"Final report on the human rights situation of the Roma, Sinti and travellers in Europe". The European Commissioner for Human ... "Y CHROMOSOME SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS TYPING BY SNaPshot MINISEQUENCING" (PDF). Bjmg.edu.mk. Retrieved 20 December 2016. ... and art present romanticized narratives of mystical powers of fortune telling or irascible or passionate temper paired with an ... European Journal of Human Genetics. 9 (2): 97-104. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200597. PMID 11313742. Archived from the original (PDF) ...
Modern Human Origins, and Complex Disease Mapping, Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics" (pdf). 9. Retrieved December ... In the 2003 PBS programme African American Lives, Bishop T.D. Jakes had his DNA analyzed; his Y chromosome showed[dubious - ... Igbo women were paired with Coromantee (Akan) men to subdue the men because of the belief that the women were bound to their ... Institute for the Study of Human Issues.. *^ ". Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ibo". Encyclopædia Britannica. 14 (11th ed.). ...
... a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187-91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID ... Position (base pair): 180. Total size (base pairs): 366. Forward 5′→ 3′: aactcttgataaaccgtgctg. Reverse 5′→ 3′: ... a b c The Y Chromosome Consortium 2008 *^ a b c d e f g Cristofaro; et al. (2013). "Afghan Hindu Kush: Where Eurasian Sub- ... 2004). "Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia". Human Genetics. 114 (2): 127-48. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4. ...
"The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 69 ... that overlies Druze and Cypriot samples but not samples from other Levantine populations or paired Diaspora host populations. ... "American Journal of Human Genetics. 86 (6): 850-9. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.04.015. PMC 3032072. PMID 20560205.. ... "European Journal of Human Genetics. 15 (4): 498-500. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201764. PMID 17245410.. ...
The genotype of the male consists of a Y chromosome paired with an X chromosome. Female gender is determined by the absence of ... Redirected from Human male reproductive system). This article is about the reproductive system in human males. For the male ... This occurs when one X chromosome contains a segment of the Y chromosome, which was inserted into the X chromosome of the ... If this sperm cell contains an X chromosome it will coincide with the X chromosome of the ovum and a female child will develop ...
VNTR analysis of loci on four other chromosomes excluded non-paternity with greater than 99% confidence. … ... Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13* * Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14* * Female * Genomic Imprinting * Genotype ... Maternal uniparental isodisomy of human chromosome 14 associated with a paternal t(13q14q) and precocious puberty Eur J Hum ... Results of VNTR and CA repeat analyses of ten loci along the entire length of chromosome 14 were consistent with homozygosity ...
We have identified a novel gene containing CAG repeats and mapped it to chromosome 14q32.1, the genetic locus for Machado- ... Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14* * Cloning, Molecular * Female * Genes * Humans * In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence ... CAG expansions in a novel gene for Machado-Joseph disease at chromosome 14q32.1 Nat Genet. 1994 Nov;8(3):221-8. doi: 10.1038/ ... We have identified a novel gene containing CAG repeats and mapped it to chromosome 14q32.1, the genetic locus for Machado- ...
... base pairs) and represents about 3.5 percent of the total DNA in cells. Learn about health implications of genetic changes. ... Chromosome 14 spans more than 107 million DNA building blocks ( ... Current status of human chromosome 14. J Med Genet. 2002 Feb;39 ... Humans normally have 46 chromosomes in each cell, divided into 23 pairs. Two copies of chromosome 14, one copy inherited from ... Gilbert F. Disease genes and chromosomes: disease maps of the human genome. Chromosome 14. Genet Test. 1999;3(4):379-91. ...
There is a race going on to lower the cost human gene sequencing to a level of a comprehensive battery of blood tests. The ... called chromosomes. These strands are paired, connected side to side along their lengths. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. ... These strands are paired, connected side to side along their lengths. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. www.Options-Trading- ... The human genome is the sum total of all human genes.Human genes are present on long strands of DNA (complex molecules) called ...
Gilbert F (1999). "Disease genes and chromosomes: disease maps of the human genome. Chromosome 14". Genet Test. 3 (4): 379-91. ... Chromosome summary - Homo sapiens". Ensembl Release 88. 2017-03-29. Retrieved 2017-05-19. "Human chromosome 14: entries, gene ... The following is a partial list of genes on human chromosome 14. For complete list, see the link in the infobox on the right. ... Kamnasaran D, Cox DW (2002). "Current status of human chromosome 14". J Med Genet. 39 (2): 81-90. doi:10.1136/jmg.39.2.81. PMC ...
We have identified 24 patients at our institution who had t(11;14 ... 14)(q13;q32). Here, we describe the clinical characteristics of ... Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics, ultrastructure*. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14 / genetics, ultrastructure*. Creatinine / ... Humans. Leukemia, Plasma Cell / genetics, mortality, pathology. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy, genetics*, mortality, ... 2004308 - Extramedullary blast crisis in a patient with philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic .... 12506758 - Prognostic ...
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13 - genetics Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9 - genetics Genes, Recessive Genetic Linkage Humans Phenotype ... Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 - genetics Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9 - genetics Female Finland Genetic markers Genetic ... Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9 - genetics Cohort Studies DNA Mutational Analysis De Lange Syndrome - genetics Female Humans Male ... Chromosome Mapping Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9 - genetics Comorbidity Genetic Linkage Genetic markers Genetic Predisposition to ...
Measuring chromosome imbalance could clarify cancer prognosis. Most human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Any deviation ... New role in spatial chromosome organization identified for often mutated cancer protein. New research from The Wistar Institute ... Researchers from the Hubrecht Institute and Radboud University have developed a human model in which they use organoids, or ... These countries have high incidences of cervical cancer linked to human papillomavirus ... ...
All strawberry (Fragaria) species have a base haploid count of seven chromosomes; Fragaria vesca is diploid, having two pairs ... Evidence from archaeological excavations suggests that Fragaria vesca has been consumed by humans since the Stone Age. Woodland ... of these chromosomes for a total of 14. ... 14-15 weeks in climate-controlled greenhouses) ease of ...
At 2 metres in length, the human genome is longer than the average human but it needs to be packaged inside the nucleus of ... If youve ever put a pair of headphones in your pocket, youll know how difficult it is to keep a long cord in a bundle without ... Individual chromosomes snake in and out of these two compartments and when a given gene is activated, it moves from one to the ... What is the difference between the human genome and a pair of headphones? * facebook ...
... general Forensic sciences Genetic aspects Gene mutation Diagnosis Physiological aspects Gene mutations Y chromosome ... Analysis of Mutation Rate of 17 Y-Chromosome Short Tandem Repeats Loci Using Tanzanian Father-Son Paired Samples.(Research ... On the combined use of slow and fast evolving polymorphic markers on the human Y chromosome," American Journal of Human ... APA style: Analysis of Mutation Rate of 17 Y-Chromosome Short Tandem Repeats Loci Using Tanzanian Father-Son Paired Samples.. ( ...
Human Heredity - 14.1 - Human Chromosomes - 14.1 Assessment - Page 397 1c including work step by step written by community ... The complete set of chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs in order of decreasing size is termed a Karyotype. ... Assessment - 14.1 Human Chromosomes - Understand Key Concepts/Think Critically * Assessment - 14.2 Human Genetic Disorders - ... Human Heredity - 14.1 - Human Chromosomes - 14.1 Assessment - Page 397: 2a Previous Answer Chapter 14, Human Heredity - 14.1 - ...
The human genome comprises about 3 billion nucleotides organized into 23 chromosome pairs. Each chromosome comprises DNA and ... The isolated sequences are no longer located on a human chromosome and therefore are not necessarily assembled in the native ... While a human body does transcribe a gene into mRNA, which is then translated into a protein, the human body does not isolate ... Genes and human genetic sequences are comprised of DNA. The term DNA is an acronym for a chemical compound which is also known ...
... one of the 24 distinct bundles of DNA in humans that carry the biochemical instructions for life. ... The researchers found 1,050 genes on the chromosome. The chromosome itself contains 87.4 million base pairs or DNA letters. But ... This complete set of instructions is called the human genome. There are 22 numbered chromosomes plus two sex chromosomes, the X ... The human genetic code, or genome, consists of about three billion pairs of chemicals known as bases. These are arranged in 24 ...
Ex humans have 46 chromosomes 23 pairs of chromosomes *Source of pairs each parent provides one chromosome of the pair ... 12.2 Chromosome Number 15. 12.2 Chromosome Number*Diploid (2n) a cell with the double set of chromosomes ... 12.2 Chromosome Number*Meiosis process that produces haploid gametes (sperm eggs) *It can also produce spores haploid cells ... Chapter 2 - Title: Chapter 2 Chromosomes and Sexual Reproduction Author: Jill Last modified by: Jill Carroll Created Date: 1/17 ...
Every chromosome pair had a least one rearrangement. No normal X chromosomes were observed and Y chromosomes were absent by QM ... This is a hyper-triploid human cell line with a modal chromosome number of 75. Homogeneously staining regions and dicentric ... No normal X chromosomes were observed and Y chromosomes were absent by QM staining. Normal copies of chromosomes 2,6,11,13,16 ... a chromosome break in 3/30, a chromatid break in 5/30, a ring chromosome in 1/30, and double minutes in 11/30 (1-5 copies). ...
The human genome consists of approximately 22,000 genes packed into 23 pairs of chromosomes. Each gene is encoded as DNA, which ... 5] "Starting from a region on the long arm of human chromosome 17 of the human genome, 17q, which has a size estimated at about ... Chromosome 17 has approximately 80 million nucleotides, and chromosome 13 has approximately 114 million. Association for ... A pairs with T; C pairs with G. The nucleotide cross-bars are chemically connected to a sugar-phosphate backbone that forms the ...
28) 23 pairs of chromosomes in the human body. 31) 6 balls to an over in cricket, Im not sure you would know that.... hope ... 28) 23 pairs of chromosomes in the human body. 31) 6 balls to an over in cricket, Im not sure you would know that.... hope ... 14 15 P in a R T ?? 15 3 W on a T 3 wheels on a tricycle 16 100 C in a R ??. 17 11 P in a F (S) T 11 players in a football ( ... 14) 15 players on a rugby team. 19) 13 is unlucky for some. 20) 8 tentacles on an octopus. ...
Chapter 14 Vocabulary. Announcements: 1-30. Tutoring - Troy Central - Tomorrow - Wednesday!! Sections 14.1 and 14.2 from ... of homologous chromosomesHuman diploid cell has ____ chromosomes arranged in ____ pairs • The 46 chromosomes contain Two ... Human Chromosomes • Karyotype: • A picture of chromosomes taken during mitosis and cut out and arranged into homologous pairs. ... Human Heredity II. Human Traits • Humans have 46 total chromosomes • 44 _____________ follow regular Mendelian genetics • 2 ...
The analysis revealed a single homozygous region on chromosome 12p12.1-12p11.22 in all 5 affected individuals (Figure 1A). The ... A custom enrichment design covering 7M base pairs (NimbleGen Sequence Capture Microarrays; Roche) was used to enrich for the ... Abolished InsP3R2 function inhibits sweat secretion in both humans and mice. Joakim Klar,1 Chihiro Hisatsune,2 Shahid M. Baig,3 ... The human phenotype was modeled in the Itpr2-/- mice, albeit with a milder phenotype corresponding to hypohidrosis. Because ...
Using an experimentally acquired dataset for human chromosome 14, tandem repeats > 200 bp were assembled. Alignment of the ... is derived from an identity-based protocol without pairing. Moreover, this proposed protocol is provably secure in the CK model ... for the assembly of repetitive sequences by constructing contigs directly from paired-end reads. ... contigs to the human genome reference (GRCh38) revealed that 84.3% of tandem repetitive regions were correctly covered. For ...
Pairs of human chromosomes are numbered from 1 through 22, with an unequal 23rd pair of X and Y chromosomes for males and two X ... Each chromosome has a short arm designated as "p" and a long arm identified by the letter "q." Chromosomes are further ... For example, "chromosome 14q31" refers to band 31 on the long arm of chromosome 14. ... Human traits including the classic genetic diseases, are the product of the interaction of two genes for that condition, one ...
In human cells there are 22 pairs of autonomic chromosomes. and two sex chromosomes. These chromosomes contain information for ... base pairs to 9.2 kilobases (Internet 3). Over 100 disease-associated mutations. have be identified to this gene (Internet 3) ... BRCA1 is located on chromosome 17q21 and BRCA2 on. 13q(Internet 2). A person that possesses certain mutations to these genes ... BRCA2 is located on chromosome 13q12(Internet. 2). Little additional detail about this gene is available. Testing for BRCA2 is ...
... compared to 23 in the human genome. The Sanger Institute sequenced chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 13 : The Institute ... The Plasmodium falciparum genome, which consists of 24 million base pairs of DNA is divided into 14 chromosomes- ... These latest developments mean researchers now have a detailed insight into the DNA or "book of life" for humans, parasites and ... Experts estimate the equivalent of 45 million years of productive human life are lost annually through premature death and ...
... a member of the paired box-containing class of developmental control genes, is mapped to human chromosome 20p11.2 by in situ ... Paired box protein Pax-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PAX1 gene. This gene is a member of the paired box (PAX ... 1989). "Conservation of the paired domain in metazoans and its structure in three isolated human genes". EMBO J. 8 (4): 1183-90 ... 2002). "The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 20". Nature. 414 (6866): 865-71. doi:10.1038/414865a. ...
Comparative sequence analysis of a gene-rich cluster at human chromosome 12p13 and its syntenic region in mouse chromosome 6. ... The first pair of thiols are regulated via isomerisation with a second pair of redox-active thiols to form a pair of nested ... In human ERO1, two disulfide-forming Cys pairs, Cys 94/Cys 99 and Cys 394/Cys 397, constitute the redox-active enzymatic center ... 1998) determined ω = 0.77, much higher than the average of ω = 0.12 determined for ~13000 pairs of human/mouse orthologs. A ...
The number of chromosomes a nucleus contains will change from species to species (humans have forty-six chromosomes). Also ... The homologous chromosomal pairs (matching chromosomes derived from mother and father) do not necessarily lie next to each ... The human genome contains 180 rRNA genes located on the tips of five different chromosomes (chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22 ... Chromosomes fill much of the nuclear interior, with each chromosome occupying its own neighborhood. In differentiated human ...
... know youre thinking weve had more than enough discussion of one simplistic umbrella hypothesis for the origin of unique human ... youd have three chromosomes from the human/chimp parent twisted around one chromosome, but they would be able to pair up, ... There are pig chromosomes that have almost the same arrangement of genes as a corresponding human chromosome. ... Blocks of conserved synteny between pig and human. (a) Pig SSC7 to human chromosomes 6, 14 and 15. (b) HSA13 compared to pig ...
PMS1 and PMS2 on chromosome 7p22. No MutH homologues have been identified in humans [14]. MSH2 and MSH6 bind together to form a ... heteroduplex (MutSa) that predominantly identifies base pairs mismatched, while MSH2 and MSH3 (MutSβ) combine to identify short ... MSH3 on chromosome 5q11, and MSH6 on chromosome 2p16; the MutL homologues (MLH), MLH1 on chromosome 3p21 and MLH3 on chromosome ... "Studies on the interactions between human replication factor C and human proliferating cell nuclear antigen," Proceedings of ...
Keywords: chromosomes, human, pair 14, ring chromosomes, ring 14 syndrome, 14q terminal deletion syndrome, coloboma, ... chromosomes, human, pair 14, ring chromosomes, ring 14 syndrome, 14q terminal deletion syndrome, coloboma, microphthalamos, ... We report a child with a 14q32.31 terminal deletion and ring chromosome formation, presenting with severe visual impairment ... We report a child with a 14q32.31 terminal deletion and ring chromosome formation, presenting with severe visual impairment ...
  • Because researchers use different approaches to genome annotation their predictions of the number of genes on each chromosome varies (for technical details, see gene prediction). (wikipedia.org)
  • Disease genes and chromosomes: disease maps of the human genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human genome is the sum total of all human genes. (slideshare.net)
  • The human genome contains roughly 23,000 pairs of proteins that code or produce proteins. (slideshare.net)
  • It is also used as a genetic model plant for garden strawberry and the family Rosaceae in general, due to its: very small genome size short reproductive cycle (14-15 weeks in climate-controlled greenhouses) ease of propagation. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is the difference between the human genome and a pair of headphones? (scienceblogs.com)
  • At 2 metres in length, the human genome is longer than the average human but it needs to be packaged inside the nucleus of every one of our cells, each just 6 millionths of a metre long. (scienceblogs.com)
  • A team of scientists led by Erez Lieberman-Aiden and Nynke van Berkum showed that chromosomes that make up our genome fold into a shape called a "fractal globule", where the long strands of DNA are densely packed but without a single knot. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The DNA is then shredded and the cross-linked fragments are isolated, sequenced and mapped onto the reference copy of the human genome. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The human genetic code, or genome, consists of about three billion pairs of chemicals known as bases. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Scientists already have a rough draft of the entire human genome. (bbc.co.uk)
  • This case involves claims from three of them and requires us to resolve whether a naturally occurring segment of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is patent eligible under 35 U.S.C. § 101 by virtue of its isolation from the rest of the human genome. (harvard.edu)
  • The human genome consists of approximately 22,000 genes packed into 23 pairs of chromosomes. (harvard.edu)
  • In a separate project, an international consortium of researchers has sequenced the genome of the Anopheles gambiae mosquito*, which transmits the parasite to humans. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • The draft human genome was published by an international consortium in February 2001. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • The work was carried out in the UK at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire, which also carried out one-third of the human genome sequencing programme , and in the USA at The Institute for Genomic Research and Stanford University . (sanger.ac.uk)
  • The Plasmodium falciparum genome, which consists of 24 million base pairs of DNA is divided into 14 chromosomes- compared to 23 in the human genome. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • The Institute for Genome Research (TIGR) sequenced 2, 10, 11 and 14 : Stanford sequenced chromosome 12. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • A distinguishing characteristic of eukaryotes, the nucleus contains the genetic information ( genome ) of the cell in the form of its chromosomes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Since 2006, 23andMe's mission has been to help people access, understand, and benefit from the human genome. (theladders.com)
  • Founded in 2006, the mission of the company is to help people access, understand, and benefit from the human genome. (theladders.com)
  • However, these reads are only a couple of hundred base pairs long making it difficult for an assembler ( e.g. , [ 1 , 2 ]) to reconstruct the genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Unfortunately, scaffolding with read pairs poses challenges: reads may create spurious links because of read errors, heterozygosity and the repeated nature of the genome, and these spurious links make ordering and orientations among the contigs ambiguous. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We present a high-resolution genetic map of the human genome, based on statistical analyses of genetic variation data, and identify more than 25,000 recombination hotspots, together with motifs and sequence contexts that play a role in hotspot activity. (sciencemag.org)
  • Exchange of DNA between chromosome pairs during meiosis has occurred throughout the human genome at many restricted sites located no more than 200,000 bases apart. (sciencemag.org)
  • Meiotic recombination generates crossovers between homologous chromosomes that are essential for genome haploidization. (nature.com)
  • Humans show individual differences in the number of crossovers generated across the genome. (nature.com)
  • In humans, the number of crossovers occurring across the genome differs between individuals. (nature.com)
  • The scientific paper analyzing the genome of that parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, is being published this week in the journal Nature along with a comparison of the genome to the genetic sequence of a rodent malaria parasite, P. yoelii yoelii, which is used as a model to study the human form of the disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • Overall, researchers said, the P. falciparum genome consists of about 24 million DNA base pairs that are distributed among 14 chromosomes and encode nearly 5,300 genes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Several recent studies ( 1 , 2 ) have shown that fine-scale recombination rates can be successfully estimated from genetic variation data by coalescent-based methods, but to date these have only been applied to small fractions of the human genome. (sciencemag.org)
  • Walther Flemming, a German anatomist, in 1882 discovered mitosis (the process by which a cell separates its duplicated genome into two identical halves) and described the behavior of chromosomes in animals. (essayempire.com)
  • It has a very small genome (130-140 Mbp), five chromosomes and contains almost no repetitive DNA. (tripod.com)
  • The human IGS also contains a subset of sequences found elsewhere in the genome, such as alu repeats and a cdc27 psuedogene ( 17 ). (asm.org)
  • The mapping process is computationally very expensive since the reference genome is very large (e.g., the human genome has 3.2 gigabase-pairs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, the ubiquitous common repeats and segmental duplications within the human genome complicate the task since a short read from such a genome segment corresponds to a large number of mapping locations in the reference genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The seed-and-extend heuristic is developed based on the observation that for a correct mapping, the short query read and its corresponding reference fragment, which is the piece of the reference genome that the query read should map to, must share some brief regions (usually 10-100 base-pair-long) of exact or inexact matches. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Whole Genome Shotgun Sequencing (WGSS) was subsequently performed on the Hulk, from which chromosome γ was assembled and Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC) were created. (ubc.ca)
  • The genome of the most common form of Plasmodium which causes human malaria, Plasmodium falciparum , has been sequenced completely, yielding 14 chromosomes and 5,300 genes--a large number of which are responsible for dodging the host's immunities. (kenyon.edu)
  • Using comparative genomics a large number of sequences that have signals concordant with conserved RNA secondary structures have been discovered in the human genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have combined tiling array data with genome wide structural RNA predictions to search for novel noncoding and structural RNA genes that are expressed in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-AS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The sequencing of the human genome marked the starting point of a very difficult task: to make sense of the enormous amount of information stored in the genome by annotating the functionally important regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • New genetic technologies are developing very rapidly: recent discoveries related to the human genome have opened the door to new opportunities and unprecedented ethical concerns. (coe.int)
  • The current scientific consensus is that these techniques are not yet "safe" enough to establish a pregnancy with germline cells or human embryos having undergone intentional genome editing, but deliberate germline editing in human beings would also cross a line viewed as ethically inviolable. (coe.int)
  • 2. In particular, recent advances in genome editing are bound to result in germline interventions in human beings quite soon, for example with the birth of children whose genome has been altered with some unforeseeable consequences in such a way that their descendants are also affected. (coe.int)
  • 4. Numerous scientific and ethical bodies are starting to make recommendations to establish an appropriate regulatory framework for genome editing and germline interventions in human beings, including most recently the United States National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Medicine, and the European Academies Science Advisory Council (EASAC). (coe.int)
  • The current prohibition on interventions aimed at modifying the germline in human beings in all European Union and many Council of Europe member States is not going to stop genome-edited babies from being born elsewhere. (coe.int)
  • Not really, you just mentioned, that at Human genome page they have them separate, what's logical, as they are not homologous and you only showed some page with bullshits on it. (biology-online.org)
  • One of the flanking regions is part of a subtelomeric repeat that is present at 10 to 25% of the chromosome ends in the human genome. (nih.gov)
  • The genome of E. coli consists of a single circular DNA molecule of approximately 4.6 x 10 6 nucleotide pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes on chromosome 11 are among the estimated 20,000 to 25,000 total genes in the human genome. (news-medical.net)
  • Recently, two genome-wide searches carried out in 20 Cantonese-speaking families from the Guangdong province and 18 families from the Hunan province in southern China provided support for susceptibility loci on chromosome 4p15.1-q12 and 3p21.31-21.2, respectively ( 11 , 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The centromere of chromosome 14 is positioned approximately at position 17.2 Mbp. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human βIII spectrin gene ( SPTBN2 ) maps to chromosome 11q13 and the mouse gene ( Spnb3 ) maps to a syntenic region close to the centromere on chromosome 19. (pnas.org)
  • This ploidy reduction is achieved through a series of meiosis-specific events, including pairing, synapsis, crossover formation between homologues, suppression of sister centromere separation during the first (reductional) division and separation of sister chromatids during the second (equational) division. (nature.com)
  • The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes. (essayempire.com)
  • A chromosome with its centromere towards one end. (tripod.com)
  • FISH probes revealed that in all cases, save the Hulk, the γ-chromosome was associated with the centromere of the X-chromosome. (ubc.ca)
  • Human Molecular Genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Respondent Myriad Genetics, Inc. (Myriad), discovered the precise location and [2111] sequence of two human genes, mutations of which can substantially increase the risks of breast and ovarian cancer. (harvard.edu)
  • 3 Human Molecular Genetics Laboratory, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad, Pakistan. (jci.org)
  • Nurnberg et al, Human Genetics (1993) 91: 190-192. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Human Molecular Genetics 25(24), pp. 5483-5489. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • In genetics , attention is focused on the numbers of chromosomes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Through a novel method of analyzing these big data, Sharlee Climer, research assistant professor in computer science, and Weixiong Zhang , professor of computer science and of genetics at the School of Medicine, discovered a region encompassing the gephyrin gene on chromosome 14 that underwent rapid evolution after splitting in two completely opposite directions thousands of years ago. (wustl.edu)
  • 3 Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. (cdc.gov)
  • Investigators have determined that Krabbe's Leukodystrophy may be caused by disruption or changes (mutations) of the human galactocerebrosidase (GALC) gene located on the long arm (q) of chromosome 14 (14q31). (rarediseases.org)
  • Mutations in the human gene may contribute to the condition of Klippel-Feil syndrome, which is the failure of the vertebrae to segment near the top of the spine and possibly further down with symptoms including a short, immovable neck and a low hairline on the back of the head. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the genes associated with the establishment and function of nodal cilia are one of the genetic causes of human LR asymmetry disorders ( 4 , 12 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Waardenburg's syndrome patients have mutations in the human homologue of the Pax-3 paired box gene. (mpg.de)
  • Mutations … are changes in the genetic material can be good or bad can be on a single gene or the whole chromosome. (amazonaws.com)
  • Human DNA adds between 30 and 50 new mutations each generation. (thedalleschronicle.com)
  • We determined the severity and regional distribution of neuronal loss, amyloid plaques, neuritic plaques (NPs), and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), and calculated the ratio of neuronal loss to NPs and NFTs in brains of 19 familial AD (FAD) patients with linkage to chromosome 14, six AD patients with mutations of chromosome 21 (codon 717 of the beta-amyloid percursor protein gene), and 11 sporadic AD (SAD) patients. (umassmed.edu)
  • These numerous mutations should have produced a large number of intermediate haplotypes, but the intermediates have almost entirely disappeared, and the divergent yin and yang haplotypes are prevalent in populations representing every major human ancestry. (wustl.edu)
  • It has also been shown that in cancers lacking p53 mutations, the p53 function is abolished or attenuated by other mechanisms, such as the overexpressed human homologue of the mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) protein ( 22 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • As the proband's father had a balanced Robertsonian translocation, t(13q14q), we suggest that the origin of the maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) was fertilization by a nullisomy 14 sperm with formation of the isochromosome in the early embryo. (nih.gov)
  • A rearrangement (translocation) that moves genetic material from one of several other chromosomes to a region of chromosome 14 called 14q32 occurs in 20 to 60 percent of cases of multiple myeloma, which is a cancer arising from plasma cells, a type of white blood cell. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clinical significance of the translocation (11;14)(q13;q32) in multiple myeloma. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The most common chromosomal translocation in multiple myeloma (MM) is t(11;14)(q13;q32). (biomedsearch.com)
  • We have identified 24 patients at our institution who had t(11;14)(q13;q32) as determined by standard cytogenetic analysis (CC). Seven patients had the translocation detected at the time of original diagnosis and 17 at the time of relapse. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The change in chromosome structure could occur due to breakage or rearrangement translocation, inversion, rings, or deletions of some of the chromosome material. (essayempire.com)
  • Do β2 microglobulin levels affect survival of newly diagnosed myeloma patients with translocation t(4;14) or 17p13 deletion treated with conventional chemotherapy? (elsevier.com)
  • We have identified a novel gene containing CAG repeats and mapped it to chromosome 14q32.1, the genetic locus for Machado-Joseph disease (MJD). (nih.gov)
  • Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A deletion of genetic material from part of the long (q) arm of chromosome 14 can cause FOXG1 syndrome, which is a rare disorder characterized by impaired development and structural brain abnormalities. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In addition, some people with terminal deletion 14 syndrome have a loss or gain of genetic material from another chromosome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Any deviation from this number can be fatal for cells, and several genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, are caused by abnormal numbers of chromosomes. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The genetic instructions held on chromosome 14 have been published online. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Developing treatments, like chromosome-specific drugs that could repair the damage in the genetic code, are a long way off but this work could help doctors screen for these genetic conditions. (bbc.co.uk)
  • D. In humans, _______________ (reproductive cells of egg and sperm) contain a single copy of each gene (one set of genetic information). (slideserve.com)
  • Human traits including the classic genetic diseases, are the product of the interaction of two genes for that condition, one received from the father and one from the mother. (rarediseases.org)
  • They analysed 2.5 million variations in DNA base pairs - the letters which spell out the genetic code - to identify common spelling 'errors' linked to ovarian cancer risk. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Senior author Dr Simon Gayther, whose work is supported by Cancer Research UK and The Eve Appeal charity which fundraises for the gynaecological cancer research team based at UCL, said: "The human DNA blueprint contains more than 10 million genetic variants. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • It is known from mouse mutants and through human genetic analysis of families with non-obstructive azoospermia and premature ovarian failure, that alterations in these genes (that is, meiosis-specific cohesin subunit STAG3, and SYCE1) can result in meiotic arrest and human infertility 12 , 13 . (nature.com)
  • TIGR researchers are now tackling the genomes of the second major human malaria parasite, P. vivax, as well as deciphering the genetic codes of other pathogens that sicken or kill millions of people - including parasites that cause African sleeping sickness, Chagas disease, schistosomiasis, amoebic dysentery, lymphatic filariasis, and opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients. (eurekalert.org)
  • High-throughput, "next-generation" technologies make it possible to sequence entire human genomes, allowing for the identification of many new genetic variants that contribute to organ fibrosis. (jci.org)
  • This Review focuses on biologic pathways implicated by human genetic studies of pulmonary fibrosis. (jci.org)
  • At the fine scale, we find strong concordance between genetic variation-based and sperm-typing estimates of recombination rates and the location of hotspots across 3.3 Mb of the human major histocompatibility region ( 4 , 7 ) (fig. S2). (sciencemag.org)
  • The genetic information encoded in DNA and carried in cells is normally packaged in molecules called chromosomes: long strands of DNA and associated proteins that carry many genes, regulatory elements, and nucleotide sequences. (essayempire.com)
  • The findings of our study extend the mutational spectrum of the CCDC114 gene, and contribute to clarifying the pathogenesis of human ciliopathies and benefit genetic counseling. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The genetic map around the tail kinks (tk) locus on mouse chromosome 9. (mpg.de)
  • In the cell's nucleus, this genetic material is tightly packaged and wound up in shorter segments called chromosomes. (thedalleschronicle.com)
  • The research team used big data from the International HapMap Project, a public resource of genetic data from populations worldwide designed help researchers find genes associated with human disease, as well as from the 1000 Genomes project, another public data source of sequenced human genomes. (wustl.edu)
  • To find this pattern within the huge datasets, the research team used a novel method to assess correlations between genetic markers called single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs, which are variations in a DNA sequence that make humans different from each other. (wustl.edu)
  • Research led by investigators in veterinary and human medicine has identified genetic pathways that exacerbate severity of canine compulsive disorder in Doberman pinschers, a discovery that could lead to better therapies for obsessive compulsive disorder in people. (news-medical.net)
  • Chromosome 14 spans more than 107 million DNA building blocks (base pairs) and represents about 3.5 percent of the total DNA in cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with ring chromosome 14 syndrome have one copy of this abnormal chromosome in some or all of their cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Alternately, seizures might result from instability of the ring chromosome in some cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes. (medicalxpress.com)
  • What kind of cells would only have ½ the number of chromosomes? (powershow.com)
  • Chromosomes are found in the nucleus of all body cells. (rarediseases.org)
  • 14). In human cells there are 22 pairs of autonomic chromosomes and two sex chromosomes. (artscolumbia.org)
  • After the chromosomes have segregated to the new daughter cells, the nucleus and its components must be rebuilt. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Indirect immunofluorescence studies of cultured cells using antisera specific to human βIII spectrin reveal a Golgi-associated and punctate cytoplasmic vesicle-like distribution, suggesting that βIII spectrin associates with intracellular organelles. (pnas.org)
  • This paper will examine the moral status of the human embryo especially focusing on the current issue of dismembering them to obtain embryonic stem (ES) cells. (christianliferesources.com)
  • Any remaining cells will not become a human. (christianliferesources.com)
  • Perhaps one could catch the embryo before it reaches a stage of being judged human and then take the ES cells without any concern. (christianliferesources.com)
  • With the potential to give rise to all somatic cell types, human embryonic stem cells (hESC) have generated enormous interest as agents of cell replacement therapy. (pnas.org)
  • Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) ( 1 ) can be maintained in culture in a self-renewing state and differentiate into all three embryonic germ layers ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Restoration of Telomeres in Human Papoillomavirus-Immortalized Human Anogenital Epithelial Cells," Molecular and Cellular Biology 14:961-969 (1994). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Telomere shortening associated with chromosome instability is arrested in immortal cells which express telomerase activity," EMBO J 11:1921-1929 (May 5, 1992). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • But depending of the kind of cells you can have from one unique chromosome (bacteria) to tens of pairs of chromosome (human have 23 pairs). (biology-online.org)
  • So what would happen if I inject more of the chromosome into the cells nucleus? (biology-online.org)
  • Mice with orthotopic thoracic tumors composed of 32D- v-abl cells that received intraesophageal SOD2 -PL treatment showed transgenic mRNA in the esophagus at 24 h, but no detectable human SOD2 transgene mRNA in explanted tumors by nested RT-PCR. (bioone.org)
  • When human cells have to adapt due to a wide variety of external influences, the BAF complex plays a central role because it controls the accessibility of the DNA and thus the information stored in it. (eurekalert.org)
  • Chromosomes were first observed by a Swiss botanist, Karl Wilhelm von Nageli, in 1842 in plant cells. (essayempire.com)
  • The asexually reproducing species have one set of chromosomes, which is the same in all body cells. (essayempire.com)
  • Nucleolus cycle in human cells. (biologists.org)
  • In mouse cells that contain individual human chromosomes, UBF can be found associated with human rDNA despite its transcriptional silence ( 55 ). (asm.org)
  • Antibody staining of metaphase chromosomes confirms the presence of two classes of NOR in human cells, active and inactive ( 21 , 50 , 61 ). (asm.org)
  • 5. In 2001, France and Germany requested the United Nations General Assembly to develop international conventions on human reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning and research on stem cells. (who.int)
  • Treatment of normal cells with γ-radiation caused a dissociation of the γ- from the X-chromosome. (ubc.ca)
  • Anyway, if they do not pair, how can they be securelly divided into new cells? (biology-online.org)
  • Although sperm telomeres are 10 to 14 kb long, telomeres in somatic cells are several kilobase pairs shorter and very heterogeneous in length. (nih.gov)
  • Normally, human cells contain 22 pairs of chromosomes and one X and one Y or two X chromosomes depending on gender. (alzheimer-europe.org)
  • We previously demonstrated that the major immediate early (MIE) proximal enhancer containing one GC box and the TATA box containing promoter are minimal elements required for transcription and viral replication in human fibroblast cells (H. Isomura, T. Tsurumi, M. F. Stinski, J. Virol. (asm.org)
  • These data indicate that the Sp1 and Sp3 binding sites have a significant role in HCMV replication in human fibroblast cells. (asm.org)
  • Without the distal enhancer the recombinant virus replicates slowly and has a small-plaque phenotype in human fibroblast cells ( 50 ). (asm.org)
  • Human DNA stretched out from a single one of our cells would measure over six feet in length, and consists of nearly three billion base pairs. (thedalleschronicle.com)
  • Chromosome 11 spans about 134 million DNA building blocks (base pairs) and represents between 4 percent and 4.5 percent of the total DNA in cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Cytogenetic and molecular investigation of a boy with precocious puberty and motor developmental delay revealed a 45,XY,t(14q14q) or i(14q) karyotype with no paternal chromosome 14 contribution. (nih.gov)
  • The complete set of chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs in order of decreasing size is termed a Karyotype. (gradesaver.com)
  • I don't know the answer to this right off hand but one paper I found suggests that it is rather often, 'The Robertsonian (Rb) fusion, a chromosome rearrangement involving centric fusion of two acro-(telo)centric chromosomes to form a single metacentric, is one of the most frequent events in mammalian karyotype evolution. (askabiologist.org.uk)
  • Karyotype A picture of the chromosomes of an individual or a species, including number, form, and size of the chromosomes. (amazonaws.com)
  • Two copies of chromosome 14, one copy inherited from each parent, form one of the pairs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The following chromosomal conditions are associated with changes in the structure or number of copies of chromosome 14. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People normally have two copies of this chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following structural rearrangements were observed in 30 metaphases: an acentric fragment in 2/30 metaphases, a minute in 3/30, a chromosome break in 3/30, a chromatid break in 5/30, a ring chromosome in 1/30, and double minutes in 11/30 (1-5 copies). (atcc.org)
  • The scientists estimate that there is a 40 per cent increase in lifetime risk for women carrying the DNA variation on both copies of chromosome nine compared with someone who doesn't carry it on either chromosome. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Two copies of the alpha-globin gene (designated alpha-2 and alpha-1) are located on each chromosome 16. (bmj.com)
  • The 400 copies of the human rDNA repeat are distributed among five NORs on the p-arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22 ( 30 ). (asm.org)
  • Other origins of plasmid replication include pSC101 (derived from Salmonella, around 5 copies per cell), 15A origin (derived from p15A, 10-20 copies per cell) and Bacterial artificial chromosomes (1 copy per cell). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. Nondisjunction is the failure of chromosome pairs or sister chromatids to separate properly during cell division. (majortests.com)
  • Homologous chromosomes become tethered together through numerous recombination events between homologous non-sister chromatids, which are triggered by double-strand break induction. (nature.com)
  • It consists of two parallel axial elements (AEs) that bind sister chromatids together, and which become known as lateral elements (LEs) upon chromosome pairing. (nature.com)
  • Previous research using microdensitometric scanning and computer graphic image analysis showed that T-banded segments of human metaphase chromosomes usually exhibit an asymmetrical distribution of high density (HD) chromatin between sister chromatids. (scielo.br)
  • Microdensitometric scanning and computer graphic image analysis of high-resolution microphotographs of T-banded segments of human and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) chromosomes allowed the detection of a differential distribution of HD sub-telomeric chromatin between sister chromatids. (scielo.br)
  • Anaphase During anaphase, the pairs of chromosomes, also called sister chromatids, are drawn to opposite poles of the elongated cell. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • TelophaseThe most important characteristic of telophase is that the nuclear envelope, which had previously broken down to allow the microtubules to access and recruit the chromosomes to the equator of the dividing cell, reforms as two new nuclear envelopes around the separated sister chromatids. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • These genes can be activated by spinach or smurf berry treatment (via CpG demethylation) or by exposure to γ- radiation (via physical separation of chromosome γ from X). This suggests a potential for the discovery of additional "super" genes and chromosomes in association with previously defined chromosomes. (ubc.ca)
  • The two zebrafish snap25 loci are located in paralogous linkage groups that seem to correspond to human chromosome 20, which harbors the SNAP locus, and human chromosome 14. (zfin.org)
  • Mapping of the mod-1 locus on mouse chromosome-9. (mpg.de)
  • 10 ) were the first to map a susceptibility locus to chromosome 6p22 in affected sib pairs collected from southern China, supporting the involvement of the human leukocyte antigens in the pathogenesis of NPC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Results of VNTR and CA repeat analyses of ten loci along the entire length of chromosome 14 were consistent with homozygosity at all loci, suggesting that the chromosomal rearrangement was a maternal isochromosome for 14q. (nih.gov)
  • Ring chromosome 14 syndrome is caused by a chromosomal abnormality known as a ring chromosome 14 or r(14). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The homologous chromosomal pairs (matching chromosomes derived from mother and father) do not necessarily lie next to each other. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A chromosomal disorder is a chromosome anomaly, abnormality, or aberration is a missing, extra, or irregular portion of chromosomal DNA. (majortests.com)
  • When a chromosomal fusion occurs in one individual human, they would look no different than any other human. (askabiologist.org.uk)
  • The histopathology and time sequence of events are comparable to the esophagitis in humans that is associated with chemoradiotherapy of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). (bioone.org)
  • The putative amino acid sequence of porcine MBP shares 91% identity with human MBP. (usda.gov)
  • This gene is a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors which are essential during fetal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we use tools of the epigenetic phenomenon, X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), to investigate their epigenetic properties. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we examine the epigenetic stability of hESC using markers of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), a whole-chromosome silencing phenomenon that compensates for the female's extra X-chromosome dosage relative to the male's ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • DNA methylation is a common epigenetic marker and plays important roles in the regulation of gene expression, genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation, embryonic development, and cancer5. (ubc.ca)
  • VNTR analysis of loci on four other chromosomes excluded non-paternity with greater than 99% confidence. (nih.gov)
  • Analysis of Mutation Rate of 17 Y-Chromosome Short Tandem Repeats Loci Using Tanzanian Father-Son Paired Samples. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • These telomere-flanking sequences detect BAL 31-sensitive loci and thus are located close to chromosome ends. (nih.gov)
  • 1992). T-banded chromosomes were photographed under a Zeiss Photomicroscope II using a Neofluar oil immersion objective (100X), double immersion and phase contrast. (scielo.br)
  • Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines chromosome as "one of the linear or sometimes circular DNAcontaining bodies of viruses, prokaryotic organisms, and the cell nucleus of eukaryotic organisms that contain most or all of the genes of the individual. (essayempire.com)
  • This transcriptionally competent form of Pol I is associated with Rrn3/TIF-1A and is thought to be the target of growth regulation of ribosomal gene expression in organisms ranging from yeast to humans ( 7 , 34 - 36 , 62 . (asm.org)
  • But genes only account for a few percent of the total DNA in most organisms' chromosomes. (thedalleschronicle.com)
  • This means that sometime between 6-12 million years ago, there was a species of ape that was the common ancestor of both humans and chimpanzees. (ucsb.edu)
  • This rendered chimpanzees and humans as different species. (ucsb.edu)
  • 5 This led to a series of adjustments that created the intelligent, tool-using, child-rearing species that humans are today. (ucsb.edu)
  • However, each species has different number of chromosomes (see table), but normal members of a particular species all have the same number of chromosomes. (essayempire.com)
  • Two genetically dissimilar individuals of the same species like any two human beings except monozygotic twins. (tripod.com)
  • While the four major species of Plasmodium differ in some ways from each other, they all share the same complex life cycle involving the insect (mosquito) vector and the human host. (kenyon.edu)
  • The four species of Plasmodium that affect humans are different morphologically , slightly in terms of their life cycles , in terms of their host erythrocite preferences, and varying clinical symptoms. (kenyon.edu)
  • A few animal species and many plant species, however, are the result of hybrid speciation , including important crop plants such as wheat , where the number of chromosomes has been doubled. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human impact on the environment has resulted in an increase in the intrabreeding between species, with introduced species worldwide, which has resulted in an increase in hybridization. (wikipedia.org)
  • During meiosis, two successive rounds of chromosome segregation occur following a single round of replication, resulting in the formation of haploid gametes from diploid progenitors 1 . (nature.com)
  • The chromosome itself contains 87.4 million base pairs or DNA letters. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Genes range from a couple hundred to two million base pairs in length, each gene coding for a single protein such as hemoglobin or insulin. (thedalleschronicle.com)
  • Nucleolar expansion due to abnormal increases in polyamines could disrupt nearby chromatin, such as the inactive X chromosome, leading to expression of previously sequestered DNA. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the hypothesis it was proposed that enlargement of the nucleolus in response to cellular stress could disrupt neighboring chromatin, such as the inactive X chromosome. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we employed the same methods to analyze HD chromatin distribution at opposite ends of T-banded human lymphocyte chromosomes. (scielo.br)
  • This study revealed that in most chromosomes with an asymmetrical distribution of HD chromatin at both ends, the highest densities of each arm were located in opposite chromatids. (scielo.br)
  • The frequency of this configuration was 0.792 per chromosome, indicating that the highest chromatin densities of the terminal segments of T-banded human chromosomes were non-randomly distributed at opposite chromosome arms. (scielo.br)
  • These patterns were confirmed by scanning T-banded endoreduplicated CHO chromosomes in which the same interchromatid distribution of HD chromatin appeared in both sister chromosomes (Drets and Mendizábal, 1998). (scielo.br)
  • Nevertheless, quantitative computerized microdensitometrical analyses on the distribution of HD chromatin at opposite ends of T-banded chromosomes have not yet been reported. (scielo.br)
  • Therefore, we performed microdensitometric scanning and computer graphic image analysis to study HD chromatin distribution at T-banded human chromosomes that showed asymmetry at opposite ends. (scielo.br)
  • An interesting exception to this pattern is chromosome 19, which has a much lower density and intensity of hotspots in addition to having the highest gene density ( 9 ) and proportion of open chromatin ( 10 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Chromatin is a central component of the cell nucleus and refers to the material that makes up the chromosomes. (eurekalert.org)
  • The smallest "packaging unit" of chromatin is the nucleosome, consisting of 146 base pairs of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer. (eurekalert.org)
  • When the chromosomes reach the mitotic poles, the nuclear envelope reforms while chromatin decondenses to form chromosome territories (for a review, see Cremer and Cremer, 2001 ). (biologists.org)
  • Here, we utilize chromatin immunoprecipitation from a highly enriched nucleolar chromatin fraction to show for the first time that UBF binding in vivo is not restricted to known regulatory sequences but extends across the entire intergenic spacer and transcribed region of Xenopus , human, and mouse rDNA repeats. (asm.org)
  • They lie one after the other on chromosome 14, but in the nucleus, they pair up differently. (scienceblogs.com)
  • These are arranged in 24 distinct bundles called chromosomes and are found in the nucleus of every cell in our bodies. (bbc.co.uk)
  • It is within the nucleus that the DNA in the chromosomes is duplicated prior to cell division and where the RNAs are synthesized. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although the chromosomes of a nucleus appear as a diffuse network in the electron microscope, they are highly compacted into nucleosomal units. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The heterochromatin of any given chromosome is found within its territory close to the nuclear envelope (Figure 1), but can often project into the interior of the nucleus as patches and/or surround the nucleolus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • So let's say we opened up a human cell nucleus. (biology-online.org)
  • if I open a nucleus would I find only the 23 chromosomes. (biology-online.org)
  • Thus highlighting the usefulness of mouse mutants and mouse genomics as a research tool for better molecular controls of human hair biology. (intechopen.com)
  • Human genes are present on long strands of DNA (complex molecules) called chromosomes. (slideshare.net)
  • The natural hair cycle in human poses a unique paradox involves many signaling molecules, transcription factors, and structural components are differentially and sequentially expressed and generate this organ. (intechopen.com)
  • Instead the functions of these genes depend on the RNA itself, which can be unstructured or adopt functional secondary structures through internal base pairing or pairing to other RNA molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The possible relationship of this observation to the mode of replication of the terminal chromosome region is briefly discussed. (scielo.br)
  • WHA50.37, which states "the use of cloning for the replication of human individuals is ethically unacceptable and contrary to human integrity and morality. (who.int)
  • No. In eukaryotes including mammals and humans, each chromosome has multiple origins of replication and they are not in the centromeres. (askabiologist.org.uk)
  • DNA replication begins at many, many places on the chromosome. (askabiologist.org.uk)
  • Deletion of the enhancer from nucleotide position −636 to −39 resulted in no replication in human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs). (asm.org)
  • Most bacteria have a single circular molecule of DNA, and typically only a single origin of replication per circular chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most archaea have a single circular molecule of DNA, and several origins of replication along this circular chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryotes often have multiple origins of replication on each linear chromosome that initiate at different times ( replication timing ), with up to 100,000 present in a single human cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, they are called oriH and oriL for the heavy and light strand of the DNA, each being the origin of replication for single-stranded replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotes , the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were first identified by their ability to support the replication of mini-chromosomes or plasmids , giving rise to the name Autonomously replicating sequences or ARS elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other eukaryotes , including humans, the base pair sequences at the replication origins vary. (wikipedia.org)
  • A picture of chromosomes taken during mitosis and cut out and arranged into homologous pairs. (slideserve.com)
  • 2004) confer high resistance to heat denaturation to the terminal regions of metaphase chromosomes which results in selective staining after T-banding (Dutrillaux, 1973). (scielo.br)
  • Metaphase Preceding metaphase is a period called prometaphase, during which the membrane, or nuclear envelope, surrounding the chromosomes breaks down, allowing the condensed chromosomes to come into direct contact with the microtubules of the mitotic spindle. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Interim results reported in 2018 for 10 adults and five children aged 9 to 14 years indicated that the treatment was safe and associated with reduced eczema severity. (prn.fm)
  • Skeletal Muscle (2018) 8:16 Page 2 of 6 causes deletion (skipping) of exon 7 in the DMD tran- Masticatory, lingual, paraspinal, supraspinatus, and script, with a resulting frameshift and premature stop cranial tibial (CT) muscles were examined with bipolar codon in exon 8 [14]. (deepdyve.com)
  • September 14, 2018 3:03 p.m. (thedalleschronicle.com)
  • Humans normally have 46 chromosomes in each cell, divided into 23 pairs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This is a hyper-triploid human cell line with a modal chromosome number of 75. (atcc.org)
  • Every time a cell divides, the nuclear envelope must break down to release the recently duplicated chromosomes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The company is named for the 23 pairs of chromosomes in a normal human cell. (theladders.com)
  • He believed that the embryo moved from a single cell through various animal stages until it reached a level that was distinctly human. (christianliferesources.com)
  • In 2016 , NIAID researchers reported that R. mucosa strains isolated from healthy human skin improved outcomes in cell culture and mouse models of eczema. (prn.fm)
  • For example, their tendency to gain chromosomes 12, 17, and X likens hESC to various germ cell tumors ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Developmentally Programmed Healing of Chromosomes by Telomerase in Tetrahymena," 67 Cell 823 (1991). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • It organizes the approximately two meters of human DNA in such a way that certain genes are activated or deactivated depending on the cell type. (eurekalert.org)
  • Moreover, they have generated new ideas about cell cycle control of nucleolar assembly, the dynamics of the delivery of the RNA processing machinery, the formation of prenucleolar bodies, the role of precursor ribosomal RNAs in stabilizing the nucleolar machinery and the fact that nucleolar assembly is completed by cooperative interactions between chromosome territories. (biologists.org)
  • 23 Pairs of chromosomes in human cell. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Before a cell divides, its chromosomes are copied exactly. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • 1. chromosomes line up in the centre of the cell and the cell fibres pull them apart. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Chromatids = each of the two thread-like strands into which a chromosome divides longitudinally during cell division. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • We have 46 chromosomes per cell, 23 from each parent, with 25,000 individual genes scattered along their lengths. (thedalleschronicle.com)
  • It is well known that the usual banding procedures (C-, G-, R- and T-) reveal the underlying structure and composition of DNA and associated proteins in mitotic chromosomes (Therman and Susman, 1993). (scielo.br)
  • The Pol I transcription machinery, however, remains associated with NORs on mitotic chromosomes ( 54 ). (asm.org)
  • The synaptonemal complex is a 'zipper'-like protein assembly that synapses homologue pairs together and provides the structural framework for processing recombination sites into crossovers. (nature.com)
  • requires the egg and the sperm to join and produce a ______________ (fertilized egg) that contains 46 chromosomes (two sets) or _____________________ (2n). (slideserve.com)
  • During formation, an egg or sperm can sometimes have either an extra chromosome (24 chromosomes) or one less chromosome (22 chromosomes). (essayempire.com)
  • When such an egg (or sperm) combines at conception with a normal sperm (or egg) with 23 chromosomes, the resulting embryo ends up with too few or too many chromosomes, i.e., 45 or 47 instead of the usual 46. (essayempire.com)
  • Chromosome 14 likely contains 800 to 900 genes that provide instructions for making proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These genes produce proteins which in turn carry out a large variety of often complex functions in the human body. (slideshare.net)
  • Each chromosome is specifically anchored through its telomeres to a discrete place on the nuclear envelope by the proteins of the nuclear lamina. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The genes for most of those evasive proteins are found near the ends of chromosomes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Section 14-1: Human Heredity Section 14-1 A circle represents a female. (slideserve.com)
  • a single chromosome carries an enormous amount of genes, an organism will not be well if you add something like that to it. (biology-online.org)
  • Evolution has selected for the number of chromosomes that a 'normal, Healthy' person (organism) has. (biology-online.org)
  • A condition in which a diploid organism has one more chromosome than usual. (amazonaws.com)
  • Every chromosome pair had a least one rearrangement. (atcc.org)
  • A rare condition known as terminal deletion 14 syndrome causes signs and symptoms similar to those of ring chromosome 14 syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Terminal deletion 14 syndrome is caused by the loss of several genes at the end (terminus) of the long (q) arm of chromosome 14. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Salter, Claire G. , Baralle, Diana , Collinson, Morag N. and Self, James E. (2016) Expanding the ocular phenotype of 14q terminal deletions: a novel presentation of microphthalmia and coloboma in ring 14 syndrome with associated 14q32.31 deletion and review of the literature. (soton.ac.uk)
  • During the anagen phase hair is actively growing with a progression of tissue proliferation, a short resting phase with a massive apoptosis of hair follicle (catagen) and the relatively quiescence of telogen follicle, thus maintaining hairy phenotype in mice, rats, and humans [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Here, we identify a novel chromosome associated with the X-chromosome contain-ing two genes that contribute to the observed Hulk phenotype. (ubc.ca)
  • Proximal and distal chimeras of the human and murine CMV enhancers replicate less efficiently at low MOIs and demonstrate the small-plaque phenotype ( 29 ). (asm.org)
  • Schmitt et al, Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer (1994) 11:171-177. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Stabilization of Short Telomeres and Telomerase Activity Accompany Immortalization of Epstein-Barr Virus-Transformed Human B Lymphocytes," J. Virology 68:3410-3414 (1994). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • I know you're thinking we've had more than enough discussion of one simplistic umbrella hypothesis for the origin of unique human traits - the aquatic ape hypothesis - and it's cruel of me to introduce another, but who knows, maybe the proponents of each will collide and mutually annihilate each other, and then we'll all be happy. (scienceblogs.com)
  • First, the author of this new hypothesis provides a convenient list of all the unique traits that distinguish humans from other primates, listed on the right. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Also, the proband has several clinical features in common with six previously reported liveborn cases of maternal UPD 14: hypotonia and motor developmental delay, mild dysmorphic facial features, low birth weight and growth abnormalities, and, more specifically, precocious puberty among the four cases old enough to assess. (nih.gov)
  • The abnormalities in chromosomes can occur either by change in number, size, or structure of chromosomes. (essayempire.com)
  • Gene sequencing allows scientists to map a chromosome. (slideshare.net)
  • Another human chromosome has been decoded completely by an international team of scientists. (bbc.co.uk)
  • In order to fully read chromosome 14, scientists compared its DNA with the mouse and zebrafish genomes. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Computer scientists at Washington University in St. Louis' School of Engineering & Applied Science tackled some big data about an important protein and discovered its connection in human history as well as clues about its role in complex neurological diseases. (wustl.edu)
  • In humans, there are 46 chromosomes that occur as 23 pairs-22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosome. (essayempire.com)
  • 22 pairs of autosomes. (amazonaws.com)
  • Sections 14.1 and 14.2 from Workbook Quiz - Friday ( Section 14.1) Homework: Chapter 14 Vocabulary. (slideserve.com)
  • Because researchers use different approaches to predict the number of genes on each chromosome, the estimated number of genes varies. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Recently, an anonymous gene variant in C14ORF39/SIX6OS1 was identified that influences the recombination rate in humans. (nature.com)
  • In accordance with its role as a modifier of the human recombination rate, SIX6OS1 is essential for the appropriate processing of intermediate recombination nodules before crossover formation. (nature.com)
  • Recombination rate variation along chromosome 12. (sciencemag.org)
  • In addition, properties of a maximum-likelihood estimator of the recombination parameter based on independent linked pairs of sites are obtained. (genetics.org)
  • Analysis of gene expression utilized the Human RNA Master Blot and Multiple Tissue Northern blot (CLONTECH) according to manufacturer's instructions. (pnas.org)
  • Regulation of human alpha-globin gene expression and alpha-thalassemia. (bmj.com)
  • The entire enhancer region of human CMV is required for robust MIE gene expression. (asm.org)
  • These strands are paired, connected side to side along their lengths. (slideshare.net)
  • So CCDS's gene number prediction represents a lower bound on the total number of human protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • New research from The Wistar Institute sheds light on the function of the ARID1A protein, encoded by a gene that is among the most frequently mutated across human cancers. (medicalxpress.com)
  • These chromosomes contain information for protein synthesis. (artscolumbia.org)
  • Paired box protein Pax-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PAX1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro transcription studies have identified upstream binding factor (UBF), the TATA-binding protein containing complex SL1 in humans ( 13 ), TIF-1B in mice ( 52 ), and Rib 1 in Xenopus ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • Identification of the cellular protein encoded by the human Wilms' tumor (WT1) gene. (mpg.de)
  • These four base units, which link together in pairs, make up the entire alphabet that spells out every protein in our body. (thedalleschronicle.com)
  • In humans and mice, four spectrin genes, encoding the αI-, αII-, βI-, and βII-spectrin subunits, have been identified ( 12 ), yet exhaustive PCR analysis has failed to identify any βI- or βII-spectrin gene products as the Golgi-associated spectrin (unpublished observations). (pnas.org)
  • Mice lacking SIX6OS1 are defective in chromosome synapsis at meiotic prophase I, which provokes an arrest at the pachytene-like stage and results in infertility. (nature.com)
  • However, molecular nature in mice, rats, and humans, loss of transcription factor Foxn1 the keratinization processes is significantly impaired. (intechopen.com)
  • Hence, this nude gene lack of function makes very similar hair pattern baldness in both human and nude mice (Foxn1nu/Foxn1nu). (intechopen.com)
  • WHA50.37 of 1997 argues that human cloning is ethically unacceptable and contrary to human integrity and morality. (who.int)
  • TIGR sequenced four and Stanford completed one chromosome. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this episode of Base Pairs , we talk to Stanford Professor Robert Malenka about the limitations that classic business practices place on modern drug development. (cshl.edu)