In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.
The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, elements such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, that are required for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance in progeny cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
A characteristic symptom complex.
The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.
Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Congenital conditions of atypical sexual development associated with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions including MONOSOMY; TRISOMY; and MOSAICISM.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.

Short DNA fragments without sequence similarity are initiation sites for replication in the chromosome of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. (1/2033)

We have previously shown that both a centromere (CEN) and a replication origin are necessary for plasmid maintenance in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica (). Because of this requirement, only a small number of centromere-proximal replication origins have been isolated from Yarrowia. We used a CEN-based plasmid to obtain noncentromeric origins, and several new fragments, some unique and some repetitive sequences, were isolated. Some of them were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and correspond to actual sites of initiation (ORI) on the chromosome. We observed that a 125-bp fragment is sufficient for a functional ORI on plasmid, and that chromosomal origins moved to ectopic sites on the chromosome continue to act as initiation sites. These Yarrowia origins share an 8-bp motif, which is not essential for origin function on plasmids. The Yarrowia origins do not display any obvious common structural features, like bent DNA or DNA unwinding elements, generally present at or near eukaryotic replication origins. Y. lipolytica origins thus share features of those in the unicellular Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in multicellular eukaryotes: they are discrete and short genetic elements without sequence similarity.  (+info)

Defects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein phosphatase type I activate the spindle/kinetochore checkpoint. (2/2033)

A conditional allele of type 1 protein phosphatase (glc7-129) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae causes first cycle arrest in G2/M, characterized by cells with a short spindle and high H1 kinase activity. Point-of-execution experiments indicate Glc7p function is required in G2/M just before anaphase for the completion of mitosis. Loss of the spindle/kinetochore checkpoint in glc7-129 cells abolishes the G2/M cell cycle arrest with a concomitant increase in chromosome loss and reduced viability. These results support a role for Glc7p in regulating kinetochore attachment to the spindle, an event monitored by the spindle/kinetochore checkpoint.  (+info)

Regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinetochores by the type 1 phosphatase Glc7p. (3/2033)

We have investigated the role of protein phosphorylation in regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinetochores. By use of phosphatase inhibitors and a type 1 protein phosphatase mutant (glc7-10), we show that the microtubule binding activity, but not the centromeric DNA-binding activity, of the kinetochore complex is regulated by a balance between a protein kinase and the type 1 protein phosphatase (PP1) encoded by the GLC7 gene. glc7-10 mutant cells exhibit low kinetochore-microtubule binding activity in vitro and a high frequency of chromosome loss in vivo. Specifically, the Ndc10p component of the centromere DNA-binding CBF3 complex is altered by the glc7-10 mutation; Ndc10p is hyperphosphorylated in glc7-10 extracts. Furthermore, addition of recombinant Ndc10p reconstitutes the microtubule-binding activity of a glc7-10 extract to wild-type levels. Finally, the glc7-10-induced mitotic arrest is abolished in spindle checkpoint mutants, suggesting that defects in kinetochore-microtubule interactions caused by hyperphosphorylation of kinetochore proteins activate the spindle checkpoint.  (+info)

An in vitro system recapitulates chromatin remodeling at the PHO5 promoter. (4/2033)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene PHO5 is an excellent system with which to study regulated changes in chromatin structure. The PHO5 promoter is packaged into four positioned nucleosomes under repressing conditions; upon induction, the structure of these nucleosomes is altered such that the promoter DNA becomes accessible to nucleases. We report here the development and characterization of an in vitro system in which partially purified PHO5 minichromosomes undergo promoter chromatin remodeling. Several hallmarks of the PHO5 chromatin transition in vivo were reproduced in this system. Chromatin remodeling of PHO5 minichromosomes required the transcription factors Pho4 and Pho2, was localized to the promoter region of PHO5, and was independent of the chromatin-remodeling complex Swi-Snf. In vitro chromatin remodeling also required the addition of fractionated nuclear extract and hydrolyzable ATP. This in vitro system should serve as a useful tool for identifying the components required for this reaction and for elucidating the mechanism by which the PHO5 promoter chromatin structure is changed.  (+info)

Chromatin remodeling and activation of chromosomal DNA replication by an acidic transcriptional activation domain from BRCA1. (5/2033)

An increasing number of transcription factors have been shown to activate DNA replication. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here it is shown that when tethered to a cellular replication origin, the acidic transcriptional activation domain of the breast cancer protein BRCA1 alters the local chromatin structure and stimulates chromosomal DNA replication. Cancer-predisposing mutations in BRCA1 that abolish transcriptional activation also prevent chromatin remodeling and activation of replication. Chromatin remodeling occurs even in the absence of a functional replication origin. Thus, increasing chromatin accessibility may be an important mechanism used by transcription factors to facilitate multiple nuclear processes.  (+info)

Probing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae centromeric DNA (CEN DNA)-binding factor 3 (CBF3) kinetochore complex by using atomic force microscopy. (6/2033)

Yeast centromeric DNA (CEN DNA) binding factor 3 (CBF3) is a multisubunit protein complex that binds to the essential CDEIII element in CEN DNA. The four CBF3 proteins are required for accurate chromosome segregation and are considered to be core components of the yeast kinetochore. We have examined the structure of the CBF3-CEN DNA complex by atomic force microscopy. Assembly of CBF3-CEN DNA complexes was performed by combining purified CBF3 proteins with a DNA fragment that includes the CEN region from yeast chromosome III. Atomic force microscopy images showed DNA molecules with attached globular bodies. The contour length of the DNA containing the complex is approximately 9% shorter than the DNA alone, suggesting some winding of DNA within the complex. The measured location of the single binding site indicates that the complex is located asymmetrically to the right of CDEIII extending away from CDEI and CDEII, which is consistent with previous data. The CEN DNA is bent approximately 55 degrees at the site of complex formation. A significant fraction of the complexes are linked in pairs, showing three to four DNA arms, with molecular volumes approximately three times the mean volumes of two-armed complexes. These multi-armed complexes indicate that CBF3 can bind two DNA molecules together in vitro and, thus, may be involved in holding together chromatid pairs during mitosis.  (+info)

Dna2 mutants reveal interactions with Dna polymerase alpha and Ctf4, a Pol alpha accessory factor, and show that full Dna2 helicase activity is not essential for growth. (7/2033)

Mutations in the gene for the conserved, essential nuclease-helicase Dna2 from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were found to interact genetically with POL1 and CTF4, which encode a DNA Polymerase alpha subunit and an associated protein, suggesting that Dna2 acts in a process that involves Pol alpha. DNA2 alleles were isolated that cause either temperature sensitivity, sensitivity to alkylation damage, or both. The alkylation-sensitive alleles clustered in the helicase domain, including changes in residues required for helicase activity in related proteins. Additional mutations known or expected to destroy the ATPase and helicase activities of Dna2 were constructed and found to support growth on some media but to cause alkylation sensitivity. Only damage-sensitive alleles were lethal in combination with a ctf4 deletion. Full activity of the Dna2 helicase function is therefore not needed for viability, but is required for repairing damage and for tolerating loss of Ctf4. Arrest of dna2 mutants was RAD9 dependent, but deleting this checkpoint resulted in either no effect or suppression of defects, including the synthetic lethality with ctf4. Dna2 therefore appears to act in repair or lagging strand synthesis together with Pol alpha and Ctf4, in a role that is optimal with, but does not require, full helicase activity.  (+info)

Base excision repair of N-methylpurines in a yeast minichromosome. Effects of transcription, dna sequence, and nucleosome positioning. (8/2033)

Base excision repair of dimethyl sulfate induced N-methylpurines (NMPs) was measured in a yeast minichromosome that has a galactose-inducible GAL1:URA3 fusion gene, a constitutively expressed HIS3 gene, and varied regions of chromatin structure. Removal rates of NMPs varied dramatically (>20-fold) at different sites along three selected fragments encompassing a total length of 1775 base pairs. Repair of NMPs was not coupled to transcription, because the transcribed strands of HIS3 and induced GAL1:URA3 were not repaired faster than the nontranscribed strands. However, the repair rate of NMPs was significantly affected by the nearest neighbor nucleotides. Slow repair occurred at NMPs between purines, especially guanines, whereas fast repair occurred at NMPs between pyrimidines. NMPs between a purine and pyrimidine were repaired at moderate rates. Moreover, a rough correlation between nucleosome positions and repair rates exists in some but not all regions that were analyzed.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Construction and characterization of a yeast artificial chromosome library containing 1.5 equivalents of human chromosome 21. AU - Potier, M. C.. AU - Kuo, W. L.. AU - Dutriaux, A.. AU - Gray, J.. AU - Goedert, M.. PY - 1992/10. Y1 - 1992/10. N2 - A library of yeast artificaial chromosomes (YACs) was constructed from a human/hamster somatic cell hybrid containing human chromosome 21 (q11-qter). Cells were embedded in agarose, and the DNA was partially digested with EcoRI, released into solution by agarase treatment of the agarose plugs, ligated into pYAC4, and transferred into yeast. Doule screening of the yeast transformants with human and hamster genomic DNA allowed the selection of clones hybridizing only with human DNA. The library consists of 321 clones, amounting to 1.5 equivalents (61 Mb) of chromosome 21. The mean YAC size calculated from 178 clones is 190 ± 100 kb. Screening of the library with eight sequence-tagged sites gave six positives. Among 21 YACs tested by in ...
Using the labor of dozens of undergraduate students, scientists have built a customized yeast chromosome from scratch. It's a milestone in the rapidly
In a previous attempt to identify as many as possible of the essential genes on Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome I, temperature-sensitive (Ts-) lethal mutations that had been induced by ethyl methane-sulfonate or nitrosoguanidine were analyzed. Thirty-two independently isolated mutations that mapped to chromosome I identified only three complementation groups, all of which had been known previously. In contrast, molecular analyses of segments of the chromosome have suggested the presence of numerous additional essential genes. In order to assess the degree to which problems of mutagen specificity had limited the set of genes detected using Ts- lethal mutations, we isolated a new set of such mutations after mutagenesis with UV or nitrogen mustard. Surprisingly, of 21 independently isolated mutations that mapped to chromosome I, 17 were again in the same three complementation groups as identified previously, and two of the remaining four mutations were apparently in a known gene involved in ...
Sequence analysis of a 33.1 kb fragment from the left arm of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome X, including putative proteins with leucine zippers, a fungal Zn(11)2-Cys6 binuclear cluster domin and a putative alpha2-SCB-alpha2 binding site ...
chapter 1) Comparative organization around the MAT locus in the Ascomycota. The main horizontal line shows the organization of the MAT locus in homothallic species, or the idiomorph (where known) in heterothallic species. The organization of the a idiomorph is represented by the offset box below the idiomorph. The nomenclature suggested in reference 67 is used for the Pezizomycotina (e.g., 1-1-1 represents MAT1-1-1). Orthologous genes are connected by gray lines. Conserved groups of genes are indicated by color: red, idiomorph; green, a idiomorph; yellow, APN2; purple, SLA2 and homologs of S. cerevisiae XIV; orange, homologs of S. cerevisiae chromosome X; blue, homologs of S. cerevisiae chromosome III (YCR033W-YCR038W); white, homologs of S. cerevisiae chromosome III (YCR042C-YCR045C); gray, homologs of S. cerevisiae chromosome XI (YLR186W-YLR182W); gray gradient, CAN1 (YEL063C). The position of an Ho endonuclease site in MATa1 is marked where present. The figure was redrawn from Butler et al. ...
Sequence and Analysis of Chromosome 2 of Arabidopsis thaliana, Nature 402: 761-768, 1999. [0451] Liu, Y G., Shirano, Y., Fukaki, H., Yanai, Y., Tasaka, M., Tabata, S., Shibata, D, Proc. Natl Acad Sci USA 96: 6535-40, 1999. [0452] Lohe and Hilliker, Curr. Op. Gen. & Dev., 5:746, 1995. [0453] Loomis et al., J. Expt. Zoology, 252:9-15, 1989. [0454] Lorz et al., Mol. Gen. Genet., 199:178, 1985. [0455] Louis, E J, Corrected sequence for the right telomere of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome III, Yeast, 10(2):271-4, 1994. [0456] Lu et al., High efficiency retroviral mediated gene transduction into single isolated immature and replatable CD34(3+) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells from human umbilical cord blood, J. Exp. Med. 178(6):2089-2096, 1993. [0457] Maeser and Kahmann, The GIN recombinase of phage Mu can catalyse site-specific recombination in plant protoplasts, Mol. Gen. Genet., 230:170-176, 1991. [0458] Mahtani, M. M. and Willard, H. F. Genome Res. 8:100, 1998: [0459] Maloy, S. R., ...
SC9302X Z48179 37552bp DNA PLN 07-FEB-1995 S.cerevisiae chromosome IV cosmid 9302. ABC transporter; ARO1; beta-transducin; fimbrim; HPR1; multidrug resistance; pentafunctional arom polypeptide; reduced growth phenotype; RGP1; SCA6; ubiquitin. SCCHRIII X59720 S43845 S49180 S58084 S93798 315341bp DNA PLN 14-FEB-1995 S.cerevisiae chromosome III complete DNA sequence. chromosome. SCU20323 U20323 1041bp DNA PLN 15-FEB-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae ankyrin-like protein gene, complete cds. . SCVPS9 U20373 1721bp DNA PLN 16-FEB-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Vps9p (VPS9) gene, complete cds. . YSCL9753 U21094 24761bp ds-DNA PLN 16-FEB-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome XII cosmid 9753 ...
The complete nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VII has 572 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), of which 341 are new. No correlation was found between G+C content and gene density along the chromosome, and their variations are random. Of the ORFs, 17% show high similarity to human proteins. Almost half of the ORFs could be classified in functional categories, and there is a slight increase in the number of transcription (7.0%) and translation (5.2%) factors when compared with the complete S. cerevisiae genome. Accurate verification procedures demonstrate that there are less than two errors per 10,000 base pairs in the published sequence ...
The Generic Genome Browser. For questions about the data at this site, please contact its webmaster. For support of the browser software only, send email to [email protected] or visit the GMOD Project web pages. ...
The Generic Genome Browser. For questions about the data at this site, please contact its webmaster. For support of the browser software only, send email to [email protected] or visit the GMOD Project web pages. ...
The Generic Genome Browser. For questions about the data at this site, please contact its webmaster. For support of the browser software only, send email to [email protected] or visit the GMOD Project web pages. ...
The Generic Genome Browser. For questions about the data at this site, please contact its webmaster. For support of the browser software only, send email to [email protected] or visit the GMOD Project web pages. ...
The coordinates of the tag sequences along the genome were determined and each tag was classified into one of these four categories: 1) class 1 - within an existing ORF, 2) class 2 - within 500 bp downstream of existing an ORF, 3) class 4 - opposite of an existing ORF, or 4) class 3 - none of the above. The regions between two existing ORFs which contained one or more unique class 3 tags (number 4) above) were examined for potential coding sequences in which the unique tag was located either within the coding sequence or 500bp downstream of this sequence. BLASTP analysis was then performed for each potential ORF meeting these criteria against the non-redundant (nr) NCBI dataset, and those with a P value exponent of -6 or less were analyzed further. The BLAST results were analyzed on an individual basis for each potential ORF meeting the above criteria. Those potential ORFs which exhibited reasonable homology to other proteins, and did not appear to be matched with other proteins based on ...
The coordinates of the tag sequences along the genome were determined and each tag was classified into one of these four categories: 1) class 1 - within an existing ORF, 2) class 2 - within 500 bp downstream of existing an ORF, 3) class 4 - opposite of an existing ORF, or 4) class 3 - none of the above. The regions between two existing ORFs which contained one or more unique class 3 tags (number 4) above) were examined for potential coding sequences in which the unique tag was located either within the coding sequence or 500bp downstream of this sequence. BLASTP analysis was then performed for each potential ORF meeting these criteria against the non-redundant (nr) NCBI dataset, and those with a P value exponent of -6 or less were analyzed further. The BLAST results were analyzed on an individual basis for each potential ORF meeting the above criteria. Those potential ORFs which exhibited reasonable homology to other proteins, and did not appear to be matched with other proteins based on ...
SCDNAALG2 X87947 3123bp DNA PLN 16-JUN-1995 S.cerevisiae ALG2 gene. ALG2 gene; glycosyltransferase; ALG2. SCJ1PROM Z49780 573bp DNA PLN 13-JUN-1995 S.cerevisiae promoter DNA (573 bp). SCVRP1GEN X87806 3423bp DNA PLN 13-JUN-1995 S.cerevisiae VRP1 gene. verprolin; vrp1 gene; vrp1. YSCF4121 D44598 18837bp DNA PLN 24-JUN-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VI phage 4121. DNA-directed RNA polymerase mitochondrial; GTP-binding protein YPT1; actin; tubulin beta chain; ACT1; ACTIN; YPT1; GTP-BINDING PROTEIN YPT1(YP2); TUB2; TUBULIN BETA CHAIN; RPO41; DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE MITOCHONDRIAL. YSCF9965 D44597 36230bp DNA PLN 28-JUN-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VI cosmid 9965. hexokinase A; mitochondrial ribosomal protein; nuclearintegrity protein 1; proteosome component PRE4; YMR31; PRE4; NIN1; nuclearintegrity protein 1; HXK1; HEXOKINASE A. YSCF9993 D44603 35881bp DNA PLN 24-JUN-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VI cosmid 9993. To obtain any of the yeast GenBank sequences you can ...
A continuous array of overlapping clones covering the entire human chromosome 21q was constructed from human yeast artificial chromosome libraries using sequence-tagged sites as landmarks specifically detected by polymerase chain reaction. The yeast artificial chromosome contiguous unit starts with pericentromeric and ends with subtelomeric loci of 21q. The resulting order of sequence-tagged sites is consistent with other physical and genetic mapping data. This set of overlapping clones will promote our knowledge of the structure of this chromosome and the function of its genes.
Tettelin, H., Agostoni Carbone, M. L., Albermann, K., Albers, M., Arroyo, J., Backes, U., Barreiros, T., Bertani, I., Bjourson, A. J., Bruckner, M., Bruschi, C. V., Carignani, G., Castagnoli, L., Cerdan, E., Clemente, M. L., Coblenz, A., Coglievina, M., Coissac, E., Defoor, E., Del Bino, S., Delius, H., Delneri, D., de Wergifosse, P., Dujon, B., Kleine, K., et, a. l. .. (1997). The nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VII. Nature 387:81-84.9169869 ...
Wild type S. cerevisiae contains 16 chromosomes, each with a distinct set of genes, a centromere and a telomere at each end. How this species came to have 16 chromosomes is a question not fully understood. For example, we know some of our closest ancestors in primates have 24 pairs of chromosomes, yet we only have 23 pairs. This is due to an ancestral fusion in what we now know as Chromosome 23. The number of chromosomes that a species has is unlikely to be chance, and more likely to be a product of an evolutionary advantage, but what happens if a species had less chromosomes?. Two groups simultaneously investigated what would happen to S. cerevisiae if they reduced the number of chromosomes, without removing any essential genes. The two groups; from Institute for Systems Genetics, NYU Langone Health, USA, and Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China both published their results in Nature on August 1st 2018. Both groups simultaneously worked on ...
View Notes - Reproduction and Chromosome Transmission from BIO 325 at University of Texas. To prepare human chromosomes for viewing (Figure 3.2a): Somatic cells are obtained from the blood. The cells
The localization of yeast centromeres and the 2-μm circle. Centromeres cluster close to the spindle pole body in late G1, but do not localize to the extreme nu
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Dr Ireena Dutta.. Hutchison/MRC Research Centre Seminar. Abstract not available. This talk is part of the Cambridge Oncology Seminar Series series.. ...
Wasp 1 - print ribbon carrier - for WPL305, WPL305EZ 633808403584 for $23.99 at Office Supplies & Equipment - Equipment & Equipment Supplies - Ribbons - Cash Register / POS from
There are many reasons why you experience tinging in your left arm. Read common causes, treatments, exercises for tingling in the left arm.
Supplementary MaterialsFigure S1: Extra Spt2p enhances GCR formation and causes growth arrest. RNase H manifestation, which reduces degrees of ssDNA, reduced GCRs in cells expressing higher level of Spt2p. Finally, high transcription in the chromosome V, the positioning of which ...
plays roles in the regulation of the HR activity and in chromosome stability, and is likely responsible for controlling the HR activity by directly interacting with RAD51 ...
Hello, I was wondering if anyone can recommend good study material for the CEN exam. I understand that the exam has a high first-time fail rate. I want to pass the first time! Thanks, David
In budding yeast replication origins, the 11-bp ARS consensus sequence is essential for interaction with the ORC. However, replication origins in other eukaryotic species, including fission yeast, do not appear to contain a short essential sequence (15,23) and it has not been known whether the ORC is located at chromosomal replication origins. The present study demonstrated that a fission yeast ORC subunit and an Mcm protein are specifically localized at chromosomal replication origins. Orp1p is located at thears2004 and ars3002 loci throughout the cell cycle, while SpMcm6p is associated with these origins only in the G1 and S phases. To our knowledge, this is the first indication of preferential localization of the ORC and Mcm proteins at the chromosomal replication origins in eukaryotic species except for budding yeast.. The CHIP assay finding that Orp1p was localized at ars2004and ars3002 but not at non-ARS regions (Fig. 6) suggests that a certain sequence or DNA structure in the replication ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Probing the architecture of a simple kinetochore using DNA-protein crosslinking. AU - Espelin, Christopher W.. AU - Kaplan, Kenneth B.. AU - Sorger, Peter K.. PY - 1997/12/15. Y1 - 1997/12/15. N2 - In budding yeast, accurate chromosome segregation requires that one and only one kinetochore assemble per chromosome. In this paper, we report the use of DNA-protein crosslinking and nondenaturing gel analysis to study the structure of CBF3, a four-protein complex that binds to the essential CDEIII region of Saccharomyces cerevisiae centromeres. We find that three subunits of CBF3 are in direct contact with CDEIII over a region of DNA that spans 80 bp. A highly asymmetric core complex containing p58(CTF13) p64(CEP3) and p110(NDC10) in direct contact with DNA forms at the genetically defined center of CDEIII. This core complex spans ~56 bp of CEN3. An extended complex comprising the core complex and additional DNA-bound p110(NDC10) also forms. It spans ~80 bp of DNA. CBF3 makes ...
Dietrich, F. S., Mulligan, J., Hennessy, K., Yelton, M. A., Allen, E., Araujo, R., Aviles, E., Berno, A., Brennan, T., Carpenter, J., Chen, E., Cherry, J. M., Chung, E., Duncan, M., Guzman, E., Hartzell, G., Hunicke-Smith, S., Hyman, R. W., Kayser, A., Komp, C., Lashkari, D., Lew, H., Lin, D., Mosedale, D., Davis, R. W., et, a. l. .. (1997). The nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome V. Nature 387:78-81.9169868 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional profiling of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. AU - Giaever, Guri. AU - Chu, Angela M.. AU - Ni, Li. AU - Connelly, Carla. AU - Riles, Linda. AU - Véronneau, Steeve. AU - Dow, Sally. AU - Lucau-Danila, Ankuta. AU - Anderson, Keith. AU - André, Bruno. AU - Arkin, Adam P.. AU - Astromoff, Anna. AU - El Bakkoury, Mohamed. AU - Bangham, Rhonda. AU - Benito, Rocio. AU - Brachat, Sophie. AU - Campanaro, Stefano. AU - Curtiss, Matt. AU - Davis, Karen. AU - Deutschbauer, Adam. AU - Entian, Karl Dieter. AU - Flaherty, Patrick. AU - Foury, Francoise. AU - Garfinkel, David J.. AU - Gerstein, Mark. AU - Gotte, Deanna. AU - Güldener, Ulrich. AU - Hegemann, Johannes H.. AU - Hempel, Svenja. AU - Herman, Zelek. AU - Jaramillo, Daniel F.. AU - Kelly, Diane E.. AU - Kelly, Steven L.. AU - Kötter, Peter. AU - LaBonte, Darlene. AU - Lamb, David C.. AU - Lan, Ning. AU - Liang, Hong. AU - Liao, Hong. AU - Liu, Lucy. AU - Luo, Chuanyun. AU - Lussier, Marc. AU - Mao, Rong. AU - ...
Safeguards for maintaining the integrity of chromosomes during cell growth and division can fail, and a cell may find itself trying to divide into two daughter cells with a loose chromosomal fragment drifting away from a broken chromosome. Researchers at UC Santa Cruz are studying a remarkable mechanism that carries broken chromosomes through the process of cell division so that they can be repaired and function normally in the daughter cells.
The habitat diversity of the fungus Nectria haematococca MPVI has been shown to be due in part to conditionally dispensable (CD) chromosomes that carry habitat-defining genes. From a biological perspective, the CD chromosomes are analogous to plasmids that possess genes that determine the habitats of plant-associated bacteria. This study establishes that the N. haematococca CD chromosome that contains the genes for Pea Pathogenicity (PEP cluster) also carries genes for the utilization of homoserine, an amino acid found in pea root exudates. Competition studies presented here demonstrate that an isolate that lacks the PEP cluster, but carries a portion of the CD chromosome containing the homoserine utilization (HUT) genes, is more competitive in the pea rhizosphere than an isolate without the CD chromosome. Further competition studies show that both the PDA1 and PDA6 CD chromosomes confer a competitive advantage in the rhizosphere of soybean, whereas only the PDA6 CD chromosome confers a ...
The habitat diversity of the fungus Nectria haematococca MPVI has been shown to be due in part to conditionally dispensable (CD) chromosomes that carry habitat-defining genes. From a biological perspective, the CD chromosomes are analogous to plasmids that possess genes that determine the habitats of plant-associated bacteria. This study establishes that the N. haematococca CD chromosome that contains the genes for Pea Pathogenicity (PEP cluster) also carries genes for the utilization of homoserine, an amino acid found in pea root exudates. Competition studies presented here demonstrate that an isolate that lacks the PEP cluster, but carries a portion of the CD chromosome containing the homoserine utilization (HUT) genes, is more competitive in the pea rhizosphere than an isolate without the CD chromosome. Further competition studies show that both the PDA1 and PDA6 CD chromosomes confer a competitive advantage in the rhizosphere of soybean, whereas only the PDA6 CD chromosome confers a ...
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GF ID Scm3 #=GF AC PF10384.8 #=GF DE Centromere protein Scm3 #=GF AU Mistry J, Wood V #=GF SE Pfam-B_19394 (release 21.0) #=GF GA 24.30 24.30; #=GF TC 24.60 24.40; #=GF NC 24.20 24.00; #=GF BM hmmbuild HMM.ann SEED.ann #=GF SM hmmsearch -Z 26740544 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq #=GF TP Family #=GF RN [1] #=GF RM 17548816 #=GF RT Scm3, an essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae centromere protein #=GF RT required for G2/M progression and Cse4 localization. #=GF RA Stoler S, Rogers K, Weitze S, Morey L, Fitzgerald-Hayes M, Baker #=GF RA RE; #=GF RL Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:10571-10576. #=GF RN [2] #=GF RM 17704645 #=GF RT Domain Architectures of the Scm3p Protein Provide Insights into #=GF RT Centromere Function and Evolution. #=GF RA Aravind L, Iyer LM, Wu C; #=GF RL Cell Cycle. 2007; [Epub ahead of print] #=GF RN [3] #=GF RM 19563746 #=GF RT Common ancestry of the CENP-A chaperones Scm3 and HJURP. #=GF RA Sanchez-Pulido L, Pidoux AL, Ponting CP, Allshire RC; #=GF RL Cell. 2009;137:1173-1174. ...
Fish strains: The AB strain (Chakrabartiet al. 1983) was used in the screens that identified cycb213 and cycb229. Other strains used to produce hybrids for mapping include DAR, Tü, and TL (Postlethwaitet al. 1994; Haffteret al. 1996).. Nomenclature: We followed previous linkage group designations (Postlethwaitet al. 1994; Johnsonet al. 1996). Each linkage group corresponds to a different chromosome because each has been assigned a centromere (Johnsonet al. 1996).. Following guidelines for Drosophila rearrangements, the b213 reciprocal translocation is described as T(LG2;LG12)b213, and the two elements of the translocation are termed T(LG2; LG12)b213, 2P12D (for the rearranged chromosome with the centromere-proximal segment of LG 2 and distal segment of LG 12) and T(LG2;LG12)b213, 12P2D. Segregation of these rearranged chromosomes and their normal order counterparts results in euploid and aneuploid meiotic products (see Figure 7). For convenience of discussion, we refer to the haploid genotype ...
Transcriptional induction of cell-cycle regulatory proteins ensures proper timing of subsequent cell-cycle events. Here we show that the Forkhead transcription factor FoxM1 regulates expression of many G2-specific genes and is essential for chromosome stability. Loss of FoxM1 leads to pleiotropic ce …
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The heat activation of Neurospora tetrasperma ascospores is a reversible process, since activated spores may be returned to secondary dormancy by preventing respiration, and these secondarily dormant spores may be induced to germinate by reheating. Activation of the spores brings about a large increase in respiration prior to the germination of the spores. As the spores are reversibly activated or deactivated the rate of respiration is increased or is decreased. By poisoning the cells with iodoacetamide it is possible to prevent all germination without greatly inhibiting this increase in respiration. Precisely with the beginning of germination a secondary rise in respiration occurs. The respiration of the spores is cyanide sensitive. The heat activation has a critical temperature at about 49 to 52°C.; and at a constant temperature within this range, the percentage of the spores activated as plotted against the time, follows an S-shaped population curve.. ...
Background: Soil-borne fungi of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex cause devastating wilt disease on many crops including legumes that supply human dietary protein needs across many parts of the globe. We present and compare draft genome assemblies for three legume-infecting formae speciales (ff. spp.): F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc-38-1) and f. sp. pisi (Fop-37622), significant pathogens of chickpea and pea respectively, the worlds second and third most important grain legumes, and lastly f. sp. medicaginis (Fom-5190a) for which we developed a model legume pathosystem utilising Medicago truncatula. Results: Focusing on the identification of pathogenicity gene content, we leveraged the reference genomes of Fusarium pathogens F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (tomato-infecting) and F. solani (pea-infecting) and their well-characterised core and dispensable chromosomes to predict genomic organisation in the newly sequenced legume-infecting isolates. Dispensable chromosomes are not essential ...
Dicentric chromosomes have been identified as instigators of the genome instability associated with cancer, but this instability is often resolved by one of a number of different secondary events. These include centromere inactivation, inversion, and intercentromeric deletion. Deletion or excision of one of the centromeres may be a significant occurrence in myeloid malignancy and other malignancies but has not previously been widely recognized, and our reports are the first describing centromere deletion in cancer cells. We review what is known about dicentric chromosomes and the mechanisms by which they can undergo stabilization in both constitutional and cancer genomes. The failure to identify centromere deletion in cancer cells until recently can be partly explained by the standard approaches to routine diagnostic cancer genome analysis, which do not identify centromeres in the context of chromosome organization. This hitherto hidden group of primary dicentric, secondary monocentric chromosomes,
ADCI uses machine learning based algorithms with high sensitivity and specificity that distinguish monocentric and dicentric chromosomes (Try the Dicentric Chromosome Identifier web app). With novel image segmentation, ADCI has become a fully functional cytogenetic biodosimetry system. ADCI takes images from all types of commercial metaphase scanning systems, selects high quality cells for analysis, identifies dicentric chromosomes (removing false positives), builds biodosimetry calibration curves, and estimates exposures. ADCI fulfills the criteria established by the IAEA for accurate triage biodosimetry of a sample in less than an hour. The accuracy is comparable to an experienced cytogeneticist. Check out our online user manual: wiki.. Early development of ADCI was supported by the US Public Health Service 5U01AI091173-02. Product testing is currently supported by the Build-in-Canada Innovation Progam. Working with IBM Canada and Western University, we have developed a high performance ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
A family of DNA fragments from the yeast genome has properties that suggest that chromosome replication starts at specific DNA sequences. These elements (autonomously replicating sequences: ARS) have a bipartite structure: a small (less than 20 base pairs) AT-rich region essential for function, flanked by larger regions important for maximal activity of the replicator. In an attempt to identify proteins involved in initiation of replication, yeast mutants that show an enhanced ability to replicate minichromosomes with defective ARSS have been isolated. ...
Though many experienced brewers may read this and note that this is not the absolutely best way to ferment lagers, it is regarded as the most foolproof and thats what you are looking for for your first lager fermentation. You need the first batch to be a success to get hooked on lagers and their smooth taste. Then you may start digging deeper into this subject and find a fermentation schedule that works best for you and your set-up.. One day before brew day pitch a 2 qt (2 L) well aerated starter with an Activator Pack (Wyeast) or vial (White Labs) of the lager yeast of your choice. Both companies offer really great yeast strains. If you are looking for a versatile lager yeast go with the German Lager (WLP830 or Wyeast 2124; According to White Labs and Wyeast this is the W-34/70 strain which is the most widely used lager strain in German beers) or whatever your recipe calls for. Keep this starter at room temperature 68 - 70 *F ( 20 - 21 *C) and let it start fermenting. It may throw off some ...
Alignment of the centromere regions of all sixteen chromosomes. The regions include the Centromere DNA Elements I II and III (CDEI, CDEII and CDEIII). The conserved bases in all centromeres are marked in magenta. The regions with less conserved residues of CDEI and CDEIII are marked in green. The CDEII region which contains more than 90% AT residues has been left white. The multiple sequence alignment was created with PILEUP ...
A vector (abbreviated YAC) used to clone DNA fragments (up to 400 kilobase|kb); it is constructed from the telomere|telomeric, centromere|centromeric, a...
Researchers Create Artificial Eukaryotic Chromosome Researchers led by Dr Jef Boeke of NYU Langone Medical Centers Institute for Systems Genetics have
Introduction and Goals Previously we examined the relationship between gene segregation and meiosis. As you should now know, Mendel was able to infer independent assortment between different genes because they were located on different chromosomes (each o
Less Can Be More: RNA-Adapters May Enhance Coding Capacity of Replicators. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
One of the most widely used Lager yeasts in the world. Very malty and clean, great for all German Lagers, Pilsners and Marzens. Free shipping over $59.
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Fraser JA, Heitman J (2004). "Evolution of fungal sex chromosomes". Molecular Microbiology. 51 (2): 299-306. CiteSeerX 10.1. ... fungal mating types, fungal vegetative incompatibility, plant self-incompatibility systems, colonial marine invertebrates (such ... fungal mycelia) and even among organisms that have evolved physical integuments representing a first line of defense against ...
Fraser, JA, Heitman, J (January 2004). "Evolution of fungal sex chromosomes". Molecular Microbiology. 51 (2): 299-306. doi: ... "textbook Molecular Principles of Fungal Pathogenesis". ASM. Retrieved 15 March 2020. "textbook Human Fungal Pathogens". CSHL ... Molecular Principles of Fungal Pathogenesis, ASM Press 2006, editors: Joseph Heitman, Scott G. Filler, John E. Edwards, Jr., ... "textbook The Fungal Kingdom". ASM. Retrieved 15 March 2020. "textbook Sex in Fungi". ASM. Retrieved 15 March 2020. "textbook ...
Bos CJ (1996). Fungal Genetics: Principles and Practice. New York: Marcel Dekker. pp. 152-53. ISBN 0-8247-9544-X. .. ... Chromosome pairing and the lampbrush diplotene stage of meiotic prophase". Chromosoma (Berlin). 29 (3): 305-16. doi:10.1007/ ... The chromosomes are readily discernible with light microscopy, and all of the meiotic stages are well-defined. These features ... Moore D, Chiu S-W (1996). Patterns in Fungal Development. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 127. ISBN 0-521-56047-0 ...
The X gamete contains an X chromosome, while the Y gamete contains a Y chromosome. The larger size of the X chromosome is ... Animal Genome Size Database Plant DNA C-values Database Fungal Genome Size Database. ... Although each zygote has 46 chromosomes, 23 chromosomes of the XX female zygote are heterologous while 24 chromosomes of the XY ... The actual GC content varies between species, between chromosomes, and between isochores (sections of a chromosome with like GC ...
It is efficiently distributed in the air, where it exists as the most frequently occurring fungal species. It can grow over a ... During mitosis, 5 to 8 dot-like chromosomes have been observed. Based on DNA analysis, they have a guanine-cytosine content (GC ... ISBN 978-90-70351-43-4. Horner, W.E.; Helbling, A.; Salvaggio, J.E.; Lehrer, S.B. (1995). "Fungal allergens". Clin Microbiol ... C. herbarum is also fungal plant pathogen. Its hosts include Bryum, Buxbaumia, Gyroweissia, Tortula, and Dicranella. It can ...
A tetraploid with 2n=32 chromosomes, it is used as rootstock for other flowering cherries. It is the parent of a number of ... It is resistant to the fungal disease cherry leaf spot. P. pseudocerasus contain carotene, vitamin C, proteins, saccharides, ...
Similar sequences (orthologs) are found in most animal and fungal species. The mouse homolog, lethal gene on chromosome 7 ... HIKESHI is found on chromosome 11 in humans and chromosome 7 in mice. ... Located on long arm of chromosome 11 at area q14.2, the entire gene including introns and exons is 42,698 base pairs on the ... Table of Chromosome 11 open reading frame 73 Orthologs The table shows the 13 sequences (12 orthologs, 1 original sequence) ...
He is also one of the inventors of plant artificial chromosomes, Fungal Artificial Chromosomes and related technologies. Wu was ... "Artificial chromosome formation in maize (Zea mays L.)". Chromosoma. 118 (2): 157-177. doi:10.1007/s00412-008-0191-3. PMID ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosome) library technologies. Wu is the main contributor of the first soybean physical map. ... "A scalable platform to identify fungal secondary metabolites and their gene clusters". Nature Chemical Biology. 13 (8): 895-901 ...
In humans this protein is called syncytin, and is encoded by an endogenous retrovirus called (ERVWE1) on chromosome seven. ... "The evolution of novel fungal genes from non-retroviral RNA viruses". BMC Biology. 7: 88. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-7-88. Koonin, E ...
Its genome consists of approximately 2.9-megabases (Mbs) in 11 chromosomes, with a total of 1,997 potential protein-coding ... Phylogenetic analysis lends substantial credit to the fungal affiliation of microsporidia. Because the E. cuniculi genome ...
"Finished genome of the fungal wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola reveals dispensome structure, chromosome plasticity, ... "Fungal Genet. Biol. (Submitted manuscript). 49 (3): 217-26. doi:10.1016/j.fgb.2012.01.007. PMID 22326418.. ... This list of sequenced fungi genomes contains all the fungal species known to have publicly available complete genome sequences ... "Insights from the genome of the biotrophic fungal plant pathogen Ustilago maydis". Nature. 444 (7115): 97-101. Bibcode: ...
Magee and her husband have worked on the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, and particularly their discovery of sexual ... Magee, B B; Sanchez, Melissa D; Saunders, David; Harris, David; Berriman, M.; Magee, PT (2017-04-17). "Extensive chromosome ... Beatrice B. "Bebe" Magee is an American biochemist and geneticist with expertise in molecular mycology and fungal genetics. She ... Nantel, André (2006). "The long hard road to a completed Candida albicans genome". Fungal Genetics and Biology. 43 (5): 311-315 ...
"A Thinopyrum intermedium chromosome in bread wheat cultivars as a source of genes conferring resistance to fungal diseases". ... "A Thinopyrum intermedium chromosome in bread wheat cultivars as a source of genes conferring resistance to fungal diseases". ... and there have been several successful strains that shared 14 Thinopyrum intermedium chromosomes and 42 wheat chromosomes. ... First, there is wide evidence that hybridization of Thinopyrum intermedium with wheat is a method to confer fungal resistance ...
This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that does not seem to have a counterpart in prokaryotic and fungal-mitochondrial ... 2004). "FOXL2 inactivation by a translocation 171 kb away: analysis of 500 kb of chromosome 3 for candidate long-range ... A pseudogene corresponding to this gene is found on chromosome Xq. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000175110 - Ensembl, May ... 2001). "The human mitochondrial ribosomal protein genes: mapping of 54 genes to the chromosomes and implications for human ...
2011). "Finished Genome of the Fungal Wheat Pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola Reveals Dispensome Structure, Chromosome ... Eight of chromosomes could be lost with no visible effect on the fungus and thus are dispensable. Dispensable chromosomes have ... The genome contains 21 chromosomes, that is the highest number reported among ascomycetes. Furthermore, these chromosomes have ... Note the low fungal density in the apoplast (arrow) and the response of the mesophyll cells (arrow head), particularly the ...
Whereas fungal cell walls are made primarily of chitin, Phytophthora cell walls are constructed mostly of cellulose. Ploidy ... levels are different between these two groups; Phytophthora species have diploid (paired) chromosomes in the vegetative ( ...
He was instrumental in establishing and supporting the Fungal Genetics Stock Center. In 1968, he began a project to obtain wild ... Perkins developed techniques for mapping genes and centromeres on chromosomes based on the occasional errors, such as ... with the rearrangement of genes on paired chromosomes that occurs during reproduction, a phenomenon known as crossing over. ...
Before the nuptial flight, young queens visit the colony's fungal gardens and place a small piece of fungal mycelium in their ... They are, like all hymenopterans, haplodiploid, meaning males are haploid (one of each chromosome) and females, including ... Their tasks are to attend to the fungal culture and to the developing eggs, larvae, and pupae. The queen is the largest ant in ... The farms contain the fungal culture which sustains the colony and hosts larvae and pupae. The waste chambers are located at ...
This means that all of the genes that start out on a single chromosome, will end up on that same chromosome in their original ... a linkage map that identified gene clusters and important linked loci that can be used to predict the response to fungal ... As a result, genes that were originally on the same chromosome can finish up on different chromosomes. This process is known as ... Linkage studies of panic disorder and anxiety disorders have indicated regions of interest on specific chromosomes. Chromosomes ...
The PAH gene is located on chromosome 12 in the bands 12q22-q24.2.[17] As of 2000, around 400 disease-causing mutations had ... of a single PKU allele do not exhibit symptoms of the disease but appear to be protected to some extent against the fungal ...
ISBN 0-471-52229-5. Deacon, J. (2005). Fungal Biology. Blackwell. ISBN 1-4051-3066-0. Jennings DH, Lysek G (1996). Fungal ... The chromosome number may then be restored to its haploid state by nuclear division, with each daughter nuclei being ... the structure that defines this fungal group and distinguishes it from other fungal phyla. The ascus is a tube-shaped vessel, a ... The fungal symbionts in the majority of lichens (loosely termed "ascolichens") such as Cladonia belong to the Ascomycota. ...
On chromosome 8 in the low-GC region is a protein located, which has a homology to genes of D. pulex and D. magna. These genes ... code for the protein septin 7, which is important for the endocytosis-based invasion process of a fungal pathogen. The O. ... O. colligata has 10 chromosomes, and it is estimated to have a total genome size of 3 Mbp. The predicted number of open reading ...
Indeed, homoploid speciation (hybrid speciation without a change in chromosome number) has been evidenced for some fungal ... Each chromosome pair derived from the Triticum urartu parent is homoeologous to the opposite chromosome pair derived from the ... Although chromosomes are shattered into many fragments, complete chromosomes can be regenerated by making use of overlapping ... Durum wheat contains a hybrid genome with two sets of chromosomes derived from Triticum urartu and two sets of chromosomes ...
... and some of the corresponding fungal avirulence genes have also been identified. Rlm1 has been mapped to Brassica chromosome ... In crosses between different accessions, two loci were discovered: RLM1 on chromosome 1 and RLM2 on chromosome 4. The R gene ... napus chromosome addition line with A. thaliana chromosome 3 more resistant to L. maculans. Despite all A. thaliana accessions ... Rlm2 s located on chromosome A10 at the same locus as LepR3 as and has been cloned. The Rlm2 gene encodes for a receptor-like ...
haploid Having one set of chromosomes, e.g. the complement of chromosomes in each of the cells of the gametophyte, the nucleus ... decurrent Extending downward beyond the point of insertion, e.g. when the base of a leaf or a fungal gill is prolonged downward ... diploid Having two complete sets of chromosomes in the nucleus of a sporophyte cell, i.e. one set from each of the parental ... mycobiont The fungal component of a lichen. Compare photobiont. mycorrhiza One of several types of symbiotic association ...
... is a fungal pathogen of pecan trees (Carya illinoinensis), on which it causes pecan scab. The fungus is highly ... The 45 Mb genome comprises 20 chromosomes, ranging from 0.56 to 4.1 Mb, including approximately 10,800 genes. Young, Carolyn A ... Venturia effusa is a sexual species in the fungal genus Venturia. Venturia effusa was first described in 1885. ... "Chromosome-level reference genome of Venturia effusa, causative agent of pecan scab". Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions. 33 ...
These ten chromosomes form five unique pairs of XY in males and XX in females, i.e. males are X1Y1X2Y2X3Y3X4Y4X5Y5.[76] One of ... "Platypus Fungal Disease". Department of Primary Industries and Water, Tasmania. 29 August 2008. Archived from the original on 7 ... "In the platypus a meiotic chain of ten sex chromosomes shares genes with the bird Z and mammal X chromosomes". Nature. 432 ( ... the X chromosomes of the platypus has great homology to the bird Z chromosome.[77] The platypus genome also has both reptilian ...
35 megabases, with 7 chromosomes and 1 mitochondrial chromosome. In the 1980s the mitochondrial chromosome was sequenced. Then ... Fungal prions PXMP3 Virus classification OLIGO Primer Analysis Software Point mutation Amyloid "Podospora anserina: a model ... Essential Fungal Genetics. page 40 THE PHENOLOXIDASES * OF THE ASCOMYCETE PODOSPORA ANSERZNA. COMMUNICATION VI. GENETIC ... In general, the mitochondrion and mitochondrial chromosome is investigated (note that animals, closely related to fungi, ...
Deletion in the 22q11.2 region of chromosome 22 has been associated with schizophrenia and autism.[22][23] Schizophrenia and ... The studies on fungal evolutionary genomics will further elucidate the earliest stages of divergence as a result of gene flow, ... Studies on fungal evolutionary genomics have shown pleiotropic traits that simultaneously affect adaptation and reproductive ... The disease is caused by a defect in a single gene on chromosome 12 that codes for enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase , that ...
V. faba has a diploid (2n) chromosome number of 12 (six homologous pairs). Five pairs are acrocentric chromosomes and one pair ... Faba bean rust is a fungal pathogen commonly affecting broad bean plants at maturity, causing small orange dots with yellow ...
In recent investigations, it has also been made clear that both varieties have the same chromosome number (n=15) and can be ... Herbal and fungal stimulants. *Victorian cuisine. Hidden categories: *CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter ...
Zhao, ZJ; Tong, HR; Zhou, L; Wang, EX; Liu, QJ (2010). "FUNGAL COLONIZATION OF PU‐ERH TEA IN YUNNAN". Journal of Food Safety. ... This notion has recently been refuted through a systematic chromosome analysis of the species attributed to many East Asian ... The bacterial and fungal cultures found in the fermenting piles were found to vary widely from factory to factory throughout ... Aged raw pu'erh: Aged pu'er should never smell moldy, musty, or strongly fungal, though some pu'erh drinkers consider these ...
The RNA world hypothesis is supported by RNA's ability to store, transmit, and duplicate genetic information, as DNA does. RNA can act as a ribozyme, a special type of enzyme. Because it can perform the tasks of both DNA and enzymes, RNA is believed to have once been capable of supporting independent life forms.[15] Some viruses use RNA as their genetic material, rather than DNA.[45] Further, while nucleotides were not found in experiments based on Miller-Urey experiment, their formation in prebiotically plausible conditions was reported in 2009;[22] the purine base known as adenine is merely a pentamer of hydrogen cyanide. Experiments with basic ribozymes, like Bacteriophage Qβ RNA, have shown that simple self-replicating RNA structures can withstand even strong selective pressures (e.g., opposite-chirality chain terminators).[46] Since there were no known chemical pathways for the abiogenic synthesis of nucleotides from pyrimidine nucleobases cytosine and uracil under prebiotic conditions, it ...
... or W chromosome rather than by the presence of two X chromosomes or two Z chromosomes.. basal body. An organelle formed from a ... A membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal, and bacterial cells.. ... chromosome. A threadlike strand of DNA in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order.. cilia. circadian rhythm. ... In eukaryotic cells, the part of the cell cycle during which the division of the nucleus takes place and duplicated chromosomes ...
... coli unable to synthesize it were commonly used by geneticists before the emergence of genomics to map bacterial chromosomes. ... Fungal media. *Czapek medium. *Dermatophyte test medium. *Potato dextrose agar. *Sabouraud agar ...
For more details on this topic, see Fungal prions.. Prions are infectious forms of proteins. In general, proteins fold into ... Methylation of cytosines can also persist from the germ line of one of the parents into the zygote, marking the chromosome as ... Fungal prions are considered by some to be epigenetic because the infectious phenotype caused by the prion can be inherited ... In 2008, a consensus definition of the epigenetic trait, "stably heritable phenotype resulting from changes in a chromosome ...
Male birds have two Z chromosomes (ZZ), and female birds have a W chromosome and a Z chromosome (WZ).[62] ... Many species will spread out their wings and expose them to direct sunlight and this too is thought to help in reducing fungal ... Chromosomes. Birds have two sexes: either female or male. The sex of birds is determined by the Z and W sex chromosomes, rather ... than by the X and Y chromosomes present in mammals. ...
... in these cases involves the pairing of individuals, accompanied by the pairing of their homologous chromosomes and then ... mating types in some fungal species are somewhat analogous to sexual dimorphism in animals, and determine whether or not two ...
Another theory suggests the female high tendency to get autoimmunity is due to an imbalanced X chromosome inactivation.[15] The ... Recurrent bacterial and fungal infections and chronic inflammation of the gut and lungs are seen in chronic granulomatous ... Theory: High autoimmunity in females due to imbalanced X chromosome inactivation: [2] ... "Skewed X-chromosome Inactivation in Scleroderma". Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 34 (3): 352-5. doi:10.1007/s12016-007-8044-z. PMC ...
This is because a male-determining gene (Mdmd) can be found on most or all housefly chromosomes.[67] Sexual differentiation is ... Lam K, Thu K, Tsang M, Moore M, Gries G (September 2009). "Bacteria on housefly eggs, Musca domestica, suppress fungal growth ... Houseflies have a small number of chromosomes, haploid 6 or diploid 12.[15]:96 Because the somatic tissue of the housefly ... After infection, the fungal hyphae grow throughout the body, killing the housefly in about five days. Infected houseflies have ...
... females are also one of the few organisms with homologous chromosomes held together only by the synaptonemal ... the Beauveria bassiana fungal infection mentioned above. It is believed to dispel flatulence, dissolve phlegm, and relieve ... Gerton and Hawley (2005). "Homologous Chromosome Interactions in Meiosis: Diversity Amidst Conservation". Nature Reviews ...
These are geared towards lay readers, not readers who are technically proficient. Do not replace easy to understand lay variants (e.g. "smell") with difficult variants lay readers will not understand (e.g. "olfaction ...
Neck rot is a fungal disease affecting onions in storage. It is caused by Botrytis allii which attacks the neck and upper parts ... The triploid onion is a hybrid species with three sets of chromosomes, two sets from A. cepa and the third set from an unknown ... Anti-fungal seed dressings are available and the disease can be minimised by preventing physical damage to the bulbs at ... There is no cure for this fungal disease so affected plants should be removed and destroyed and the ground used for unrelated ...
As a membrane surface receptor, TLR2 recognizes many bacterial, fungal, viral, and certain endogenous substances. In general, ...
Holmquist GP, Ashley T (2006). "Chromosome organization and chromatin modification: influence on genome function and evolution ... RNAi silencing of alpha-amylase have also been used to decrease Aspergillus flavus fungal growth in maize which would have ... gene in Aspergillus flavus decreases fungal growth and aflatoxin production in maize kernels". Planta. 247 (6): 1465-1473. doi: ... RNA interference pathways indicates that proteins required for RNA silencing have been lost independently from many fungal ...
Men do not have a second X chromosome to override the chromosome that carries the mutation. If 8% of variants of a given gene ... with the Y chromosome carrying altogether different genes from the X chromosome), and females have two (XX); if a woman ... In turn, a carrier woman has a 50% chance of passing on a mutated X chromosome region to each of her male offspring. The sons ... Because one X chromosome is inactivated at random in each cell during a woman's development, deuteranomalous heterozygotes (i.e ...
In flies, acetylation of H4K16 on the male X chromosome by MOF in the context of the MSL complex is correlated with ... Rtt109 is a fungal-specific HAT that requires association with histone chaperone proteins for activity.[6] The HAT activities ... Another example is acetylation of H4K16, which has been associated with dosage compensation of the male X chromosome in ... The HAT activity of the latter is required for the twofold increased transcription of the male X chromosome (dosage ...
These observations are largely driven by one large gene‐rich 1.4 Mbp segment on chromosome 11 where European haplotypes are ... some fungal diseases like chalkbrood and even the mysterious colony collapse disorder which is currently plaguing beekeepers. ...
After infection, the fungal hyphae grow throughout the body, killing the fly in about 5 days. Infected flies have been known to ... Houseflies have a small number of chromosomes, haploid six or diploid 12.[59] Because the somatic tissue of the housefly ... suppress fungal growth in chicken manure through nutrient depletion or antifungal metabolites". Naturwissenschaften. 96 (9): ...
In gene conversion, a section of genetic material is copied from one chromosome to another, without the donating chromosome ... Gene conversion has often been studied in fungal crosses[7] where the 4 products of individual meioses can be conveniently ... This process appears to be an adaptation for repairing DNA damages in the recipient chromosome by HRR.[11] Transformation may ... Indicated on the right side is a "crossover" (CO) type, where the flanking regions of the chromosomes are exchanged, and on the ...
The genus is cytologically diploid, with all studied species having a chromosome number of 2n=80.[15][16] This high number is ... fungal spores, insects and rain. Often pitchers have a lid that covers the trap, excepting a few (e.g. N. lowii, N. ... 519: Chromosome and isozyme number in the Nepenthaceae. American Journal of Botany 78(6, supplement): 200-201. ...
The sex assay utilizes AluSTXa for the X chromosome, AluSTYa for the Y chromosome, or both AluSTXa and AluSTYa, to reduce the ... This works similarly in the fungal domain with the 18S rRNA gene. ... The inserted chromosome yields a large fragment when the homologous region is amplified. The males are distinguished as having ...
Singh, Ram J.; Nelson, Randall L.; Chung, Gyuhwa (November 2, 2006). Genetic Resources, Chromosome Engineering, and Crop ... Soybean plants are vulnerable to a wide range of bacterial diseases, fungal diseases, viral diseases and parasites. The corn ...
"Polymyxins: Antibacterial Activity, Susceptibility Testing, and Resistance Mechanisms Encoded by Plasmids or Chromosomes" ...
Infection by fungal pathogens is treated with anti-fungal medication. Fungal infections such as athlete's foot, jock itch, and ... Meiosis involves the intimate pairing of homologous chromosomes and recombination between them. Examples of eukaryotic ... These internal infections can either be treated with anti-fungal creams or with oral medication. Common anti-fungal drugs for ... The typical fungal spore size is ,4.7 μm in length, but some spores may be larger.[13] ...
Often the growth layer dies and the injuries may lead to bacterial or fungal infections that spread into the branches until the ... because they flower at about the same time and share the chromosome number 2n=38, with C. australis. The tree was well known to ...
Recombination hotspots and coldspots have been described in many organisms and often reflect global features of chromosome ... Fungal genomics Is the Subject Area "Fungal genomics" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Fungal evolution Is the Subject Area "Fungal evolution" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
These pea pathogenicity (PEP) genes are within 25 kb of each other and are located on a supernumerary chromosome. Altogether, ... Genes determining pathogenicity to pea are clustered on a supernumerary chromosome in the fungal plant pathogen Nectria ... These pea pathogenicity (PEP) genes are within 25 kb of each other and are located on a supernumerary chromosome. Altogether, ... have a high degree of similarity to known fungal transposases. Several of the features of the PEP cluster -- a cluster of ...
Sad1 Spatiotemporally Regulates Kinetochore Clustering To Ensure High-Fidelity Chromosome Segregation in the Human Fungal ... Sad1 spatiotemporally regulates kinetochore clustering to ensure high-fidelity chromosome segregation in the human fungal ... Sad1 Spatiotemporally Regulates Kinetochore Clustering To Ensure High-Fidelity Chromosome Segregation in the Human Fungal ... Sad1 Spatiotemporally Regulates Kinetochore Clustering To Ensure High-Fidelity Chromosome Segregation in the Human Fungal ...
Through horizontal chromosome transfer (HCT) to a non-pathogenic strain, we also show that the accessory chromosome containing ... All but one of the core chromosomes were assembled into single contigs, and a chromosome that shows all the hallmarks of a ... chromosomes, shared by most strains and responsible for housekeeping, and one or several accessory chromosomes. We sequenced a ... Conversely, complete loss of virulence was observed in Forc016 strains that lost this chromosome. We conclude that also a non- ...
Fungal Artificial Chromosome (FAC) -. Novel drug, anti-fungi, and insecticide discovery pipeline from fungi*. ... Scientists at Intact Genomics and our collaborators have developed a breakthrough technology (fungal artificial chromosome, FAC ... or fungal artificial chromosome (FAC) libraries, pooled FAC next-gen sequences to rapidly capture all the SM gene clusters in a ... each of these fungal genomes may harbor 50 or more different SM gene clusters (Norberg et al., 2013). Fungal secondary ...
Cataloging Fungal Life in Antarctic Seas. By Ignacio Amigo , December 1, 2017 ... tags: chromosome folding domains x developmental biology x microbiology x The Scientist. » chromosome folding domains, ...
... of transient fungal infections could feasibly lead to permanent brain damage and lasting cognitive defects. ... Home Model Systems Animal Models Mouse Memory Affected by Mild Fungal Infections ... As the authors pointed out, short-term fungal infections are recognized as an increasingly common medical problem, but the long ... They suggested that while individual episodes of fungal infection will most commonly be transient, it is conceivable that the ...
DNA, Fungal. Grant support. *GM67055/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *Nature ... Increased chromosome mobility facilitates homology search during recombination.. Miné-Hattab J1, Rothstein R. ... The mobility of the cut chromosome markedly increases, allowing it to explore a nuclear volume that is more than ten times ... Interestingly, the mobility of uncut chromosomes also increases, allowing them to explore a four times larger volume. We ...
1997) Hydrophobins: Proteins that change the nature of the fungal surface. Adv Microb Physiol 38:1-45. ... there is a surprising lack of complete chromosome assemblies from these projects. Sequencing and analysis of chromosome ... Summary plots of chromosome II of C. cinerea. The plot shows the location of (Top panel) telomeres in red and centromere as ... The chromosome assembly of C. cinerea is an essential resource in understanding the evolution of multicellularity in the fungi. ...
CANDIDA albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that has become a greater and greater medical problem as the number of ... Whole-chromosome probes: Whole chromosomes were separated on a CHEF gel. The areas containing chromosomes 6 and 7 were excised ... hybridizes to chromosomes 1 and 4 as well as chromosome 7; hence similar or identical sequences exist on these chromosomes. ... Chromosome 7 contig map: The contig map of chromosome 7 was built in five steps: *. At the beginning of this work 28 DNA ...
Chromosome Breakage* * Chromosomes, Bacterial / genetics* * Chromosomes, Fungal / genetics * Crossing Over, Genetic * DNA ... Mutations arising during repair of chromosome breaks Annu Rev Genet. 2012;46:455-73. doi: 10.1146/annurev-genet-110711-155547. ...
DNA, Fungal. *Molecular Sequence Data. *Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics*. Substance. *DNA, Fungal. Secondary source ID. * ... The central line representing S. cerevisiae chromosome V is marked in kilobase pairs, starts at the left at the guanine of the ... The nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome V.. Dietrich FS1, Mulligan J, Hennessy K, Yelton MA, Allen E, ... The bottom line is a schematic map of yeast chromosome V from 240 kb to 310 kb. Individual, sequenced recombinant DNAs are ...
1997 Nuclear traffic in fungal hyphae: in vivo study of nuclear migration and positioning in Aspergillus nidulans. Mol. ... sepI1 was found to be linked to proA on chromosome I (data not shown). A chromosome I-specific library (Brodyet al. 1991) was ... 1991 Chromosome-specific recombinant DNA libraries from the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Nucleic Acids Res. 19: 3105-3109. ... Therefore, chromosome segregation is defective in bimAAPC3 mutants.. In addition to being required for completion of mitosis, ...
Evolution of fungal sex chromosomes. James A. Fraser, Joseph Heitman. Molecular Microbiology 2004 51 2 ... Construction of a highly enriched marsupial Y chromosome-specific BAC sub-library using isolated Y chromosomes ... Origin of Amniote Sex Chromosomes: An Ancestral Super-Sex Chromosome, or Common Requirements? ... Turnover of Sex Chromosomes in Celebensis Group Medaka Fishes. Taijun Myosho, Yusuke Takehana, Satoshi Hamaguchi, Mitsuru ...
The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus deuterogattii is RNAi-deficient and lacks active transposons in its genome. C. ... Δ chromosome was found to have undergone fusion with another native chromosome in some isolates and this fusion restored wild- ... In contrast to cen9∆ mutants, cen10Δ mutant strains exhibited growth defects and were aneuploid for chromosome 10. At an ... Centromere deletion in Cryptococcus deuterogattii leads to neocentromere formation and chromosome fusions. ...
... at homologous sites along chromosomes. This process is highly regulated so that every pair of matched chromosomes, regardless ... In humans, defects in this recombination process can lead to a variety of chromosome aneuploidy syndromes. During early stages ... In most organisms, the proper segregation of chromosomes at the first meiotic division is mechanically dependent upon genetic ... In addition, strains lacking Csm4 show delayed recombination progression and high levels of chromosome mis-segregation at the ...
1. Fungal spores: a)are used to identify fungi b)cant be seen in a light microscope c)are only produced under harmful ... Basic eukaryotic chromosome mapping is illustrated.. A female animal with genotype Aa Bb is crossed with a double recessive ... Techniques of eukaryotic chromosome mapping An Aspergillus diploid is +++/profpa paba, in which pro is a recessive allele for ... Fungal symbiotic relations. Describe the benefits of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza and the benefits it has to the host plant ...
Supernumerary chromosomes in a root-rot fungus. September 20th, 2009 Fungal interactions with plant roots are of major ... These "extra" chromosomes are called "conditionally dispensable" (CD) chromosomes because while they are not required for ... VanEtten and his colleagues showed that the three supernumerary chromosomes are different from the normal chromosomes; they ... The PDA1-CD chromosome carries a cluster of genes for pea pathogenicity. The 54 Mb genome of N. haematococca has been sequenced ...
In Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the field ... Horizontal Transfer of Supernumerary Chromosomes in Fungi. Pages 427-437. Does, H. Charlotte (et al.) ... fungal molecular biology, fungal biotechnology, microbial biotechnology, and food technology." (S. K. Basu, Plant Science ... In Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the field detail many of the methods which are now ...
... a complex required for conversion of interphase chromatin into mitotic-like condense chromosomes. The condensin complex ... Ensembl fungal genome annotation project. More...EnsemblFungii. BAA09270; BAA09270; BAA09270. YFR031C; YFR031C; YFR031C. ... condensin associates with chromosome arms and to chromosome condensation. Dissociation from chromosomes is observed in late ... Yeast chromosome VI. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) chromosome VI: entries and gene names ...
Chromosomes prepared by the germ tube burst method were stained with the fluorescent dye 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) ... Mitotic chromosomes of the plant pathogenic filamentous fungi Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata were observed. ... Chromosomes, Fungal*. DNA, Fungal / analysis. DNA, Ribosomal / analysis. Fluorescent Dyes. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence ... Using this method, component chromosomes were clearly distinguished and the chromosome number could be determined. Fluorescence ...
Ensembl fungal genome annotation project. More...EnsemblFungii. CAP62345; CAP62345; PODANS_0_1460. ... Podospora anserina S mat+ genomic DNA chromosome 7, supercontig 2Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another ... tr,B2AFX4,B2AFX4_PODAN Podospora anserina S mat+ genomic DNA chromosome 7, supercontig 2 OS=Podospora anserina (strain S / ATCC ...
... we are studying the effect of replication and repair mutations on CAG repeat tracts embedded in a yeast chromosome. In this ... Chromosomes, Fungal. Humans. Protein Kinases / genetics*. Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics*. Sequence Deletion*. ... Previous Document: Evidence for a novel gene for familial febrile convulsions, FEB2, linked to chromosome 19p in an ext.... ... 7847375 - A gene for familial total anomalous pulmonary venous return maps to chromosome 4p13-q12.. 18795115 - Cross ...
A fungal gene for antibiotic resistance on a dispensable ("B") chromosome. By VP Miao, SF Covert, HD VanEtten ...
... exhibit remarkable agmatoploid chromosome series between and within species. This chromosomal diversity is due in large part to ... Major fungal lineages are derived from lichen symbiotic ancestors. Nature 411: 937-940.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Chromosome Number Chromosome Count Pollen Mother Cell Chromosome Evolution Chromosome Race These keywords were added by machine ... Chromosome studies in Cyperaceae, IV. Chromosome numbers of Carex species. Cytologia 10: 51-58.Google Scholar ...
Horizontal Transfer of Supernumerary Chromosomes in Fungi H. Charlotte van der Does, Martijn Rep ... Plant Fungal Pathogens effectors fungal biology fungal genome sequencing fungal transformation pathosystem ... In Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the field detail many of the methods which are now ... Fungal ABC Transporter Deletion and Localization Analysis Andriy Kovalchuk, Stefan S. Weber, Jeroen G. Nijland, Roel A. L. ...
... and is using this knowledge to improve biotechnological applications of fungal enzymes. Many questions remain regarding the ... PhD Student (f/m) - Chromosome Biology. *Leibniz-Institut für Pflanzengenetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung ... Experience with microbiology and genetics techniques (e.g. CRISPR-Cas9) and fungal strain engineering is highly desirable ... and would like to engineer fungal strains that are insensitive. Since this project is a collaborative project with the Tianjin ...
Chromosome III. DR GO; GO:0000329; C:fungal-type vacuole membrane; IBA:GO_Central. DR GO; GO:0016021; C:integral component of ...
  • We conclude that also a non-wilt-inducing Fo pathogen relies on effector proteins for successful infection and that the Forc pathogenicity chromosome contains all the information necessary for causing root rot of cucurbits. (
  • C ANDIDA albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that has become a greater and greater medical problem as the number of immunocompromised patients increases due to rising numbers of HIV infections and more aggressive medical procedures, such as organ transplants and cancer chemotherapy. (
  • The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus deuterogattii is RNAi-deficient and lacks active transposons in its genome. (
  • Briefly describe each type and then select either a bacterial, fungal, or viral pathogen capable of producing meningitis in humans to answer the remaining questions for this case study. (
  • These include methods and techniques for model systems such as Arabidopsis thaliana as well as crop plants, aspects of fungal biology, genome annotation, next-generation sequencing, and fungal transformation and molecular tools for disease and/or pathogen quantification that are critical for revealing the role for a fungal gene of interest in disease development. (
  • Alice: Finished genome of the fungal wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola Reveals dispensome structure, chromosome plasticity, and stealth pathogenesis. (
  • arborescens is a major pathogen of tomato, with its virulence determined by the presence of a conditionally dispensable chromosome (CDC) carrying host-specific toxin genes. (
  • Chromosomes instability of human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. (
  • Heitman's group has also had a long-standing interest in fungal evolution, describing how cellular processes such as sexual recombination and RNA interference are changed in different fungal lineages, as well as the expansion of the geographic range of the emerging pathogen Cryptococcus gattii. (
  • The transfer of the LS chromosomes between strains of F. oxysporum was demonstrated experimentally and resulted in the conversion of a non-pathogenic strain into a pathogen. (
  • F. oxysporum is a eukaryotic pathogen that causes infections in both humans and plants, representing a multi-host model for the genetic dissection of fungal pathogenicity and to study host immunity. (
  • To gain insights into the mechanisms that confer the organisms' pathogenicity and enable them to proliferate in the unique ecological niche of the plant vascular system, we sequenced the genomes of V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum and compared them to each other, and to the genome of Fusarium oxysporum , another fungal wilt pathogen. (
  • Manipulation of macrophage biology by the intracellular fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum . (
  • Identification of conserved and novel features of the alkaline response pathway in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans . (
  • In response to these challenges, we sequenced the genome of Fusarium circinatum , a fungal pathogen of pine that causes pitch canker, a disease of great concern to the South African forestry industry. (
  • F. oxysporum has also been used to study host-pathogen interactions to investigate horizontal chromosome transfer in eukaryotes. (
  • An electrophoretic karyotype of C. beticola isolate 98-23 revealed the presence of 7-8 chromosomes ranging from ~0.5 megabases to ~5.5 megabases in size, comparable to the size range for the related soybean pathogen, C. kikuchii. (
  • In Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols , expert researchers in the field detail many of the methods which are now commonly used to study fungal plant pathogens. (
  • Authoritative and practical, Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols seeks to aid scientists in the further study in current techniques that cover a wide-range of methods to study molecular aspects of pathogenesis. (
  • The current volume is a unique collection of 41 chapters from a diverse group of scientists, researchers, and academics working on different aspects of the molecular basis of fungal pathogens and pathogenesis. (
  • Fungal plant pathogens cause serious agricultural losses worldwide. (
  • During infection, fungal and oomycete pathogens secrete effector molecules which manipulate host plant cell processes to the pathogen's advantage. (
  • Our analyses identified a set of proteins that are shared among all three wilt pathogens, and present in few other fungal species. (
  • But fungal diversity also presents challenges, most notably in understanding the means by which evolutionarily diverse fungal pathogens infect, exploit, and kill human, animal, and plant hosts. (
  • We conclude that divergence of these pathogens was accompanied by structural rearrangements in the small dispensable chromosomes, while footprints of positive selection were present in only a small number of protein coding genes. (
  • We know little about the evolutionary processes leading to the origin and emergence of new fungal plant pathogens despite their significant impact on our food supply. (
  • Several dozen toxic compounds produced by fungal pathogens have been identified to date. (
  • These two groups of pathogens are known to cause most deaths by fungal infections in immune-compromised patients. (
  • Two of the most damaging fungal pathogens of wheat and rice also belong to this family: the intractable root‐infecting fungus and causal agent of take‐all disease, Gaeumannomyces graminis and the blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea . (
  • We will see that such invasive pathogens have been problematic to humans and their domesticated plant and animal species throughout history, and we will discuss some of the most pressing fungal threats of today. (
  • Rapid responses to acute stresses are essential for stress survival and are critical to the ability of fungal pathogens to adapt to new environments or hosts. (
  • Because aneuploidy is a common property of many pathogenic fungi, including those posing emerging threats to plants, animals and humans, we propose that aneuploid formation and LOH often accompanying it contribute to the rapid generation of diversity that can facilitate the emergence of fungal pathogens to new environmental niches and/or new hosts, as well as promote antifungal drug resistance that makes emerging fungal infections ever more difficult to contain. (
  • The emergence of new fungal threats appears to require the rapid adaptation of fungal pathogens to changes in environmental conditions. (
  • These pea pathogenicity (PEP) genes are within 25 kb of each other and are located on a supernumerary chromosome. (
  • The three new PEP genes, in addition to PDA1, can independently increase the ability of the fungus to cause lesions on pea when added to an isolate lacking the supernumerary chromosome. (
  • A central part of this chromosome contains all identified candidate effector genes, including homologs of SIX6 , SIX9 , SIX11 and SIX 13 . (
  • Single-copy genes with identifiable orthologs in other basidiomycetes are predominant in low-recombination regions of the chromosome. (
  • Our observations that bimA9 and bimA10 strains had morphologically abnormal nuclei, chromosome segregation defects, synthetic phenotypes with mutations in the DNA damage checkpoint genes uvsB MEC1/rad3 or uvsD + , and enhanced sensitivity to hydroxyurea strongly suggest that these strains accumulate errors in DNA metabolism. (
  • The ecological and host diversity of the fungus N. haematococca has been shown to be due in part to unique genes on different supernumerary chromosomes. (
  • The PDA1 -CD chromosome carries a cluster of genes for pea pathogenicity. (
  • Differences in nucleotide usage were found between CDC genes and those on the essential chromosome (EC), including GC3-content, codon usage bias, and repeat region load. (
  • In fungi, sexual identity is determined by so-called "mating type loci," genes located in a contiguous region of the genome, but which typically do not span an entire chromosome. (
  • Furthermore, they found that the fungal sex-determining genes exist in clusters of functionally related genes. (
  • Other researchers have found that the human Y chromosome -- and the functionally-related gene clusters it contains -- has a similar history, characterized by the "sequential capture of genes" on four separate occasions, Heitman said. (
  • The human Y chromosome is also barred from recombination along most of its length, a necessary requirement to prevent genes that encode male traits from infiltrating the female X chromosome, Heitman noted. (
  • Certain sex-determination genes occur in palindromic orientations -- head-to-head or tail-to-tail repeats of particular sequences -- which would make such intra-chromosomal repair possible, a pattern also found on the human Y chromosome, according to Heitman. (
  • The generation of thousands of fungal genomes is leading to a better understanding of genes and genomic organization within the kingdom. (
  • However, some fungal species possess independently derived clusters of contiguous 5mC encompassing many genes. (
  • Its genome consists of approximately 2.9-megabases (Mbs) in 11 chromosomes, with a total of 1,997 potential protein-coding genes. (
  • We then used two candidate gene selection strategies to identify genes on these three chromosomes associated with S. aureus susceptibility, and targeted genes identified by both gene selection strategies. (
  • 18) genes on our three chromosomes of interest that are differentially expressed between S. aureus -infected A/J and C57BL/6J. (
  • Modifications include a change in the total number of chromosomes, and changes of chromosomal structures, the deletion or duplication of genes or segments of a chromosome, and rearrangements of the genetic material either within or among chromosomes. (
  • The researchers located all of the genes on the fungus' chromosomes and then determined the genes' chemical makeup, or sequence. (
  • Characterization Of The Biosynthetic Genes For 10,11 Dehydrocurvularin, A Heat Shock Response Modulating Anticancer Fungal Polyketide From Aspergillus Terreus. (
  • Three out of nine HCT strains investigated have undergone large-scale chromosome alterations, reflecting the remarkable plasticity of Fo genomes. (
  • In addition, each of these fungal genomes may harbor 50 or more different SM gene clusters (Norberg et al. (
  • The number of large secondary metabolite (SM) gene clusters from each of the 6 fungal genomes was predicted ranging from 25~72 with the size ranging from ~20 kb up to more than 100 kb (Table 2). (
  • This G. clavigera genome sequencing, together with the sequencing of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, demonstrate that the new sequencing technologies can efficiently be used for generating genome draft for eukaryotic fungal genomes. (
  • Stajich, J. E. Fungal genomes and insights into the evolution of the kingdom. (
  • The steadily increasing number of sequenced fungal and oomycete genomes has enabled detailed studies of how these eukaryotic microbes infect plants and cause devastating losses in food crops. (
  • Specifically, comparative genomes revealed greatly expanded lineage-specific (LS) genomic regions in F. oxysporum that include four entire chromosomes and account for more than one-quarter of the genome. (
  • To identify the mating-type loci in Phycomyces, the researchers used a computer search to compare known mating-type loci in the genomes of other fungal lineages and then genetic mapping. (
  • The Fusarium graminearum genome was easy to assemble because, unlike other fungal genomes, there aren't too many repetitive DNA sequences,' Xu said. (
  • In the absence of the metaphase plate arrangement, kinetochore clustering in yeast species is believed to facilitate timely kinetochore-microtubule interactions to achieve bivalent attachments of chromosomes during metaphase. (
  • The genome of Fo is typically divided into a set of eleven 'core' chromosomes, with sequences generally conserved in all Fusarium species, and responsible for housekeeping, and one or several transposon-rich and gene-poor 'accessory' chromosomes 13 . (
  • Conservative estimates suggest that there are more than 5 million fungal species (Blackwell, 2011), of which fewer than 5% have been described and less than 1% are available in the world's culture collections (Colwell, 1997). (
  • Scientists at Intact Genomics have successfully constructed unbiased Random Shear shuttle bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC or FAC) libraries of 12 fungal species or strains with average insert sizes of at least 100 kb (Table 1). (
  • We have successfully constructed unbiased FAC libraries of 6 sequenced fungal species with average insert sizes of at least 100 kb for natural product discovery. (
  • More than 200 intact SM gene clusters up to 200 kb from 6 sequenced fungal species were individually captured in a self-replicating fungal shuttle BAC system. (
  • Coprinus cinereus (now known as Coprinopsis cinerea ) ( 6 ) was chosen by the Fungal Genome Initiative ( ) as a key species in a cohesive genome-sequencing strategy designed to increase our understanding of the biology, evolution, and biomedical implications of the entire fungal kingdom. (
  • Cyperaceae) exhibit remarkable agmatoploid chromosome series between and within species. (
  • The rapid rate of chromosome evolution in the genus and high species diversification rate in the order (Cyperales Hutch. (
  • sensu Dahlgren) together suggest that chromosome evolution may play an important role in the evolution of species diversity in Carex . (
  • In the end, an integration of biosystematic, cytogenetic, and genomic studies across the Cyperaceae will be needed to address the question of what role chromosome evolution plays in species diversification within Carex and the Cyperaceae as a whole. (
  • 1985. Chromosome studies on natural hybrids between maritime species of Carex (sections Phacocystis and Cryptocarpae ) in northeastern North America, and their taxonomic implications. (
  • The researchers reconstructed the sequential evolutionary events that fashioned the sex-determining region of the C. neoformans genome by comparing it to that region in the related pathogenic fungal species, Cryptococcus grubii and Cryptococcus gattii. (
  • Our survey also revealed that fungi lack canonical gene-body methylation, which distinguishes fungal epigenomes from certain insect and plant species. (
  • 3. Homology of Nonrepeated DNA Sequences in Phylogeny of Fungal Species. (
  • Mating-type loci have been found in a number of higher-level fungal species, and exhibit an unusual amount of diversity. (
  • These differences occur even among similar fungal species leading scientists to wonder how they evolved. (
  • Another troubling mystery for Heitman is that certain younger fungal species lack HMG-domain proteins. (
  • Fungi of the genus Fusarium are not always effectively controlled with fungicides because FHB epidemics develop rapidly and involve at least several fungal species [ 2 ]. (
  • Over the years, we studied the process of chromosome segregation in Candida and Cryptococcus species. (
  • It was demonstrated that centromere sequences are rapidly evolving among closely related species in both these fungal phyla. (
  • Species generally have a fixed number of chromosomes in the cell nuclei while between-species differences are common and often pronounced. (
  • We show that within this species the diploid chromosome number gradually decreases from 2n = 106 in Spain to 2n = 56 in eastern Kazakhstan, resulting in a 6000 km-wide cline that originated recently (8,500 to 31,000 years ago). (
  • Main karyotypic features of organisms, such as the number of chromosomes, are usually stable within species [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • At the same time, differences in karyotype characters between species, including diploid chromosome number (2n), are extremely common. (
  • As in animals, fungal sexual reproduction allows for genetic variation within species. (
  • These features were also found in comparison to orthologous sequence contigs from three homeologous chromosomes of Solanum demissum , a wild tuber bearing species. (
  • Although most members of diploid species normally contain precisely two haploid chromosome sets, many known cases vary from this pattern. (
  • Kinetochore clustering, frequently observed in yeasts, plays a key role in genome organization and chromosome segregation. (
  • Sad1 is nonessential for viability in C. neoformans but is required for proper growth and high-fidelity chromosome segregation. (
  • A series of observations revealed a diverse group of proteins that contribute to the process of kinetochore clustering to ensure proper chromosome segregation. (
  • The early sepB + gene encodes an essential protein required for efficient chromosome segregation ( H arris and H amer 1995 ). (
  • Variation in crossover frequencies perturb crossover assurance without affecting meiotic chromosome segregation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (
  • Since his graduate studies, the major focus of his research is to under-stand the mechanism of chromosome segregation using various yeasts, both pathogenic and non-pathogenic, as model systems. (
  • Combining live cell confocal microscopy, mutational approach and computational simulation, the speaker's group has developed a comprehensive model and identified mechanistic conservation and divergence in the process of chromosome segregation in these two fungal phyla. (
  • Meiosis is a division of germ-line cells that involves recombination of genetic material and segregation of homologous chromosomes, leading to production of haploid gametes from a diploid cell, while mitosis preserves the initial chromosome number in both daughter cells. (
  • This occurs via mitotic defects that first produce tetraploid progeny with extra spindles, followed by chromosome mis-segregation. (
  • I) Compare and contrast eukaryotic and prokaryotic microbial chromosomes. (
  • Eukaryotic chromosomes undergo movements that are involved in the regulation of functional processes such as DNA repair. (
  • Each eukaryotic chromosome carries a centromere, the unique DNA locus, which is essential for faithful transmission of the genetic information during mitosis and meiosis. (
  • Insights into Functional Diversity in Neurospora This proposal investigates the genetic bases of fungal thermophily, biomass-degradation, and fungal-bacterial interactions in Sordariales, an order of biomass-degrading fungi frequently encountered in compost and encompassing one of the few groups of thermophilic fungi. (
  • The research group Meiosis is interested in the process of plant meiosis that generates genetic variation through homologous recombination and the research group Chromosome Structure and Function ( ) is interested in. (
  • The fungus might therefore serve as a useful model system for the study of sex chromosome evolution and the genetic changes that can lead to infertility, he said. (
  • Chromosome-level genome map provides insights into diverse defense mechanisms in the medicinal fungus Ganoderma sinense Fungi have evolved powerful genomic and chemical defense systems to protect themselves against genetic destabilization and other organisms. (
  • My lab studies genetic mechanisms that sustain structural and functional flexibility while maintaining the integrity of the organism using the model fungal system Fusarium oxysporum . (
  • 2010). The pathogenicity chromosomes encoded in each pathogenic form provide a focal point for investigating the genetic mechanisms that underlie pathogenesis. (
  • Consequently, M. grisea constitutes an excellent fungal model system for the dissection of genetic determinants required for infection on underground tissues, and for comparative analysis of the distinct tissue‐specific pathogenic mechanisms observed during leaf and root colonization. (
  • Because, according to Mendelian laws, the chromosome is the unit of genetic transmission, chromosome aberrations are passed on to offspring in a predictable manner, resulting in many unique genetic outcomes. (
  • These structures represent chromosomes that are missing the genetic material beyond that centromere. (
  • isochromosome which is a chromosome that contains the same genetic material on both arms. (
  • A principal difference between the results of meiosis and mitosis is determined by their difference in genetic control, chromosome structure, and chromosome behavior. (
  • The genome of Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) consists of a set of eleven 'core' chromosomes, shared by most strains and responsible for housekeeping, and one or several accessory chromosomes. (
  • Conversely, complete loss of virulence was observed in Forc016 strains that lost this chromosome. (
  • In contrast to cen9 ∆ mutants, cen10 Δ mutant strains exhibited growth defects and were aneuploid for chromosome 10. (
  • In the current DFG-funded project, we aim to better understand the molecular mechanisms of this inhibition, and would like to engineer fungal strains that are insensitive. (
  • Escherichia coli strains were grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth in a shaking incubator (150 rpm) at 37 o C. The list of fungal and E. coli strains is given in Table 1 . (
  • Using chromosome substitution strains (CSS), we found that loci on chromosomes 8, 11, and 18 influence susceptibility to S. aureus sepsis in A/J mice. (
  • Joseph Heitman has served as co-editor of seven textbooks spanning microbiology, genetics, infectious diseases: The Fungal Kingdom, ASM Press October 2017, editors: Joseph Heitman, Barbara J. Howlett, Pedro W. Crous, Eva H. Stukenbrock, Timothy Yong James, and Neil A.R. Gow. (
  • A bibliography listing 164 publications was published in 1994 in Fungal Genetics Newsletter 41:72-78. (
  • Increased chromosome mobility facilitates homology search during recombination. (
  • Homologous recombination, an essential process for preserving genomic integrity, uses intact homologous sequences to repair broken chromosomes. (
  • Meiotic recombination rates vary greatly along the chromosomes, and retrotransposons are absent in large regions of the genome with low levels of meiotic recombination. (
  • The fungal mating type locus later underwent processes that suppress recombination, they found. (
  • Recombination is the process whereby each member of a pair of chromosomes exchange segments of DNA. (
  • The researchers suggest that, despite the lack of recombination, some fungal mating type gene repair might occur through the exchange of gene segments within chromosomes. (
  • Differences in molecular evolution can be related to different transmission and recombination patterns, as well as to differences in effective population sizes of essential and dispensable chromosomes. (
  • 2013). Fungal secondary metabolite (SM) gene cluster sequences available for characterization far outstrip our current ability to characterize each cluster, as most of the fungi are not genetically amendable. (
  • The chromosome assembly of C. cinerea is an essential resource in understanding the evolution of multicellularity in the fungi. (
  • Sequencing and analysis of chromosome assemblies from ascomycete fungi have revealed blocks of shared ancestral gene order ( 1 , 2 ), the consequences and sorting of gene pairs after whole-genome duplication ( 3 ), and the preferential location of large gene families near chromosome ends ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • Visualization of mitotic chromosomes in filamentous fungi by fluorescence staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization. (
  • Mitotic chromosomes of the plant pathogenic filamentous fungi Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata were observed. (
  • This is the first report of the successful application of FISH to the chromosomes of filamentous fungi. (
  • Our young group is studying how fungi perceive the presence of plant biomass, particularly the plant cell wall polysaccharides, and is using this knowledge to improve biotechnological applications of fungal enzymes. (
  • Fungi do not have entire sex chromosomes like the familiar X and Y ch. (
  • Recent work suggests that aneuploidy is a common property of pathogenic and environmental isolates of unicellular fungi, ranging from basidiomycetes such as Cryptococcus neoformans , to ascomycete yeasts, including wild isolates of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans , a common commensal of humans and the most prevalent cause of fungal infections of humans [ 1 , 5 - 9 ]. (
  • All but one of the core chromosomes were assembled into single contigs, and a chromosome that shows all the hallmarks of a pathogenicity chromosome comprised two contigs. (
  • Through horizontal chromosome transfer (HCT) to a non-pathogenic strain, we also show that the accessory chromosome containing the SIX gene homologs is indeed a pathogenicity chromosome for cucurbit infection. (
  • Evolutionarily, F. oxysporum is a unique system where horizontally acquired chromosomes determine host-specific pathogenicity. (
  • The conference will bring together researchers across the globe and spanning career stages to present and discuss the latest exciting findings on fungal diversity, evolution, sex, development, growth and pathogenicity. (
  • Comparative genomics demonstrated that horizontal transfer of pathogenicity chromosomes conveys host-specific pathogenicity (Ma et al. (
  • 2010. Fusarium comparative genomics reveals lineage-specific chromosomes related to pathogenicity. (
  • To better understand the origin of these movements, we used fluorescence microscopy, image analysis and chromosome conformation capture to quantify the actin contribution to chromosome movements and interactions in budding yeast. (
  • Regions of the genome that determine the sexual identity of the infectious fungus Cryptococcus neoformans bear striking similarities to the human Y chromosome -- the sex chromosome associated with male characteristics -- the team found. (
  • This graphic, provided by Professor Hood, features a plot of mating type chromosomes of the fungus. (
  • To address this post-genomic SM characterization gridlock, we have demonstrated a new technology that generates unbiased shuttle bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) or fungal artificial chromosome (FAC) libraries, pooled FAC next-gen sequences to rapidly capture all the SM gene clusters in a fungal genome, exhibited heterologous expression in suitable host systems, and characterized high-throughput chemical analysis pipelines. (
  • Discovery of fungal secondary metabolic pathways from large-scale genomic and transcriptome information. (
  • To obtain genomic sequence for the targeted region on chromosome V, two local BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) contigs were constructed and sequenced, which corresponded to parts of the homologous chromosomes of the diploid, heterozygous genotype P6/210. (
  • Southern blot analysis of total C. beticola genomic DNA with fungal telomere probes supported the chromosome number estimate. (
  • This genomic diversity may contribute to the emergence of new fungal threats by providing a selective advantage in certain conditions. (
  • Fungal interactions with plant roots are of major ecological and economic importance. (
  • In addition to these conditions, more than one pair of homologous chromosomes may be involved. (
  • a double tetrasomic contains an extra pair of two pairs of homologous chromosomes (2N+2+2). (
  • A difference at the ultrastructural level appears as formation of meiosis-specific synaptonemal complexes (SCs), the ultrastructures that join homologous chromosomes into bivalents during pachytene stage of meiotic prophase I in the vast majority of eukaryotes. (
  • 2. Distinguish between sexual and asexual fungal spores. (
  • Sometimes, however, life get rough for yeast, and they respond by making spores, each with only one set of chromosomes. (
  • The dusty cloud that emerges from a puffball is actually the fungal spores dispersing. (
  • Diagnosing candidemia can be difficult, which means a better understanding of all fungal disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment has now become "an essential medical challenge of the 21st century. (
  • The repeated sequence CARE2/Rel2 is a subtelomeric repeat on chromosome 7 and possibly on the other chromosomes as well. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Fungal genomics" applicable to this article? (
  • This protein is very similar to one encoded by the human Y chromosome, called SRY, that when turned on leads a developing fetus to exhibit male characteristics. (
  • 2005. Chromosome speciation: humans, Drosophila , and mosquitoes. (
  • In humans and other mammals, males have one X and one Y chromosome, while females have a pair of X's. (
  • Emerging fungal infections continue to pose significant threats to animals, plants and humans, causing disease outbreaks and even posing a threat to food security [ 1 ]. (
  • Proteins that are required for nuclear positioning also function during chromosome movement and pairing in meiosis. (
  • Representative crossover and noncrossover distributions along chromosome IV for wild type and msh4-R676W hypomorph are shown in Figure 2, A and B. For the msh4Δ mutant, average crossovers were reduced to 49.5 / meiosis (t-test, P = 2.93 × 10−10), while noncrossovers (69.7 / meiosis, 56 median) were similar to wild type (t-test, P = 0.12). (
  • This joining produces specialized structures, or fruiting bodies, that undergo meiosis, halving their chromosome numbers. (
  • Nondisjunction occurs when paired chromosomes do not separate either during meiosis I or meiosis II. (
  • Studies conducted in parallel defined and illuminated evolution and function of fungal mating-type loci, illustrating parallels with sex chromosome evolution of plants and animals, including the discovery and characterization of the homeodomain proteins Sxi1alpha and Sxi2a, which coordinately control cell type identity and sexual reproduction. (
  • Crossover reductions in msh4-R676W and msh4Δ were significant across chromosomes regardless of size, unlike previous observations made at specific loci.The msh4-R676W hypomorph showed reduced crossover interference.These results, along with modeling of crossover distribution, suggest the significant reduction in crossovers across chromosomes and the loss of interference compromises the obligate crossover in the msh4 hypomorph. (
  • Mating-type loci have been found in a number of higher-level fungal sp. (
  • Chromosome loci that were positioned away from telomeres exhibited reduced motion in the presence of an actin polymerization inhibitor but were unaffected by the lack of Csm4. (
  • Each of these conditions is a variation on the normal diploid number of chromosomes. (
  • Moreover, fission and fusion apparently account for the majority of chromosome number changes in Carex , with relatively little duplication of whole chromosomes, whereas polyploidy is relatively important in the other sedge genera. (
  • Aneuploidy and loss of heterozygosity (LOH), which are large-scale genome shifts involving whole chromosomes or chromosome arms, occur at higher frequency than point mutations and have the potential to mediate stress survival. (
  • Here we report the sequence of 569,202 base pairs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome V. Analysis of the sequence revealed a centromere, two telomeres and 271 open reading frames (ORFs) plus 13 tRNAs and four small nuclear RNAs. (
  • Following chromosomal fusion, the neocentromere was inactivated, and the native centromere of the fused chromosome served as the active centromere. (
  • A chromosome with its centromere towards one end. (
  • telocentrics which are chromosomes that have a terminal centromere. (
  • A 39 year old man with a rare autosomal recessive "chromosome breakage" syndrome was followed. (
  • the BLM gene encodes a RecQ DNA helicase important for DNA repair, defects of which give rise to this "chromosome breakage syndrome. (
  • This complex matrix of proteins and polysaccharides protects against adverse stresses and determines the shape of fungal cells. (
  • We employed a usual-suspects approach, comparing proteins between fungal types before identifying a candidate that appeared related in all lineages," says Heitman. (
  • In silico protein modeling followed by interaction analysis between Pi54 protein model and selected four candidate effector proteins models revealed that Mo-01947_9 protein model encoded by a gene located at chromosome 4 of M. oryzae , interacted best at the Leucine Rich Repeat domain of Pi54 protein model. (
  • Comparing potato to Arabidopsis thaliana annotated proteins revealed five micro-syntenic blocks of three to seven ORFs with A. thaliana chromosomes 1, 3 and 5. (
  • We observe that for a set of fungal SwissProt protein sequences, SignalP 4 and the neural network predictors of SignalP 3 ( D -score) and SignalP 2 perform best. (
  • In application to human X chromosome, our method correctly classified a concatenated set of 35 previously assayed X-linked gene sequences by evolutionary strata. (
  • However, the precise molecular basis involved in fungal defense remain largely unknown in Basidiomycetes. (
  • The 2018 Gordon Research Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology will focus on the incredible diversity of fungal form and lifestyle. (
  • We will explore environmental sensing, signaling, morphology and molecular motors, as well as the synthetic design and commercial exploitation of fungal systems. (
  • This GRC will be held in conjunction with the "Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology (GRS)" Gordon Research Seminar (GRS). (
  • It has recently become apparent that the bridges that are used to transfer forces from the cytoskeleton across the nuclear envelope to position nuclei are the same as those that are used to move meiotic chromosomes and organize chromatin. (
  • Fungal diversity presents rich opportunities to discover and characterize divergent mechanistic solutions to evolutionary pressures and environmental challenges, advancing our understanding of biology as a whole. (
  • Mycology: An International Journal on Fungal Biology. (
  • Led by a Baylor College of Medicine team, the researchers say their results should support future studies on the longer-term neurological consequences of fungal infections in the brain, especially in light of prior research suggesting that fungal infections that cause airway allergic diseases and sepsis are associated with an increased risk for the later development of dementia. (
  • Importantly, he pointed out, fungal infections causing airway allergic diseases and sepsis have been associated with increased risk for dementia. (
  • As the authors pointed out, short-term fungal infections are recognized as an increasingly common medical problem, but the long-term health effects of transient candidemia aren't well understood. (
  • A single fungal mating type spurs the vast majority of all C. neoformans infections, he explained, suggesting that sex determination and virulence are closely linked. (
  • Dissecting host immunity against fungal infections has the potential to develop more effective anti-fungal drugs for the protection of both human and agricultural important crops. (
  • Although many issues remain to be investigated, the results of our study are very exciting and they constitute an important first step in the development of new therapeutic agents to treat fungal infections without major side effects for patients. (
  • These "extra" chromosomes are called "conditionally dispensable" (CD) chromosomes because while they are not required for axenic growth, they may allow isolates to have an expanded host range. (
  • The sequenced M. graminicola strain is known to harbor thirteen essential chromosomes plus eight dispensable chromosomes. (
  • We found evidence that structural rearrangements significantly affected the dispensable chromosomes while the essential chromosomes were syntenic. (
  • At the nucleotide level, the essential and dispensable chromosomes have evolved differently. (
  • The average synonymous substitution rate in dispensable chromosomes is considerably lower than in essential chromosomes, whereas the average non-synonymous substitution rate is three times higher. (
  • Taken together, such changes are called chromosome mutations or chromosome aberrations, to distinguish them from gene mutations. (
  • Fitness, a key factor in the emergence of new fungal threats, is a relative feature of genotype, phenotype, environmental conditions and the fitness of other organisms occupying the same environment. (
  • An SRY-related sequence on the marsupial X chromosome: implications for the evolution of the mammalian testis-determining gene. (
  • Although the number of fungal genome-sequencing projects has increased dramatically over the last few years, there is a surprising lack of complete chromosome assemblies from these projects. (
  • The horizontally transmitted "accessory" genome - in the form of lineage-specific (LS) chromosomes - only occurs in specific pathotypes and encodes host-specific virulence factors. (
  • An extracellularly-produced peptide acts intracellularly to program fungal virulence. (
  • Mapping chromosome rearrangement breakpoints to the physical map of Caenorhabditis elegans by fluorescent in situ hybridization. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Fungal evolution" applicable to this article? (
  • In this paper, we review the cytologic and taxonomic literature on chromosome evolution in Carex and identify unanswered questions and directions for future research. (
  • Fine scale evolution of fungal secondary metabolism. (
  • The same process is most likely responsible for the evolution of the male Y chromosome, Heitman suggests. (
  • Although this mechanism of chromosome number evolution is possible in theory, it has not been well documented. (
  • The discovered system represents the first clearly documented case of explosive chromosome number evolution through intraspecific and intrapopulation accumulation of multiple chromosomal changes. (
  • We show that the neural network predictors of SignalP 2 and 3, as well as TargetP were the most sensitive tools for fungal effector secretion prediction, whereas the hidden Markov model predictors of SignalP 2 and 3 were the most sensitive tools for oomycete effectors. (
  • Here, we report identification and cloning of a new fungal effector gene which interacts with blast resistance gene Pi54 in rice. (
  • The revolution in genome sciences has rapidly accelerated our ability to elucidate the process by which sex chromosomes evolved," Heitman said. (
  • Since 2019, Heitman has been co-director of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research's Fungal Kingdom program along with co-director Leah E. Cowen. (
  • As part of the ongoing Candida albicans Genome Project, we have constructed a complete sequence-tagged site contig map of chromosome 7 , using a library of 3840 clones made in fosmids to promote the stability of repeated DNA. (
  • This chromosomal diversity is due in large part to the structure of the holocentric chromosomes: fragments that would not be heritable in organisms with monocentric chromosomes have the potential to produce viable gametes in organisms with holocentric chromosomes. (
  • Remarkably, intrapopulational chromosome number polymorphism exists, the chromosome number range overlaps between some populations separated by hundreds of kilometers, and chromosomal heterozygotes are abundant. (
  • The bottom line is a schematic map of yeast chromosome V from 240 kb to 310 kb. (
  • To understand the causes of CAG repeat tract changes that occur in the passage of human disease alleles, we are studying the effect of replication and repair mutations on CAG repeat tracts embedded in a yeast chromosome. (
  • We show that both the cytoskeletal and nuclear actin drive local chromosome movements, independently of Csm4, a putative LINC protein. (
  • Using structure-guided active site engineering, we unravel structural contributions to regiospecific aldol condensations and show that reshaping the cyclization chamber of a PT domain by only three selected point mutations is sufficient to reprogram the dehydrocurvularin nrPKS to produce polyketides with a fungal fold. (
  • Central component of the condensin complex, a complex required for conversion of interphase chromatin into mitotic-like condense chromosomes. (
  • Overall, interphase chromosome dynamics are modulated by the additive effects of cytoskeletal actin through forces mediated by the nuclear envelope and nuclear actin, probably through the function of actin in chromatin-remodeling complexes. (
  • Sexual identity is governed by sex chromosomes in plants and animals. (
  • Numerous cases of extraordinary differences in chromosome number, especially in plants, are due to polyploidy [ 3 ]. (
  • Another possibility may arise from somatic fusion: there are multicellular life-styles where there are few if any physical barriers to the intermingling of cells (for example: sponges, fungal mycelia) and even among organisms that have evolved physical integuments representing a first line of defense against invasion, opportunities for cellular exchange occur. (