In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.
The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, elements such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, that are required for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance in progeny cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
A characteristic symptom complex.
The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.
Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Congenital conditions of atypical sexual development associated with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions including MONOSOMY; TRISOMY; and MOSAICISM.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.

A sequence-ready BAC clone contig of a 2.2-Mb segment of human chromosome 1q24. (1/4994)

Human chromosomal region 1q24 encodes two cloned disease genes and lies within large genetic inclusion intervals for several disease genes that have yet to be identified. We have constructed a single bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone contig that spans over 2 Mb of 1q24 and consists of 78 clones connected by 100 STSs. The average density of mapped STSs is one of the highest described for a multimegabase region of the human genome. The contig was efficiently constructed by generating STSs from clone ends, followed by library walking. Distance information was added by determining the insert sizes of all clones, and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genes were incorporated to create a partial transcript map of the region, providing candidate genes for local disease loci. The gene order and content of the region provide insight into ancient duplication events that have occurred on proximal 1q. The stage is now set for further elucidation of this interesting region through large-scale sequencing.  (+info)

Complete nucleotide sequence of the 27-kilobase virulence related locus (vrl) of Dichelobacter nodosus: evidence for extrachromosomal origin. (2/4994)

The vrl locus is preferentially associated with virulent isolates of the ovine footrot pathogen, Dichelobacter nodosus. The complete nucleotide sequence of this 27.1-kb region has now been determined. The data reveal that the locus has a G+C content much higher than the rest of the D. nodosus chromosome and contains 22 open reading frames (ORFs) encoding products including a putative adenine-specific methylase, two potential DEAH ATP-dependent helicases, and two products with sequence similarity to a bacteriophage resistance system. These ORFs are all in the same orientation, and most are either overlapping or separated by only a few nucleotides, suggesting that they comprise an operon and are translationally coupled. Expression vector studies have led to the identification of proteins that correspond to many of these ORFs. These data, in combination with evidence of insertion of vrl into the 3' end of an ssrA gene, are consistent with the hypothesis that the vrl locus was derived from the insertion of a bacteriophage or plasmid into the D. nodosus genome.  (+info)

High throughput direct end sequencing of BAC clones. (3/4994)

Libraries constructed in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors have become the choice for clone sets in high throughput genomic sequencing projects primarily because of their high stability. BAC libraries have been proposed as a source for minimally over-lapping clones for sequencing large genomic regions, and the use of BAC end sequences (i.e. sequences adjoining the insert sites) has been proposed as a primary means for selecting minimally overlapping clones for sequencing large genomic regions. For this strategy to be effective, high throughput methods for BAC end sequencing of all the clones in deep coverage BAC libraries needed to be developed. Here we describe a low cost, efficient, 96 well procedure for BAC end sequencing. These methods allow us to generate BAC end sequences from human and Arabidoposis libraries with an average read length of >450 bases and with a single pass sequencing average accuracy of >98%. Application of BAC end sequences in genomic sequen-cing is discussed.  (+info)

Rapid modification of bacterial artificial chromosomes by ET-recombination. (4/4994)

We present a method to modify bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) resident in their host strain. The method is based on homologous recombination by ET-cloning. We have successfully modified BACs at two distinct loci by recombination with a PCR product containing homology arms of 50 nt. The procedure we describe here is rapid, was found to work with high efficiency and should be applicable to any BAC modification desired.  (+info)

Natural competence for DNA transformation by Legionella pneumophila and its association with expression of type IV pili. (5/4994)

We have recently described the expression of two pili of different lengths on the surface of Legionella pneumophila (B. J. Stone and Y. Abu Kwaik, Infect. Immun. 66:1768-1775, 1998). Production of long pili requires a functional pilEL locus, encoding a type IV pilin protein. Since type IV pili in Neisseria gonorrhoeae are associated with competence for DNA transformation, we examined the competence of L. pneumophila for DNA transformation under conditions that allowed the expression of type IV pili. We show that L. pneumophila is naturally competent for DNA transformation by isogenic chromosomal DNA and by plasmid DNA containing L. pneumophila DNA. Many different L. pneumophila loci are able to transform L. pneumophila after addition of plasmid DNA, including gspA, ppa, asd, and pilEL. The transformation frequency is reduced when competing DNA containing either L. pneumophila DNA or vector sequences is added to the bacteria, suggesting that uptake-specific sequences may not be involved in DNA uptake. Competence for DNA transformation correlates with expression of the type IV pili, and a pilEL mutant defective in expression of type IV pili is not competent for DNA transformation. Complementation of the mutant for competence is restored by the reintroduction of a cosmid that restores production of type IV pili. Minimal competence is restored to the mutant by introduction of pilEL alone. We conclude that competence for DNA transformation in L. pneumophila is associated with expression of the type IV pilus and results in recombination of L. pneumophila DNA into the chromosome. Since expression of type IV pili also facilitates attachment of L. pneumophila to mammalian cells and protozoa, we designated the type IV pili CAP (for competence- and adherence-associated pili).  (+info)

Ferritin mutants of Escherichia coli are iron deficient and growth impaired, and fur mutants are iron deficient. (6/4994)

Escherichia coli contains at least two iron storage proteins, a ferritin (FtnA) and a bacterioferritin (Bfr). To investigate their specific functions, the corresponding genes (ftnA and bfr) were inactivated by replacing the chromosomal ftnA and bfr genes with disrupted derivatives containing antibiotic resistance cassettes in place of internal segments of the corresponding coding regions. Single mutants (ftnA::spc and bfr::kan) and a double mutant (ftnA::spc bfr::kan) were generated and confirmed by Western and Southern blot analyses. The iron contents of the parental strain (W3110) and the bfr mutant increased by 1.5- to 2-fold during the transition from logarithmic to stationary phase in iron-rich media, whereas the iron contents of the ftnA and ftnA bfr mutants remained unchanged. The ftnA and ftnA bfr mutants were growth impaired in iron-deficient media, but this was apparent only after the mutant and parental strains had been precultured in iron-rich media. Surprisingly, ferric iron uptake regulation (fur) mutants also had very low iron contents (2.5-fold less iron than Fur+ strains) despite constitutive expression of the iron acquisition systems. The iron deficiencies of the ftnA and fur mutants were confirmed by Mossbauer spectroscopy, which further showed that the low iron contents of ftnA mutants are due to a lack of magnetically ordered ferric iron clusters likely to correspond to FtnA iron cores. In combination with the fur mutation, ftnA and bfr mutations produced an enhanced sensitivity to hydroperoxides, presumably due to an increase in production of "reactive ferrous iron." It is concluded that FtnA acts as an iron store accommodating up to 50% of the cellular iron during postexponential growth in iron-rich media and providing a source of iron that partially compensates for iron deficiency during iron-restricted growth. In addition to repressing the iron acquisition systems, Fur appears to regulate the demand for iron, probably by controlling the expression of iron-containing proteins. The role of Bfr remains unclear.  (+info)

A novel reduced flavin mononucleotide-dependent methanesulfonate sulfonatase encoded by the sulfur-regulated msu operon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (7/4994)

When Pseudomonas aeruginosa is grown with organosulfur compounds as sulfur sources, it synthesizes a set of proteins whose synthesis is repressed in the presence of sulfate, cysteine, or thiocyanate (so-called sulfate starvation-induced proteins). The gene encoding one of these proteins, PA13, was isolated from a cosmid library of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and sequenced. It encoded a 381-amino-acid protein that was related to several reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2)-dependent monooxygenases, and it was the second in an operon of three genes, which we have named msuEDC. The MsuD protein catalyzed the desulfonation of alkanesulfonates, requiring oxygen and FMNH2 for the reaction, and showed highest activity with methanesulfonate. MsuE was an NADH-dependent flavin mononucleotide (FMN) reductase, which provided reduced FMN for the MsuD enzyme. Expression of the msu operon was analyzed with a transcriptional msuD::xylE fusion and was found to be repressed in the presence of sulfate, sulfite, sulfide, or cysteine and derepressed during growth with methionine or alkanesulfonates. Growth with methanesulfonate required an intact cysB gene, and the msu operon is therefore part of the cys regulon, since sulfite utilization was found to be CysB independent in this species. Measurements of msuD::xylE expression in cysN and cysI genetic backgrounds showed that sulfate, sulfite, and sulfide or cysteine play independent roles in negatively regulating msu expression, and sulfonate utilization therefore appears to be tightly regulated.  (+info)

The Bradyrhizobium japonicum nolA gene encodes three functionally distinct proteins. (8/4994)

Examination of nolA revealed that NolA can be uniquely translated from three ATG start codons. Translation from the first ATG (ATG1) predicts a protein (NolA1) having an N-terminal, helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif similar to the DNA-binding domains of the MerR-type regulatory proteins. Translation from ATG2 and ATG3 would give the N-terminally truncated proteins NolA2 and NolA3, respectively, lacking the DNA-binding domain. Consistent with this, immunoblot analyses of Bradyrhizobium japonicum extracts with a polyclonal antiserum to NolA revealed three distinct polypeptides whose molecular weights were consistent with translation of nolA from the three ATG initiation sites. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to produce derivatives of nolA in which ATG start sites were sequentially deleted. Immunoblots revealed a corresponding absence of the polypeptide whose ATG start site was removed. Translational fusions of the nolA mutants to a promoterless lacZ yielded functional fusion proteins in both Escherichia coli and B. japonicum. Expression of NolA is inducible upon addition of extracts from 5-day-old etiolated soybean seedlings but is not inducible by genistein, a known inducer of the B. japonicum nod genes. The expression of both NolA2 and NolA3 requires the presence of NolA1. NolA1 or NolA3 is required for the genotype-specific nodulation of soybean genotype PI 377578.  (+info)

In order to study the evolution of the chromosomal beta-lactamase gene in K. pneumoniae, we analyzed the diversity of the gene in strains representing the known range of K. pneumoniae genetic diversity. This approach revealed a close correspondence between the chromosomal beta-lactamase gene sequences and the previously defined phylogenetic groups of K. pneumoniae. It also made it possible to identify a new family of beta-lactamase variants.. Phylogenetic analyses of the bla, gyrA, and mdh sequences were all in agreement, showing three major groups. Our results firmly demonstrated the correspondence between the phylogenetic group KpI and the SHV family, as well as between group KpIII and the LEN family. Also, the pI values of the beta-lactamases paralleled the grouping; thus, pI 7.6 (SHV-like) was seen for all KpI strains and pI 7.1 (LEN-like) was seen for all KpIII strains.. Strain SB30 and strain OR95:2, a strain previously shown to harbor a chromosomal beta-lactamase gene different from both ...
Dimer formation is a serious threat to the stable maintenance of ColE1-like plasmids. Dimers form infrequently by homologous recombination but accumulate rapidly by having two origins of replication. This results in elevated plasmid loss and a reduction in host cell growth rate. Plasmid dimers are resolved to monomers by the XerCD recombinase plus accessory proteins ArgR and PepA, acting at the cer recombination site. The circular chromosome of E. coli also forms dimers infrequently, and consequent failure of chromosome partition results in filamentation, SOS induction, and failure of cell division. Site-specific recombination is required for dimer resolution during cell division in a process facilitated by XerCD acting at the dif (deletion induced filamentation) site near the E. coli chromosome terminus. ArgR and PepA accessory proteins are nonessential, but the septum-associated protein FtsK is necessary for dimer segregation, suggesting the XerCD/difcomplex interacts with division septums. Our
PCR fragments, 1500-bp, from 15 previously sequenced regions in the Escherichia coli chromosome have been compared by restriction analysis in a large set of wild (ECOR) strains. Prior published observations of segmental clonality are confirmed: each of several sequence types is shared by a number of strains. The rate of recombinational replacement and the average size of the replacements are estimated in a set of closely related strains in which a clonal frame is dotted with occasional stretches of DNA belonging to other clones. A clonal hierarchy is described. Some new comparative sequencing data are presented. ...
McCool JD, Sandler SJ. 2001. Effects of mutations involving cell division, recombination, and chromosome dimer resolution on a priA2::kan mutant.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 98(15):8203-10. ...
Bacteria are able to maintain a narrow distribution of cell sizes by regulating the timing of cell divisions. In rich nutrient conditions, cells divide much faster than their chromosomes replicate. This implies that cells maintain multiple rounds of chromosome replication per cell division by regula …
In a eukaryotic cell, chromosome replication occurs during DNA synthesis, or the S phase of the cell cycle. In its normal state, a chromosome is a long, thin chromatin fiber containing one DNA...
Binary fission can refer to cell division in bacteria. Bacteria replicate their chromosomes prior to division, but I dont think that state can be called diploid because the chromosomes are identical. Diploid organisms can be carrying different alleles on each pair of sister chromosomes, but this is not the case for a duplicated bacterial chromosome before cell division. Therefore in my opinion your statement is not necessarily true, at least for bacteria ...
While eukaryotes have two or more chromosomes, prokaryotes such as bacteria possess a single chromosome composed of double‐stranded DNA in a loop. The DNA is lo
We are investigating the structure of E. coli chromosome and the pathway of its compaction to the nucleoid state by taking several approaches: (i) by genetically analyzing mutant cells defective in the nucleoid protein HU; (ii) by studying nuclease
We have identified a DNA site involved in chromosome partitioning in B. subtilis. This site was identified in vivo as the binding site for the chromosome partitioning protein Spo0J, a member of the ParB family of partitioning proteins. Spo0J is a site-specific DNA-binding protein that recognizes a 1 …
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100 ATGAAAAGCC ACTTCTTTCT GATTTCGGTA -070 CTCAATCGCC GGTTAACCTT GACCGCTGTA CAAGGTATAC TCGGACGATT TTCACTGTTT TGAGCCAGAC 0001 atgaagctga tacgcggcat acataatctc agccaggccc cgcaagaagg gtgtgtgctg actattggta 0071 atttcgacgg cgtgcatcgc ggtcatcgcg cgctgttaca gggcttgcag gaagaagggc gcaagcgcaa 0141 cttaccggtg atggtgatgc tttttgaacc tcaaccactg gaactgtttg ctaccgataa agccccggca 0211 agactgaccc ggctgcggga aaaactgcgt taccttgcag agtgtggcgt tgattacgtg ctgtgcgtgc 0281 gtttcgacag gcgtttcgcg gcgttaaccg cgcaaaattt catcagcgat cttctggtga agcatttgcg 0351 cgtaaaattt cttgccgtag gtgatgattt ccgctttggc gctggtcgtg aaggcgattt cttgttatta 0421 cagaaagctg gcatggaata cggcttcgat atcaccagta cgcaaacttt ttgcgaaggt ggcgtgcgca 0491 tcagcagcac cgccgtgcgt caggcccttg cggatgacaa tctggctctg gcagagagtt tactggggca 0561 cccgtttgcc atctccgggc gtgtagtcca cggtgatgaa ttagggcgca ctataggttt cccgacggcg 0631 aatgtaccgc tgcgccgtca ggtttccccg gtgaaagggg tttatgcggt agaagtgctg ggcctcggtg 0701 aaaagccgtt acccggcgtg gcaaacatcg gaacacgccc aacggttgcc ggtattcgcc ...
100 tatatcaatg gttttctctt acgccgcgcc -070 cgcgcgcatg ggattgccgt accggaaaac acccgcctgt ttgaaatggt aaaaagaaag gagagtgaat 0001 atgagcgcat cggcactggt ttgcctcgcc cctggtagtg aagagactga agccgtcacc actatcgatc 0071 tgctggttcg cggcggtatc aaagtcacca ctgccagcgt cgccagcgat ggtaacctgg cgattacctg 0141 ctcgcgcggc gtgaagctgc tggcggatgc gccgctggtc gaagtggctg atggcgaata tgacgtgatc 0211 gtgctgcctg gtggcattaa aggcgcggag tgttttcgcg atagcactct gctggttgaa accgttaaac 0281 agttccaccg ttccgggcgt atcgtcgcgg ctatttgcgc cgcgccagcc accgtgctgg tgccgcacga 0351 tatcttcccg attggtaata tgaccggctt cccgacgctg aaagacaaaa ttcccgccga acaatggctg 0421 gacaagcgcg tcgtctggga tgcacgggta aaattgctga ccagccaggg gccgggtaca gctatcgact 0491 ttggtctgaa aattatcgac ctgttggttg ggcgtgaaaa agcccatgaa gtggcatcac aactggtgat 0561 ggcggcaggg atttataatt attacgagta gtgtcggatg cggcaaacgt cgcatctgac cagatgcgac 0631 gtaaaaacca caaattacgg gcgatatacc ttcacattgt taaagccctg ctcgcgcaga t ...
DNA Biological Functions In eukaryotes, the DNA occurs as linear chromosomes. And in prokaryotes the DNA occurs as circular chromosomes.
Eliezer Ferraz de Almeida - Papo rápido com as meninas do Choro das Três Sempre adorei choro e vendo vcs ficarem fiquei encantado, parabéns, somos vizinhos sou de Tatuí. ...
Eliezer Ferraz de Almeida - Papo rápido com as meninas do Choro das Três Sempre adorei choro e vendo vcs ficarem fiquei encantado, parabéns, somos vizinhos sou de Tatuí. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nucleotide sequence and analysis of the phoB-rrnE-groESL region of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome. AU - Sadaie, Yoshito. AU - Yata, Katsunori. AU - Fujita, Masaya. AU - Sagai, Hitoshi. AU - Itaya, Mitsuhiro. AU - Kasahara, Yasuhiro. AU - Ogasawara, Naotake. PY - 1997/6. Y1 - 1997/6. N2 - A 36 kb sequence of the phoB-rrnE-groESL region of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome at around 55°has been determined. The sequenced region contains 36 ORFs including the phoB and groESL genes, and the whole rrnE operon. The phoB gene is transcribed in the direction opposite to that of chromosome replication, while most ORFs, including groESL and the rrnE operon, are transcribed in the same direction. Two newly identified tRNA genes upstream of the rrnE operon were those for Arg-tRNA and Gly-tRNA. The sequenced region contains an operon consisting of genes for degradation and uptake of mannan. The rrnE operon and its downstream ORFs are well conserved among Mycoplasma genitalium, Haemophilus ...
In most bacteria two vital processes of the cell cycle: DNA replication and chromosome segregation overlap temporally. The action of replication machinery in a fixed location in the cell leads to the duplication of oriC regions, their rapid separation to the opposite halves of the cell and the duplicated chromosomes gradually moving to the same locations prior to cell division. Numerous proteins are implicated in co-replicational DNA segregation and they will be characterized in this review. The proteins SeqA, SMC/MukB, MinCDE, MreB/Mbl, RacA, FtsK/SpoIIIE playing different roles in bacterial cells are also involved in chromosome segregation. The chromosomally encoded ParAB homologs of active partitioning proteins of low-copy number plasmids are also players, not always indispensable, in the segregation of bacterial chromosomes ...
Studies of chromosome organization in bacterial cells show that the chromosome is an exquisitely organized and dynamic structure (reviewed recently in Thanbichler et al., 2005). Chromosome segregation in bacteria does not occur all at once but in sequential phases (Lau et al., 2003; Viollier et al., 2004; Bates and Kleckner, 2005; Nielsen et al., 2006). After replication at mid-cell, the origin region (oriC) is rapidly segregated outward. The speed at which this occurs (reviewed in Gordon and Wright, 2000) rules out passive models for bacterial chromosome segregation, which proposed that outward cellular growth could drive the movement of a fixed chromosome. As the loci of the chromosome are replicated, they are moved outward to the poles in a sequential fashion (Lau et al., 2003; Viollier et al., 2004; Bates and Kleckner, 2005; Nielsen et al., 2006). In Escherichia coli, there may be a period of sister chromosome cohesion between duplication and subsequent segregation, although its length is ...
The complete genome of Vibrio cholerae El Tor N16961 consists of two circular chromosomes (2,961,146 and 1,072,313 base pair) with 3,890 predicted open reading frames (2,775 and 1,115 on each chromosome respectively). The majority of recognizable genes for essential cell functions (such as DNA replication, transcription, translation, etc.) and pathogenicity (such as toxin, surface antigens, and adhesion) are located on the large chromosome. The small chromosome contains a large percentage of hypothetical genes, more genes that appear to have origins other than the Proteobacteria, a gene capture system (integron island) that suggests this may have been a mega-plasmid captured by an ancestral Vibrio species. The Vibrio cholerae genome sequence provides a starting point for understanding how a free living, environmental microorganism is also a human pathogen. Source: The Institute for Genomic Research ...
Sequencing of the complete Bacillus subtilis chromosome revealed the presence of approximately 4100 genes, 1000 of which were previously identified and mapped by classical genetic crosses. Comparison of these experimentally determined positions to th
Our suspicion that the V. cholerae chromosome may exist as two separate replicons was based on the observation that when undigested genomic DNA was subjected to electrophoresis, two megabase-sized fragments were visible. In addition, we were unable to convincingly link the I-CeuI fragments into a single circular chromosome. The final clue came from the observation that immobilized genomic DNA subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis after digestion with another rarely cutting restriction enzyme, I-SceI, produced two fragments, the smaller of which appeared exactly like one of two megabase-sized fragments produced by I-CeuI digestion. This fragment in both digestions always appeared to stain lighter than the other bands. We now have confirmed (by linkage of SfiI fragments contained in this band) that this fragment was not cut by either I-SceI or I-CeuI; the presumed reason it did not stain well was because it was constrained in its uptake of ethidium bromide by its covalently closed circular ...
WT cells under nutrient limitation exhibit two distinct regimes according to the Helmstetter-Cooper (HC) model of bacterial chromosome replication (Appendix Fig S9): In the fast growth regime (doubling time DT , single‐chromosome replication time, the C‐period), the C‐period is constant (at its minimal value) and the total DNA synthesis rate is determined by the replication initiation rate. In the slow growth regime (DT , C‐period), chromosome replication is limited by the replication fork elongation rate, which is in turn limited by the synthesis of nucleotides (DNA monomers) (Neidhart, 1996). Under LacZ OE, the DNA content increases (Figs 1F and EV3A and B). Since multiple chromosome equivalents per cell are observed in a single nucleoid complex (Fig EV3), the HC model of DNA replication may still be applicable with multiple replication forks per cell, provided that the C‐period , DT. The increase in DT under LacZ OE then implies that the C‐period would have to increase at least ...
View DNA Rearrangements from BIOLOGY MCB2010 at Broward College. Examples : Integration of bacteriophage DNA into host bacterial chromosome Immunoglobulin and T Cell Receptor genes DNA rearrangements
Strain MK423 was grown under the same conditions as used when growing cells for microscopy analysis; cells of OD600 = 0.4 were diluted 100-fold in C+Y medium with 0.1 mM ZnCl2 and incubated for 2.5 hours until OD600 = 0.15. Cells were then harvested by centrifugation for 5 min at 6500 x g at 4°C. Genomic DNA was isolated using the Wizard® Genomic DNA Purification Kit (Promega) as described previously (Slager et al. 2014 Cell). Fragmentation was performed using Covaris instrument, and libraries ...
View Notes - Chapter 9 from BIO SCI 325 at Wisconsin Milwaukee. 1 204-325 2 h h Chromosomal mutations are variations from Chromosomal mutations are variations from wild wild-- type condition in
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InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Au cas ou a puisse vous servir, je lai fait pour moi, je le rends dispo. Cest ce qui reste de blisters dispos par site GW (en date de hier - depuis plus de s
TY - JOUR. T1 - Replication of DNA in bacteria with heterogeneous generation times. AU - Kallenbach, Neville R.. N1 - Funding Information: The author wishest o acknowledgei nvaluable discussionsw ith Dr S. Litwin, as well as support from NSF grant GB-4200 for computation time at the University of PennsylvaniaC omputer Center.. PY - 1968/1. Y1 - 1968/1. N2 - The relation between DNA replication and cell division in steady-state dividing bacterial cultures is examined with respect to the heterogeneity of generation times which is observed in such populations. Two simple, extreme hypotheses are considered: (1) DNA replication is heterogeneous in rate, occupying the entire generation time in each cell; and (2) DNA replication occupies a constant time, the remainder of the life cycle of the cell being a rest period with no DNA synthesis. The distribution of replication points is calculated, and from this the marker frequency function and the fraction of DNA synthesized in the absence of initiation of ...
A bacterial episome (e.g. the F plasmid in E. coli) that enables the cell to be a donor of genetic material. The sex factor may be propagated in the cytoplasm, or it may be integrated into the bacterial chromosome
This model represents a family of conserved hypothetical proteins. It is usually (but not always) found in apparent phage-derived regions of bacterial chromosomes ...
In budding yeast replication origins, the 11-bp ARS consensus sequence is essential for interaction with the ORC. However, replication origins in other eukaryotic species, including fission yeast, do not appear to contain a short essential sequence (15,23) and it has not been known whether the ORC is located at chromosomal replication origins. The present study demonstrated that a fission yeast ORC subunit and an Mcm protein are specifically localized at chromosomal replication origins. Orp1p is located at thears2004 and ars3002 loci throughout the cell cycle, while SpMcm6p is associated with these origins only in the G1 and S phases. To our knowledge, this is the first indication of preferential localization of the ORC and Mcm proteins at the chromosomal replication origins in eukaryotic species except for budding yeast.. The CHIP assay finding that Orp1p was localized at ars2004and ars3002 but not at non-ARS regions (Fig. 6) suggests that a certain sequence or DNA structure in the replication ...
Short-read sequencing technologies have long been the work-horse of microbiome analysis. Continuing technological advances are making the application of long-read sequencing to metagenomic samples increasingly feasible. We demonstrate that whole bacterial chromosomes can be obtained from an enriched community, by application of MinION sequencing to a sample from an EBPR bioreactor, producing 6 Gb of sequence that assembles into multiple closed bacterial chromosomes. We provide a simple pipeline for processing such data, which includes a new approach to correcting erroneous frame-shifts. Advances in long-read sequencing technology and corresponding algorithms will allow the routine extraction of whole chromosomes from environmental samples, providing a more detailed picture of individual members of a microbiome.
The study of chromosomal replication and cell division of bacteria has extended beyond Escherichia coli, and important insights have emerged recently from studies in other species, especially Bacillus subtilis and Caulobacter crescentus. Cell division is coordinated with other cell cycle events such as genomic DNA synthesis that leads to chromosomal replication and partition, increase of cell mass, and cell expansion by cell wall synthesis. This chapter reviews the information about predicted genes related to chromosomal replication, plasmid replication, and cell division in Helicobacter pylori, and a plausible replication machinery of the bacterium is discussed in light of the current understanding of bacterial organization and function of replication and cell division. The DnaA protein is essential for the initiation of chromosomal replication and is highly conserved among different bacteria. Clinical isolates of H. pylori have been reported to carry plasmids ranging in size from 1.5 to 40 kb. Three
The position of junctions and the extent of the duplicated chromosomal regions in Bacillus subtilis merodiploid strains were studied by quantitative DNA-DNA hybridization. We describe a method which allows (i) the identification of genes present in two copies per chromosome and (ii) the measurement of the amount of additional DNA in chromosomes with relatively large duplicated regions (about 10% or more). Analysis of previously described B. subtilis merodiploid strains GSY1127, GSY1800 and GSY1835 revealed that the duplicated segments represent 29 ± 2%, 7 ± 2% and 13 ± 2% of the chromosome, respectively. Small discrepancies between these and previous genetic linkage data are discussed. Support for a role of prophage SPβ in the formation of merodiploid GSY1835 is provided. In conclusion, the described method confirmed the genetic maps of the merodiploids previously obtained by transduction and transformation crosses and showed that a duplication of a segment is not accompanied by large deletions of
Three new mutants of Escherichia coli showing thermosensitive cell growth and division were isolated, and the mutations were mapped to the mra region at 2 min on the E. coli chromosome map distal to leuA. Two mutations were mapped closely upstream of ftsI (also called pbpB), in a region of 600 bases; the fts-36 mutant showed thermosensitive growth and formed filamentous cells at 42 degrees C, whereas the lts-33 mutant lysed at 42 degrees C without forming filamentous cells. The mutation in the third new thermosensitive, filament-forming mutant, named ftsW, was mapped between murF and murG. By isolation of these three mutants, about 90% of the 17-kilobase region from fts-36-lts-33 to envA could be filled with genes for cell division and growth, and the genes could be aligned. ...
Bacteria with multiple chromosomes represent up to 10% of all bacterial species. Unlike eukaryotes, these bacteria use chromosome-specific initiators for their replication. In all cases investigated, the machineries for secondary chromosome replication initiation are of plasmid origin. One of the important differences between plasmids and chromosomes is that the latter replicate during a defined period of the cell cycle, ensuring a single round of replication per cell. Vibrio cholerae carries two circular chromosomes, Chr1 and Chr2, which are replicated in a well-orchestrated manner with the cell cycle and coordinated in such a way that replication termination occurs at the same time. However, the mechanism coordinating this synchrony remains speculative. We investigated this mechanism and revealed that initiation of Chr2 replication is triggered by the replication of a 150-bp locus positioned on Chr1, called crtS. This crtS replication-mediated Chr2 replication initiation mechanism explains how ...
Structural elements of the Streptomyces oriC region and their interactions with the DnaA protein. Transcription analysis of the dnaA gene and oriC region of the chromosome of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and its regulation by the DnaA protein
The structure of the Escherichia coli chromosome is inherently dynamic over the duration of the cell cycle. Genetic loci undergo both stochastic motion around their initial positions and directed motion to opposite poles of the rod-shaped cell during segregation. We developed a quantitative method to characterize cell-cycle dynamics of the E. coli chromosome to probe the chromosomal steady-state mobility and segregation process. By tracking fluorescently labeled chromosomal loci in thousands of cells throughout the entire cell cycle, our method allows for the statistical analysis of locus position and motion, the step-size distribution for movement during segregation, and the locus drift velocity. The robust statistics of our detailed analysis of the wild-type E. coli nucleoid allow us to observe loci moving toward midcell before segregation occurs, consistent with a replication factory model. Then, as segregation initiates, we perform a detailed characterization of the average segregation velocity of
In Escherichia coli, chromosome replication is initiated from oriC by the DnaA initiator protein associated with ATP. Three non-coding regions contribute to the activity of DnaA. The datA locus is instrumental in conversion of DnaAATP to DnaAADP (DDAH; datA dependent DnaAATP hydrolysis) whereas DnaA rejuvenation sequences 1 and 2 (DARS1 and DARS2) reactivate DnaAADP to DnaAATP. The structural organization of oriC, datA, DARS1 and DARS2 were found conserved between 59 fully sequenced E. coli genomes, with differences primarily in the non-functional spacer regions between key protein binding sites. The relative distances from oriC to datA, DARS1 and DARS2, respectively, was also conserved despite of large variations in genome size, suggesting that the gene dosage of either region is important for bacterial growth. Yet all three regions could be deleted alone or in combination without loss of viability. Competition experiments during balanced growth in rich medium and during mouse colonization indicated
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
This Lesson 8: Mitosis: Chromosome Replication & Division Lesson Plan is suitable for 9th - 12th Grade. Students complete the Mitosis exercise net which contains the basic concepts and relations to describe mitosis.
1. ChienAC, HillNS, LevinPA (2012) Cell size control in bacteria. Curr Biol 22: R340-349.. 2. SchaechterM, MaaløeO, KjeldgaardNO (1958) Dependency on medium and temperature of cell size and chemical composition during balanced grown of Salmonella typhimurium. J Gen Microbiol 19: 592-606.. 3. PierucciO, HelmstetterCE, RickertM, WeinbergerM, LeonardAC (1987) Overexpression of the dnaA gene in Escherichia coli B/r: chromosome and minichromosome replication in the presence of rifampin. J Bacteriol 169: 1871-1877.. 4. SargentMG (1975) Control of cell length in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol 123: 7-19.. 5. FantesP, NurseP (1977) Control of cell size at division in fission yeast by a growth-modulated size control over nuclear division. Exp Cell Res 107: 377-386.. 6. WeartRB, LeeAH, ChienAC, HaeusserDP, HillNS, et al. (2007) A metabolic sensor governing cell size in bacteria. Cell 130: 335-347.. 7. ChienAC, ZarehSK, WangYM, LevinPA (2012) Changes in the oligomerization potential of the division ...
Binds to DNA and alters its conformation. May be involved in regulation of gene expression, nucleoid organization and DNA protection.
Synopses of papers: The 187th Meeting of the Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland, The Robin Brook Centre, St. Bartholomews Hospital, London, 6-7 January 2005 ...
Nossos parabéns ao Tim Burton, que hoje completa 54 anos. Graças a sua genialidade, tivemos nossas vidas ilustradas por personagens tão marcantes. Verdadeiras lendas. Sem falar na parceria com Johnny que juntando suas artes, sintonia e talento construíram carreiras marcantes e sem igual na história do cinema ...
Two global genome features based on OU statistics were considered in this study: PS and OUV. They provide non-redundant characteristics of the complete sequence of genomes and allow the discrimination of bacterial, plasmid and phage genomes by phylogeny, the arrangement of coding and non-coding sequence and the distribution of islands and islets.. A strong taxonomic signal was observed in genome specific OUV values. Strains belonging to the same species or genus usually have similar OUV. In general, the higher is the OUV, the less random is the sequence. Multiple influences such as DNA structure and topology, codon usage, DNA repair and restriction-modification systems contribute to the surrogate parameter OUV, and hence it is plausible that the OUV is a taxon-specific feature. Future work on the frequency and distribution of individual words should elucidate the biological meaning of the genome specific OUV for the individual taxon (see Weinel et al., 2002 [40] as one of the few published ...
Single-cell measurements combined with a new statistical framework for discriminating between models of cell cycle regulation show that chromosome initiation controls the E. coli cell cycle via two adder mechanisms.
The integrative expression vectors pAX01 and pA-spac express β-Gal from the lacA locus in a regulatable way.In order to prove that both integrative expression vectors work properly, the bgaB gene, coding for heat-stable β-Gal (4), was inserted into both vectors. With pAX01,bgaB was generated from plasmid pBgaB (8) using ON17 and ON18, both flanked with BamHI sites. TheBamHI-treated amplicon was then inserted intoBamHI-linearized pAX01 to result in pAX01-BgaB. With pA-spac, the bgaB gene was generated from the same template using ON19 and ON20 and ligated into theSalI-SphI-cleaved vector (pA-spac-BgaB). Next, the two transcriptional fusions were recombined independently at thelacA locus using strain IHA01, and the correct integration was verified by Southern blotting (strains IHA01-Xyl-BgaB and IHA01-Spac-BgaB).. To measure the β-Gal activities of both strains, cells were grown in Luria-Bertani medium either in the absence or in the presence of an inducer for 7 h. While the addition of IPTG ...
These researchers are studying spatial patterns of transcriptional activity in the chromosome of Escherichia coli. Genes on the bacterial chromosome, as well as on any other chromosome of any organism, are arranged in a certain linear order. How this order contributes to transcriptional regulation of groups of genes is the main focus of this research. ...
[This thread is closed.] Queria parabenizar e agradecer a todos os desenvolvedores deste plugin! Ajudou muito em meu projeto de sites para delivery!…
Scientists at the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI), a genomics research facility, transplanted a bacterial chromosome from one type of bacteria into anothe
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Cosmid End-sequence profiling Fosmid Human artificial chromosome Secondary chromosome Yeast artificial chromosome O'Connor M, ... A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is a DNA construct, based on a functional fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid), used for ... The bacterial artificial chromosome's usual insert size is 150-350 kbp. A similar cloning vector called a PAC has also been ... Domi A, Moss B (September 2002). "Cloning the vaccinia virus genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli ...
... two separate bacterial chromosomes may arise through the splitting of one larger chromosome, resulting in a main and a ... In the bacterial genus Vibrio, the main chromosome varies between 3.0-3.3 Mb whereas the chromid varies between 0.8-2.4 Mb in ... Bacterial genomes divided between a main chromosome and one or more chromids (and / or megaplasmids) are said to be divided or ... In a bacterial genome, the main chromosome will always be the largest replicon, followed by the chromid and then the plasmid. ...
Bacterial Chromosomes. Washington, D.C: ASM Press. pp. 389-403. ISBN 1-55581-232-5. Amundsen SK, Taylor AF, Chaudhury AM, Smith ...
Some other artificial chromosomes include: bacterial artificial chromosome, yeast artificial chromosome and the human ... Bacterial artificial chromosome Human artificial chromosome Yeast artificial chromosome Bajpai, Bhakti (2013-10-22). "High ... A P1-derived artificial chromosome, or PAC, is a DNA construct derived from the DNA of P1 bacteriophages and Bacterial ... Osoegawa, K.; de Jong, P. J.; Frengen, E.; Ioannou, P. A. (May 2001). "Construction of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC/PAC ...
In Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. Ed P. Chatterjee, In Tech Open Access Publisher, Croatia, p1-22. Ellery, David (20 March ... Deakin, J, Koina, E, Waters, P et al 2008, 'Physical map of two tammar wallaby chromosomes: a strategy for mapping in non-model ... Deakin, J, Hore, T, Koina, E et al 2008, 'The status of dosage compensation in the multiple X chromosomes of the platypus', ... Deakin, J.E. and Graves, J.A.M. (2010). Mapping genes on tammar wallaby target chromosomes. Macropods: The biology of kangaroos ...
... which associate with the bacterial chromosome. In archaea, the DNA in chromosomes is even more organized, with the DNA packaged ... Chromosomes can also be fused artificially. For example, the 16 chromosomes of yeast have been fused into one giant chromosome ... Chromosomes in humans can be divided into two types: autosomes (body chromosome(s)) and allosome (sex chromosome(s)). Certain ... and two sex chromosomes. This gives 46 chromosomes in total. Other organisms have more than two copies of their chromosome ...
The nucleoside base was incorporated uniformly into the bacterial chromosome. He then isolated the chromosomes by lysing the ... See Autoradiograph of intact replicating chromosome of E.coli [1] As described above, bacterial chromosomal replication occurs ... A circular chromosome is a chromosome in bacteria, archaea, mitochondria, and chloroplasts, in the form of a molecule of ... This was first demonstrated by specifically labelling replicating bacterial chromosomes with radioactive isotopes. The regions ...
The known structures of bacterial telomeres take the form of proteins bound to the ends of linear chromosomes, or hairpin loops ... A small fraction of bacterial chromosomes (such as those in Streptomyces, Agrobacterium, and Borrelia), however, are linear and ... Maloy S (July 12, 2002). "Bacterial Chromosome Structure". Retrieved 2008-06-22. Martínez P, Blasco MA (October 2010). "Role of ... The "end replication problem" is exclusive to linear chromosomes as circular chromosomes do not have ends lying without reach ...
The mechanism of bacterial killing by PGLYRP4 is based on induction of lethal envelope stress, which eventually leads to the ... and Pglyrp4 are encoded from the epidermal differentiation complex and are candidate genes for the Psors4 locus on chromosome ... PGLYRP4-induced bacterial killing does not involve cell membrane permeabilization, which is typical for defensins and other ... Laman JD, 't Hart BA, Power C, Dziarski R (July 2020). "Bacterial Peptidoglycan as a Driver of Chronic Brain Inflammation" (PDF ...
... such as chromosome walking. Able to travel across chromosomal regions containing uncloneable sequences in bacterial hosts. ... Unlike chromosome walking, chromosome jumping is able to start on one point of the chromosome in order to traverse potential ... Combining chromosome jumping to chromosome walking through the chromosome allows bypassing repetitive DNA for the search of the ... Shotgun sequencing Chromosome walking Chromosome landing Jumping library Drumm ML (May 2001). "Construction of chromosome ...
Margulis, Lynn (Jun 2005). "Genophore, chromosomes and the bacterial origin of chloroplasts". International Microbiology. 8 (2 ... His studies of chromosome structure revealed the importance of non-histone proteins, and along with evolutionary biologist Lynn ... He coined the term genophore for prokaryote DNA to highlight its differences from the eukaryal chromosome. Ris was a founding ... "Electron-microscopic study of the spindle and chromosome movement in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Journal of cell ...
Margulis, L (2005). "Hans Ris (1914-2004). Genophore, chromosomes and the bacterial origin of chloroplasts". International ... and explained genetic variation as occurring mainly through transfer of nuclear information between bacterial cells or viruses ...
Roth, J.R.; Benson, N.; Galitski, T.; Haack, K.; Lawrence, J.; Miesel, L. (1996). "Rearrangements of the bacterial chromosome: ... New methods in bacterial genetics". J. Mol. Biol. 116 (1): 125-159. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(77)90123-1. PMID 338917. ... In 2011, ASM Press published a festschrift in his honor ("The Lure of Bacterial Genetics: A Tribute to John Roth"). "Thomas ... 2011). The Lure of Bacterial Genetics: A Tribute to John Roth. Washington, DC: ASM Press. p. 362. ISBN 978-1-55581-538-7. ...
A high-resolution contact map of bacterial chromosomes including the E. coli chromosome has revealed that a bacterial ... Indirect evidence for this model comes from an observation that CIDs of bacterial chromosomes including the E. coli chromosome ... Qian Z, Macvanin M, Dimitriadis EK, He X, Zhurkin V, Adhya S (August 2015). "A New Noncoding RNA Arranges Bacterial Chromosome ... Trun NJ, Marko JF (1998). "Architecture of a bacterial chromosome" (PDF). American Society of Microbiology News. 64 (5): 276- ...
The StbA-stbDRs complex may be used to pair plasmid the host chromosome, using indirectly the bacterial partitioning system. ... Badrinarayanan, Anjana; Le, Tung B. K.; Laub, Michael T. (2015-11-13). "Bacterial Chromosome Organization and Segregation". ... ParA proteins from different plasmids and bacterial species show 25 to 30% of sequence identity to the protein ParA of the ... Schumacher MA (2012). "Bacterial plasmid partition machinery: a minimalist approach to survival". Current Opinion in Structural ...
... linearisation of circular chromosomes during bacterial evolution". FEMS Microbiology Letters. 186 (2): 143-150. doi:10.1016/ ... A linear chromosome is a chromosome which is linear in shape, and contains terminal ends. In most eukaryotic cells, DNA is ... However, linear chromosomes are not limited to eukaryotic organisms; some prokaryotic organisms have linear chromosomes as well ... One potential selective pressure in favor of linear chromosomes relates to the size of an organism's genome: linear chromosomes ...
Frimodt-Møller J, Charbon G, Løbner-Olesen A (December 2016). "Control of bacterial chromosome replication by non-coding ... Bussiere DE, Bastia D (March 1999). "Termination of DNA replication of bacterial and plasmid chromosomes". Molecular ... "oriC-encoded instructions for the initiation of bacterial chromosome replication". Frontiers in Microbiology. 5: 735. doi: ... Chromosome replication in bacteria is regulated at the initiation stage. DnaA-ATP is hydrolyzed into the inactive DnaA-ADP by ...
In engineering large constructs of >100 kb, such as the Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs), or chromosomes, recombineering ... "Rapid modification of bacterial artificial chromosomes by ET- recombination". Nucleic Acids Research. 27 (6): 1555-1557. doi: ... and for modifying DNA of any source often contained on a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), among other applications. ... Recombineering is widely used for bacterial genetics, in the generation of target vectors for making a conditional mouse ...
... purine strand bias in 280 bacterial chromosomes". Microbiology. 152 (3): 579-583. doi:10.1099/mic.0.28637-0. PMID 16514138. ... Comparisons of the genomic sequences within each physical site or location of a specific gene on a chromosome (locs) and across ... "Dynamics of Genome Rearrangement in Bacterial Populations". PLOS Genetics. 4 (7): e1000128. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000128. ...
The latter is involved in bacterial wilt and canker of tomato. It's located in the circular chromosome of this kind of ... In terms of the aminoacid sequence (1224 aminoacids), the sbtB gene has the following motifs: The circular chromosome of this ... "Chromosome: 2,851,656-2,855,336 - Region in detail - Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB 382". Ensembl Genomes ... molecular investigation of gram-positive bacterial plant pathogens". Annual Review of Phytopathology. 49: 445-64. doi:10.1146/ ...
The species has a single chromosome. C. m. subsp. michiganensis is the causative agent of bacterial wilt and canker of tomato ( ... The causal agent of bacterial wilt and canker of tomato survives in or on seeds for up to 8 months but occasionally also in ... michiganesis, a tomato bacterial canker symptom development. In humid or wet weather, slimy masses of bacteria ooze through the ... Cmm has a pathogenicity island (PI) that is encoded in the chromosome and is probably associated with colonization and plant ...
... is a 1329 amino acid protein involved in bacterial cell division and chromosome segregation. FtsK stands for "Filament ... and initiates chromosome dimer segregation. The dif site is found at the intersection between the monomers of the chromosome ... In general, the chromosome dimer is translocated so that the site of resolution is near the divisome and so one copy of the ... During bacterial replication, in the presence of a dimer the XerCD mechanism is introduced to divide the dimer into two ...
The translocase protein subunits are encoded on the bacterial chromosome. The translocase itself comprises 7 proteins, ... Breyton C, Haase W, Rapoport TA, Kühlbrandt W, Collinson I (August 2002). "Three-dimensional structure of the bacterial protein ... in the bacterial cytoplasm. SecB maintains preproteins in an unfolded state after translation, and targets these to the ...
The mechanism of bacterial killing by PGLYRP3 is based on induction of lethal envelope stress, which eventually leads to the ... and Pglyrp4 are encoded from the epidermal differentiation complex and are candidate genes for the Psors4 locus on chromosome ... PGLYRP3-induced bacterial killing does not involve cell membrane permeabilization, which is typical for defensins and other ... Laman JD, 't Hart BA, Power C, Dziarski R (July 2020). "Bacterial Peptidoglycan as a Driver of Chronic Brain Inflammation". ...
Pettijohn DE (September 1988). "Histone-like proteins and bacterial chromosome structure". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... Initially, bacterial DNA binding proteins were thought to help stabilize bacterial DNA. Currently, many more functions of ... "An African swine fever virus gene with similarity to bacterial DNA binding proteins, bacterial integration host factors, and ... Since bacterial binding proteins have a diversity of functions, it has been difficult to develop a common function for all of ...
F' (F-prime) bacteria are formed by incorrect excision from the chromosome, resulting in F plasmid carrying bacterial sequences ... Bioengineers have created F plasmids that can contain inserted foreign DNA; this is called a bacterial artificial chromosome. ... F+ bacteria possess F factor as a plasmid independent of the bacterial genome. The F plasmid contains only F factor DNA and no ... The episome that harbors the F factor can exist as an independent plasmid or integrate into the bacterial cell's genome. There ...
... with chromosomes of bacterial size". Plant Biology. 8: 770-777. doi:10.1055/s-2006-924101. PMID 17203433. Fleischmann A, ... individual chromatids from mitotic anaphase are just 2.1 Mbp and therefore have a size smaller than some bacterial chromosomes ... With a diploid chromosome number of around 52 (2n = ca. 52), G. aurea has the distinction of having one of the smallest known ... "Evolution of genome size and chromosome number in the carnivorous plant genus Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae), with a new estimate ...
... with chromosomes of bacterial size". Plant Biology. 8 (6): 770-777. doi:10.1055/s-2006-924101. PMID 17203433. Rice, Barry A. ( ... individual chromatids from mitotic anaphase are just 2.1 Mbp and therefore have a size smaller than some bacterial chromosomes ... Other species in the genus Genlisea and the family Lentibulariaceae have much lower chromosome numbers and larger genome sizes ... to be polyploid species with the unusual circumstances of having a high chromosome number with extremely small chromosomes. ...
... with Chromosomes of Bacterial Size". Plant Biology. 8 (6): 770-777. doi:10.1055/s-2006-924101. PMID 17203433. Barthlott, W. et ...
The paternal and maternal paired chromosomes will align in order for the DNA sequences to undergo the process of crossing over ... Bacterial DNA is placed into the bacteriophage genome via bacterial transduction. In bacterial conjugation, DNA is transferred ... Bacterial transformation is carried out by numerous interacting bacterial gene products. Evolution in bacteria was previously ... The importance of evolution in bacterial recombination is its adaptivity. For example, bacterial recombination has been shown ...
... gene to river buffalo chromosomes by FISH". Chromosome Research. 2 (3): 255-6. doi:10.1007/BF01553326. PMID 8069469. S2CID ... whereas Alveolata and stramenopiles have bacterial ones. Other rearrangements are also possible, since Fungi have bacterial ... In humans, the gene that codes for this enzyme is located on the long arm of chromosome 3 (3q13). This bifunctional enzyme has ... Both OPRTase and ODCase have passed through lateral gene transfer, resulting in eukaryotes' having enzymes from bacterial and ...
Although chromosomes are initially shattered into many fragments, complete chromosomes are regenerated by making use of over- ... Type strain of Halobacterium salinarum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Portal: Food (CS1 Afrikaans-language ... NRC-1 genome consists of 2,571,010 base pairs on one large chromosome and two mini-chromosomes. The genome encodes 2,360 ... The large chromosome is very G-C rich (68%). High GC-content of the genome increases stability in extreme environments. Whole ...
It is part of the saponin-like protein family, and its gene is found on the 2nd chromosome in humans. It is distinguished by ... This protein is also far more effective in targeting bacterial membranes than mammalian membranes, though it can target many ... GNLY gene is located on human chromosome 2 and has 5 exons, which code for a 15 kDa protein. The path to transcription has not ... Articles lacking in-text citations from June 2019, All articles lacking in-text citations, Genes on human chromosome 2). ...
Mira, Alex; Ochman, Howard; Moran, Nancy A. (2001-10-01). "Deletional bias and the evolution of bacterial genomes". Trends in ... I. DNA-content and chromosome sets in various species of Cyprinidae". Humangenetik. 7 (3): 240-244. doi:10.1007/BF00273173. ... Scherbakov, D. V.; Garber, M. B. (2000-07-01). "Overlapping genes in bacterial and phage genomes". Molecular Biology. 34 (4): ... Animal Genome Size Database Bacterial genome size C-value Cell nucleus Comparative genomics Comparison of different genome ...
Meager A, Graves H, Burke DC, Swallow DM (August 1979). "Involvement of a gene on chromosome 9 in human fibroblast interferon ... Binding of molecules uniquely found in microbes-viral glycoproteins, viral RNA, bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), ... Tan YH (March 1976). "Chromosome 21 and the cell growth inhibitory effect of human interferon preparations". Nature. 260 (5547 ... bacterial flagella, CpG motifs-by pattern recognition receptors, such as membrane bound toll like receptors or the cytoplasmic ...
In P2's genome, the genes related to chromosome replication were likewise found to be more related to those in eukaryotes. ... This response may be a primitive form of sexual interaction, similar to the more well-studied bacterial transformation that is ... Another sequenced species, S. tokodaii has a circular chromosome as well but is slightly smaller with 2,694,756 bp. Both ... 7 (2,694,756 nucleotides). The archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus has a circular chromosome that consists of 2,992,245 bp. ...
Gagniuc P, Ionescu-Tirgoviste C (April 2013). "Gene promoters show chromosome-specificity and reveal chromosome territories in ... Estrem ST, Ross W, Gaal T, Chen ZW, Niu W, Ebright RH, Gourse RL (August 1999). "Bacterial promoter architecture: subsite ... November 1993). "A third recognition element in bacterial promoters: DNA binding by the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase". ... Furthermore, in humans, promoters show certain structural features characteristic for each chromosome. In bacteria, the ...
Alverson AJ, Rice DW, Dickinson S, Barry K, Palmer JD (July 2011). "Origins and recombination of the bacterial-sized ... Medusozoa and calcarea clades however have species with linear mitochondrial chromosomes. In terms of base pairs, the anemone ... The genome of the mitochondrion of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus) consists of three circular chromosomes (lengths 1556, 84 and ... of them are thought to have originally been of bacterial origin, having since been transferred to the eukaryotic nucleus during ...
... , Chromosomes and Cancer. Vol. 15. Miami Beach, FL: University of Miami School of Medicine. Alter O, Golub GH ( ... The D period refers to the stage between the end of DNA replication and the splitting of the bacterial cell into two daughter ... In this checkpoint, the cell checks to ensure that the spindle has formed and that all of the chromosomes are aligned at the ... Thus, during this phase, the amount of DNA in the cell has doubled, though the ploidy and number of chromosomes are unchanged. ...
It has two chromosomes, one of 3 Mb (CI) and one of 900 Kb (CII), and five naturally occurring plasmids. Many genes are ... Bacterial small RNAs have been identified as components of many regulatory networks. Twenty sRNAs were experimentally ... Mackenzie, C; Simmons, AE; Kaplan, S (1999). "Multiple chromosomes in bacteria. The yin and yang of trp gene localization in ... Rhodobacter sphaeroides is one of the most pivotal organisms in the study of bacterial photosynthesis. It requires no unusual ...
The human LECT2 gene, LECT2, is located on the long, i.e, "q", arm of chromosome 5 at position q31.1 (notated as 5q31.1). This ... In mouse models of bacterial sepsis caused by of E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and ligation followed by puncture of the cecum, the ... Blood levels of LECT2 in patients suffering bacterial sepsis correlated inversely with the severity of systemic inflammation ... 2004). "The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 5". Nature. 431 (7006): 268-74. doi:10.1038/nature02919. ...
Bacterial NADK is shown to be inhibited allosterically by both NADPH and NADH. NADK is also reportedly stimulated by calcium/ ... Genes on human chromosome 1, EC 2.7.1, Cellular respiration, Metabolism). ...
Genes on human chromosome 15, Genes on human chromosome 20, Genes on human chromosome X, Webarchive template wayback links, EC ... There is much detailed knowledge about this bacterial enzyme, and it has been found that most isocitrate dehydrogenases are ... Portal: Biology (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genes on human chromosome 2, Protein ... December 2021). "Comprehensive discovery of novel structured noncoding RNAs in 26 bacterial genomes". RNA Biology. 18 (12): ...
August 2008). "Pyogenic bacterial infections in humans with MyD88 deficiency". Science. 321 (5889): 691-6. Bibcode:2008Sci... ... Genes on human chromosome 3, Immune system, Human proteins, Genes mutated in mice). ... male mutants had an increased susceptibility to bacterial infection. The MYD88 gene provides instructions for making a protein ... "Drosophila MyD88 is required for the response to fungal and Gram-positive bacterial infections". Nature Immunology. 3 (1): 91-7 ...
v t e (Genes on human chromosome 4, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the United States National Library of Medicine, ... "A human Na+/H+ antiporter sharing evolutionary origins with bacterial NhaA may be a candidate gene for essential hypertension ... All stub articles, Human chromosome 4 gene stubs). ...
Other bacterial applications of nitrilases produced by plant-associated microorganisms include the degradation of plant ... nitrilase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (Genes on human chromosome 1, ...
v t e (Genes on human chromosome 2, All stub articles, Human chromosome 2 gene stubs). ... Cerritelli SM, Crouch RJ (1998). "Cloning, expression, and mapping of ribonucleases H of human and mouse related to bacterial ... 2005). "Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4". Nature. 434 (7034): 724-31. Bibcode: ... "Ribonuclease H1 maps to chromosome 2 and has at least three pseudogene loci in the human genome". Genomics. 79 (6): 818-23. doi ...
Since each centrosome has a K fiber connecting to each pair of chromosomes, the chromosomes become tethered in the middle of ... consisting of a hollow tube of protofilaments assembled from heterodimers of bacterial tubulin A (BtubA) and bacterial tubulin ... Unlike eukaryotic microtubules, bacterial microtubules do not require chaperones to fold. In contrast to the 13 protofilaments ... Other bacterial microtubules have a ring of five protofilaments. Tubulin and microtubule-mediated processes, like cell ...
... have similar chromosomes but with increasing distance chromosomes tend to break and fuse and thus result in mosaic chromosomes ... Bacterial FISH probes are often primers for the 16s rRNA region. FISH is widely used in the field of microbial ecology, to ... FISH can be used to study the evolution of chromosomes. Species that are related have similar chromosomes. This homology can be ... Probes that hybridize along an entire chromosome are used to count the number of a certain chromosome, show translocations, or ...
... to chromosome 11". Genomics. 29 (1): 266-8. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.1242. PMID 8530083. Gao B, Eisenberg E, Greene L (Jul 1996 ... "Modification of two distinct COOH-terminal domains is required for murine p53 activation by bacterial Hsp70". The Journal of ... Genes on human chromosome 11, Heat shock proteins, Molecular chaperones). ... cognate 71 kDa protein or Hsc70 or Hsp73 is a heat shock protein that in humans is encoded by the HSPA8 gene on chromosome 11. ...
Pemphigus can also be caused by a bacterial infection: bullous impetigo is an infection caused by a staphylococcus bacterium ... A haploinsufficiency of the ATP2C1 gene located on chromosome 3, which encodes the protein hSPCA1, causes malformation of the ...
v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genes on human chromosome 1, CS1: long volume value ... "Accumulation of profilin II at the surface of Listeria is concomitant with the onset of motility and correlates with bacterial ... EVH1 domain, All stub articles, Human chromosome 1 gene stubs). ...
... bacterial conjugation - bacterial outer membrane protein - bacterial protein - bacteriorhodopsin - base (chemistry) - base pair ... chromosome - chromosome walking - cilium - circular dichroism - cis face - citric acid - citric acid cycle - cladistics - ... von Willebrand factor water Y chromosome - yeast zymology Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ... Philadelphia chromosome - phospholipid - phospholipid bilayer - phosphopeptide - phosphoprotein - phosphorus - phosphorylation ...
Male heterozygous mice had higher bacterial counts after Salmonella infection. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000009954 - ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genes on human chromosome 7, Wikipedia articles ...
... such as monotremes possessing 5 pairs of sex chromosomes and that one of the X chromosomes resembles the Z chromosome of birds ... This venom is derived from β-defensins, proteins that are present in mammals that create holes in viral and bacterial pathogens ... June 2008). "Bird-like sex chromosomes of platypus imply recent origin of mammal sex chromosomes". Genome Res. 18 (6): 965-973 ... Additional reconstruction through shared genes in sex chromosomes supports this hypothesis of independent evolution. This ...
Some complexities of bacterial regulation and metabolism suggest that other, more subtle, purposes for the enzyme may also play ... The gene for tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase is located on chromosome 1, and the genes for the other three isoforms are ... While the main features of the catalytic mechanism and activity are conserved between mammalian and bacterial alkaline ... Ammerman JW, Azam F (March 1985). "Bacterial 5-nucleotidase in aquatic ecosystems: a novel mechanism of phosphorus regeneration ...
In 1971, Paul Berg conducted experiments in which he used "bacterial scissors." In 1975, the Asilomar Conference on Recombinant ... Theodor Boveri was an early biologist studying chromosomes in 1900s. Later, Danish researcher Wilhelm Johannsen called the ... Eventually, biologists found the CAG chemical phrase on human Chromosome 4 responsible for Huntington's disease. ... sites of heredity on chromosomes "genes." Thomas Morgan discovers that some traits are linked in fruit flies. David Botstein ...
... bacterial thiolase, and bacterial KAS I". Journal of Molecular Biology. 347 (1): 189-201. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2005.01.018. PMID ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genes on human chromosome 6, Wikipedia articles ... incorporating text from the United States National Library of Medicine, Human proteins, All stub articles, Human chromosome 6 ...
What is the major difference between bacterial chromosomes and eukaryotic chromosomes? ... The DNA molecules of bacterial chromosomes have a slightly different structure than those of eukaryotic chromosomes. ... Bacterial chromosomes have much more protein associated with the DNA than eukaryotes. ... Bacteria usually have a single circular chromosome whereas eukaryotes have several linear chromosomes. ...
Construction and analysis of bacterial artificial chromosome libraries from a marine microbial assemblage. ... 24Construction and analysis of bacterial artificial chromosome libraries from a marine microbial assemblage. ...
Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). A plasmid vector used to clone large fragments of DNA (average size of 150 kb) in E. ... Bacterial artificial chromosome. A plasmid vector used to clone large fragments of DNA (average size of 150 kb) in E. coli. ...
The sheep CHORI-243 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library is being used in the construction of the virtual sheep genome ... The sheep CHORI-243 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library is being used in the construction of the virtual sheep genome ... Quality control of the sheep bacterial artificial chromosome library, CHORI-243. *Abhirami Ratnakumar1,2, ... Ratnakumar, A., Kirkness, E.F. & Dalrymple, B.P. Quality control of the sheep bacterial artificial chromosome library, CHORI- ...
... move and position their chromosomes in a reproducible fashion. The realization that bacterial chromosomes are actively ... move and position their chromosomes in a reproducible fashion. The realization that bacterial chromosomes are actively ... move and position their chromosomes in a reproducible fashion. The realization that bacterial chromosomes are actively ... move and position their chromosomes in a reproducible fashion. The realization that bacterial chromosomes are actively ...
Chromosome painting in silico in a bacterial species reveals fine population structure」の研究トピックを掘り下げます。これらがまとまってユニークなフィンガープリントを構 ... Chromosome painting in silico in a bacterial species reveals fine population structure. In: Molecular Biology and Evolution. ... Chromosome painting in silico in a bacterial species reveals fine population structure. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 2013 ... Chromosome painting in silico in a bacterial species reveals
Alleles [1], Animals [2], Cells, Cultured [3], Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial [4], Escherichia coli [5], Gene Targeting [6] ... Engineering the mouse genome with bacterial artificial chromosomes to create multipurpose alleles.. Title. Engineering the ... Homologous recombination in E. coli, or recombineering, has overcome these limitations for bacterial artificial chromosome ( ... Home , Engineering the mouse genome with bacterial artificial chromosomes to create multipurpose alleles. ...
Impact of crowders on the morphology of bacterial chromosomes. Publication. Publication. EPL (Europhysics Letters) , Volume 128 ... Kumar, A, Swain, P, Mulder, B.M, & Chaudhuri, D. (2020). Impact of crowders on the morphology of bacterial chromosomes. EPL ( ... Inspired by recent experiments on the effects of cytosolic crowders on the organization of bacterial chromosomes, we consider a ... This feature is reproduced within a simplified effective model of the chromosome. This latter model further establishes the ...
Common bacterial blight (CBB), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. Phaseoli (Xap), is a seed born disease. One major source of ... They were located on the distal region of chromosome 1L. Given the intensive utilization of this major CBB resistance QTL in ...
Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). A plasmid vector used to clone large fragments of DNA (average size of 150 kb) in E. ... Bacterial artificial chromosome. A plasmid vector used to clone large fragments of DNA (average size of 150 kb) in E. coli. ...
animal, plant, fungal, protist, bacterial and viral genomes for evo-. lutionary and functional annotations of orthologs. ... Gray cells-multiple chromosomes in the Odocoileus virginianus assembly aligned to the same chromosome in another organism. Bold ... Chromosome length assembly sequences were aligned to the genomes of related species to reveal corresponding chromosomes. ... Chromosome ssions and fusions were detected between Chrom. ID Ungapped length (bp) No. of gaps No. of genes No. of repeats ...
Activation of the bacterial lesion bypass DNA polymerase V (Pol V) requires both the cleavage of the UmuD subunit to UmuD′ and ... The bacterial condensin MukB compacts DNA by sequestering supercoils and stabilizing topologically isolated loops. Journal of ... Properly condensed chromosomes are necessary for accurate segregation of the sisters after DNA replication. The Escherichia ... The bacterial condensin MukB and the cellular decatenating enzyme topoisomerase IV interact. This interaction stimulates ...
Chromosome Deletion * Chromosomes, Bacterial / genetics * Drug Resistance, Bacterial / drug effects * Escherichia coli / drug ...
Bacterial DNA is usually organized into a single circular chromosome. Bacteria occasionally carry DNA in smaller rings known as ... Viruses that exist in the ocean often infect specific hosts and so when the bacterial communities change, so do the types of ... For the blowfish, a familiar delicacy in Asian cuisine, bacterial symbionts supply an important defense against predators-they ... In 1999, scientists discovered a bacterial process called anammox (short for anaerobic ammonium oxidation) where the bacteria ...
Feasibility of physical map construction from fingerprinted bacterial artificial chromosome libraries of polyploid plant ...
In some bacterial species, these eccentric reproductive strategies are essential for propagation, whereas in others the ... Ben-Yehuda, S., Rudner, D. Z. & Losick, R. RacA, A bacterial protein that anchors chromosomes to the poles. Science 299, 532- ... A review of bacterial methyl halide degradation: biochemistry, genetics and molecular ecology. Environ. Microbiol. 4, 193-203 ( ... Harry, E. J. Bacterial cell division: regulating Z-ring formation. Mol. Microbiol. 40, 795-803 (2001). ...
Deeplasmid: deep learning accurately separates plasmids from bacterial chromosomes. Andreopoulos, W.B., Geller, A.M.* , Lucke, ... Antiviral activity of bacterial TIR domains via immu. ne signalling molecules.. Ofir, G., Herbst, E., Baroz, Cohen D., Millman ... Exposure to bacterial pathogens and symbionts plays a major role in shaping plant genomes through the course of evolution. My ... Chromosome-level Thlaspi arvense genome provides new tools for translational research and for a newly domesticated cash cover ...
Time for a fresh look at the bacterial chromosome. Trends Microbiol. 1999;7:223-6. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... However, some bacteria have ,1 chromosome. Vibrio bacteria, for example, have 2 circular chromosomes: 1 (Ch1) and 2 (Ch2) (1-3 ... Heidelberg JF, Eisen JA, Nelson WC, Clayton RA, Gwinn ML, Dodson RJ, DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen ... Regulatory cross-talk links Vibrio cholerae chromosome II replication and segregation. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002189. DOIPubMed ...
... of markerless recombinant MVA vaccines by en passant recombineering of a self-excising bacterial artificial chromosome ... Rapid generation of markerless recombinant MVA vaccines by en passant recombineering of a self-excising bacterial artificial ...
A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed for G.... ... Construction of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library of TM-1, a Standard Line for Genetics and Genomics in Upland Cotton ... Construction of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library of TM-1, a Standard Line for Genetics and Genomics in Upland Cotton[J ... Abstract: A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed for G. hirsutum acc. TM-1, a genetic and genomic ...
Construction and initial analysis of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contigs from the sex-determining region of the ... Construction and initial analysis of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contigs from the sex-determining region of the ...
Bacterial-dusts; Biohazards; Biological-effects; Biological-factors; Chemical-properties; Chemical-reactions; Chromosome- ... Bacterial mutagenicity and mammalian cell chromosomal and DNA damage in vitro assays were performed on a diesel exhaust ...
SMC_prok_B; chromosome segregation protein SMC, common bacterial type. RNA. * XR_007065529.1 RNA Sequence ... RefSeqs for chromosomes and scaffolds (contigs) from both reference and alternate assemblies. Model RNAs and proteins are also ...
Bacterial genomes generally contain a single chromosome and one or more extrachromosal elements such as plasmids. The ... Importance of cohesin to yeasts 3D chromosome structure. *Improving bacterial strain classification for more effective ... Importance of cohesin to yeasts 3D chromosome structure. *Improving bacterial strain classification for more effective ... Airborne Bacterial Volatiles stimulate Fungal Growth Scientists from the team led by Jean-Paul Latgé, Director of the ...
... which targets repetitive sequences dispersed throughout bacterial chromosomes (27). This method has high power for ... Deer diet affects ribotype diversity of Escherichia coli for bacterial source tracking. Water Res. 2003;37:3263-8. DOIPubMed ... Human-primate bacterial genetic similarity was highest in the Kiko 1 fragment, followed by Rurama, and then by Bugembe. This ... Bacterial Isolation and Characterization. Swabs and fecal samples were streaked for isolation of E. coli onto individual ...
Bacterial Induced Mutation Frequency Test · In Vitro Chromosome Aberration Test · Rat Hepatocyte DNA Synthesis Assay ... 1.1 Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis 1.2 Acute Maxillary Sinusitis 1.3 Community-Acquired Pneumonia 1.4 ... Acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis 250 to 500 mga 7b to14 ... The presumptive bacterial eradication/clinical cure outcomes (i.e., clinical success) are shown in Table 14.. Table 14. ...
2007: multiple chromosomes assembled from scratch, bacterial virus, or organelle. 2012: design of eukaryotic chromosomes should ... 2008 is our 1995, if you will; this is the year where a bacterial genomes been synthesized from scratch. Ahead of that work, ... In 1990, nobody had sequenced anything, except for a couple of bacterial viruses, and maybe some other viruses. In 1995, the ... he was running one of the last bacterial virus labs in the country, and still is, and he taught me how to map and clone DNA and ...
... role of MITF phosphorylation sites during coat color and eye development in mice analyzed by bacterial artificial chromosome ...
  • Eukaryotes have a single circular chromosome, whereas bacteria have several linear chromosomes. (
  • The direct visualization of specific chromosomal loci has revealed that bacteria condense, move and position their chromosomes in a reproducible fashion. (
  • At deeper depths the bacteria develop unique adaptations to make do without sunlight and, in general, this leads to greater bacterial diversity at depth. (
  • Vibrio bacteria, for example, have 2 circular chromosomes: 1 (Ch1) and 2 (Ch2) ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • and that some mitochondria and plastids contain single circular DNA molecules similar to the circular chromosomes of bacteria. (
  • Although a number of Te resistance determinants (Tel R ) have been identified in plasmids or in the bacterial chromosome of different species of bacteria, the genetic and/or biochemical basis underlying bacterial TeO 3 2- toxicity is still poorly understood. (
  • Bacteria have a large circular chromosome which is highly coiled. (
  • Bacteria have a large, circular chromosome and several smaller plasmids , which don't have many genes. (
  • The central mechanism of EPEC pathogenesis is a lesion called attaching and effacing (A/E), which is characterized by microvilli destruction, intimate adherence of bacteria to the intestinal epithelium, pedestal formation, and aggregation of polarized actin and other elements of the cytoskeleton at sites of bacterial attachment ( Figure 1 ). (
  • In this pattern, bacteria bind to localized areas of the cell surface, forming compact microcolonies (bacterial clusters) that can be visualized after bacteria have been in contact with cells for 3 hours. (
  • Bacterial genomes generally contain a single chromosome and one or more extrachromosal elements such as plasmids. (
  • Therefore, Platon analyzes the natural distribution biases of certain protein coding genes between chromosomes and plasmids. (
  • These scores express the empirically measured frequency biases of protein sequence distributions between plasmids and chromosomes pre-computed on complete NCBI RefSeq replicons. (
  • They also have a large coiled double-stranded circular chromosome whereas, eukaryotes have a larger genome and do not possess plasmids. (
  • Here, we apply it to the frequently recombining bacterial species Helicobacter pylori that has infected Homo sapiens since their birth in Africa and shows wide phylogeographic divergence. (
  • Chromosome length assembly sequences were aligned to the genomes of related species to reveal corresponding chromosomes. (
  • In some bacterial species, these eccentric reproductive strategies are essential for propagation, whereas in others the programmes are used conditionally. (
  • By examining genetic relationships among E. coli isolates from humans, livestock, and 3 species of primates, we inferred rates of bacterial transmission among populations of these species living in or near 3 fragments that differed in their degrees of anthropogenic disturbance. (
  • presence of two chromosomes in Vibrio species. (
  • Ability to produce A/E lesions has also been detected in strains of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (enterohemorrhagic E. coli [EHEC]) and in strains of other bacterial species (1). (
  • The high-coverage approach allowed us to analyze over 398 million reads, revealing that microbial communities are individual-specific and no bacterial species was detected as key player at any time during biofilm formation. (
  • Construction and Identification of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library for 0-613-2R inUpland Cotton [J]. J Integr Plant Biol. (
  • Within the biofilms, the bacterial cells are embedded in a polysaccharide matrix. (
  • Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA , which carry genetic information essential to the cell. (
  • A "mosaic" genetic composition in which some cells have XX chromosomes and others have XY, or their chromosomes are XXY. (
  • That's right - you are home to around 100 trillion bacterial cells! (
  • Cobalt Borate Neodecanoate Complex: In Vitro Mammalian Chromosome Aberration Test in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells. (
  • Cobalt Naphthenate: In Vitro Mammalian Chromosome Aberration Test in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells. (
  • H-26232: In Vitro Mammalian Chromosome Aberration Test in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells. (
  • In Vitro Chromosome Aberration Study Performed on the Huntsman Product FAT 40'162/B Reported a Clastogenic Effect on Cultured Chinese Hamster V79 Cells. (
  • In Vitro Chromosome Aberration Test in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO-WBL) Cells. (
  • Platon - identification and characterization of bacterial plasmid contigs Platon detects plasmid contigs within bacterial draft genomes from WGS short-read assemblies. (
  • Additionally, since these SSR markers have been localized to chromosome 12 (A12) and 26 (D12) according to the genetic map, these BAC clones are expected to serve as seeds for the physical mapping of these two homeologous chromosomes, sequentially map-based cloning of QTLs or genes associated with important agronomic traits. (
  • Thomas Hunt Morgan and his group, used a bunch of fruit flies to help prove that genes, strung on chromosomes are the units of heredity. (
  • Barbara McClintock had discoverd that genes can jump around on chromosomes. (
  • In 1913, as an undergraduate, Sturtevant created one of the earliest genetic maps of a fruit fly chromosome, which showed the relative positions of genes along the chromosome. (
  • This latter model further establishes the occurrence of longitudinal and transverse spatial segregation transitions between the chromosome and crowders upon increasing the crowder size. (
  • MukB also interacts with the ParC subunit of the cellular chromosomal decatenase topoisomerase IV, an interaction that is required for proper chromosome condensation and segregation in Escherichia coli , although it suppresses the MukB ATPase activity. (
  • Both chromosomes are controlled coordinately in their replication and segregation ( 4 ). (
  • Regulatory cross-talk links Vibrio cholerae chromosome II replication and segregation. (
  • 2012). In chromosome segregation must start prior to the cytokinetic Z-ring can assemble at mid-cell, coordinated with BKM120 biological activity the gradient-forming FtsZ BKM120 biological activity inhibitor MipZ (Thanbichler and Shapiro, 2006). (
  • this is been shown to be the entire case for MatP, which coordinates chromosome segregation and pole structure in (Coltharp et?al. (
  • Early-onset immunodeficiency and auto-inflammation presenting with recurrent bacterial infections have also been reported. (
  • Symptoms are similar to those of CVID in regard to recurrent bacterial infections but present earlier in life (ages 6 to 12 months), and the condition typically resolves without treatment within a year's time. (
  • X-linked severe congenital neutropenia is an immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by recurrent major bacterial infections, severe congenital neutropenia, and monocytopenia. (
  • And we actually have exploited that behavior since 1919, when we started to use phage therapy to treat bacterial infections. (
  • 22q11.2 deletion syndrome , also known as DiGeorge syndrome or velocardiofacial syndrome, is due to a deletion of genetic material on chromosome 22. (
  • X-linked dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome. (
  • Fabry disease (FD) is a genetic disease, with X-chromosome linked inheritance, due to variants in the GLA gene that encodes the α-galactosidase A (α-GAL) enzyme. (
  • X-linked recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder. (
  • The mutation occurs on a gene on the X chromosome, which as you might recall from biology class, is a sex chromosome-men only have one, making them more prone to coming down with VEXAS. (
  • Bacterial chromosomes have much more protein associated with the DNA than eukaryotes. (
  • MukBEF, a structural maintenance of chromosome-like protein complex consisting of an ATPase, MukB, and two interacting subunits, MukE and MukF, functions as the bacterial condensin. (
  • MukB is a structural maintenance of chromosome-like protein required for DNA condensation. (
  • They inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by binding irreversibly to the bacterial 16S ribosomal subunit, which thereby leads to cell death. (
  • Accession numbers for chromosome 1 and chromosome 2 for each of the four strains, as well as genome annotation features, are provided in Table 1 . (
  • Bacterial strains to be compared usually need to be run on the same electrophoresis gels, which requires the exchange of reference strains between institutions. (
  • It is likely that MukBEF compacts DNA via an ATP hydrolysis-dependent DNA loop-extrusion reaction similar to that demonstrated for the yeast structural maintenance of chromosome proteins condensin and cohesin. (
  • YAC stands for Yeast artifial chromosomes. (
  • The sheep CHORI-243 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library is being used in the construction of the virtual sheep genome, the sequencing and construction of the actual sheep genome assembly and as a source of DNA for regions of the genome of biological interest. (
  • Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within the nucleus, mitochondria also have a small amount of their own DNA. (
  • The chromosomes may be seen, and the nucleus is rather massive. (
  • Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of intact genomic DNA of Vibrio cholerae isolates and circular representation of the genome of V. cholerae O1 El Tor TSY216, consisting of 3 chromosomes. (
  • A range of bacterial ( Bartonella spp, Mycoplasma spp. (
  • Vinyl acetate was negative in bacterial gene mutation assays using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537, with and without rat liver S-9 activation. (
  • Vinyl acetate was shown to be negative in bacterial gene mutation assays using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537, with and without rat liver S-9 activation. (
  • Together these data suggest that Salmonella serovar specificity in sheep correlates with bacterial persistence at systemic sites. (
  • Platon calculates the mean RDS for each contig and either classifies them as chromosome if the RDS is below a sensitivity cutoff determined to 95% sensitivity or as plasmid if the RDS is above a specificity cutoff determined to 99.9% specificity. (
  • Exact values for these thresholds have been computed based on Monte Carlo simulations of artifical replicon fragments created from complete RefSeq chromosome and plasmid sequences. (
  • A loaded bacterial plasmid, of course. (
  • The third and fourth outermost circles of each schematic chromosome show the coding sequence-assigned (blue) and coding sequences-unassigned (red) functions of the products, respectively. (
  • Paul Stothard's group analyzes and interprets huge sequence, genotype, and gene expression datasets relative to livestock breeding and bacterial genome analysis. (
  • DNA start text, D, N, A, end text is found in a central region of the cell called the nucleoid , and it typically consists of a single large loop called a circular chromosome. (
  • Homologous recombination in E. coli, or 'recombineering', has overcome these limitations for bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenesis. (
  • Two LEE insertion sites have been described on the E. coli chromosome, and a third unidentified insertion site has been reported ( 5 ) . (
  • The key studies are considered to be bacterial mutation assays (McCann et al. (
  • Caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutation in the RBCK1 gene on chromosome 20p13. (
  • One other puzzling aspect of the study was the fact that the two women retrospectively identified as having VEXAS syndrome only suffered from the VEXAS-related mutation on one of their X chromosomes, not both. (
  • Despite decades of study, the exquisite temporal and spatial organization of bacterial chromosomes has only recently been appreciated. (
  • Targeting Cre recombinase to specific neuron populations with bacterial artificial chromosome constructs. (
  • In the 1920s and 1930s, Painter studied the chromosomes of the salivary gland giant chromosomes of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), with Hermann J. Muller. (
  • Recently, a method of chromosome painting in silico has been developed to overcome these shortcomings and has been applied to multiple human genome sequences. (
  • Restriction enzymes are part of a bacterial immune system, and have been very useful as a tool to cut and paste dna sequences in laboratory applications. (
  • Puerperal fever is a bacterial infection that can occur in the uterine tract of women after giving birth or undergoing an abortion. (
  • Over the course of the episode, which aired in March 2021, Choi initially misdiagnoses Campos' symptoms as pneumonia and a bacterial infection, but a test comes back for widespread inflammation. (
  • The realization that bacterial chromosomes are actively translocated through the cell suggests the existence of specific mechanisms that direct this process. (
  • Inspired by recent experiments on the effects of cytosolic crowders on the organization of bacterial chromosomes, we consider a "feather-boa" type model chromosome in the presence of non-additive crowders, encapsulated within a cylindrical cell. (
  • currently nothing is known about cell division or reproduction in this bacterial lineage. (
  • Bacterial mutagenicity and mammalian cell chromosomal and DNA damage in vitro assays were performed on a diesel exhaust particulate material (DPM) standard in two preparations: as an organic solvent extract, and as an aqueous dispersion in a simulated pulmonary surfactant. (
  • Now, this scientific team headed by Drs. Craig Venter, Hamilton Smith and Clyde Hutchison have achieved the final step in their quest to create the first synthetic bacterial cell. (
  • 2010. Creation of a bacterial cell controlled by a chemically synthesized genome. (
  • The work to create the first synthetic bacterial cell was not easy, and took this team approximately 15 years to complete. (
  • of cell constriction and elongation in bacterial size legislation during cell department, we captured the form dynamics of with time-lapse organised lighting microscopy and utilized molecular markers as cell-cycle landmarks. (
  • Thus, the aim of this work is to carry out a review of the literature on the role of bacterial endotoxin in the etiology of periapical lesions, its mechanism of action, and to elucidate molecular mechanisms involved in endotoxin's recognition by the immune system and cell activation. (
  • Therefore, the objective of this study is to carry out a review of the literature on the role of bacterial endotoxin in the etiology of periapical lesions, as well as to elucidate molecular mechanisms involved in its recognition by the immune system and in cell activation. (
  • In food industry, the bacterial biofilms have a negative impact from both economical and sanitary point of view. (
  • Although the composition of oral biofilms is well established, the active portion of the bacterial community and the patterns of gene expression in vivo have not been studied. (
  • Bacterial DNA is usually organized into a single circular chromosome. (
  • Prokaryotes typically have a single circular chromosome. (
  • Prokaryotes have a single large circular chromosome. (
  • Activation of the bacterial lesion bypass DNA polymerase V (Pol V) requires both the cleavage of the UmuD subunit to UmuD′ and the acquisition of a monomer of activated RecA recombinase, forming Pol V Mut. (
  • Muller and Painter studied the ability of X-rays to cause changes in the chromosomes of fruit flies. (
  • Interestingly, some individuals showed extreme homeostasis with virtually no changes in the active bacterial population after food ingestion, suggesting the presence of a microbial community which could be associated to dental health. (
  • His group also developed a popular collection of microbial genome analysis software tools (DOI:10.1093/bioinformatics/bti054, DOI:10.1186/1471-2164-13-202, DOI:10.1093/nar/gki075, DOI:10.1093/nar/gki593) that he continues to update and use in several collaborations to investigate bacterial genome function and evolution (e.g. (
  • Physical Mapping of the Major QTL Conditioning Resistance to Common Bacterial Blight on Chromosome 1L of Common Bean. (
  • Thus, characterizing the composition of whole bacterial communities that actively engage in biofilm formation and sugar fermentation after the ingestion of food is vital for understanding community dynamics under health and disease conditions [ 7 ]. (
  • proving the chromosome theory of inheritance. (
  • Sturtevant, Morgan, and other researchers established that chromosomes play a role in the inheritance of traits. (
  • Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is a deadly bacterial disease. (
  • The goal of this study was to assess the effects of forest fragmentation on rates and patterns of bacterial transmission among wild primates, humans, and livestock, and to examine how anthropogenic and behavioral factors affect these rates and patterns across a fragmented forest landscape. (
  • This information is important because endotoxin is released during multiplication or bacterial death, causing a series of biological effects that lead to an inflammatory reaction and resorption of mineralized tissues. (
  • These enzymes are called sitespecific restriction endonucleases, or more simply restriction enzymes, and they naturally function as part of bacterial defenses against viruses and other sources of foreign dna. (