In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.
The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, elements such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, that are required for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance in progeny cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
A characteristic symptom complex.
The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.
Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Congenital conditions of atypical sexual development associated with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions including MONOSOMY; TRISOMY; and MOSAICISM.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.

A sequence-ready BAC clone contig of a 2.2-Mb segment of human chromosome 1q24. (1/4994)

Human chromosomal region 1q24 encodes two cloned disease genes and lies within large genetic inclusion intervals for several disease genes that have yet to be identified. We have constructed a single bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone contig that spans over 2 Mb of 1q24 and consists of 78 clones connected by 100 STSs. The average density of mapped STSs is one of the highest described for a multimegabase region of the human genome. The contig was efficiently constructed by generating STSs from clone ends, followed by library walking. Distance information was added by determining the insert sizes of all clones, and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genes were incorporated to create a partial transcript map of the region, providing candidate genes for local disease loci. The gene order and content of the region provide insight into ancient duplication events that have occurred on proximal 1q. The stage is now set for further elucidation of this interesting region through large-scale sequencing.  (+info)

Complete nucleotide sequence of the 27-kilobase virulence related locus (vrl) of Dichelobacter nodosus: evidence for extrachromosomal origin. (2/4994)

The vrl locus is preferentially associated with virulent isolates of the ovine footrot pathogen, Dichelobacter nodosus. The complete nucleotide sequence of this 27.1-kb region has now been determined. The data reveal that the locus has a G+C content much higher than the rest of the D. nodosus chromosome and contains 22 open reading frames (ORFs) encoding products including a putative adenine-specific methylase, two potential DEAH ATP-dependent helicases, and two products with sequence similarity to a bacteriophage resistance system. These ORFs are all in the same orientation, and most are either overlapping or separated by only a few nucleotides, suggesting that they comprise an operon and are translationally coupled. Expression vector studies have led to the identification of proteins that correspond to many of these ORFs. These data, in combination with evidence of insertion of vrl into the 3' end of an ssrA gene, are consistent with the hypothesis that the vrl locus was derived from the insertion of a bacteriophage or plasmid into the D. nodosus genome.  (+info)

High throughput direct end sequencing of BAC clones. (3/4994)

Libraries constructed in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors have become the choice for clone sets in high throughput genomic sequencing projects primarily because of their high stability. BAC libraries have been proposed as a source for minimally over-lapping clones for sequencing large genomic regions, and the use of BAC end sequences (i.e. sequences adjoining the insert sites) has been proposed as a primary means for selecting minimally overlapping clones for sequencing large genomic regions. For this strategy to be effective, high throughput methods for BAC end sequencing of all the clones in deep coverage BAC libraries needed to be developed. Here we describe a low cost, efficient, 96 well procedure for BAC end sequencing. These methods allow us to generate BAC end sequences from human and Arabidoposis libraries with an average read length of >450 bases and with a single pass sequencing average accuracy of >98%. Application of BAC end sequences in genomic sequen-cing is discussed.  (+info)

Rapid modification of bacterial artificial chromosomes by ET-recombination. (4/4994)

We present a method to modify bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) resident in their host strain. The method is based on homologous recombination by ET-cloning. We have successfully modified BACs at two distinct loci by recombination with a PCR product containing homology arms of 50 nt. The procedure we describe here is rapid, was found to work with high efficiency and should be applicable to any BAC modification desired.  (+info)

Natural competence for DNA transformation by Legionella pneumophila and its association with expression of type IV pili. (5/4994)

We have recently described the expression of two pili of different lengths on the surface of Legionella pneumophila (B. J. Stone and Y. Abu Kwaik, Infect. Immun. 66:1768-1775, 1998). Production of long pili requires a functional pilEL locus, encoding a type IV pilin protein. Since type IV pili in Neisseria gonorrhoeae are associated with competence for DNA transformation, we examined the competence of L. pneumophila for DNA transformation under conditions that allowed the expression of type IV pili. We show that L. pneumophila is naturally competent for DNA transformation by isogenic chromosomal DNA and by plasmid DNA containing L. pneumophila DNA. Many different L. pneumophila loci are able to transform L. pneumophila after addition of plasmid DNA, including gspA, ppa, asd, and pilEL. The transformation frequency is reduced when competing DNA containing either L. pneumophila DNA or vector sequences is added to the bacteria, suggesting that uptake-specific sequences may not be involved in DNA uptake. Competence for DNA transformation correlates with expression of the type IV pili, and a pilEL mutant defective in expression of type IV pili is not competent for DNA transformation. Complementation of the mutant for competence is restored by the reintroduction of a cosmid that restores production of type IV pili. Minimal competence is restored to the mutant by introduction of pilEL alone. We conclude that competence for DNA transformation in L. pneumophila is associated with expression of the type IV pilus and results in recombination of L. pneumophila DNA into the chromosome. Since expression of type IV pili also facilitates attachment of L. pneumophila to mammalian cells and protozoa, we designated the type IV pili CAP (for competence- and adherence-associated pili).  (+info)

Ferritin mutants of Escherichia coli are iron deficient and growth impaired, and fur mutants are iron deficient. (6/4994)

Escherichia coli contains at least two iron storage proteins, a ferritin (FtnA) and a bacterioferritin (Bfr). To investigate their specific functions, the corresponding genes (ftnA and bfr) were inactivated by replacing the chromosomal ftnA and bfr genes with disrupted derivatives containing antibiotic resistance cassettes in place of internal segments of the corresponding coding regions. Single mutants (ftnA::spc and bfr::kan) and a double mutant (ftnA::spc bfr::kan) were generated and confirmed by Western and Southern blot analyses. The iron contents of the parental strain (W3110) and the bfr mutant increased by 1.5- to 2-fold during the transition from logarithmic to stationary phase in iron-rich media, whereas the iron contents of the ftnA and ftnA bfr mutants remained unchanged. The ftnA and ftnA bfr mutants were growth impaired in iron-deficient media, but this was apparent only after the mutant and parental strains had been precultured in iron-rich media. Surprisingly, ferric iron uptake regulation (fur) mutants also had very low iron contents (2.5-fold less iron than Fur+ strains) despite constitutive expression of the iron acquisition systems. The iron deficiencies of the ftnA and fur mutants were confirmed by Mossbauer spectroscopy, which further showed that the low iron contents of ftnA mutants are due to a lack of magnetically ordered ferric iron clusters likely to correspond to FtnA iron cores. In combination with the fur mutation, ftnA and bfr mutations produced an enhanced sensitivity to hydroperoxides, presumably due to an increase in production of "reactive ferrous iron." It is concluded that FtnA acts as an iron store accommodating up to 50% of the cellular iron during postexponential growth in iron-rich media and providing a source of iron that partially compensates for iron deficiency during iron-restricted growth. In addition to repressing the iron acquisition systems, Fur appears to regulate the demand for iron, probably by controlling the expression of iron-containing proteins. The role of Bfr remains unclear.  (+info)

A novel reduced flavin mononucleotide-dependent methanesulfonate sulfonatase encoded by the sulfur-regulated msu operon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (7/4994)

When Pseudomonas aeruginosa is grown with organosulfur compounds as sulfur sources, it synthesizes a set of proteins whose synthesis is repressed in the presence of sulfate, cysteine, or thiocyanate (so-called sulfate starvation-induced proteins). The gene encoding one of these proteins, PA13, was isolated from a cosmid library of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and sequenced. It encoded a 381-amino-acid protein that was related to several reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2)-dependent monooxygenases, and it was the second in an operon of three genes, which we have named msuEDC. The MsuD protein catalyzed the desulfonation of alkanesulfonates, requiring oxygen and FMNH2 for the reaction, and showed highest activity with methanesulfonate. MsuE was an NADH-dependent flavin mononucleotide (FMN) reductase, which provided reduced FMN for the MsuD enzyme. Expression of the msu operon was analyzed with a transcriptional msuD::xylE fusion and was found to be repressed in the presence of sulfate, sulfite, sulfide, or cysteine and derepressed during growth with methionine or alkanesulfonates. Growth with methanesulfonate required an intact cysB gene, and the msu operon is therefore part of the cys regulon, since sulfite utilization was found to be CysB independent in this species. Measurements of msuD::xylE expression in cysN and cysI genetic backgrounds showed that sulfate, sulfite, and sulfide or cysteine play independent roles in negatively regulating msu expression, and sulfonate utilization therefore appears to be tightly regulated.  (+info)

The Bradyrhizobium japonicum nolA gene encodes three functionally distinct proteins. (8/4994)

Examination of nolA revealed that NolA can be uniquely translated from three ATG start codons. Translation from the first ATG (ATG1) predicts a protein (NolA1) having an N-terminal, helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif similar to the DNA-binding domains of the MerR-type regulatory proteins. Translation from ATG2 and ATG3 would give the N-terminally truncated proteins NolA2 and NolA3, respectively, lacking the DNA-binding domain. Consistent with this, immunoblot analyses of Bradyrhizobium japonicum extracts with a polyclonal antiserum to NolA revealed three distinct polypeptides whose molecular weights were consistent with translation of nolA from the three ATG initiation sites. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to produce derivatives of nolA in which ATG start sites were sequentially deleted. Immunoblots revealed a corresponding absence of the polypeptide whose ATG start site was removed. Translational fusions of the nolA mutants to a promoterless lacZ yielded functional fusion proteins in both Escherichia coli and B. japonicum. Expression of NolA is inducible upon addition of extracts from 5-day-old etiolated soybean seedlings but is not inducible by genistein, a known inducer of the B. japonicum nod genes. The expression of both NolA2 and NolA3 requires the presence of NolA1. NolA1 or NolA3 is required for the genotype-specific nodulation of soybean genotype PI 377578.  (+info)

In order to study the evolution of the chromosomal beta-lactamase gene in K. pneumoniae, we analyzed the diversity of the gene in strains representing the known range of K. pneumoniae genetic diversity. This approach revealed a close correspondence between the chromosomal beta-lactamase gene sequences and the previously defined phylogenetic groups of K. pneumoniae. It also made it possible to identify a new family of beta-lactamase variants.. Phylogenetic analyses of the bla, gyrA, and mdh sequences were all in agreement, showing three major groups. Our results firmly demonstrated the correspondence between the phylogenetic group KpI and the SHV family, as well as between group KpIII and the LEN family. Also, the pI values of the beta-lactamases paralleled the grouping; thus, pI 7.6 (SHV-like) was seen for all KpI strains and pI 7.1 (LEN-like) was seen for all KpIII strains.. Strain SB30 and strain OR95:2, a strain previously shown to harbor a chromosomal beta-lactamase gene different from both ...
Dimer formation is a serious threat to the stable maintenance of ColE1-like plasmids. Dimers form infrequently by homologous recombination but accumulate rapidly by having two origins of replication. This results in elevated plasmid loss and a reduction in host cell growth rate. Plasmid dimers are resolved to monomers by the XerCD recombinase plus accessory proteins ArgR and PepA, acting at the cer recombination site. The circular chromosome of E. coli also forms dimers infrequently, and consequent failure of chromosome partition results in filamentation, SOS induction, and failure of cell division. Site-specific recombination is required for dimer resolution during cell division in a process facilitated by XerCD acting at the dif (deletion induced filamentation) site near the E. coli chromosome terminus. ArgR and PepA accessory proteins are nonessential, but the septum-associated protein FtsK is necessary for dimer segregation, suggesting the XerCD/difcomplex interacts with division septums. Our
PCR fragments, 1500-bp, from 15 previously sequenced regions in the Escherichia coli chromosome have been compared by restriction analysis in a large set of wild (ECOR) strains. Prior published observations of segmental clonality are confirmed: each of several sequence types is shared by a number of strains. The rate of recombinational replacement and the average size of the replacements are estimated in a set of closely related strains in which a clonal frame is dotted with occasional stretches of DNA belonging to other clones. A clonal hierarchy is described. Some new comparative sequencing data are presented. ...
McCool JD, Sandler SJ. 2001. Effects of mutations involving cell division, recombination, and chromosome dimer resolution on a priA2::kan mutant.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 98(15):8203-10. ...
Bacteria are able to maintain a narrow distribution of cell sizes by regulating the timing of cell divisions. In rich nutrient conditions, cells divide much faster than their chromosomes replicate. This implies that cells maintain multiple rounds of chromosome replication per cell division by regula …
In a eukaryotic cell, chromosome replication occurs during DNA synthesis, or the S phase of the cell cycle. In its normal state, a chromosome is a long, thin chromatin fiber containing one DNA...
Binary fission can refer to cell division in bacteria. Bacteria replicate their chromosomes prior to division, but I dont think that state can be called diploid because the chromosomes are identical. Diploid organisms can be carrying different alleles on each pair of sister chromosomes, but this is not the case for a duplicated bacterial chromosome before cell division. Therefore in my opinion your statement is not necessarily true, at least for bacteria ...
While eukaryotes have two or more chromosomes, prokaryotes such as bacteria possess a single chromosome composed of double‐stranded DNA in a loop. The DNA is lo
We are investigating the structure of E. coli chromosome and the pathway of its compaction to the nucleoid state by taking several approaches: (i) by genetically analyzing mutant cells defective in the nucleoid protein HU; (ii) by studying nuclease
We have identified a DNA site involved in chromosome partitioning in B. subtilis. This site was identified in vivo as the binding site for the chromosome partitioning protein Spo0J, a member of the ParB family of partitioning proteins. Spo0J is a site-specific DNA-binding protein that recognizes a 1 …
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100 AGAAGAACAG GTTGATCCGC GCAAAGCGGC -070 AGTTGCCGCG GCTATTGCCC GCGCTCAGGC CAAAAAAGCC GCCCAGCAGA AGGTTGTAAA CGAGGACTAA 0001 atggtattca gaatagctag ctccccttat acccataacc agcgccagac atcgcgcatt atgctgttgg 0071 tgttgctcgc agccgtgcca ggaatcgcag cgcaactgtg gttttttggt tggggtactc tcgttcagat 0141 cctgttggca tcggttagtg ctctgttagc cgaagctctc gtactcaaac tacgcaagca gtcggtagcc 0211 gcaacgttga aagataactc agcattgctg acaggcttat tgctggcggt aagtattccc cccctcgcgc 0281 catggtggat ggtcgtgctg ggtacggtgt ttgcggtgat catcgctaaa cagttgtatg gcggtctggg 0351 acaaaacccg tttaatccgg caatgattgg ttatgtggtc ttactgatct ccttccccgt gcagatgacc 0421 agctggttac cgccacatga aattgcggtc aacatccctg gttttatcga cgccatccag gttattttta 0491 gcggtcatac cgccagtggt ggtgatatga acacactacg cttaggtatt gatggcatta gtcaggcgac 0561 accgctggat acatttaaaa cctctgtccg tgccggtcat tcggttgaac agattatgca atatccgatc 0631 tacagcggta ttctggcggg cgctggttgg caatgggtaa atctcgcctg gctggctggc ggcgtatggt 0701 tgctatggca gaaagcgatt cgctggcata ttcccctcag cttcttagta acgctggcgt ...
100 tatatcaatg gttttctctt acgccgcgcc -070 cgcgcgcatg ggattgccgt accggaaaac acccgcctgt ttgaaatggt aaaaagaaag gagagtgaat 0001 atgagcgcat cggcactggt ttgcctcgcc cctggtagtg aagagactga agccgtcacc actatcgatc 0071 tgctggttcg cggcggtatc aaagtcacca ctgccagcgt cgccagcgat ggtaacctgg cgattacctg 0141 ctcgcgcggc gtgaagctgc tggcggatgc gccgctggtc gaagtggctg atggcgaata tgacgtgatc 0211 gtgctgcctg gtggcattaa aggcgcggag tgttttcgcg atagcactct gctggttgaa accgttaaac 0281 agttccaccg ttccgggcgt atcgtcgcgg ctatttgcgc cgcgccagcc accgtgctgg tgccgcacga 0351 tatcttcccg attggtaata tgaccggctt cccgacgctg aaagacaaaa ttcccgccga acaatggctg 0421 gacaagcgcg tcgtctggga tgcacgggta aaattgctga ccagccaggg gccgggtaca gctatcgact 0491 ttggtctgaa aattatcgac ctgttggttg ggcgtgaaaa agcccatgaa gtggcatcac aactggtgat 0561 ggcggcaggg atttataatt attacgagta gtgtcggatg cggcaaacgt cgcatctgac cagatgcgac 0631 gtaaaaacca caaattacgg gcgatatacc ttcacattgt taaagccctg ctcgcgcaga t ...
DNA Biological Functions In eukaryotes, the DNA occurs as linear chromosomes. And in prokaryotes the DNA occurs as circular chromosomes.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nucleotide sequence and analysis of the phoB-rrnE-groESL region of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome. AU - Sadaie, Yoshito. AU - Yata, Katsunori. AU - Fujita, Masaya. AU - Sagai, Hitoshi. AU - Itaya, Mitsuhiro. AU - Kasahara, Yasuhiro. AU - Ogasawara, Naotake. PY - 1997/6. Y1 - 1997/6. N2 - A 36 kb sequence of the phoB-rrnE-groESL region of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome at around 55°has been determined. The sequenced region contains 36 ORFs including the phoB and groESL genes, and the whole rrnE operon. The phoB gene is transcribed in the direction opposite to that of chromosome replication, while most ORFs, including groESL and the rrnE operon, are transcribed in the same direction. Two newly identified tRNA genes upstream of the rrnE operon were those for Arg-tRNA and Gly-tRNA. The sequenced region contains an operon consisting of genes for degradation and uptake of mannan. The rrnE operon and its downstream ORFs are well conserved among Mycoplasma genitalium, Haemophilus ...
In most bacteria two vital processes of the cell cycle: DNA replication and chromosome segregation overlap temporally. The action of replication machinery in a fixed location in the cell leads to the duplication of oriC regions, their rapid separation to the opposite halves of the cell and the duplicated chromosomes gradually moving to the same locations prior to cell division. Numerous proteins are implicated in co-replicational DNA segregation and they will be characterized in this review. The proteins SeqA, SMC/MukB, MinCDE, MreB/Mbl, RacA, FtsK/SpoIIIE playing different roles in bacterial cells are also involved in chromosome segregation. The chromosomally encoded ParAB homologs of active partitioning proteins of low-copy number plasmids are also players, not always indispensable, in the segregation of bacterial chromosomes ...
Studies of chromosome organization in bacterial cells show that the chromosome is an exquisitely organized and dynamic structure (reviewed recently in Thanbichler et al., 2005). Chromosome segregation in bacteria does not occur all at once but in sequential phases (Lau et al., 2003; Viollier et al., 2004; Bates and Kleckner, 2005; Nielsen et al., 2006). After replication at mid-cell, the origin region (oriC) is rapidly segregated outward. The speed at which this occurs (reviewed in Gordon and Wright, 2000) rules out passive models for bacterial chromosome segregation, which proposed that outward cellular growth could drive the movement of a fixed chromosome. As the loci of the chromosome are replicated, they are moved outward to the poles in a sequential fashion (Lau et al., 2003; Viollier et al., 2004; Bates and Kleckner, 2005; Nielsen et al., 2006). In Escherichia coli, there may be a period of sister chromosome cohesion between duplication and subsequent segregation, although its length is ...
The complete genome of Vibrio cholerae El Tor N16961 consists of two circular chromosomes (2,961,146 and 1,072,313 base pair) with 3,890 predicted open reading frames (2,775 and 1,115 on each chromosome respectively). The majority of recognizable genes for essential cell functions (such as DNA replication, transcription, translation, etc.) and pathogenicity (such as toxin, surface antigens, and adhesion) are located on the large chromosome. The small chromosome contains a large percentage of hypothetical genes, more genes that appear to have origins other than the Proteobacteria, a gene capture system (integron island) that suggests this may have been a mega-plasmid captured by an ancestral Vibrio species. The Vibrio cholerae genome sequence provides a starting point for understanding how a free living, environmental microorganism is also a human pathogen. Source: The Institute for Genomic Research ...
Sequencing of the complete Bacillus subtilis chromosome revealed the presence of approximately 4100 genes, 1000 of which were previously identified and mapped by classical genetic crosses. Comparison of these experimentally determined positions to th
Our suspicion that the V. cholerae chromosome may exist as two separate replicons was based on the observation that when undigested genomic DNA was subjected to electrophoresis, two megabase-sized fragments were visible. In addition, we were unable to convincingly link the I-CeuI fragments into a single circular chromosome. The final clue came from the observation that immobilized genomic DNA subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis after digestion with another rarely cutting restriction enzyme, I-SceI, produced two fragments, the smaller of which appeared exactly like one of two megabase-sized fragments produced by I-CeuI digestion. This fragment in both digestions always appeared to stain lighter than the other bands. We now have confirmed (by linkage of SfiI fragments contained in this band) that this fragment was not cut by either I-SceI or I-CeuI; the presumed reason it did not stain well was because it was constrained in its uptake of ethidium bromide by its covalently closed circular ...
WT cells under nutrient limitation exhibit two distinct regimes according to the Helmstetter-Cooper (HC) model of bacterial chromosome replication (Appendix Fig S9): In the fast growth regime (doubling time DT , single‐chromosome replication time, the C‐period), the C‐period is constant (at its minimal value) and the total DNA synthesis rate is determined by the replication initiation rate. In the slow growth regime (DT , C‐period), chromosome replication is limited by the replication fork elongation rate, which is in turn limited by the synthesis of nucleotides (DNA monomers) (Neidhart, 1996). Under LacZ OE, the DNA content increases (Figs 1F and EV3A and B). Since multiple chromosome equivalents per cell are observed in a single nucleoid complex (Fig EV3), the HC model of DNA replication may still be applicable with multiple replication forks per cell, provided that the C‐period , DT. The increase in DT under LacZ OE then implies that the C‐period would have to increase at least ...
View DNA Rearrangements from BIOLOGY MCB2010 at Broward College. Examples : Integration of bacteriophage DNA into host bacterial chromosome Immunoglobulin and T Cell Receptor genes DNA rearrangements
Strain MK423 was grown under the same conditions as used when growing cells for microscopy analysis; cells of OD600 = 0.4 were diluted 100-fold in C+Y medium with 0.1 mM ZnCl2 and incubated for 2.5 hours until OD600 = 0.15. Cells were then harvested by centrifugation for 5 min at 6500 x g at 4°C. Genomic DNA was isolated using the Wizard® Genomic DNA Purification Kit (Promega) as described previously (Slager et al. 2014 Cell). Fragmentation was performed using Covaris instrument, and libraries ...
View Notes - Chapter 9 from BIO SCI 325 at Wisconsin Milwaukee. 1 204-325 2 h h Chromosomal mutations are variations from Chromosomal mutations are variations from wild wild-- type condition in
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InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Replication of DNA in bacteria with heterogeneous generation times. AU - Kallenbach, Neville R.. N1 - Funding Information: The author wishest o acknowledgei nvaluable discussionsw ith Dr S. Litwin, as well as support from NSF grant GB-4200 for computation time at the University of PennsylvaniaC omputer Center.. PY - 1968/1. Y1 - 1968/1. N2 - The relation between DNA replication and cell division in steady-state dividing bacterial cultures is examined with respect to the heterogeneity of generation times which is observed in such populations. Two simple, extreme hypotheses are considered: (1) DNA replication is heterogeneous in rate, occupying the entire generation time in each cell; and (2) DNA replication occupies a constant time, the remainder of the life cycle of the cell being a rest period with no DNA synthesis. The distribution of replication points is calculated, and from this the marker frequency function and the fraction of DNA synthesized in the absence of initiation of ...
A bacterial episome (e.g. the F plasmid in E. coli) that enables the cell to be a donor of genetic material. The sex factor may be propagated in the cytoplasm, or it may be integrated into the bacterial chromosome
This model represents a family of conserved hypothetical proteins. It is usually (but not always) found in apparent phage-derived regions of bacterial chromosomes ...
In budding yeast replication origins, the 11-bp ARS consensus sequence is essential for interaction with the ORC. However, replication origins in other eukaryotic species, including fission yeast, do not appear to contain a short essential sequence (15,23) and it has not been known whether the ORC is located at chromosomal replication origins. The present study demonstrated that a fission yeast ORC subunit and an Mcm protein are specifically localized at chromosomal replication origins. Orp1p is located at thears2004 and ars3002 loci throughout the cell cycle, while SpMcm6p is associated with these origins only in the G1 and S phases. To our knowledge, this is the first indication of preferential localization of the ORC and Mcm proteins at the chromosomal replication origins in eukaryotic species except for budding yeast.. The CHIP assay finding that Orp1p was localized at ars2004and ars3002 but not at non-ARS regions (Fig. 6) suggests that a certain sequence or DNA structure in the replication ...
Short-read sequencing technologies have long been the work-horse of microbiome analysis. Continuing technological advances are making the application of long-read sequencing to metagenomic samples increasingly feasible. We demonstrate that whole bacterial chromosomes can be obtained from an enriched community, by application of MinION sequencing to a sample from an EBPR bioreactor, producing 6 Gb of sequence that assembles into multiple closed bacterial chromosomes. We provide a simple pipeline for processing such data, which includes a new approach to correcting erroneous frame-shifts. Advances in long-read sequencing technology and corresponding algorithms will allow the routine extraction of whole chromosomes from environmental samples, providing a more detailed picture of individual members of a microbiome.
The study of chromosomal replication and cell division of bacteria has extended beyond Escherichia coli, and important insights have emerged recently from studies in other species, especially Bacillus subtilis and Caulobacter crescentus. Cell division is coordinated with other cell cycle events such as genomic DNA synthesis that leads to chromosomal replication and partition, increase of cell mass, and cell expansion by cell wall synthesis. This chapter reviews the information about predicted genes related to chromosomal replication, plasmid replication, and cell division in Helicobacter pylori, and a plausible replication machinery of the bacterium is discussed in light of the current understanding of bacterial organization and function of replication and cell division. The DnaA protein is essential for the initiation of chromosomal replication and is highly conserved among different bacteria. Clinical isolates of H. pylori have been reported to carry plasmids ranging in size from 1.5 to 40 kb. Three
The position of junctions and the extent of the duplicated chromosomal regions in Bacillus subtilis merodiploid strains were studied by quantitative DNA-DNA hybridization. We describe a method which allows (i) the identification of genes present in two copies per chromosome and (ii) the measurement of the amount of additional DNA in chromosomes with relatively large duplicated regions (about 10% or more). Analysis of previously described B. subtilis merodiploid strains GSY1127, GSY1800 and GSY1835 revealed that the duplicated segments represent 29 ± 2%, 7 ± 2% and 13 ± 2% of the chromosome, respectively. Small discrepancies between these and previous genetic linkage data are discussed. Support for a role of prophage SPβ in the formation of merodiploid GSY1835 is provided. In conclusion, the described method confirmed the genetic maps of the merodiploids previously obtained by transduction and transformation crosses and showed that a duplication of a segment is not accompanied by large deletions of
Three new mutants of Escherichia coli showing thermosensitive cell growth and division were isolated, and the mutations were mapped to the mra region at 2 min on the E. coli chromosome map distal to leuA. Two mutations were mapped closely upstream of ftsI (also called pbpB), in a region of 600 bases; the fts-36 mutant showed thermosensitive growth and formed filamentous cells at 42 degrees C, whereas the lts-33 mutant lysed at 42 degrees C without forming filamentous cells. The mutation in the third new thermosensitive, filament-forming mutant, named ftsW, was mapped between murF and murG. By isolation of these three mutants, about 90% of the 17-kilobase region from fts-36-lts-33 to envA could be filled with genes for cell division and growth, and the genes could be aligned. ...
Bacteria with multiple chromosomes represent up to 10% of all bacterial species. Unlike eukaryotes, these bacteria use chromosome-specific initiators for their replication. In all cases investigated, the machineries for secondary chromosome replication initiation are of plasmid origin. One of the important differences between plasmids and chromosomes is that the latter replicate during a defined period of the cell cycle, ensuring a single round of replication per cell. Vibrio cholerae carries two circular chromosomes, Chr1 and Chr2, which are replicated in a well-orchestrated manner with the cell cycle and coordinated in such a way that replication termination occurs at the same time. However, the mechanism coordinating this synchrony remains speculative. We investigated this mechanism and revealed that initiation of Chr2 replication is triggered by the replication of a 150-bp locus positioned on Chr1, called crtS. This crtS replication-mediated Chr2 replication initiation mechanism explains how ...
Structural elements of the Streptomyces oriC region and their interactions with the DnaA protein. Transcription analysis of the dnaA gene and oriC region of the chromosome of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and its regulation by the DnaA protein
The structure of the Escherichia coli chromosome is inherently dynamic over the duration of the cell cycle. Genetic loci undergo both stochastic motion around their initial positions and directed motion to opposite poles of the rod-shaped cell during segregation. We developed a quantitative method to characterize cell-cycle dynamics of the E. coli chromosome to probe the chromosomal steady-state mobility and segregation process. By tracking fluorescently labeled chromosomal loci in thousands of cells throughout the entire cell cycle, our method allows for the statistical analysis of locus position and motion, the step-size distribution for movement during segregation, and the locus drift velocity. The robust statistics of our detailed analysis of the wild-type E. coli nucleoid allow us to observe loci moving toward midcell before segregation occurs, consistent with a replication factory model. Then, as segregation initiates, we perform a detailed characterization of the average segregation velocity of
In Escherichia coli, chromosome replication is initiated from oriC by the DnaA initiator protein associated with ATP. Three non-coding regions contribute to the activity of DnaA. The datA locus is instrumental in conversion of DnaAATP to DnaAADP (DDAH; datA dependent DnaAATP hydrolysis) whereas DnaA rejuvenation sequences 1 and 2 (DARS1 and DARS2) reactivate DnaAADP to DnaAATP. The structural organization of oriC, datA, DARS1 and DARS2 were found conserved between 59 fully sequenced E. coli genomes, with differences primarily in the non-functional spacer regions between key protein binding sites. The relative distances from oriC to datA, DARS1 and DARS2, respectively, was also conserved despite of large variations in genome size, suggesting that the gene dosage of either region is important for bacterial growth. Yet all three regions could be deleted alone or in combination without loss of viability. Competition experiments during balanced growth in rich medium and during mouse colonization indicated
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
This Lesson 8: Mitosis: Chromosome Replication & Division Lesson Plan is suitable for 9th - 12th Grade. Students complete the Mitosis exercise net which contains the basic concepts and relations to describe mitosis.
1. ChienAC, HillNS, LevinPA (2012) Cell size control in bacteria. Curr Biol 22: R340-349.. 2. SchaechterM, MaaløeO, KjeldgaardNO (1958) Dependency on medium and temperature of cell size and chemical composition during balanced grown of Salmonella typhimurium. J Gen Microbiol 19: 592-606.. 3. PierucciO, HelmstetterCE, RickertM, WeinbergerM, LeonardAC (1987) Overexpression of the dnaA gene in Escherichia coli B/r: chromosome and minichromosome replication in the presence of rifampin. J Bacteriol 169: 1871-1877.. 4. SargentMG (1975) Control of cell length in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol 123: 7-19.. 5. FantesP, NurseP (1977) Control of cell size at division in fission yeast by a growth-modulated size control over nuclear division. Exp Cell Res 107: 377-386.. 6. WeartRB, LeeAH, ChienAC, HaeusserDP, HillNS, et al. (2007) A metabolic sensor governing cell size in bacteria. Cell 130: 335-347.. 7. ChienAC, ZarehSK, WangYM, LevinPA (2012) Changes in the oligomerization potential of the division ...
Binds to DNA and alters its conformation. May be involved in regulation of gene expression, nucleoid organization and DNA protection.
Synopses of papers: The 187th Meeting of the Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland, The Robin Brook Centre, St. Bartholomews Hospital, London, 6-7 January 2005 ...
Nossos parabéns ao Tim Burton, que hoje completa 54 anos. Graças a sua genialidade, tivemos nossas vidas ilustradas por personagens tão marcantes. Verdadeiras lendas. Sem falar na parceria com Johnny que juntando suas artes, sintonia e talento construíram carreiras marcantes e sem igual na história do cinema ...
Two global genome features based on OU statistics were considered in this study: PS and OUV. They provide non-redundant characteristics of the complete sequence of genomes and allow the discrimination of bacterial, plasmid and phage genomes by phylogeny, the arrangement of coding and non-coding sequence and the distribution of islands and islets.. A strong taxonomic signal was observed in genome specific OUV values. Strains belonging to the same species or genus usually have similar OUV. In general, the higher is the OUV, the less random is the sequence. Multiple influences such as DNA structure and topology, codon usage, DNA repair and restriction-modification systems contribute to the surrogate parameter OUV, and hence it is plausible that the OUV is a taxon-specific feature. Future work on the frequency and distribution of individual words should elucidate the biological meaning of the genome specific OUV for the individual taxon (see Weinel et al., 2002 [40] as one of the few published ...
Single-cell measurements combined with a new statistical framework for discriminating between models of cell cycle regulation show that chromosome initiation controls the E. coli cell cycle via two adder mechanisms.
The integrative expression vectors pAX01 and pA-spac express β-Gal from the lacA locus in a regulatable way.In order to prove that both integrative expression vectors work properly, the bgaB gene, coding for heat-stable β-Gal (4), was inserted into both vectors. With pAX01,bgaB was generated from plasmid pBgaB (8) using ON17 and ON18, both flanked with BamHI sites. TheBamHI-treated amplicon was then inserted intoBamHI-linearized pAX01 to result in pAX01-BgaB. With pA-spac, the bgaB gene was generated from the same template using ON19 and ON20 and ligated into theSalI-SphI-cleaved vector (pA-spac-BgaB). Next, the two transcriptional fusions were recombined independently at thelacA locus using strain IHA01, and the correct integration was verified by Southern blotting (strains IHA01-Xyl-BgaB and IHA01-Spac-BgaB).. To measure the β-Gal activities of both strains, cells were grown in Luria-Bertani medium either in the absence or in the presence of an inducer for 7 h. While the addition of IPTG ...
These researchers are studying spatial patterns of transcriptional activity in the chromosome of Escherichia coli. Genes on the bacterial chromosome, as well as on any other chromosome of any organism, are arranged in a certain linear order. How this order contributes to transcriptional regulation of groups of genes is the main focus of this research. ...
[This thread is closed.] Queria parabenizar e agradecer a todos os desenvolvedores deste plugin! Ajudou muito em meu projeto de sites para delivery!…
Scientists at the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI), a genomics research facility, transplanted a bacterial chromosome from one type of bacteria into anothe
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Bacterial Chromosomes. Washington, D.C: ASM Press. pp. 389-403. ISBN 1-55581-232-5. Amundsen SK, Taylor AF, Chaudhury AM, Smith ...
In Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. Ed P. Chatterjee, In Tech Open Access Publisher, Croatia, p1-22. Ellery, David (20 March ... Deakin, J, Koina, E, Waters, P et al 2008, 'Physical map of two tammar wallaby chromosomes: a strategy for mapping in non-model ... Deakin, J.E. and Graves, J.A.M. (2010). Mapping genes on tammar wallaby target chromosomes. Macropods: The biology of kangaroos ... The status of dosage compensation in the multiple X chromosomes of the platypus', PLoS Genetics, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 1-13. ...
The Brucella genome includes two chromosomes; the first chromosome codes mostly for genes related to metabolism, meanwhile the ... Bacterial small RNAs (sRNA) are an important class of regulatory molecules. Many Brucella sRNAs have been identified. Infection ... They usually have two chromosomes and their replication and segregation are temporally organized. The gastrointestinal tract is ...
The known structures of bacterial telomeres take the form of proteins bound to the ends of linear chromosomes, or hairpin loops ... A small fraction of bacterial chromosomes (such as those in Streptomyces, Agrobacterium, and Borrelia), however, are linear and ... Maloy S (July 12, 2002). "Bacterial Chromosome Structure". Retrieved 2008-06-22. Martínez P, Blasco MA (October 2010). "Role of ... The "end replication problem" is exclusive to linear chromosomes as circular chromosomes do not have ends lying without reach ...
... purine strand bias in 280 bacterial chromosomes". Microbiology. 152 (3): 579-583. doi:10.1099/mic.0.28637-0. PMID 16514138. ... Each chromosome has been laid out horizontally and homologous blocks in each genome are shown as identically colored regions ... "Dynamics of Genome Rearrangement in Bacterial Populations". PLOS Genetics. 4 (7): e1000128. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000128 ...
Margulis, Lynn (Jun 2005). "Genophore, chromosomes and the bacterial origin of chloroplasts". International Microbiology. 8 (2 ... His studies of chromosome structure revealed the importance of non-histone proteins, and along with evolutionary biologist Lynn ... He coined the term genophore for prokaryote DNA to highlight its differences from the eukaryal chromosome. Ris was a founding ... "Electron-microscopic study of the spindle and chromosome movement in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Journal of cell ...
Margulis, L (2005). "Hans Ris (1914-2004). Genophore, chromosomes and the bacterial origin of chloroplasts". International ... and explained genetic variation as occurring mainly through transfer of nuclear information between bacterial cells or viruses ...
Roth, J.R.; Benson, N.; Galitski, T.; Haack, K.; Lawrence, J.; Miesel, L. (1996). "Rearrangements of the bacterial chromosome: ... New methods in bacterial genetics". J. Mol. Biol. 116 (1): 125-159. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(77)90123-1. PMID 338917. ... In 2011, ASM Press published a festschrift in his honor ("The Lure of Bacterial Genetics: A Tribute to John Roth"). "Thomas ... 2011). The Lure of Bacterial Genetics: A Tribute to John Roth. Washington, DC: ASM Press. p. 362. ISBN 978-1-55581-538-7. ...
A high-resolution contact map of bacterial chromosomes including the E. coli chromosome has revealed that a bacterial ... Indirect evidence for this model comes from an observation that CIDs of bacterial chromosomes including the E. coli chromosome ... Qian Z, Macvanin M, Dimitriadis EK, He X, Zhurkin V, Adhya S (August 2015). "A New Noncoding RNA Arranges Bacterial Chromosome ... Trun NJ, Marko JF (1998). "Architecture of a bacterial chromosome" (PDF). American Society of Microbiology News. 64 (5): 276- ...
The StbA-stbDRs complex may be used to pair plasmid the host chromosome, using indirectly the bacterial partitioning system. ... Badrinarayanan, Anjana; Le, Tung B. K.; Laub, Michael T. (2015-11-13). "Bacterial Chromosome Organization and Segregation". ... ParA proteins from different plasmids and bacterial species show 25 to 30% of sequence identity to the protein ParA of the ... Schumacher MA (2012). "Bacterial plasmid partition machinery: a minimalist approach to survival". Current Opinion in Structural ...
P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs) have features of both P1 vectors and Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs). Similar to P1 ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are circular DNA molecules, usually about 7kb in length, that are capable of holding ... Yoo EY, Kim S, Kim JY, Kim BD (August 2001). "Construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome library ... Osoegawa K, de Jong PJ, Frengen E, Ioannou PA (May 2001). "Construction of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC/PAC) libraries ...
Bacteria have one bacterial chromosome.[5] Shape[change , change source]. Bacteria vary widely in size and shape, but in ... Bacterial evolution. Microbiological reviews 51 (2): 221-71. [1] *↑ Holland L. (1990). "Woese, Carl in the forefront of ... Bacterial cells do not have a nucleus, and most have no organelles with membranes around them. Most have a cell wall. They do ... There are about 1:1 bacterial cells as human cells in each of our bodies[2][3]. Some bacteria can cause diseases, but others ...
... self-replicating DNA molecules that are separate from the bacterial chromosome.[10] Plasmids can carry genes responsible for ... "Eukaryotic Chromosome Structure , Science Primer". scienceprimer.com. Retrieved 2015-11-22.. *^ a b Smith, Dwight G (2015). ... circular chromosome, which is in contrast to eukaryotes, which typically have linear chromosomes.[7] Nutritionally, prokaryotes ... The endosymbiotic theory holds that mitochondria and chloroplasts have bacterial origins. Both organelles contain their own ...
Frimodt-Møller J, Charbon G, Løbner-Olesen A (December 2016). "Control of bacterial chromosome replication by non-coding ... Bussiere DE, Bastia D (March 1999). "Termination of DNA replication of bacterial and plasmid chromosomes". Molecular ... "oriC-encoded instructions for the initiation of bacterial chromosome replication". Frontiers in Microbiology. 5: 735. doi: ... Chromosome replication in bacteria is regulated at the initiation stage. DnaA-ATP is hydrolyzed into the inactive DnaA-ADP by ...
In engineering large constructs of >100 kb, such as the Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs), or chromosomes, recombineering ... "Rapid modification of bacterial artificial chromosomes by ET- recombination". Nucleic Acids Research. 27 (6): 1555-1557. doi: ... and for modifying DNA of any source often contained on a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), among other applications. ... Recombineering is widely used for bacterial genetics, in the generation of target vectors for making a conditional mouse ...
The translocase protein subunits are encoded on the bacterial chromosome. The translocase itself comprises 7 proteins, ... Breyton C, Haase W, Rapoport TA, Kühlbrandt W, Collinson I (August 2002). "Three-dimensional structure of the bacterial protein ... in the bacterial cytoplasm. SecB maintains preproteins in an unfolded state after translation, and targets these to the ...
F' (F-prime) bacteria are formed by incorrect excision from the chromosome, resulting in F plasmid carrying bacterial sequences ... Bioengineers have created F plasmids that can contain inserted foreign DNA; this is called a bacterial artificial chromosome. ... F+ bacteria possess F factor as a plasmid independent of the bacterial genome. The F plasmid contains only F factor DNA and no ... The episome that harbors the F factor can exist as an independent plasmid or integrate into the bacterial cell's genome. There ...
... with chromosomes of bacterial size". Plant Biology. 8: 770-777. doi:10.1055/s-2006-924101. PMID 17203433. Fleischmann A, ... individual chromatids from mitotic anaphase are just 2.1 Mbp and therefore have a size smaller than some bacterial chromosomes ... With a diploid chromosome number of around 52 (2n = ca. 52), G. aurea has the distinction of having one of the smallest known ... "Evolution of genome size and chromosome number in the carnivorous plant genus Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae), with a new estimate ...
... with chromosomes of bacterial size". Plant Biology. 8 (6): 770-777. doi:10.1055/s-2006-924101. PMID 17203433. Rice, Barry A. ( ... individual chromatids from mitotic anaphase are just 2.1 Mbp and therefore have a size smaller than some bacterial chromosomes ... Other species in the genus Genlisea and the family Lentibulariaceae have much lower chromosome numbers and larger genome sizes ... to be polyploid species with the unusual circumstances of having a high chromosome number with extremely small chromosomes. ...
... with chromosomes of bacterial size". Plant Biology. 8 (6): 770-777. doi:10.1055/s-2006-924101. PMID 17203433. Fleischmann A, ... "Evolution of genome size and chromosome number in the carnivorous plant genus Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae), with a new estimate ...
The Bacterial Chromosome: 525-540. doi:10.1128/9781555817640.ch29. ISBN 9781555812324. "Bacterial Chromosomes". Microbial ... some bacterial species have linear or multiple chromosomes. If the DNA is replicated faster than the bacterial cells divide, ... Chaconas G, Chen CW (2005). "Replication of Linear Bacterial Chromosomes: No Longer Going Around in Circles". ... Eukaryotic genomes are composed of one or more linear DNA chromosomes. The number of chromosomes varies widely from Jack jumper ...
NO produced by bacterial NOS is protective against oxidative damage. Different members of the NOS family are encoded by ... The gene coding for eNOS is located on Chromosome 7. A constitutive Ca2+ dependent NOS provides a basal release of NO. eNOS is ... Bacterial NOS (bNOS) has been shown to protect bacteria against oxidative stress, diverse antibiotics, and host immune response ... The gene coding for nNOS is located on Chromosome 12. Neuronal NOS also performs a role in cell communication and is associated ...
Murray, H; Ferreira, H; Errington, J (Sep 2006). "The bacterial chromosome segregation protein Spo0J spreads along DNA from ... Collectively, these components function to ensure accurate partitioning of plasmids or whole chromosomes between bacterial ... "A spindle-like apparatus guides bacterial chromosome segregation". Nature Cell Biology. 12 (8): 791-8. doi:10.1038/ncb2083. PMC ... Surtees, JA; Funnell, BE (2003). Plasmid and chromosome traffic control: how ParA and ParB drive partition. Current Topics in ...
Links to bacterial transformation[edit]. The process of bacterial transformation also shares many similarities with chromosomal ... So, when the chromosomes go on to meiosis II and separate, some of the daughter cells receive daughter chromosomes with ... Crossover usually occurs when matching regions on matching chromosomes break and then reconnect to the other chromosome. ... Bacterial transformation itself has been linked to DNA repair many times.[5] The second theory comes from the idea that meiosis ...
Each bacterial chromosome entry in BacMap now contains graphs and tables on a variety of gene and protein statistics. All of ... web-compatible circular chromosome maps (Fig. 1). Each chromosome map in BacMap is extensively hyperlinked and each chromosome ... A database of annotated bacterial genomes and their chromosome/genome maps. Data types. captured. Gene sequence data, protein ... bacterial genome sequence data. All of the genome (chromosome) maps in BacMap were constructed using the program known as ...
2006): Smallest angiosperm genomes found in Lentibulariaceae, with chromosomes of bacterial size. Plant Biol. 8: 770-777 DOI: ...
The bacterial chromosome' in 1969. Although members of the club received the lectures with enthusiasm, these mono-thematic ...
nat.) (2006). Dynamics of the bacterial chromosome: structure and function. Wiley-VCH. pp. 266-. ISBN 978-3-527-30496-7. ...
... this is very similar structure to a bacterial chromosome. Nuclear DNA Non-Mendelian Inheritance Pierce B (2020). Genetics A ... Unlike nuclear DNA, which is present as linear molecules inside the chromosomes, the entire genomes of chloroplasts and ...
For a bacterium to bind, take up, and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome, it must enter a special physiological state ... Natural bacterial transformation involves the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another through the surrounding medium. ... van de Beek, Diederik; de Gans, Jan; Tunkel, Allan R.; Wijdicks, Eelco F.M. (5 January 2006). "Community-Acquired Bacterial ... Type strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase ...
It further contends that only a minority of the genetic material is kept in circular chromosomes while the rest is in branched ... Because it is similar to bacterial amino acid transporters and the mitochondrial import protein Tim17[38] (translocase on the i ... The new cpDNA structures separate, creating daughter cpDNA chromosomes. In addition to the early microscopy experiments, this ... compact genomes and genes of bacterial origin". BMC Genomics. 16 (1): 204. doi:10.1186/s12864-015-1418-3. PMC 4487195. PMID ...
For example, Down syndrome happens when there are three copies of chromosome #21. (Usually people have 2 of every chromosome.) ... Koba S, Nowak S (February 1976). "[A case of acute bacterial dysentery with cerebrospinal meningitis]" (in Polish). Wiadomości ... When a human is conceived, it gets 23 chromosomes from its mother and 23 from its father. If it does not get the right number ... Most embryos and fetuses with chromosome problems will not live for a long time. They die very early. There are a few ...
... replication of the chromosome involves about 2 million DNA synthesis reactions for each arm of the chromosome over 40 to 80 min ... The bacterial cell's control system has a hierarchical organization.[16] The signaling and the control subsystem interfaces ... Chromosome replication and cell division only occurs in the stalked cell stage. Its name derives from its crescent shape caused ... The Caulobacter CB15 genome has 4,016,942 base pairs in a single circular chromosome encoding 3,767 genes.[7] The genome ...
"Being Pathogenic, Plastic, and Sexual while Living with a Nearly Minimal Bacterial Genome". PLoS Genet. 3 (5): e75. doi ...
Smallest angiosperm genomes found in Lentibulariaceae, with chromosomes of bacterial size. Plant Biology. 8: 770-777. ... Hans Winkler, Professor of Botany at the University of Hamburg, Germany, as a combination of the words gene and chromosome.. . ... "I propose the expression genome for the haploid chromosome set, which, together with the pertinent protoplasm, specifies the ... However, no single haploid chromosome set defines even the DNA of a species. Because of the huge variety of alleles carried by ...
The chromosomes can be seen in blue. The chromosome that is labeled with green and red spots (upper left) is the one where the ... Bacterial FISH probes are often primers for the 16s rRNA region. FISH is widely used in the field of microbial ecology, to ... Then, an interphase or metaphase chromosome preparation is produced. The chromosomes are firmly attached to a substrate, ... Probes that hybridize along an entire chromosome are used to count the number of a certain chromosome, show translocations, or ...
Bacterial cultures were regarded as Gold standards for detection of MAP. Detection is very limited in fresh tissues, food, and ... The genome of MAP strain K-10 was sequenced in 2005 and found to consist of a single circular chromosome of 4,829,781 base ... Type strain of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase ... Gram-positive bacterial infection: Actinobacteria (primarily A00-A79, 001-041, 080-109) ...
condensed chromosome. • nuclear chromosome, telomeric region. • nucleus. • nuclear chromatin. • lateral element. • cytosol. • ... RAD51 family members are homologous to the bacterial RecA, Archaeal RadA and yeast Rad51.[5][6] The protein is highly conserved ... nuclear chromosome. • mitochondrial matrix. • nucleolus. • mitochondrion. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • chromatin. • ... condensed nuclear chromosome. • macromolecular complex. Biological process. • regulation of protein phosphorylation. • strand ...
... to chromosome 12p13.2-pter using a dinucleotide repeat". Genomics. 14 (1): 206-7. doi:10.1016/S0888-7543(05)80312-X. PMID ... to chromosome 12p12-pter". Genomics. 10 (3): 835-9. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(91)90471-P. PMID 1653763.. ... "Mapping of a human brain voltage-gated calcium channel to human chromosome 12p13-pter". Genomics. 14 (4): 1092-4. doi:10.1016/ ...
... the cycle has characteristics that are similar to both bacterial and eukaryotic systems. The chromosomes replicate from ... Circular chromosomes, similar translation and transcription to Eukarya. Circular chromosomes, unique translation and ... after the cell's chromosome is replicated and the two daughter chromosomes separate, the cell divides.[154] In the genus ... while archaeal flagella appear to have evolved from bacterial type IV pili.[106] In contrast to the bacterial flagellum, which ...
2005). "Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4". Nature. 434 (7034): 724-31. doi:10.1038/ ... cellular response to molecule of bacterial origin. • positive regulation of interferon-gamma production. • embryonic axis ... Saitoh T, Hirai M, Katoh M (Jun 2001). "Molecular cloning and characterization of human Frizzled-5 gene on chromosome 2q33.3- ...
The real danger lies that the psyllid can carry a deadly, bacterial tree disease called Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as ... "Next generation haplotyping to decipher nuclear genomic interspecific admixture in Citrusspecies: analysis of chromosome 2" ...
The bacterial and fungal cultures found in the fermenting piles were found to vary widely from factory to factory throughout ... This notion has recently been refuted through a systematic chromosome analysis of the species attributed to many East Asian ... Tian, Jianqing; Zhu, Zixiang; Wu, Bing; Wang, Lin; Liu, Xingzhong (2013-08-19). "Bacterial and fungal communities in Pu'er tea ... bacterial, or autooxidation influences. Pu'er flavors can change dramatically over the course of the aging process, resulting ...
The LCT and MCM6 genes are both located on the long arm (q) of chromosome 2 in region 21. The locus can be expressed as 2q21.[ ... Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. *Whipple's. *Short bowel syndrome. *Steatorrhea. *Milroy disease. *Bile acid ...
One of the exotoxins is encoded on the bacterial chromosome, while the other is encoded on a plasmid. These exotoxins are ...
This article on a gene on human chromosome 17 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... It is functionally similar to glycogen debranching enzyme, but is on a different chromosome, processed differently by the cell ...
Ochman, H; Lawrence, JG; Groisman, EA (18 May 2000). "Lateral gene transfer and the nature of bacterial innovation.". Nature ... "Three-Dimensional Maps of All Chromosomes in Human Male Fibroblast Nuclei and Prometaphase Rosettes". PLoS Biology 3 (5): e157 ... "Design and synthesis of a minimal bacterial genome". Science 351 (6280): aad6253. Bibcode:2016Sci...351.....H. doi:10.1126/ ...
Nudler E, Mironov AS (Jan 2004). "The riboswitch control of bacterial metabolism". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 29 (1): 11-7 ...
... or W chromosome rather than by the presence of two X chromosomes or two Z chromosomes.. basal body. An organelle formed from a ... A type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.. apoptosis. A highly regulated form ... chromosome. A threadlike strand of DNA in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order.. cilia. circadian rhythm. ... In eukaryotic cells, the part of the cell cycle during which the division of the nucleus takes place and duplicated chromosomes ...
The genes for HYAL1-3 are clustered in chromosome 3, while HYAL4-6 are clustered in chromosome 7.[3] HYAL1 and HYAL2 are the ... In addition, bacterial hyaluronate lyases (EC 4.2.2.1) may also be referred to as hyaluronidases, although this is uncommon.[6] ... "Expression analysis of six paralogous human hyaluronidase genes clustered on chromosomes 3p21 and 7q31". Genomics. 60 (3): 356- ... having a function akin to bacterial hyaluronidases.[18] ...
C content of bacterial chromosomes by monitoring fluorescence intensity during DNA denaturation in a capillary tube". Int. J. ... Euzeby, JP (1997). "List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder available on the Internet". Int. J. Syst. ... Palys, T; Nakamura LK; Cohan FM (1997). "Discovery and classification of ecological diversity in the bacterial world: the role ... Gurtler, V; Mayall BC (2001). "Genomic approaches to typing, taxonomy and evolution of bacterial isolates". Int. J. Syst. Evol ...
The human TNF gene (TNFA) was cloned in 1985.[22] It maps to chromosome 6p21.3, spans about 3 kilobases and contains 4 exons. ... other bacterial products, and Interleukin-1 (IL-1). In the skin, mast cells appear to be the predominant source of pre-formed ...
... localization to region q13 of chromosome 5". Blood. 82 (5): 1532-7. PMID 8395910. "Entrez Gene: F2R coagulation factor II ( ... "Regulation of neutrophilic inflammation by proteinase-activated receptor 1 during bacterial pulmonary infection". Journal of ...
Genes on human chromosome 4. *EC 3.2.1. *Enzymes of known structure ...
... coli unable to synthesize it were commonly used by geneticists before the emergence of genomics to map bacterial chromosomes. ... An agar plate - an example of a bacterial growth medium*: Specifically, it is a streak plate; the orange lines and dots are ... Certain bacterial inhibitors are used for gonococci, and buffered glycerol saline for enteric bacilli. ... YM (yeast extract, malt extract agar) has a low pH, deterring bacterial growth. ...
"The antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin protects the urinary tract against invasive bacterial infection". Nature Medicine. 12 (6 ... Cathelicidins serve a critical role in mammalian innate immune defense against invasive bacterial infection.[6] The ... Genes on human chromosome 3. *Immune system. *Antimicrobial peptides. *Leukocytes. *Protein families ...
On beef meat pieces, PEA reduced the bacterial cell count by 90% after incubation of the PEA treated and E. coli contaminated ... is located in the same region of chromosome 7 that has been proposed as a susceptibility locus for ADHD (50). ... Lynnes T, Horne SM, Prüß BM (2014). "ß-Phenylethylamine as a novel nutrient treatment to reduce bacterial contamination due to ...
Similar systems exist in other bacterial genera.[117]. Medicine[edit]. Epigenetics has many and varied potential medical ... Methylation of cytosines can also persist from the germ line of one of the parents into the zygote, marking the chromosome as ... In 2008, a consensus definition of the epigenetic trait, "stably heritable phenotype resulting from changes in a chromosome ... Specific epigenetic processes include paramutation, bookmarking, imprinting, gene silencing, X chromosome inactivation, ...
A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is a DNA construct, based on a functional fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid), used for ... The bacterial artificial chromosomes usual insert size is 150-350 kbp.[4] A similar cloning vector called a PAC has also been ... The Big Bad BAC: Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes - a review from the Science Creative Quarterly ... "The development and applications of the bacterial artificial chromosome cloning system" (PDF). Keio J Med. 50 (1): 26-30. doi: ...
... everything you need for studying or teaching Bacterial artificial chromosome. ... Immediately download the Bacterial artificial chromosome summary, chapter-by-chapter analysis, book notes, essays, quotes, ... Bacterial artificial chromosome Summary. Everything you need to understand or teach Bacterial artificial chromosome. ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (Bac) Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) involve a cloning system that is derived from a ...
Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes, Second Edition expands upon the previous edition with current, detailed methods developed for ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes, Second Edition expands upon the previous edition with current, detailed methods developed for ... Authoritative and cutting-edge, Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes, Second Edition seeks to aid scientists in advancing their ... Herpesvirus Mutagenesis Facilitated by Infectious Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (iBACs) Karl E. Robinson, Timothy J. Mahony ...
Spatial organization of bacterial chromosomes.. Wang X1, Rudner DZ.. Author information. 1. Department of Microbiology and ... Bacterial chromosomes are organized in stereotypical patterns that are faithfully and robustly regenerated in daughter cells. ... The left and right chromosome arms are shown as thick blue and purple lines (or blobs). The chromosome arms are shown with a ... analysis of chromosome organization in a larger and more diverse set of bacteria and a deeper characterization of chromosome ...
Alonso J.M., Stepanova A.N. (2014) Arabidopsis Transformation with Large Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. In: Sanchez-Serrano ... Generation of a high-quality P1 library of Arabidopsis suitable for chromosome walking. Plant J 7:351-358CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Complementation of plant mutants with large genomic DNA fragments by a transformation-competent artificial chromosome vector ...
... B. Karsten Tischer and ... Finally, we review the reconstitution of viruses from BAC vectors and the removal of the bacterial sequences from the virus ...
A. Domi and B. Moss, "Engineering of a vaccinia virus bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli by bacteriophage λ- ... Viral Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: Generation, Mutagenesis, and Removal of Mini-F Sequences. B. Karsten Tischer and ... 2. Generation of Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs). 2.1. Homologous Recombination in Mammalian Cells. One of the most ... A. Domi and B. Moss, "Cloning the vaccinia virus genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli and recovery ...
... Mol Gen Genet. 1996 Nov 27;253(1-2):217- ... The results indicate that the method should be applicable to any non-essential gene in numerous bacterial species. ... Cointegrate formation of the integration vectors with the chromosome of the target strain is selected by antibiotic resistance ...
A gene expression atlas of the central nervous system based on bacterial artificial chromosomes.. Gong S1, Zheng C, Doughty ML ... and to provide a library of verified bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors and transgenic mouse lines that offer ...
In a single step we cloned an infectious cytomegalovirus DNA as a bacterial artificial chromosome in E. coli and reconstituted ... The MCMV genome was cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) in Escherichia coli and viral progeny were reconstituted ... The mouse cytomegalovirus genome was cloned and maintained as a 230 kb bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) in E. coli. ... Cloning and mutagenesis of a herpesvirus genome as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome. Martin Messerle, Irena ...
Super-Sized Inserts Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC) have been developed to hold much larger pieces of DNA than a plasmid ... With such a vector, it is easier to grow sufficient amounts of the herpes virus for research, since it can live in bacterial ... For instance, there are researchers studying the herpes virus who have made a BAC vector that can be cultured in bacterial ... breed healthier farm animals or even process radioactive waste are just a few examples of what Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes ...
Results: Relative entropy was highest in bacterial chromosomes and had the sequence chromosomes ,GI,phage,plasmid. There was an ... Relative entropy differences in bacterial chromosomes, plasmids, phages and genomic islands. Author(s). Bohlin, J.; Passel, M.W ... The rate at which amelioration of horizontally acquired DNA occurs within the chromosome is likely to account for the small ... We analyzed the differences in information capacity between prokaryotic chromosomes, genomic islands (GI), phages, and plasmids ...
Birth of a W sex chromosome by horizontal transfer of Wolbachia bacterial symbiont genome. Sébastien Leclercq, Julien Thézé, ... Here we provide evidence indicating that Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts triggered the evolution of new sex chromosomes in ... Birth of a W sex chromosome by horizontal transfer of Wolbachia bacterial symbiont genome ... In many animals, sex determination is controlled by sex chromosomes. Sex chromosomes are heterozygous in males in XY/XX systems ...
A program called Oriloc has been developed for the prediction of bacterial replication origins. The method builds on the fact ... Oriloc: prediction of replication boundaries in unannotated bacterial chromosomes Bioinformatics. 2000 Jun;16(6):560-1. doi: ... A program called Oriloc has been developed for the prediction of bacterial replication origins. The method builds on the fact ...
... was to test the ability of oligonucleotide-based arrays to reproduce the results of focused bacterial artificial chromosome ( ... platform to give high-resolution coverage of regions within the genome sequence coordinates of BAC/P1 artificial chromosome ( ... P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs), or bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), or of polymerase chain reaction products ... Ou, Z., Kang, S., Shaw, C. et al. Bacterial artificial chromosome-emulation oligonucleotide arrays for targeted clinical array- ...
Hans Ris (1914-2004). Genophore, chromosomes and the bacterial origin of chloroplasts ... Ris was very disappointed when his appropriate name for the "bacterial chromosome, the "genophore ", a term he coined, was not ... Even in some marine protists, the dinoflagellates, whose peculiar chromosomes (made of bacterial-like 25 nm-small fibrils that ... The chromatids (half-chromosomes) of the large X chromosomes do not separate from each other in the first meiotic cell division ...
This is a central location for all information relating to the Replication of a circular bacterial chromosome cluster. It is ... abc = Replication of a circular bacterial chromosome. cat_check = n. status = 1. underlinked = n. cleanup = y. Workgroup ... pagename = Replication of a circular bacterial chromosome. variant = Article size = 21,698 bytes. Cluster subpages. Required ... Template:Replication of a circular bacterial chromosome/Metadata. From Citizendium, the Citizens Compendium ...
Bacterial artificial chromosomes or BACS are circular DNA molecules which contain a replicon that is based on the F factor. ... A modular, positive selection bacterial artificial chromosome vector with multiple cloning sites. Genomics. 1999 Jun 15;58(3): ... Retrieved from "https://openwetware.org/mediawiki/index.php?title=Bacterial_artificial_chromosomes&oldid=111020" ...
The structure of the bacterial chromosome can be considered at several different levels. By analogy with protein structure one ... Bacterial Chromosome Oxolinic Acid Bacterial Nucleoid Domain Substructure Torsional Tension These keywords were added by ... coli chromosome. In: Riley M, Drlica K (eds) The bacterial chromosome. ASM Publishing, Washington, DC (in press)Google Scholar ... Pettijohn D (1988) Histone-like proteins and bacterial chromosome structure. J Biol Chem 263: 12793-12796PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
... and chromosome segregation. Although bacterial chromosomes are probably highly organized within cells (1-6), the resolution of ... Dynamics of the bacterial SMC complex and SMC-like proteins involved in DNA repair. Chromosome Res. 17, 265-275 (2009). doi: ... High-Resolution Mapping of the Spatial Organization of a Bacterial Chromosome. By Tung B. K. Le, Maxim V. Imakaev, Leonid A. ... High-Resolution Mapping of the Spatial Organization of a Bacterial Chromosome. By Tung B. K. Le, Maxim V. Imakaev, Leonid A. ...
The origin sequences vary across species, but all bacterial oriCs contain the information necessary to guide assembly of the ... Other crucial sequences of bacterial origin include DNA unwinding element (DUE, which designates the site at which oriC melts ... The origin sequences vary across species, but all bacterial oriCs contain the information necessary to guide assembly of the ... Other crucial sequences of bacterial origin include DNA unwinding element (DUE, which designates the site at which oriC melts ...
In the majority of bacterial species, faithful chromosome segregation is… ... Proper chromosome segregation during cell division is essential in all domains of life. ... Proper chromosome segregation during cell division is essential in all domains of life. In the majority of bacterial species, ... Additionally, we discuss outstanding questions and challenges in understanding bacterial chromosome segregation. ...
If you are a society or association member and require assistance with obtaining online access instructions please contact our Journal Customer Services team ...
Triticum monococcum bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library D. Lijavetzky, G. Muzzi, T. Wicker, B. Keller, R. Wing, and J ...
Rapid modification of bacterial artificial chromosomes by ET-recombination. Nucleic Acids Research. 1999;27(6):1555-1557. [PMC ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Mutagenesis Using Recombineering. Kumaran Narayanan 1, 2 * and Qingwen Chen 2 ... Modification of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and preparation of intact BAC DNA for generation of transgenic mice. [ ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes, or BACs, are fertility- (F-) factor-based plasmid vectors that replicate stably in low copy ...
The Biology and Physics of Bacterial Chromosome Organisation 2018. 4-6 June 2018. Golden Tulip, Leiden, The Netherlands ... Future Events , The Biology and Physics of Bacterial Chromosome Organisation 2018 , Registration ...
New approaches and technologies have revolutionized the field of bacterial chromosome biology in the last fifteen years. For ... The Biology and Physics of Bacterial Chromosome Organisation 2018. 4-6 June 2018. Golden Tulip, Leiden, The Netherlands ... between biologists and physicists have generated key discoveries regarding our understanding of bacterial chromosome structure ... physics models allow researchers to tackle questions that go far beyond the traditional biological description of chromosome ...
2000) A bacterial artificial chromosome library for barley (Hordeum vulgare). Theor Appl Genet 101:1093-1099. ... Comparative Sequence Analysis of Colinear Barley and Rice Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes Message Subject (Your Name) has sent ... Comparative Sequence Analysis of Colinear Barley and Rice Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. Jorge Dubcovsky, Wusirika ... Comparative Sequence Analysis of Colinear Barley and Rice Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. Jorge Dubcovsky, Wusirika ...
... has been described as a specific inhibitor of bacterial DNA synthesis in vivo and in vitro1-3, but its mechanism of action on ... Nalidixic acid and bacterial chromosome replication. @article{Crumplin1976NalidixicAA, title={Nalidixic acid and bacterial ... NALIDIXIC acid (NAL) has been described as a specific inhibitor of bacterial DNA synthesis in vivo and in vitro1-3, but its ... chromosome replication}, author={Geoff Crumplin and Jeffrey T. L. Smith}, journal={Nature}, year={1976}, volume={260}, pages={ ...
  • BACs can also be utilized to detect genes or large sequences of interest and then used to map them onto the human chromosome using BAC arrays . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are large F-based plasmid vectors that can accommodate large inserts of DNA. (bookrags.com)
  • Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (Bac) Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) involve a cloning system that is derived from a particular plasmid found in the bacterium Escherichia coli. (bookrags.com)
  • Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes, Second Edition expands upon the previous edition with current, detailed methods developed for working with BACs. (springer.com)
  • however, this problem could also be overcome by the use of single or low-copy vectors, such as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). (hindawi.com)
  • Until recently, most clinical applications of array-CGH, other than some cancer studies, have been based on arrays constructed by covalent attachment to glass slides of DNA from whole clones, typically cosmids, P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs), or bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), or of polymerase chain reaction products generated from such clones. (nature.com)
  • Bacterial artificial chromosomes or BACS are circular DNA molecules which contain a replicon that is based on the F factor. (openwetware.org)
  • Bacterial artificial chromosomes, or BACs, are fertility- (F-) factor-based plasmid vectors that replicate stably in low copy number [ 2 , 3 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To test this possibility, transgenic mice were generated with 145- and 207-kb bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) that contained the human apoB gene and more extensive 5'- and 3'-flanking sequences. (caltech.edu)
  • A minimal set of 50 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones that covers almost all of the genome of M. microti OV254 was constructed, and individual BACs were compared to the corresponding BACs from M. bovis AF2122/97 and M. tuberculosis H37Rv. (epfl.ch)
  • Interestingly, large vectors that fulfill these criteria such as Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) have been widely used for generation of transgenic mice [ 4 ] but not for production of recombinant proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this context the recent demonstration by Dr. Koichi Kawakami and colleagues that the vertebrate transposon system Tol2 can be re-engineered to facilitate integration of BAC DNA into the chromosomes of zebrafish and mice is likely to accelerate the use of BACs in a variety of studies with transgenic animals. (openaccessbooks.com)
  • This book focuses on the numerous applications of Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) in a variety of studies. (openaccessbooks.com)
  • The large size of the insert DNA in BACs and the ease of engineering mutations in that DNA within the bacterial host, allowed manipulating the BAC-viral DNA of Varicella-Zoster Virus. (openaccessbooks.com)
  • This study evaluated the individual and combined diagnostic performance of the bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs)-on-Beads (BoBs™) assay and conventional karyotyping for the prenatal detection of chromosomal abnormalities in pregnant women who were 35 or more years-old. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The BACs, with their inserted DNA, are then taken up by bacterial cells. (genome.gov)
  • A program called Oriloc has been developed for the prediction of bacterial replication origins. (nih.gov)
  • This is a central location for all information relating to the Replication of a circular bacterial chromosome cluster . (citizendium.org)
  • CIDs appeared to be established during or shortly after DNA replication, and could potentially facilitate chromosomal segregation by preventing newly replicated chromosomes from becoming entangled. (sciencemag.org)
  • Chromosomes must adopt structures that are compatible with critical cellular processes such as transcription, DNA replication, and chromosome segregation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Replication of the bacterial chromosome initiates at a single origin of replication that is called oriC . (frontiersin.org)
  • The origin sequences vary across species, but all bacterial oriCs contain the information necessary to guide assembly of the DnaA protein complex at oriC , triggering the unwinding of DNA and the beginning of replication. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review, we summarize our current knowledge and understanding of the information encoded in bacterial origins of chromosomal replication, particularly in the context of replication initiation and its regulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast to the situation in Eukaryotes, chromosomal replication in bacteria begins at a single site on the chromosome: the origin of replication ( oriC ) ( Leonard and Méchali, 2013 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The parS site is most often located near the origin of replication and is segregated first after chromosome replication. (jic.ac.uk)
  • During the replication process of bacteria with circular chromosomes, an odd number of homologous recombination events results in concatenated dimer chromosomes that cannot be partitioned into daughter cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because there is only one origin of replication on bacterial circular chromosomes, replication generally terminates in a specific region of the chromosome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At the slowest growth rates, the chromosome rests in B/G1 before the replication period C/S starts. (asmblog.org)
  • Xer site-specific recombination at dif, a 28-bp site located in the replication terminus region of the chromosome, converts dimers to monomers through the sequential action of the XerC and XerD recombinases. (gla.ac.uk)
  • In the 'extrusion-capture' model, replication through an anchored replisome provides the force to move daughter chromosomes to the poles ( Lemon and Grossman, 2001 ). (wiley.com)
  • DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. (uchicago.edu)
  • A large DNA sequence that is artificially inserted into a bacterial genome for replication or expression. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • E. coli cells treated with gyramide A have abnormally localized, condensed chromosomes that blocks DNA replication and interrupts chromosome segregation. (elsevier.com)
  • The results demonstrate that the gyramides prevent bacterial growth by a mechanism in which the topological state of chromosomes is altered and halts DNA replication and segregation. (elsevier.com)
  • Bacterial origins regulate orisome assembly, a nuclei-protein complex assembled on the origin responsible for unwinding the origin and loading all the replication machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • In E. coli, the direction for orisome assembly are built into a short stretch of nucleotide sequence called as origin of replication (oriC) which contains multiple binding sites for the initiator protein DnaA (a highly homologous protein amongst bacterial kingdom). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosome replication in bacteria is regulated at the initiation stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, we review the reconstitution of viruses from BAC vectors and the removal of the bacterial sequences from the virus genome during this process. (hindawi.com)
  • Cointegrate formation of the integration vectors with the chromosome of the target strain is selected by antibiotic resistance. (nih.gov)
  • Here we describe a large-scale screen to create an atlas of CNS gene expression at the cellular level, and to provide a library of verified bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors and transgenic mouse lines that offer experimental access to CNS regions, cell classes and pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Gene expression from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones has been demonstrated to facilitate physiologically relevant levels compared to viral and nonviral cDNA vectors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Burke, D. T., Carle, G. F., and Olson, M. V. (1987) Cloning of large-segments of exogenous DNA into yeast by means of artificial chromosome vectors. (springer.com)
  • Creating BAC clones by inserting DNA fragments into vectors and transferring them into bacterial cells. (yourgenome.org)
  • Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors are especially suitable in the preparation of metagenomic clone libraries because they stably maintain large DNA inserts (greater than 100 kbp) in Escherichia coli ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Generation of stable cell clones for protein production using Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes offers a clear advantage over the use of conventional vectors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The widespread use of yeast artificial chromosomes as cloning vectors, has created a demand for reliable method to recover intact chromosomal DNA from preparative pulsed field gels. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The performance principle of array-CGH is basically the same as m-CGH with the difference being the use of a platform-array containing immobilized DNA fragments cloned with various vectors (bacterial artificial chromosome , yeast artificial chromosomes or P1-derived artificial chromosome ), instead of metaphase chromosomes [20]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The mouse cytomegalovirus genome was cloned and maintained as a 230 kb bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) in E. coli . (pnas.org)
  • The MCMV genome was cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) in Escherichia coli and viral progeny were reconstituted by transfection of the MCMV BAC plasmid into eukaryotic cells that support virus production. (pnas.org)
  • Here we provide evidence indicating that the genome of Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts was horizontally transferred into a chromosome of the common pillbug Armadillidium vulgare , which resulted in this chromosome evolving as a new female (W) sex chromosome. (pnas.org)
  • Methods: Custom oligonucleotide (oligo) arrays were designed using the Agilent Technologies platform to give high-resolution coverage of regions within the genome sequence coordinates of BAC/P1 artificial chromosome (PAC) clones that had already been validated for use in previous versions of clone arrays used in clinical practice. (nature.com)
  • These differences in DNA content indicate that a single chromosome from barley contains more DNA than one complete haploid rice genome. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Furthermore, we simulated long-read data based on standard multiplexed read profiles of a phylogenetically diverse array of bacteria and archaea and found that although limitations due to genome size and repeat complexity exist, long-read x8 multiplexed data are able to complete many bacterial genomes without the need for additional short-read sequencing. (unl.edu)
  • This research provides a series of criteria for why short-read sequencing and assembly often does not result in the generation of complete genome assemblies, and how multiplexed, long-read data can greatly reduce time and financial resources for many bacterial and archaeal sequencing projects. (unl.edu)
  • The bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) ( 1 ) is now the most widely utilized vector system to construct large-insert genomic libraries for genome analysis. (springer.com)
  • Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries are extremely valuable for the genome-wide genetic dissection of complex organisms. (mdpi.com)
  • Liu C, Bai C, Guo Y, Liu D, Lu T, Li X, Ma J, Ma Y, Guan W. Construction and Analysis of Siberian Tiger Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library with Approximately 6.5-Fold Genome Equivalent Coverage. (mdpi.com)
  • An important outgrowth of the Human Genome Project that has assisted investigators in defining the boundaries of genomic DNA necessary for the complete expression of a particular gene has been the development of artificial chromosomes ( 4 , 50 ). (physiology.org)
  • The full-length genome of human cytomegalovirus strain AD169 was cloned as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) plasmid, pAD/Cre. (asm.org)
  • Examples : Integration of bacteriophage DNA into host bacterial chromosome Immunoglobulin and T Cell Receptor genes DNA rearrangements via Transposition involves the movement of sequences throughout the genome and has no requirement for sequence homology. (coursehero.com)
  • Local events such as inversions or the incorporation of genome islands are balanced by global changes in genome organization to minimize PS that may represent one of the leading evolutionary forces driving bacterial genome diversification. (biomedcentral.com)
  • OU biases are characteristic features of a bacterial genome [ 4 , 11 ], but according to Chargaff's first and second parity rule [ 14 ] the complementary strands are believed to be symmetric. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, with more and more complete bacterial genome sequences at hand, the AT and GC composition are meanwhile known to be skewed between leading and lagging strand [ 15 , 16 ] and the extrapolation of the first-order parity rule to higher orders of oligonucleotide composition has yet not been investigated in sufficient depth to draw any valid conclusions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present study, we describe the cloning of the KHV genome as a stable and infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone that can be used to produce KHV recombinant strains. (pasteur.fr)
  • Construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the A genome of wheat. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We have constructed a common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library consisting of 33 792 clones and an estimated 3- to 5-fold coverage of the common bean genome. (elsevier.com)
  • Battistoni F, Bartels D, Kaiser O, Reamon-Buettner SM, Hurek T, Reinhold-Hurek B. Physical map of the Azoarcus sp strain BH72 genome based on a bacterial artificial chromosome library as a platform for genome sequencing and functional analysis. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • We have constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for bovine use in genome mapping. (wcgalp.org)
  • Genome-wide copy number profiling on high-density bacterial artificial chromosomes , single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and oligonucleotide microarrays: a platform comparison based on statistical power analysis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCC mec ) ( 15 , 16 , 21 ), the genetic element that carries the methicillin resistance gene, mecA , integrates into the orfX gene in the S. aureus genome in a site specific manner. (asm.org)
  • We report the cloning of the entire genome of cowpox virus strain Brighton Red (BR) as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) in Escherichia coli and the recovery of infectious virus from cloned DNA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Liu YG, Shirano Y, Fukaki H, Yanai Y, Tasaka M, Tabata S, Shibata D (1999) Complementation of plant mutants with large genomic DNA fragments by a transformation-competent artificial chromosome vector accelerates positional cloning. (springer.com)
  • We analyzed the differences in information capacity between prokaryotic chromosomes, genomic islands (GI), phages, and plasmids. (wur.nl)
  • Purpose: The goal of this work was to test the ability of oligonucleotide-based arrays to reproduce the results of focused bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based arrays used clinically in comparative genomic hybridization experiments to detect constitutional copy number changes in genomic DNA. (nature.com)
  • For example, super-resolution microscopy is now being used to visualize previously unresolved structure, genomic tools have enabled the capture of new types of proximity information on a genomic-scale and polymer physics models allow researchers to tackle questions that go far beyond the traditional biological description of chromosome structure. (biochemistry.org)
  • These results led us to apply information theoretical methods to examine the extent to which information content differed between the genomes of bacterial chromosomes, plasmids, phages and GIs, and whether such differences could be related to distinct genomic properties of bacterial chromosomes and mobile genomic elements. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Artificial chromosomes, which harbor hundreds of kilobases of genomic DNA, preserve a large sequence landscape containing most, if not all, regulatory elements controlling the expression of a particular gene. (physiology.org)
  • A metagenomic (community genomic) library consisting of 5,760 bacterial artificial chromosome clones was prepared in Escherichia coli DH10B from DNA extracted from the large-bowel microbiota of BALB/c mice. (asm.org)
  • To develop the resources for positional cloning and structural genomic analyses in barley, we constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the cultivar Morex using the cloning enzyme HindIII. (arizona.edu)
  • A trend towards minimal PS was observed for almost all complete sequences of bacterial chromosomes and plasmids, however, PS was substantially higher in separate genomic loci and several types of plasmids and phages characterized by long stretches of non-coding DNA and/or asymmetric gene distribution on the two DNA strands. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacterial artificial chromosome libraries have also been used to develop physical maps for genomic regions containing resistance gene analog sequences (Marek and Shoemaker, 1997). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Traditional chromosome analyses enable the detection of large genomic alterations, such as triploid, aneusomy, balanced and unbalanced chromosomal rearrangements of at least 3-5 Mb in size, and mosaicism [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Unlike eukaryotic cells, bacterial cells do not possess an envelope-enclosed organelle for storage and handling of genomic DNA. (asm.org)
  • They wrote, 'Here, we present direct paleontological evidence for long-term genomic stasis in this family in the form of a calcified osmundaceous [royal fern] rhizome [tiny root structure] from the Lower Jurassic of Sweden with pristinely preserved cellular contents, including nuclei and chromosomes. (icr.org)
  • 2014. Fossilized Nuclei and Chromosomes Reveal 180 Million Years of Genomic Stasis in Royal Ferns. (icr.org)
  • In Escherichia coli , a single pair of replisomes is responsible for duplicating the entire 4.6 Mbp circular chromosome. (elifesciences.org)
  • In particular, I was supposed to explain the driving force underlying segregation of a replicating chromosome in Escherichia coli . (asmblog.org)
  • Escherichia coli cells depleted of the conserved GTPase, ObgE, show early chromosome-partitioning defects and accumulate replicated chromosomes in which the terminus regions are colocalized. (wiley.com)
  • In Escherichia coli , the length of the chromosome, when open, is many times the length of the cell. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • We have used diffusive mixing and dielectrophoretic trapping to lyse Escherichia coli cells in a microfabricated environment and trap the E. coli chromosome. (princeton.edu)
  • They find that, in Escherichia coli , the oscillating Min system mediates a novel Brownian ratchet-type mechanism of chromosome segregation, challenging the conventional view that the Min system only functions in mid-cell determination. (dkfz.de)
  • Chromosome segregation by the Escherichia coli Min system. (dkfz.de)
  • H-NS has been suggested to contribute to the orderly folding of the Escherichia coli chromosome in the highly compacted nucleoid. (asm.org)
  • A bacterial artificial chromosome ( BAC ) is a DNA construct , based on a functional fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid ), used for transforming and cloning in bacteria , usually E. coli . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC) have been developed to hold much larger pieces of DNA than a plasmid can. (ubc.ca)
  • Goldstein E, Drlica K (1984) Regulation of bacterial DNA supercoiling: Plasmid linking numbers vary with growth temperature. (springer.com)
  • Chromosome and plasmid segregation in bacteria are mostly driven by ParAB S systems. (embopress.org)
  • The F factor contains genes that encourage cellular attachment during conjugation and accelerate plasmid transfer between conjugating bacterial cells. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Colinearity of a large region from barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) chromosome 5H and rice ( Oryza sativa ) chromosome 3 has been demonstrated by mapping of several common restriction fragment-length polymorphism clones on both regions. (plantphysiol.org)
  • One of these clones, WG644, was hybridized to rice and barley bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries to select homologous clones. (plantphysiol.org)
  • 1992) Continuum of overlapping clones spanning the entire human chromosome 21q. (springer.com)
  • Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones have proven invaluable for genetic manipulation of herpesvirus genomes. (gla.ac.uk)
  • We provide evidence that domain boundaries are established by highly expressed genes and the formation of plectoneme-free regions, whereas the histone-like protein HU and SMC (structural maintenance of chromosomes) promote short-range compaction and the colinearity of chromosomal arms, respectively. (sciencemag.org)
  • Close examination of pathway expression in the top-performing, as well as other isolates, reveals the complexity of cellular metabolism and regulation, underscoring the need for precise optimization while integrating pathway genes into the chromosome. (sciencemag.org)
  • As a first step in carrying out detailed analysis of the functions of the HVT genes, a full-length infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of HVT was constructed. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • With their high-resolution images, Zhuang and team determined that areas with lots of genes ("gene-rich") tend to flock to similar areas on any chromosome. (innovations-report.com)
  • During the formation of reproductive cells or gametes, sexual reproduction is accompanied by an exchange of genes between the two chromosomes inherited from the parents. (innovations-report.com)
  • In a gamete, on a given chromosome, there are genes inherited from both the father and mother (see illustration). (innovations-report.com)
  • This initial shuffling of the genes is followed by a random distribution of chromosomes at the next stage of meiosis. (innovations-report.com)
  • Insertion sequences may also encourage the movement of drug-resistance genes between plasmids and chromosomes. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • According to scientists, a synthetic yeast that has man-made chromosomes could eventually be used as a platform for making new kinds of biological materials, like antibiotics or vaccines, while human artificial chromosomes can be used to introduce healthy copies of genes into the diseased organs or tissues of people with genetic illnesses, scientists said. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • At one point in the cell's life, its chromosomes become untangled and open up to expose their genes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The physical and genetic map of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum chromosome revealed that nitrogen fixation and nodulation genes are clustered. (asm.org)
  • Therefore, we concluded that the symbiotic genes have integrated into the chromosome after horizontal gene transfer from a different strain. (asm.org)
  • We then used two candidate gene selection strategies to identify genes on these three chromosomes associated with S. aureus susceptibility, and targeted genes identified by both gene selection strategies. (prolekare.cz)
  • 18) genes on our three chromosomes of interest that are differentially expressed between S. aureus -infected A/J and C57BL/6J. (prolekare.cz)
  • In recent years, analysis of chromosome organization in a larger and more diverse set of bacteria and a deeper characterization of chromosome dynamics in the original model systems have provided a broader and more complete picture of both chromosome organization and the activities that generate the observed spatial patterns. (nih.gov)
  • Construction, characterization, and preliminary BAC-end sequencing analysis of a bacterial artificial chromosome library of white clover (Trifolium repens L. (aber.ac.uk)
  • Construction and characterization of a deep-coverage bacterial artificial chromosome library for maize. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Vanhouten, W & MacKenzie, S 1999, ' Construction and characterization of a common bean bacterial artificial chromosome library ', Plant molecular biology , vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 977-983. (elsevier.com)
  • 1986) and other features of the structure of bacterial chromosomes as well (Kleppe et al. (springer.com)
  • We report the use of chromosome conformation capture coupled with deep sequencing (Hi-C) to map the structure of bacterial chromosomes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we review the various models for the formation of the ParABS complex and describe its role in segregating the origin-proximal region of the chromosome. (jic.ac.uk)
  • abstract = "Antibiotics targeting DNA gyrase have been a clinical success story for the past half-century, and the emergence of bacterial resistance has fueled the search for new gyrase inhibitors. (elsevier.com)
  • Abstract We have constructed three bacterial artificial chromosome BAC libraries of wheat cultivar Triticum aestivum Wangshuibai, germplasms T. monococcum TA2026 and TA2033. (duhnnae.com)
  • A solution to the problems was the maintenance and modification of virus genomes in bacteria where the accuracy of the bacterial polymerase allows clonal maintenance of viral sequences in E. coli . (hindawi.com)
  • Bacterial antibiotic resistance cassettes present in the BAC vector backbone allow the selection in E. coli . (hindawi.com)
  • I knew the DNA biophysics literature fairly well, but when I saw the beautiful 1992 illustration of E. coli in Goodsell, it was obvious that something like the wormlike chain model was not going to be very useful to understand segregation of the whole chromosome. (asmblog.org)
  • A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was generated from a derivative of the sequenced E. coli O157:H7 Sakai strain. (frontiersin.org)
  • What is the bacterial cell arrangement of E. coli? (reference.com)
  • A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is an engineered DNA molecule used to clone DNA sequences in bacterial cells (for example, E. coli). (genome.gov)
  • In bacteria with circular chromosomes, homologous recombination can generate chromosome dimers that cannot be segregated to daughter cells at cell division. (gla.ac.uk)
  • p. 731 , published online 24 October) analyzed the structure of the circular chromosome in the prokaryote Caulobacter crescentus by using chromosome conformation capture and deep-sequencing. (sciencemag.org)
  • We performed Hi-C on swarmer cells that each contain a single circular and unreplicated chromosome. (sciencemag.org)
  • A large piece of DNA can be engineered in a fashion that allows it be propagated as a circular artificial chromosome in bacteria--so-called bacterial artificial chromosome, or BAC. (genome.gov)
  • A markerless point mutation introduced in the start codon by two-step en passant Red mutagenesis abrogated ORF9 expression and resulted in a dramatic growth defect that was not observed in a revertant virus. (asm.org)
  • Among specific topics are the mutagenesis of the repeat regions of herpesviruses cloned as bacterial artificial chromosomes , insertion and deletion mutagenesis by overlap extension of polymerase chain reactions, using peptide loop insertion mutagenesis for the evolution of proteins, and an easy two-step method for randomizing and cloning gene fragments. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The BAC allows the application of bacterial mutagenesis procedures including minimal modifications and markerless approaches. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results indicate that the method should be applicable to any non-essential gene in numerous bacterial species. (nih.gov)
  • A gene expression atlas of the central nervous system based on bacterial artificial chromosomes. (nih.gov)
  • This discovery, published in the October 18, 2002 issue of Cell, has led to the development of a method, for which a patent application has been made, which henceforth allows scientists to stimulate and "target" in vivo recombination at specific sites on the chromosomes, near one or other gene. (innovations-report.com)
  • Artificial chromosomes have been used in gene mapping and in modeling genetic diseases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The terms chromosome and gene were used long before biologists really understood what these structures were. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Watson and Crick discovery made it possible to express biological concepts (such as the gene) and structures (such as the chromosome) in concrete chemical terms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by single-locus PCR assays that target the extremity of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome- mec (SCC mec ) and part of the adjacent S. aureus -specific open reading frame gene ( orfX ) is a significant diagnostic advancement, since it provides real-time detection directly from screening specimens. (asm.org)
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates carry the methicillin resistance gene ( mecA ) on a horizontally transferred genetic element called the staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCC mec ). (asm.org)
  • Broad estimates for coverage depths needed to recover complete bacterial genomes are present in the literature, but required sequencing depths across bacterial and archaeal phylogenies needed for high-quality assembly are not known. (unl.edu)
  • We first preface our research by discussing the benefits and challenges surrounding assembly of single chromosome bacterial genomes. (unl.edu)
  • Oligonucleotide frequencies were shown to be conserved signatures for bacterial genomes, however, the underlying constraints have yet not been resolved in detail. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Five of the 155 bacterial chromosomes have anomalously high PS, of which the chromosomes of Xylella fastidiosa 9a5c and Prochlorococcus marinus MIT9313 exhibit extreme PS values suggesting an intermediate unstable state of these two genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Strand symmetry as indicated by minimal PS is a universally conserved feature of complete bacterial genomes that results from the matching mutual compensation of local OU biases on both replichors while OUV is more a taxon specific feature. (biomedcentral.com)
  • First, we wanted to know whether an association exists between structural features of DNA and the frequency of particular tetranucleotide words in bacterial genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In order to facilitate the generation of mutant viruses of varicella-zoster virus (VZV), the agent causing varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles), we generated a full-length infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of the P-Oka strain. (asm.org)
  • Upon successful establishment of the infectious BR clone, we modified the full-length clone such that recombination-mediated excision of bacterial sequences can occur upon transfection in eukaryotic cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using this method, dif sites were identified in 641 organisms among 16 phyla, with a 97.64% identification rate for single-chromosome strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While eukaryotes have two or more chromosomes, prokaryotes such as bacteria possess a single chromosome composed of double‐stranded DNA in a loop. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Proper positioning of dif in the chromosome and of FtsK at the septum is required to sense the multimeric state of newly replicated chromosomes and restrict complete Xer reactions to dimeric chromosomes. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Genetic material is most readily exchanged between related genetic elements, [ 5 ] i.e . chromosomes exchange DNA with chromosomes, plasmids with plasmids, and phages with phages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hence we determined strand symmetry and its relationship to oligonucleotide composition in a comprehensive collection of completely sequenced bacterial chromosomes, plasmids and phages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we describe the generation of a recombinant clone of RRV strain 17577 (RRV 17577 ) utilizing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology. (elsevier.com)
  • A modular, positive selection bacterial artificial chromosome vector with multiple cloning sites. (openwetware.org)
  • Therefore, many bacteria harbor highly conserved chromosome dimer resolution (CDR) machinery to separate the dimer chromosome into two monomer daughter chromosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacterial chromosomes are organized in stereotypical patterns that are faithfully and robustly regenerated in daughter cells. (nih.gov)
  • In cells that are born with partially replicated chromosomes (f-h), the older template DNA is colored gray. (nih.gov)
  • Ris' favorite comparisons of genetic material were of the chromosomes, nuclear membranes and cytoskeleton of eggs and sperm cells of animals including sea urchins, frogs, toads and salamanders. (isciii.es)
  • One indication of these fluctuations in three-dimensional structure is that the shape of the bacterial nucleoid is irregular and varies in different cells in the same culture. (springer.com)
  • Chromosomes must be highly compacted and organized within cells, but how this is achieved in vivo remains poorly understood. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although bacterial chromosomes are probably highly organized within cells ( 1 - 6 ), the resolution of previous studies has been limited. (sciencemag.org)
  • To study the organization of bacterial chromosomes with high resolution, we used Hi-C on Caulobacter cells (figs. S1 and S2). (sciencemag.org)
  • Scientists hope to identify drugs that not only inhibit this protein but also induce errors when cancer cells divide their chromosomes to form new cells. (genengnews.com)
  • Drugs identified in this way were then tested in different types of cancer cells to investigate exactly how they were able to disrupt chromosome division at a high rate. (genengnews.com)
  • Our approach enables the selection of drug compounds that disrupt normal division of cancer cells," said William C Earnshaw, Ph.D., professor of chromosome dynamics at the University of Edinburgh's School of Biological Sciences, who participated in the study. (genengnews.com)
  • High-resolution, 3D images of human chromosomes in single cells reveal how DNA structure might influence its function. (innovations-report.com)
  • To do that, cells divide and replicate their DNA, which is wrapped into labyrinthine libraries inside chromatin, the stuff inside chromosomes. (innovations-report.com)
  • So, all the cells in our body carry the same genetic material (chromosomes), apart from a few exceptions such as gametes, antibody-producing cells, and also, unfortunately, tumor cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • In meiosis (from the Greek, meaning reduction), unlike mitosis, the genetic material is halved when transmitted from the mother cell to the daughter cells: 2n chromosomes (diploid cell) become n chromosomes (haploid cell). (innovations-report.com)
  • Each pair of chromosomes - one of paternal origin, the other maternal - is positioned independently of the other pairs on the equatorial plate, before migrating to the poles to produce two daughter cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Thus, testing for fetal chromosomal abnormalities in the cells of amniotic fluid using a combination of chromosome G karyotype analysis and the BoBs™ assay should provide more accurate results [ 21 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacterial cells come in a variety of shapes and sizes, such as rod shaped, sph. (reference.com)
  • As the bacterial cells grow and divide, they amplify the BAC DNA, which can then be isolated and used in sequencing DNA. (genome.gov)
  • The use of human artificial chromosomes overcomes both of these problems by providing a new chromosome in addition to the ones that already exist in the cells of the subject. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A chromosome is a structure that occurs within cells and that contains the cell's genetic material. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In prokaryotes, or cells without a nucleus, the chromosome is merely a circle of DNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In eukaryotes, or cells with a distinct nucleus, chromosomes are much more complex in structure. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cytogenetic Response (CyR) is based on the prevalence of Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) metaphases among cells in metaphase on a bone marrow (BM) aspirate. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It appears as if H-NS mutant cells adopt a "slow-growth" type of chromosome organization under nutrient-rich conditions, which leads to a decreased cellular DNA content. (asm.org)
  • Collectively, our results reveal general principles for the organization and structure of chromosomes in vivo. (sciencemag.org)
  • For eukaryotes, chromosome conformation capture coupled with deep sequencing, or Hi-C, has enabled higher-resolution studies of chromosome structure in vivo ( 7 , 8 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • NALIDIXIC acid (NAL) has been described as a specific inhibitor of bacterial DNA synthesis in vivo and in vitro1-3, but its mechanism of action on susceptible bacteria remains obscure. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, we report on the use of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) to begin understanding the in vivo regulation of smooth muscle calponin (SM-Calp). (physiology.org)
  • Spatial organization of bacterial chromosomes. (nih.gov)
  • However, the analogy with protein structure should not be carried too far, because the three-dimensional structure of the chromosome appears to be dynamic in its organization and its structural fluctuations may go beyond the kinds of statistical perturbations expected in proteins. (springer.com)
  • Progressive condensation of the chromosome as it emerges from the replisome may provide force or organization of the chromosome to facilitate segregation. (wiley.com)
  • The work Bacterial artificial chromosomes, Volume 1, Library construction, physical mapping, and sequencing represents a distinct intellectual or artistic creation found in University of Oklahoma Libraries . (ou.edu)
  • There was an association between relative entropy and AT content in chromosomes, phages, plasmids and GIs with the strongest association being in phages. (wur.nl)
  • Conclusions: We argue that relative entropy differences reflect how plasmids, phages and GIs interact with microbial host chromosomes and that all these biological entities are, or have been, subjected to different selective pressures. (wur.nl)
  • In this paper we analyzed oligonucleotide usage (OU) biases in a comprehensive collection of 155 completely sequenced bacterial chromosomes, 316 plasmids and 104 phages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the males (which are XO), spermatocytes contain one oversized X chromosome and cell division is very unequal. (isciii.es)
  • The chromatids (half-chromosomes) of the large X chromosomes do not separate from each other in the first meiotic cell division in the testes. (isciii.es)
  • Proper chromosome segregation during cell division is essential in all domains of life. (jic.ac.uk)
  • ParA interacts with ParB to drive the higher-order ParB-DNA complex, and hence the replicating chromosomes, to each daughter cell. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, the capabilities of multiplexing (sequencing more than one sample simultaneously on one flow cell) with long-read sequencing platforms in order to recover complete bacterial chromosomes are poorly documented. (unl.edu)
  • Chromosome dimer resolution requires that dif is positioned correctly in the chromosome, and the activity of FtsK, a septum-located protein that coordinates cell division with chromosome segregation. (gla.ac.uk)
  • To overcome these chromatin effects, we have employed a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) as expression vector to obtain stable cell lines suitable for protein production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We propose a model in which ObgE is required to license chromosome segregation and subsequent cell cycle events. (wiley.com)
  • With this technique, the team imaged about 2,000 chromatin loci per cell, a more than ten-fold increase from their previous work and enough to form a high-resolution image of what the structure of chromosomes looks like in its native habitat. (innovations-report.com)
  • The number of exchanges will vary from one organism or chromosome to another (on average, one to five per chromosome, and up to one hundred or so per cell). (innovations-report.com)
  • The specificity and activity of the gyramides for inhibiting gyrase makes these compounds important chemical tools for studying the mechanism of gyrase and the connection between DNA topology and bacterial cell division. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, the bacterial Min system coordinates cell division and chromosome segregation. (dkfz.de)
  • What part of the bacterial cell helps it stick to surfaces? (reference.com)
  • What is a bacterial cell? (reference.com)
  • A bacterial cell is a microorganism that may be pathogenic or nonpathogenic. (reference.com)
  • During the DNA synthesis (S) phase, the cell replicates its chromosomes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • During the mitosis (M) phase, the duplicated chromosomes are segregated, migrating to opposite poles of the cell. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Key for isolation in gram + bacterial is cell lysis, which may not be adequate with SDS and CTAB. (protocol-online.org)
  • A large sequence of DNA, such as a human artificial chromosome or a bacterial artificial chromosome, that is constructed in a laboratory to function like a chromosome or inserted into a cell to be replicated and expressed. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The nucleoid occupies the central part of the bacterial cell ( 8 ), and its shape is dependent on a variety of factors, such as environmental conditions or genetic mutations ( 7 , 10 - 13 ). (asm.org)
  • They even found chromosomes frozen in various stages of cell division, including prophase, telophase, metaphase and possibly anaphase. (icr.org)
  • In this work, we explore the efficacy of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome based vector applied to production of the constant region of the human IgG1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This self-excision of the bacterial replicon is made possible by a sequence duplication within mini-F sequences and allows recovery of recombinant virus progeny without remaining marker or vector sequences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Other crucial sequences of bacterial origin include DNA unwinding element (DUE, which designates the site at which oriC melts under the influence of DnaA) and binding sites for additional proteins that positively or negatively regulate the initiation process. (frontiersin.org)
  • We discuss diversity of bacterial oriC regions with the main focus on roles of individual DNA recognition sequences at oriC in binding the initiator and regulatory proteins as well as the overall impact of these proteins on the formation of initiation complex. (frontiersin.org)
  • Bacteriocins are bacterial proteins capable of destroying other bacteria. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Today we know that a chromosome contains a single molecule of DNA along with several kinds of proteins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The final key checkpoint occurs at the end of mitosis, when the cycle stops if chromosomes are not properly attached to the mitotic spindle. (encyclopedia.com)
  • With Sally Hughes-Schrader at Columbia University in New York City he studied chromosomes in an aphid species in which the offspring of fertilized eggs develop into females. (isciii.es)
  • In the majority of bacterial species, faithful chromosome segregation is mediated by the tripartite ParABS system, consisting of an ATPase protein ParA, a CTPase and DNA-binding protein ParB, and a centromere-like parS site. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Cosmid End-sequence profiling Fosmid Human artificial chromosome Yeast artificial chromosome O'Connor M, Peifer M, Bender W (June 1989). (wikipedia.org)
  • The sequence of dif sites is widely conserved among many bacterial phyla, and they can be computationally identified using our method. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Flashner Y, Gralla J (1988) DNA dynamic flexibility and protein recognition: differential stimulation by bacterial histone-like protein HU. (springer.com)
  • Liu Y, Mitsukawa N, Vazquez-Tello A, Whittier RF (1995) Generation of a high-quality P1 library of Arabidopsis suitable for chromosome walking. (springer.com)
  • This animation provides an overview of the techniques involved in making a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library. (yourgenome.org)
  • We have constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of an advanced breeding line of white clover. (aber.ac.uk)
  • Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uchicago.edu)
  • Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library of durum wheat. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed and analysed. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • do first online Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: Volume 1 Library Construction, Physical Mapping, and Sequencing to the military Workshop quantum car that which is you a national support name! (benevisions.net)
  • Construction of a bovine bacterial artificial chromosome library. (wcgalp.org)
  • Repeated binding and unbinding of chromosomal segments to these tethering sites eventually can mediate segregation of sister chromosomes by biasing their random movement toward the poles in a Brownian ratchet-like manner. (dkfz.de)
  • What worried me was the directionality-if I were a small protein sitting on a replicating chromosome, could I tell which DNA segment belongs to which sister DNA? (asmblog.org)
  • When DNA gyrase is trapped on bacterial chromosomes by quinolone antibacterials, reversible complexes form that contain DNA ends constrained by protein. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The architectural protein H-NS binds nonspecifically to hundreds of sites throughout the chromosome and can multimerize to stiffen segments of DNA as well as to form DNA-protein-DNA bridges. (asm.org)
  • Bacterial strains. (asm.org)
  • Using chromosome substitution strains (CSS), we found that loci on chromosomes 8, 11, and 18 influence susceptibility to S. aureus sepsis in A/J mice. (prolekare.cz)
  • In: Gualerzi C, Pon CL (eds) Bacterial chromatin. (springer.com)
  • c) a three-dimensional picture of, the chromosomal DNA that includes the writhing and supercoiling of the axis of the DNA double helix in the chromosome. (springer.com)
  • With their new high-resolution 3D imaging method, the team started to build a chromosomal map from both wide-lens images of all 46 chromosomes and close-ups of one section of one chromosome. (innovations-report.com)
  • New approaches and technologies have revolutionized the field of bacterial chromosome biology in the last fifteen years. (biochemistry.org)
  • The recombination of chromosomes: a controlled game of love and chance? (innovations-report.com)
  • Home / Life Sciences / The recombination of chromosomes: a controlled game of love and chance? (innovations-report.com)
  • However, 28-178 was located in the middle of the short arm of Hessian fly chromosome A2 whereas 23-201 was located in the middle of the long arm of chromosome A2, suggesting the presence of severe recombination suppression over its proximal region. (genetics.org)
  • The speed at which chromosomes segregate appears to require an active process, but the machinery remains elusive. (wiley.com)
  • Whether bacteria segregate their chromosomes by passive or active mechanisms has been a long-standing debate. (dkfz.de)
  • The dif /XerCD chromosome dimer resolution system seems widely conserved. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We refined the "Nucleation & caging" model and successfully applied it to the chromosomally encoded Par system of Vibrio cholerae , indicating that this stochastic self‐assembly mechanism is widely conserved from plasmids to chromosomes. (embopress.org)
  • Human Apolipoprotein B Transgenic Mice Generated with 207- and 145-Kilobase Pair Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. (caltech.edu)
  • A Bacterial Artificial Chromosome array is a highly efficient and accurate means of detecting genetic abnormalities responsible for a variety of human maladies, such as Down Syndrome, autism, and cancer. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In October, Solexa announced that Company scientists had sequenced a human Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) on an early laboratory prototype instrument. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Further, last month we announced the successful resequencing of a human bacterial artificial chromosome , which demonstrates that our reversible-terminator chemistry and Clonal Single-Molecule Array(TM) technology can be applied to resequence human DNA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Nasdaq:SLXA) today announced that its scientists have sequenced a human bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), an important milestone demonstrating that Solexa's reversible-terminator chemistry and Clonal Single-Molecule Array(TM) technology can be applied to resequence human DNA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Researchers at the University of Edinburgh, the Institute Curie in Paris, the U.S. National Cancer Institute, and the Kazusa DNA Institute of Japan tested drug compounds using artificial human chromosomes with in-built fluorescent markers. (genengnews.com)
  • In high school textbooks, human chromosomes are pictured as wonky Xs like two hotdogs jammed together. (innovations-report.com)
  • Last year, before Su graduated with his Ph.D., he and three current Ph.D. candidates in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences-Pu Zheng, Seon Kinrot and Bogdan Bintu-captured high-resolution 3D images of human chromosomes, the complex houses for our DNA. (innovations-report.com)
  • How many chromosomes are in a human gamete? (reference.com)
  • Artificial chromosomes is important for the synthetic life-forms that scientists expects to design for a range of applications, including industrial manufacture of new types of medicines and drugs for human and animal medicine, capability to generate new types of microbes with genetic codes that could generate cheaper ways to use crude oil as automotive fuel or create improved medicines without having harmful side effects. (thefreedictionary.com)