Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, 1-3: The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Painting: A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, 16-18: The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y: The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.Ring Chromosomes: Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.Chromosomes, Human, 4-5: The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Chromosome Structures: Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.Chromosomes, Human, 19-20: The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Chromosomes, Artificial, Human: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Chromosome Fragility: Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Chromosome Duplication: An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Abnormalities, MultiplePolytene Chromosomes: Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Cytogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.Karyotype: The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Chromosome Fragile Sites: Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Sex Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).Monosomy: The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Genes, X-Linked: Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Philadelphia Chromosome: An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Azure Stains: PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chromosomes, Archaeal: Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Chromosome Breakpoints: The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sex Chromatin: In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Chromosomes, Artificial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, elements such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, that are required for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance in progeny cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Sister Chromatid Exchange: An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Pachytene Stage: The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Genes, Y-Linked: Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.Euchromatin: Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Meiotic Prophase I: The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Radiation Hybrid Mapping: A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Genetic Heterogeneity: The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Sex Chromosome Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions of atypical sexual development associated with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions including MONOSOMY; TRISOMY; and MOSAICISM.

Short DNA fragments without sequence similarity are initiation sites for replication in the chromosome of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. (1/2033)

We have previously shown that both a centromere (CEN) and a replication origin are necessary for plasmid maintenance in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica (). Because of this requirement, only a small number of centromere-proximal replication origins have been isolated from Yarrowia. We used a CEN-based plasmid to obtain noncentromeric origins, and several new fragments, some unique and some repetitive sequences, were isolated. Some of them were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and correspond to actual sites of initiation (ORI) on the chromosome. We observed that a 125-bp fragment is sufficient for a functional ORI on plasmid, and that chromosomal origins moved to ectopic sites on the chromosome continue to act as initiation sites. These Yarrowia origins share an 8-bp motif, which is not essential for origin function on plasmids. The Yarrowia origins do not display any obvious common structural features, like bent DNA or DNA unwinding elements, generally present at or near eukaryotic replication origins. Y. lipolytica origins thus share features of those in the unicellular Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in multicellular eukaryotes: they are discrete and short genetic elements without sequence similarity.  (+info)

Defects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein phosphatase type I activate the spindle/kinetochore checkpoint. (2/2033)

A conditional allele of type 1 protein phosphatase (glc7-129) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae causes first cycle arrest in G2/M, characterized by cells with a short spindle and high H1 kinase activity. Point-of-execution experiments indicate Glc7p function is required in G2/M just before anaphase for the completion of mitosis. Loss of the spindle/kinetochore checkpoint in glc7-129 cells abolishes the G2/M cell cycle arrest with a concomitant increase in chromosome loss and reduced viability. These results support a role for Glc7p in regulating kinetochore attachment to the spindle, an event monitored by the spindle/kinetochore checkpoint.  (+info)

Regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinetochores by the type 1 phosphatase Glc7p. (3/2033)

We have investigated the role of protein phosphorylation in regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinetochores. By use of phosphatase inhibitors and a type 1 protein phosphatase mutant (glc7-10), we show that the microtubule binding activity, but not the centromeric DNA-binding activity, of the kinetochore complex is regulated by a balance between a protein kinase and the type 1 protein phosphatase (PP1) encoded by the GLC7 gene. glc7-10 mutant cells exhibit low kinetochore-microtubule binding activity in vitro and a high frequency of chromosome loss in vivo. Specifically, the Ndc10p component of the centromere DNA-binding CBF3 complex is altered by the glc7-10 mutation; Ndc10p is hyperphosphorylated in glc7-10 extracts. Furthermore, addition of recombinant Ndc10p reconstitutes the microtubule-binding activity of a glc7-10 extract to wild-type levels. Finally, the glc7-10-induced mitotic arrest is abolished in spindle checkpoint mutants, suggesting that defects in kinetochore-microtubule interactions caused by hyperphosphorylation of kinetochore proteins activate the spindle checkpoint.  (+info)

An in vitro system recapitulates chromatin remodeling at the PHO5 promoter. (4/2033)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene PHO5 is an excellent system with which to study regulated changes in chromatin structure. The PHO5 promoter is packaged into four positioned nucleosomes under repressing conditions; upon induction, the structure of these nucleosomes is altered such that the promoter DNA becomes accessible to nucleases. We report here the development and characterization of an in vitro system in which partially purified PHO5 minichromosomes undergo promoter chromatin remodeling. Several hallmarks of the PHO5 chromatin transition in vivo were reproduced in this system. Chromatin remodeling of PHO5 minichromosomes required the transcription factors Pho4 and Pho2, was localized to the promoter region of PHO5, and was independent of the chromatin-remodeling complex Swi-Snf. In vitro chromatin remodeling also required the addition of fractionated nuclear extract and hydrolyzable ATP. This in vitro system should serve as a useful tool for identifying the components required for this reaction and for elucidating the mechanism by which the PHO5 promoter chromatin structure is changed.  (+info)

Chromatin remodeling and activation of chromosomal DNA replication by an acidic transcriptional activation domain from BRCA1. (5/2033)

An increasing number of transcription factors have been shown to activate DNA replication. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here it is shown that when tethered to a cellular replication origin, the acidic transcriptional activation domain of the breast cancer protein BRCA1 alters the local chromatin structure and stimulates chromosomal DNA replication. Cancer-predisposing mutations in BRCA1 that abolish transcriptional activation also prevent chromatin remodeling and activation of replication. Chromatin remodeling occurs even in the absence of a functional replication origin. Thus, increasing chromatin accessibility may be an important mechanism used by transcription factors to facilitate multiple nuclear processes.  (+info)

Probing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae centromeric DNA (CEN DNA)-binding factor 3 (CBF3) kinetochore complex by using atomic force microscopy. (6/2033)

Yeast centromeric DNA (CEN DNA) binding factor 3 (CBF3) is a multisubunit protein complex that binds to the essential CDEIII element in CEN DNA. The four CBF3 proteins are required for accurate chromosome segregation and are considered to be core components of the yeast kinetochore. We have examined the structure of the CBF3-CEN DNA complex by atomic force microscopy. Assembly of CBF3-CEN DNA complexes was performed by combining purified CBF3 proteins with a DNA fragment that includes the CEN region from yeast chromosome III. Atomic force microscopy images showed DNA molecules with attached globular bodies. The contour length of the DNA containing the complex is approximately 9% shorter than the DNA alone, suggesting some winding of DNA within the complex. The measured location of the single binding site indicates that the complex is located asymmetrically to the right of CDEIII extending away from CDEI and CDEII, which is consistent with previous data. The CEN DNA is bent approximately 55 degrees at the site of complex formation. A significant fraction of the complexes are linked in pairs, showing three to four DNA arms, with molecular volumes approximately three times the mean volumes of two-armed complexes. These multi-armed complexes indicate that CBF3 can bind two DNA molecules together in vitro and, thus, may be involved in holding together chromatid pairs during mitosis.  (+info)

Dna2 mutants reveal interactions with Dna polymerase alpha and Ctf4, a Pol alpha accessory factor, and show that full Dna2 helicase activity is not essential for growth. (7/2033)

Mutations in the gene for the conserved, essential nuclease-helicase Dna2 from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were found to interact genetically with POL1 and CTF4, which encode a DNA Polymerase alpha subunit and an associated protein, suggesting that Dna2 acts in a process that involves Pol alpha. DNA2 alleles were isolated that cause either temperature sensitivity, sensitivity to alkylation damage, or both. The alkylation-sensitive alleles clustered in the helicase domain, including changes in residues required for helicase activity in related proteins. Additional mutations known or expected to destroy the ATPase and helicase activities of Dna2 were constructed and found to support growth on some media but to cause alkylation sensitivity. Only damage-sensitive alleles were lethal in combination with a ctf4 deletion. Full activity of the Dna2 helicase function is therefore not needed for viability, but is required for repairing damage and for tolerating loss of Ctf4. Arrest of dna2 mutants was RAD9 dependent, but deleting this checkpoint resulted in either no effect or suppression of defects, including the synthetic lethality with ctf4. Dna2 therefore appears to act in repair or lagging strand synthesis together with Pol alpha and Ctf4, in a role that is optimal with, but does not require, full helicase activity.  (+info)

Base excision repair of N-methylpurines in a yeast minichromosome. Effects of transcription, dna sequence, and nucleosome positioning. (8/2033)

Base excision repair of dimethyl sulfate induced N-methylpurines (NMPs) was measured in a yeast minichromosome that has a galactose-inducible GAL1:URA3 fusion gene, a constitutively expressed HIS3 gene, and varied regions of chromatin structure. Removal rates of NMPs varied dramatically (>20-fold) at different sites along three selected fragments encompassing a total length of 1775 base pairs. Repair of NMPs was not coupled to transcription, because the transcribed strands of HIS3 and induced GAL1:URA3 were not repaired faster than the nontranscribed strands. However, the repair rate of NMPs was significantly affected by the nearest neighbor nucleotides. Slow repair occurred at NMPs between purines, especially guanines, whereas fast repair occurred at NMPs between pyrimidines. NMPs between a purine and pyrimidine were repaired at moderate rates. Moreover, a rough correlation between nucleosome positions and repair rates exists in some but not all regions that were analyzed.  (+info)

*Allorecognition

Fraser JA, Heitman J (2004). "Evolution of fungal sex chromosomes". Molecular Microbiology. 51 (2): 299-306. doi:10.1046/j.1365 ... fungal mating types, fungal vegetative incompatibility, plant self-incompatibility systems, colonial marine invertebrates (such ... fungal mycelia) and even among organisms that have evolved physical integuments representing a first line of defense against ...

*List of sequenced fungi genomes

"Finished genome of the fungal wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola reveals dispensome structure, chromosome plasticity, ... This list of sequenced fungi genomes contains all the fungal species known to have publicly available complete genome sequences ... Fungal Genet. Biol. 49 (3): 217-26. doi:10.1016/j.fgb.2012.01.007. PMID 22326418. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis at BROAD ... contribution of supernumerary chromosomes to gene expansion". PLoS Genet. 5 (8): e1000618. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000618. ...

*Mycosphaerella graminicola

2011). "Finished Genome of the Fungal Wheat Pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola Reveals Dispensome Structure, Chromosome ... Eight of chromosomes could be lost with no visible effect on the fungus and thus are dispensable. Dispensable chromosomes have ... The genome contains 21 chromosomes, that is the highest number reported among ascomycetes. Furthermore, these chromosomes have ... Note the low fungal density in the apoplast (arrow) and the response of the mesophyll cells (arrow head), particularly the ...

*B chromosome

Supernumerary chromosomes do not carry genes that are necessary for basic fungal growth, but may have some functional ... B chromosomes are not to be confused with marker chromosomes or additional copies of normal chromosomes as they occur in ... B chromosomes may play a positive role on normal A chromosomes in some circumstances. The B chromosomes suppress homologous ... White M.J.D. (1973). The chromosomes (6th ed.). London: Chapman & Hall. ISBN 0-412-11930-7. B Chromosomes B chromosomes in wood ...

*Thinopyrum intermedium

"A Thinopyrum intermedium chromosome in bread wheat cultivars as a source of genes conferring resistance to fungal diseases". ... "A Thinopyrum intermedium chromosome in bread wheat cultivars as a source of genes conferring resistance to fungal diseases". ... and there have been several successful strains that shared 14 Thinopyrum intermedium chromosomes and 42 wheat chromosomes. ... First, there is wide evidence that hybridization of Thinopyrum intermedium with wheat is a method to confer fungal resistance ...

*Animal Genome Size Database

List of organisms by chromosome count Animal Genome Size Database Plant DNA C-values Database Fungal Genome Size Database Cell ...

*Fungus

Fungal cells contain membrane-bound nuclei with chromosomes that contain DNA with noncoding regions called introns and coding ... Mating experiments between fungal isolates may identify species on the basis of biological species concepts. The major fungal ... Factors that likely contribute to the under-representation of fungal species among fossils include the nature of fungal ... ISBN 0-85404-136-2. Jennings DH, Lysek G (1996). Fungal Biology: Understanding the Fungal Lifestyle. Guildford, UK: Bios ...

*HIKESHI

Similar sequences (orthologs) are found in most animal and fungal species. The mouse homolog, lethal gene on chromosome 7 ... HIKESHI is found on chromosome 11 in humans and chromosome 7 in mice. ... Located on long arm of chromosome 11 at area q14.2, the entire gene including introns and exons is 42,698 base pairs on the ... Table of Chromosome 11 open reading frame 73 Orthologs The table shows the 13 sequences (12 orthologs, 1 original sequence) ...

*Beatrice B. Magee

Perfect, J R; Magee, B B; Magee, P T (1989). "Separation of chromosomes of Cryptococcus neoformans by pulsed field gel ... Magee and her husband have worked on the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, and particularly their discovery of sexual ... Beatrice B. "Bebe" Magee is an American biochemist and geneticist with expertise in molecular mycology and fungal genetics. She ... Nantel, André (2006). "The long hard road to a completed Candida albicans genome". Fungal Genetics and Biology. 43 (5): 311-315 ...

*Ploidy

For example, a fungal dikaryon with two haploid nuclei is distinguished from the diploid in which the chromosomes share a ... This total number of chromosomes is called the chromosome number. The zygotic number is defined as the number of chromosomes in ... The number of chromosomes in a single set is called the haploid number, given the symbol n. If the number of chromosomes in the ... The number of chromosomes found in a single complete set of chromosomes is called the monoploid number (x). The haploid number ...

*List of MeSH codes (A11)

... chromosomes, fungal MeSH A11.284.187.360.800 - chromosomes, artificial, yeast MeSH A11.284.187.520 - chromosomes, mammalian ... x chromosome MeSH A11.284.187.865.982.500 - chromosomes, human, x MeSH A11.284.187.865.983 - y chromosome MeSH A11.284.187.865. ... chromosomes, human, pair 12 MeSH A11.284.187.520.300.325.680 - chromosomes, human, x MeSH A11.284.187.520.300.370 - chromosomes ... philadelphia chromosome MeSH A11.284.187.520.300.505.757 - chromosomes, human, y MeSH A11.284.187.560 - chromosomes, plant MeSH ...

*Micrometre

Between 1 μm and 10 μm: 1-10 μm - length of a typical bacterium 10 μm - Size of fungal hyphae 5 μm - length of a typical human ... The first and longest human chromosome is approximately 10μm in length. ...

*MRPS22

This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that does not seem to have a counterpart in prokaryotic and fungal-mitochondrial ... 2004). "FOXL2 inactivation by a translocation 171 kb away: analysis of 500 kb of chromosome 3 for candidate long-range ... A pseudogene corresponding to this gene is found on chromosome Xq. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000175110 - Ensembl, May ... 2001). "The human mitochondrial ribosomal protein genes: mapping of 54 genes to the chromosomes and implications for human ...

*Casper van Overeem

He was known for his studies on the fungal flora of Indonesia. He received his PhD from the University of Zurich in 1920, with ... a dissertation titled Über Formen abweichender Chromosomenzahl bei Oenothera ("About forms differing in chromosome number in ...

*Platypus

The sex chromosomes of the platypus have been found to have great homology to the bird Z chromosome. The platypus genome also ... "Platypus Fungal Disease". Department of Primary Industries and Water, Tasmania. 29 August 2008. Archived from the original on 7 ... five X chromosomes contains the DMRT1 gene, which birds possess on their Z chromosome. It lays one to three (usually two) small ... "In the platypus a meiotic chain of ten sex chromosomes shares genes with the bird Z and mammal X chromosomes". Nature. 432 ( ...

*Coprinellus micaceus

The chromosome number of C. micaceus is n=12. Coprinellus micaceus is an edible species, and cooking inactivates the enzymes ... Bos CJ (1996). Fungal Genetics: Principles and Practice. New York, New York: Marcel Dekker. pp. 152-3. ISBN 0-8247-9544-X. ... The chromosomes are readily discernible with light microscopy, and all of the meiotic stages are well-defined. These features ... In the scheme of the succession of fungal species involved in the decomposition of wood, C. micaceus is a late stage colonizer ...

*Phytophthora

Whereas fungal cell walls are made primarily of chitin, Phytophthora cell walls are constructed mostly of cellulose. Ploidy ... levels are different between these two groups; Phytophthora species have diploid (paired) chromosomes in the vegetative ( ...

*Podospora anserina

35 megabases, with 7 chromosomes and 1 mitochondrial chromosome. In the 1980s the mitochondrial chromosome was sequenced. Then ... Fungal prions PXMP3 Virus classification OLIGO Primer Analysis Software Point mutation Amyloid "Podospora anserina: a model ... Essential Fungal Genetics. page 40 THE PHENOLOXIDASES * OF THE ASCOMYCETE PODOSPORA ANSERZNA. COMMUNICATION VI. GENETIC ... In general, the mitochondrion and mitochondrial chromosome is investigated (note that animals, closely related to fungi, ...

*Phenylketonuria

The PAH gene is located on chromosome 12 in the bands 12q22-q24.1. More than 400 disease-causing mutations have been found in ... of a single PKU allele do not exhibit symptoms of the disease but appear to be protected to some extent against the fungal ...

*Ascomycota

ISBN 0-471-52229-5. Deacon, J. (2005). Fungal Biology. Blackwell. ISBN 1-4051-3066-0. Jennings DH, Lysek G (1996). Fungal ... The chromosome number may then be restored to its haploid state by nuclear division, with each daughter nuclei being ... the structure that defines this fungal group and distinguishes it from other fungal phyla. The ascus is a tube-shaped vessel, a ... The fungal symbionts in the majority of lichens (loosely termed "ascolichens") such as Cladonia belong to the Ascomycota. There ...

*David Perkins (geneticist)

He was instrumental in establishing and supporting the Fungal Genetics Stock Center. In 1968, he began a project to obtain wild ... Perkins developed techniques for mapping genes and centromeres on chromosomes based on the occasional errors, such as ... with the rearrangement of genes on paired chromosomes that occurs during reproduction, a phenomenon known as crossing over. ...

*List of systemic diseases with ocular manifestations

Deletion of long arm of chromosome 18 Deletion of chromosome 18 Ciliopathic genetic syndromes-A number of widely variant ... Malaria Toxoplasmosis Candida albicans Histoplasmosis Coccidioidomycosis Cryptococcus Metastatic fungal endophthalmitis ... Cri-du chat syndrome Schmid-Fraccaro syndrome Turner's syndrome Ring-D chromosome Monosomy-G syndrome Trisomy 13 (Patau's ...

*Ordospora colligata

On chromosome 8 in the low-GC region is a protein located, which has a homology to genes of D. pulex and D. magna. These genes ... code for the protein septin 7, which is important for the endocytosis-based invasion process of a fungal pathogen. The O. ... O. colligata has 10 chromosomes, and it is estimated to have a total genome size of 3 Mbp. The predicted number of open reading ...

*Encephalitozoon cuniculi

Its genome consists of approximately 2.9-megabases (Mbs) in 11 chromosomes, with a total of 1,997 potential protein-coding ... Phylogenetic analysis lends substantial credit to the fungal affiliation of microsporidia. Because the E. cuniculi genome ...

*Penicillium chrysogenum

CBS-KNAW- Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, the Netherlands. pp. 1-398. Andersen B, Frisvad JC, Søndergaard I, Rasmussen IS ... forming a cluster on chromosome I. Some high-producing Penicillium chrysogenum strains used for the industrial production of ... Associations between fungal species and water damaged building materials. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. In Press ... the fungal species was actually the related P. rubens). After this, he did some testing on humans and animals and discovered ...

*Genome size

Animal Genome Size Database Plant DNA C-values Database Fungal Genome Size Database Fungal Database - by CBS. ... I. DNA-content and chromosome sets in various species of Cyprinidae". Humangenetik. 7 (3): 240-244. doi:10.1007/BF00273173. ...
Using the labor of dozens of undergraduate students, scientists have built a customized yeast chromosome from scratch. It's a milestone in the rapidly
In a previous attempt to identify as many as possible of the essential genes on Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome I, temperature-sensitive (Ts-) lethal mutations that had been induced by ethyl methane-sulfonate or nitrosoguanidine were analyzed. Thirty-two independently isolated mutations that mapped to chromosome I identified only three complementation groups, all of which had been known previously. In contrast, molecular analyses of segments of the chromosome have suggested the presence of numerous additional essential genes. In order to assess the degree to which problems of mutagen specificity had limited the set of genes detected using Ts- lethal mutations, we isolated a new set of such mutations after mutagenesis with UV or nitrogen mustard. Surprisingly, of 21 independently isolated mutations that mapped to chromosome I, 17 were again in the same three complementation groups as identified previously, and two of the remaining four mutations were apparently in a known gene involved in ...
chapter 1) Comparative organization around the MAT locus in the Ascomycota. The main horizontal line shows the organization of the MAT locus in homothallic species, or the idiomorph (where known) in heterothallic species. The organization of the a idiomorph is represented by the offset box below the idiomorph. The nomenclature suggested in reference 67 is used for the Pezizomycotina (e.g., 1-1-1 represents MAT1-1-1). Orthologous genes are connected by gray lines. Conserved groups of genes are indicated by color: red, idiomorph; green, a idiomorph; yellow, APN2; purple, SLA2 and homologs of S. cerevisiae XIV; orange, homologs of S. cerevisiae chromosome X; blue, homologs of S. cerevisiae chromosome III (YCR033W-YCR038W); white, homologs of S. cerevisiae chromosome III (YCR042C-YCR045C); gray, homologs of S. cerevisiae chromosome XI (YLR186W-YLR182W); gray gradient, CAN1 (YEL063C). The position of an Ho endonuclease site in MATa1 is marked where present. The figure was redrawn from Butler et al. ...
Sequence and Analysis of Chromosome 2 of Arabidopsis thaliana," Nature 402: 761-768, 1999. [0451] Liu, Y G., Shirano, Y., Fukaki, H., Yanai, Y., Tasaka, M., Tabata, S., Shibata, D, Proc. Natl Acad Sci USA 96: 6535-40, 1999. [0452] Lohe and Hilliker, Curr. Op. Gen. & Dev., 5:746, 1995. [0453] Loomis et al., J. Expt. Zoology, 252:9-15, 1989. [0454] Lorz et al., Mol. Gen. Genet., 199:178, 1985. [0455] Louis, E J, "Corrected sequence for the right telomere of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome III," Yeast, 10(2):271-4, 1994. [0456] Lu et al., "High efficiency retroviral mediated gene transduction into single isolated immature and replatable CD34(3+) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells from human umbilical cord blood," J. Exp. Med. 178(6):2089-2096, 1993. [0457] Maeser and Kahmann, "The GIN recombinase of phage Mu can catalyse site-specific recombination in plant protoplasts," Mol. Gen. Genet., 230:170-176, 1991. [0458] Mahtani, M. M. and Willard, H. F. Genome Res. 8:100, 1998: [0459] Maloy, S. R., ...
SC9302X Z48179 37552bp DNA PLN 07-FEB-1995 S.cerevisiae chromosome IV cosmid 9302. ABC transporter; ARO1; beta-transducin; fimbrim; HPR1; multidrug resistance; pentafunctional arom polypeptide; reduced growth phenotype; RGP1; SCA6; ubiquitin. SCCHRIII X59720 S43845 S49180 S58084 S93798 315341bp DNA PLN 14-FEB-1995 S.cerevisiae chromosome III complete DNA sequence. chromosome. SCU20323 U20323 1041bp DNA PLN 15-FEB-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae ankyrin-like protein gene, complete cds. . SCVPS9 U20373 1721bp DNA PLN 16-FEB-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Vps9p (VPS9) gene, complete cds. . YSCL9753 U21094 24761bp ds-DNA PLN 16-FEB-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome XII cosmid 9753 ...
The complete nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VII has 572 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), of which 341 are new. No correlation was found between G+C content and gene density along the chromosome, and their variations are random. Of the ORFs, 17% show high similarity to human proteins. Almost half of the ORFs could be classified in functional categories, and there is a slight increase in the number of transcription (7.0%) and translation (5.2%) factors when compared with the complete S. cerevisiae genome. Accurate verification procedures demonstrate that there are less than two errors per 10,000 base pairs in the published sequence ...
The Generic Genome Browser. For questions about the data at this site, please contact its webmaster. For support of the browser software only, send email to [email protected] or visit the GMOD Project web pages. ...
The Generic Genome Browser. For questions about the data at this site, please contact its webmaster. For support of the browser software only, send email to [email protected] or visit the GMOD Project web pages. ...
The Generic Genome Browser. For questions about the data at this site, please contact its webmaster. For support of the browser software only, send email to [email protected] or visit the GMOD Project web pages. ...
The coordinates of the tag sequences along the genome were determined and each tag was classified into one of these four categories: 1) class 1 - within an existing ORF, 2) class 2 - within 500 bp downstream of existing an ORF, 3) class 4 - opposite of an existing ORF, or 4) class 3 - none of the above. The regions between two existing ORFs which contained one or more unique class 3 tags (number 4) above) were examined for potential coding sequences in which the unique tag was located either within the coding sequence or 500bp downstream of this sequence. BLASTP analysis was then performed for each potential ORF meeting these criteria against the non-redundant (nr) NCBI dataset, and those with a P value exponent of -6 or less were analyzed further. The BLAST results were analyzed on an individual basis for each potential ORF meeting the above criteria. Those potential ORFs which exhibited reasonable homology to other proteins, and did not appear to be matched with other proteins based on ...
The coordinates of the tag sequences along the genome were determined and each tag was classified into one of these four categories: 1) class 1 - within an existing ORF, 2) class 2 - within 500 bp downstream of existing an ORF, 3) class 4 - opposite of an existing ORF, or 4) class 3 - none of the above. The regions between two existing ORFs which contained one or more unique class 3 tags (number 4) above) were examined for potential coding sequences in which the unique tag was located either within the coding sequence or 500bp downstream of this sequence. BLASTP analysis was then performed for each potential ORF meeting these criteria against the non-redundant (nr) NCBI dataset, and those with a P value exponent of -6 or less were analyzed further. The BLAST results were analyzed on an individual basis for each potential ORF meeting the above criteria. Those potential ORFs which exhibited reasonable homology to other proteins, and did not appear to be matched with other proteins based on ...
SCDNAALG2 X87947 3123bp DNA PLN 16-JUN-1995 S.cerevisiae ALG2 gene. ALG2 gene; glycosyltransferase; ALG2. SCJ1PROM Z49780 573bp DNA PLN 13-JUN-1995 S.cerevisiae promoter DNA (573 bp). SCVRP1GEN X87806 3423bp DNA PLN 13-JUN-1995 S.cerevisiae VRP1 gene. verprolin; vrp1 gene; vrp1. YSCF4121 D44598 18837bp DNA PLN 24-JUN-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VI phage 4121. DNA-directed RNA polymerase mitochondrial; GTP-binding protein YPT1; actin; tubulin beta chain; ACT1; ACTIN; YPT1; GTP-BINDING PROTEIN YPT1(YP2); TUB2; TUBULIN BETA CHAIN; RPO41; DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE MITOCHONDRIAL. YSCF9965 D44597 36230bp DNA PLN 28-JUN-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VI cosmid 9965. hexokinase A; mitochondrial ribosomal protein; nuclearintegrity protein 1; proteosome component PRE4; YMR31; PRE4; NIN1; nuclearintegrity protein 1; HXK1; HEXOKINASE A. YSCF9993 D44603 35881bp DNA PLN 24-JUN-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VI cosmid 9993. To obtain any of the yeast GenBank sequences you can ...
Tettelin, H., Agostoni Carbone, M. L., Albermann, K., Albers, M., Arroyo, J., Backes, U., Barreiros, T., Bertani, I., Bjourson, A. J., Bruckner, M., Bruschi, C. V., Carignani, G., Castagnoli, L., Cerdan, E., Clemente, M. L., Coblenz, A., Coglievina, M., Coissac, E., Defoor, E., Del Bino, S., Delius, H., Delneri, D., de Wergifosse, P., Dujon, B., Kleine, K., et, a. l. .. (1997). "The nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VII." Nature 387:81-84.9169869 ...
View Notes - Reproduction and Chromosome Transmission from BIO 325 at University of Texas. To prepare human chromosomes for viewing (Figure 3.2a): Somatic cells are obtained from the blood. The cells
The localization of yeast centromeres and the 2-μm circle. Centromeres cluster close to the spindle pole body in late G1, but do not localize to the extreme nu
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Dr Ireena Dutta.. Hutchison/MRC Research Centre Seminar. Abstract not available. This talk is part of the Cambridge Oncology Seminar Series series.. ...
Wasp 1 - print ribbon carrier - for WPL305, WPL305EZ 633808403584 for $23.99 at macmall.com. Office Supplies & Equipment - Equipment & Equipment Supplies - Ribbons - Cash Register / POS from macmall.com.
There are many reasons why you experience tinging in your left arm. Read common causes, treatments, exercises for tingling in the left arm.
Hello, I was wondering if anyone can recommend good study material for the CEN exam. I understand that the exam has a high first-time fail rate. I want to pass the first time! Thanks, David
In budding yeast replication origins, the 11-bp ARS consensus sequence is essential for interaction with the ORC. However, replication origins in other eukaryotic species, including fission yeast, do not appear to contain a short essential sequence (15,23) and it has not been known whether the ORC is located at chromosomal replication origins. The present study demonstrated that a fission yeast ORC subunit and an Mcm protein are specifically localized at chromosomal replication origins. Orp1p is located at thears2004 and ars3002 loci throughout the cell cycle, while SpMcm6p is associated with these origins only in the G1 and S phases. To our knowledge, this is the first indication of preferential localization of the ORC and Mcm proteins at the chromosomal replication origins in eukaryotic species except for budding yeast.. The CHIP assay finding that Orp1p was localized at ars2004and ars3002 but not at non-ARS regions (Fig. 6) suggests that a certain sequence or DNA structure in the replication ...
Jacq, C., Alt-Morbe, J., Andre, B., Arnold, W., Bahr, A., Ballesta, J. P., Bargues, M., Baron, L., Becker, A., Biteau, N., Blocker, H., Blugeon, C., Boskovic, J., Brandt, P., Bruckner, M., Buitrago, M. J., Coster, F., Delaveau, T., del Rey, F., Dujon, B., Eide, L. G., Garcia-Cantalejo, J. M., Goffeau, A., Gomez-Peris, A., Zaccaria, P., et, a. l. .. (1997). "The nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome IV." Nature 387:75-78.9169867 ...
Safeguards for maintaining the integrity of chromosomes during cell growth and division can fail, and a cell may find itself trying to divide into two daughter cells with a loose chromosomal fragment drifting away from a broken chromosome. Researchers at UC Santa Cruz are studying a remarkable mechanism that carries broken chromosomes through the process of cell division so that they can be repaired and function normally in the daughter cells.
The habitat diversity of the fungus Nectria haematococca MPVI has been shown to be due in part to conditionally dispensable (CD) chromosomes that carry habitat-defining genes. From a biological perspective, the CD chromosomes are analogous to plasmids that possess genes that determine the habitats of plant-associated bacteria. This study establishes that the N. haematococca CD chromosome that contains the genes for Pea Pathogenicity (PEP cluster) also carries genes for the utilization of homoserine, an amino acid found in pea root exudates. Competition studies presented here demonstrate that an isolate that lacks the PEP cluster, but carries a portion of the CD chromosome containing the homoserine utilization (HUT) genes, is more competitive in the pea rhizosphere than an isolate without the CD chromosome. Further competition studies show that both the PDA1 and PDA6 CD chromosomes confer a competitive advantage in the rhizosphere of soybean, whereas only the PDA6 CD chromosome confers a ...
The habitat diversity of the fungus Nectria haematococca MPVI has been shown to be due in part to conditionally dispensable (CD) chromosomes that carry habitat-defining genes. From a biological perspective, the CD chromosomes are analogous to plasmids that possess genes that determine the habitats of plant-associated bacteria. This study establishes that the N. haematococca CD chromosome that contains the genes for Pea Pathogenicity (PEP cluster) also carries genes for the utilization of homoserine, an amino acid found in pea root exudates. Competition studies presented here demonstrate that an isolate that lacks the PEP cluster, but carries a portion of the CD chromosome containing the homoserine utilization (HUT) genes, is more competitive in the pea rhizosphere than an isolate without the CD chromosome. Further competition studies show that both the PDA1 and PDA6 CD chromosomes confer a competitive advantage in the rhizosphere of soybean, whereas only the PDA6 CD chromosome confers a ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about Yeast Artificial Chromosome (YAC) at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about Yeast Artificial Chromosome (YAC) easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
GF ID Scm3 #=GF AC PF10384.8 #=GF DE Centromere protein Scm3 #=GF AU Mistry J, Wood V #=GF SE Pfam-B_19394 (release 21.0) #=GF GA 24.30 24.30; #=GF TC 24.60 24.40; #=GF NC 24.20 24.00; #=GF BM hmmbuild HMM.ann SEED.ann #=GF SM hmmsearch -Z 26740544 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq #=GF TP Family #=GF RN [1] #=GF RM 17548816 #=GF RT Scm3, an essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae centromere protein #=GF RT required for G2/M progression and Cse4 localization. #=GF RA Stoler S, Rogers K, Weitze S, Morey L, Fitzgerald-Hayes M, Baker #=GF RA RE; #=GF RL Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:10571-10576. #=GF RN [2] #=GF RM 17704645 #=GF RT Domain Architectures of the Scm3p Protein Provide Insights into #=GF RT Centromere Function and Evolution. #=GF RA Aravind L, Iyer LM, Wu C; #=GF RL Cell Cycle. 2007; [Epub ahead of print] #=GF RN [3] #=GF RM 19563746 #=GF RT Common ancestry of the CENP-A chaperones Scm3 and HJURP. #=GF RA Sanchez-Pulido L, Pidoux AL, Ponting CP, Allshire RC; #=GF RL Cell. 2009;137:1173-1174. ...
Fish strains: The AB strain (Chakrabartiet al. 1983) was used in the screens that identified cycb213 and cycb229. Other strains used to produce hybrids for mapping include DAR, Tü, and TL (Postlethwaitet al. 1994; Haffteret al. 1996).. Nomenclature: We followed previous linkage group designations (Postlethwaitet al. 1994; Johnsonet al. 1996). Each linkage group corresponds to a different chromosome because each has been assigned a centromere (Johnsonet al. 1996).. Following guidelines for Drosophila rearrangements, the b213 reciprocal translocation is described as T(LG2;LG12)b213, and the two elements of the translocation are termed T(LG2; LG12)b213, 2P12D (for the rearranged chromosome with the centromere-proximal segment of LG 2 and distal segment of LG 12) and T(LG2;LG12)b213, 12P2D. Segregation of these rearranged chromosomes and their normal order counterparts results in euploid and aneuploid meiotic products (see Figure 7). For convenience of discussion, we refer to the haploid genotype ...
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The heat activation of Neurospora tetrasperma ascospores is a reversible process, since activated spores may be returned to secondary dormancy by preventing respiration, and these secondarily dormant spores may be induced to germinate by reheating. Activation of the spores brings about a large increase in respiration prior to the germination of the spores. As the spores are reversibly activated or deactivated the rate of respiration is increased or is decreased. By poisoning the cells with iodoacetamide it is possible to prevent all germination without greatly inhibiting this increase in respiration. Precisely with the beginning of germination a secondary rise in respiration occurs. The respiration of the spores is cyanide sensitive. The heat activation has a critical temperature at about 49 to 52°C.; and at a constant temperature within this range, the percentage of the spores activated as plotted against the time, follows an S-shaped population curve.. ...
Background: Soil-borne fungi of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex cause devastating wilt disease on many crops including legumes that supply human dietary protein needs across many parts of the globe. We present and compare draft genome assemblies for three legume-infecting formae speciales (ff. spp.): F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc-38-1) and f. sp. pisi (Fop-37622), significant pathogens of chickpea and pea respectively, the worlds second and third most important grain legumes, and lastly f. sp. medicaginis (Fom-5190a) for which we developed a model legume pathosystem utilising Medicago truncatula. Results: Focusing on the identification of pathogenicity gene content, we leveraged the reference genomes of Fusarium pathogens F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (tomato-infecting) and F. solani (pea-infecting) and their well-characterised core and dispensable chromosomes to predict genomic organisation in the newly sequenced legume-infecting isolates. Dispensable chromosomes are not essential ...
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A family of DNA fragments from the yeast genome has properties that suggest that chromosome replication starts at specific DNA sequences. These elements (autonomously replicating sequences: ARS) have a bipartite structure: a small (less than 20 base pairs) AT-rich region essential for function, flanked by larger regions important for maximal activity of the replicator. In an attempt to identify proteins involved in initiation of replication, yeast mutants that show an enhanced ability to replicate minichromosomes with defective ARSS have been isolated. ...
Though many experienced brewers may read this and note that this is not the absolutely best way to ferment lagers, it is regarded as the most foolproof and thats what you are looking for for your first lager fermentation. You need the first batch to be a success to get hooked on lagers and their smooth taste. Then you may start digging deeper into this subject and find a fermentation schedule that works best for you and your set-up.. One day before brew day pitch a 2 qt (2 L) well aerated starter with an Activator Pack (Wyeast) or vial (White Labs) of the lager yeast of your choice. Both companies offer really great yeast strains. If you are looking for a versatile lager yeast go with the German Lager (WLP830 or Wyeast 2124; According to White Labs and Wyeast this is the W-34/70 strain which is the most widely used lager strain in German beers) or whatever your recipe calls for. Keep this starter at room temperature 68 - 70 *F ( 20 - 21 *C) and let it start fermenting. It may throw off some ...
Alignment of the centromere regions of all sixteen chromosomes. The regions include the Centromere DNA Elements I II and III (CDEI, CDEII and CDEIII). The conserved bases in all centromeres are marked in magenta. The regions with less conserved residues of CDEI and CDEIII are marked in green. The CDEII region which contains more than 90% AT residues has been left white. The multiple sequence alignment was created with PILEUP ...
A vector (abbreviated YAC) used to clone DNA fragments (up to 400 kilobase|kb); it is constructed from the telomere|telomeric, centromere|centromeric, a...
Researchers Create Artificial Eukaryotic Chromosome Researchers led by Dr Jef Boeke of NYU Langone Medical Centers Institute for Systems Genetics have
Introduction and Goals Previously we examined the relationship between gene segregation and meiosis. As you should now know, Mendel was able to infer independent assortment between different genes because they were located on different chromosomes (each o
Less Can Be More: RNA-Adapters May Enhance Coding Capacity of Replicators. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
One of the most widely used Lager yeasts in the world. Very malty and clean, great for all German Lagers, Pilsners and Marzens. Free shipping over $59.
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Hi, I have tingling running up and down my left arm regardless of itis bent or straight. Sometime this results in numbness in my fingertips. It does come and go, should I be worried?
During meiosis, crossover recombination is essential to link homologous chromosomes and drive 22 faithful chromosome segregation. Crossover recombination is non-random across the genome, 23 and centromere-proximal crossovers are associated with an increased risk of aneuploidy, 24 including Trisomy 21 in humans. Here, we identify the conserved Ctf19/CCAN kinetochore sub- 25 complex as a major factor that minimizes potentially deleterious centromere-proximal crossovers 26 in budding yeast. We uncover multi-layered suppression of pericentromeric recombination by the 27 ...
The Stowers Institutes Baumann Lab has demonstrated how human cells protect chromosome ends from misguided repairs that can lead to cancer. The work, published in The EMBO Journal, a publication of the European Molecular Biology Organization, follows the teams 2007 in vitro demonstration of the role of the hRAP1 protein in preventing chromosome ends from being fused to new DNA breaks.. Chromosomes are linear. Their ends (called telomeres) should look like DNA breaks to the proteins that repair them. But somehow, cells are able to distinguish chromosome ends from DNA breaks. In this work, the team demonstrated that the human RAP1 protein plays a key role in preventing chromosome ends from being fused to new DNA breaks. Chromosome end fusions result in genomic instability, which can cause cancer. These findings suggest that RAP1 plays a critical role in cancer prevention in humans.. "Protecting naturally occurring chromosome ends from erosion and fusions may increase longevity and reduce cancer ...
DNA encodes the genetic information, the blueprint for any living organism. In higher eukaryotes, it resides in the cell nucleus, is associated with proteins forming chromatin and partitioned into linear units called chromosomes. The readout of genetic information, its maintenance and faithful transmission from one generation to the next depends on intact chromosomes. Untimely structural changes, failure to protect DNA from deterioration, impaired DNA repair or missegregation of chromosomes during cell division seriously compromise the fitness of the organism and cause numerous pathologies. Understanding the molecular basis of chromosome maintenance and dynamics is therefore essential for human health and fertility, for plant breeding but also for industrial and food production.. The Campus Vienna Biocenter (VBC) is a research hub for groups with strong records in chromosome biology. The implementation of the FWF-funded doctoral program (DK) "Chromosome Dynamics" allowed the establishment of a ...
Principal Investigator: Karel Riha. Chromosome integrity and the proper partitioning of the genome to daughter cells are essential prerequisites for the stable inheritance of genetic information over multiple cell divisions. Our two main research interests are the molecular mechanisms that govern the stability of chromosome ends and the regulation of chromosome behavior during meiosis.. ...
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This March 27, 2014, a team of American researchers led by Jef Boeke of New York University has created synthetically chromosome III of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is more commonly known as bakers yeast ...
Translocation Down syndrome Translocation reciprocal or eucentric translocation (Figure A, right) is a two-break aberration that results in an exact in- terchange of chromosomal segments between two nonhomologous chromosomes and ...
This is a lager yeast that is designed to ferment at quicker speeds than traditional lager yeasts. Brew you beer quicker without adding an off flavors
By studying processes that occur at the ends of chromosomes, a team of Heidelberg researchers has unravelled an important mechanism towards a better understanding of cellular aging. The scientists focused on the length of ...
Heineken Lager Beer is a Euro Pale Lager style beer brewed by Heineken Nederland B.V. in Zoeterwoude, Netherlands. 2.72 average with 5019 ratings, reviews and opinions.
A UT Arlington research team says their study of genetic information from more than 4,000 beetle species has yielded a new theory.
The entire chromosome consists of DNA. However, less than 3% of the DNA actually consists of genes. There are thought to be about 30,000 genes in humans. Less than 3% of human DNA codes for proteins. Most of the DNA in eukaryotic chromosomes consists of repetitive sequences that never get transcribed.. ...
Herold Bohemian Black Lager is a Schwarzbier style beer brewed by Pivovar Herold Březnice A.s. in Březnice, Czech Republic. 3.97 average with 102 ratings, reviews and opinions.
Nectria haematococca mating population (MP) VI isolates that contain the MAK1 gene are able to degrade maackiain, a chickpea (Cicer arietinum) phytoalexin, to a less toxic compound. To test the contribution of MAK1 to the virulence of N. haematococca MP VI on chickpea, the MAK1 gene was disrupted in a highly virulent Mak+ isolate or added to a weakly virulent Mak- isolate via transformation. The disruption of MAK1 decreased virulence to a moderate level, while addition of multiple copies of MAK1 increased virulence to either a moderate or a high level. These data demonstrate that maackiain detoxification is a determinant, but not the only determinant, of virulence in N. haematococca MP VI isolates capable of causing disease on chickpea. MAK1 is located on a 1.6-Mb conditionally dispensable chromosome. To ascertain if there are additional genes influencing virulence toward chickpea stems on the MAK1 chromosome, the loss of this chromosome was chemically induced in an isolate containing the ...
The majority of chromosomal translocations breakpoints are within regions of the genome where few DNA probes are available. The use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) containing long stretches of human DNA allows dispersed DNA markers to be used to identify the position of breakpoints but does not readily allow subcloning of the precise breakpoint within the YAC DNA nor the cDNAs containing the affected genes. We describe a procedure allowing rapid isolation of cDNAs corresponding to genes within a YAC clone. Random cDNA is hybridised to PCR-generated biotinylated fragments of total DNA from a yeast strain harbouring a YAC clone. The hybrids can be recovered to facilitate subsequent cloning of the cDNA molecules. The application of this method to the cloning of cDNA molecules carrying sequences involved in the translocation t(4;11)(q21;q23) is illustrated.
To me its always been very confusing why you would break your genome. Its your blueprint," says Hochwagen. "Obviously, it helps you make new variations and combinations of genes, but its incredibly dangerous and you really need to make sure that it happens the right way.". In repetitive DNA, this system of breaking and swapping is particularly hazardous, as there are many options that a section of repeat DNA could be swapped with. If the wrong repeat is chosen, a chromosome can gain or lose a large chunk of DNA. In humans, such mistakes have been linked to genetic neurological and developmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia.. By studying the highly repetitive DNA that makes up yeasts ribosomal DNA (rDNA), Gerben Vader and Hannah Blitzblau, first authors of the Nature paper and postdoctoral researchers in Hochwagens lab, have determined that yeasts rDNA is protected from inappropriate recombination by two mechanisms. It was previously shown that ...
Originated from a bacterial plasmid, a YAC contains a yeast centromeric region (CEN), a yeast origin of DNA replication, a cluster of unique rectriction sites and a selectable marker and a telomere region at the en of each arm. YACs are capable of cloning extremely large segments of DNA (over 1 megabase long) into a host cell, where the DNA is propagated along with the other chromosomes of the yeast cell.. ...
Journal of Cell Science is pleased to be a part of the new and exciting Review Commons initiative, launched by EMBO and ASAPbio. Streamlining the publishing process, Review Commons enables high-quality peer review to take place before journal submission. Papers submitted to Review Commons will be assessed independently of any journal, focusing solely on the papers scientific rigor and merit.. ...
Im assuming youre fermenting at lager temperatures. If so, lager yeast perform a lot slower than ale yeast. This is the biggest adjustment for first-time lager brewers who are used to things being done in a matter of days. To see any bubbles in the airlock the wort would have to become saturated first with CO2. Since the wort is cool it will hold more CO2 than an ale wort would. Youre more than likely fine, especially if you see a yeast bed forming. As a general rule, I leave my lagers on the yeast for 1 month to completely ferment--2 weeks for the main ferment and another 2 weeks to clean up the byproducts. Dont worry, and dont rush the yeast--theyll go on strike ...
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Understanding the regulatory principles ensuring complete DNA replication in each cell division is critical for deciphering the mechanisms that maintain genomic stability
Collins SR, Miller KM, Maas NL, Roguev A, Fillingham J, Chu CS, Schuldiner M, Gebbia M, Recht J, Shales M, Ding H, Xu H, Han J, Ingvarsdottir K, Cheng B, Andrews B, Boone C, Berger SL, Hieter P, Zhang Z, Brown GW, Ingles CJ, Emili A, Allis CD, Toczyski DP, Weissman JS, Greenblatt JF, Krogan NJ. Functional dissection of protein complexes involved in yeast chromosome biology using a genetic interaction map. Nature. 2007 Apr 12; 446(7137):806-10. Epub 2007 Feb 21 ...
I understand that angina caused by exercise gives pain which radiates from the chest down the left arm, but why is this? Why should the pain be felt in the left arm? Is it due to tissue hypoxia? If so, why just the left arm ...
Bell CJ, Budarf ML, Nieuwenhuijsen BW, Barnoski BL, Buetow KH, Campbell K, Colbert AM, Collins J, Daly M, Desjardins PR, et al, Integration of physical, breakpoint and genetic maps of chromosome 22. Localization of 587 yeast artificial chromosomes with 238 mapped markers. Hum Mol Genet4:59-69 ...
Looking over the temperatures youve posted, youve gotten a little ahead of yourself. Lager means to store, and 35 deg F is fine once primary fermentation is complete, but too cold for the yeast to do anything but at a snails pace. The primary fermentation is typically in the mid 40s to mid 50s (but check the specs for the particular strain). After that, you can lower the temp and actually lager the beer ...
I discovered by chance (because of a temporary injury at the right arm) that for some activities I am ambidextrous. For instance I play with both hands in tennis (not only the now very general two hands backhand) . In competition this is even an advantage since it is a problem for some opponents and for lengthy matches my right arm is more spared. In the history of tennis some high level players (but not the best ones) were ambidextrous. I had to train to be efficient with the left arm but I remarked that my gestures of the left arm mimick in part gestures of the right one. I should be interested if both right and left arm are commanded from the same hemisphere. Do ambidextrous people have special known connections between both hemispheres ...
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Author Summary Nectria haematococca MPVI occurs as a saprophyte in diverse habitats and as a plant and animal pathogen. It also was the first fungus shown to contain supernumerary chromosomes with unique habitat-defining genes. The current study reveals that it has one of the largest fungal genomes (15,707 genes), which may be related to its habitat diversity, and describes two additional supernumerary chromosomes. Two classes of genes were identified that have contributed to gene expansion: 1) specific genes that are not found in other fungi, and 2) genes that are present as multiple copies in N. haematococca but commonly occur as a single copy in other fungi. Some of these genes have properties suggesting their acquisition by horizontal gene transfer. We show that the three supernumerary chromosomes are different from the normal chromosomes; they contain more repeat sequences, are particularly enriched in unique and duplicated genes, and have a lower G+C content. Additionally, the biochemical
The IPL1 gene is required for high-fidelity chromosome segregation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conditional ipl1ts mutants missegregate chromosomes severely at 37 degrees C. Here, we report that IPL1 encodes an essential putative protein kinase whose function is required during the later part of each cell cycle. At 26 degrees C, the permissive growth temperature, ipl1 mutant cells are defective in the recovery from a transient G2/M-phase arrest caused by the antimicrotubule drug nocodazole. In an effort to identify additional gene products that participate with the Ipl1 protein kinase in regulating chromosome segregation in yeast, a truncated version of the previously identified DIS2S1/GLC7 gene was isolated as a dosage-dependent suppressor of ipl1ts mutations. DIS2S1/GLC7 is predicted to encode a catalytic subunit (PP1C) of type 1 protein phosphatase. Overexpression of the full-length DIS2S1/GLC7 gene results in chromosome missegregation in wild-type cells and exacerbates the ...
Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are genetically engineered chromosomes derived from the DNA of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is then ligated into a bacterial plasmid. By inserting large fragments of DNA, from 100-1000 kb, the inserted sequences can be cloned and physically mapped using a process called chromosome walking. This is the process that was initially used for the Human Genome Project, however due to stability issues, YACs were abandoned for the use of Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC). Beginning with the initial research of the Rankin et al., Strul et al., and Hsaio et al., the inherently fragile chromosome was stabilized by discovering the necessary autonomously replicating sequence (ARS); a refined YAC utilizing this data was described in 1983 by Murray et al. The primary components of a YAC are the ARS, centromere, and telomeres from S. cerevisiae. Additionally, selectable marker genes, such as antibiotic resistance and a visible marker, are utilized to select ...
Eukaryotic chromosome fine structure refers to the structure of sequences for eukaryotic chromosomes. Some fine sequences are included in more than one class, so the classification listed is not intended to be completely separate. Some sequences are required for a properly functioning chromosome: Centromere: Used during cell division as the attachment point for the spindle fibers. Telomere: Used to maintain chromosomal integrity by capping off the ends of the linear chromosomes. This region is a microsatellite, but its function is more specific than a simple tandem repeat. Throughout the eukaryotic kingdom, the overall structure of chromosome ends is conserved and is characterized by the telomeric tract - a series of short G-rich repeats. This is succeeded by an extensive subtelomeric region consisting of various types and lengths of repeats - the telomere associated sequences (TAS). These regions are generally low in gene density, low in transcription, low in recombination, late replicating, ...
The improper partitioning of chromosomes is responsible for a many human maladies. Errors in mitotic chromosome segregation contribute to the development of cancer while errors in meiosis are the leading cause of birth defects and infertility. Proper chromosome segregation requires the co-ordination of chromosome behavior with other cellular events, and the assembly of a functional machine to move the chromosomes to the right place at the right time in the cell cycle. The research in our laboratory is focused on both the regulatory and mechanical aspects of chromosome behavior. Our projects primarily use the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a model to elucidate conserved aspects of eukaryotic chromosome biology. Our goal is to elucidate fundamentals of chromosome behavior that will provide insights into the origins of chromosome segregation errors in humans.. Our laboratory is involved in two major projects. Slk19 is a bi-functional protein. Slk19 is a member of the FEAR signaling pathway ...
Aneuploidy is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and birth defects in humans. At least 5% of all recognized pregnancies are aneuploid. Maternal meiosis is especially error-prone and the rate of chromosome missegregation increases exponentially with advancing maternal age. Despite its clinical significance, the mechanisms underlying maternal age-dependent segregation errors are not understood. One hypothesis is that cohesion deteriorates with advancing maternal age and homologous chromosomes that do not maintain chaismata segregate randomly during meiosis. With Drosophila as a model organism, I have used techniques developed in our laboratory to experimentally age oocytes. To accelerate loss of cohesion with age, I utilized mutant flies with slightly compromised meiotic cohesion. A standard genetic test was utilized to assess errors in meiotic chromosome segregation after oocytes were subjected to the aging regimen. My objective was to determine whether aging of oocytes with slightly compromised ...
Meiosis is a special division during which a cell undergoes two sequential rounds of chromosome segregation with no intervening DNA replication, to generate gamete cells with half the original chromosomal complement. During the first meiotic division (meiosis I), recombination among homologous chromosomes generates novel genetic combinations that play an important role in evolution and breeding. Crossovers persist as cytologically visible chiasmata until homologues segregate in metaphase I and are important for ensuring balanced segregation of homologues [1]. Thus the evolutionarily important effects of recombination and allele shuffling are intimately tied to the physical workings of meiotic chromosome segregation and the maintenance of genome integrity over generations.. Meiotic recombination is an elaborate process, involving numerous steps that take place over the course of many hours (e.g. [2]). Recombination is essentially a DNA repair process that relies on initial programmed double ...
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes are the two major domains of living organisms. This classification is on the basis of the features of their cellular features primarily the nature of membrane bounded organelles and organization of the genetic materials. Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes contain the genetic materials which are organized into specialized structures called Chromosomes. Even though the term chromosome is accurate only for eukaryotes, the genetic materials of prokaryotes are also described as prokaryotic chromosome. The prokaryotic chromosome is considerably different from that of eukaryotes. The present post describes the Similarities and Differences between the Prokaryotic Chromosome and Eukaryotic Chromosome with the help of a Comparison Table.. ...
When a cell divides, it duplicates its chromosomes to make one set for each of the daughter cells. The membrane around the nucleus, which keeps the chromosomes separate from the rest of the cell, breaks down. The two sets of chromosomes then line up and segregate to opposite sides of the cell, pulled apart by a structure of microtubules called the spindle. A new nuclear envelope forms around each set of chromosomes, and new cell membranes separate the two daughter cells ...
Evolutionarily conserved Cse4, the centromeric histone H3 variant (CENP-A in humans) and its chaperone Scm3 (HJURP in humans) which are essential for chromosome...
Introduction and Goals Gregor Mendel (Figure 1) concluded from his experiments that hereditary units transmitted traits from one generation to the next, but at the time of his work (1850-1860s) chromosomes had not yet been observed. Around the turn of
What is the difference between Translocation and Crossing Over? Translocation occurs between non-homologous chromosomes while crossing over occurs between...
Any ideas of how to makes this a light American lager. My father in law only drinks light American lagers (coors light/bud light). Its not something I really want to make but since he helped me build my brewery, how can I say no. Do you think I can keep the percentages of the grain bill as is and dial down the malt bill until it gives me an OG of 1.032-1.038? Jamil has a recipe in his book for a light lager that uses 2 row and flaked rice that I might scale to my setup. I dont want to tie up my chest freezer for months so I will attempt the fast lagering process that was in the latest BYO magazine. ...
Bekijk Stockfoto van Pair Of Chromosomes Connected By A Centromere Sem. Ga voor hoogwaardige fotos met een hoge resolutie naar Getty Images.
Postdoctoral positions are available immediately to study cellular mechanisms that govern chromosome integrity and inheritance using a combination of biochemical, biophysical, and cell biological methods. Applicants with backgrounds and interests in protein biochemistry, X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, tissue culture, and/or light microscopy are encouraged to apply.. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Involvement of the spliceosomal U4 small nuclear RNA in heterochromatic gene silencing at fission yeast centromeres. AU - Chinen, Madoka. AU - Morita, Misato. AU - Fukumura, Kazuhiro. AU - Tani, Tokio. PY - 2010/2/19. Y1 - 2010/2/19. N2 - prp13-1 is one of the mutants isolated in a screen for defective pre-mRNA splicing at a nonpermissive temperature in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We cloned the prp13+ gene and found that it encodes U4 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) involved in the assembly of the spliceosome. The prp13-1 mutant produced elongated cells, a phenotype similar to cell division cycle mutants, and displays a high incidence of lagging chromosomes on anaphase spindles. The mutant is hypersensitive to the microtubule-destabilizing drug thiabendazole, supporting that prp13-1 has a defect in chromosomal segregation. We found that the prp13-1 mutation resulted in expression of the ura4 + gene inserted in the pericentromeric heterochromatin region and reduced ...
Here we report a technique of laser chromosome welding that uses a violet pulse laser micro-beam for welding. The technique can integrate any size of a desired chromosome fragment into recipient chromosomes by combining with other techniques of laser chromosome manipulation such as chromosome cutting, moving, and stretching. We demonstrated that our method could perform chromosomal modifications with high precision, speed and ease of use in the absence of restriction enzymes, DNA ligases and DNA polymerases. Unlike the conventional methods such as de novo artificial chromosome synthesis, our method has no limitation on the size of the inserted chromosome fragment. The inserted DNA size can be precisely defined and the processed chromosome can retain its intrinsic structure and integrity. Therefore, our technique provides a high quality alternative approach to directed genetic recombination, and can be used for chromosomal repair, removal of defects and artificial chromosome creation. The ...
During the construction of yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) libraries to facilitate mapping of the human genome, two YACs may be cotransformed into the same yeast cell, making further analysis very difficult. We present a simple method to rescue the required YAC that utilizes the segregation of chromosomes at meiosis. In brief, we crossed the cotransformed yeast cell with a non-YAC-containing strain and induced the resulting diploid to sporulate and undergo meiosis. The new haploid generation included some yeast cells that contained only the desired YAC. These YACs were analyzed by conventional methods. To exclude the possibility that major rearrangement occurred during the procedure, we analyzed the YACs with restriction enzymes that cut only rarely. We conclude that this is a useful technique to rescue cotransformed YACs.
The histone protein CenH3 is both necessary and sufficient to trigger the formation of centromeres and pass them on from 1 generation to the next. Centromeres are specialised regions of the genome, which can be identified under the microscope as the primary constriction in X-shaped chromosomes. The cell skeleton, which distributes the chromosomes to the two daughter cells during cell division, attaches to the centromeres. In most organisms the position of the centromere is not determined by the DNA sequence. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics in Freiburg have succeeded in demonstrating that the position, function and inheritance of the centromere are determined by the histone CenH3, a DNA packaging protein. This discovery may help to further the development of artificial human chromosomes, which could be used for gene therapies in medicine.. Centromeres provide a platform for the development of a protein complex known as the kinetochore. During cell ...
Centromere DNA element II (CDEII) of budding yeast centromeres is an AT-rich sequence essential for centromere (CEN) function. Sequence analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDEIIs revealed that A(5-7)/T(5-7) tracts are statistically overrepresented at the expense of AA/TT and alternating AT. To test the hypothesis that this nonrandom sequence organization is functionally important, a CEN library in which the CDEII sequences were randomized was generated. The library was screened for functional and nonfunctional members following centromere replacement in vivo. Functional CENs contained CDEIIs with the highly biased A(n)/T(n) run distribution of native centromeres, while nonfunctional CDEIIs resembled those picked from the library at random. Run content, defined as the fraction of residues present in runs of four or more nucleotides, of the functional and nonfunctional CDEII populations differed significantly (P | 0.001). Computer searches of the genome for regions with an A + T content comparable to
Measurements of interference entail a comparison of the product of individual two-point recombination frequencies between markers with the corresponding double-crossover frequency. We used standard genetic crosses to measure the frequency of single and multiple crossover events. Because C. elegans is a hermaphroditic species, we assayed frequencies in hermaphrodite oogenesis, male spermatogenesis, and in an aggregate measure that combines hermaphrodite spermatogenesis and oogenesis (Figure 1, B, C, and E, respectively).. Figure 1B presents the set of results observed in oogenesis. The observed oocyte two-factor recombination frequencies in our experiments were 13.1% [in agreement with results reported by Hammarlund et al. (2005)] and 36.2%, respectively, for the unc-60(e723)-to-dpy-11(e224) (interval L) and dpy-11(e224)-to-rol-9(sc148) (interval R) intervals (95% C.I.s, 10.3%-16.42% and 31.9%-40.6%, respectively) (Clopper and Pearson 1934). In the absence of crossover interference, one would ...
Chromosome cohesion factor involved in sister chromatid cohesion and fidelity of chromosome transmission. Component of one of the cell nuclear antigen loader complexes, CTF18-replication factor C (CTF18-RFC), which consists of CTF18, CTF8, DCC1, RFC2, RFC3, RFC4 and RFC5. The CTF18-RFC complex binds to single-stranded and primed DNAs and has weak ATPase activity that is stimulated by the presence of primed DNA, replication protein A (RPA) and by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The CTF18-RFC complex catalyzes the ATP-dependent loading of PCNA onto primed and gapped DNA. It also interacts with and stimulates DNA polymerase POLH ...
Budding Yeast Kinetochore Proteins, Chl4 and Ctf19, Are Required to Maintain SPB-Centromere Proximity during G1 and Late Anaphase. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
By mapping various genomes onto an X-Y axis, a team comprised mostly of Kansas State University researchers has found that Charles Darwin and a fruit fly -- among other organisms -- have a lot in common genetically.. Their discovery, "Chromosome Size in Diploid Eukaryotic Species Centers on the Average Length with a Conserved Boundary," was recently published in the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution. It details a project that compared 886 chromosomes in 68 random species of eukaryotes -- organisms whose cells contain a nucleus and are enclosed by cellular membranes. The researchers found that the chromosome sizes within each eukaryotic species are actually similar rather than drastically different as previously believed. They also found that the chromosomes of these different organisms share a similar distribution pattern.. Because chromosomes are the genetic building blocks for an organism and its traits, the information will be beneficial to understanding the core components of ...
Using a high resolution method - the so called chip-on-chip technique - which allowed to investigate repair factor recruitment to DNA in unprecedented details, the researchers made a surprising observation: In an apparent attempt to find homology and repair the DSB, a protein called Rad51 (or "recombinase") begins within one hour to accumulate and to spread bi-directionally from the break, covering after a short time the entire chromosome - a much larger area than supposed before. "Intriguingly, Rad51 spreading only occurs on the chromosome where the break resides and does not "jump" to other chromosomes", says Kalocsay. As to the researchers knowledge, this is the first in vivo description of ongoing chromosome-wide homology search, which is the most mysterious event in DSB repair. Therefore, this finding has important implications for the understanding of DNA repair by homologous recombination.. Furthermore, Kalocsay and Hiller identified a novel important player in the DNA-damage response ...
During metaphase I, the homologous chromosomes are arranged in the center of the cell with the kinetochores facing opposite poles. The homologous pairs orient themselves randomly at the equator. For example, if the two homologous members of chromosome 1 are labeled a and b, then the chromosomes could line up a-b, or b-a. This is important in determining the genes carried by a gamete, as each will only receive one of the two homologous chromosomes. Recall that homologous chromosomes are not identical. They contain slight differences in their genetic information, causing each gamete to have a unique genetic makeup.. This randomness is the physical basis for the creation of the second form of genetic variation in offspring. Consider that the homologous chromosomes of a sexually reproducing organism are originally inherited as two separate sets, one from each parent. Using humans as an example, one set of 23 chromosomes is present in the egg donated by the mother. The father provides the other set ...
View Notes - Cellcycle_ mitosis_meiosiskey from BIOLOGY 102 at Harvard. Cell Cycle, Mitosis and Meiosis 1. Which statement about eukaryotic chromosomes is not true? a. They sometimes consist of two
These results strongly indicate that the double-Tc/KO mice can be used to obtain antigen-specific hu-mAbs with various isotypes exhibiting desired effector functions. Successful expression of all four hγ subclasses represents an advantage of using hCF vectors to bypass cloning steps because some sequences within the constant region of human IgH locus was found to be unclonable by conventional cloning systems (6). V gene complexity is supposed to be essential for restoration of normal humoral immune response (5), which is important for the production of high affinity hu-mAbs against variety of antigens. Therefore, high affinities of the resultant hu-mAbs suggest that the authentic repertoire of fully human Igs was reconstituted in the double-Tc/KO mice. Although more detailed structural analysis of hCFs may be required to determine whether human Ig loci contained in the double-Tc/KO mice are completely intact, the data presented here and in our previous report (7) suggest that they include ...
Hello All I have list of genes i want to know which all genes will make one chromosome segments So For example i have gene A , B , C , D i want for example A,B, C forming one stretch of chromosome segment (1p15.1p20) 1p15.1p.20 will make one segment. If i have ramdom gene name i want which genes will fall in one stretch of segments.. ...
Chromosome Structure | Scientific research info incl meetings, conferences, seminars, symposia,tradeshows,jobs,jobfairs, professional tips and more.
Gorlov, I.P.; Ladygina, T.Y.; Borodin, P.M., 1990: Synapsis and recombination in mice homozygous for a double insertion of a homogenously stained region of chromosome No. 1

Recombination Hotspots Flank the Cryptococcus Mating-Type Locus: Implications for the Evolution of a Fungal Sex ChromosomeRecombination Hotspots Flank the Cryptococcus Mating-Type Locus: Implications for the Evolution of a Fungal Sex Chromosome

Recombination hotspots and coldspots have been described in many organisms and often reflect global features of chromosome ... Fungal genomics Is the Subject Area "Fungal genomics" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Fungal evolution Is the Subject Area "Fungal evolution" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
more infohttp://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.0020184

Sad1 Spatiotemporally Regulates Kinetochore Clustering To Ensure High-Fidelity Chromosome Segregation in the Human Fungal...Sad1 Spatiotemporally Regulates Kinetochore Clustering To Ensure High-Fidelity Chromosome Segregation in the Human Fungal...

Sad1 Spatiotemporally Regulates Kinetochore Clustering To Ensure High-Fidelity Chromosome Segregation in the Human Fungal ... Sad1 spatiotemporally regulates kinetochore clustering to ensure high-fidelity chromosome segregation in the human fungal ... Sad1 Spatiotemporally Regulates Kinetochore Clustering To Ensure High-Fidelity Chromosome Segregation in the Human Fungal ... Sad1 Spatiotemporally Regulates Kinetochore Clustering To Ensure High-Fidelity Chromosome Segregation in the Human Fungal ...
more infohttps://msphere.asm.org/content/3/4/e00190-18

Sad1 Spatiotemporally Regulates Kinetochore Clustering To Ensure High-Fidelity Chromosome Segregation in the Human Fungal...Sad1 Spatiotemporally Regulates Kinetochore Clustering To Ensure High-Fidelity Chromosome Segregation in the Human Fungal...

Sad1 Spatiotemporally Regulates Kinetochore Clustering To Ensure High-Fidelity Chromosome Segregation in the Human Fungal ... Sad1 Spatiotemporally Regulates Kinetochore Clustering To Ensure High-Fidelity Chromosome Segregation in the Human Fungal ... Sad1 Spatiotemporally Regulates Kinetochore Clustering To Ensure High-Fidelity Chromosome Segregation in the Human Fungal ... Sad1 Spatiotemporally Regulates Kinetochore Clustering To Ensure High-Fidelity Chromosome Segregation in the Human Fungal ...
more infohttps://msphere.asm.org/content/3/4/e00190-18/figures-only

Expansions of CAG repeat tracts are frequent in a yeast mutant defective in Okazaki fragment maturation.Expansions of CAG repeat tracts are frequent in a yeast mutant defective in Okazaki fragment maturation.

... we are studying the effect of replication and repair mutations on CAG repeat tracts embedded in a yeast chromosome. In this ... Chromosomes, Fungal. Humans. Protein Kinases / genetics*. Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics*. Sequence Deletion*. ... Previous Document: Evidence for a novel gene for familial febrile convulsions, FEB2, linked to chromosome 19p in an ext.... ... 7847375 - A gene for familial total anomalous pulmonary venous return maps to chromosome 4p13-q12.. 18795115 - Cross ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Expansions-CAG-repeat-tracts-are/9384605.html

Visualization of mitotic chromosomes in filamentous fungi by fluorescence staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization.Visualization of mitotic chromosomes in filamentous fungi by fluorescence staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization.

Chromosomes prepared by the germ tube burst method were stained with the fluorescent dye 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) ... Mitotic chromosomes of the plant pathogenic filamentous fungi Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata were observed. ... Chromosomes, Fungal*. DNA, Fungal / analysis. DNA, Ribosomal / analysis. Fluorescent Dyes. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence ... Using this method, component chromosomes were clearly distinguished and the chromosome number could be determined. Fluorescence ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Visualization-mitotic-chromosomes-in-filamentous/7859561.html

Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)

Categories: Chromosomes, Fungal Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
more infohttps://phil.cdc.gov/AdvancedSearchResults.aspx?Search=Chromosomes,+Fungal&parentid=6371&catid=28949

Acetylation of histone H4 is aberrantly increased in th | Open-iAcetylation of histone H4 is aberrantly increased in th | Open-i

Chromosomes, Fungal. *Cloning, Molecular. *Gene Silencing. *Histone Deacetylases/genetics. *Histones/metabolism. *Microscopy, ... Representative results for subtelomeric and centromeric regions of chromosome I are shown. (B,C) ChIP was performed using AcH4- ... Representative results for subtelomeric and centromeric regions of chromosome I are shown. (B,C) ChIP was performed using AcH4- ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2376062_pone.0002221.g005&req=4

Representative meiotic crossover map for wild-type and  | Open-iRepresentative meiotic crossover map for wild-type and | Open-i

A tetrad showing 11 crossovers on chromosome IV in the wild-type (A) compared to 6 i ... A tetrad showing 11 crossovers on chromosome IV in the wild-type (A) compared to 6 in the msh4-R676W mutant (B). (C) msh4-R676W ... A tetrad showing 11 crossovers on chromosome IV in the wild-type (A) compared to 6 in the msh4-R676W mutant (B). (C) msh4-R676W ... Bottom Line: Crossover reductions in msh4-R676W and msh4Δ were significant across chromosomes regardless of size, unlike ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4317650_399fig2&req=4

Applications filed at Dec 07 2017 | METHOD OF PRODUCING LIQUID COMPOSITIONS | Patents.comApplications filed at Dec 07 2017 | METHOD OF PRODUCING LIQUID COMPOSITIONS | Patents.com

FUNGAL CHROMOSOME-END KNOCKOFF STRATEGY. Non-toxigenic fungal strains, and methods of making and use thereof, are provided and ...
more infohttp://www.patents.com/ap-20171207-p83.html

Alice: Finished genome of the fungal wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola Reveals dispensome structure, chromosome...Alice: Finished genome of the fungal wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola Reveals dispensome structure, chromosome...

Finished genome of the fungal wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola Reveals dispensome structure, chromosome plasticity, ... KNAW FUNGAL BIODIVERSITY CENTRE, THE NETHERLANDS; LUTE-HARM ZWIERS, CBS?KNAW FUNGAL BIODIVERSITY CENTRE, THE NETHERLANDS; ... KNAW FUNGAL BIODIVERSITY CENTRE, THE NETHERLANDS; CEES WAALWIJK, PLANT RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL B.V., WAGENINGEN, THE NETHERLANDS ...
more infohttps://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/913905

Requirement of condensin for suppressing rDNA recombina | Open-iRequirement of condensin for suppressing rDNA recombina | Open-i

Chromosomes, Fungal/metabolism. *Endodeoxyribonucleases/antagonists & inhibitors. *Genomic Instability/genetics. *Meiosis/ ... Stages of meiosis were determined on the basis of chromosome morphology. Blue, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained DNA; red, ... Stages of meiosis were determined on the basis of chromosome morphology. Blue, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained DNA; red, ... to ensure proper chromosome segregation.Our work reveals that condensin coordinates meiotic recombination with chromosome ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4230583_2934fig2&req=4

An SRY-related sequence on the marsupial X chromosome: implications for the evolution of the mammalian testis-determining gene....An SRY-related sequence on the marsupial X chromosome: implications for the evolution of the mammalian testis-determining gene....

Evolution of fungal sex chromosomes. James A. Fraser, Joseph Heitman. Molecular Microbiology 2004 51 2 ... Construction of a highly enriched marsupial Y chromosome-specific BAC sub-library using isolated Y chromosomes ... Origin of Amniote Sex Chromosomes: An Ancestral Super-Sex Chromosome, or Common Requirements? ... Turnover of Sex Chromosomes in Celebensis Group Medaka Fishes. Taijun Myosho, Yusuke Takehana, Satoshi Hamaguchi, Mitsuru ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/91/5/1927/tab-article-info

Meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants lacking the centromere-bin by Daniel C. Masison and Richard E. Baker"Meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants lacking the centromere-bin" by Daniel C. Masison and Richard E. Baker

An unpaired chromosome I homolog (2N + 1) also missegregated at high frequency in the cep1 mutant (7.6%); however, ... Mitotic chromosome loss in cep1 strains was also analyzed. Both simple loss (1:0 segregation) and nondisjunction (2:0 ... The inviability could not be explained solely by chromosome missegregation and is probably a pleiotropic effect of cep1. ... and chromosomes in cep1 null mutants. Plasmids and CFs missegregated in 10-20% of meioses with the most frequent type of ...
more infohttps://escholarship.umassmed.edu/gsbs_sp/813/

Genome-wide Functional Analysis of Pathogenicity Genes in the Rice Blast Fungus - PubMedGenome-wide Functional Analysis of Pathogenicity Genes in the Rice Blast Fungus - PubMed

Chromosomes, Fungal Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Fungal Genet Biol 44 (10), 1035-49. Oct 2007. PMID 17600737. Towards the goal of disrupting all genes in the genome of ... Fungal Genet Biol 121, 56-64. Dec 2018. PMID 30266690. The White Collar complex is responsible for sensing light and ... Fungal Genomics Goes Industrial NJ Talbot. Nat Biotechnol 25 (5), 542-3. May 2007. PMID 17483839. ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17353894/

Ravi Pandey, Ph.D.Ravi Pandey, Ph.D.

Deciphering evolutionary strata on plant sex chromosomes and fungal mating-type chromosomes through compositional segmentation ... Mammalian sex chromosomes arose from a pair of homologous autosomes that differentiated into the X and Y chromosomes following ... We then extended our analysis, applying this method to the entire sequence of the human X chromosome, in an effort to define ... Detecting evolutionary strata on the human x chromosome in the absence of gametologous y-linked sequences. Genome Biol Evol. ...
more infohttps://www.jax.org/people/ravi-pandey

Genetic and genomic analysis of the AT-rich centromere DNA element II  by Richard E. Baker and Kelly Rogers"Genetic and genomic analysis of the AT-rich centromere DNA element II " by Richard E. Baker and Kelly Rogers

... but for 14 of the 16 chromosomes the AT-rich locus with the highest A(n , or =4) + T(n , or =4) run content was the centromere ... AT Rich Sequence; Base Composition; Base Sequence; Centromere; Chromosomes, Fungal; Computational Biology; DNA Primers; DNA, ... but for 14 of the 16 chromosomes the AT-rich locus with the highest A(n > or =4) + T(n > or =4) run content was the centromere ... Fungal; Gene Library; Genomics; Molecular Sequence Data; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Sequence Analysis, DNA ...
more infohttps://escholarship.umassmed.edu/oapubs/603/

Kenro Kusumi - Fingerprint
     - Arizona State UniversityKenro Kusumi - Fingerprint - Arizona State University

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics where Kenro Kusumi is active. These topic labels come from the works of this person. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
more infohttps://asu.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/kenro-kusumi/fingerprints/

2018 Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology Conference GRC2018 Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology Conference GRC

The 2018 Gordon Research Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology will be held in Holderness, NH. Apply today to ... Accessory Chromosomes in the Fungal Plant Pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici: Mechanisms of Loss and Retention ... But fungal diversity also presents challenges, most notably in understanding the means by which evolutionarily diverse fungal ... A Secreted Fungal Polysaccharide Alters Fungal Cell Morphology and Facilitates Dissemination Within the Mammalian Host ...
more infohttps://www.grc.org/cellular-and-molecular-fungal-biology-conference/2018/

Faculty - People - Biochemistry & Biophysics - University of Rochester Medical CenterFaculty - People - Biochemistry & Biophysics - University of Rochester Medical Center

Chromosomes instability of human fungal pathogen Candida albicans.. Ning Tong, B.M., Ph.D.. Email Ning ...
more infohttps://www.urmc.rochester.edu/biochemistry-biophysics/people/faculty.aspx

Search Articles | University of Toronto LibrariesSearch Articles | University of Toronto Libraries

chromosome deletion (6) 6 Filter by. Remove filter. chromosomes, fungal - genetics (6) 6 ... Fungal Proteins - chemistry , Pentose Phosphate Pathway - physiology , Response Elements , Fungal Proteins - genetics , Trans- ... Fungal - physiology , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly - genetics , Fungal Proteins - genetics , Mutation , Aspergillus ... fungal proteins - metabolism (10) 10 Filter by. Remove filter. investigating or analysing materials by determining ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=Author:Koyama,%20Yasuji

Allorecognition - WikipediaAllorecognition - Wikipedia

Fraser JA, Heitman J (2004). "Evolution of fungal sex chromosomes". Molecular Microbiology. 51 (2): 299-306. doi:10.1046/j.1365 ... fungal mating types, fungal vegetative incompatibility, plant self-incompatibility systems, colonial marine invertebrates (such ... fungal mycelia) and even among organisms that have evolved physical integuments representing a first line of defense against ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allorecognition

2015 Fungal Genetics Conference2015 Fungal Genetics Conference

Fungal Biotechnology. Co-chairs: Kazuhiro Iwashita and Randy Berka. 3:00. Fungal artificial chromosomes for mining of the ... Fungal Volatiles: Critical Signals for Fungal Interactions Co-chairs: Joan Bennett and Seogchan Kang. 3:00. Volatile Organic ... Fungal-bacterial interactions are mediated by fungal lipid signaling and a common set of bacterial factors. Olga Lastovetsky. ... Fungal bioenergetics drives human fungal pathogenicity: Focus on Aspergillus fumigatus. Robert Cramer. 4:40. Fumigatin-oxide ...
more infohttp://www.genetics-gsa.org/fungal/2015/pages/sessionlisting.shtml

ProgramProgram

"Large scale discovery and deorphanization of natural products using fungal artificial chromosomes and untargeted metabolomics ( ...
more infohttps://www.sintef.no/projectweb/fmg2016/program/

KAKEN - Research Projects | Development of Gene Introduction and Vector System in Plant Pathogenic Fungus (KAKENHI-PROJECT...KAKEN - Research Projects | Development of Gene Introduction and Vector System in Plant Pathogenic Fungus (KAKENHI-PROJECT...

We first isolated the genes encoding rRNA in fungal chromosome by synthesizing cDNAs from rRNAs extracted from mycelia of this ... This plasmid vector allowed us to ensure the homologous recombination of DNA sequences between the vector and chromosome. With ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-01560057/

Sandwalk: Pyruvate dehydrogenase astonishes Ann GaugerSandwalk: Pyruvate dehydrogenase astonishes Ann Gauger

The grey wolf has 78 chromosomes, while the red fox has only 34*.. TBH, I have no idea how many chromosomes exist in fungal ... So if chromosome number can change, why does a difference in chromosome number tell you that two species are different kinds?. ... "So if chromosome number can change…". How do you think chromosome numbers change? Are they more likely to be gained or lost?. - ... "I have no idea how many chromosomes exist in fungal genomes. But your answer suggests that, if a fungus possessed 34 ...
more infohttps://sandwalk.blogspot.com/2017/01/pyruvate-dehydrogenase-astonishes-ann.html
  • New vector for transfer of yeast artificial chromosomes to mammalian cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A modification vector has been constructed to facilitate the transfer of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) to mammalian cells in culture by targeting a dominant selectable marker (G418 resistance) to the right arm of pYAC4 clones. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This fungus is part of a species complex that infects species of the Caryophyllaceae, replacing pollen with the fungal spores. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Representative crossover and noncrossover distributions along chromosome IV for wild type and msh4-R676W hypomorph are shown in Figure 2, A and B. For the msh4Δ mutant, average crossovers were reduced to 49.5 / meiosis (t-test, P = 2.93 × 10−10), while noncrossovers (69.7 / meiosis, 56 median) were similar to wild type (t-test, P = 0.12). (nih.gov)
  • Stages of meiosis were determined on the basis of chromosome morphology. (nih.gov)
  • Our findings demonstrate the effectiveness of our platform and provide new insights on the molecular basis of fungal pathogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • The 2018 Gordon Research Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology will focus on the incredible diversity of fungal form and lifestyle. (grc.org)
  • We will explore environmental sensing, signaling, morphology and molecular motors, as well as the synthetic design and commercial exploitation of fungal systems. (grc.org)
  • This GRC will be held in conjunction with the "Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology (GRS)" Gordon Research Seminar (GRS). (grc.org)
  • We then extended our analysis, applying this method to the entire sequence of the human X chromosome, in an effort to define stratum boundaries. (jax.org)
  • In the absence of the metaphase plate arrangement, kinetochore clustering in yeast species is believed to facilitate timely kinetochore-microtubule interactions to achieve bivalent attachments of chromosomes during metaphase. (asm.org)
  • On the other hand, kinetochores do not cluster at any stage of the cell cycle in most metazoans, where the formation of the metaphase plate aligns all chromosomes on a single plane. (asm.org)
  • A long attenuated chromatid thread expanding from a condensed metaphase chromosome, which had been called a thread-like structure in B. cinerea, was proved to be an NOR. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Another possibility may arise from somatic fusion: there are multicellular life-styles where there are few if any physical barriers to the intermingling of cells (for example: sponges, fungal mycelia) and even among organisms that have evolved physical integuments representing a first line of defense against invasion, opportunities for cellular exchange occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conference will bring together researchers across the globe and spanning career stages to present and discuss the latest exciting findings on fungal diversity, evolution, sex, development, growth and pathogenicity. (grc.org)
  • Representative results for subtelomeric and centromeric regions of chromosome I are shown. (nih.gov)
  • Kinetochore clustering helps in the organization of yeast chromosomes in the Rabl configuration so that chromosome arms lie freely in the nucleoplasm ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • In application to human X chromosome, our method correctly classified a concatenated set of 35 previously assayed X-linked gene sequences by evolutionary strata. (jax.org)
  • We used a high-throughput phenotype screening pipeline to detect disruption of seven phenotypes encompassing the fungal life cycle and identified the mutated gene and the nature of mutation for each mutant. (nih.gov)
  • To understand the causes of CAG repeat tract changes that occur in the passage of human disease alleles, we are studying the effect of replication and repair mutations on CAG repeat tracts embedded in a yeast chromosome. (biomedsearch.com)
  • But fungal diversity also presents challenges, most notably in understanding the means by which evolutionarily diverse fungal pathogens infect, exploit, and kill human, animal, and plant hosts. (grc.org)
  • Fungal diversity presents rich opportunities to discover and characterize divergent mechanistic solutions to evolutionary pressures and environmental challenges, advancing our understanding of biology as a whole. (grc.org)
  • Chromosomes prepared by the germ tube burst method were stained with the fluorescent dye 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) to yield figures with good resolution. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In addition, extensive signs of degeneration were detected in the nonrecombining regions in the form of transposable element accumulation and of hundreds of gene losses on each mating-type chromosome. (genetics.org)
  • Crossover reductions in msh4-R676W and msh4Δ were significant across chromosomes regardless of size, unlike previous observations made at specific loci.The msh4-R676W hypomorph showed reduced crossover interference.These results, along with modeling of crossover distribution, suggest the significant reduction in crossovers across chromosomes and the loss of interference compromises the obligate crossover in the msh4 hypomorph. (nih.gov)