In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.
The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.
Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A characteristic symptom complex.
The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, elements such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, that are required for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance in progeny cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.

Comparative molecular genetic profiles of anaplastic astrocytomas/glioblastomas multiforme and their subsequent recurrences. (1/809)

Malignant glial tumors (anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas multiforme) arise mostly either from the progression of low grade precursor lesions or rapidly in a de novo fashion and contain distinct genetic alterations. There is, however, a third subset of malignant gliomas in which genetic lesions remain to be identified. Following surgical resection, all gliomas appear to have an inherent tendency to recur. Comparative molecular analysis of ten primary malignant gliomas (three anaplastic astrocytomas and seven glioblastomas multiforme) with their recurrences identified two distinct subgroups of recurrent tumors. In one group, primary tumors harbored genetic aberrations frequently associated with linear progression or de novo formation pathways of glial tumorigenesis and maintained their genetic profiles upon recurrence. In the other subset with no detectable known genetic mutations at first presentation, the recurrent tumors sustained specific abnormalities associated with pathways of linear progression or de novo formation. These included loss of genes on chromosomes 17 and 10, mutations in the p53 gene, homozygous deletion of the DMBTA1 and p16 and/ or p15 genes and amplification and/or overexpression of CDK4 and alpha form of the PDGF receptor. Recurrent tumors from both groups also displayed an abnormal expression profile of the metalloproteinase, gel A, and its inhibitor, TIMP-2, consistent with their highly invasive behavior. Delineation of the molecular differences between malignant glioblastomas and their subsequent recurrences may have important implications for the development of rational clinical approaches for this neoplasm that remains refractory to existing therapeutic modalities.  (+info)

Polymorphisms in PTEN in breast cancer families. (2/809)

Germline mutations in PTEN are the underlying genetic defect in Cowden disease, which is associated with a lifetime risk of 25-50% of developing breast cancer. To investigate the role of PTEN in inherited breast cancer in the absence of manifestations of Cowden disease, we screened 177 unrelated subjects with breast cancer who also had a family history of breast cancer in at least one relative. We found no disease associated PTEN mutations in this cohort, supporting previous studies suggesting that PTEN mutations do not contribute to inherited susceptibility to breast cancer without associated manifestations of Cowden disease. We did identify an association between a common polymorphism in intron 4 and lower mean age of diagnosis of breast cancer. While preliminary, these findings suggest that further study is warranted to determine whether this allelic variant of PTEN could function as a low penetrance breast cancer susceptibility allele.  (+info)

Regulation of G1 progression by the PTEN tumor suppressor protein is linked to inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. (3/809)

PTEN/MMAC1 is a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 10q23. Inherited PTEN/MMAC1 mutations are associated with a cancer predisposition syndrome known as Cowden's disease. Somatic mutation of PTEN has been found in a number of malignancies, including glioblastoma, melanoma, and carcinoma of the prostate and endometrium. The protein product (PTEN) encodes a dual-specificity protein phosphatase and in addition can dephosphorylate certain lipid substrates. Herein, we show that PTEN protein induces a G1 block when reconstituted in PTEN-null cells. A PTEN mutant associated with Cowden's disease (PTEN;G129E) has protein phosphatase activity yet is defective in dephosphorylating inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate in vitro and fails to arrest cells in G1. These data suggest a link between induction of a cell-cycle block by PTEN and its ability to dephosphorylate, in vivo, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. In keeping with this notion, PTEN can inhibit the phosphatidylinositol 3,4, 5-trisphosphate-dependent Akt kinase, a downstream target of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and constitutively active, but not wild-type, Akt overrides a PTEN G1 arrest. Finally, tumor cells lacking PTEN contain high levels of activated Akt, suggesting that PTEN is necessary for the appropriate regulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.  (+info)

Analysis of the 10q23 chromosomal region and the PTEN gene in human sporadic breast carcinoma. (4/809)

We examined a panel of sporadic breast carcinomas for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in a 10-cM interval on chromosome 10 known to encompass the PTEN gene. We detected allele loss in 27 of 70 breast tumour DNAs. Fifteen of these showed loss limited to a subregion of the area studied. The most commonly deleted region was flanked by D10S215 and D10S541 and encompasses the PTEN locus. We used a combination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and single-strand conformation polymorphism analyses to investigate the presence of PTEN mutations in tumours with LOH in this region. We did not detect mutations of PTEN in any of these tumours. Our data show that, in sporadic breast carcinoma, loss of heterozygosity of the PTEN locus is frequent, but mutation of PTEN is not. These results are consistent with loss of another unidentified tumour suppressor in this region in sporadic breast carcinoma.  (+info)

Genetic aberrations in glioblastoma multiforme: translocation of chromosome 10 in an O-2A-like cell line. (5/809)

We have examined the genetic aberrations in two near-diploid glioblastoma multiforme cell lines that appear to have arisen from different glial lineages. One cell line, Hu-O-2A/Gb1, expresses antigens and metabolic profiles characteristic of the oligodendrocyte-type-2 astrocyte (0-2A) lineage of the rat central nervous system. This line generates, in vitro, cells with characteristics of 0-2A progenitor cells, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. The second cell line, IN1434, is derived from an astrocyte or a precursor cell restricted to astrocytic differentiation. In Hu-O-2A/Gb1 the sole homologue of chromosome 10 is disrupted at band 10p11-12.1 by translocation with chromosomes X and 15. The translocation breakpoint is localized between genetic markers D10S2103 and [D10S637, D10S1962, D10S355]. Other aberrations include a 5;14 translocation, deletion of the long and short arms of chromosome 16 and loss of one copy of the CDKN2 gene. IN1434 cells share some cytogenetic abnormalities with Hu-O-2A/Gb1 cells, despite their apparent derivation from a different biological origin, but also have translocations involving the long and short arms of chromosome 1 and the long arm of chromosome 7, and deletion of chromosome 13 at bands 13q12-21.  (+info)

Exclusion of a major role for the PTEN tumour-suppressor gene in breast carcinomas. (6/809)

PTEN is a novel tumour-suppressor gene located on chromosomal band 10q23.3. This region displays frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in a variety of human neoplasms including breast carcinomas. The detection of PTEN mutations in Cowden disease and in breast carcinoma cell lines suggests that PTEN may be involved in mammary carcinogenesis. We here report a mutational analysis of tumour specimens from 103 primary breast carcinomas and constitutive DNA from 25 breast cancer families. The entire coding region of PTEN was screened by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and direct sequencing using intron-based primers. No germline mutations could be identified in the breast cancer families and only one sporadic carcinoma carried a PTEN mutation at one allele. In addition, all sporadic tumours were analysed for homozygous deletions by differential polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for allelic loss using the microsatellite markers D10S215, D10S564 and D10S573. No homozygous deletions were detected and only 10 out of 94 informative tumours showed allelic loss in the PTEN region. These results suggest that PTEN does not play a major role in breast cancer formation.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of a secreted frizzled-related protein that is expressed by the retinal pigment epithelium. (7/809)

The Wnt/frizzled cell signaling pathway has been implicated in the determination of polarity in a number of systems, including the Drosophila retina. The vertebrate retina develops from an undifferentiated neuroepithelium into an organized and laminated structure that demonstrates a high degree of polarity at both the tissue and cellular levels. In the process of searching for molecules that are preferentially expressed by the vertebrate retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), we identified secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5), a member of the SFRP family that appears to act by modulating Wnt signal transduction. SFRP5 is highly expressed by RPE cells, and is also expressed in the pancreas. Within the retina, the related molecule SFRP2 is expressed specifically by cells of the inner nuclear layer. Thus, photoreceptors are likely to be bathed by two opposing gradients of SFRP molecules. Consistent with SFRP5 's postulated role in modulating Wnt signaling in the retina, it inhibits the ability of Xwnt-8 mRNA to induce axis duplication in Xenopus embryos. The human SFRP5 gene consists of three coding exons and it maps to chromosome 10q24.1; human SFRP2 maps to 4q31.3. Based on the biology and complementary expression patterns of SFRP2 and SFRP5, we suggest that they may be involved in determining the polarity of photoreceptor, and perhaps other, cells in the retina.  (+info)

Frequent loss of heterozygosity for chromosome 10 in uterine leiomyosarcoma in contrast to leiomyoma. (8/809)

Distinction of malignant uterine leiomyosarcomas from benign leiomyomas by morphological criteria is not always possible. Leiomyosarcomas typically have complex cytogenetic abnormalities; in contrast, leiomyomas have simple or no cytogenetic abnormalities. To understand better the biological distinction(s) between these tumors, we analyzed two other potential markers of genomic instability, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability. We examined archival materials from 16 leiomyosarcomas and 13 benign leiomyomas by polymerase chain reaction for 26 microsatellite polymorphisms. Markers were selected based on previous reports of cytogenetic or molecular genetic abnormalities in leiomyosarcomas or leiomyomas and surveyed chromosomes 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 21, and X. LOH for markers on chromosomes 15, 18, 21, and X was infrequent in leiomyosarcomas (1 of 6 tumors for each chromosome) and not observed for markers on chromosomes 7, 9, 11, 12, 14, or 16. Interestingly, 8 of 14 (57.2%) informative leiomyosarcomas had LOH for at least one marker on chromosome 10 and involved both chromosomal arms in 45.5% (5 of 11). In contrast to leiomyosarcomas, LOH for chromosome 10 was not found in 13 benign leiomyomas. Microsatellite instability was found infrequently in leiomyosarcomas and not detected in leiomyoma. Clinicopathological features (eg, atypia, necrosis, and clinical outcome) did not appear to correlate with LOH for chromosome 10. In contrast to other chromosomes studied, LOH on chromosome 10 was frequent in leiomyosarcomas and absent in benign leiomyomas.  (+info)

The depurination of DNA as the first step of the Epitect Bisulfite kit (cat. no. 59104) workflow is a chemical reaction, theres no problem at all using the DNA directly after enzymatic reaction. ...
Reaktivität: Human, Affe, Maus and more. 51 verschiedene PTCHD3 Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar!
Complete information for PTCHD1 gene (Protein Coding), Patched Domain Containing 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), caused by partial deletion of the D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat on chromosome 4q, has a complex genetic and epigenetic etiology. To develop FSHD, D4Z4 contraction needs to occur on a specific genetic background. Only contractions associated with the 4qA161 haplotype cause FSHD.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic and physical mapping on chromosome 4 narrows the localization of the gene for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). AU - Mills, K. A.. AU - Buetow, K. H.. AU - Xu, Y.. AU - Ritty, T. M.. AU - Mathews, K. D.. AU - Bodrug, S. E.. AU - Wijmenga, C.. AU - Balazs, I.. AU - Murray, J. C.. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. N2 - We have used a combination of classical RFLPs and PCR-based polymorphisms including CA repeats and single-strand conformation polymorphisms to generate a fine-structure genetic map of the distal long arm of chromosome 4q. This map is now genetically linked to the pre-existing anchor map of 4pter-4q31 and generates, for the first time, a complete linkage map of this chromosome. The map consists of 32 anchor loci placed with odds of greater than 1,000:1. The high-resolution map in the cytogenetic region surrounding 4q35 provides the order 4cen-D4S171-F11-D4S187-D4S163-D4S139-4qter. When we used somatic cell hybrids from a t(X;4)(p21;q35) translocation, ...
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) affects over 25,000 people in the USA alone, making it one of the most prevalent genetic diseases. The genetic mutation underlying FSHD is usually a reduction in the copy number of a macrosatellite repeat on chromosome 4 referred to as D4Z4 (van Deutekom et al., 1993; Wijmenga et al., 1992). This repeat is GC-rich, highly methylated and normally subjected to repeat-induced silencing, which is disrupted in an allele-specific manner by contractions to 10 or fewer copies (van Overveld et al., 2003) or is disrupted on all D4Z4 repeats owing to mutation in the chromatin protein SMCHD1 (de Greef et al., 2009; Hartweck et al., 2013; Lemmers et al., 2012). When silencing at D4Z4 breaks down, an RNA transcript encoding the DUX4 protein (Gabriëls et al., 1999) is expressed. The presence of a poly(A) signal downstream of the D4Z4 repeats on chromosome 4 (chr4) (Dixit et al., 2007) leads to DUX4 expression and explains why disease is associated only with ...
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) isan enigmatic inherited disorder, while the disease locus for this condition was mapped some 17 years ago and the mutations associated with the disease are known, the exact identity of the FSHD gene remains elusive
Part 1 (dose escalation, open-label) Part 1 will consist of up to 6 cohorts (A to F) of patients and will evaluate multiple ascending dose levels of ACE-083 in either the tibialis anterior (TA) or biceps brachii (BB) muscle. Patients in each cohort will be enrolled in a 4-week screening period before beginning treatment. A Safety Review Team (SRT) will meet to review data for each cohort when at least 4 patients within a cohort have completed their Day 43 visit prior to dose escalation.. Part 2 (randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled) Prior to the initiation of Part 2, a review of safety and efficacy data from Part 1 will be conducted to determine whether cohorts for one or both muscles will be pursued in Part 2, as well as the recommended dose level for each muscle. A total of up to 40 new patients (20 patients per muscle) may be enrolled and randomized (3:2) to receive either ACE-083 (n=12) or placebo (n=8) unilaterally or bilaterally (if both sides are affected per inclusion criteria) ...
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) patients carry contractions of the D4Z4-tandem repeat array on chromosome 4q35. Decrease in D4Z4 copy number is thought to alter a chromatin structure and activate expression of neighboring genes. D4Z4 contains a putative double-homeobox gene called DUX4 …
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Microenvironment regulates the expression of MIR-21 and tumor suppressor genes PTEN, PIAS3 and PDCD4 through ZAP-70 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. AU - Carabia, Júlia. AU - Carpio, Cecilia. AU - Abrisqueta, Pau. AU - Jiménez, Isabel. AU - Purroy, Noelia. AU - Calpe, Eva. AU - Palacio, Carles. AU - Bosch, Francesc. AU - Crespo, Marta. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - © 2017 The Author(s). Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells are highly dependent on microenvironment, being the BCR pathway one key player in this crosstalk. Among proteins participating, ZAP-70 enhances response to microenvironmental stimuli. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is overexpressed in diverse neoplasias including CLL, where it has been associated to refractoriness to fludarabine and to shorter time to progression and survival. To further elucidate the role of ZAP-70 in the biology of CLL, we studied its involvement in miR-21 regulation. MiR-21 expression was higher in CLL cells with high ZAP-70. Ectopic ...
The study aim was to investigate the impacts of the expressions of tumor suppressor gene phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTE..
TY - JOUR. T1 - Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy region gene 1 Is a dynamic RNA-associated and actin-bundling protein. AU - Sun, Chia Yun Jessica. AU - Van Koningsbruggen, Silvana. AU - Long, Steven W.. AU - Straasheijm, Kirsten. AU - Klooster, Rinse. AU - Jones, Takako I.. AU - Bellini, Michel. AU - Levesque, Lyne. AU - Brieher, William M.. AU - Van Der Maarel, Silvère M.. AU - Jones, Peter L.. PY - 2011/8/12. Y1 - 2011/8/12. N2 - FSHD region gene 1 (FRG1) is a dynamic nuclear and cytoplasmic protein that, in skeletal muscle, shows additional localization to the sarcomere. Maintaining appropriate levels of FRG1 protein is critical for muscular and vascular development in vertebrates; however, its precise molecular function is unknown. This study investigates the molecular functions of human FRG1, along with mouse FRG1 and Xenopus frg1, using molecular, biochemical, and cellular-biological approaches, to provide further insight into its roles in vertebrate development. The nuclear ...
Hroniska obstruktīva plaušu slimība (HOPS, latīņu: morbus obturativus pulmonum chronicum) ir viens no obstruktīvo plaušu slimību tipiem, raksturojas ar gaisa plūsmas traucējumiem. Parasti laika gaitā stāvoklis kļūst smagāks. Galvenie simptomi ir aizdusa, klepus, krēpu izdalīšanās.[1] Hroniska obstruktīva plaušu slimība ir gandrīz visiem cilvēkiem, kas slimo ar hronisko bronhītu.[2] Visbiežākais slimības ierosinātājs ir tabakas smēķēšana. Mazāk ietekmē gaisa piesārņojums un ģenētika.[3] Ilgtermiņa iedarbība uz kairinātājiem izraisa iekaisumu plaušās, kura rezultātā mazie elpceļi sašaurinās un notiek emfizēma (plaušu parenhīmas destrukcija).[4] Atklāt slimību var pēc vājas gaisa plūsmas plaušu testā.[5] Atšķirībā no astmas, gaisa plūsmu nevar uzlabot ar medikamentiem. Hronisku obstruktīvu plaušu slimību var novērst, samazinot zināmo cēloņu ietekmi. Var samazināt smēķēšanas biežumu, uzlabot iekštelpu un āra gaisa ...
PLAU is a protease that converts plasminogen to plasmin. It appears to affect murine ageing: its overexpression in the brain diminishes food consumption and extends longevity probably through a mechanism similar to caloric restriction [13]. It is unclear at present whether PLAU affects human ageing, despite some evidence linking PLAU to age-related neurological diseases [374]. ...
Study showed that the variability in clinical severity of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy in FSHD1 and FSHD2 individuals is dependent on individual differences in susceptibility to D4Z4 hypomethylation ...
Derepression of in skeletal muscle has emerged as a likely cause of pathology in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). Here we report on the use of ...
Build: Wed Jun 21 18:33:50 EDT 2017 (commit: 4a3b2dc). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
109733592(LOC109733592) 109734721(LOC109734721) 109735060(LOC109735060) 109735370(LOC109735370) 109736317(LOC109736317) 109738587(LOC109738587) 109739375(LOC109739375) 109739951(LOC109739951) 109752468(LOC109752468) 109753193(LOC109753193) 109754271(LOC109754271) 109758706(LOC109758706) 109759398(LOC109759398) 109762420(LOC109762420) 109762466(LOC109762466) 109763463(LOC109763463) 109764514(LOC109764514) 109765259(LOC109765259) 109765833(LOC109765833) 109771924(LOC109771924) 109773752(LOC109773752) 109774461(LOC109774461) 109774463(LOC109774463) 109775363(LOC109775363) 109775375(LOC109775375) 109775629(LOC109775629) 109775824(LOC109775824) 109784012(LOC109784012) 109785922 ...
遺伝子「LOC282551」の詳細情報です。J-GLOBAL 科学技術総合リンクセンターは研究者、文献、特許などの情報をつなぐことで、異分野の知や意外な発見などを支援する新しいサービスです。またJST内外の良質なコンテンツへ案内いたします。
A recent finding by medical geneticists sheds new light on how facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy develops and how it might be treated. More commonly known as FSHD, the devastating disease affects both men and women. FSHD is usually an inherited genetic disorder, yet sometimes appears spontaneously via new mutations in individuals with no family history of the condition. People with the condition experience progressive muscle weakness and about 1 in 5 require wheelchair assistance by age 40, said Dr. Daniel G. Miller, University of Washington (UW) associate professor of pediatrics in the Division of Genetic Medicine. Dr. Miller and his worldwide collaborators study the molecular events leading to symptoms of FSHD in the hopes of designing therapies to prevent the emergence of symptoms or reduce their severity. In the November 11, 2012 online issue of Nature Genetics, Dr. Miller and Dr. Silvere M. van der Maarel of Leiden University in The Netherlands, along with an international team, ...
Myotonic dystrophy (DM) and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) are inherited disorders characterized by progressive muscle weakness and loss of muscle tissue. The purpose of this registry is to connect people with DM or FSHD with researchers studying these diseases. The registry will offer individuals with DM and FSHD an opportunity to participate in research that focuses of their diseases. The registry will also help scientists to accomplish research on DM and FSHD and to distribute their findings to patients and care providers ...
1: Lemmers RJ, Wohlgemuth M, van der Gaag KJ, van der Vliet PJ, van Teijlingen CM, de Knijff P, Padberg GW, Frants RR, van der Maarel SM. Specific sequence variations within the 4q35 region are associated with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Am J Hum Genet 2007; 81(5):884-94.. 2: Ehrlich M, Jackson K, Tsumagari K, Camaño P, Lemmers RJ. Hybridization analysis of D4Z4 repeat arrays linked to FSHD.Chromosoma 2007; 116(2):107-16.. 3: Lemmers RJ, van der Wielen MJ, Bakker E, Padberg GW, Frants RR, van der MaarelSM. Somatic mosaicism in FSHD often goes undetected.Ann Neurol 2004 Jun; 55(6):845-50.. 4: Lemmers RJ, Osborn M, Haaf T, Rogers M, Frants RR, Padberg GW, Cooper DN, van der Maarel SM, Upadhyaya M. D4F104S1 deletion in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy: phenotype, size, and detection. Neurology 2003 Jul 22; 61(2):178-83.. 5: Lemmers RJ, de Kievit P, Sandkuijl L, Padberg GW, van Ommen GJ, Frants RR, van der Maarel SM. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy is uniquely associated ...
Cowden disease, also termed Cowden syndrome and multiple hamartoma syndrome, is an autosomal dominant condition with variable expression that can be associated with a mutation in the PTEN gene on arm 10q, as reported by Liaw et al. Originally described in 1963 by Lloyd and Dennis, Cowden disease (multiple hamartoma syndrome) was named after t...
Epigenetic Gene expression and Chromatin dynamics in Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSHD). Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a debilitating genetic condition manifest by weakness of facial and upper extremity musculature that presents in the 2nd decade of life. The causative genetic event is a contraction of a subtelomeric array of repeated 3.3 kb sequence units residing on one of two common alleles of chromosome 4. How this array contraction translates into cellular differences that result in weakness of select muscle groups is a fascinating question that is not presently understood. Each D4Z4 repeat unit contains a large open reading frame that encodes a putative double homeodomain containing protein named DUX4 making aberrant expression, or expression of aberrant DUX4 isoforms an attractive mechanism for FSHD pathology. Our long term objectives are to understand how muscle strength is compromised as a result of molecular events initiated by these contractions. With ...
Methylation analysis of the phosphates and tensin homologue on chromosome 10 gene PTEN in multiple myeloma. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Guoping Feng and Michael Halassa create mice with global or thalamic-specific loss of the ASD-risk gene PTCHD1 to show specific roles for thalamic PTCHD1 in…
Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma is a rare type of kidney cancer that develops in cells that are involved in the production of urine. Cancers form when a change (mutation) in DNA causes certain cells to grow out of control, sometimes forming a lump or a tumor. Some of these cancerous cells can break off and spread to other parts of the body where they will continue to grow (metastasis). Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma usually occurs in adults between the ages of 40 and 60, although it can appear in all age groups. This type of carcinoma is associated with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, an inherited disorder caused by a mutation in the FLCN gene. The FLCN gene is involved in regulating cell growth, and a mutation in this gene can cause cells to grow out of control. This situation places affected individuals at higher risk of developing chromophobe renal cell carcinoma as well as noncancerous growths in the kidneys, lungs, and hair follicles. Common symptoms include the presence of blood in the urine, ...
Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma is a rare type of kidney cancer that develops in cells that are involved in the production of urine. Cancers form when a change (mutation) in DNA causes certain cells to grow out of control, sometimes forming a lump or a tumor. Some of these cancerous cells can break off and spread to other parts of the body where they will continue to grow (metastasis). Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma usually occurs in adults between the ages of 40 and 60, although it can appear in all age groups. This type of carcinoma is associated with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, an inherited disorder caused by a mutation in the FLCN gene. The FLCN gene is involved in regulating cell growth, and a mutation in this gene can cause cells to grow out of control. This situation places affected individuals at higher risk of developing chromophobe renal cell carcinoma as well as noncancerous growths in the kidneys, lungs, and hair follicles. Common symptoms include the presence of blood in the urine, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation. AU - Lauer, Scott R.. AU - Zhou, Ming. AU - Master, Viraj A.. AU - Osunkoya, Adeboye O.. PY - 2013/4/1. Y1 - 2013/4/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathologic features of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation. STUDY DESIGN: A search was made through the surgical pathology and expert consult files of two major academic institutions from 2003 to 2011 for cases of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation. RESULTS: Fourteen patients were identified. The patients included 9 males (64%) and 5 females (36%). The mean patient age was 60.4 years (range, 40-82 years). There was a left-sided predominance: left (9 patients) and right (5 patients). The mean tumor size was 14.6 cm (range, 9.5-28.0 cm), and the mean percentage sarcomatoid differentiation was 67% (range, 30-99%). All tumors exhibited moderate to extensive areas of necrosis. The nonsarcomatoid ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Non-Union After Multiple Lumbar Fusion Surgeries in a Patient With Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy. T2 - A Case Report and Review of the Literature. AU - Mehta, Anuj V.. AU - Maurer, Robert. AU - Reiter, G. Timothy. N1 - Funding Information: Conflict of interest statement: All authors declare that the article content was composed in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Publisher Copyright: © 2020 Elsevier Inc. Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2020/7. Y1 - 2020/7. N2 - Background: Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a rare condition affecting 1/20,000 persons and the third most common muscular dystrophy condition, with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance characterized by progressive muscular weakness primarily involving the face, shoulder girdle, and upper arm. The condition is associated with atrophic musculature of the trunk and core ...
Background: Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder associated with the partial deletion of integral numbers of 3.3 kb D4Z4 DNA repeats within the subtelomere of chromosome 4q. A number of candidate FSHD genes, adenine nucleotide translocator 1 gene (ANT1), FSHD-related gene 1 (FRG1), FRG2 and DUX4c, upstream of the D4Z4 array (FSHD locus), and double homeobox chromosome 4 (DUX4) within the repeat itself, are upregulated in some patients, thus suggesting an underlying perturbation of the chromatin structure. Furthermore, a mouse model overexpressing FRG1 has been generated, displaying skeletal muscle defects. Results: In the context of myogenic differentiation, we compared the chromatin structure and tridimensional interaction of the D4Z4 array and FRG1 gene promoter, and FRG1 expression, in control and FSHD cells. The FRG1 gene was prematurely expressed during FSHD myoblast differentiation, thus suggesting that the number of D4Z4 repeats in ...
Our main purpose was to identify tumor suppressor gene loci on chromosome 13 responsible for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) development by analyzing loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and RB protein expression in paraffin embedded tissues. Normal and tumor DNA were extracted from microdissected samples, and …
The purpose of this study is to establish a standardized functional testing protocol and measure longitudinal changes in muscle strength and function among patients with infantile onset FSHD, to describe the longitudinal changes in clinical phenotypes of infantile FSHD, to evaluate the long-term impact of physical impairment, secondary health conditions, activity limitations and disability caused by FSHD on health-related quality of life and disability, and to evaluate genetic modifiers and biomarkers of clinical phenotypes and disease progression in infantile FSHD ...
The relationship of phenotype to genotype in a clinically and genetically well defined population of 157 affected patients and 62 kindreds with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) was examined at the University of Rochester School of Medicine, NY, and Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. Using isometric myometry scores to quantify disease severity, a significant correlation between disease severity and the size of the 4q35-associated deletion was evident, and the offspring were more severely affected than their parents. This generation effect and presence of anticipation in FSHD suggests a possible underlying dynamic mutation and an unstable repeat element within the region of the 4q35 deletion. [1]. COMMENT. These findings have important significance in the genetic counselling of patients with FSHD. No differences in severity of disease were noted between paternally and maternally inherited FSHD, but a reduction in reproductive fitness in male compared to female patients was an ...
An NIH funded, Senatory Paul D. Wellstone Muscular Dystrophy Cooperative Research Center (MDCRC) has recently been established entitled Biomarkers for therapy of FSHD (facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy). This multi-institutional MDCRC will be directed by Charles Emerson, Ph.D. at Boston Biomedical Research Institute. The PI (in addition to having a project that is not being reviewed by the IRB at this time) is a co-director of the Centers Cell core. This core will be a national repository of muscle tissue, cells, and DNA for studies in FSHD.
Watertown, MA-Daniel Perez, co-founder, President and CEO of the FSH Society and a 48-year-old patient with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), the most common form of muscular dystrophy, hailed new findings,… Read More ». ...
Health,Boston MA (PRWEB) January 24 2013 Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a disease most people have never heard of even though it is one of the most common forms of muscular dystrophy. Having a name that is daunting to pronounce and spell doesnt help. But being an
Lemmers RJLF, van der Vliet PJ, Klooster R, Sacconi S, Camaño P, Dauwerse JG, Snider L, Straasheijm KR, van Ommen GJ, Padberg GW et al.. 2010. A unifying genetic model for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.. Science (New York, N.Y.). 329(5999):1650-3. Abstract ...
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Despite multiple studies, many clinicopathologic issues about chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remain contentious; for example, its biological behavior-whether better or similar to papillary RCC, the incidence of sarcomatoid features, and whether pathologic features such as necrosis, nuclear g
A total of 83 prostate adenocarcinomas was evaluated for allelic loss on chromosome 10 by analysis of loss of polymorphic microsatellite repeats. Initially, 64 stage B carcinomas were analyzed at 12 loci on chromosome 10. Nine cases showed loss of chromosome 10 sequences, with a fractional allelic loss of 20%. These nine cases were then analyzed at an additional 19 loci to define better the regions of loss. Four areas of loss were identified, including 10p (2 of 64 cases), 10q23.1 (7 of 64 cases), 10q23.3 (4 of 64 cases), and 10q26 (2 of 64 cases). Three loci in these regions, D10S111, D10S185, and D10S192, were then analyzed in 19 advanced (stage C and D) carcinomas. Seven (37%) of 19 advanced carcinomas showed allelic loss at one or more of these loci. A statistically significant increase in the fractional allelic loss at both D10S111 (10p) and D10S185 (10q23.1) was observed. Thus, a complex pattern of loss is seen on chromosome 10 in prostate carcinoma, with regions of loss on 10p and 10q, ...
Datasets are collections of data. BioGPS has thousands of datasets available for browsing and which can be easily viewed in our interactive data chart. Learn more.. ...
The goal of this study is to confirm the genetic status of Registry members with suspected FSHD. Genetic testing (DNA testing) by a blood draw can determine whether a patient has FSHD1, FSHD2, or neither. Clinical trials for FSHD often require patients to have had a genetically confirmed FSHD to participate. This study will increase the number of Registry members able to participate in future clinical trials ...
If you would like to schedule an appointment with one of our nationally ranked specialists or Primary Care physicians please click or call 800-881-7385.. ...
Xiao, Y.; Rabien, A.; Buschow, R.; Amstislavskiy, V.; Busch, J.; Kilic, E.; Villegas, S. L.; Timmermann, B.; Schütte, M.; Mielke, T. et al.; Yaspo, M.-L.; Jung, K.; Meierhofer, D.: Endocytosis-mediated replenishment of amino acids favors cancer cell proliferation and survival in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. Cancer research: an official organ of the American Association for Cancer Research 2020 (2020 ...
A study published last year by Margaret Pericak-Vance et al. (JAMA 1997;278) reported a putative locus for late-onset Alzheimers disease (LOAD) at chromosome 12p11-12, and set off a race to confirm and nail down the gene.... ...
PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene that is frequently deleted or mutated in a variety of human cancers, including prostate, breast, endometrial, lung, and ovarian cancers. In prostate cancer cells, PTEN deletion is the most common event observed. The loss of PTEN is thought to play and important role in tumor cell proliferation and metastasis due to a lack of control of the signaling pathways that mediate cellular processes such as apoptosis and migration. Previously PTEN had been shown to down regulate cyclin D1 expression as well as regulate p53 protein levels and transcriptional activity, and recently the inventors of this technology have shown that PTEN decreases surface IGF-IR protein levels in prostate cancer cell lines in an Akt-independent manner ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - MRI features of renal oncocytoma and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. AU - Taneja, Samir S.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2011/6. Y1 - 2011/6. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1016/S0022-5347(11)60257-7. DO - 10.1016/S0022-5347(11)60257-7. M3 - Comment/debate. AN - SCOPUS:79955845369. VL - 185. SP - 2098. EP - 2099. JO - Investigative Urology. JF - Investigative Urology. SN - 0022-5347. IS - 6. ER - ...
ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the preoperative imaging manifestation and therapeutic effect of laparoscopic simple enucleation (SE) for localized chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC).. Materials and Methods: Clinical data of 36 patients who underwent laparoscopic SE of localized chRCC at our institute were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent preoperative renal protocol CT (unenhanced, arterial, venous, and delayed images). CT scan characteristics were evaluated. After intraoperative occlusion of the renal artery, the tumor was free bluntly along the pseudocapsule and enucleated totally. The patients were followed up regularly after the operation.. Results: Mean tumor diameter was 3.9±1.0 cm, 80% of tumors were homogeneous and all the tumors had complete pseudocapsule. The attenuation values were slightly lower than normal renal cortex and degree of enhancement of the tumors were significantly lower than normal renal cortex. Mean operation time was 104.3±18.2 min. Mean warm ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective Efficacy of Temsirolimus on Bone Metastases in Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma. AU - Huelsmann, Lorel. AU - Kim, D. Nathan W.. AU - Hannan, Raquibul. AU - Watumull, Lori M.. AU - Brugarolas, James. PY - 2015/8/1. Y1 - 2015/8/1. KW - Bone remodeling. KW - Everolimus. KW - Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). KW - Osteoclasts. KW - Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 1 (TSC1). UR - UR - U2 - 10.1016/j.clgc.2014.12.007. DO - 10.1016/j.clgc.2014.12.007. M3 - Article. C2 - 25620636. AN - SCOPUS:84936985359. VL - 13. SP - e321-e323. JO - Clinical Genitourinary Cancer. JF - Clinical Genitourinary Cancer. SN - 1558-7673. IS - 4. ER - ...
HER2/neu overexpression due to gene amplification is an important factor in breast cancer, modifying the sensitivity to anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody therapy. The clinical significance of HER2 expression in non small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is currently under evaluation. The tumor suppressor gene PTEN negatively regulates the HER2/PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of simultaneous alteration in HER2 and PTEN protein expression in relation to biological behaviour of NSCLCs.. MATERIALS AND METHOD:. Protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in 82 NSCLC cases along with CISH for HER2 gene analysis and detection of chromosome 17 aneuploidy. Patients were followed-up for a period of 34 to 41 months after surgery.. RESULTS:. HER2 overexpression (2+/3+ score) was detected in 23 (27.9%) patients while loss of PTEN expression was observed in 32 (39.3%) cases, low expression in 39 (47.6%) and overexpression in 11(13.1%). Simultaneous HER2 ...
FSHD is the third most common muscular dystrophy in man with an estimated incidence of 54 per million. Patients suffer from progressive and irreversible weakness and wasting of the facial, shoulder and upper arm muscles. Approximately 20% of gene carriers become wheelchair dependent. There is no cure for FSHD.. Scientists at LUMC, in collaboration with other academic institutions, have discovered two novel target mechanisms whereby the two forms of FSHD can arise. The mechanisms represent targets for therapeutic intervention.. In addition, cell lines and mouse models of FSHD have been developed and can be used to further research the disease and/or to screen and validate potential therapeutics.. The collaborating institutions represent world-leading expertise in the field of FSHD and can also provide ongoing expertise.. Partner companies are now sought for research collaborations in this field, and licensing of key technologies available at the institutions.. ...
Cowden disease (CD), also termed Cowden syndrome and multiple hamartoma syndrome, is an autosomal dominant condition with variable expression that results from a mutation in the PTEN gene on chromosome arm 10q, as reported by Liaw et al. CD causes hamartomatous neoplasms of the skin and mucosa, GI tract, bones, central nervous system (CNS), eyes, and genitourinary tract. Skin is involved in 90-100% of cases; the thyroid in 66%.
Brian I. Rini, MD, presents a case study focused on the treatment of a 64 year-old male who presented with recurrent lung nodules 9 years after a left radical nephrectomy for a clear-cell renal ...
Summary: DUX4 underlies pathogenesis in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. DUX4 acts mainly as a transcriptional activator that inhibits myogenesis by orchestrating a gene expression profile representative of a more stem-cell-like state. ...
Nuramina gerklę ir bronchus (kvėpavimo takus, kurie perneša orą iš plaučių ir į plaučius). Padeda išstumti gleives. Laikoma atpalaiduojančia refleksine, atsikosėjimą lengvinančia priemone, kas reiškia, kad ji padeda sušvelninti kraujo priplūdimą, sumažindama gleivėtų išskyrų (skreplių) klampą, todėl jos lengviau išstumiamos.. ...
On the positive strand of human chromosome ten, located next to the 5' end of ANKRD26 is MASTL, microtubule associated serine/ ... It has 6816 base pairs in the reference sequence mRNA transcript. LOC100289548 (PUTAETIVE UNCHARACTERIZED PROTEIN C10ORF52-LIKE ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genes on human chromosome 10, All stub articles, ... 2004). "The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 10". Nature. 429 (6990): 375-81. Bibcode:2004Natur.429.. ...
Chromosome summary - Homo sapiens". Ensembl Release 88. 2017-03-29. Retrieved 2017-05-19. "Human chromosome 10: entries, gene ... The following is a partial list of genes on human chromosome 10. For complete list, see the link in the infobox on the right. ... The following are some of the gene count estimates of human chromosome 10. Because researchers use different approaches to ... Deloukas P, French L, Meitinger T, Moschonas NK (2000). "Report of the third international workshop on human chromosome 10 ...
Human gene SIGIRR is localized on chromosome 11. It is composed of 10 exons spanning about 11 700 base pairs. In mouse, this ... gene is on chromosome 7, where it is composed of 9 exons spanning about 9 400 base pairs. SIGIRR is 410 amino acids long ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genes on human chromosome 11). ... In human cells from colonic cancer, there was observed an increased expression of one variant of SIGIRR. This variant lacks its ...
The gene product is a 6,657 base pair mRNA with 41 predicted exons in the human gene. Ensembl predicts ten alternative splice ... The predicted promoter region spans 1002 base pairs from 98,611,892 through 98,612,893 on the minus strand of chromosome 2. The ... The first spans 216 base pairs from 98,612,501 through 98,612,716. The second spans 182 base pairs from 98,612,262 through ... The human form has 1883 amino acid residues, with an isoelectric point of 8.74 and a molecular mass of 205,100 Daltons. It has ...
v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genes on human chromosome 10, All stub articles, ... It spans 195,261 base pairs in length. It encodes a protein of predicted length and molecular weight of 1188 amino acids and ... Human ARID5B genome location and ARID5B gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Yuan YC, Whitson RH, Liu Q, Itakura K, ... AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 5B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARID5B gene. Alternative names ...
... is located on human Chromosome 2, at 2q31.1. It contains 10 distinct exons. The gene itself is 28,930 base pairs long ... This variant is also shorter than the other two at 1,063 base pairs. The ERICH2 protein is 436 amino acids in length, and has a ... Glutamate Rich Protein 2 is a protein in humans encoded by the gene ERICH2. This protein is expressed heavily in male tissues ... The longest transcript variant is 1,388 base pairs in length, 1,311 of which are coding. The second variant differs from the ...
... of the human genome." They discovered that chromosome 19 has the highest gene density of any human chromosome, and were able to ... She and her team worked on sequencing and analyzing chromosomes 5, 16, and 19 -- "320 million base pairs . . . comprising more ... "GNN - Two More Human Chromosomes Are Complete". Retrieved 2017-03-02. Grimwood, Jane; Gordon, Laurie ... Grimwood was an important part of the Human Genome Project effort, working from the Stanford Human Genome Center. Grimwood ...
It has 14 chromosomes. Vicia bithynica is not cultivated for human or livestock consumption. The seeds contain high levels of ... The leaves are arranged alternately along the stem, are up to about 9 cm long, have 2-3 pairs of leaflets, and end in branched ... The flowers are arranged in pairs (although sometimes solitary) on long (5 cm) peduncles branching from the leaf axils. The ... petals are purple and white, 2 cm long, and have 10 stamens and 1 style. The fruit is a hairy pod or legume up to 5 cm long ...
Genes on human chromosome 1). ... The cysteine pair (Cys28, Cys113) falls outside of the active ... Glutaredoxin 2 (GLRX2) is an enzyme that in humans encoded by the GLRX2 gene. GLRX2, also known as GRX2, is a glutaredoxin ... Lönn ME, Hudemann C, Berndt C, Cherkasov V, Capani F, Holmgren A, Lillig CH (March 2008). "Expression pattern of human ... Lai CH, Chou CY, Ch'ang LY, Liu CS, Lin W (May 2000). "Identification of novel human genes evolutionarily conserved in ...
Portal: Biology (Genes on human chromosome 15, All articles with unsourced statements, Articles with unsourced statements from ... "cDNA and gene structure for a human subtilisin-like protease with cleavage specificity for paired basic amino acid residues". ... "Identification of a second human subtilisin-like protease gene in the fes/fps region of chromosome 15". DNA and Cell Biology. ... Furin is a protease, a proteolytic enzyme that in humans and other animals is encoded by the FURIN gene. Some proteins are ...
Genes on human chromosome 10, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the United States National Library of Medicine, Human ... The human USMG5 gene codes for a protein with a role in maintaining and regulating the ATP synthase population in the ... The USMG5 gene is located on the q arm of chromosome 10 at position 24.33 and it spans 7,463 base pairs. The USMG5 gene ... "USMG5 - Up-regulated during skeletal muscle growth protein 5 - Homo sapiens (Human) - USMG5 gene & protein". Retrieved 2018-08- ...
The CHCHD10 gene is located on the q arm of chromosome 22 at position 11.23 and it spans 2,138 base pairs. The CHCHD10 gene ... Human) - CHCHD10 gene & protein". Retrieved 2018-08-07. This article incorporates text available under the CC BY 4.0 license. " ... also known as Protein N27C7-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHCHD10 gene. ... "Entrez Gene: coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain containing 10". Retrieved 2018-08-14. This article incorporates text ...
The human FABP1 gene is located on the short (p) arm of chromosome 2 from base pair 88,122,982 to base pair 88,128,131. FABP1 ... ten members of the FABP family have been identified on the human genome. Nine are well established (FABP1-9) with a recently ... FABP1 is a human gene coding for the protein product FABP1 (Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 1). It is also frequently known as liver ... Chan L, Wei CF, Li WH, Yang CY, Ratner P, Pownall H, Gotto AM, Smith LC (March 1985). "Human liver fatty acid binding protein ...
GXP_9794292 is 1040 base pairs in length spanning from base pair 23,758,601 to 23,759,640 on chromosome 22, while GXP_6747563 ... in humans, is encoded by the C22orf15 gene. The locus of C22orf15 in humans is on the long arm (q) of chromosome 22 in region ... it spans 3,340 base pairs on the plus strand from base pair 23,762,523 to 23,765,863 and contains ten introns and six exons. ... "C22orf15 chromosome 22 open reading frame 15 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". NCBI gene. U.S. National Library of Medicine. "C22orf15 ...
The gene spans 142,366 base pairs and is located at the 10p12.2 locus on the minus (-) or sense strand of chromosome 10. It is ... "KIAA1217 KIAA1217 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". "C10orf67 chromosome 10 open reading frame 67 [ ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genes on human chromosome 10). ... Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". Retrieved 2017-04-30. "Homo sapiens chromosome 10 open reading ...
In humans, it is encoded by the ALOX15 gene located on chromosome 17p13.3. This 11 kilobase pair gene consists of 14 exons and ... 1992) demonstrated that genes for 12-lipoxygenase and 15-lipoxygenase are located on human chromosome 17, whereas the most ... Consequently, human ALOX15 is now referred to as arachidonate-15-lipoxygenase-1, 15-lipoxygenase-1, 15-LOX-1, 15-LO-1, human 12 ... The distribution of Alox15 in sub-human primates and, in particular, rodents differs significantly from that of human ALOX15; ...
The repeats are normally a few hundred base pairs in length. These sequences constitute about 13% of the human genome with the ... The repeats are normally several thousand base pairs in length. These sequences constitute about 21% of the human genome. Both ... Eukaryotic chromosome fine structure refers to the structure of sequences for eukaryotic chromosomes. Some fine sequences are ... They may also be involved in fillers for increasing chromosome size to some minimum threshold level necessary for chromosome ...
The haploid human genome (23 chromosomes) is estimated to be about 3.2 billion bases long and to contain 20,000-25,000 distinct ... The GU pairing, with two hydrogen bonds, does occur fairly often in RNA (see wobble base pair). Paired DNA and RNA molecules ... kb (= kbp) = kilo-base-pair = 1,000 bp Mb (= Mbp) = mega-base-pair = 1,000,000 bp Gb = giga-base-pair = 1,000,000,000 bp. For ... In the human genome, the centimorgan is about 1 million base pairs. List of Y-DNA single-nucleotide polymorphisms Non-canonical ...
Genes on human chromosome, Webarchive template wayback links, Uncharacterized proteins, Genes on human chromosome 9). ... The entire human gene is 40,364 base pairs in length, while the unprocessed mRNA is 25,960 base pairs long. After splicing of ... Human MGC50722 is located on the minus strand of chromosome 9 in the region q34 of the human genome (NCBI Gene ID: 399693). The ... Nov 2013). "Proteogenomic Analysis of Human Chromosome 9-Encoded Genes from Human Samples and Lung Cancer Tissues". Journal of ...
Genes on human chromosome, All articles with unsourced statements, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2015, ... GLUT 1 of humans and mice have 98% identity at the amino acid level. GLUT 1 is encoded by the SLC2 gene and is one of a family ... The SLC2A1 gene is located on the p arm of chromosome 1 in position 34.2 and has 10 exons spanning 33,802 base pairs. The gene ... S2CID 18128118.*Lay summary in: "How Humans Make Up For An 'Inborn' Vitamin C Deficiency". ScienceDaily. March 21, 2008. Uldry ...
Chromosome 19 open reading frame 44 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C19orf44 gene. C19orf44 is an uncharacterized ... The entire gene is 25,416 base pairs in length, and has an unprocessed mRNA that is 3,446 nucleotides in length. It contains 10 ... "C19orf44 chromosome 19 open reading frame 44 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". Retrieved 2018-02-05 ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genes on human chromosome 19). ...
Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genes on human chromosome 6, All articles with unsourced ... Total length of the gene is about 1400 base pairs (bp) including the promoter region, which partly overlaps with the PBX2 gene ... The primary transcript of the human RAGE gene (pre-mRNA) is thought to be alternatively spliced. So far about 6 isoforms ... The RAGE gene lies within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC class III region) on chromosome 6 and comprises 11 exons ...
v t e (Genes on human chromosome 7, All stub articles, Human chromosome 7 gene stubs). ... a novel gene encoding a protein involved in meiotic chromosome pairing and location of STAG3-related genes flanking the ... "Chromatid cohesion defects may underlie chromosome instability in human colorectal cancers". Proceedings of the National ... Stromal antigen 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STAG3 gene. STAG3 protein is a component of a cohesin complex ...
In humans, lactoferrin gene LTF is located on the third chromosome in the locus 3q21-q23. In oxen, the coding sequence consists ... insertions and mutations of stop codons affect the coding part and its length varies between 2,055 and 2,190 nucleotide pairs. ... CS1: long volume value, Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genes on human chromosome 3, ... Human colostrum ("first milk") has the highest concentration, followed by human milk, then cow milk (150 mg/L). Lactoferrin is ...
... gene structure predicts for an independently expressed member of an ITIM/ITAM pair of molecules localized to human chromosome ... Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Genes on human chromosome 17, Wikipedia articles ... CD300A+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) CD300a, Bernholtz - The Possible ... Alvarez Y, Tang X, Coligan JE, Borrego F (2007). "The CD300a (IRp60) inhibitory receptor is rapidly up-regulated on human ...
... s have 64 chromosomes. The horse genome was sequenced in 2007. It contains 2.7 billion DNA base pairs, which is larger ... Horses are not ruminants, they have only one stomach, like humans, but unlike humans, they can use cellulose, a major component ... "Rare Twin Foals Born at Vet Hospital: Twin Birth Occurrences Number One in Ten Thousand". Communications Services, Oklahoma ... Humans: The Evolution of Human-Equine Relationships. Oxford, UK: Archaeopress. pp. 81-113. ISBN 978-1-84171-990-0. Epstein, H ...
... has no human paralogs. Extensive orthologs were identified, however, using NCBI's BLAST and BLAT programs. A select ... NHLRC2 is located on the positive strand of chromosome 10, at position 10q25.3. The full gene spans 62,533 base pairs (bp). ... PSORT II predicted one possible cleavage site within NHLRC2 in humans: between amino aids 32Q and 33E. PSORT II also predicted ... "YVAD" shows up three times alone in the human NHLRC2 protein. This motif is potential involved in inhibiting caspases 1, 2, 3, ...
The chromosomes in this snail are small, and the haploid number of chromosomes is 18. A complete genome sequence from the ... Sequencing of the whole genome was approved as a priority by National Human Genome Research Institute in August 2004, Its ... millions of base pairs; 0.95 ± 0.01 pg), which is a small genome size among gastropods. ... S2CID 11158571.. Crompton, D. W. (1999). "How much human helminthiasis is there in the world?" (PDF). The Journal of ...
In humans, the ARMH3 gene, also known by the alias FLJ13114, spans 210,577 base pairs on the reverse strand of the long arm of ... There are ten conserved potential phosphorylation sites within the protein sequence. Also, there are nine residues that are ... "Entrez Gene: Chromosome 10 open reading frame 76 (Human)". Retrieved 28 April 2013. Weinberg MS, Barichievy S, Schaffer L, Han ... The human ARMH3 locus is flanked on the left and right sides by HPS6 and KCNIP2, respectively. HPS6 is a protein that may play ...
It is located on the human chromosome 4 at 4q35.1. The function of the protein encoded by this gene is not well understood, but ... The total span of the gene, including 5' and 3' UTR, is 3149 base pairs. The gene is flanked on the left by NUDT13 (nudix ... Overall in the human body, this gene is expressed at levels slightly below the average human gene expression level. The protein ... A Systematic Exploration of the Human Interactome. Cell, 162(2), 425-440. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.06.043 "ABHD8_HUMAN". UniProt ...
... is caused by mutations in both copies of the CENPF gene, located on the long arm of chromosome 1. CENPF codes ... They are made by the centrosome, which contains a pair of cylindrical centrioles at right-angles to each other. Before division ... Badano JL, Mitsuma N, Beales PL, Katsanis N (1 September 2006). "The ciliopathies: an emerging class of human genetic disorders ... Filges I, Stromme P (January 2020). "CUGC for Stromme syndrome and CENPF-related disorders". European Journal of Human Genetics ...
Ten-m1-4, Odz1-4, Ten-m/Odz1-4, DOC4 in mouse, neurestin in rat, and teneurin or Odz in human. The name teneurin was coined by ... Odz1 to Mouse Chromosome 11; and ODZ3 to Human Chromosome Xq25". Genomics. 58 (1): 102-3. doi:10.1006/geno.1999.5798. PMID ... a vertebrate homologue of the Drosophila pair-rule gene ten-m, is a neuronal protein with a novel type of heparin-binding ... All Ten-m mRNAs are expressed prominently between layers II and VI of the cerebrum. The Ten-m3 gene, along with Ten-m2 and Ten- ...
Biologists have found that sex chromosomes in plants originated from pairs of autosomes. As these chromosomes diverge from ... The system for determining sex in Silene latifolia is close to that found in humans because in both cases the Y chromosome ... In the case of Silene, the pair of automsomal chromosomes are transformed into heteromorphic sex-determining chromosomes ... pair during female meiosis. Contrastingly, recombination is suppressed across most of the Y chromosomes during pairing in male ...
These species have become a considerable threat to human health, as they are often capable of evading human immune systems and ... or as the total number of nucleotide base pairs, usually in megabases (millions of base pairs, abbreviated Mb or Mbp). One ... This event happened during the removal of a larger region containing ten genes for a total of almost 10 kb. Same faith occurred ... I. DNA-content and chromosome sets in various species of Cyprinidae". Humangenetik. 7 (3): 240-244. doi:10.1007/BF00273173. ...
It has 2 pairs of petals, 3 large sepals (outer petals), known as the 'falls' and 3 inner, smaller petals (or tepals, known as ... It has a chromosome count: 2n=20. It was also counted as 2n=22, 44 by (Zahareva and Makeushenko 1968) and (Fedorov 1969). It is ... Some of these compounds had some antioxidant activity in certain cells and some effected yeast cells expressing human estrogen ... As most irises are diploid, having two sets of chromosomes. This can be used to identify hybrids and classification of ...
"Gene promoters show chromosome-specificity and reveal chromosome territories in humans". BMC Genomics. 14 (278): 278. doi: ... These pairs of promoters can be positioned in divergent, tandem, and convergent directions. They can also be regulated by ... Furthermore, in humans, promoters show certain structural features characteristic for each chromosome. In bacteria, the ... "Prevalence of the initiator over the TATA box in human and yeast genes and identification of DNA motifs enriched in human TATA- ...
This sequencing revealed that the human mtDNA includes 16,569 base pairs and encodes 13 proteins. Since animal mtDNA evolves ... Medusozoa and calcarea clades however have species with linear mitochondrial chromosomes. In terms of base pairs, the anemone ... HVR1, for example, consists of about 440 base pairs. These 440 base pairs are compared to the same regions of other individuals ... Human mitochondrial DNA was the first significant part of the human genome to be sequenced. ...
"The SON gene encodes a conserved DNA binding protein mapping to human chromosome 21". Annals of Human Genetics. 58 (1): 25-34. ... Many individuals with ZTTK syndrome have identified heterozygosity for a de novo 4-base pair deletion, de novo mutation in exon ... and CRF2-4 genes cluster on human Chromosome 21 and mouse Chromosome 16". Mammalian Genome. 4 (6): 338-342. doi:10.1007/ ... Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are able to undergo lineage-specific differentiation into specific types of cells, known as ...
During the process of mitosis the pairs of chromosomes condense and attach to microtubules that pull the sister chromatids to ... Many human cancers possess the hyper-activated Cdk 4/6 activities. Given the observations of cyclin D-Cdk 4/6 functions, ... Cell Cycle, Chromosomes and Cancer. Vol. 15. Miami Beach, FL: University of Miami School of Medicine. Alter O, Golub GH ( ... In this checkpoint, the cell checks to ensure that the spindle has formed and that all of the chromosomes are aligned at the ...
For this sample, a better estimate would be that 95% of the base pairs are exactly shared between chimpanzee and human DNA." ... April 2015). "A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture". Genome Research. 25 (4 ... Evolutionary biology portal Evolution of human intelligence Graphical timeline of the universe Human evolution Recent human ... The timeline of human evolution outlines the major events in the evolutionary lineage of the modern human species, Homo sapiens ...
The paper examined the global distribution of SINEs in mouse and human chromosomes and determined that this distribution was ... SINEs have 50-500 base pair internal regions which contain a tRNA-derived segment with A and B boxes that serve as an internal ... often leading to disease phenotypes in humans and other animals. Insertion of Alu elements in the human genome is associated ... There are >50 human diseases associated with SINEs. When inserted near or within the exon, SINEs can cause improper splicing, ...
The human LECT2 gene, LECT2, is located on the long, i.e, "q", arm of chromosome 5 at position q31.1 (notated as 5q31.1). This ... Human LECT2 is composed of 4 exons, 3 introns, and ~8,000 base pairs. The gene has numerous single nucleotide variants as well ... 2004). "The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 5". Nature. 431 (7006): 268-74. doi:10.1038/nature02919. ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genes on human chromosome 5). ...
... univalens has one pair of chromosomes and P. equorum has two pairs. However, new genomic research suggests that both Parascaris ... These worms are host-specific to equines and cannot infect humans or other animals. P. univalens is a model organism for ... Intestinal impactions usually occur in foals and around four to ten months of age, additionally impactions can be diagnosed ... The species are distinguished by the number of chromosomes. Karyotyping is the only way to differentiate between the two: P. ...
Genes on human chromosome 17, Keratins, All stub articles, Human chromosome 17 gene stubs). ... Keratin 16 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KRT16 gene. Keratin 16 is a type I cytokeratin. It is paired with ... "A group of type I keratin genes on human chromosome 17: characterization and expression". Mol. Cell. Biol. 8 (2): 722-36. doi: ... "Three epidermal and one simple epithelial type II keratin genes map to human chromosome 12". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 57 (1): 33- ...
By pairing chromosomes of similar genomes, the chance for these recessive alleles to pair and become homozygous greatly ... By analogy, the term is used in human reproduction, but more commonly refers to the genetic disorders and other consequences ... Thus, the likelihood of deleterious recessive alleles to pair is significantly higher in a small inbreeding population than in ... ISBN 978-3-540-37654-5. Ober C, Hyslop T, Hauck WW (January 1999). "Inbreeding effects on fertility in humans: evidence for ...
Genes on human chromosome 2, Protein pages needing a picture, Genes on human chromosome 15, Genes on human chromosome 20, Genes ... The lone pair of electrons moves down kicking off the lone pairs that were making the double bond. This lone pair of electrons ... glutamicum was recorded as having ten times as much activity than E. coli and seven times more affinitive/specific for NADP. C ... Mtb ICDH-1 is most structurally similar to the R132H mutant human ICDH found in glioblastomas. Similar to human R132H ICDH, Mtb ...
The two pairs of membranous wings are held together by small hooks and the forewings are larger than the hind ones; in some ... Males, called drones, have a haploid (n) number of chromosomes and develop from an unfertilized egg. Wasps store sperm inside ... the existing workers search for sugary foods and are more likely to come into contact with humans. Wasp nests made in or near ... Females are diploid, meaning that they have 2n chromosomes and develop from fertilized eggs. ...
Genes on human chromosome 3, Protein pages needing a picture, Human gene pages with Wikidata item). ... C3orf62 starts at 49,268,597 base pairs from the terminus of the short arm (pter) and ending at 49,277,909 base pairs pter. ... Chromosome 3 Open Reading Frame 62 (C3orf62), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C3orf62 gene. C3orf62 is a glycine ... C3orf62 human protein (Q6ZUJ4) is 267 amino acids long, and has a molecular mass of 30,194 Daltons. The isoelectric point of ...
This breakthrough helped further relate OCD in humans to CCD in canines. Canine chromosome 7 is expressed in the hippocampus of ... Rats became significantly more tolerant to morphine when they had been exposed to a paired administration than those rats that ... A chromosome has been located in dogs that confers a high risk of susceptibility to OCD. Canine chromosome 7 has been found to ... It can be difficult to attribute human conditions to non-human animals. Obsessive-compulsive behavior in animals, often called ...
... is a multigene haplotype that covers a majority of the human major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6 (not to be ... 1 million base pairs centromeric from DQ2.5 may also be associated with Type 1 diabetes. In addition the BAT1 and MICB variant ... CS1 French-language sources (fr), CS1 German-language sources (de), Human MHC haplogroups, Human MHC mediated diseases, Human ... These unique chromosomes are produced by recombination of each unique chromosome passed by each grandparent to each parent. ...
Because RPS6KA3 is located on the X chromosome, males (who possess only one copy of the X chromosome) display more severe ... In 2002, Helen Fryssira and RJ Simensen identified a 3 base pair deletion in the gene encoding RSK2, which was the first report ... "Coffin-Lowry syndrome". European Journal of Human Genetics 18, 627-633 (2010). doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.189 Rogers RC, Abidi FE. ... A condition is considered X-linked if the gene that causes the disorder is located on the X chromosome (one of the two sex ...
For example, probes may be designed to target various regions of chromosome 21 of a human cell. The signal strengths of the ... Pairs of probes are hybridized to the sample DNA, with each probe pair designed to query for the presence of a particular DNA ... to give the PCR product a unique length when compared to other probe pairs in the MLPA assay. Each complete probe pair must ... Although dosage quotients may be calculated for any pair of amplicons, it is usually the case that one of the pair is an ...
Weak identity between chromosomes results in meiotic pairing that yields only two possible genotypes of sperm, X1X2X3X4X5 or ... This similarity to primates and humans allows it to see distant objects clearly. Unlike placental mammals, including humans, ... Ten days after it is laid, the egg hatches within the pouch. The embryo develops an egg tooth during incubation, which it uses ... for humans. This part of the brain in humans is thought to be used for planning and analytical behaviour, leading to debate as ...
For example, in humans, females (XX) silence the transcription of one X chromosome of each pair, and transcribe all information ... Specifically, platypus X1 shares homology with the chicken Z chromosome, and both share homology with the human chromosome 9. ... of human X chromosome genes, and 3-7% of mouse X chromosome genes outside of the PARs show weak expression from the inactive X ... smaller W chromosome. Instead of silencing the entire chromosome as humans do, male chickens (the model ZZ organism) seem to ...
Since each centrosome has a K fiber connecting to each pair of chromosomes, the chromosomes become tethered in the middle of ... "The Human Protein Atlas". Archived from the original on 2017-05-01. Retrieved 2017-04-27. Hirokawa N, ... As the K fibers shorten the pair chromosomes are pulled apart right before cytokinesis. Previously, some researchers believed ... For example, +TIPs have been observed to participate in the interactions of microtubules with chromosomes during mitosis. The ...
For instance, human and chimpanzee chromosomes are very similar and FISH can demonstrate that two chimpanzee chromosomes fused ... Each probe for the detection of mRNA and lncRNA is composed of ~20-50 oligonucleotide pairs, each pair covering a space of 40- ... so each human chromosome can be identified by a characteristic color using whole-chromosome probe mixtures and a variety of ... have similar chromosomes but with increasing distance chromosomes tend to break and fuse and thus result in mosaic chromosomes ...
Genes on human chromosome 17, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the United States National Library of Medicine, All ... which recognizes target mRNAs through imperfect base pairing with the miRNA and most commonly results in translational ... Yang X, Yin J, Yu J, Xiang Q, Liu Y, Tang S, Liao D, Zhu B, Zu X, Tang H, Lei X (January 2012). "miRNA-195 sensitizes human ... MicroRNA 195 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MIR195 gene. microRNAs (miRNAs) are short (20-24 nt) non-coding RNAs ...
For example, individuals with TT allele pair at SNP rs10993994 were reported to be at 1.6 times higher risk than those with the ... 37] reported that it caused reduction in the formation of 5-HETE in human leucocytes when used. MS can thus be considered a ... Loss of cancer suppressor genes, early in prostatic carcinogenesis, have been localized to chromosomes 8p, 10q, 13q, and 16q. ... When compared to active monitoring/surveillance, on follow-up at ten years, radical prostatectomy probably has similar outcomes ...
PMID 5882191 McKee, Bruce D. (2004-03-15). "Homologous pairing and chromosome dynamics in meiosis and mitosis". Biochimica et ... Principles and Methods for the Analysis of Human Quantitative Traits". Twin Research and Human Genetics. 7 (5): 513-530. doi: ... when two genes are located on different chromosomes or when they are widely separated on the same chromosome. This is a ... towards an understanding of the molecular basis of reduced penetrance in human inherited disease". Human genetics. 132 (10): ...
The DNA repair transcriptomes of the liver of humans, naked mole-rats and mice were compared. The maximum lifespans of humans, ... Mouse cells deficient for maturation of prelamin A show increased DNA damage and chromosome aberrations and are more sensitive ... However, in vertebrates there are CpG islands, about 300 to 3,000 base pairs long, with interspersed DNA sequences that deviate ... In human and mouse DNA, cytosine followed by guanine (CpG) is the least frequent dinucleotide, making up less than 1% of all ...
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16 / genetics * Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6 / genetics * Fatty Acid Desaturases / genetics ... Novel regions were identified on chromosome 10 associated with LA (rs10740118; P=8.1×10(-9); near NRBF2), on chromosome 16 with ... 10 , Xiangjun Gu 8 , Stafania Bandinelli 11 , Irena B King 12 , Barbara McKnight 3 , Bruce M Psaty 13 14 , David Siscovick 13 ... and on chromosome 6 with adrenic acid after adjustment for arachidonic acid (rs3134950; P=2.1×10(-10); AGPAT1). We confirmed ...
... base pairs) and represents between 4 and 4.5 percent of the total DNA in cells. Learn about health implications of genetic ... Chromosome 10 spans more than 133 million DNA building blocks ( ... Ensembl Human Map View: Chromosome 10. *Gilbert F. Chromosome ... Humans normally have 46 chromosomes in each cell, divided into 23 pairs. Two copies of chromosome 10, one copy inherited from ... Ring chromosomes occur when a chromosome breaks in two places and the ends of the chromosome arms fuse together to form a ...
We found a significant increase in the number of fusion transcripts in human brain with increasing age both in single cells and ... In this study, we explored the occurrence of fusion transcripts in normal human cortex along with single neurons and astrocytes ... Our results indicate while the majority of fusion transcripts in human cortex are intra-chromosomal (85%), events found in ... We identified 1305 non-redundant fusion events from 388 transcriptomes representing 59 human cortices and 329 single cells. ...
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19. Oligodendroglioma. Adenoma. Pituitary Neoplasms. Astrocytoma. Melanoma ... Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1. 1. 2020. 2020. March 2020. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19. 1. 2020. 2020. March 2020. ...
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10 Medicine & Life Sciences 100% * Plasminogen Activators Medicine & Life Sciences 90% ... Variation in the Urokinase-Plasminogen Activator Gene Does Not Explain the Chromosome 10 Linkage Signal for Late Onset AD. In: ... Variation in the Urokinase-Plasminogen Activator Gene Does Not Explain the Chromosome 10 Linkage Signal for Late Onset AD. ... Variation in the Urokinase-Plasminogen Activator Gene Does Not Explain the Chromosome 10 Linkage Signal for Late Onset AD. / ...
... cassette was used to circularize two linear YACs containing genomic DNA from human chromosome 21. The circularized YACs were ... cassette was used to circularize two linear YACs containing genomic DNA from human chromosome 21. The circularized YACs were ... cassette was used to circularize two linear YACs containing genomic DNA from human chromosome 21. The circularized YACs were ... cassette was used to circularize two linear YACs containing genomic DNA from human chromosome 21. The circularized YACs were ...
Overall, the transcribed portions of the human genome are predominantly composed of interlaced networks of both poly A+ and ... Unannotated, nonpolyadenylated transcripts comprise the major proportion of the transcriptional output of the human genome. Of ... The transcribed portions of the human genome are predominantly composed of interlaced networks of both poly A+ and poly A- ... Sites of transcription of polyadenylated and nonpolyadenylated RNAs for 10 human chromosomes were mapped at 5-base pair ...
We noted in both populations that primer pair 1 sometimes amplified a region of human genomic DNA from chromosome 6 (GQ497714 ... followed by pair 7 (n = 40), pair 5 (n = 36), and pair 8 (n = 31). Most notably, primer pair 7 performed better than it had in ... Distribution of human rhinovirus (HRV) and human enterovirus (HEV) sequences used for primer pair studies. The HRV and HEV ... Distribution of human rhinovirus (HRV) and human enterovirus (HEV) sequences used for primer pair studies. The HRV and HEV ...
In human beings there are 23 pairs of DNA (or 46 chromosomes). Modern research has discovered the location of certain genes for ... In an adult human being, if the number of cells is round about 1013, then the total length of DNA would extend from the earth ... No known mechanism of mutation, either at the gene level or the chromosome level has been discovered which will produce ... The DNA in the chromosomes is incredibly complex, yet it can be subject to accidental alterations or mutations. Experiments ...
Binky is horrified after discovering hes only one pair of chromosomes away from being human! ... Paris Hilton, prepared to go to jail for 90 days for violating probation, by packing 12 suitcases of clothes, 36 pair of shoes ... Congress has unanimously approved the use of convicted Taliban as human missles. The terrorists, ironically, will have bombs ...
Most human cells have two pairs of 23 chromosomes, one pair from your mother and the other from your father, for a total of 46 ... Most human cells have two pairs of 23 chromosomes, one pair from your mother and the other from your father, for a total of 46 ... DNA is so tightly wound in each chromosome that the entire human genetic code of 3 billion base pairs fits in an area of just 6 ... All about Chromosome. FACTS: Chromosomes are threadlike structures inside of cells that store genetic information. They are ...
The workflow requires an input of: a chromosome name or number; a QTL start base pair position; QTL end base pair position. ... As the Cow genome is currently unfinished, the workflow subsequently maps the cow ensembl gene ids to human orthologues. Entrez ... This workflow uses one or more services that are deprecated as of 31st December 2012 (almost 10 years ago), and may no longer ...
Human, Pair 4" by people in this website by year, and whether "Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4" was a major or minor topic of these ... A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification. ... "Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4" by people in Profiles. ...
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10 56% * Exons 53% * Linkage Disequilibrium 49% * Single Nucleotide Polymorphism 36% ... Ten top tips...Preventing orthopaedic surgery-related wound blisters. Gillibrand, W., 2014, In: Journal of Lymphoedema. 5, 2, p ... Human Genetics. 113, 3, p. 258-267 10 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ... Ousey, K., Leaper, D., Milne, J. & Cawthorne, J., Sep 2014, In: Wounds UK. 10, 3, p. 10-14 5 p.. Research output: Contribution ...
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6 Medicine & Life Sciences 17% * Multigene Family Medicine & Life Sciences 14% ... Human homeo box-containing genes located at chromosome regions 2q31→2q37 and 12q12→12q13. In: American Journal of Human ... The human homeo box-containing cluster of genes at chromosome region 17q21 is the human cognate of the mouse homeo box- ... The human homeo box-containing cluster of genes at chromosome region 17q21 is the human cognate of the mouse homeo box- ...
... of human oocytes contain at least one exchangeless chromosome pair, demonstrating a remarkably high level of meiotic ... American Journal of Human Genetics. The findings suggest that right from the get-go of human egg cell development, a ... recombination failure, finds a study appearing December 10 in the ... More than 7% of human oocytes contain at least one exchangeless chromosome pair, demonstrating a remarkably high level of ...
Chromosomes are cellular structures containing genes. Humans normally have 23 pairs of chromosomes. ... Her calculations based on empirical evidence showed that galaxies must contain ten times as much mass as can be accounted for ... and indeed they appear to be so within the space of a single human lifetime, or several human lifetimes. We now know that they ... Fjordman: Women, and Human Accomplishment. Posted on July 10, 2011. by Eeyore - 21 Comments ↓ ...
The number of pair (s) of sex chromosomes in the zygote of humans is. Questions are framed as per the trend of CBSE boards. ... How many pairs of chromosomes are present in humans? Chapter 9 - Heredity and Evolution - Test. Here is a compilation of Free ... The number of sex chromosomes in the zygote of humans is one pair. Start Test. 110 Avon Street, Charlottesville, VA 22902, USA ... Pair ( s ) of sex chromosomes in the new Exam Pattern, MCQ Questions for Class 10 Science Carries... Terms of Evolution end of ...
Firstly, most of the human DNA is identical between two unrelated individuals. This is estimated to 99.5% for individuals from ... who have two X chromosomes and therefore have symmetrical pairs of chromosomes. Men receive a shorter Y chromosome from their ... Their second X chromosome is also an random admixture.. The Y chromosome continuity. The only chromosome that survives the test ... The autosomal DNA (the 23 pairs of chromosomes minus X and Y) always works in pair. Wherever you look at the DNA sequence there ...
... for humans this is 3 billion paired bases (guanine, cytosine, adenine and thymine) organized into 23 pairs of chromosomes. ... A: a true SNP on one chromosome pair, B: a deletion on one chromosome, C: a deletion on both chromosomes, D: a false variant ... A key question is how to use the reads to determine whether there is a variant on both chromosomes, on just one chromosome, or ... This paired set of releases provides a smooth ramp for users to explore and evaluate the capabilities of DeepVariant in their ...
Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) determines the chromosomal status of an embryo by screening all 23 chromosome pairs ... Gene editing on humans. Chinese scientists are embarking on what appear to be the first human trials with the Crispr gene ... It appears that around a third of embryos with the correct number of chromosomes still fail to lead to a successful pregnancy. ... Nature - Chinese scientists to pioneer first human CRISPR trial. Chinese scientists are on the verge of being first in the ...
... a finding that provides valuable new insight into the condition in humans ... identified specific regions of chromosome 21 which cause memory & decision-making problems in mice with Down syndrome, ... Most people have 46 chromosomes in each cell, divided into 23 pairs: people with Down syndrome (DS) have an extra copy of ... Novel insight into chromosome 21 and its effect on Down syndrome. Novel insight into chromosome 21 and its effect on Down ...
Isolation and characterization of a zinc finger polypeptide gene at the human chromosome 11 Wilms tumor locus. Cell. Feb 1990. ... Ton CCT, Hirvonen H, Miwa H. Positional cloning and characterization of a paired box- and homeobox-containing gene from the ... Genetic analysis of chromosome 11p13 and the PAX6 gene in a series of 125 cases referred with aniridia. Am J Med Genet A. Mar ... Subject A has a large deletion on chromosome 11 that removes one copy of the BDNF gene. Subject B has a smaller deletion that ...
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10 100% * Estradiol 13% * Estrogen Receptor Modulators 98% * Estrogen Receptors 71% ... Dive into the research topics of Loss of Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 engages ErbB3 and insulin- ... Loss of Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 engages ErbB3 and insulin-like growth factor-I receptor ...
In the case of pancreatic cancers, germline mutations occur in about 10–20% of patients, with mutations in BRCA1 and ... it is notable that among ten patients with metastatic PDAC, two of the ten had partial response (overall response rate of 20 ... Recognition of human gastrointestinal cancer neoantigens by circulating PD-1+ lymphocytes. J. Clin. Invest. 2019, 129, 4992- ... BRCA2 is located on chromosome 13q12-13 and is 3418 amino acids long. BRCA2 is characterized by a very large exon 11 containing ...
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.. ... A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification. ... Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10 - Preferred Concept UI. M0004418. Scope note. ... Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9 [A11.284.187.520.300.325.345] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9 ...
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14 100% * Multiple Sclerosis 64% * Haplotypes 45% * Polymerase Chain Reaction 43% ... Cortes, A., Field, J., Glazov, E. A., Hadler, J., ANZgene Consortium, Stankovich, J. & Brown, M. A., 1 Jun 2013, In: Human ... Genome-wide association study identifies new multiple sclerosis susceptiblity loci on chromosomes 12 and 20. Bahlo, M., Booth, ... Resequencing and fine-mapping of the chromosome 12q13-14 locus associated with multiple sclerosis refines the number of ...
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10 --genetics. -. dc.subject.mesh. Female. -. dc.subject.mesh. Humans. - ... Indian Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 Sept; 15(3): 98-102.. en_US. ... which is present on chromosome 10 in humans. The APO-1/Fas promoter contains consensus sequences for binding of several ...
There are 23 pairs of chromosomes. Most human chromosomes have maternal and a paternal copy. We have 22 such pairs. These pairs ... There are 23 pairs of chromosomes in the cell of human body. Out of these, 22 pairs do not take part in sex-determination in ... human beings. The 23rd pair in gonadal cell called sex chromosome which is not always a perfect pair. Women have a perfect pair ... Females have a pair of X chromosomes. All children inherit an X chromosome from their ; mother and X or X chromosome from ...
  • Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. (
  • Because researchers use different approaches to predict the number of genes on each chromosome, the estimated number of genes varies. (
  • Chromosome 10 likely contains 700 to 800 genes that provide instructions for making proteins. (
  • The association of cancerous tumors with a loss of chromosome 10 suggests that some genes on this chromosome play critical roles in controlling the growth and division of cells. (
  • Researchers are working to identify the specific genes on chromosome 10 that may be involved in the development and progression of gliomas. (
  • Three potentially functional classes of RNAs have been identified, two of which are syntenically conserved and correlate with the expression state of protein-coding genes and support a highly interleaved organization of the human transcriptome. (
  • Modern research has discovered the location of certain genes for very specific functions, for example the ABO blood group antigenes have been found on number 9 chromosome. (
  • A second cDNA clone, c1, which is 87% homologous to Hox-2.2 at the nucleotide level but is distinct from Hox-2.1 and Hox-2.2, also maps to this region of human chromosome 17 and is probably another member of the Hox-2 cluster of homeo box-containing genes. (
  • The human homeo box-containing cluster of genes at chromosome region 17q21 is the human cognate of the mouse homeo box-containing gene cluster on mouse chromosome 11. (
  • Other mouse homeo box-containing genes of the Antennapedia class (class I) map to mouse chromosomes 6 (Hox-1, proximal to the IgK locus) and 15 (Hox-3). (
  • Most people have 46 chromosomes in each cell, divided into 23 pairs: people with Down syndrome (DS) have an extra copy of chromosome 21, which carries over 200 genes. (
  • Chromosome 21 and its genes are also found in mice, although the genes have dispersed onto three smaller regions on three different mouse chromosomes. (
  • These are mouse chromosomes 16, 10 and 17 containing 148 genes, 62 genes and 19 genes respectively. (
  • The researchers looked at the effect of the genes in each of these three different mouse regions (chromosomes) on learning and memory. (
  • Susceptibility to SLE is found to be associated with many major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and non-MHC genes, one of which is APO-1/Fas gene, which is present on chromosome 10 in humans. (
  • An ordered-subsets analysis based on families with high or low diabetes-related quantitative traits yielded results that support the possible existence of disease-predisposing genes on chromosomes 6 and 10. (
  • As sequencing of the 80 -100,000 human genes continues and as technologies advance, new discoveries about host genes and their role in infectious diseases are made almost daily. (
  • DNA sequencing data have demonstrated that ζ (ref. 6) and α2 (or α1, refs 7-9) are the embryonic and adult genes, respectively, while ψζ (ref. 6), ψα2 (ref. 5) ψα1 (ref. 10) are all inactive pseudogenes. (
  • This is a wildly complex, incredibly fast process: In a matter of weeks, cells divide and multiply and activate, working on the instructions encoded within their genes, changing an embryo into a human infant. (
  • Biologist Ann Gauger looked at one of the initially strongest arguments against Adam and Eve from human genetic diversity (HLA genes) and found the evidence is compatible with our descending from an initial couple. (
  • The interaction of genes with each other and with environmental factors underlies many aspects of human health and disease. (
  • These conditions are described as genetic diseases because a defect in one or more genes or chromosomes leads to a pathological condition. (
  • Here the genetic factors can influence the development of a variety of neurologic disorders that are typically inherited from parents through genes and chromosomes. (
  • Changes in chromosomes, whether in number or in structure, have large effects on characteristics because they contain large numbers of genes. (
  • This result in a loss of genes from a chromosome. (
  • In humans, genes vary in size from a few hundred DNA bases to more than 2 million bases. (
  • A chromosome consists of a long strand of DNA containing many genes. (
  • A human chromosome can have up to 500 million base pairs of DNA with thousands of genes. (
  • Humans have approximately 20,000 protein-coding genes. (
  • Since the two genes are on different chromosomes, they can't be linked together . (
  • Both characteristics come from recessive genes, which like to come in pairs. (
  • Each chromosome has a set of genes. (
  • Genes involucrados en la amelogénesis imperfecta. (
  • involucrados en la AI no sindrómica, las proteínas codificas por estos genes y sus funciones, de acuerdo amelogénesis a la evidencia científica actual. (
  • Las futuras investigaciones abordadas desde la visión translacional ayudarán estética dental, a identificar nuevas mutaciones o nuevos genes, lo cual contribuirá a la evolución en la manera de clasificar, genes. (
  • It fuses part of a specific gene from chromosome 11 (the KMT2A gene) with part of another gene from chromosome 10 (the MLLT10 gene). (
  • Organization and transcriptional output of a novel mRNA-like piRNA gene (mpiR) located on mouse chromosome 10. (
  • No known mechanism of mutation, either at the gene level or the chromosome level has been discovered which will produce evolutionary advancement. (
  • Cow-Human Ortholog Pathways and Gene annot. (
  • As the Cow genome is currently unfinished, the workflow subsequently maps the cow ensembl gene ids to human orthologues. (
  • Four human homeo box-containing cDNAs isolated from mRNA of an SV40-transformed human fibroblast cell line have been regionally localized on the human gene map. (
  • A mouse gene, En-1, with an engrailed-like homeo box (class II) and flanking region maps to mouse chromosome 1 (near the dominant hemimelia gene). (
  • Practice thousands of multiple choice questions created by CBSE Class X Science experts & teachers, You can get instant results and also download certificate for passing CBSE Class 10 Science Heredity And Evolution Online Test Set A. a.Vegetative propagation b.Contraception c.Different combination of genetic material, gene mutation d.Fertility 3. (
  • Imagine that you are looking at a DNA sequence on one gene known to have polymorphisms (i.e. variations from one person to another) in that 0.5% of DNA that is not identical in all human beings. (
  • To do this three different mouse strains (groups of mice), were genetically modified to carry an extra copy of one of the gene groups on mouse chromosomes 16, 10 or 17. (
  • Study note: Mouse strains Dp1Tyb, Dp10Yey and Dp17Yey were genetically modified to carry an extra copy of one of the gene groups on mouse chromosomes 16, 10 and 17 respectively. (
  • Here we applied the robust Gene Identification Signature Paired End diTag (GIS-PET) approach to investigate the melanoma transcriptome and characterize the global pathway aberrations. (
  • We applied the robust Gene Identification Signature Paired-End diTag technology (GIS-PET) to reveal the global pathway aberrations in melanoma by using the murine melanoma cell line B16F1 as a model system. (
  • Localization of the gene for Cowden disease to chromosome 10q22-23. (
  • The putative polypeptide is 141 amino acids long, identical to that of the α- or ζ-globin, but its predicted amino-acid sequence is nearly as different from the orang-utan α-globin (55 differences) as the human ζ-globin is from the human α-globin (59 differences), suggesting an ancient history for the θ1 -globin gene. (
  • Results of blot hybridization experiments using the cloned orang-utan θ1 gene sequence as probe demonstrate a similar α2-α1-θ1 linkage map existing in the human genome. (
  • Furthermore, multiple copies of sequences homologous to the θ1 gene are detected in both human and orang-utan. (
  • We have identified a rare missense variant on chromosome 9, position 125145990 (GRCh37), in exon 8 in prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase 1 (PTGS1) (the gene encoding cyclo-oxygenase 1 [COX-1], the target of anti-thrombotic aspirin therapy). (
  • A 2-base pair deletion polymorphism in the partial duplication of the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine gene (CHRFAM7A) on chromosome 15q14 is associated with schizophrenia. (
  • FANCB is the one exception to FA being autosomal recessive , as this gene is on the X chromosome. (
  • gene, unit of hereditary information that occupies a fixed position (locus) on a chromosome. (
  • The gene for red hair, MC1R, is found on chromosome 16. (
  • The gene for Rh factor is found on chromosome 1. (
  • DYT1 are caused by a 3-base pair in-frame deletion within the coding region of the TOR1A (torsinA) gene located on chromosome 9q34. (
  • Hereditary progressive dystonia with marked diurnal fluctuation, or Segawa disease, is an autosomal dominantly inherited dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) caused by heterozygous mutations of the GCH1 gene located on chromosome 14q22.1-q22.2. (
  • The structural chromosome alterations may arise at the chromosome level (e.g., translocations and gains or losses of large portions of chromosomes) or at the nucleotide level, which influence gene structure or expression such as mutations, insertions, deletions, gene amplifications, and gene silencing by epigenetic effects ( Jefford and Irminger-Finger, 2006 ). (
  • The first step in dna splicing is to locate a specific gene of interest on a chromosome. (
  • In support of this idea are the linea that the colorectal tumor suppressor protein DCC has some structural homology to LAR438 and that the LAR gene maps to a linds on chromosome 1p32-33 that is thought e contain a breast cancer tumor sup- pressor gene. (
  • Chromosome and gene. (
  • In PAIS, there is a change in the gene on the X chromosome that helps the body recognize and use male hormones properly. (
  • 403(10): 917-928, 2022 09 27. (
  • Sep 22, 2022 Telomere vesicles retained the Rad51 recombination factor that enabled telomere fusion with T-cell chromosome ends lengthening them by an average of 3,000 base pairs. (
  • 10q26 deletion syndrome is a condition that results from the loss (deletion) of a small piece of chromosome 10 in each cell. (
  • The deletion occurs on the long (q) arm of the chromosome at a position designated 10q26. (
  • People with 10q26 deletion syndrome are missing between 3.5 million and 17 million DNA building blocks (base pairs), also written as 3.5 and 17 megabases (Mb), at position q26 on chromosome 10. (
  • Lin S, Zhou Y, Fang Q, Wu J, Zhang Z, Ji Y, Luo Y. Chromosome 10q26 deletion syndrome: Two new cases and a review of the literature. (
  • A: a true SNP on one chromosome pair, B: a deletion on one chromosome, C: a deletion on both chromosomes, D: a false variant caused by errors. (
  • Chromosome 2q terminal deletion: report of 6 new patients and review of phenotype-breakpoint correlations in 66 individuals. (
  • FISH mapping further narrowed the region of deletion of chromosome 4 to 39.6 centimorgans (cM) and the region of duplication to 10-35 cM. (
  • We identified 1305 non-redundant fusion events from 388 transcriptomes representing 59 human cortices and 329 single cells. (
  • Chromosome 10 spans more than 133 million DNA building blocks (base pairs) and represents between 4 and 4.5 percent of the total DNA in cells. (
  • In an adult human being, if the number of cells is round about 10 13 , then the total length of DNA would extend from the earth to the sun 100 times. (
  • Chromosomes are threadlike structures inside of cells that store genetic information. (
  • Most human cells have two pairs of 23 chromosomes, one pair from your mother and the other from your father, for a total of 46 chromosomes. (
  • It involves two rounds of division that ultimately result in four cells with only one copy of each paternal and maternal chromosome. (
  • But the magnitude of the effect has not been clear, because until now, there had been no attempt to directly measure the incidence of exchangeless chromosomes in a large series of human oocytes--immature egg cells. (
  • Sperm and Egg cells (gametes) do not have pairs of chromosomes. (
  • Cells which only have one member of each pair of chromosomes are called HAPLOID cells. (
  • Automated identification of abnormal metaphase chromosome cells for the detection of chronic myeloid leukemia using microscopic images. (
  • The induction of mutations at the hypoxanthine- guanine-phosphoribosyl-transferase (HGPRT) locus, situated on the X- chromosome, rendered the cells resistant to the nucleic acid analogue 6-thioguanine (thioguanine). (
  • HGPRT enzyme activity was reduced by more than 10 fold in the clones, compared to P3 cells. (
  • Thioguanine resistant P3 cells were activated with human BJ cells and incubated with benzo(e)pyrene (192972) (BeP), pyrene (129000), chrysene (218019), BaP, 3-methylcholanthrene (56495) (MCA), or 7,12- dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (57976) (DMBA) and assayed for the induction of thioguanine resistant mutants. (
  • When the PTEN constructs were expressed in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs), PTEN significantly decreased NO production and PTEN(C124A) increased it, and both S617 and S1179 were altered by co-expression with the PTEN constructs. (
  • We conclude that PTEN is a regulator of eNOS function both when expressed in COS-7 cells and in human endothelial cells, and does so via its effects on the PI3K/Akt pathway. (
  • HG consists of 23 pairs of chromosomes existing in all diploid cells of human beings, where DNA is found and all genetic features of an individual is stored 6 . (
  • Duplication of the proximal region of chromosome 4 occurred in 22% of the spontaneously-occurring high-invasive cells strains and 83% of the chemically-induced high-invasive cell culrures. (
  • Outcomes and dialogue Cell typeCspecific variety from the mitotic RanGTP and importin- cargo gradients To find out if the RanGTP gradient helps mitosis in every human being somatic cells or can be an version specific to particular forms of cells, we assessed RanGTP gradients inside a -panel of human being cells, including major cells, immortalized regular cells, cancer-derived cells, and tumorigenic cells (Fig. 1 and Desk S1). (
  • 5. In 2001, France and Germany requested the United Nations General Assembly to develop international conventions on human reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning and research on stem cells. (
  • We confirmed previous findings of the FADS cluster on chromosome 11 with LA and arachidonic acid, and further observed novel genome-wide significant association of this cluster with GLA, dihomo-GLA, and adrenic acid (P=2.3×10(-72), 2.6×10(-151), and 6.3×10(-140), respectively). (
  • The ability to produce embryonic stem (ES) cell lines containing different yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) integrated into the same location in the genome provides a system for comparing the biological effects of YAC transgenes without the confounding influences of integration site and copy number. (
  • Unannotated, nonpolyadenylated transcripts comprise the major proportion of the transcriptional output of the human genome. (
  • From Sanger sequencing , which made it possible to sequence the human genome, to the microarray technologies that enabled the first large-scale genome-wide experiments, new instruments and tools have allowed us to look ever more deeply into the genome and apply the results broadly to health , agriculture and ecology . (
  • However, the output of HTS instruments is not the genome sequence for the individual being analyzed - for humans this is 3 billion paired bases (guanine, cytosine, adenine and thymine) organized into 23 pairs of chromosomes. (
  • The importance of this problem, for biomedical applications in particular, has motivated efforts such as the Genome in a Bottle Consortium (GIAB), which produces high confidence human reference genomes that can be used for validation and benchmarking, as well as the precisionFDA community challenges, which are designed to foster innovation that will improve the quality and accuracy of HTS-based genomic tests. (
  • We performed a genome scan at an average resolution of 8 cM in 719 Finnish sib pairs with type 2 diabetes. (
  • Hi Paul, where did you get that first image of the human genome? (
  • While the genome of Arabidopsis-the first plant to be sequenced-contains 135 million DNA letters, and the human genome contains 3 billion, bread wheat has 16 billion. (
  • Just one of wheat's chromosomes-3B-is bigger than the entire soybean genome. (
  • The effort is part of a larger project called the International Oryza Map Alignment Project, or I-OMAP, which aims to create reference genomes for 10 distinct genome types within the Oryza genus and ultimately sequence all 23 rice species. (
  • In the Rice paper, which described a pilot project using the short arm of chromosome 3 of O. barthii , the researchers reported 2.2 errors for every 10 kilobases sequenced, which they said is "very close" to the 1 error per 10 kilobase standard established for the Human Genome Project. (
  • At the beginning of this series, we observed that many of the topics covered in Adam and the Genome are not relevant to whether Adam and Eve existed as the progenitors of the human race. (
  • For more details, please see " Adam and the Genome and Human-Ape Genetic Similarity . (
  • For more details, please see " Adam and the Genome and Human Genetic Diversity ," " Adam and the Genome and Citation Bluffing ," and " Adam and the Genome and 'Predetermined Conclusions' . (
  • Introduction: The Human Genome Project (HGP) has allowed for advances in diagnosis and prevention of diseases. (
  • The Human Genome Project (HGP) started in the United States of America aiming at sequencing and mapping the human genetic code. (
  • In 2003, the sequencing of almost all human genome (HG) was announced. (
  • Deploying the Whole Genome Sequence In Medicine and Public Health, One Base Pair At A Time. (
  • We combine both Illumina (short reads) and PacBio (long reads) platforms to achieve whole genome de novo assemblies and re-sequencing for viruses, microbes , plants, animals and humans . (
  • is a heterozygous diploid yeast that is a commensal of the human gastrointestinal tract and a prevalent opportunistic pathogen. (
  • If gametes were diploid then there would be a doubling of the chromosome number every generation and that clearly wouldn't do. (
  • As for diploid or polyploid organisms, we generally assemble one set of chromosomes. (
  • The inheritance of skin colour in humans is an example of which of the following? (
  • The rules of inheritance especially in humans include both mother and father contribution to the reproduction, both contribute equal amounts of DNA. (
  • a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is located usually on a chromosome and that is the functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits by specifying the structure of a particular polypeptide and especially a protein or controlling the function of other genetic material. (
  • The ends of chromosomes are marked with DNA sequences called telomeres. (
  • Linkage studies indicate that the same region of chromosome 10 contains a risk locus for late onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) and a QTL for plasma Aβ42 levels suggesting that a single locus may influence risk for AD by elevating plasma Aβ42 [Ertekin-Taner et al. (
  • The homologous linkage groups on human chromosomes 9p2I, 1p36, 9q and 8q are altered in asbestos -induced human lung adenocarcinoma. (
  • This high-bone-mass trait (HBM) was originally localized by linkage analysis to chromosome 11q12-13. (
  • The third cDNA clone, c8, in which the homeo box is ~84% homologous to the mouse Hox-1.1 homeo box region on mouse chromosome 6, maps to chromosome region 12q12→12q13, a region that is involved in chromosome abnormalities in human seminomas and teratomas. (
  • Therefore, the identification of these variables provides concrete base, along with the establishment of appropriate intervention measures if abnormalities or disorders are observed 10 . (
  • Transcriptional landscape of the human and fly genomes: nonlinear and multifunctional modular model of transcriptomes. (
  • Overgo hybridization patterns supported colinearity of loci in regions of sorghum chromosome 3 and rice chromosome I and suggested that a possible genomic inversion occurred in this syntenic region in one of the two genomes after the divergence of S. bicolor and O. sativa. (
  • While second-generation platforms promise to place the de novo sequencing of 10 reference genomes within reach, "technically it's not there yet," Wing said. (
  • Melanomas are among the most common cancers in human and their incidences continue to rise at a pace faster than any other malignancy [ 10 ]. (
  • Because of its regulatory function retinoic acidity continues to be proposed a appealing focus on for adjuvant cancers therapies, like the therapy of refractory thyroid cancers [10]. (
  • A plasmid containing YAC vector sequences and a complementary ' 1/2 -neo-lox' cassette was used to circularize two linear YACs containing genomic DNA from human chromosome 21. (
  • Distribution of human rhinovirus (HRV) and human enterovirus (HEV) sequences used for primer pair studies. (
  • An international research team led by Martin Petr and Janet Kelso of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, has determined Y chromosome sequences of three Neandertals and two Denisovans. (
  • This strongly suggests functional reasons for the amino acid sequences of human and ape proteins, and shows their similarities can be explained as being due to functional requirements. (
  • Human molecular genetics , 9 (12), 1745-1751. (
  • American Journal of Human Genetics , 41 (1), 1-15. (
  • More than 7% of human oocytes contain at least one exchangeless chromosome pair, demonstrating a remarkably high level of meiotic recombination failure, finds a study appearing December 10 in the American Journal of Human Genetics . (
  • The American Journal of Human Genetics (@AJHGNews), published by Cell Press for the American Society of Human Genetics, is a monthly journal that provides a record of research and review relating to heredity in humans and to the application of genetic principles in medicine and public policy, as well as in related areas of molecular and cell biology. (
  • 2000. American Journal of Human Genetics 67:1174-1185. (
  • Although traits are influenced by many of the things Mendel's has done the contribution in this field the century ago because of his work he secured a special place in the field of genetics So, students must study his experiment which is very important in Heredity and Evolution class 10. (
  • Despite of the extraordinary importance that all new knowledge on human genetics will have in dental clinics, little efforts have been made to prepare undergraduates in relation to this new information and technology. (
  • The genetics of red hair appear to be associated with the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), which is found on chromosome 16. (
  • American journal of human genetics , 70 (1), 11-19. (
  • Present address: Medical Research Council (MRC) Human Genetics Unit, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. (
  • Topics include: Darwinian evolution, genetics, a survey of the five kingdoms of life, principles of ecology, and human ecology. (
  • Free CBSE Online Test for Class 10 Biology Heredity and Evolution Home. (
  • Free PDF Download of CBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution Multiple Choice Questions with Answers. (
  • Get Heredity and Evolution, Biology Chapter Notes, Questions & Answers, Video Lessons, Practice Test and more for CBSE Class 10 at TopperLearning. (
  • Free Online tests & assessment tests for CBSE, Class 10, Science, Heredity and Evolution are placed here. (
  • A complex rearrangement (translocation) of genetic material between chromosomes 10 and 11 is associated with several types of blood cancer known as leukemias. (
  • here is an interesting link that attempts to explain how our ape ancestors have 24 pairs of chromosomes and we humans only have 23 pairs - our chromosome #2 is made from two ape chromosomes which fused (via translocation) together. (
  • This study integrates high-throughput, hybridization-based markers with BAC end sequence and fingerprint data to construct physical maps of rice chromosome I orthologues in two wild Oryza species. (
  • The loss of HGPRT enzyme activity could arise from a variety of genetic insults at this locus, including frameshift mutations, base pair substitutions, chromosomal aberrations, and deletions. (
  • Restriction mapping analysis has shown that the structure of this locus in several anthropoid primates is nearly identical to that of the human 11,12 . (
  • Changes to chromosome 10 include an extra piece of the chromosome in each cell (partial trisomy), a missing segment of the chromosome in each cell (partial monosomy), and an abnormal structure called a ring chromosome 10. (
  • The findings suggest that right from the get-go of human egg cell development, a striking proportion of oocytes are predestined to be chromosomally abnormal. (
  • We have known for a long time that advancing maternal age increases the likelihood of chromosomally abnormal eggs, but this observation demonstrates that many chromosome errors have nothing to do with maternal age. (
  • Recombination failure is a leading cause of aneuploidy, which is the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes. (
  • Previous reports suggest that electrical forces on cell structure proteins interfered with the chromosome separation during mitosis and induced apoptosis. (
  • The fourth cDNA clone, c13, whose homeo box is ~73% homologous to the Hox-2.2 homeo box sequence, is located at chromosome region 2q31→q37. (
  • Human Teratoma Cell Culture System For The Presceening Of Environmental Chemicals That May Initiate Or Promote Tumor Formation. (
  • To check this hypothesis, we evaluated the appearance of aswell as miR-146a-5p and miR-146b-5p in 48 PTC tumor/regular tissues pairs by Taqman assay to reveal which the appearance of was 3.28-fold reduced, and miR-146b-5p was 28.9-fold improved in PTC tumors. (
  • The 23rd pair in gonadal cell called sex chromosome which is not always a perfect pair. (
  • Genetic sex refers to the make-up of that 23rd pair. (
  • The DNA in the chromosomes is incredibly complex, yet it can be subject to accidental alterations or mutations. (
  • bacteria have evolved to become resentant to human attempts to eradicate them. (
  • A single liter of seawater has about one billion bacteria and 10 billion viruses. (
  • Bacteria human relationship with distillery and animals. (
  • Although the set of species present in the human oral biofilm is almost fully depicted, new efforts have to be conducted to establish microbial agonistic or antagonistic associations, to distinguish actively-growing bacteria from inactive or transient species, as well as to outline the role of individual species during biofilm formation on tooth surfaces. (
  • In freshman biology, you probably learned about sex and chromosomes: Sex is determined at fertilization by the 23rd chromosomal pair. (
  • DNA is so tightly wound in each chromosome that the entire human genetic code of 3 billion base pairs fits in an area of just 6 microns, 10 times smaller than the diameter of hair! (
  • INTRODUCTION The large human chromosome of humans contains 300 million base pairs. (
  • As a major form of genomic instability, chromosomal instability comprises aberrant chromosome numbers (i.e., aneuploidy or polyploidy) and structural changes in chromosomes. (
  • This is at least true for women, who have two X chromosomes and therefore have symmetrical pairs of chromosomes. (
  • Approximately 10-20% of pancreatic cancer patients will have a mutation in their DNA, passed on in families, that contributes to the development of their pancreatic cancer. (
  • c) The male consists of XY pair of sex chromosome. (
  • The binding of RanGTP diffusing from chromosomes to its ligands induces downstream gradients, including a gradient of SAFs triggered by Tideglusib their RanGTP-induced launch from importins (Kalb and Heald, 2008). (
  • The panel included representatives of the 3 HRV species ( Figure ), human enteroviruses (HEVs), and extracts negative for picornaviruses. (
  • Because primer pair 1 had a published history of detecting types from all HRV species, we chose it to genotype HRV-positive samples by sequencing the amplified products. (
  • If a trait A exists in 10% of a population of an asexually reproducing species and a trait B exists in 60% of the same population, which trait is likely to have arisen earlier? (
  • The genus Oryza includes 23 species that shared a common ancestor 8-10 million years ago making this an ideal model for investigations into the processes underlying domestication, as many of the Oryza species are still undergoing domestication. (
  • The markers drove contig merges to construct physical maps syntenic to rice chromosome I in the wild species and provided evidence for at least one rearrangement on chromosome I of the O. sativa versus Oryza officinalis comparative map. (
  • About 500,000 years ago, before humans even existed, two species of wild grass hybridized with each other to create what we now know as emmer wheat. (
  • After humans domesticated this plant and planted it in their fields, a third grass species inadvertently joined the mix. (
  • The study of microbial communities from environment- and human-derived samples through Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) methods has revealed a vast complexity in those ecological niches where hundreds or thousands of microbial species co-inhabit and functionally interact. (
  • The co-aggregation detected to occur between streptococci and Actinomyces species has been proposed to be a major promoter of human oral biofilm formation [ 8 ]. (
  • The smallest autosomes (i.e., chromosomes 21 and 22) are most likely to exhibit recombination failure. (
  • These analyses are fundamental in the design of control specimens present C-heterochromatic blocks in most of campaigns because their results will help determine the their 22 chromosomes, whereas non-Andean specimens have only 4-7 autosomes with C-banding. (
  • pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes (XY in Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Montpellier, males, XX in females) (8). (
  • Objectives: To evaluate the prognostic significance of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR), and total phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) expressions in patients undergoing adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for proximal extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer. (
  • PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) is a lipid phosphatase that functions as a negative regulator of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. (
  • Class 10 Science Chapter 9 MCQ Online Test with solutions and answers. (
  • Two peer-reviewed papers and a book chapter have already been published in the ID-community related to modeling these questions, and early evidence suggests that an initial pair is capable of explaining human genetic diversity. (
  • In this chapter, electrophilic agents nogenicity from studies of exposed (benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and eth- include direct-acting electrophilic humans. (
  • or each of these agents, carcinogenicity in rats and/or mice, els, differences in exposure con- there was sufficient evidence of car- for example for the liver (aflatoxins, ditions between studies in animals cinogenicity from studies in rats and/ trichloroethylene [TCE], and vinyl and in humans, or limitations in Part 1 · Chapter 1. (
  • Some genetic diseases, such as haemophilia, are carried on the X-chromosome (these X-linked disorders occur mainly in men). (
  • Sister chromatid exchange and chromosome fragility in the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. (
  • Many FA patients (about 30%) do not have any of the classic physical findings, but diepoxybutane chromosome fragility assay showing increased chromosomal breaks can make the diagnosis. (
  • however, some smaller deletions occur within the arm of the chromosome. (
  • Ring chromosomes occur when a chromosome breaks in two places and the ends of the chromosome arms fuse together to form a circular structure. (
  • Bailar, Eisenberg, and Mantel Test of Temporal Clustering Bailar, Eisenberg, and Mantel suggested a test of temporal clustering based on the number of pairs of cases in a given area that occur within a specified length of time d of each other (9). (
  • Humans normally have 46 chromosomes in each cell, divided into 23 pairs. (
  • Sites of transcription of polyadenylated and nonpolyadenylated RNAs for 10 human chromosomes were mapped at 5-base pair resolution in eight cell lines. (
  • Yet this DNA is tightly packed inside the chromosomes of each cell. (
  • There are 23 pairs of chromosomes in the cell of human body. (
  • I know some of you will want to read about the cell cycle, prophase, metaphase, centrioles, spindle fibres and the condensation of chromosomes, chromatids being pulled apart etc. etc. (
  • A human teratoma cell culture system that can be used to detect a variety of chemical mutagens was described. (
  • The system used an epithelial cell line, designated P3, which was cloned from a human teratoma cell line. (
  • The authors conclude that the human P3 epithelial cell mutagenesis assay can detect genetic damage induced by physical agents and direct acting and proximate mutagens or carcinogens. (
  • There are 23 pairs of chromosomes in each human cell, 23 letters in the Latin alphabet, and 23 axioms to Euclid's Geometry. (
  • We used Spectral Karyoryping (SKY), mapping with fluorescently labeled genomic clones (FISH), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), expression array, real time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot to analyze 15 primary adenocarcinoma and 9 pairs of high and low invasive cell cultures to detect molecular changes. (
  • The medial portion of chromosome 4 was deleted in 67% of all of the cell Strains. (
  • Mouse chromosome 1 and 15 were amplified in 90% of the high-invasive cell strains. (
  • It is hard to tell which alleles belong to which set of chromosomes in heterozygous regions. (
  • The autosomal DNA (the 23 pairs of chromosomes minus X and Y) always works in pair. (
  • A key question is how to use the reads to determine whether there is a variant on both chromosomes, on just one chromosome, or on neither chromosome. (
  • A variant t(8;10;21) in a patient with pathological features mimicking atypical chronic myeloid leukemia. (
  • The BSE prion is an epizootic agent and causes variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans after dietary exposure ( 1 - 4 ). (
  • We mapped the causative variant to a 37 kb segment on bovine chromosome 3. (
  • Table 1.1 p resents the results for derivatives ethylene oxide for the top-10 industries in the The IARC Monographs Volumes 60 and EU (CAREX, 1999) . (
  • In human beings there are 23 pairs of DNA (or 46 chromosomes). (
  • The 0.5% to 0.1% of DNA that differs between two human beings are called alleles or SNP's (single nucleotide polymorphism). (
  • Out of these, 22 pairs do not take part in sex-determination in human beings. (
  • b) In human beings this process is known as XY sex determination method. (
  • But it stands sharply at odds with the biblical worldview that all human beings have dignity and value due to their creation in God's image (Genesis 1:26). (
  • The use of the technique of nuclear transfer for reproduction of human beings is surrounded by strong ethical concerns and controversies and is considered a threat to human dignity. (
  • 2. Over the years, the international community has tried without success to build a consensus on an international convention against the reproductive cloning of human beings. (
  • 3. Creating awareness among ministries of health in the African Region will provide them with critical and relevant information on the reproductive cloning of human beings and its implications to the health status of the general population. (
  • 7. The WHO Regional Committee for Africa is invited to review this document for information and guidance concerning reproductive cloning of human beings. (
  • 3. Media reports on nuclear transfer are usually about one form, reproductive nuclear transfer, also known as reproductive cloning of human beings . (
  • The number of sex chromosomes in the zygote of humans is one pair. (
  • Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology JV Kohl, M Atzmueller, B Fink… - Neuroendocrinology Letters, 2001 - The effect of sensory input on hormones is essential to any explanation of mammalian behavior, including aspects of physical attraction. (
  • The evolution of this specialized receptor system is clearly indicated in the transition of an odor receptor from food odor detection to social odor detection in primates, including humans. (
  • For example, a loss of all or part of chromosome 10 is often found in brain tumors called gliomas, particularly in aggressive, fast-growing gliomas. (
  • Frequent alterations in MSI-H tumors included gains of chromosomes 8, 12, and 13, and loss of 15q14. (
  • Identification of t(15;17) and a segmental duplication of chromosome 11q23 in a patient with acute myeloblastic leukemia M2. (
  • Prior to division, genetic material from the paternal and maternal copies of each chromosome is exchanged through a process called meiotic recombination or crossing over. (
  • Public and animal health controls to limit human exposure to animal prions are focused on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), but other prion strains in ruminants may also have zoonotic potential. (
  • g) The ovum or egg (female) on fusion with X type of sperm leads to the formation of the female and with Y chromosome leads to the formation of male. (
  • And using that (accepted) definition creates an effective binary in humans: if you can make sperm you're male, if you can make eggs you're female. (
  • Our findings demonstrate fusion transcripts are naturally occurring phenomenon spanning across the health-disease continuum, and likely contribute to the diverse molecular network of human brain. (
  • Relevant of mutagenicity and clastogenici- angiosarcomas of the liver, which carcinogens discussed in this chap- ty, including the induction of sister are rare tumours, were identified in ter do not include pharmaceutical chromatid exchange (SCE), chro- humans, rats, and mice exposed to drugs classified in Group 1, which mosomal aberrations (CA), and mi- vinyl chloride. (
  • Changes in the number and structure of chromosome 10 are associated with several types of cancer. (
  • Cancer remodels the architecture of our chromosomes so the disease can take hold and spread, new research reveals. (
  • Melanoma is the major cause of skin cancer deaths and melanoma incidence doubles every 10 to 20 years. (
  • Common among these 10 interactions of organic compounds, their power to detect excess cancer agents is the electrophilic nature of or their metabolites, with DNA and R 1 risk at particular sites. (
  • We have earlier reported the extent of DNA level diversity and its possible role due to somatic single nucleotide variations in normal human brain 1 . (
  • The chromatin binding of RCC1, the Rabbit Polyclonal to OR5U1 guanine nucleotide exchange element for Ran, as well as the cytoplasmic localization of RanGAP1 travel the rise of the focus gradient of RanGTP encircling the mitotic chromosomes. (
  • About 2% of FA cases are X-linked recessive, which means that if the mother carries one mutated Fanconi anemia allele on one X chromosome , a 50% chance exists that male offspring will present with Fanconi anemia. (
  • People with two X chromosomes are not affected if only one copy of the X chromosome carries the genetic mutation. (
  • Their favorable population structure facilitates the discovery of functional genetic variation including some interesting non-coding structural variants with regulatory effects [ 10 - 15 ]. (
  • This workflow uses one or more services that are deprecated as of 31st December 2012 (almost 10 years ago), and may no longer function. (
  • I see IVF going from 400,000 per year worldwide to 2-8 million per year over the next 10 years. (
  • Similar uncertainty exists in our understanding of scrapie, the TSE of small ruminants, which has been heightened in recent years by finding BSE in goats ( 9 , 10 ), the possibility of BSE in sheep ( 11 ), and the discovery of atypical scrapie ( 12 , 13 ), a form of small-ruminant TSE, which had evaded statutory diagnosis until the early 2000s. (
  • Recent analysis of surveillance data of TSEs in small ruminants in Great Britain, collected over the past 10 years, has demonstrated a dramatic decrease (up to 90%) in number of confirmed cases of classical scrapie in the national flock. (
  • With each phenotype, presentation usually occurs at 15-35 years, but it can be as early as 10 years. (
  • clinical nutrition as a specialty goes here HN - 2008 BX - Nutrition FX - Diet FX - Food DH - Child Nutrition DI - 052504 MN - SP6.021.062 MS - Nutrition of children aged 2-10 years. (
  • AN - check the tag INFANT HN - 2008 FX - Child Nutrition FX - Infant Nutrition Physiology FX - Milk FX - Milk, Human DH - Adolescent Nutrition DI - 052508 MN - SP6.021.067 MS - Nutrition of persons 10 through 19 years of age. (
  • The COVID-19 pandemic positively influenced vaccination decision in 72% of first-time ever or first-time in over ten years influenza vaccinees. (
  • Moving forward, the researchers will search for genetic variants that may affect the likelihood of having exchangeless chromosomes. (