Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.
Techniques using a laser to cut away and harvest a specific cell or cluster of cells from a tissue section while viewing it under the microscope.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
The transmission of traits encoded in GENES from parent to offspring.
Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
4-carbon straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with two hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups cannot be on the same carbon atom.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
The fifth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its sixteen natural satellites include Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The comparative study of social organization in animals including humans, especially with regard to its genetic basis and evolutionary history. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Beliefs and practices concerned with producing desired results through supernatural forces or agents as with the manipulation of fetishes or rituals.
The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Replacement for an elbow joint.
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.
A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.

A case of ring chromosome. (1/236)

A girl with a G22 ring chromosome is described. There are few physical abnormalities, performance quotient is in the low normal range but verbal skills are much retarded.  (+info)

Interacting populations affecting proliferation of leukemic cells in culture. (2/236)

Peripheral blood cells from three patients with acute leukemic have been studied using a suspension culture method previously described.1 Cytogenetic studies in two of the patients permitted the identification of the proliferating cells in the cultures as being derived from a leukemic population. Cell separation studies using velocity sedimentation supported the concept that growth of the leukemic cells in culture is dependent on an interaction between two populations of leukemic cells.  (+info)

De novo appearance of the ph-1 chromosome in a previously monosomic bone marrow (45,XX,-6): conversion of a myeloproliferative disorder to acute myelogenous leukemia. (3/236)

Bone marrow examination of a patient with a myeloproliferative disorder revealed monosomy for chromosome No. 6 (45,XX,-6). Two months later, during blastic crisis, reinvestigation of the bone marrow showed the presence of the Ph-1 chromosome in the previously aneuploid cell line (45,XX,-6,-22,+Ph-1). This case differs from those previously published in that the Ph-1 chromosome appeared de novo during the development of frank acute myelogenous leukemia.  (+info)

Removal of abnormal clone of leukaemic cells by splenectomy. (4/236)

A patient with chronic myelocytic leukaemia positive for the Philadelphia (Ph-1) chromosome underwent splenectomy in the "terminal phase" of his disease. Chromosomal analysis of a marrow aspirate obtained during the operation showed nothing abnormal. Material from the spleen, however, showed the absence of a C chromosome and the presence of a "marker" chromosome in all metaphases examined. The patient did well for almost three years after splenectomy, and serial cytogenetic studies of marrow specimens showed the Ph-1 chromosome to be the only significant abnormality. Six months before death from recurrent blastic transformation aneuploidy was found in a marrow specimen. Subsequently additional abnormalities, including cells with two Ph-1 chromosomes, were detected. The karyotypic abnormalities found in the splenic specimen, however, never recurred.  (+info)

Antibody responses to leukemia-associated antigens during immunotherapy of chronic myelocytic leukemia. (5/236)

We have studied immunologic reactivity to leukemia-associated antigens in patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) treated with chemotherapy and adjunctive immunotherapy. All patients were immunologically competent as measured by skin test reactivity to dinitrochlorobenzene. Immunotherapy consisted of allogeneic irradiated leukemic myeloblasts injected intradermally, with BCG vaccine (Research Foundation, Chicago, Ill.) given by multiple puncture at the same site. 10(9) cells plus BCG were given weekly for 4 wk, and 10(8) cells plus BCG were given at monthly intervals thereafter. Eight patients judged clinically to be in the stable phase of their disease developed circulating antibody against the immunizing blast cells demonstrable by cytotoxicity and immunofluorescence assays. The antibody also showed reactivity against a panel of myeloblasts (12 paients) but not against the corresponding remission lymphocytes (five patients) or normal lymphocytes (20 donors). In two cases the antibody showed reactivity against the patient's own leukemic blasts. Seven of these eight patients have maintained a steady clinical course ranging from 20 to 40 mo, while one entered the blastic phase and died. Six patients were judged to be in the aggressive phase of CML because of progressive leukocytosis and splenomegaly or increasing myeloblastosis; five died an average of 16 mo after diagnosis. Humoral antibodies were not detected in these patients after repeated courses of BCG and allogeneic leukemic cells. We conclude that specific active immunotherapy of patients with CML can abet the production of humoral antibody against blast cell antigens and that this response may be impaired during the aggressive phase of the disease.  (+info)

Chronic myelogenous leukemia presenting in the blastic phase and its association with a 45 XO Ph1 karyotype. (6/236)

A 58-yr-old male patient presented in the blastic phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Cytogenetic studies revealed a 45 XO Ph1 chromosome pattern in bone marrow cells during a short remission and again in the blastic phase of the disease. The patient expired 8 mo following diagnosis. The blastic phase of CML can stimulate acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) clinically and hematologically; CML can be differentiated by the presence of the Ph1 chromosome and the stigmata of CML. Absence of the Y chromosome from the bone marrow in CML is a recently described finding. Previous reports indicating the prevention of the blastic phase in patients with this karyotype could not be confirmed by our or other recently reported cases.  (+info)

Discordant patterns of chromosome changes and myeloblast proliferation during the terminal phase of chronic myeloid leukemia. (7/236)

A patient with Ph1 positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) developed blastic transformation which by morphologic criteria appeared to be localized to the lymphatic system. Chromosome analysis at this time, however, revealed new chromosomal abnormalities in addition to the existing Ph1 in all tissues studied (lymph node, blood, and bone marrow) consisting primarily of extra chromosome numbers 19 and 9 and a second Ph1. Therapy resulted in clinical remission with significant decrease in the aneuploid cell lines. However, these reappeared with recurrence of the blast crisis. Colony formation in semisolid culture of blood and marrow cells at the time of initial blast crisis yielded growth patterns characteristic of CML. On recurrence of the blast crisis after therapy, growth patterns were characteristic of CML in blast crisis or acute myeloblastic leukemia even though blood and marrow still showed relatively low levels of myeloblasts and promyelocytes. Possible explanations are discussed for the disparity in distribution between morphologic and chromosomal abnormalities in this patient.  (+info)

Prognostic value of chromosomal findings in Ph1-positive chronic myelocytic leukemia. (8/236)

Chromosome examinations were performed on bone marrows from 88 patients with Ph1-positive chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML). As a group, Ph1-positive CML patients with some cytogenetically normal cells in the marrow survived much longer than those whithout such cells in their marrow. The survival for patients whose first bone marrow exhibited only metaphases with a Ph1 and other karyotypic abnormalities was significantly shorter than that for patients whose marrow exhibited only metaphases with a Ph1 and an otherwise normal karyotype or patients whose marrow contained both categories of cells. The shorter the interval between the diagnosis of CML and the first chromosome examination, the greater the frequency of karyotypically normal cells in the bone marrow. Karyotypic progression in CML was a common phenomenon, whereas a reversion was very rare. On the basis of the findings obtained, the early diagnosis and treatment of CML are indicated, both possibly being helped by the chromosomal findings in the marrow. Furthermore, a combination of the chromosomal data and the marrow cell differential may serve as an important prognostic index in CML.  (+info)

Chronic Myelocytic Leukemia (CML) - Epidemiology Forecast to 2025 Size and Share Published in 2017-09-20 Available for US$ 2750 at
Learn more about Chronic Myelocytic Leukemia at TriStar Southern Hills DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
CML progresses gradually. It is often slow growing for many years. Eventually, it may transform itself into acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). This is a more aggressive type of leukemia. It progresses much more rapidly and is more serious.. Cancer occurs when cells in the body become abnormal. They divide without control or order. Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells and their parent cells. Leukemia cells do not function normally. They cannot do what normal blood cells do. In this case they can not fight infections. This means that the person is more likely to become infected with viruses or bacteria. The cancerous cells also overgrow the bone marrow. This forces other normal components, like platelets out. Platelets are needed to help the blood clot. As a results people with leukemia may bleed more easily.. ...
Chronic myeloid leukemia is the tumour that occurs in blood cells and bone marrow, which is the soft parts inside bones where blood cells are produced.
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SUMMARY. A patient with chronic granulocytic leukemia who was suspected of having a lymphoma of the spleen with subsequent leukemic extension to the peripheral blood, bone marrow, and central nervous system is presented. This case is compared with others previously reported in the literature, and the pathogenesis of concomitant myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative disorders is discussed. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prominent hematogone hyperplasia in BCR-ABL1-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia. T2 - Mimicking recurrent B-lymphoid blast crisis. AU - Horna, Pedro. AU - Pantazopoulos, Panagiotis. AU - Lancet, Jeffrey E.. AU - Moscinski, Lynn C.. AU - Zhang, Ling. PY - 2014/8. Y1 - 2014/8. UR - UR - U2 - 10.3109/10428194.2013.869330. DO - 10.3109/10428194.2013.869330. M3 - Letter. C2 - 24304373. AN - SCOPUS:84904886239. VL - 55. SP - 1952. EP - 1954. JO - Leukemia and Lymphoma. JF - Leukemia and Lymphoma. SN - 1042-8194. IS - 8. ER - ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Most patients will develop mild to moderate adverse events or side effects early in tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy, and most will resolve spontaneously or can be well-controlled.. Adverse events and side effects can be divided into four grades based on severity. Grade 1 would require no change in tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy, however, may require specific treatment. Grade 2 would involve withholding therapy until severity decreases, or continuing therapy with treatment if symptoms decrease in severity with monitoring. If a Grade 2 side effect is recurrent, therapy dose reduction should be considered. Grade 3 should involve withholding therapy until severity decreases and then restarting at a lower dose or withholding till symptoms reach a grade 1 level or less and resume prior dosage. If there is no resolution or Grade 3 side effects are recurrent, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor should be changed. Grade 4 events should involve switching tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy when ...
Pregnancy has been reported in patients with hematological malignancies, such as acute leukemia, Hodgkin and malignant lymphoma and chronic myelocytic leukemia. Only 12 cases of pregnancy occurring in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) have been rep
Brand Names Hydria®, Droxia (There may be other brand names for this medication) How is it Administered? Hydroxyurea is taken by mouth (as a capsule). What is it Used For? This drug is given to treat several kinds of cancer including melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma of head or neck, chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML), and recurrent, metastatic, or inoperable ovarian cancer. How Does it Work?
I continue to find reasons to be hopeful that one day, though probably not within my lifetime, medical researchers will overcome the challenges that thwart efforts to cure or at least contain most cancers, especially the more common ones. |p| My guarded optimism stems from the progress made in devising treatments for several less well-known malignancies. For many patients with cancers like chronic lymphoma, chronic myelocytic leukemia and now multiple myeloma, longevity lies in the ability of science to remain one step ahead of the malignancy by unraveling its genetic and molecular underpinnings and producing treatments tailored to counter them. |p|
Product name: Droxia. Active ingredient: Hydroxyurea. Description: Generic Droxia is used for treating skin cancer, cancer of the ovary or chronic myelocytic leukemia that is recurrent, has spread or cannot be helped with surgery. It may also be used with radiation to control skin cancers of the head and neck.. Similar Titles: Hydrea. Manufacturer: Baramhaj Chemicals. Place an order: Click here. Payment method: Visa / MasterCard / Western Union. Delivery Time: 5-7 business days by Courier Service or 10-21 business days by Standard International Airmail. Loyalty Program: USPS - Fast Delivery Shipping 1-4 day USA Best quality drugs Fast Shipping USA Professional packaging 100% guarantee on delivery Best prices in the market Discounts for returning customers FDA approved productas 35000+ satisfied customers. ...
Generic Droxia is used for treating skin cancer, cancer of the ovary or chronic myelocytic leukemia that is recurrent, has spread or cannot be helped with surgery. It may also be used with radiation to control skin cancers of the head and neck.. Generic Droxia (Hydroxyurea 500 Mg) # Trackable Fast Delivery @ Online shop. Online shopping like never before! Get the latest trends ruling the charts in WorldWide. With the most greatest range of pharmacy!
An extra chromosome also called trisomy can cause a wide range of developmental disorders. Learn about trisomy conditions in babies.
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Basophils possess membrane bound IgE molecules, and immunological activation leads to a secretory process with cell degranulation and histamine release. Heterologous anti IgE, concanavaline A, and phytohaemagglutinin are potent non-cytotoxic releasing agents. They operate by a mechanism similar to that of immunological activation. Heavy water is not a histamine releasing inducer but it increases histamine release of the cells. We studied the histamine release reaction of leukaemic basophils in 10 patients and found a physiological response such as that previously reported with normal human basophils.. ...
Abstract: Findings from a longitudinal study of language acquisition in a group of autistic children are presented. Six autistic subjects and six children with Down syndrome, matched on age and MLU at the start of the study, were followed over a period of between 12 and 26 months. Language samples were collected in the childrens homes while they interacted with their mothers. Samples of 100 spontaneous child utterances from the transcripts were analyzed using the following measures: MLU, Index of Productive Syntax, lexical diversity, and form class distribution. The results indicate that the majority of these autistic children followed the same general developmental path as the Down syndrome children in this study, and normal children reported in the literature, in the acquisition of grammatical and lexical aspects of language, and confirm previous findings suggesting that autism does not involve a fundamental impairment in formal aspects of language.. A longitudinal study of language ...
If you have a beautiful new baby in your family diagnosed with Down syndrome, you may have questions and concerns about to find the best possible support and encouragement available for a wonderful quality of life, richness of experience, and opportunities to reach his or her full potential. - Welcoming Babies with Down Syndrome - Children with Special Needs at BellaOnline
Download this essay on Raising Downs Syndrome Child Impact on the Family Unit and 90,000+ more example essays written by professionals and your peers.
Objective:To study the effects of lentivirus mediated bcr/abl RNAi on the viability of K562cell line and prepare for the further study and clinic treatment.Met
The cases, bibliography and associated comments included in this website and database have been provided by experts worldwide and reviewed by voluntary editorial working groups. The data and information is not guaranteed to be complete or to be fully up to date at any particular moment and it reflects the knowledge and views of the experts participating, not those of the World Health Organisation or the Italian National Transplant Centre.. ...
A cobalamin-dependent N5-methyltetra-hydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (methyl-transferase) was demonstrated in unfractioned extracts of human normal and leukemia leukocytes. Activity was substantially reduced in the absence of an added cobalamin derivative. Presumably, this residual activity reflects the endogeneous level of holoenzyme. Enzyme activity was notably higher in lymphoid cells than in myeloid cells. Thus, mean specific activities (+/-SD) were: chronic lymphocytic leukemia lymphocytes, 2.15+/-1.16; normal lymphocytes, 0.91+/-0.59; normal mature granulocytes, 0.15+/-0.10; chronic myelocytic leukemia granulocytes, barely detectable activity. Properties of leukocytes enzymes resembled those of methyltransferases previously studied in bacteria and other animal cells. Granulocytes and chronic myelocytic leukemia cells contain a factor or factors that inhibits Escherichia coli enzyme. The data suggest that the prominence of this cobalamin-dependent enzyme in lymphocytes and other ...
Developmental data from 612 patients with Downs syndrome have been collected over a period of 20 years from an outpatient clinic for mentally retarded children. Ss ages ranged from birth through 16 years, all being reared in their homes.. With higher percentages of children with Downs syndrome remaining in the home environment and eventually attending day care programs, questions naturally arise concerning the developmental expectations of such children. To answer some of these questions developmental information was abstracted from the clinical records and subjected to statistical analysis. These data include motor and language development and intellectual growth. Despite the limited sample developmental norms for children with Downs syndrome were established, which should prove useful in clinical evaluation.. ...
All children need to express themselves. There is no difference in a child who stutters/stammers and a child who does not. We should be good listeners and allow all children to learn to express their thoughts.
It was time for a routine 5 month ultra sound it was in January 2009 and we decided to take our 3 year old to meet his new sibling. It was an experience! He stole the show with his comments and enthusiasm he had everyone in the room laughing. We did not want to know the sex of the baby we loved the surprise. At the end the doctor lightly mentioned that she did not see a stomach bubble and would like to do another ultra sound in a month. Both my husband and I did not think much about this. I mentioned this to friends and they reassured me that if she is looking in a month it must be nothing to worry about. I did no research during this time which is unlike me but I just did not think it was a big deal. The ultra sound day came February 17, 2009 I told my husband not to come that it was nothing and that there was no worries besides I was feeling the baby move and it was very reassuring. In the waiting room I remember getting really excited that they had a 3-D ultra sound machine I really wanted ...
Mishra A, Tripathi K, Mohanty L, Pujari S. Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myelogenous leukemia in a child: a case report. Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus. 2010 Sep;26(3):109-10. doi: 10.1007/s12288-010-0042-2. Epub 2010 Oct 2. PMID: 21886396; PMCID: PMC3002092 ...
NAT Imatinib: Imatinib belongs to a family of medications called protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. It is used to treat adults and children who have been newly diagnosed with Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myeloid leukemia (Ph+ CML) in chronic phase. It works by affecting enzymes that play a role in certain cancer cells.
Co Imatinib: Imatinib belongs to a family of medications called protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. It is used to treat adults and children who have been newly diagnosed with Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myeloid leukemia (Ph+ CML) in chronic phase. It works by affecting enzymes that play a role in certain cancer cells.
Apo-Imatinib: Imatinib belongs to a family of medications called protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. It is used to treat adults and children who have been newly diagnosed with Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myeloid leukemia (Ph+ CML) in chronic phase. It works by affecting enzymes that play a role in certain cancer cells.
Dasatinib is a targeted therapy used in the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myeloid leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia.
Nilotinib is used to treat a type of blood cancer called Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in adults and children who are at least 1 year old. Nilotinib is usually given after other treatments have failed. Nilotinib may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Trade Name: Cytosar-U®. For which conditions is this drug approved? Cytarabine is FDA approved in combination with other anticancer drugs for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, and the blast phase of chronic myelocytic leukemia. It is also indicated for intrathecal administration in the prevention and treatment of meningeal leukemia. It is important for patients to remember that physicians have the ability to prescribe medication for conditions other than those for which the drug has been approved by the FDA. Patients who have received a prescription of this drug for a condition other than which it is approved may wish to discuss this issue with their physician.. What is the mechanism of action? Cytarabine belongs to a group of drugs called antimetabolites. Cytarabine produces its anti-cancer effects by inhibiting the ability of a cell to produce DNA or repair DNA. By inhibiting the production and repair of DNA, cytarabine suppresses the ability of a cell ...
A new study in Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health features the Glivec®Patient Assistance Program (GIPAP) and reveals that chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) is diagnosed at an earlier age in poorer populations than in more affluent populations. The study focused on Indias CML population to investigate other possible contributors to early age at onset. The team of authors include our very own South Asia Region Head Viji Venkatesh, and Max CEO Pat Garcia-Gonzalez, as well as Paul H. Levine, Kunal Ajmera, Brenna ONeill, Heather J. Hoffman. The study is only available to the public for a limited time so if you know a physician.... Read More ...
Video presentation: Down Syndrome - A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words. Rosa Rocha discusses day-to-day challenges, realities, and rewards of raising a Down Syndrome child, as well as sources of information and support.
The creators of this short film, which features three real-life kids and their friends, convey the significance better than I can. So Ill just share a part of their description with you: This film identifies how to handle and accommodate differences while celebrating the many similarities our friends with Down syndrome have with their peers.
Generic Hydrea (Hydroxyurea) is often used to treat cases of chronic ovarian cancer, myelocytic leukemia, melanoma and squamous cell cancer in the head and neck. Generic Hydrea may also be used to ...
And the answer Ive come up with is that I believed everything to be perfect and fine because it was. The initial shock of her diagnosis immediately after birth shook that belief hard. I thought that I was so wrong to have naively believed everything was perfect. But now I know the truth: that I knew her already even in those early months inside, when the secret of her extra chromosome was still hidden, and that I innately knew that she was and is perfect just as she is. And as nice as it is to re-discover this truth about Cora, its also nice to discover that I knew it all along ...
Play online games for down syndrome children games for free on, the largest source of free Games For Down Syndrome Children games, girl games. Play free games for Boys, Girls & Kids
My son has been a fan of baseball since he was a toddler. Many other children and teens with Down syndrome love the game, just like their mainstream peers. - Baseball Stories - Down Syndrome - Children with Special Needs at BellaOnline
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is an uncommon type of cancer of the bone marrow - the spongy tissue inside bones where blood cells are made. CML causes an increased number of white blood cells in the blood.. The term chronic in chronic myelogenous leukemia indicates that this cancer tends to progress more slowly than acute forms of leukemia. The term myelogenous (my-uh-LOHJ-uh-nus) in chronic myelogenous leukemia refers to the type of cells affected by this cancer.. Chronic myelogenous leukemia can also be called chronic myeloid leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia. It typically affects older adults and rarely occurs in children, though it can occur at any age.. Advances in treatment have contributed to a greatly improved prognosis for people with chronic myelogenous leukemia. Most people will achieve remission and live for many years after diagnosis. ...
Also known as: Acute myelocytic leukemia / Acute myeloid leukemia / Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / Acute myelocytic leukaemia / Acute myeloblastic leukemia with failed remission / Leukaemia myeloblastic acute / AML / Non-lymphoblastic leukaemia acute / Non-lymphoblastic leukemia acute / Acute myeloid leukemia NOS / Myeloid leukaemia, acute / Leukaemias acute myeloid / Acute myeloblastic leukemia / Acute myeloblastic leukaemia / Leukemia myeloblastic acute / Acute granulocytic leukaemia / Acute granulocytic leukemia / Acute myeloid leukaemia / Myeloid leukemia, acute / Acute myeloid leukaemia NOS ...
The discovery of the Philadelphia chromosome as a hallmark of chronic myelogenous leukemia in 1960 by Peter Nowell provided evidence for a genetic link to cancer. As with most seminal scientific observations, the description of the Philadelphia chromosome posed many more questions than were answered. This Review series includes contributions from individuals who performed critical experiments addressing some of the most important of these questions, reflecting the nearly 50 years of work inspired by Nowells initial finding. The legacy of the Philadelphia chromosome now serves as a paradigm for how basic science discoveries can lead to effective new approaches for the treatment of human disease.
Hi! My name is Qadoshyah and Im the oldest of 11 kids. I live on a ranch in the beautiful country of Northeastern Oklahoma with my family. We are a large household with so many kids that we have various projects going on: We raise goats, pigs, sheep, and rabbits (I raise the rabbits - cute little mini lops) on our 44 acre ranch. Our ranch is also home to bullmastiffs, chickens, guinea hens, ducks, llamas, a donkey, a bottle calf, and several ranch dogs and livestock guardian dogs. The youngest two kids are boy/girl twins born in Feb. 05. The boy happens to have Down syndrome. He is such a blessing to our family :)! Our whole family is also gluten-free, which adds another interesting aspect to our large, active family. We also cook dairy-free & corn-free due to allergies a few kids have. Some of the family is also on the GAPS diet to restore gut health ...
Sheikh Zayed Institute researcher Marius Linguraru sat down with Voice of America to talk about the facial recognition technology.
Tasigna is a cancer drug indicated to treat patients suffering from Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).. At least a dozen studies published in prominent medical journals have suggested a link between Tasigna and arteriosclerosis. In April 2013, the Canadian prescribing information for Tasigna was updated to note a potential risk of arteriosclerosis. An alert issued by Health Canada noted a review of the Novartis global safety database had identified of 277 cases of atherosclerosis reported between January 1, 2005 and January 31, 2017.. While information about arteriosclerosis was added to the Tasignas U.S. label, a public notification was never issued to doctors and patients in this country. ...
Indirubin Function 1) anti cancer,anti tumor 2) mainly used for treating chronic granulocytic leukemia 3) used for treating abnormal myeloproliferative and eosinophil increased Application lndirubin is used in anti cancer and chronic .....
The use of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy has become more common in pediatric patients in the last few years. This trend is likely to continue as more TKIs are approved and the list of conditions for which TKIs have clinical utility expands. Imatinib (Gleevec™) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is specifically indicated for Philadelphia positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (PHÆCML). Dasatinib (Sprycel™) and nilotinib (Tasigna™) are TKIs indicated for CML patients who are no longer benefitting from, or did not tolerate, other treatments including imatinib. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to determine whether there is evidence of growth retardation as an adverse drug experience for TKIs. METHODS:The FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) was reviewed for currently posted data from 4th quarter 2012 until 1st quarter 2014 for individuals ≤ 18 years of age. The most recent update of the FAERs data was in October of 2014. These are sponsor, patient and physician reported
The Constitutional Court will hear an application on Thursday for leave to appeal a Western Cape High Court ruling against a damages claim by the mother of a Down syndrome child.
Later that evening, Linda shared with me the difficulties of helping James transition into the school system. She said the teachers and counselors had plenty of experience with children with autism, but little experience with Down Syndrome children. The reason for this is simple and devastating- children with Down Syndrome are simply not being born. In our country, approximately 90% of all prenatal diagnoses of Down Syndrome end in abortion. Many who make this choice say they are being merciful. They believe they are sparing their child from a lifetime of difficulty and a poor quality of life. Quality of life? What does that even mean?. After I returned home, I started thinking about this more and more. What defines an acceptable quality of life? As I contemplated, I couldnt help but picture a happy, smiling boy playing in the sand with his dad, putting on plays in the living room, laughing with his mom, giving me big hugs and kisses, and, most importantly, praying wholeheartedly to his ...
Why, then, does Singer argue that infants born with this condition can justly be killed? Because they are abnormal and do not have good prospects (Rethinking p. 214). This notion of prospects runs like a mantra through Singers discussion of Down syndrome children: the future prospects of life may be so bleak (211), the prospects are clouded (213), and so forth. But what sort of prospects does he have in mind? On p. 213 of Rethinking he lists several activities which a person with Down syndrome will supposedly never be capable of: to play the guitar, to develop an appreciation of science fiction, to learn a foreign language, to chat with us about the latest Woody Allen movie, or to be a respectable athlete, basketballer or tennis player. This list reads like a parody of bourgeois myths of achievement, success, and respectability. To Singer, however, these are legitimate reasons for killing a newborn. After all, if you cant do your own financial planning, why should you be allowed to ...
Questions and some answers from the Jérôme Lejeune Foundation on the best reflexes to have on health issues with a Down syndrome child.
This information is intended for physicians and related personnel, who understand that medical information is often imperfect, and must be interpreted in the context of a patients clinical data using reasonable medical judgment. This website should not be used as a substitute for the advice of a licensed physician ...
At first I thought that maybe she didnt see me smile and I figured that once she sat down and glanced over shed start a conversation. As I was thinking this I also realised that I was facebook friends with this woman!!!! Seriously, when I first had Stella my home based development worker gave my name to all of the families who had a child with Down Syndrome, and this woman friended me. She even sent me a message! So I thought for sure once we were siting there, across from one another that she would say something to me. I had already attempted contact and honestly I just felt so deflated that I could not muster up the nerve to put myself out there again ...
Generic Hydrea (Hydroxyurea) is often used to treat cases of chronic ovarian cancer, myelocytic leukemia, melanoma and squamous cell cancer in the head and neck. Generic Hydrea may also be used to... From: ADD TO CART ...
Häring and Kypr; Kypr, J (2001). "No Isochores in the Human Chromosomes 21 and 22?". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... 2006). "An isochore map of human chromosomes". Genome Research. 16 (4): 536-541. doi:10.1101/gr.4910606. PMC 1457033. PMID ... 1985). The human genome, for example, was described as a mosaic of alternating low and high GC content isochores belonging to ... A comprehensive study of the human genome unraveled a genomic organization where two-thirds of the genome is a mixture of many ...
DNA methylation profiling of human chromosomes 6, 20 and 22. Nature Genetics 38, 1378-85 (2006). Dodge, J.E., Ramsahoye, B.H., ... It is quite time-consuming (it can take several days to analyse one chromosome). (Note: In one government lab, running Batman ... Human DNA methylomes at base resolution show widespread epigenomic differences. Nature 462, 315-22 (2009). Bird, A. DNA ... which represents the fraction of chromosomes in the sample on which it is methylated. mc is considered as a continuous variable ...
"Localization of the candidate tumor suppressor gene ING1 to human chromosome 13q34". Somatic Cell and Molecular Genetics. 23 (3 ... ING1+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ... Inhibitor of growth protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ING1 gene. This gene encodes a tumor suppressor ... Garkavtsev I, Riabowol K (Apr 1997). "Extension of the replicative life span of human diploid fibroblasts by inhibition of the ...
"The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22". Nature. 402 (6761): 489-95. doi:10.1038/990031. PMID 10591208. Chang MS, Sasaki H, ... Saito H, Fujiwara T, Shin S, Okui K, Nakamura Y (Jan 1997). "Cloning and mapping of a human novel cDNA (NHP2L1) that encodes a ... NHP2-like protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SNU13 gene. Originally named because of its sequence ... "Entrez Gene: NHP2L1 NHP2 non-histone chromosome protein 2-like 1 (S. cerevisiae)". Chang MS, Sasaki H, Campbell MS, Kraeft SK, ...
Paul R, Hu B, Musahl C, Hameister H, Knippers R (Sep 1996). "Coding sequence and chromosome mapping of the human gene (CDC46) ... "The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22". Nature. 402 (6761): 489-95. doi:10.1038/990031. PMID 10591208. "Entrez Gene: MCM5 ... Mini Chromosome Maintenance MCM5 has been shown to interact with: Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase, MCM2, MCM3, ... DNA replication licensing factor MCM5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MCM5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ...
"The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22". Nature. 402 (6761): 489-95. doi:10.1038/990031. PMID 10591208. Mariani R, Chen D, ... DNA dC->dU-editing enzyme APOBEC-3C is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOBEC3C gene. A3C belong to the A3 family of ... Human APOBEC3C genome location and APOBEC3C gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Overview of all the structural ... It is one of seven related genes or pseudogenes found in a cluster thought to result from gene duplication, on chromosome 22. ...
... (UPD) occurs when a person receives two copies of a chromosome, or of part of a chromosome, from one parent ... "Uniparental disomy as a mechanism for human genetic disease". American Journal of Human Genetics. 42 (2): 217-226. PMC 1715272 ... are associated with abnormalities of imprinted genes on the short arm of chromosome 11. Chromosome 14 is also known to cause ... Occasionally, all chromosomes will be inherited from one parent. As a result, recessive traits can be expressed. The first ...
Based on an extensive search on the complete sequences of human chromosomes 21 and 22, DNA regions greater than 500 bp were ... Takai D, Jones PA (2002). "Comprehensive analysis of CpG islands in human chromosomes 21 and 22". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 99 (6 ... International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium (2001-02-15). "Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome". Nature. ... In humans, DNA methylation occurs at the 5 position of the pyrimidine ring of the cytosine residues within CpG sites to form 5- ...
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Related pseudogenes have also been identified on four other chromosomes. The human NDUFA6 gene codes for a subunit of Complex I ... 1999). "The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22". Nature. 402 (6761): 489-95. Bibcode:1999Natur.402..489D. doi:10.1038/990031. ... 2000). "The DNA sequence of human chromosome 21". Nature. 405 (6784): 311-9. Bibcode:2000Natur.405..311H. doi:10.1038/35012518 ... The NDUFA6 gene is located on the q arm of chromosome 22 in position 13.2 and spans 5,359 base pairs. The gene produces an 18 ...
In humans, RAD51 is a 339-amino acid protein that plays a major role in homologous recombination of DNA during double strand ... Chromosomes & Cancer. 21 (3): 217-22. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2264(199803)21:3. 3.0.CO;2-2. PMID 9523196. Tarsounas M, Davies AA ... In mice and humans, the BRCA2 complex primarily mediates orderly assembly of RAD51 on ssDNA, the form that is active for ... However, in the presence of a BRCA2 mutation, human RAD52 can mediate RAD51 assembly on ssDNA and substitute for BRCA2 in ...
... later also found in human telomeres. Introduction of PFG electrophoresis for the separation of chromosome-sized DNA molecules ... Reid G, Wielinga P, Zelcer N, Van der Heijden I, Kuil A, De Haas M, Wijnholds J, Borst P. The human multidrug resistance ... Bernards A, Michels PA, Lincke CR, Borst P. Growth of chromosome ends in multiplying trypanosomes. Nature. 1983;303:592-7. Van ... Van der Ploeg LH, Cornelissen AW, Barry JD, Borst P. Chromosomes of kinetoplastida. EMBO J. 1984;3:3109-15. Heymans HS, ...
A regular human carries 23 pairs of chromosomes in his or her cells. Cells containing two pairs of chromosomes are known as ... Individuals with diploid-triploid syndrome have some cells with three copies of each chromosome for a total of 69 chromosomes ( ... and some cells with the usual 2 copies of each chromosome for a total of 46 chromosomes (called diploid cells). Having two or ... or a total of 69 chromosomes. Triploidy is distinct from trisomy, in which only one chromosome exists in three pairs. A well- ...
1999). "A third human CBL gene is on chromosome 19". Int. J. Oncol. 13 (6): 1159-61. doi:10.3892/ijo.13.6.1159. PMID 9824625. ... Human CBLC genome location and CBLC gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Ollendorff V, Mattei M, Fournier E, et al. ( ... Signal transduction protein CBL-C is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CBLC gene. CBL proteins, such as CBLC, are ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
"An expression-independent catalog of genes from human chromosome 22". Genome Res. 5 (3): 214-24. doi:10.1101/gr.5.3.214. PMID ... "The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22". Nature. 402 (6761): 489-95. doi:10.1038/990031. PMID 10591208. Artigiani S, Barberis ... Plexin-B2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PLXNB2 gene. Members of the B class of plexins, such as PLXNB2 are ... "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Mouse PubMed ...
Kalff-Suske M, Kunz J, Grzeschik KH, Suske G (April 1995). "Human Sp4 transcription factor gene (SP4) maps to chromosome 7p15 ... Transcription factor Sp4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SP4 gene. Sp4 transcription factor has been shown to ... Davis W, Chen ZJ, Ile KE, Tew KD (February 2003). "Reciprocal regulation of expression of the human adenosine 5'-triphosphate ... "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Mouse PubMed ...
2003). "The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6". Nature. 425 (6960): 805-11. doi:10.1038/nature02055. PMID ... Adenosine 3'-phospho 5'-phosphosulfate transporter 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC35B2 gene. Solute carrier ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... 2007). "Signal sequence and keyword trap in silico for selection of full-length human cDNAs encoding secretion or membrane ...
Dec 1999). "The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22". Nature. 402 (6761): 489-95. doi:10.1038/990031. PMID 10591208. Longman C ... Glycosyltransferase-like protein LARGE1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the LARGE gene. This gene, which is one of ... 1998). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. IX. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
Humans have one pair fewer chromosomes than other apes, with ape chromosomes 2 and 4 fused in the human genome into a large ... Chromosomes 3, 11, 14, 15, 18, and 20 match between gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans. Chimps and humans match on 1, 2p, 2q, 5 ... The novel and serial concern, not a chimpanzee-human hybrid, but a genetic gorilla-human hybrid, who appears human. Next (2006 ... "human" and "chimp") lineages as late as six million years ago. The similarity of the X chromosome in humans and chimpanzees ...
"Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes". Journal of Human Genetics (November ... August 21, 2011. Shillony, pp. 136-137 Michael F Hammer, Tatiana M Karafet, Satoshi Horai et al. " ... 18, 2005). doi:10.1007/s10038-005-0322-0. Accessed February 22, 2018 "Communities , The Jewish Community of China". www. ...
2006). "The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1". Nature. 441 (7091): 315-21. Bibcode:2006Natur.441.. ... E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase TRIM63, also known as "MuRF1" is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TRIM63 gene. This gene ... Dai KS, Liew CC (Jun 2001). "A novel human striated muscle RING zinc finger protein, SMRZ, interacts with SMT3b via its RING ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
2002). "The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 20". Nature. 414 (6866): 865-71. doi:10.1038/414865a. ... with at least seven genes clustered at a single locus on human chromosome 20". DNA Cell Biol. 13 (2): 97-116. doi:10.1089/dna. ... Cystatin-F is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CST7 gene. The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain ... The type 2 cystatin proteins are a class of cysteine proteinase inhibitors found in a variety of human fluids and secretions. ...
2006). "The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1". Nature. 441 (7091): 315-21. Bibcode:2006Natur.441.. ... 2000). "Human dolichol-phosphate-mannose synthase consists of three subunits, DPM1, DPM2 and DPM3". EMBO J. 19 (11): 2475-82. ... 2002). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... dolichyl-phosphate mannosyltransferase polypeptide 3, also known as DPM3, is a human gene. Dolichol-phosphate mannose (Dol-P- ...
2006). "The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1". Nature. 441 (7091): 315-21. Bibcode:2006Natur.441.. ... gene and schizophrenia on chromosome 1q23.3". European Journal of Human Genetics. 16 (10): 1275-82. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.76. ... U2AF homology motif (UHM) kinase 1, also known as UHMK1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the UHMK1 gene. UHMK1 is a ... 2003). "Quantitative RT-PCR reveals a ubiquitous but preferentially neural expression of the KIS gene in rat and human". Brain ...
2006). "The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1". Nature. 441 (7091): 315-21. Bibcode:2006Natur.441.. ... In a human patient with Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome, a dominant negative mutation in the SNM1B/Apollo gene was discovered. ... DNA cross-link repair 1B protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DCLRE1B gene. DNA interstrand cross-links ... van Overbeek M, de Lange T (2006). "Apollo, an Artemis-related nuclease, interacts with TRF2 and protects human telomeres in S ...
RNA, ribosomal 5, also known as RNR5, is a human gene. Genes for ribosomal RNA are clustered on the short arms of chromosomes ... 1985). "Variation among human 28S ribosomal RNA genes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82 (22): 7666-7670. Bibcode:1985PNAS... ... "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Entrez Gene: RNR5 ... The gene for RNR5 exists in multiple copies on chromosome 22. Each gene cluster contains 30-40 copies and encodes a 45S RNA ...
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Chromosome 22 was chosen based on the results of the data collected from three clinical visits at the Framingham Heart Study. ... FAM227A is a protein that in humans is encoded by FAM227A gene. Current studies have determined the location of this gene to be ... FAM227A is found on chromosome 22 at the location 22q13.1. It is flanked by the gene LOC105373031 on the left and CBY1 on the ... The study found that the deletion region on chromosome 22q13, where FAM227A is located, can also be linked to breast and ...
In humans, Robertsonian translocations occur in the five acrocentric chromosome pairs (chromosome pairs where the short arms ... The nonrandom participation of human acrocentric chromosomes in Robertsonian translocations. Annals of Human Genetics 1989;53: ... Chromosome studies. I. Taxonomic relationships shown in the chromosomes of Tettigidae and Acrididae. V-shaped chromosomes and ... In humans, when a Robertsonian translocation joins the long arm of chromosome 21 with the long arm of chromosomes 14 or 15, the ...
"The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22". Nature. 402 (6761): 489-95. doi:10.1038/990031. PMID 10591208. "Entrez Gene: RAB36 ... Ras-related protein Rab-36 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAB36 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "A genome annotation-driven approach to cloning the human ORFeome". Genome Biol. 5 (10): R84. doi:10.1186/gb-2004-5-10-r84. PMC ... "A two-dimensional electrophoresis reference map of human ovary". J. Mol. Med. 83 (10): 812-21. doi:10.1007/s00109-005-0676-y. ...
Human chromosome 2 resulted from a fusion of two ancestral chromosomes that remained separate in the chimpanzee lineage. " The ... Mitochondrial DNA and human history. The Human Genome. 2003-10-09 [2006-09-19]. (原始内容存档于2015-09-07) (英语).. ... 大多數人類基因擁有許多的外顯子,且人類的內含子比位在其兩端的外顯子更長。這些基因參差不齊地分佈在染色體中,每一個染色體皆含
This article on a gene on human chromosome 2 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... "Clustering of two fragile sites and seven homeobox genes in human chromosome region 2q31→q32.1". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 90 (1-2 ... Homeobox protein Hox-D8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXD8 gene.[5][6][7] ... Goodman FR (2003). "Limb malformations and the human HOX genes". Am. J. Med. Genet. 112 (3): 256-65. doi:10.1002/ajmg.10776. ...
Lamin A/C gene and a related sequence map to human chromosomes 1q12.1-q23 and 10. Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. March 1993, 19 (2): ... Human laminopathies: nuclei gone genetically awry. Nat. Rev. Genet. December 2006, 7 (12): 940-52. PMID 17139325. doi:10.1038/ ... Life at the edge: the nuclear envelope and human disease. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2002, 3 (8): 575-85. PMID 12154369. doi: ... The strange case of the "lumper" lamin A/C gene and human premature ageing. Trends in molecular medicine. 2004, 9 (9): 370-5. ...
A QTL for osteoporosis on the human chromosome 20. QTL mapping[edit]. ... "Human Genetics for 1st Year Students: Multifactorial Inheritance". Retrieved 6 January 2007.. ... An example of a polygenic trait is human skin color variation. Several genes factor into determining a person's natural skin ... However, due to some advantages, now plant geneticists are attempting to incorporate some of the methods pioneered in human ...
In search of the genetic footprints of Sumerians: a survey of Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation in the Marsh Arabs of Iraq - - ... Human rights *in pre-Saddam Iraq. *in Saddam Hussein's Iraq. *in post-invasion Iraq *in ISIL-controlled territory ... USAID Iraq Marshlands Restoration Program Final Report, Chapter 9 Archived 2014-10-21 at the Wayback Machine. ... An estimated 80,000 to 120,000 have fled to refugee camps in Iran.[21] ...
... and regional assignment of the human follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit gene to the short arm of human chromosome 11". ... 1989). "Expression of biologically active human follitropin in Chinese hamster ovary cells". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (9): 4769-75. ... 1999). "Characterization of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in coding regions of human genes". Nat. Genet. 22 (3): 231-8. PMID ... Fox KM، Dias JA، Van Roey P (2001). "Three-dimensional structure of human follicle-stimulating hormone". Mol. Endocrinol. 15 (3 ...
For a bacterium to bind, take up, and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome, it must enter a special physiological state ... As a significant human pathogenic bacterium S. pneumoniae was recognized as a major cause of pneumonia in the late 19th century ... pneumoniae can be found in the human upper respiratory system. A study of competition in vitro revealed S. pneumoniae ... "A fatal form of septicaemia in the rabbit produced by the subcutaneous injection of human saliva. An experimental research". ...
MN1 is a gene found on human chromosome 22, with gene map locus 22q12.3-qter.[5] Its official full name is meningioma ( ... 2008). "Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome". Mol. Cell. Proteomics. 7 (3): 499-508. doi:10.1074/mcp. ... a gene from chromosome 22q11, which is disrupted by a balanced translocation in a meningioma". Oncogene. 10 (8): 1521-8. PMID ... 22 (5): 699-709. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1206124. PMID 12569362.. *^ Sutton AL, Zhang X, Ellison TI, Macdonald PN (September 2005 ...
O'Donovan (1999). „Physical mapping of the CXC chemokine locus on human chromosome 4.". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 84: 39-42. PMID ... Angiolillo (1995). „Human interferon-inducible protein 10 is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis in vivo". J. Exp. Med. 182: 155 ...
It further contends that only a minority of the genetic material is kept in circular chromosomes while the rest is in branched ... but not human mtDNA).[21] ... creating daughter cpDNA chromosomes. In addition to the early ... "Circular chloroplast chromosomes: the grand illusion". The Plant Cell. 16 (7): 1661-6. doi:10.1105/tpc.160771. PMC 514151 ... "Circular chloroplast chromosomes: the grand illusion". The Plant Cell. 16 (7): 1661-6. doi:10.1105/tpc.160771. PMC 514151 ...
They argue that this is an issue with respect to the human right to water and sanitation and also from the perspective of the ... chromosomes and anatomy' at birth.[32] ... "Public Hygiene Lets Us Stay Human (PHLUSH). Retrieved June 22, ... The Human Rights Campaign, an LGBTQ advocacy group, recommends that employers grant access, and use, to public toilets ... Human Rights Campaign. "Restroom Access for Transgender Employees." Retrieved from "Restroom Access for Transgender Employees" ...
This article on a gene on human chromosome 7 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. ... "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.. ... "Effects of native human zona pellucida glycoproteins 3 and 4 on acrosome reaction and zona pellucida binding of human ... I. Studies with recombinant human ZPA, ZPB, and ZPC". Fertil. Steril. 83 (6): 1780-90. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2004.12.042. ...
One research team found a correlation in male fruit flies and discussed it as a possibility in other species, even humans.[35] ... chromosome localization, and functional expression of cDNA clones". Biochemistry. 30 (44): 10640-6. doi:10.1021/bi00108a006. ... Palma C, Maggi CA (2000). "The role of tachykinins via NK1 receptors in progression of human gliomas". Life Sciences. 67 (9): ... Gerard NP, Garraway LA, Eddy RL, Shows TB, Iijima H, Paquet JL, Gerard C (Nov 1991). "Human substance P receptor (NK-1): ...
When a human is conceived, it gets 23 chromosomes from its mother and 23 from its father. If it does not get the right number ... This developing human is called an embryo for the first eight weeks of the pregnancy, and fetus for the rest of the pregnancy. ... Humans can also chose to end the pregnancy before birth takes place. This is called an induced abortion. Often, the term ... Human Sex and Sexuality, page 174 (Courier Dover Publications 1988).. *↑ Russo J, Russo I (1980). "Susceptibility of the ...
"Is the human race evolving or devolving?". Scientific American. From a biological perspective, there is no such thing as ... doi:10.1007/978-3-642-27654-5_22. ISBN 9783642276538.. *^ McShea, D. (1991). "Complexity and evolution: What everybody knows". ... 21] Since the effective population size in eukaryotes (especially multi-cellular organisms) is much smaller than in prokaryotes ... 22] they experience lower selection constraints. According to this model, new genes are created by non-adaptive processes, such ...
During mammalian development, the gonads are at first capable of becoming either ovaries or testes.[5] In humans, starting at ... In males, certain Y chromosome genes, particularly SRY, control development of the male phenotype, including conversion of the ... Before the production of the pituitary hormone luteinizing hormone (LH) by the embryo starting at about weeks 11-12, human ... Häggström, Mikael; Richfield, David (2014). "Diagram of the pathways of human steroidogenesis". WikiJournal of Medicine. 1 (1 ...
... is a multigene haplotype that covers a majority of the human major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6 (not to be ... These unique chromosomes are produced by recombination of each unique chromosome passed by each grandparent to each parent. ... At 4.7 million nucleotides in length, A1::DQ2 is the second longest haplotype identified within the human genome.[1] A1::DQ2 ... December 1993). "Human leukocyte antigen A1-B8-DR3-DQ2-DPB1*0401 extended haplotype in autoimmune hepatitis". Hepatology. 18 (6 ...
These tumors show a high frequency of co-deletions of the p and q arms of chromosome 1 and chromosome 19 respectively (1p19q co ... Human brains are surrounded by a system of connective tissue membranes called meninges that separate the brain from the skull. ... The brains of humans and other vertebrates are composed of very soft tissue and have a gelatin-like texture. Living brain ... "IARC classifies radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans" (PDF). World Health Organization ...
In humans, PR is encoded by a single PGR gene residing on chromosome 11q22,[5][6][7] it has two isoforms, PR-A and PR-B, that ... "The progesterone receptor gene maps to human chromosome band 11q13, the site of the mammary oncogene int-2". Proceedings of the ... "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.. .mw-parser-output ... The single-copy human (hPR) gene uses separate promoters and translational start sites to produce two isoforms, hPR-A and -B, ...
"American Journal of Human Genetics. 64 (1): 225-31. doi:10.1086/302198. PMC 1377721. PMID 9915962.. ... By pairing chromosomes of similar genomes, the chance for these recessive alleles to pair and become homozygous greatly ... Van Den Berghe, Pierre L (2010). "Human inbreeding avoidance: Culture in nature". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 6: 91-102. doi ... HumansEdit. See also: Incest, Incest taboo, Pedigree collapse, and Cousin marriage ...
Deletion in the 22q11.2 region of chromosome 22 has been associated with schizophrenia and autism.[22][23] Schizophrenia and ... An example of pleiotropy is phenylketonuria, an inherited disorder that affects the level of phenylalanine in the human body. ... The disease is caused by a defect in a single gene on chromosome 12 that codes for enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase , that ... Pleiotropy not only affects humans, but also animals, such as chickens and laboratory house mice, where the mice have the "mini ...
... so each human chromosome can be identified by a characteristic color using whole-chromosome probe mixtures and a variety of ... The chromosomes can be seen in blue. The chromosome that is labeled with green and red spots (upper left) is the one where the ... Then, an interphase or metaphase chromosome preparation is produced. The chromosomes are firmly attached to a substrate, ... Probes that hybridize along an entire chromosome are used to count the number of a certain chromosome, show translocations, or ...
"The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22". Nature 402 (402). ISSN 0028-0836, págs. 489-495.. ... No século XXI[editar , editar a fonte]. Hai que salientar que na década do 2000 culminaron moitos proxectos de secuenciación de ... Human Genome Project (2003). "International Consortium Completes Human Genome Project". Human Genome Project Information (en ... U. S. Human Genome Project (2008). Office of Science - U. S. Dpt. of Energy, ed. "Major Events in the U.S. Human Genome Project ...
Presenilin-1 (PS-1) is a presenilin protein that in humans is encoded by the PSEN1 gene.[5] Presenilin-1 is one of the four ... "Genetic linkage evidence for a familial Alzheimer's seasesease locus on chromosome 14". Science. 258 (5082): 668-71. Bibcode: ... Tanahashi H, Tabira T (February 1999). "Isolation of human delta-catenin and its binding specificity with presenilin 1". ... A study of broad range gene expression was conducted on human malignant melanoma. Researchers classified the malignant melanoma ...
In recent investigations, it has also been made clear that both varieties have the same chromosome number (n=15) and can be ... "Food and Drug Administration, US Department of Health and Human Services. October 2014. Retrieved 25 October 2014.. ... but the compounds found in green tea have not been conclusively demonstrated to have any effect on human diseases.[79][80] One ... Benn 2015, p. 22. *^ Kit Boey Chow, Ione Kramer (1990). All the Tea in China. Sinolingua. pp. 2-3. ISBN 978-0-8351-2194-1.. CS1 ...
These were foxes that were eager to have human contact. By the 10th generation 18 percent of fox pups were in this "elite" ... Using 320 microsatellites Trut and co-workers showed that all 16 fox autosomes and one X chromosome were covered, and that ... The Order of the Badge of Honor (August 21, 1986). •Winner of 2018 The American Association for the Advancement of Science ( ... This page was last edited on 14 January 2019, at 01:22 (UTC). ...
"Mapping of a human brain voltage-gated calcium channel to human chromosome 12p13-pter". Genomics. 14 (4): 1092-4. doi:10.1016/ ... Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (also known as Cav1.2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... Soldatov NM (Jul 1994). "Genomic structure of human L-type Ca2+ channel". Genomics. 22 (1): 77-87. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1347. ... Powers PA, Gregg RG, Lalley PA, Liao M, Hogan K (Jul 1991). "Assignment of the human gene for the alpha 1 subunit of the ...
Lin HH, Stacey M, Hamann J, Gordon S, McKnight AJ (2000). „Human EMR2, a novel EGF-TM7 molecule on chromosome 19p13.1, is ... Stacey M, Lin HH, Hilyard KL, Gordon S, McKnight AJ (2001). „Human epidermal growth factor (EGF) module-containing mucin-like ... Gene structure and transcript analysis of the human and mouse EGF-TM7 molecule, FIRE". DNA Seq. 17 (1): 8-14. PMID 16753812. ... 276 (22): 18863-70. PMID 11279179. doi:10.1074/jbc.M101147200.. *^ Caminschi I, Vandenabeele S, Sofi M, McKnight AJ, Ward N, ...
Circular chromosomes, similar translation and transcription to Eukarya. Circular chromosomes, unique translation and ... making up about one in ten of all the prokaryotes in the human gut.[197] In termites and in humans, these methanogens may in ... after the cell's chromosome is replicated and the two daughter chromosomes separate, the cell divides.[154] In the genus ... Multiple, linear chromosomes, similar translation and transcription to Archaea. Internal cell structure. No membrane-bound ...
... human chromosome sequences the type of research being done on each has shifted subtly, reflecting the impact of genomic data on ... If the number of publications per chromosome is weighted by chromosome size (Figure 1b), chromosomes 21 and 22 (as well as ... Use of comparative physical and sequence mapping to annotate mouse chromosome 16 and human chromosome 21. Genomics. 2001, 74: ... Many more human genes are now covered by at least one of these valuable mRNA resources than when the chromosomes were first ...
The yeast artificial chromosome contiguous unit starts with pericentromeric and ends with subtelomeric loci of 21q. The ... This set of overlapping clones will promote our knowledge of the structure of this chromosome and the function of its genes. ... A continuous array of overlapping clones covering the entire human chromosome 21q was constructed from human yeast artificial ... chromosome libraries using sequence-tagged sites as landmarks specifically detected by polymerase chain reaction. ...
Three region-specific libraries for the entire human chromosome 18 were constructed using microdissection and MboI linker- ... Human Chromosome Blot Hybridization Insert Size Density Marker Southern Blot Hybridization This is a preview of subscription ... Three region-specific libraries for the entire human chromosome 18 were constructed using microdissection and MboI linker- ... Construction and characterization of three region-specific microdissection libraries for human chromosome 18. ...
Evidence of prehistoric demographic expansions has been detected in the mitochondrial diversity of most human populations and ... PRAXIS XXI BD/13632/97) from Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia. We thank Laurent Excoffier for critical discussion and for ... MW 1999Population growth of human Y chromosomes: A study of Y chromosome microsatellites.Mol Biol Evol1617911798PubMedGoogle ... 2000Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations.Nat Genet26358361CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
In human genetics, a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by mutations in the non-recombining portions of ... 2016). "The Divergence of Neandertal and Modern Human Y Chromosomes". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 98 (4): 728-34. ... Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups are the major branches on the human paternal family tree. Each haplogroup has many ... 2005 Y-chromosome Phylogenetic Tree, from ^ A Nomenclature system for the Tree of Human Y-Chromosomal ...
The genes of human chromosome 21 identified by the genome efforts were investigated, and the success rates for de novo cloning ... All genes of human chromosome 21 (15) with open reading frames larger than 100 amino acid residues were subjected to PrEST ... As a starting point, we performed bioinformatics analysis of all the putative genes of human chromosome 21 found by Hattori et ... As a pilot project, we describe an analysis of the putative gene products of human chromosome 21. Although the project was ...
doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-13-216 PMCID: PMC3850526 PMID: 24079706 Y Chromosome analysis of prehistoric human populations in the ... To help understand the human evolutionary history of this region, we performed Y chromosome analyses on ancient human remains ... Y Chromosome analysis of prehistoric human populations in the West Liao River Valley, Northeast China. 중국 동북부 랴오강 계곡의 선사 시대 인구에 ... The Y chromosome, with its uniparental inheritance and low mutation rate [6], is used widely for tracing the history of human ...
Human Chromosomes - 14.1 Assessment - Page 397 1c including work step by step written by community members like you. Textbook ... Human Chromosomes - 14.1 Assessment - Page 397: 2a Previous Answer Chapter 14, Human Heredity - 14.1 - Human Chromosomes - 14.1 ... Chapter 14, Human Heredity - 14.1 - Human Chromosomes - 14.1 Assessment - Page 397: 1c. Answer. Karyotype ... Assessment - 14.1 Human Chromosomes - Understand Key Concepts/Think Critically * Assessment - 14.2 Human Genetic Disorders - ...
14.1 Human Chromosomes - Understand Key Concepts/Think Critically - Page 412 6 including work step by step written by community ... Chapter 14, Human Heredity - Assessment - 14.1 Human Chromosomes - Understand Key Concepts/Think Critically - Page 412. 6 ... Chapter 14, Human Heredity - Assessment - 14.1 Human Chromosomes - Understand Key Concepts/Think Critically - Page 412: 6. ... Forensics Lab - Pre-Lab - Using DNA to Identify Human Remains * Assessment - 14.1 Human Chromosomes - Understand Key Concepts/ ...
White, P.S., Tatum, O.L., Deaven, L.L. and Longmire, J.L. (1999) New, Male-Specific Microsatellite Markers from the Human Y ... 2002) Forensic Value of 14 Novel STRs on the Human Y Chromosome. Forensic Science International, 130, 97-111. ... 2013) Inference of Human Continental Origin and Admixture Proportions Using a Highly Discriminative Ancestry Informative 41-SNP ... Hao, K., Chudin, E., Greenawalt, D. and Schadt, E.E. (2010) Magnitude of Stratification in Human Populations and Impacts on ...
High-quality Sequence Of Human Chromosomes 21, 22 Achieved. by denyfeb72 on March 18, 2019. in Education System ...
Gilbert F (1997). "Disease genes and chromosomes: disease maps of the human genome. Chromosome 21". Genet Test. 1 (4): 301-6. ... Chromosome summary - Homo sapiens". Ensembl Release 88. 2017-03-29. Retrieved 2017-05-19. "Human chromosome 21: entries, gene ... The following is a partial list of genes on human chromosome 21. For complete list, see the link in the infobox on the right. ... The following are some of the gene count estimates of human chromosome 21. Because researchers use different approaches to ...
Similar additional chromosome abnormalities were observed in the terminal stage of the disease in 5 of 9 patients with ... The study of chromosome banding pattern of leukaemic cells in 15 patients with CML revealed t(9;22) in all cases. ... Chromosome Aberrations*. Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, 16-18. Chromosomes, Human, 19-20. Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 ... Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X. Female. Humans. Leukemia, Myeloid / genetics*. Male. Middle Aged. Translocation, Genetic. ...
Chromosome 19 (human). File:Human male karyotpe high resolution - Chromosome 19 cropped.png. Human chromosome 19 pair after G- ... Chromosome 19 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome ... See also: Category:Genes on human chromosome 19.. The following are some of the gene count estimates of human chromosome 19. ... File:Human male karyotpe high resolution - Chromosome 19.png. Chromosome 19 pair. in human male karyogram. ...
Mechanisms of ring chromosome formation in 11 cases of human ring chromosome 21. Am J Hum Genet. 1992;50:15-28. ... If the ring chromosome replaces a normal 21st chromosome, symptoms may resemble those associated with Chromosome 21 Monosomy, a ... Pairs of human chromosomes are numbered from 1 through 22, with an unequal 23rd pair of X and Y chromosomes for males and two X ... Each chromosome has a short arm designated as "p" and a long arm identified by the letter "q." Chromosomes are further ...
Human chromosome 11 DNA sequence and analysis including novel gene identification. Free access. Todd D. Taylor et al. ... Epimutation of the telomeric imprinting center region on chromosome 11p15 in Silver-Russell syndrome. Christine Gicquel et al. ... Unexpectedly high rate of de novo constitutional t(11;22) translocations in sperm from normal males. Hiroki Kurahashi & Beverly ...
The SOD-1 gene on chromosome 21 and approximately 100 kb of chromosomal DNA from the 21q22 region have been isolated and ... Architecture and anatomy of the chromosomal locus in human chromosome 21 encoding the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase EMBO J. 1985 ... Genomic blots of human DNA isolated from cells trisomic for chromosome 21 (Downs syndrome patients) show the normal pattern of ... The SOD-1 gene on chromosome 21 and approximately 100 kb of chromosomal DNA from the 21q22 region have been isolated and ...
Bacteria-Human Somatic Cell Lateral Gene Transfer Is Enriched in Cancer Samples ... Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect. Natsuko Kondo, Naruo Nikoh, Nobuyuki ... Endosymbiotic gene transfer: organelle genomes forge eukaryotic chromosomes. Jeremy N. Timmis, Michael A. Ayliffe, Chun Y. ... Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect ...
Human chromosome 14q32.2 carries a cluster of protein-coding paternally expressed genes (PEGs) such as DLK1 and RTL1 and non- ... Second, the IG-DMR and the MEG3/Gtl2-DMR show a hierarchical interaction on the maternally derived chromosome in both the human ... Human chromosome 14q32.2 harbors the germline-derived primary DLK1-MEG3 intergenic differentially methylated region (IG-DMR) ... Human chromosome 14q32.2 harbors the germline-derived primary DLK1-MEG3 intergenic differentially methylated region (IG-DMR) ...
An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long ... "Philadelphia Chromosome" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... The landscape of BCR-ABL mutations in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukaemias in the era of second-generation ... Ponatinib efficacy and safety in Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia: final 5-year results of the phase 2 PACE trial. ...
... (accessed May 07, 2021). ... ... ... Os 22 cromossomas não sexuais são numerados pelo tamanho. Os outros twochromosomes, X e Y, são os cromossomas de sexo. Esta ... Cromossomas não sexuais - há 22 pares de cromossomas não sexuais nos seres humanos. Estes codificam para a maioria dos traços ...
To help understand the human evolutionary history of this region, we performed Y chromosome analyses on ancient human remains ... We also used 17 Y short tandem repeat loci in the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome. There appears to be significant ... They reveal the temporal continuity of Y chromosome lineages in populations of the West Liao River valley over 5000 years, with ... populated in prehistory by human populations with a wide range of cultures and modes of subsistence. ...
Perfect conserved linkage across the entire mouse chromosome 10 region homologous to human chromosome 21. . Genome Res. 1999;9: ... The sequence of human chromosome 21 and implications for research into Down syndrome. Katheleen Gardiner1 and Muriel Davisson2 ... The regions of human chromosome 21 that are syntenic with mouse chromosomes are indicated on the left; those that are trisomic ... The DNA sequence of human chromosome 21. Nature. 2000;405:311-319. doi: 10.1038/35012518. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] ...
... exon expressed sequence tag gene expression genetic code genetic identification human human cell human chromosome human genome ... Novel RNAs identified from a in-depth analysis of the transcriptome of human chromosomes 21 and 22 ... genetics oligonucleotide probe tumor cell line tumor gene validation study Cell Line Tumor Chromosome Mapping Chromosomes Human ... Novel RNAs identified from a in-depth analysis of the transcriptome of human chromosomes 21 and 22. Genome Research, 14 (3). pp ...
RANBP1 localizes a subset of mitotic regulatory factors on spindle microtubules and regulates chromosome segregation in human ... RANBP1 localizes a subset of mitotic regulatory factors on spindle microtubules and regulates chromosome segregation in human ... RANBP1 localizes a subset of mitotic regulatory factors on spindle microtubules and regulates chromosome segregation in human ... RANBP1 localizes a subset of mitotic regulatory factors on spindle microtubules and regulates chromosome segregation in human ...
Are the chromosomes in each cell not how the body communicates with the Brain? If not, then what makes us humans tick. What ... sharan, youll need to look beyond humans to see whats happened. Do a Google search for evolution of the y chromosome, ... I said: the first human wasnt woman, but Im not saying, that the first human was man. and thats true. You should prove ... I say, that the first human wasnt woman, but Im not saying, that the first human was man. First read something about ...
The packaging of DNA into chromosomes. Human beings have 23 pairs of chromosomes in every cell, which makes 46 chromosomes in ... The karyotype of a male human being. The largest chromosome, chromosome 1, contains about 8000 genes. The smallest chromosome, ... The sex chromosomes determine whether you are a boy (XY) or a girl (XX). The other chromosomes are called autosomes.. ... Chromosomes. If you took the DNA from all the cells in your body and lined it up, end to end, it would form a strand 6000 ...
EvC Forum ⇒ Science Forums ⇒ Human Origins and Evolution ⇒ Human Chromosome 2 and the Evolution of Humans ... Thread copied here from the Human Chromosome 2 and the Evolution of Humans thread in the Proposed New Topics forum. ... Is there a more plausible explanation for the break between humans and chimps? Chromosome 2 is presented as evidence of human ... Is there a more plausible explanation for the break between humans and chimps? Chromosome 2 is presented as evidence of human ...
EvC Forum ⇒ Science Forums ⇒ Human Origins and Evolution ⇒ Human Chromosome 2 and the Evolution of Humans ... Re: Human creation. I think what I said is related the the title creation/evolution is related to the title human chromosome 2 ... Neanderthal or denisova may have 48 chromosomes and even we human some time can have 48 chromosomes (some produced serious ... Back to human creation -. The "bara" used for human creation is basically pointing to the breath God give human and from that ...
acrocentric chromosome 17 October 2005 Definition: Chromosome whose centromere lies very near one end. See also metacentric ... metacentric chromosome 17 October 2005 Definition: Chromosome having its centromere in the middle. See also acrocentric ... Chromosomes. * diepoxybutane-induced chromosomal breakage 31 May 2006 Pathology Fanconi disease (Fanconi syndrome) See also ... 1996 - 2018 - Human pathology Site Map , Log in , Contact , RSS 2.0 ...
  • For example, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (a type of blood cancer most often diagnosed in childhood) has been associated with a translocation between chromosomes 12 and 21. (
  • Another form of leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, has been associated with a translocation between chromosomes 8 and 21. (
  • An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. (
  • A Robertsonian translocation is the most common kind of human chromosome translocation. (
  • A Robertsonian translocation effects acrocentric chromosomes. (
  • In a Robertsonian translocation, acrocentric chromosomes fuse together. (
  • A Robertsonian translocation can also result in an extra copy of one chromosome being included in your DNA. (
  • Since chromosomes come in pairs, you can have a Robertsonian translocation that disrupts your DNA strand, but leaves you with all of the genetic information that you need for your cells to multiply correctly. (
  • A Robertsonian translocation can result in trisomy 14 or trisomy 21. (
  • If your Robertsonian translocation fuses another chromosome with chromosome 21, you may be genetically more predisposed to have a baby with Down syndrome. (
  • The two major two-chromosome mutations: insertion (1) and Translocation (2). (
  • Robertsonian translocation is a rare rearrangement which commonly occurs in acrocentric chromosomes. (
  • Once translocation chromosomes have been formed, they can be passed on to offspring. (
  • A rearrangement (translocation) of genetic material between chromosomes 9 and 22 causes a type of cancer of blood-forming cells called chronic myeloid leukemia. (
  • The translocation involved in this condition, written as t(9;22), fuses part of the ABL1 gene from chromosome 9 with part of the BCR gene from chromosome 22, creating an abnormal fusion gene called BCR-ABL1 . (
  • A translocation joining pieces of human chromosomes 9 and 22 produces the so-called "Philadelphia chromosome," a structural abnormality associated with chronic myeloid leukemia. (
  • The translocation associated with AML fundamentally alters that architecture on chromosome 3, making such interactions far more likely. (
  • Translocation Down syndrome or Translocation Trisomy 21 -The process of translocation Down syndrome often begins prior to conception of the parent of a child with this type of Down syndrome. (
  • In a translocation, part of one chromosome breaks off and becomes attached to another chromosome during meiosis-the process of cell division that takes place in the formation of eggs and sperm. (
  • As noted above, trisomy 21 can occur through the processes of nondisjunction or translocation during cell division. (
  • It's important to note that the second two risk factors are risk factors only for translocation trisomy 21, and are therefore risk factors for less than 5% of cases of Down syndrome. (
  • reciprocal translocation the mutual exchange of fragments between two broken chromosomes, one part of one uniting with part of the other. (
  • robertsonian translocation that in which the breaks occur at the centromeres and entire chromosome arms are exchanged, usually involving two acrocentric chromosomes. (
  • translocation in which the centromeres of two acrocentric chromosomes appear to have fused, forming an abnormal chromosome consisting of the long arms of two different chromosomes with loss of the short arms. (
  • A person with an unbalanced robertsonian translocation is trisomic for the long arm of the chromosome. (
  • The carrier of a Robertsonian translocation between chromosomes 13;15 has only 45 chromosomes, an event that leads to an early pregnancy loss or to the birth of a neonate with multiple defects. (
  • In the first and second case, the error occurs in the formation of gametes or the first mitotic division so it affects all somatic cells of the organism, the main difference being that in the case of regular trisomy has 47 whole chromosomes whereas in the translocation case has 46 chromosomes and an extra portion of chromosome 21 (HSA21). (
  • The Y-chromosomal most recent common ancestor (Y-MRCA, informally known as Y-chromosomal Adam) is the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) from whom all currently living humans are descended patrilineally. (
  • In a small percentage of cases, Down syndrome is caused by a rearrangement of chromosomal material between chromosome 21 and another chromosome. (
  • Chromosome 21 Ring is a rare chromosomal disorder in which the affected infant has a breakage of chromosome 21 at both ends, and the ends of the chromosome join together to form a ring. (
  • If some cells contain a Chromosome 21 Ring in addition to the normal chromosomal pair (mosaic trisomy), some features may be present that resemble those associated with Down Syndrome (also known as Chromosome 21 Trisomy). (
  • The SOD-1 gene on chromosome 21 and approximately 100 kb of chromosomal DNA from the 21q22 region have been isolated and characterized. (
  • Chromosome mutation was formerly used in a strict sense to mean a change in a chromosomal segment, involving more than one gene . (
  • Chromosome instability syndromes are a group of disorders characterized by chromosomal instability and breakage. (
  • Japanese researchers have confirmed the second case known to science of a chimpanzee born with trisomy 22, a chromosomal defect similar to that of Down syndrome (or trisomy 21) in humans. (
  • These results then prompted the research team to conduct further chromosomal analysis, which confirmed that she had trisomy 22. (
  • Also provided is a linkage disequilibrium unit (LDU) map of any one or more of bovine chromosomes BTA-I to BTA-29, the map comprising a plurality of chromosomal regions, and the regions defined by their co-inheritance across generations substantially as entire linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks. (
  • Chromosomal translocations are events that take place in the cell nucleus where portions of DNA move from one chromosome to another non-homologous chromosome. (
  • These chromosomal arrangements involve two homologous or non-homologous chromosome which breaks at their centromeric region. (
  • Down Syndrome or trisomy 21 is a chromosomal abnormality caused by an extra chromosome 21. (
  • We report here the use of fluorescent in situ hybridization to examine the chromosomal complement of interphase neuronal nuclei in the adult human brain. (
  • Neither migration nor admixture are mentioned in the text, and, in my opinion, these processes have shaped modern human Y chromosomal variation. (
  • The following chromosomal conditions are associated with changes in the structure or number of copies of chromosome 22. (
  • Distribution of nucleolus-associated chromosomal domains (NADs) together with satellite repeats along human chromosomes. (
  • The homologous chromosomal pairs (matching chromosomes derived from mother and father) do not necessarily lie next to each other. (
  • The complete set of chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs in order of decreasing size is termed a Karyotype. (
  • Chromosome 21 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. (
  • Chromosome 21 is both the smallest human autosome and chromosome, with 48 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) representing about 1.5 percent of the total DNA in cells. (
  • Researchers working on the Human Genome Project announced in May 2000 that they had determined the sequence of base pairs that make up this chromosome. (
  • Chromosome 19 spans more than 58.6 million base pairs , the building material of DNA . (
  • Pairs of human chromosomes are numbered from 1 through 22, with an unequal 23rd pair of X and Y chromosomes for males and two X chromosomes for females. (
  • Human beings have 23 pairs of chromosomes in every cell, which makes 46 chromosomes in total. (
  • The draft human genome sequence (about 3 billion base pairs) was completed in 2001. (
  • Since DNA chromosomes are linked together into 23 pairs, having an odd number of chromosomes can sometimes indicate that essential genetic information is missing from your DNA. (
  • Human cells normally contain 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46. (
  • In turn, apes have 24 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 48. (
  • Chromosome 1 spans about 249 million nucleotide base pairs , which are the basic units of information for DNA . (
  • Chromosome 15 spans about 101 million base pairs (the building material of DNA ) and represents between 3% and 3.5% of the total DNA in cells . (
  • The human genetic code, or genome, consists of about three billion pairs of chemicals known as bases. (
  • The chromosome itself contains 87.4 million base pairs or DNA letters. (
  • How many chromosome pairs do humans have? (
  • Humans normally have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) in each cell. (
  • Two copies of chromosome 22, one copy inherited from each parent, form one of the pairs. (
  • Chromosome 22 is the second smallest human chromosome, spanning more than 51 million DNA building blocks (base pairs) and representing between 1.5 and 2 percent of the total DNA in cells. (
  • Most people with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome are missing about 3 million base pairs on one copy of chromosome 22 in each cell. (
  • As humans, we have 46 chromosomes or 23 pairs of chromosomes. (
  • 22 pairs are considered autosomes, and the other pair are the sex chromosomes-either XY for a boy and XX for a girl. (
  • The human genome is the genome of Homo sapiens , which is stored on 23 chromosome pairs. (
  • Twenty-two of these are autosomal chromosome pairs , while the remaining pair is sex-determining . (
  • The haploid human genome occupies a total of just over 3 billion DNA base pairs . (
  • Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes . (
  • They could see that chromosomes came in pairs, and that human cells all contained 23 matching pairs. (
  • In 1991 a project called the Human Genome Project began to use computers to map the three billion base pairs which make up the 46 human chromosomes. (
  • In humans there are 46 chromosomes, or 23 pairs of chromosomes ( diploid ), in every cell except the mature egg and sperm which have a set of 23 chromosomes ( haploid ). (
  • Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes - one less pair than chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans and other great apes. (
  • The amount of genetic material lost at the two ends of the chromosome may vary. (
  • The symptoms and findings associated with Chromosome 21 Ring may be extremely variable, depending upon the amount and location of genetic material lost from the 21st chromosome and other factors. (
  • Chromosome 21 Ring results from loss (deletion) of genetic material from both ends of the 21st chromosome and joining of the ends to form a ring. (
  • Humans and other complex organisms produce massive amounts of non-coding RNAs, which may form another level of genetic output that controls differentiation and development. (
  • It is important to appreciate that the Human Genome Project is just the flagship of a fleet of studies to explore the molecular and genetic basis of life and its diversity, which will provide the scientific and technological "scaffolding" for understanding the human genome and human biology. (
  • A monosomy is a genetic alteration in which one half of a chromosome pair is missing. (
  • A trisomy is a genetic alteration in which there is an extra copy of a chromosome in a DNA strand, throwing the chain off balance. (
  • Karyotypic analyses were done to demonstrate the genetic makeup of these cells, and fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses have defined the region(s) of chromosome 22 retained in these BCNU-resistant cells. (
  • Scientists in Japan have completed the DNA sequence of a chimpanzee chromosome and lined it up alongside its human counterpart to identify genetic similarities and differences. (
  • Chimpanzees are our closest genetic relatives, and the chromosome sequences match up remarkably well. (
  • A portion of the chromosome is duplicated, resulting in extra genetic material. (
  • A portion of the chromosome has broken off, turned upside down, and reattached, therefore the genetic material is inverted. (
  • The genetic instructions held on chromosome 14 have been published online. (
  • Developing treatments, like chromosome-specific drugs that could repair the damage in the genetic code, are a long way off but this work could help doctors screen for these genetic conditions. (
  • Chromosomes are dark-staining, threadlike structures in the cell nucleus composed of DNA and chromatin that carry genetic information (definition after Nussbaum et al and Mueller and Young). (
  • The present invention provided a method for predicting a phenotype in a bovine animal, the method comprising analysing a nucleic acid sample from said animal for the presence of at least one genetic marker known to reside in an Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) block in any one of bovine chromosomes BTA-I to BTA-29, wherein said LD block is associated with said phenotype. (
  • Relationship between the male (mcM) and female (fcM) genetic maps for chromosome 22. (
  • 1990) Program description - Centre D'Etude Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) - collaborative genetic mapping of the human genome. (
  • We demonstrate that a significant fraction of the hippocampal pyramidal and basal forebrain neurons in AD have fully or partially replicated four separate genetic loci on three different chromosomes. (
  • The human Y chromosome exhibits surprisingly low levels of genetic diversity. (
  • Here, using genome-wide analyses of X, Y, autosomal and mitochondrial DNA, in combination with extensive population genetic simulations, we show that low observed Y chromosome variability is not consistent with a purely neutral model. (
  • Please see Pattern and process in human genetic diversity: from genomes to populations for information about my current Fellowship project. (
  • Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. (
  • 22q11.2 duplication is caused by an extra copy of some genetic material at position q11.2 on chromosome 22. (
  • Some forms of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) also harbor specific genetic aberrations-in this case, on the long arm of chromosome 3. (
  • In other words, the baby (the parent that is) ends up with 45 chromosomes, but lives and functions normally because all of the genetic material required on the 21st chromosome is still present. (
  • In contrast, in mosaicism the error occurs from the second mitotic division, which gives rise to two different cell lines, one with 47 chromosomes and one with a normal genetic endowment. (
  • A distinguishing characteristic of eukaryotes, the nucleus contains the genetic information ( genome ) of the cell in the form of its chromosomes. (
  • Genetic mapping of 21 genes on mouse chromosome 11 reveals disruptions in linkage conservation with human chromosome 5. (
  • Dr. Draper's research program is concerned with the genetic mechanisms that govern lineage determination within human ES cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. (
  • Currently little is understood about the genetic profile of most lineages that differentiate from human ES cells. (
  • Segments from two different chromosomes have been exchanged. (
  • [ 5 ] A NOR is composed of tandem repeats of rRNA genes, which can be found in several different chromosomes. (
  • As a result, a person has the usual two copies of chromosome 21, plus extra material from chromosome 21 attached to another chromosome. (
  • A portion of one chromosome is transferred to another chromosome. (
  • A portion of one chromosome has been deleted from its normal place and inserted into another chromosome. (
  • This process results in 3 copies of chromosome 21, but one copy is attached to another chromosome, often chromosome 14. (
  • When these parents have children, however, the babies end up with 3 copies of chromosome 21, but unlike nondisjunction trisomy, the extra chromosome is attached to another chromosome. (
  • Robertsonian translocations can result in pregnancies that carry monosomy 14 and monosomy 21. (
  • In case of humans, Robertsonian translocations occur between chromosome 14 and chromosomes 13, 15 or 21. (
  • In human genetics, a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by mutations in the non-recombining portions of DNA from the male-specific Y chromosome (called Y-DNA). (
  • Human Genetics, 125, 565-579. (
  • Human Molecular Genetics. (
  • Annals of Human Genetics 56: 223-232. (
  • European Journal of Human Genetics 8: 805-809. (
  • Get a broad view of medical genetics with a unique three-part structure that looks at the Principles of Human Genetics, Genetics in Medicine, and Clinical Genetics. (
  • These unique properties of the Y have important consequences for its mutation processes, its genes, and its population genetics: Y chromosomes pass down from father to son largely unchanged, except by the gradual accumulation of mutations. (
  • It seems that there is no escape from mutation rate controversies in human genetics. (
  • American biologist Walter Sutton knew Mendel's principles of genetics work on peas, and suggested that chromosomes held the secret of inheritance. (
  • In the four years since the publication of the first two 'complete' human chromosome sequences the type of research being done on each has shifted subtly, reflecting the impact of genomic data on biological science in general. (
  • As the first two chromosome sequences have been complete for a relatively long time (in comparison to the rest of the chromosomes), now seems an appropriate time to take a look at how research on these chromosomes, and how genomic research in general, has been affected. (
  • Furthermore, the availability of the entire chromosome sequences seems to have facilitated the localization of some disease loci on chromosomes 21 and 22. (
  • Although the project was designed to provide a general proof-of-concept for whole proteome analysis, specific information gained from the chromosome 21-encoded proteome may be valuable for the studies of a range of common complex diseases that map to this chromosome, also including disorders such as cancer and Down syndrome that result from deletion or duplication of sequences on this chromosome. (
  • Most commonly, DS is due to the presence of an extra copy of a complete chromosome 21 and it is assumed that the DS phenotypic features are a direct consequence of the overexpression of some number of genes contained within 21q (21p is largely made up of ribosomal RNA genes and other repeat sequences). (
  • Cells selected for BCNU resistance either in vivo or in vitro retain sequences mapped to chromosome 22. (
  • The specific over-representation of sequences mapped to 22q12.3-13.32 suggest the presence of a DNA sequence important to BCNU survival and/or resistance located in this region of chromosome 22. (
  • Thus, selection for cells with over-representation of chromosome 22 sequences by BCNU treatment suggests the presence on this chromosome of a gene or genes that confer a selective advantage to these cells. (
  • The specific over-representation of chromosome 22 sequences provides strong evidence that a gene(s) on this chromosome is important for survival after therapy and/or therapy resistance. (
  • In searching for the basis of the physical variation between chimpanzees and humans, differences in genome sequences are just the first place to start: we need to know what these differences mean," writes Jean Weissenbach of Genoscope, France, in a perspective that accompanies the paper in Nature . (
  • Ab initio annotation of sequences in Human genome draft: (49171 Genes and 282378 exons) The nucleotide sequence of nearly 90% of the Human genome (3 GB) has been determined in worldwide sequencing community. (
  • FirstEF gave a similar performance when tested against the finished sequences for human chromosomes 21 and 22. (
  • The human genome has many different regulatory sequences which are crucial to controlling gene expression . (
  • Another comparative genomic approach to locating regulatory sequences in humans is the gene sequencing of the puffer fish . (
  • These vertebrates have essentially the same genes and regulatory gene sequences as humans, but with only one-eighth the "junk" DNA. (
  • Protein-coding sequences (specifically, coding exons ) comprise less than 1.5% of the human genome. (
  • [ 4 ] Aside from genes and known regulatory sequences, the human genome contains vast regions of DNA the function of which, if any, remains unknown. (
  • The groups generate bacterial artificial chromosome sequences (BACS). (
  • As expected, the two papers published in 2001 reporting the human genome draft sequence, by the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium [ 5 ] and Celera Genomics [ 6 ], were the most-cited, with 2,666 and 2,058 citations, respectively. (
  • The types of articles that cited the first two chromosome publications covered a range of research areas, with the majority being comparative genomics, comparative mapping, gene discovery, haplotype analysis, genomic organization, and chromosome-wide gene expression analysis. (
  • Human chromosome 19 pair after G-banding . (
  • Chromosome 19 pair in human male karyogram . (
  • the pair of sex chromosome are XX for females and XY for males, making a total of 46 chromosomes per person. (
  • But the other breakpoint was tightly restricted to another piece of chromosome 3 located some 40 megabases away: an 18,000-base-pair segment of 3q21, sandwiched between GATA2 and RPN1 . (
  • When a cell divides, one of each pair of chromosomes goes to each daughter cell. (
  • With a nondisjunction, the two chromosomes of a pair do not split properly which results in 2 copies of the chromosome going to one cell and no copies going to the other cell. (
  • In man, there is a pair of sex chromosomes. (
  • But it was not until 1959 when Lejeune and his colleagues confirmed the presence of an extra chromosome in pair 21 in nine children with DS (Lejeune, Gautier & Turpin, 1959). (
  • Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers. (
  • Bertranpetit, J 2000 Genome, diversity, and origins: The Y chromosome as a storyteller. (
  • With some minor corrections, all 107 genes associated with complete cDNAs that had been mapped previously to chromosome 21 (listed by Swiss-PROT [ 10 ] in March 2000) were found. (
  • RIKEN had sequenced human chromosome 21 in 2000 as part of the Human Genome Project. (
  • DATA TABLE 1: LD50 for rodents and humans LDs0 oral, rat (mg/kg) Your oral LDso (g/person) Substance (main source or product) disodium EDTA (detergents) 2000. (
  • Majewski J and Ott J (2000) GT repeats are associated with recombination on human chromosome 22. (
  • The yeast artificial chromosome contiguous unit starts with pericentromeric and ends with subtelomeric loci of 21q. (
  • The results of our SNP analyses can be reconciled with the expansion of male effective population sizes inferred from STR loci, and with mitochondrial evidence, by admitting that humans were essentially polygynous during much of their history. (
  • We also used 17 Y short tandem repeat loci in the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome. (
  • The findings strongly indicate that there are at least 2 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting BP in this region of rat chromosome 1. (
  • Collins A, Frezal J, Teague J and Morton NE (1996) A metric map of humans: 23,500 loci in 850 bands. (
  • Recent versions of the human genome sequence, starting with the hg19 (GRCh37) assembly, are provided by the Genome Reference Consortium (GRC), whose goal is to correct the small number of regions in the reference that are currently misrepresented, to close as many remaining gaps as possible and to produce alternative assemblies of structurally variant loci when necessary. (
  • Definition: Chromosome having its centromere in the middle. (
  • Definition: Chromosome whose centromere lies very near one end. (
  • An entire chromosome has attached to another at the centromere - in humans these only occur with chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22. (
  • Formed by the mirror image copy of a chromosome segment including the centromere. (
  • A chromosome with its centromere towards one end. (
  • Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere , which divides the chromosome into two sections, or "arms. (
  • The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes. (
  • [4] There is also a telomere region within the human chromosome two, as well as a non-functional second centromere. (
  • In the latest analysis, researchers searched the chromosome's DNA sequence for the relics of the center (centromere) of the ape chromosome that was inactivated upon fusion with the other ape chromosome. (
  • It was the last completed chromosome, sequenced two decades after the beginning of the Human Genome Project . (
  • Church and others who are working to synthesize human DNA have created their own effort within GP-Write-the Human Genome Project-Write, or HGP-Write-and its prospects for success have biologists abuzz over the potential for treating diseases and for creating bioengineered cells and possibly even organs. (
  • The UCSC Human Genome Browser is generated by the UCSC Genome Bioinformatics Group in collaboration with the International Human Genome Project . (
  • The Human Genome Project (HGP) produced a reference sequence of the euchromatic human genome, which is used worldwide in biomedical sciences . (
  • In addition, these findings provide exciting new insights into the structure and evolution of mammalian genomes," said Francis S. Collins, M.D., Ph.D., director of NHGRI, which led the U.S. component of the Human Genome Project along with the DOE. (
  • Researchers believe that extra copies of genes on chromosome 21 disrupt the course of normal development, causing the characteristic features of Down syndrome and the increased risk of medical problems associated with this disorder. (
  • People normally have two copies of this chromosome. (
  • In cells where whole copies of chromosome 22 were not identified, numerous fragments of this chromosome were retained and inserted into several marker and derivative chromosomes. (
  • Having an extra copy of this chromosome means that individuals have three copies of each of its genes instead of two, making it difficult for cells to properly control how much protein is made. (
  • Humans have two copies of chromosome 1, as they do with all of the autosomes , which are the non- sex chromosomes . (
  • The long arm is fused with the genome and after some cell division, the short arms of each chromosome are lost but this is not of clinical importance (as they contain genes for ribosomal RNA, which are usually present in multiple copies on the other acrocentric chromosomes). (
  • The duplication affects one of the two copies of chromosome 22 in each cell. (
  • The cell which receives 2 copies of the 21st chromosome is responsible for Down's syndrome. (
  • Most of the time trisomies (3 copies of chromosomes) are not compatible with life. (
  • In children with mosaic Down syndrome, not all cells have 3 copies of chromosome 21. (
  • The human Y-chromosome accumulates roughly two mutations per generation. (
  • Y-DNA haplogroups represent major branches of the Y-chromosome phylogenetic tree that share hundreds or even thousands of mutations unique to each haplogroup. (
  • The landscape of BCR-ABL mutations in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukaemias in the era of second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors. (
  • To make studying genes and their mutations easier, scientists have assigned a number to each chromosome in the human DNA chain. (
  • The three major single-chromosome mutations: deletion (1), duplication (2) and inversion (3). (
  • Alternatively, selection acting on new mutations, and affecting linked neutral sites, could reduce variability on the Y chromosome. (
  • While we show that purifying selection removing deleterious mutations can explain the low diversity on the Y chromosome, we cannot exclude the possibility that positive selection acting on beneficial mutations could have also reduced diversity in linked neutral regions, and may have contributed to lowering human Y chromosome diversity. (
  • Changes to chromosome 21 include a missing segment of the chromosome in each cell (partial monosomy 21) and a circular structure called ring chromosome 21. (
  • In some cases, the features associated with Chromosome 21 Ring may resemble those seen in individuals with other disorders of chromosome 21, such as Chromosome 21 Monosomy or Down Syndrome (also known as Chromosome 21 Trisomy). (
  • If the ring chromosome replaces a normal 21st chromosome, symptoms may resemble those associated with Chromosome 21 Monosomy, a disorder characterized by deletion of all or a portion of the 21st chromosome. (
  • An example of monosomy is Turner syndrome , where the individual is born with only one sex chromosome, an X. (
  • According to the ISI Web of Knowledge [ 4 ] (as of October 31 2003), among 3,001 articles and reviews (keywords 'human genome') written from 1999 to 2002, the first two chromosome completion papers were among the top ten most-cited. (
  • For more than two decades, researchers have thought human chromosome 2 was produced as the result of the fusion of two mid-sized ape chromosomes and a Seattle group located the fusion site in 2002. (
  • Duplication in Amyloid precursor protein (APP) locus (duplicated segment varies in length but includes APP) on Chromosome 21 was found to cause early onset familial Alzheimer's disease in a French family set (Rovelet-Lecrux et al. (
  • Rat chromosome 1 was one of the first chromosomes shown by cosegregation analysis to harbor a quantitative trait locus (QTL) regulating blood pressure (BP) and contributing to hypertension in several genetically hypertensive rat strains. (
  • The fetuin gene ( AHSG ) is located on human chromosome 3q27, recently identified as a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. (
  • The human AHSG gene resides on chromosome 3q27, which recently has been mapped as a type 2 diabetes susceptibility locus ( 21 ). (
  • 22 ) have demonstrated a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 3q27 strongly linked to the metabolic syndrome. (
  • The study of chromosome banding pattern of leukaemic cells in 15 patients with CML revealed t(9;22) in all cases. (
  • Chromosomes are found in the nucleus of all body cells. (
  • Genomic blots of human DNA isolated from cells trisomic for chromosome 21 (Down's syndrome patients) show the normal pattern of bands. (
  • Here, we have downregulated RAN-binding protein 1 (RANBP1), a RAN partner that has highest abundance in G2 and mitosis, in human cells. (
  • however, RANBP1-depleted cells frequently showed lagging chromosomes in anaphase, suggesting that merotelic attachments form and are not efficiently resolved. (
  • Inside of each of your cells are thread-like structures made up of parts called chromosomes. (
  • We previously demonstrated that cells selected for resistance to 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) are near-diploid, with over-representation of part or all of chromosomes 7 and 22. (
  • While cells from untreated gliomas often have over-representation of chromosome 7, chromosome 22 is typically under-represented. (
  • Karyotypic analyses demonstrated that cells selected for BCNU resistance were near-diploid with over-representation of chromosomes 7 and 22. (
  • However, when a sufficient number of karyotypes are done it is possible to identify cells with over-representation of chromosome 22 in untreated tumors. (
  • Down syndrome occurs when a person's cells contain a third copy of chromosome 21 (also known as trisomy 21). (
  • Trisomy 22 is diagnosed when the cells of apes such as chimpanzees, gorillas or orangutans contain a third copy of chromosome 22. (
  • [5] It represents about 8% of the total DNA in human cells. (
  • By replacing select nucleo-tides-the ACGTs of life, which are scattered throughout the chromosomes-and changing, say, a T to an A or a C to a G in a process called recoding, Church envisions being able to make cells resistant to viruses. (
  • Theoretically, scientists could one day manufacture genomes, human or otherwise, almost as easily as writing code on a computer, transforming digital DNA on someone's laptop into living cells of, say, Homo sapiens . (
  • The process by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half in sex cells? (
  • Landscape of transcription in human cells. (
  • Evidence for transcript networks composed of chimeric RNAs in human cells. (
  • People with ring chromosome 22 have one copy of this abnormal chromosome in some or all of their cells. (
  • The symptoms that a child has will depend on the percent of cells in the body which have the extra chromosome. (
  • In humans, genomic amplification is exclusively restricted to tumor cells and is a major mechanism for the activation of dominant-acting oncogenes during tumorigenesis. (
  • However, human cells make extensive use of alternative splicing to produce several different proteins from a single gene, and the human proteome is thought to be much larger than those of the aforementioned organisms. (
  • In his lymphocytes, one cell line had a copy of the ring 22 chromosome in addition to the normal 46,XY complement while in other cells the ring had been lost. (
  • After the chromosomes have segregated to the new daughter cells, the nucleus and its components must be rebuilt. (
  • Dr. Draper was also involved in the generation of endoderm progenitors from human ES cells by constitutive expression of Sox transcription factors. (
  • His research at McMaster will seek to expand our understanding of the mechanisms that guide the differentiation of human ES and iPS cells along discrete lineages into tissue that are relevant to clinical therapies and drug discovery. (
  • 1. Investigate the sufficiency of key transcription factors to alter fate in human ES and iPS cells. (
  • Dr Draper will capitalize on his previous investigation of transcription factor over expression in human ES cells to assay the sufficiency of a set of candidate gene that have met stringent lineage determining criteria using inducible and reversible gene expression technologies. (
  • Dr Draper is generating such reporters in human ES cells linked to lineage specific genes that will enable a more thorough understanding of the properties of a range of precursor cell types. (
  • Isolation of human iPS cells using EOS lentiviral vectors to select for pluripotency. (
  • Establishment of endoderm progenitors by SOX transcription factor expression in human embryonic stem cells. (
  • 2007) Transient and stable transgene expression in human embryonic stem cells. (
  • 2006). Cytotrophoblast stem cell lines derived from human embryonic stem cells and their capacity to mimic invasive implantation events. (
  • 2005). Cellular differentiation hierarchies in normal and culture-adapted human embryonic stem cells. (
  • 2004). Recurrent gain of chromosomes 17q and 12 in cultured human embryonic stem cells. (
  • Chromosomes are visible only during cell division, when the DNA is super coiled and condensed to facilitate distribution into daughter cells. (
  • Cell division in somatic cells (mitosis) results in the creation of daughter cells with the same number of chromosomes as the original cell, a total of 46 chromosomes in a human. (
  • Cell division in the germ cells, eggs and sperm (meiosis), results in the creation of daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as the original cell (haploid cells). (
  • Fortunately, in the case of human chromosome 21, the equivalent chromosome in chimpanzee, chromosome 22, is now available in high-quality finished form [ 7 ], and the same is being done for regions similar to human chromosome 22. (
  • Sakaki and his colleagues sequenced chimpanzee chromosome 22 using DNA from three healthy male chimpanzees with West African origins. (
  • DNA sequence and comparative analysis of chimpanzee chromosome 22. (
  • The first confirmed case of a chimpanzee with trisomy 22 was documented in 1969. (
  • 2017). Chimpanzee Down syndrome: A case study of trisomy 22 in a captive chimpanzee, Primates . (
  • When these differences are counted, there is an additional 4 to 5% distinction between the human and chimpanzee genomes. (
  • The other chromosomes are called autosomes . (
  • As a result of the proteins that are messed up because of the extra chromosome 21, the lens in their eyes can be opaque leading to cataracts, abnormally shaped eyeballs can cause myopia. (
  • In nondisjunction, for around 90% of children, the extra chromosome comes from the mother (the egg). (
  • Current sequencing projects also include the genomes of many fungal, protozoan and invertebrate pathogens of humans and other mammals, including trypanosomes and helminths. (
  • They are expected to publish findings from a comparison of the human and chimp genomes later this year. (
  • In order to fully read chromosome 14, scientists compared its DNA with the mouse and zebrafish genomes. (
  • Sequencing the genomes of human and other so-called `model' organisms paves the way for a holistic approach to understand biological phenomena, provided that a genome sequence is properly annotated for the genes it contains. (
  • build a human Y-chromosome phylogeny from 69 male genomes. (
  • Robertsonian occur in the five acrocentric chromosomes (e.g., chromosomes in which the short (p) arm is so short, it is very difficult to observe) 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22. (
  • Nicholas, C. and Sim, S. (2012) Etoposide-induced apoptosis results in chromosome breaks within the AF 9 gene: Its implication in chromosome rearrangement in leukaemia. (
  • 1 ] published 'The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22', in December 1999. (
  • The recent completion of the DNA sequence of human chromosome 21 has provided the first look at the 225 genes that are candidates for involvement in Down syndrome (trisomy 21). (
  • The deletion occurs near the middle of the chromosome at a location designated as q11.2. (
  • 22q13.3 deletion syndrome, which is also commonly known as Phelan-McDermid syndrome, is caused by a deletion near the end of the long (q) arm of chromosome 22. (
  • A ring chromosome 22 can also cause 22q13.3 deletion syndrome. (
  • If the break point on the long arm is at chromosome position 22q13.3, people with ring chromosome 22 will experience similar signs and symptoms as those with a simple deletion. (
  • The signs and symptoms of 22q13.3 deletion syndrome are probably related to the loss of multiple genes at the end of chromosome 22. (
  • First, the success rates for recombinant expression of human proteins in bacteria are normally relatively low ( 11 ). (
  • To store this important material, DNA molecules are tightly packed around proteins called histones to make structures called chromosomes . (
  • Determining the sequence has laid the foundations for determining the complete set of proteins that are produced in the human (the "proteome"), but we do not know the function of most of these proteins. (
  • Even when a protein sequence allows a reasonably confident prediction of the biochemical action of the protein, such as a probable tyrosine kinase or serine protease, the role of these proteins in human physiology and development has not yet been determined. (
  • The first is that the number of protein-coding genes in humans is much lower than expected - it had been predicted that humans would have at least 100 000 genes (encoding different proteins), but this is not so. (
  • Subcellular localization of human Chr21 proteins may contribute to further understanding of the functions and regulatory mechanisms of the genes that code for these proteins. (
  • Following this idea, we used a transfected-cell array technique to perform a rapid and cost-effective analysis of the intracellular distribution of Chr 21 proteins. (
  • The results from this study reveal novel functional features of human Chr21 proteins, which should contribute to further understanding of the molecular pathology of Down's syndrome. (
  • We optimized this platform for high-throughput protein co-localization studies and applied it to the characterization of human chromosome 21 (Chr21) encoded proteins. (
  • Chromosome 22 likely contains 500 to 600 genes that provide instructions for making proteins. (
  • Each chromosome is specifically anchored through its telomeres to a discrete place on the nuclear envelope by the proteins of the nuclear lamina. (
  • A chromosome is a packaged unit of DNA and associated proteins. (
  • The DNA is tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support the chromosome structure. (
  • One of the central goals of the effort to analyze the human genome is the identification of all genes, which are generally defined as stretches of DNA that code for particular proteins. (
  • The team also identified "hypervariable" regions in which genes contain variations that may lead to the production of altered proteins unique to humans. (
  • Chromosome anomalies usually occur when there is an error in cell division following meiosis or mitosis . (
  • There are many types of chromosome anomalies. (
  • Ring chromosomes are normally associated with developmental anomalies and are rarely inherited. (
  • DNA methylation occurs during critical normal processes like development, genomic imprinting, and X-chromosome inactivation ( 2-4 ). (
  • Finding the beginning of genes within genomic sequence presents a formidable challenge to projects to annotate the human genome sequence. (
  • Genomic amplification is observed in many, if not all, types of human malignancy and is one of the mechanisms for the activation of dominant-acting oncogenes in tumorigenesis. (
  • Genomic amplification is commonly observed in many types of human malignancies, including esophageal adenocarcinoma. (
  • A ring chromosome occurs when both ends of a broken chromosome are reunited. (
  • It is difficult to estimate the probability of a rare event using a small population, but given that around 500 chimpanzees have been born in captivity in Japan, the probability of this autosomal trisomy in chimpanzees may be comparable to that of trisomy 21 in humans, which occurs in up to 1 in 600 births," speculates Hirata. (
  • A ring chromosome is a circular structure that occurs when a chromosome breaks in two places, the tips of the chromosome are lost, and the broken ends fuse together. (
  • Down syndrome-trisomy 21-occurs when there are 3 rather than 2 number 21 chromosomes (hence, trisomy 21). (
  • The most common type of Down syndrome-complete trisomy 21-occurs as a result of a process called nondisjunction. (
  • Complete Trisomy 21 - Complete trisomy 21 occurs as described above, via a process called nondisjunction. (
  • In addition, trisomy 21 is compatible with life, while trisomy 22 is not [ 1 ]. (
  • Because Kanako's development was not systematically investigated over the years, it is difficult to speculate whether trisomy 22 has caused any specific retardation. (
  • It is still unclear how common trisomy 22 is among chimpanzees. (
  • A photograph of a person's chromosomes, arranged according to size, is called a karyotype. (
  • The chromosome constitution of an individual, karyotype, can be analyzed following tissue culture of an appropriate sample. (
  • Evidence of prehistoric demographic expansions has been detected in the mitochondrial diversity of most human populations and in a Y-chromosome STR analysis, but not in a previous study of 11 Y-chromosome SNPs in Europeans. (
  • In this paper, we show that mismatch distributions and tests of mutation/drift equilibrium based on up to 166 Y-chromosome SNPs, in 46 samples from all continents, also fail to support an increase of the male effective population size. (
  • Y-DNA haplogroup nomenclature is changing over time to accommodate the increasing number of SNPs being discovered and tested, and the resulting expansion of the Y-chromosome phylogenetic tree. (
  • Not really, you just mentioned, that at Human genome page they have them separate, what's logical, as they are not homologous and you only showed some page with bullshits on it. (
  • What about poor animal with three chromosomes (sorry, five, as X and Y are not homologous)¨, their chromosomes must me over-loaded as they must take care of so many organs. (
  • In an acrocentric chromosome, the narrow region where both halves of the chromosome join is near the very end of the chromosome. (
  • In another intriguing finding, the researchers identified a messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript from a gene on chromosome 2 that possibly may produce a protein unique to humans and chimps. (
  • The abnormal chromosome 22, containing a piece of chromosome 9 and the fusion gene, is commonly called the Philadelphia chromosome. (
  • This gene and three other interferon receptor genes, IFAR2, IFNAR1, and IFNGR2, form a class II cytokine receptor gene cluster located in a small region on chromosome 21. (
  • Chromosome abnormalities in CML. (
  • Similar additional chromosome abnormalities were observed in the terminal stage of the disease in 5 of 9 patients with aneuploid cell lines. (
  • As a result, some individuals with Chromosome 21 Ring may have few or no associated symptoms, whereas others may have severe physical abnormalities and mental retardation. (
  • Most chromosome abnormalities occur as an accident in the egg cell or sperm, and therefore the anomaly is present in every cell of the body. (
  • Cytogenetic abnormalities (eg, Klinefelter syndrome), Y chromosome deletions and monogenic disorders like cystic fibrosis account for only up to 30% of cases ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • The human gemomic HindIII fragments hybridized to each microclone were determined and microclones crosshybridized to rodent species were identified. (
  • Here we show that an affinity proteomics strategy using affinity-purified antibodies raised against recombinant human protein fragments can be used for chromosome-wide protein profiling. (
  • These fragments were cloned, sequenced, and mapped to chromosome band 14q13. (
  • Trisomy of human chromosome 21 (Chr21) results in Down's syndrome, a complex developmental and neurodegenerative disease. (
  • This refers, in particular, to trisomy of human Chr21, which results in Down's syndrome, a complex developmental and neurodegenerative disease. (
  • A broad functional classification of these genes, their expression data and evolutionary conservation, and comparison with the gene content of the major mouse models of Down syndrome, suggest how the chromosome sequence may help in understanding the complex Down syndrome phenotype. (
  • Natural slection obviously reduces the diversity of Y chromosome because the selection is based on the autosomal genome and Y-chromosome is passive and remains mostly unchanged. (
  • They do not yet know what effects these changes may have had on the biology of humans or chimpanzees. (
  • Instructors consistently ask for a Human Biology textbook that helps students understand the main themes of biology through the lens of the human body. (
  • Mader's Human Biology accomplishes the goal of improving scientific literacy, while establishing a foundation of knowledge inhuman biology and physiology. (
  • Human Biology helps students understand the main themes of biology through the lens of the human body. (
  • Mader, Human Biology, aims to improve scientific literacy, while establishing a foundation of knowledge in human biology and physiology. (
  • Human Biology features three different types of boxed readings. (
  • As the most frequently altered gene in human cancers, p53 is possibly the most important gene in cancer biology. (
  • The DNA evidence leaves us with one of the greatest surprises in biology: the wall between human, on the one hand, and ape or animal, on the other, has been breached. (
  • However, researchers suspect such regions are important to human biology because they have been conserved throughout the evolution of mammals and birds, and work is now underway to figure out their exact functions. (
  • Then, in 2012, researchers proposed that eukaryotic chromosomes fold into relatively predictable structures called "topologically associating domains" (TADs), and that these structures prevent enhancers from activating genes all over the genome by effectively restricting their actions to within a few hundred thousand bases. (
  • Alonso, S, Armour, JA 2001 A highly variable segment of human subterminal 16p reveals a history of population growth for modern humans outside Africa. (
  • The completion of the draft sequence of the human genome in 2001 was one of the great milestones of science. (
  • Daly MJ, Rioux JD, Schaffner SF, Hudson TJ and Lander ES (2001) High resolution haplotype structure in the human genome. (
  • 2001) A high resolution radiation hybrid map of the human genome draft sequence. (
  • 2001) Blocks of limited haplotype diversity revealed by high‐resolution scanning of human chromosome 21. (
  • Because researchers use different approaches to genome annotation their predictions of the number of genes on each chromosome varies (for technical details, see gene prediction). (
  • Because researchers use different approaches to predict the number of genes on each chromosome, the estimated number of genes varies. (
  • Chromosome 21 was the second human chromosome to be fully sequenced, after chromosome 22. (
  • Telomeres are specialized nucleoprotein structures that protect chromosome ends from persistent DNA damage response activation. (
  • Mammalian telomeres are specialized structures that protect eukaryotic chromosome ends from DNA repair reactions, owing to a lariat conformation and the presence of a six-subunit protein complex, called shelterin ( 1 ). (
  • These are dynamic structures which specifically interact with each other within and between chromosome territories depending on the cell's physiological state (e.g., differentiation, cell cycle, cellular age etc. (
  • We used chromosome engineering to create mice that were trisomic or monosomic for only the mouse chromosome segment orthologous to the DSCR and assessed dysmorphologies of the craniofacial skeleton that show direct parallels with DS in mice with a larger segmental trisomy. (
  • Construction of a 3-Mb contig and partial transcript map of the central region of mouse chromosome 11. (
  • [1] It can be from an atypical number of chromosomes or a structural abnormality in one or more chromosomes. (
  • mutation analysis at MSY1 provides a tool which should allow us to estimate ages for the most recent common ancestors of groups of chromosomes, as an alternative to microsatellites (7). (
  • The researchers found nearly 68,000 stretches of DNA that were different between the two species, including DNA that had been added to or deleted from one of the chromosomes over the course of evolution. (
  • The researchers found 1,050 genes on the chromosome. (
  • He told BBC News Online that researchers were delighted to have reached the gold standard on chromosome 14. (
  • Researchers believe that several critical genes near the end of the q arm of chromosome 22 are lost when the ring chromosome 22 forms. (
  • Researchers have long known that the eukaryotic nucleus must be ordered, thanks to "chromosome painting" studies suggesting each chromosome exists in its own domain. (
  • A detailed analysis of chromosomes 2 and 4 has detected the largest "gene deserts" known in the human genome and uncovered more evidence that human chromosome 2 arose from the fusion of two ancestral ape chromosomes, researchers supported by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), reported today. (
  • As part of their examination of chromosome 4, the researchers found what are believed to be the largest "gene deserts" yet discovered in the human genome sequence. (
  • They reveal the temporal continuity of Y chromosome lineages in populations of the West Liao River valley over 5000 years, with a concurrent increase in lineage diversity caused by an influx of immigrants from other populations. (
  • Migration may result in the expansion of a successful set of Y chromosome lineages, while admixture between divergent populations may inflate estimates of diversity in a population. (
  • By examining the differences between modern Y chromosomes (as DNA polymorphisms) we can attempt to reconstruct a history of human paternal lineages (1). (
  • Additional FISH analysis using bacterial artificial chromosome probes spanning the length of chromosome 22 have allowed us to map the over-represented region to 22q12.3-13.32. (
  • A continuous array of overlapping clones covering the entire human chromosome 21q was constructed from human yeast artificial chromosome libraries using sequence-tagged sites as landmarks specifically detected by polymerase chain reaction. (
  • Three region-specific libraries for the entire human chromosome 18 were constructed using microdissection and MboI linker-adaptor microcloning techniques. (