Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, 1-3: The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Painting: A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, 16-18: The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y: The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.Ring Chromosomes: Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.Chromosomes, Human, 4-5: The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Chromosome Structures: Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.Chromosomes, Human, 19-20: The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Chromosomes, Artificial, Human: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Chromosome Fragility: Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Chromosome Duplication: An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Abnormalities, MultiplePolytene Chromosomes: Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Cytogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.Karyotype: The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Chromosome Fragile Sites: Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Sex Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).Monosomy: The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Genes, X-Linked: Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Philadelphia Chromosome: An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Azure Stains: PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chromosomes, Archaeal: Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Chromosome Breakpoints: The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sex Chromatin: In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Chromosomes, Artificial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, elements such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, that are required for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance in progeny cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Sister Chromatid Exchange: An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Pachytene Stage: The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Genes, Y-Linked: Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.Euchromatin: Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Meiotic Prophase I: The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Radiation Hybrid Mapping: A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Genetic Heterogeneity: The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Sex Chromosome Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions of atypical sexual development associated with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions including MONOSOMY; TRISOMY; and MOSAICISM.

A sequence-ready BAC clone contig of a 2.2-Mb segment of human chromosome 1q24. (1/4994)

Human chromosomal region 1q24 encodes two cloned disease genes and lies within large genetic inclusion intervals for several disease genes that have yet to be identified. We have constructed a single bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone contig that spans over 2 Mb of 1q24 and consists of 78 clones connected by 100 STSs. The average density of mapped STSs is one of the highest described for a multimegabase region of the human genome. The contig was efficiently constructed by generating STSs from clone ends, followed by library walking. Distance information was added by determining the insert sizes of all clones, and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genes were incorporated to create a partial transcript map of the region, providing candidate genes for local disease loci. The gene order and content of the region provide insight into ancient duplication events that have occurred on proximal 1q. The stage is now set for further elucidation of this interesting region through large-scale sequencing.  (+info)

Complete nucleotide sequence of the 27-kilobase virulence related locus (vrl) of Dichelobacter nodosus: evidence for extrachromosomal origin. (2/4994)

The vrl locus is preferentially associated with virulent isolates of the ovine footrot pathogen, Dichelobacter nodosus. The complete nucleotide sequence of this 27.1-kb region has now been determined. The data reveal that the locus has a G+C content much higher than the rest of the D. nodosus chromosome and contains 22 open reading frames (ORFs) encoding products including a putative adenine-specific methylase, two potential DEAH ATP-dependent helicases, and two products with sequence similarity to a bacteriophage resistance system. These ORFs are all in the same orientation, and most are either overlapping or separated by only a few nucleotides, suggesting that they comprise an operon and are translationally coupled. Expression vector studies have led to the identification of proteins that correspond to many of these ORFs. These data, in combination with evidence of insertion of vrl into the 3' end of an ssrA gene, are consistent with the hypothesis that the vrl locus was derived from the insertion of a bacteriophage or plasmid into the D. nodosus genome.  (+info)

High throughput direct end sequencing of BAC clones. (3/4994)

Libraries constructed in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors have become the choice for clone sets in high throughput genomic sequencing projects primarily because of their high stability. BAC libraries have been proposed as a source for minimally over-lapping clones for sequencing large genomic regions, and the use of BAC end sequences (i.e. sequences adjoining the insert sites) has been proposed as a primary means for selecting minimally overlapping clones for sequencing large genomic regions. For this strategy to be effective, high throughput methods for BAC end sequencing of all the clones in deep coverage BAC libraries needed to be developed. Here we describe a low cost, efficient, 96 well procedure for BAC end sequencing. These methods allow us to generate BAC end sequences from human and Arabidoposis libraries with an average read length of >450 bases and with a single pass sequencing average accuracy of >98%. Application of BAC end sequences in genomic sequen-cing is discussed.  (+info)

Rapid modification of bacterial artificial chromosomes by ET-recombination. (4/4994)

We present a method to modify bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) resident in their host strain. The method is based on homologous recombination by ET-cloning. We have successfully modified BACs at two distinct loci by recombination with a PCR product containing homology arms of 50 nt. The procedure we describe here is rapid, was found to work with high efficiency and should be applicable to any BAC modification desired.  (+info)

Natural competence for DNA transformation by Legionella pneumophila and its association with expression of type IV pili. (5/4994)

We have recently described the expression of two pili of different lengths on the surface of Legionella pneumophila (B. J. Stone and Y. Abu Kwaik, Infect. Immun. 66:1768-1775, 1998). Production of long pili requires a functional pilEL locus, encoding a type IV pilin protein. Since type IV pili in Neisseria gonorrhoeae are associated with competence for DNA transformation, we examined the competence of L. pneumophila for DNA transformation under conditions that allowed the expression of type IV pili. We show that L. pneumophila is naturally competent for DNA transformation by isogenic chromosomal DNA and by plasmid DNA containing L. pneumophila DNA. Many different L. pneumophila loci are able to transform L. pneumophila after addition of plasmid DNA, including gspA, ppa, asd, and pilEL. The transformation frequency is reduced when competing DNA containing either L. pneumophila DNA or vector sequences is added to the bacteria, suggesting that uptake-specific sequences may not be involved in DNA uptake. Competence for DNA transformation correlates with expression of the type IV pili, and a pilEL mutant defective in expression of type IV pili is not competent for DNA transformation. Complementation of the mutant for competence is restored by the reintroduction of a cosmid that restores production of type IV pili. Minimal competence is restored to the mutant by introduction of pilEL alone. We conclude that competence for DNA transformation in L. pneumophila is associated with expression of the type IV pilus and results in recombination of L. pneumophila DNA into the chromosome. Since expression of type IV pili also facilitates attachment of L. pneumophila to mammalian cells and protozoa, we designated the type IV pili CAP (for competence- and adherence-associated pili).  (+info)

Ferritin mutants of Escherichia coli are iron deficient and growth impaired, and fur mutants are iron deficient. (6/4994)

Escherichia coli contains at least two iron storage proteins, a ferritin (FtnA) and a bacterioferritin (Bfr). To investigate their specific functions, the corresponding genes (ftnA and bfr) were inactivated by replacing the chromosomal ftnA and bfr genes with disrupted derivatives containing antibiotic resistance cassettes in place of internal segments of the corresponding coding regions. Single mutants (ftnA::spc and bfr::kan) and a double mutant (ftnA::spc bfr::kan) were generated and confirmed by Western and Southern blot analyses. The iron contents of the parental strain (W3110) and the bfr mutant increased by 1.5- to 2-fold during the transition from logarithmic to stationary phase in iron-rich media, whereas the iron contents of the ftnA and ftnA bfr mutants remained unchanged. The ftnA and ftnA bfr mutants were growth impaired in iron-deficient media, but this was apparent only after the mutant and parental strains had been precultured in iron-rich media. Surprisingly, ferric iron uptake regulation (fur) mutants also had very low iron contents (2.5-fold less iron than Fur+ strains) despite constitutive expression of the iron acquisition systems. The iron deficiencies of the ftnA and fur mutants were confirmed by Mossbauer spectroscopy, which further showed that the low iron contents of ftnA mutants are due to a lack of magnetically ordered ferric iron clusters likely to correspond to FtnA iron cores. In combination with the fur mutation, ftnA and bfr mutations produced an enhanced sensitivity to hydroperoxides, presumably due to an increase in production of "reactive ferrous iron." It is concluded that FtnA acts as an iron store accommodating up to 50% of the cellular iron during postexponential growth in iron-rich media and providing a source of iron that partially compensates for iron deficiency during iron-restricted growth. In addition to repressing the iron acquisition systems, Fur appears to regulate the demand for iron, probably by controlling the expression of iron-containing proteins. The role of Bfr remains unclear.  (+info)

A novel reduced flavin mononucleotide-dependent methanesulfonate sulfonatase encoded by the sulfur-regulated msu operon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (7/4994)

When Pseudomonas aeruginosa is grown with organosulfur compounds as sulfur sources, it synthesizes a set of proteins whose synthesis is repressed in the presence of sulfate, cysteine, or thiocyanate (so-called sulfate starvation-induced proteins). The gene encoding one of these proteins, PA13, was isolated from a cosmid library of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and sequenced. It encoded a 381-amino-acid protein that was related to several reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2)-dependent monooxygenases, and it was the second in an operon of three genes, which we have named msuEDC. The MsuD protein catalyzed the desulfonation of alkanesulfonates, requiring oxygen and FMNH2 for the reaction, and showed highest activity with methanesulfonate. MsuE was an NADH-dependent flavin mononucleotide (FMN) reductase, which provided reduced FMN for the MsuD enzyme. Expression of the msu operon was analyzed with a transcriptional msuD::xylE fusion and was found to be repressed in the presence of sulfate, sulfite, sulfide, or cysteine and derepressed during growth with methionine or alkanesulfonates. Growth with methanesulfonate required an intact cysB gene, and the msu operon is therefore part of the cys regulon, since sulfite utilization was found to be CysB independent in this species. Measurements of msuD::xylE expression in cysN and cysI genetic backgrounds showed that sulfate, sulfite, and sulfide or cysteine play independent roles in negatively regulating msu expression, and sulfonate utilization therefore appears to be tightly regulated.  (+info)

The Bradyrhizobium japonicum nolA gene encodes three functionally distinct proteins. (8/4994)

Examination of nolA revealed that NolA can be uniquely translated from three ATG start codons. Translation from the first ATG (ATG1) predicts a protein (NolA1) having an N-terminal, helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif similar to the DNA-binding domains of the MerR-type regulatory proteins. Translation from ATG2 and ATG3 would give the N-terminally truncated proteins NolA2 and NolA3, respectively, lacking the DNA-binding domain. Consistent with this, immunoblot analyses of Bradyrhizobium japonicum extracts with a polyclonal antiserum to NolA revealed three distinct polypeptides whose molecular weights were consistent with translation of nolA from the three ATG initiation sites. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to produce derivatives of nolA in which ATG start sites were sequentially deleted. Immunoblots revealed a corresponding absence of the polypeptide whose ATG start site was removed. Translational fusions of the nolA mutants to a promoterless lacZ yielded functional fusion proteins in both Escherichia coli and B. japonicum. Expression of NolA is inducible upon addition of extracts from 5-day-old etiolated soybean seedlings but is not inducible by genistein, a known inducer of the B. japonicum nod genes. The expression of both NolA2 and NolA3 requires the presence of NolA1. NolA1 or NolA3 is required for the genotype-specific nodulation of soybean genotype PI 377578.  (+info)

*Janine Deakin

In Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. Ed P. Chatterjee, In Tech Open Access Publisher, Croatia, p1-22. http://www.canberratimes. ... Deakin, J, Koina, E, Waters, P et al 2008, 'Physical map of two tammar wallaby chromosomes: a strategy for mapping in non-model ... Deakin, J.E. and Graves, J.A.M. (2010). Mapping genes on tammar wallaby target chromosomes. Macropods: The biology of kangaroos ... The status of dosage compensation in the multiple X chromosomes of the platypus', PLoS Genetics, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 1-13. ...

*RecBCD

Spies M, Kowalczykowski SC (2003). "Homologous recombination by RecBCD and RecF pathways". In Higgins P. Bacterial Chromosomes ...

*Hans Ris

"Genophore, chromosomes and the bacterial origin of chloroplasts". International Microbiology. Madrid. Jun 2005. Retrieved 2014- ... His studies of chromosome structure revealed the importance of non-histone proteins, and along with evolutionary biologist Lynn ... He coined the term genophore for prokaryote DNA to highlight its differences from the eukaryal chromosome. Ris was a founding ... "Electron-microscopic study of the spindle and chromosome movement in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Journal of cell ...

*Lynn Margulis

Margulis, L (2005). "Hans Ris (1914-2004). Genophore, chromosomes and the bacterial origin of chloroplasts". International ... of evolution and genetic variation is proposed to occur mainly as a result of transfer of nuclear information between bacterial ...

*John Roth (geneticist)

"Rearrangements of the bacterial chromosome: formation and applications". In Neidhardt, F.C., Curtis, R., III, Ingraham, J.L., ... New methods in bacterial genetics". J. Mol. Biol. 116: 125-159. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(77)90123-1. PMID 338917. CS1 maint: Uses ... In 2011, ASM Press published a festschrift in his honor ("The Lure of Bacterial Genetics: A Tribute to John Roth"). Thomas Hunt ... 2011). The Lure of Bacterial Genetics: A Tribute to John Roth. Washington, DC: ASM Press. p. 362. ISBN 978-1-55581-538-7. CS1 ...

*Plasmid partition system

The StbA-stbDRs complex may be used to pair plasmid the host chromosome, using indirectly the bacterial partitioning system. ... Badrinarayanan, Anjana; Le, Tung B. K.; Laub, Michael T. (2015-11-13). "Bacterial Chromosome Organization and Segregation". ... ParA proteins from different plasmids and bacterial species show 25 to 30% of sequence identity to the protein ParA of the ... Schumacher MA (2012). "Bacterial plasmid partition machinery: a minimalist approach to survival". Current Opinion in Structural ...

*Prokaryotic DNA replication

Frimodt-Møller J, Charbon G, Løbner-Olesen A (December 2016). "Control of bacterial chromosome replication by non-coding ... Bussiere DE, Bastia D (March 1999). "Termination of DNA replication of bacterial and plasmid chromosomes". Molecular ... "oriC-encoded instructions for the initiation of bacterial chromosome replication". Frontiers in Microbiology. 5: 735. doi: ... Chromosome replication in bacteria is regulated at the initiation stage. DnaA-ATP is hydrolyzed into the inactive DnaA-ADP by ...

*Recombineering

In engineering large constructs of >100 kb, such as the Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs), or chromosomes, recombineering ... "Rapid modification of bacterial artificial chromosomes by ET- recombination". Nucleic Acids Res. 27: 1555-1557. doi:10.1093/nar ... and for modifying DNA of any source often contained on a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), among other applications. ... Recombineering is widely used for bacterial genetics, in the generation of target vectors for making a conditional mouse ...

*Comparative genomics

... purine strand bias in 280 bacterial chromosomes". Microbiology. 152 (3): 579-583. doi:10.1099/mic.0.28637-0. Archived from the ... "Dynamics of Genome Rearrangement in Bacterial Populations". PLOS Genetics. 4 (7): e1000128. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000128. ...

*Bacteria

In fact, 10% of all sequenced bacterial genomes are estimated to have 2 or more chromosomes. Some bacteria, e.g. Borrelia ... Partition systems are also encoded by most bacterial chromosomes. Plasmids that are maintained at a high copy number per cell ... It is seldom that a conjugative plasmid integrates into the host bacterial chromosome and subsequently transfers part of the ... There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water. ...

*SecY protein

The translocase protein subunits are encoded on the bacterial chromosome. The translocase pathway comprises 7 proteins, ... Rapoport TA; Breyton C; Haase W; Kuhlbrandt W; Collinson I (2002). "Three-dimensional structure of the bacterial protein- ... in the bacterial cytoplasm. SecB maintains preproteins in an unfolded state after translation, and targets these to the ...

*Fertility factor (bacteria)

F' (F-prime) bacteria are formed by incorrect excision from the chromosome, resulting in F plasmid carrying bacterial sequences ... Bioengineers have created F plasmids that can contain inserted foreign DNA; this is called a bacterial artificial chromosome. ... F+ bacteria possess F factor as a plasmid independent of the bacterial genome. The F plasmid contains only F factor DNA and no ... The episome that harbors the F factor can exist as an independent plasmid or integrate into the bacterial cell's genome. There ...

*Genlisea aurea

... with chromosomes of bacterial size". Plant Biology. 8: 770-777. doi:10.1055/s-2006-924101. PMID 17203433. Fleischmann A, ... individual chromatids from mitotic anaphase are just 2.1 Mbp and therefore have a size smaller than some bacterial chromosomes ... With a diploid chromosome number of around 52 (2n = ca. 52), G. aurea has the distinction of having one of the smallest known ... "Evolution of genome size and chromosome number in the carnivorous plant genus Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae), with a new estimate ...

*Genlisea margaretae

... with chromosomes of bacterial size". Plant Biology. 8: 770-777. doi:10.1055/s-2006-924101. PMID 17203433. Rice, Barry A. (2007 ... individual chromatids from mitotic anaphase are just 2.1 Mbp and therefore have a size smaller than some bacterial chromosomes ... Other species in the genus Genlisea and the family Lentibulariaceae have much lower chromosome numbers and larger genome sizes ... to be polyploid species with the unusual circumstances of having a high chromosome number with extremely small chromosomes. ...

*Genlisea tuberosa

... with chromosomes of bacterial size". Plant Biology. 8 (6): 770-777. doi:10.1055/s-2006-924101. PMID 17203433. Fleischmann A, ... "Evolution of genome size and chromosome number in the carnivorous plant genus Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae), with a new estimate ...

*Genlisea

... with chromosomes of bacterial size". Plant Biology. 8: 770-777. doi:10.1055/s-2006-924101. PMID 17203433. Fleischmann A, ... "Evolution of genome size and chromosome number in the carnivorous plant genus Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae), with a new estimate ...

*Genomic library

P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs) have features of both P1 vectors and Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs). Similar to P1 ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are circular DNA molecules, usually about 7kb in length, that are capable of holding ... Yoo EY, Kim S, Kim JY, Kim BD (August 2001). "Construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome library ... Osoegawa K, de Jong PJ, Frengen E, Ioannou PA (May 2001). "Construction of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC/PAC) libraries ...

*ParABS system

Murray, H; Ferreira, H; Errington, J (Sep 2006). "The bacterial chromosome segregation protein Spo0J spreads along DNA from ... Collectively, these components function to ensure accurate partitioning of plasmids or whole chromosomes between bacterial ... "A spindle-like apparatus guides bacterial chromosome segregation". Nature Cell Biology. 12 (8): 791-8. doi:10.1038/ncb2083. PMC ... Surtees, JA; Funnell, BE (2003). "Plasmid and chromosome traffic control: how ParA and ParB drive partition". Current topics in ...

*REC8

It is removed from the arms of chromosomes in the first division - separating homologous chromosomes from each other. However, ... Schleiffer A, Kaitna S, Maurer-Stroh S, Glotzer M, Nasmyth K, Eisenhaber F (Mar 2003). "Kleisins: a superfamily of bacterial ... This gene encodes a member of the kleisin family of SMC (structural maintenance of chromosome) protein partners. The protein ... allowing for segregation of chromosomes. REC8 has been shown to interact with SMC3. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000100918 ...

*Medical Research Club

The bacterial chromosome' in 1969. Although members of the Club received the lectures with enthusiasm, these mono-thematic ...

*Niche adaptation

Plasmids can become incorporated into the full bacterial chromosome. The restriction sites still exist, meaning various lengths ... If some of these bacterial genes are caught up into the phage, they can be released into the next infected individual. This new ... of DNA can be transposed from one cell to another directly from the chromosome. In this way non plasmid bacterial genes ... Bacteriophages can cause the chromosomes of their infected hosts to break up into segments small enough to fit into the newly ...

*Post-translational regulation

nat.) (2006). Dynamics of the bacterial chromosome: structure and function. Wiley-VCH. pp. 266-. ISBN 978-3-527-30496-7. ...

*Janet E. Mertz

1973) Construction of biologically functional bacterial plasmids in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 70:3240-3244. Paul Berg (1980 ... Nobel lecture 1980: Dissections and reconstructions of genes and chromosomes. Nobel Lectures: Chemistry 1971-1980, World ...

*Theta

... Type Replication: a type of bacterial DNA replication specific to circular chromosomes. Threshold value of an artificial ...

*SecDF protein-export membrane protein

The translocase protein subunits are encoded on the bacterial chromosome. The translocase itself comprises 7 proteins, ... Breyton C; Haase W; Rapoport TA; Kühlbrandt W; Collinson I (August 2002). "Three-dimensional structure of the bacterial protein ... in the bacterial cytoplasm. SecB maintains preproteins in an unfolded state after translation, and targets these to the ...

*DNA condensation

Bacterial DNA is sometimes referred to as the bacterial chromosome. Bacterial nucleoid evolutionary represents an intermediate ... "Stress-induced condensation of bacterial genomes results in re-pairing of sister chromosomes: implications for double strand ... Bacterial DNA is packed with the help of polyamines and proteins. Protein-associated DNA occupies about 1/4 of the ... Sister chromosomes in the bacterium Escherichia coli are induced by stressful conditions to condense and undergo pairing. ...

*Streptococcus pneumoniae

For a bacterium to bind, take up, and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome, it must enter a special physiological state ... Natural bacterial transformation involves the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another through the surrounding medium. ... van de Beek, Diederik; de Gans, Jan; Tunkel, Allan R.; Wijdicks, Eelco F.M. (5 January 2006). "Community-Acquired Bacterial ... Type strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase ...

*Rhodococcus fascians

Operon vic is an operon made of five genes, located on the bacterial chromosome. The only known gene is vicA, the fourth gene ... Rhodococcus fascians (known as Corynebacterium fascians until 1984) is a Gram positive bacterial phytopathogen that causes ... Type strain of Rhodococcus fascians at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase. ... and on the chromosome. Using deletion mutations, it was possible to identify three loci on the plasmid: fas, att, and hyp, and ...
McCool JD, Sandler SJ. 2001. Effects of mutations involving cell division, recombination, and chromosome dimer resolution on a priA2::kan mutant.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 98(15):8203-10. ...
In a eukaryotic cell, chromosome replication occurs during DNA synthesis, or the S phase of the cell cycle. In its normal state, a chromosome is a long, thin chromatin fiber containing one DNA...
Binary fission can refer to cell division in bacteria. Bacteria replicate their chromosomes prior to division, but I dont think that state can be called diploid because the chromosomes are identical. Diploid organisms can be carrying different alleles on each pair of sister chromosomes, but this is not the case for a duplicated bacterial chromosome before cell division. Therefore in my opinion your statement is not necessarily true, at least for bacteria ...
We are investigating the structure of E. coli chromosome and the pathway of its compaction to the nucleoid state by taking several approaches: (i) by genetically analyzing mutant cells defective in the nucleoid protein HU; (ii) by studying nuclease
DNA Biological Functions In eukaryotes, the DNA occurs as linear chromosomes. And in prokaryotes the DNA occurs as circular chromosomes.
Studies of chromosome organization in bacterial cells show that the chromosome is an exquisitely organized and dynamic structure (reviewed recently in Thanbichler et al., 2005). Chromosome segregation in bacteria does not occur all at once but in sequential phases (Lau et al., 2003; Viollier et al., 2004; Bates and Kleckner, 2005; Nielsen et al., 2006). After replication at mid-cell, the origin region (oriC) is rapidly segregated outward. The speed at which this occurs (reviewed in Gordon and Wright, 2000) rules out passive models for bacterial chromosome segregation, which proposed that outward cellular growth could drive the movement of a fixed chromosome. As the loci of the chromosome are replicated, they are moved outward to the poles in a sequential fashion (Lau et al., 2003; Viollier et al., 2004; Bates and Kleckner, 2005; Nielsen et al., 2006). In Escherichia coli, there may be a period of sister chromosome cohesion between duplication and subsequent segregation, although its length is ...
The complete genome of Vibrio cholerae El Tor N16961 consists of two circular chromosomes (2,961,146 and 1,072,313 base pair) with 3,890 predicted open reading frames (2,775 and 1,115 on each chromosome respectively). The majority of recognizable genes for essential cell functions (such as DNA replication, transcription, translation, etc.) and pathogenicity (such as toxin, surface antigens, and adhesion) are located on the large chromosome. The small chromosome contains a large percentage of hypothetical genes, more genes that appear to have origins other than the Proteobacteria, a gene capture system (integron island) that suggests this may have been a mega-plasmid captured by an ancestral Vibrio species. The Vibrio cholerae genome sequence provides a starting point for understanding how a free living, environmental microorganism is also a human pathogen. Source: The Institute for Genomic Research ...
Sequencing of the complete Bacillus subtilis chromosome revealed the presence of approximately 4100 genes, 1000 of which were previously identified and mapped by classical genetic crosses. Comparison of these experimentally determined positions to th
Our suspicion that the V. cholerae chromosome may exist as two separate replicons was based on the observation that when undigested genomic DNA was subjected to electrophoresis, two megabase-sized fragments were visible. In addition, we were unable to convincingly link the I-CeuI fragments into a single circular chromosome. The final clue came from the observation that immobilized genomic DNA subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis after digestion with another rarely cutting restriction enzyme, I-SceI, produced two fragments, the smaller of which appeared exactly like one of two megabase-sized fragments produced by I-CeuI digestion. This fragment in both digestions always appeared to stain lighter than the other bands. We now have confirmed (by linkage of SfiI fragments contained in this band) that this fragment was not cut by either I-SceI or I-CeuI; the presumed reason it did not stain well was because it was constrained in its uptake of ethidium bromide by its covalently closed circular ...
WT cells under nutrient limitation exhibit two distinct regimes according to the Helmstetter-Cooper (HC) model of bacterial chromosome replication (Appendix Fig S9): In the fast growth regime (doubling time DT , single‐chromosome replication time, the "C‐period"), the C‐period is constant (at its minimal value) and the total DNA synthesis rate is determined by the replication initiation rate. In the slow growth regime (DT , C‐period), chromosome replication is limited by the replication fork elongation rate, which is in turn limited by the synthesis of nucleotides (DNA monomers) (Neidhart, 1996). Under LacZ OE, the DNA content increases (Figs 1F and EV3A and B). Since multiple chromosome equivalents per cell are observed in a single nucleoid complex (Fig EV3), the HC model of DNA replication may still be applicable with multiple replication forks per cell, provided that the C‐period , DT. The increase in DT under LacZ OE then implies that the C‐period would have to increase at least ...
View DNA Rearrangements from BIOLOGY MCB2010 at Broward College. Examples : Integration of bacteriophage DNA into host bacterial chromosome Immunoglobulin and T Cell Receptor genes DNA rearrangements
Strain MK423 was grown under the same conditions as used when growing cells for microscopy analysis; cells of OD600 = 0.4 were diluted 100-fold in C+Y medium with 0.1 mM ZnCl2 and incubated for 2.5 hours until OD600 = 0.15. Cells were then harvested by centrifugation for 5 min at 6500 x g at 4°C. Genomic DNA was isolated using the Wizard® Genomic DNA Purification Kit (Promega) as described previously (Slager et al. 2014 Cell). Fragmentation was performed using Covaris instrument, and libraries ...
View Notes - Chapter 9 from BIO SCI 325 at Wisconsin Milwaukee. 1 204-325 2 h h Chromosomal mutations are variations from Chromosomal mutations are variations from wild wild-- type condition in
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InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
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This model represents a family of conserved hypothetical proteins. It is usually (but not always) found in apparent phage-derived regions of bacterial chromosomes ...
In budding yeast replication origins, the 11-bp ARS consensus sequence is essential for interaction with the ORC. However, replication origins in other eukaryotic species, including fission yeast, do not appear to contain a short essential sequence (15,23) and it has not been known whether the ORC is located at chromosomal replication origins. The present study demonstrated that a fission yeast ORC subunit and an Mcm protein are specifically localized at chromosomal replication origins. Orp1p is located at thears2004 and ars3002 loci throughout the cell cycle, while SpMcm6p is associated with these origins only in the G1 and S phases. To our knowledge, this is the first indication of preferential localization of the ORC and Mcm proteins at the chromosomal replication origins in eukaryotic species except for budding yeast.. The CHIP assay finding that Orp1p was localized at ars2004and ars3002 but not at non-ARS regions (Fig. 6) suggests that a certain sequence or DNA structure in the replication ...
The study of chromosomal replication and cell division of bacteria has extended beyond Escherichia coli, and important insights have emerged recently from studies in other species, especially Bacillus subtilis and Caulobacter crescentus. Cell division is coordinated with other cell cycle events such as genomic DNA synthesis that leads to chromosomal replication and partition, increase of cell mass, and cell expansion by cell wall synthesis. This chapter reviews the information about predicted genes related to chromosomal replication, plasmid replication, and cell division in Helicobacter pylori, and a plausible replication machinery of the bacterium is discussed in light of the current understanding of bacterial organization and function of replication and cell division. The DnaA protein is essential for the initiation of chromosomal replication and is highly conserved among different bacteria. Clinical isolates of H. pylori have been reported to carry plasmids ranging in size from 1.5 to 40 kb. Three
Bacteria with multiple chromosomes represent up to 10% of all bacterial species. Unlike eukaryotes, these bacteria use chromosome-specific initiators for their replication. In all cases investigated, the machineries for secondary chromosome replication initiation are of plasmid origin. One of the important differences between plasmids and chromosomes is that the latter replicate during a defined period of the cell cycle, ensuring a single round of replication per cell. Vibrio cholerae carries two circular chromosomes, Chr1 and Chr2, which are replicated in a well-orchestrated manner with the cell cycle and coordinated in such a way that replication termination occurs at the same time. However, the mechanism coordinating this synchrony remains speculative. We investigated this mechanism and revealed that initiation of Chr2 replication is triggered by the replication of a 150-bp locus positioned on Chr1, called crtS. This crtS replication-mediated Chr2 replication initiation mechanism explains how ...
Structural elements of the Streptomyces oriC region and their interactions with the DnaA protein. Transcription analysis of the dnaA gene and oriC region of the chromosome of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and its regulation by the DnaA protein
In Escherichia coli, chromosome replication is initiated from oriC by the DnaA initiator protein associated with ATP. Three non-coding regions contribute to the activity of DnaA. The datA locus is instrumental in conversion of DnaAATP to DnaAADP (DDAH; datA dependent DnaAATP hydrolysis) whereas DnaA rejuvenation sequences 1 and 2 (DARS1 and DARS2) reactivate DnaAADP to DnaAATP. The structural organization of oriC, datA, DARS1 and DARS2 were found conserved between 59 fully sequenced E. coli genomes, with differences primarily in the non-functional spacer regions between key protein binding sites. The relative distances from oriC to datA, DARS1 and DARS2, respectively, was also conserved despite of large variations in genome size, suggesting that the gene dosage of either region is important for bacterial growth. Yet all three regions could be deleted alone or in combination without loss of viability. Competition experiments during balanced growth in rich medium and during mouse colonization indicated
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
This Lesson 8: Mitosis: Chromosome Replication & Division Lesson Plan is suitable for 9th - 12th Grade. Students complete the Mitosis exercise net which contains the basic concepts and relations to describe mitosis.
Synopses of papers: The 187th Meeting of the Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland, The Robin Brook Centre, St. Bartholomews Hospital, London, 6-7 January 2005 ...
Two global genome features based on OU statistics were considered in this study: PS and OUV. They provide non-redundant characteristics of the complete sequence of genomes and allow the discrimination of bacterial, plasmid and phage genomes by phylogeny, the arrangement of coding and non-coding sequence and the distribution of islands and islets.. A strong taxonomic signal was observed in genome specific OUV values. Strains belonging to the same species or genus usually have similar OUV. In general, the higher is the OUV, the less random is the sequence. Multiple influences such as DNA structure and topology, codon usage, DNA repair and restriction-modification systems contribute to the surrogate parameter OUV, and hence it is plausible that the OUV is a taxon-specific feature. Future work on the frequency and distribution of individual words should elucidate the biological meaning of the genome specific OUV for the individual taxon (see Weinel et al., 2002 [40] as one of the few published ...
These researchers are studying spatial patterns of transcriptional activity in the chromosome of Escherichia coli. Genes on the bacterial chromosome, as well as on any other chromosome of any organism, are arranged in a certain linear order. How this order contributes to transcriptional regulation of groups of genes is the main focus of this research. ...
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When DNA gyrase is trapped on bacterial chromosomes by quinolone antibacterials, reversible complexes form that contain DNA ends constrained by protein. Two subsequent processes lead to rapid cell death. One requires ongoing protein synthesis; the other does not. The prototype quinolone, nalidixic acid, kills wild-type Escherichia coli only by the first pathway; fluoroquinolones kill by both. Both lethal processes correlated with irreversible chromosome fragmentation, detected by sedimentation and viscosity of DNA from quinolone-treated cells. However, only fluoroquinolones fragmented purified nucleoids when incubated with gyrase purified from wild-type cells. A GyrA amino acid substitution (A67S) expected to perturb a GyrA-GyrA dimer interface allowed nalidixic acid to fragment chromosomes and kill cells in the absence of protein synthesis; moreover, it made a non-inducible lexA mutant hypersusceptible to nalidixic acid, a property restricted to fluoroquinolones with wild-type cells. The GyrA variation
The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complex plays an important role in chromosome organization and segregation in most living organisms. In Caulobacter crescentus, SMC is required to align the left and the right arms of the chromosome that run in parallel down the long axis of the cell. However, the mechanism of SMC-mediated alignment of chromosomal arms remains elusive. Here, using genome-wide methods and microscopy of single cells, we show that Caulobacter SMC is recruited to the centromeric parS site and that SMC-mediated arm alignment depends on the chromosome-partitioning protein ParB. We provide evidence that SMC likely tethers the parS-proximal regions of the chromosomal arms together, promoting arm alignment. Furthermore, we show that highly transcribed genes near parS that are oriented against SMC translocation disrupt arm alignment, suggesting that head-on transcription interferes with SMC translocation. Our results demonstrate a tight interdependence of bacterial chromosome
... teaches people how to trace their bloodlines through chromosome mapping to confirm ancestors. Chromosome mapping collaboration can help confirm the presence of dna signatures on chromosomes left by ordinary, famous or noble ancestors. Chromosome mapping can help trace ancient bloodlines by using end location numbers of CM on chromosomes. Members get access to the database to add information of bloodlines they have mapped and to find end location numbers of researched ancestors and famous people.
Chromosomal mutations occur inside the chromosome. There are 23 pairs of chromosomes in each human cell. Mutation occurs in the genes DNA base sequence. There are several factors associated with gene mutation. Some mutations are hereditary while others occur due to environmental factors in an individuals lifetime. Learn more facts about chromosomal mutations.
He J, Mao C-C, Reyes A, Sembongi H, Di Re M, Granycome C, Clippingdale AB, Fearnley IM, Harbour M, Robinson AJ, Reichelt S, Spelbrink JN, Walker JE & Holt IJ (2007) The AAA+ protein ATAD3 has displacement loop binding properties and is involved in mitochondrial nucleoid organization. J Cell Biol 176, 141-6 ...
Multiplex automated genome engineering (MAGE) is a powerful technology for in vivo genome editing that uses synthetic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to introduce targeted modifications directly into the Escherichia coli chromosome. MAGE is a cyclical process that involves transformation of ssDNA (by el …
GenEZ™ ORF cDNA clones makes it easy to order customized expression-ready ORF clones from the worlds largest commercial ORF clone database.
Trust me, I wouldnt last five minute on Jeopardy. Even without a buzzer I get maybe one out of ten or fifteen questions correctly (or correct ENOUGH) in my
METHODS:. A total of 19 S. hominis isolates were collected from children at the Childrens Medical Centre, Tehran, Iran, from March 2012 to February 2013. MRSHo susceptibility against 13 antimicrobial and 3 antiseptic agents was determined using disk diffusion (DAD) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), respectively. All isolates were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for 15 distinct resistance genes, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), and arginine catabolic mobile elements (ACMEs). Biofilm production of the isolates was determined using a colorimetric microtiter plate assay. ...
To determine the predominant staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec element in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, we typed 190 isolates from a hospital in Taiwan. We found a shift from type IV to type III SCCmec element during 1992-2003, perhaps caused by selective pressure from indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs.
To determine the predominant staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec element in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, we typed 190 isolates from a hospital in Taiwan. We found a shift from type IV to type III SCCmec element during 1992-2003, perhaps caused by selective pressure from indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs.
Recent studies of mutations accumulated nonselectively across bacterial chromosomes revealed that rates of base-pair substitutions (BPSs) vary 2-fold to 4-fold in a wave-like pattern that is mirrored in the two independently replicating halves of the chromosome. These symmetrical patterns have been observed in mismatch repair (MMR)-defective strains of Escherichia coli (1), Vibrio fischeri, V. cholerae (2-4), Pseudomonas fluorescens (5), and P. aeruginosa (6). Such variations in mutation rates may affect the pace at which genes in different regions of the chromosome evolve and may exert selective pressure on gene placement. Yet the causes of this variation are not known.. The fidelity of DNA replication, which, in E. coli, is about 1 mistake in 1,000 generations (7), is determined by the intrinsic accuracy of the DNA polymerase plus error correction by proofreading and MMR (8, 9). In E. coli, proofreading is performed by epsilon, a subunit of the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme. If the polymerase ...
In bacterial genomes composed of more than one chromosome, one replicon is typically larger, harbors more essential genes than the others, and is considered primary. The greater variability of secondary chromosomes among related taxa has led to the theory that they serve as an accessory genome for specific niches or conditions. By this rationale, purifying selection should be weaker on genes on secondary chromosomes because of their reduced necessity or usage. To test this hypothesis we selected bacterial genomes composed of multiple chromosomes from two genera, Burkholderia and Vibrio, and quantified the evolutionary rates (dN and dS) of all orthologs within each genus. Both evolutionary rate parameters were faster among orthologs found on secondary chromosomes than those on the primary chromosome. Further, in every bacterial genome with multiple chromosomes that we studied, genes on secondary chromosomes exhibited significantly weaker codon usage bias than those on primary chromosomes. Faster
The Escherichia coli chromosome is organized into four macrodomains, the function and organisation of which are poorly understood. In this review we focus on the MatP, SeqA, and SlmA proteins that have recently been identified as the first examples of factors with macrodomain-specific DNA-binding properties. In particular, we review the evidence that these factors contribute towards the control of chromosome replication and segregation by specifically targeting subregions of the genome and contributing towards their unique properties. Genome sequence analysis of multiple related bacteria, including pathogenic species, reveals that macrodomain-specific distribution of SeqA, SlmA, and MatP is conserved, suggesting common principles of chromosome organisation in these organisms. This discovery of proteins with macrodomain-specific binding properties hints that there are other proteins with similar specificity yet to be unveiled. We discuss the roles of the proteins identified to date as well as ...
Author Summary Multi-drug resistant bacteria continue to emerge and there is a pressing need for the development of new antibiotics. Here, we carried out a cell-based high throughput screen to identify inhibitors of RctB, the initiator of replication of the second chromosome found in all the species of the Vibrionaceae. This family of bacteria includes several human pathogens, including Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera, as well as several species that damage economically important marine organisms. We identified a compound-designated vibrepin-that has potent cidal activity against V. cholerae and inhibited growth of all vibrio species tested. Vibrepin blocked RctB unwinding of the origin of replication of the second V. cholerae chromosome, apparently by promoting the formation of large non-functional RctB complexes. Vibrepin represents a new class of antibiotic that specifically targets a particular family of microorganisms (the Vibrionaceae). Such targeted agents will not engender resistance in
Shop Replication termination protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Replication termination protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Genetic recombination is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent. In eukaryotes, genetic recombination during meiosis can lead to a novel set of genetic information that can be passed on from the parents to the offspring. Most recombination is naturally occurring. During meiosis in eukaryotes, genetic recombination involves the pairing of homologous chromosomes. This may be followed by information transfer between the chromosomes. The information transfer may occur without physical exchange (a section of genetic material is copied from one chromosome to another, without the donating chromosome being changed) (see SDSA pathway in Figure); or by the breaking and rejoining of DNA strands, which forms new molecules of DNA (see DHJ pathway in Figure). Recombination may also occur during mitosis in eukaryotes where it ordinarily involves the two sister chromosomes formed after chromosomal replication. In this case, new combinations of ...
In article ,1994Apr21.190914.23337 at dal1,, arlin at ac.dal.ca wrote: [...] , If these and a few other important characters (circular chromosomes, , operons, shine-dalgarno sites, etc) were present in the common , ancestor, as is likely, then archaebacteria and eubacteria have a , common heritage that I would call bacterial. [...] Just an aside... Its time to throw out the bacteria only have circular chromosomes idea. See: Davidson BE; MacDougall J; Saint Girons I. 1992. Physical map of the linear chromosome of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi 212, a causative agent of Lyme disease, and localization of rRNA genes. J. Bacteriol.174:3766-74. The cool question is: What system/s does a bacterium use to maintain a linear chromosome? - Tim Ikeda (timi at mendel.berkeley.edu ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Section 12.1 Viral and Bacterial Chromosomes Are Relatively Simple DNA Molecules Bacterial and viral chromosomes are usually: a single nucleic acid molecule largely devoid of associated proteins much smaller than eukaryotic chromosomes
A prophage is a bacteriophage (often shortened to "phage") genome inserted and integrated into the circular bacterial DNA chromosome or existing as an extrachromosomal plasmid. This is a latent form of a phage, in which the viral genes are present in the bacterium without causing disruption of the bacterial cell. Pro means before, so, prophage means the stage of a virus in the form of genome inserted into host DNA before attaining its real form inside host. Upon detection of host cell damage, such as UV light or certain chemicals, the prophage is excised from the bacterial chromosome in a process called prophage induction. After induction, viral replication begins via the lytic cycle. In the lytic cycle, the virus commandeers the cells reproductive machinery. The cell may fill with new viruses until it lyses or bursts, or it may release the new viruses one at a time in a reverse endocytotic process. The period from infection to lysis is termed the latent period. A virus following a lytic ...
We have previously shown that the methicillin-resistance gene of strain N315 is localized within a large (52-kb) DNA cassette (designated the staphylococcal cassette chromosome [SCCand from the methicillin-resistant chromosome and site-specific as well as orientation-specific integration of the SCCinto the ...
It is capable of multiple chromosome visualisation for the comparison of multiple accessions from a single dataset. It extracts information from VCF file and does a parallel comparison between two or more lines within that VCF file plotting the location of these differences on the chromosome for visualization. One can, for example, plot the differences between progeny and its parents to identify which regions are inherited from which parents. (More information and a video tutorial about GCViT is at GitHub and SoyBase) We need your feedback on the usage of this tool and will appreciate it if you could let us know about your experience via Contact us. ...
curWarn ,- getOption("warn") options(warn=0) on.exit(options(warn=curWarn), add=TRUE) if (require("hgu95av2")) { z ,- buildChromLocation("hgu95av2") ## find the number of chromosomes nChrom(z) ## Find the names of the chromosomes chromNames(z) ## get the organism this object refers to organism(z) ## get the lengths of the chromosomes in this object chromLengths(z) } else print("This example requires the hgu95av2 data package ...
The bacterial chromosome may be used to stably maintain foreign DNA in the mega-base range. Integration into the chromosome circumvents issues such as plasmid replication, stability, incompatibility, and copy number variance. The site-specific integrase IntA from Rhizobium etli CFN42 catalyzes a direct recombination between two specific DNA sites: attA and attD (23 bp). This recombination is stable. The aim of this work was to develop a R. etli derivative that may be used as recipient for the integration of foreign DNA in the chromosome, adapting the IntA catalyzed site-specific recombination system. To fulfill our aim, we designed a Rhizobium etli CFN42 derivative, containing a
In this work, we analyzed the molecular structure and formation of xDNA molecules, which occur during replication of vegetatively growing yeast cells. Our results confirm that minichromosome replication in S. cerevisiae initiates at the ARS1 origin and proceeds in a bidirectional manner (8, 23, 42). Termination of replication did not occur at a specific site diametrically opposed to the origin but most frequently along the hemisphere opposite the ARS, as evidenced by a vertical spike in two-dimensional gel analyses. This vertical spike has been observed in replicating DNA of a variety of organisms (6, 9, 16, 44, 60). Yet, in contrast to other studies, our experimental conditions revealed the existence of a second so-called 2n spike. This led us to propose that one of the 2n spikes consisted of recombinant structures, while the other consisted of nearly fully replicated minichromosomes.. The structural similarities of late replicating and joint DNA molecules have always been an impediment in the ...
By mapping various genomes onto an X-Y axis, a team comprised mostly of Kansas State University researchers has found that Charles Darwin and a fruit fly -- among other organisms -- have a lot in common genetically.. Their discovery, "Chromosome Size in Diploid Eukaryotic Species Centers on the Average Length with a Conserved Boundary," was recently published in the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution. It details a project that compared 886 chromosomes in 68 random species of eukaryotes -- organisms whose cells contain a nucleus and are enclosed by cellular membranes. The researchers found that the chromosome sizes within each eukaryotic species are actually similar rather than drastically different as previously believed. They also found that the chromosomes of these different organisms share a similar distribution pattern.. Because chromosomes are the genetic building blocks for an organism and its traits, the information will be beneficial to understanding the core components of ...
A healthy human genome is characterized by 23 pairs of chromosomes, and even a small change in this structure - such as an extra copy of a single chromosome - can lead to severe physical impairment. So its no surprise that when it comes to cancer, chromosomal structure is frequently a contributing factor, says Professor Ron Shamir of the Blavatnik School of Computer Science at Tel Aviv Universitu (TAU). Now Professor Shamir and his former doctoral students Dr. Michal Ozery-Flato and Dr. Chaim Linhart, along with fellow researchers Professor Shai Izraeli and Dr. Luba Trakhtenbrot from the Sheba Medical Center, have combined techniques from computer science and statistics to discover that many chromosomal pairs are lost or gained together across various cancer types. Moreover, the researchers discovered a new commonality of chromosomal aberrations among embryonic cancer types, such as kidney, skeleton, and liver cancers. These findings, published on June 29, 2011 in Genome Biology, could reveal ...
The mini-Tn5 are mobile elements able to transpose to the chromosome from a delivery plasmid, by means of the transposase activity encoded by the tnp* gene, which is present in cis in the plasmid but external to the mini-Tn5 element. pUT mini-Tn5 vectors can be used to insert any DNA fragment in the bacterial chromosome, by cloning it within the mini-Tn5 region. Due to the loss of the tnp* gene after insertion, minitransposons are stably integrated into the chromosome and inherited. The different pUTmini-Tn5 vectors can then be used for repeated insertion events and therefore multiple insertions in the same strain are only limited by the availability of distinct selection markers.. Advantages:. ...
Eternal youth may be yours. Telomerase the immorality enzyme is in under research by scientists. Telomeres are the chromosomal structures present at the end of chromosomes and behave as a protective cap. Telomere behaves as a buffer during chromosomal replication. TFAGGG, TTAGGG, TFAGGG, TTAGGG, this is the figure of genetic code which is repeated thousands […]. ...
pUT mini-Tn5 System. The mini-Tn5 are mobile elements able to transpose to the chromosome from a delivery plasmid, by means of the transposase activity encoded by the tnp* gene, which is present in cis in the plasmid but external to the mini-Tn5 element. pUT mini-Tn5 vectors can be used to insert any DNA fragment in the bacterial chromosome, by cloning it within the mini-Tn5 region. Due to the loss of the tnp* gene after insertion, minitransposons are stably integrated into the chromosome and inherited. The different pUTmini-Tn5 vectors can then be used for repeated insertion events and therefore multiple insertions in the same strain are only limited by the availability of distinct selection markers.. Advantages:. ...
Dr. Chattoraj investigates the molecular mechanisms that control chromosome replication and segregation in the model organisms Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae. He elucidated the mechanism of plasmid copy number control using simple repeat sequences in E. coli and how such a mechanism might have evolved to control chromosomal replication to once-per-cell-cycle in V.
Antibodies for proteins involved in chromosome organization and biogenesis (sensu Bacteria) pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
Its lab journal club day tomorrow! So in honor of that, Ill take it as a chance to work on writing general summaries of papers. SciComm! -Ryan. By now, youve probably heard that antimicrobial resistance is a major clinical problem. The golden age of antimicrobials is coming to an end as the existing repertoire of clinically used antibiotics is becoming less effective and more bacteria are becoming resistant to common antibiotics. Resistance typically arises through target mutation (modifying the target of an antibiotic inside the cell), preventing entry of the antibiotic altogether, or directly degrading or modifying the antibiotic so its no longer active.. Genes associated with antibiotic resistance are often found on plasmids, circular pieces of DNA that are distinct from the bacterial chromosome. Plasmids are small compared to chromosomal DNA - on the scale of 1000s of base pairs rather than millions. The amount of a plasmid within a single cell, referred to as a plasmids copy ...
Most people have a passing knowledge of the food they eat, and perhaps how it gets digested. As with all human body systems, however, details of the digestive or gastrointestinal (GI) tract-including the incredibly rich microbial flora found at the last portion of the small intestine and the entire large intestine-are an amazing testimony to creation.. Indeed, on a given day the bacterial population within the human colon usually doubles at least once. This means the common Escherichia coli (E. coli) must replicate (duplicate) its circular chromosome in just 20 short minutes.. The replication of millions of base pairs of DNA is a daunting task in such a small area. The E. coli chromosome must spin at the equivalent of 300 revolutions per second as it makes a second chromosome for upcoming cell division.. A host of unique and diverse bacteria inhabit the large intestine-over 400 bacterial species-and most of them are anaerobic (living in the absence of free oxygen) and are concerned with the ...
Ceny za kopírovacie a rozmnožovacie služby zahŕňajú daň z pridanej hodnoty so sadzbou dane platnou v deň vzniku daňovej povinnosti podľa § 27 zákona č. 222/2004 Z. z. o dani z pridanej hodnoty v znení neskorších predpisov ...
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We have shown that there are at least three distinct types of SCCmec in the chromosome of MRSA worldwide. SCCmec was defined as the DNA element on the MRSA chromosome demarcated by a pair of direct repeats and inverted repeats, havingccr genes required for its movement and carrying themecA gene (14, 17). As far as we could judge from the structure of the two elements newly identified in this study, they seem to constitute a family of SCCmec together with N315-type SCCmec.. The mecA gene is considered to have originated in some coagulase-negative staphylococcus species (36) and was then transferred into S. aureus to generate MRSA (1,13, 32). It is likely that SCCmec serves as the carrier of the mecA gene moving across staphylococcal species, since mecA genes in other staphylococcal species have never been found without the accompaniment of SCCmec-like structure (T. Ito and Y. Katayama, unpublished observation). Since both ccrA and ccrB genes are required for the integration event, we considered ...
Plays an important role in the initiation and regulation of chromosomal replication. Binds to the origin of replication; it binds specifically double-stranded DNA at a 9 bp consensus (dnaA box): 5-TTATC[CA]A[CA]A-3. DnaA binds to ATP and to acidic phospholipids.
Bacteria regulate chromosome replication and segregation tightly with cell division to ensure faithful segregation of DNA to daughter generations. The underlying mechanisms have been addressed in several model species. It became apparent that bacteria have evolved quite different strategies to regulate DNA segregation and chromosomal organization. We have investigated here how the actinobacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum organizes chromosome segregation and DNA replication. Unexpectedly, we found that C. glutamicum cells are at least diploid under all of the conditions tested and that these organisms have overlapping C periods during replication, with both origins initiating replication simultaneously. On the basis of experimental data, we propose growth ratedependent cell cycle models for C. glutamicum. IMPORTANCE Bacterial cell cycles are known for few model organisms and can vary significantly between species. Here, we studied the cell cycle of Corynebacterium glutamicum, an emerging cell ...
The requirement for transcription during development of the stalked bacterium, Caulobacter crescentus, was studied with synchronous cultures of swarmer cells. The developmental pattern in these bacteria was first established by determination of the times at which specific changes in cell structure and function occurred. These changes could be divided into those characteristic of (a) development of the swarmer cell into the stalked cell: loss of motility and synthesis of the stalk, and (b) development of the stalked cell into the asymmetric dividing cell: chromosome replication, synthesis of the flagellum, motility, and division. The effect of rifampin in blocking several of these steps-loss of motility, initiation of chromosome replication, and cell division-indicates that RNA synthesis is required throughout the cell cycle for normal differentiation.. ...
This chapter focuses on the aquatic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, which divides asymmetrically during each cell division cycle, yielding progeny cells that differ both structurally and functionally. The initially motile swarmer cell progeny sheds its flagellum and differentiates into a nonmotile stalked cell. In addition to morphological differences, the stalked- and swarmer cell progeny inherit different competencies for chromosome replication. A central component of any cell cycle is the initiation of chromosome replication coupled with strict controls to prevent repeated rounds of DNA replication without intervening cell divisions. The Caulobacter origin of replication was identified and cloned by taking advantage of the observation that replication is always initiated in the stalked cell. Microbial cells are able to monitor changes in their environment, detect changes in cell density, and communicate with each other and with other organisms through signals. The Caulobacter DnaA protein is a
Medical definition of bacterial artificial chromosome: a genetically engineered bacterial chromosome that is used as a vector to clone DNA segments, …
Like someone whos moved from a house to an apartment, cells in an early embryo run into space limitations. The embryo remains the same size for its first few divisions, so the cells have to become much smaller, shrinking by as much as 99%. Some components, such as individual mitochondria and clathrin-coated vesicles, seemingly remain the same size as cells miniaturize. But the centrosome, mitotic spindle, and nucleus contract. For more than a century researchers have known that cells in early embryos also compact their chromosomes. To prevent tangling during mitosis, the biggest chromosomes cant exceed half the length of the mitotic spindle (2). However, researchers didnt know which cues cells rely on to determine chromosome size. One research group addressed the question by allowing small nuclei to stew in extracts from large cells for an entire cell cycle (3). The nuclei expanded, suggesting that chromosome size tracks cell size. Another group concluded that chromosome size tracks nuclear ...
Streptomycetes differ from other prokaryotic organisms in their mycelial life cycle and in possessing a large, linear, GC-rich chromosome. To deduce structural features of the Streptomyces origin of chromosomal replication, the oriC sequences of three Streptomyces species (S. antibioticus, S. chryso …
Fig. 1 Chr1 and Chr2 replication coordination is promoted by the presence of a timer on Chr1 and not by the requirement to terminate their replication synchronously.. (A) Top: Genome structure of wild-type (WT) V. cholerae. Ovals indicate the origins of replication (ori1 and ori2) and triangles show dif sites (dif1 and dif2) on Chr1 (green) and Chr2 (red). Bottom: MFA of exponentially growing WT cultures using a corrected reference sequence of Chr1 (fig. S1). Log2 of number of reads starting at each base (normalized against reads from a stationary phase WT control) is plotted against their relative position on Chr1 and Chr2. Positions of ori1 and ori2 are set to 0 for a better visualization of the bidirectional replication. Any window containing repeated sequences is omitted; thus, the large gap observed in the right arm of Chr2 consists of filtered repeated sequences within the superintegron (28). Green (Chr1) and red (Chr2) dots indicate the average of 1000-bp windows; black dots indicate the ...
The first step of bacterial cloning is to get the gene of interest into the bacterial genome. Bacteria are one-celled, prokaryotic organisms and have simpler cellular structures than humans, who are complex and multi-cellular eukaryotes. The genomes of each are stored slightly differently: both rely on large, long structures of DNA called chromosomes, but while you can think of a bacterial genome as one large, single circle of DNA twisted up like a convoluted rubber band and free-floating in the bacterial cell, the human chromosome structure (26 chromosomes in total) is a long linear string of DNA twisted up and tucked away neatly into a sub-packet of the cell called the nucleus-think what happens to your headphones when you put them in your pocket. In addition to their larger, circular chromosome, bacteria have other small, circular, free-floating pieces of DNA called plasmids. These plasmids are maintained and copied separately from the larger circular chromosome. Because bacteria can pick up ...
User:Benjamin Gilman,Benjamin Gilman]] 17:39, 5 March 2013 (EST): The [http://openwetware.org/wiki/CH391L/S12/Selectablegeneticmarkers selectable genetic markers] page from last years class gives a brief overview of different categories of markers, including auxotrophic markers. Briefly, auxotrophs are organisms that are incapable of synthesizing a particular molecule required for growth, in this case because theyve had a necessary gene knocked out. The mutant auxotrophs grow when supplemented with the required molecule but require complementation with the deleted gene to survive without it . Auxotrophic markers are used more often in yeast than bacteria mostly because the range of antibiotic resistance markers in yeast is much smaller. The GFAT-expressing gene I discussed in class is an example of an auxotrophic marker which works in E. coli, and a related GFAT gene works similarly as a marker in fission yeast (S. pombe ...
Two different kinds of genetic material exist: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Cells use DNA for their long-term information storage. The biological information contained in an organism is encoded in its DNA sequence.[3] RNA is used for information transport (e.g., mRNA) and enzymatic functions (e.g., ribosomal RNA). Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules are used to add amino acids during protein translation.. Prokaryotic genetic material is organized in a simple circular DNA molecule (the bacterial chromosome) in the nucleoid region of the cytoplasm. Eukaryotic genetic material is divided into different,[3] linear molecules called chromosomes inside a discrete nucleus, usually with additional genetic material in some organelles like mitochondria and chloroplasts (see endosymbiotic theory).. A human cell has genetic material contained in the cell nucleus (the nuclear genome) and in the mitochondria (the mitochondrial genome). In humans the nuclear genome is divided into 46 linear ...
The growing conviction that lateral gene transfer plays a significant role in prokaryote genealogy opens up a need for comprehensive evaluations of gene-enzyme systems on a case-by-case basis. Genes of tryptophan biosynthesis are frequently organized as whole-pathway operons, an attribute that is expected to facilitate multi-gene transfer in a single step. We have asked whether events of lateral gene transfer are sufficient to have obscured our ability to track the vertical genealogy that underpins tryptophan biosynthesis. In 47 complete-genome Bacteria, the genes encoding the seven catalytic domains that participate in primary tryptophan biosynthesis were distinguished from any paralogs or xenologs engaged in other specialized functions. A reliable list of orthologs with carefully ascertained functional roles has thus been assembled and should be valuable as an annotation resource. The protein domains associated with primary tryptophan biosynthesis were then concatenated, yielding single amino-acid
Safeguards for maintaining the integrity of chromosomes during cell growth and division can fail, and a cell may find itself trying to divide into two daughter cells with a loose chromosomal fragment drifting away from a broken chromosome. Researchers at UC Santa Cruz are studying a remarkable mechanism that carries broken chromosomes through the process of cell division so that they can be repaired and function normally in the daughter cells.
Definition of chromosome mapping. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
Transduction with TLC-Knϕ1 phage cures cell filamentation of Vibrio cholerae O1 strains which have likely defects in resolution of chromosome dimers. Panels a
Assuming that each replication fork moves at a rate of 500 base pairs per second, how long would it take to replicate the E. coli chromosome (with 4.6 million base pairs) from a single origin of replication? ...
I missed some step in prep of plasmid. So there remained chromosome as well with plasmid. Can I separate thm not by CsCl gradient centrifugation? Point me hit & run methods. Good time today ...
Free Online Library: 2 MINUTES ON... Common posture mistakes.(Features; Opinion Column) by The Mirror (London, England); General interest
This lecture briefly describe how DNA replication is initiated and how cells carefully regulate this process to ensure that it takes place at the proper po
... the new chromosomal fragment do- nated to a merozygote (q.v.). exogenous DNA DNA that originates outside an organism (e.g., from another cell or virus). exogenous virus a virus ...
... ,,, Kop XANAX natet ,,, http://imagizer.imageshack.us/v2/533x300q90/923/IgToTq.jpg . .
Since the first discovery of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 1961 in England, MRSA has become one of the most prevalent pathogens that cause nosocomial infections (13). MRSA produces a specific penicillin-binding protein (PBP) called PBP 2′ (or PBP 2a) that possesses reduced affinities for binding to β-lactam antibiotics (2, 7, 22). PBP 2′ is encoded by the mecA gene, which is carried by a large mobile genetic element that is designated staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and that is integrated on the chromosomes of MRSA strains isolated from hospitals in various countries throughout the world (11, 12, 14, 15).. Recently, MRSA infections have increasingly been reported among groups of patients with no apparent connection to hospitals (4). Those strains, designated community-acquired MRSA (C-MRSA) strains, have been reported in various countries such as Australia (16, 18), New Zealand (19), the United Kingdom (20), Canada (5), and the United States (6, 8). ...
Ito,T., Katayama,Y., Asada,K., Mori,N., Tsutsumimoto,K., Tiensasitorn,C. and Hiramatsu,K., "Structural comparison of three types of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec integrated in the chromosome in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus", Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45 (5), 1323-1336 (2001) PUBMED 11302791 REMARK Erratum:[Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2001 Dec;45(12):3677] ...
A novel fluorescence 3D wide-field light microscope called OMX, was designed and implemented. The novel design addresses improved speed and resolution requirements of current biology research. After designing and building the microscope body I designed and implemented the needed computer software for the eight computers required to operate OMX. Over the course of the project I also designed and implemented a new Open-Source software platform for algorithm development and image analysis. It focuses on very large multi-dimensional image data handling and visualization in general. OMX can operate in two modes: In the first mode a live specimen can be observed at optical resolution (approx. 250nm) at speeds up to 100 sections per second simultaneously in multiple wavelength channels. This equals about 10 3D images per second. The second mode is for observing fixed preparations at resolutions below the Abbe diffraction limit using Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM). This produces 3D volumetric ...
Algebraic rearrangement theory, as introduced by Meidanis and Dias, focuses on representing the order in which genes appear in chromosomes, and applies to circular chromosomes only. By shifting our attention to genome adjacencies, we introduce the adjacency algebraic theory, extending the original algebraic theory to linear chromosomes in a very natural way, also allowing the original algebraic distance formula to be used to the general multichromosomal case, with both linear and circular chromosomes. The resulting distance, which we call algebraic distance here, is very similar to, but not quite the same as, double-cut-and-join distance. We present linear time algorithms to compute it and to sort genomes. We show how to compute the rearrangement distance from the adjacency graph, for an easier comparison with other rearrangement distances. A thorough discussion on the relationship between the chromosomal and adjacency representation is also given, and we show how all classic rearrangement ...
Homologous Recombination is a in in vivo method. This method is used to achieve desired mutations (e.g. deletion or insertion of any gene fragment in bacterial chromosome) in bacterial (chromosomal DNA). As explain schematically above. There are homolog sequences both bacterial ( genomic-chromosomal DNA) and target DNA which is created according to desired mutation. These homolog sequences cross- over by the help of bacterial enzymes. For example, In E.coli, Rec proteins activate this mechanism, There are Rec ABCDE and All of them has a different mission. Also, for this purpose, for crossing over of these homolog sequences there are several method ...
Admixture simulator. The aim of this program is to allow users to simulate admixture with selection, but this program can also be used as a general purpose population simulator. The capabilities of this program include simulating realistic genetic architectures (recombination, chromosomal structure, realistic number of markers genome wide, linkage markers loci), complex selection including natural and sexual selection, frequency dependent selection, indirect genetic effects and demographic processes including migration and bottlenecks. A strength of this program is the ability to specify selection based on any mathematical operation, allowing flexibility without requiring user reprogramming.. ...
Now that researchers in the Biomarker Discovery Program have established a proof of concept for the liquid biopsy approach, they are advancing to clinical-level research, monitoring patients using presurgical and postsurgical blood draws. The team has received IRB approval to work with patients in various stages.. As of January 2017, the team had collected eight serial blood collections from three patients, representing 18 months of monitoring. The team had collected fewer blood draws on 10 patients. "When you have many time points, you can better see what is going on," Vasmatzis said. "We are looking for the DNA of the debris from the cancer cells; it has characteristic abnormal chromosomal structures. The cancer constantly sheds that DNA in the blood, where it can be detected using our protocol.". He noted that in the time since the proof-of-concept study was performed, the centers genome analysis has become more robust. This allows the Ovarian Cancer Project team to perform accurate ...
Olá, Vilela! Cara, sensacional seu projeto e seus vídeos. Sua iniciativa com certeza contribui muito para o amadurecimento e desenvolvimento de nosso mercado. Comecei há um tempo a estudar o mercado a fundo, utilizando meus próprios algoritmos e tal, por isso, muito obrigado pela sua ajuda. Compartilhar informações e conhecimento é de uma grandeza gigantesca, parabéns e muito sucesso.. ...
NOTES: Year:1969;CutNo:291;Codon:Sp.No.:0;IndivNo:0;Take:;Notes:arctiid moth; ultrasonic sniffer into line input;Geo.ID:0;CollDate:;CollNo:0;Habitat:;Collby:;TøC:25.6; Place:LNR;Condit:held by forceps;touched on abdomen periodically;Parab:N;Bckgrd:.. ...
The chromosome view lists portions of five human chromosomes together with the locations of the RFLP probes. The goal is for students to try to map the trait within this portion of the genome using the recombination data obtained from the large family pedigrees. The pointer for the trait can be dragged to the inferred location. The chromosome map can be exported to a web page for printing or saving.. ...
ПродуктыЛенты новостейПродукты 1С:ПредприятиеЛенты новостей1С:Зарплата и Управление Персоналом 8 ПРОФНовостиIngvar, Kulak, Rendell and Sigmor BrazilКомментарийОсновные параметрыIngvar, Kulak, Rendell and Sigmor BrazilСвойства комментарияInvestigation has not sufficiently demonstrated that water survival skills taught to infants are effective (AAP, 2010d) In this latter turn over, remote antagonism of immediately interference generated strange ad lib boring waves associated with HFOs correspond to to the paroxysmal vigour observed in cats subsumed under ketamine that showed a disruption in time-locked discharges of fast-spiking cells with HFO (Grenier et al As a replacement for the European dataset this is a plain column lookup, payment the American counterpart this means that a be contiguous with the chromosome- to-gene mapping put off has to be carried ...
Here we report a technique of laser chromosome welding that uses a violet pulse laser micro-beam for welding. The technique can integrate any size of a desired chromosome fragment into recipient chromosomes by combining with other techniques of laser chromosome manipulation such as chromosome cutting, moving, and stretching. We demonstrated that our method could perform chromosomal modifications with high precision, speed and ease of use in the absence of restriction enzymes, DNA ligases and DNA polymerases. Unlike the conventional methods such as de novo artificial chromosome synthesis, our method has no limitation on the size of the inserted chromosome fragment. The inserted DNA size can be precisely defined and the processed chromosome can retain its intrinsic structure and integrity. Therefore, our technique provides a high quality alternative approach to directed genetic recombination, and can be used for chromosomal repair, removal of defects and artificial chromosome creation. The ...
Single-locus PCR assays based on the site-specific integration of SCCmec at orfX provide real-time identification of MRSA directly from specimens. There have been reports describing S. aureus isolates containing SCCmec "remnants" (without mecA), and misidentified as MRSA in single-locus PCR assays (15, 35, 36, 40). In most cases, these MSSA isolates were not fully characterized to elucidate the cause of the misidentification. In the report by Shore et al., the molecular characterization of MSSA isolates with residual SCCmec elements provided one explanation of the false-positive reactions in single-locus PCR assays, although this present study characterized only three MSSA isolates (40).. In the present study, we characterized 24 MSSA isolates, from geographically diverse regions of North America, which were detected as MRSA with a single-locus PCR assay, and identified two possible explanations for the discrepant results. Molecular typing and PCR analyses identified seven isolates that ...

Bacterial artificial chromosome - WikipediaBacterial artificial chromosome - Wikipedia

A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is a DNA construct, based on a functional fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid), used for ... The bacterial artificial chromosomes usual insert size is 150-350 kbp.[4] A similar cloning vector called a PAC has also been ... The Big Bad BAC: Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes - a review from the Science Creative Quarterly ... "The development and applications of the bacterial artificial chromosome cloning system" (PDF). Keio J Med. 50 (1): 26-30. doi: ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacterial_artificial_chromosome

Bacterial artificial chromosomeBacterial artificial chromosome

... everything you need for studying or teaching Bacterial artificial chromosome. ... Immediately download the Bacterial artificial chromosome summary, chapter-by-chapter analysis, book notes, essays, quotes, ... Bacterial artificial chromosome Summary. Everything you need to understand or teach Bacterial artificial chromosome. ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (Bac) Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) involve a cloning system that is derived from a ...
more infohttp://www.bookrags.com/Bacterial_artificial_chromosome/

Spatial organization of bacterial chromosomes.  - PubMed - NCBISpatial organization of bacterial chromosomes. - PubMed - NCBI

Spatial organization of bacterial chromosomes.. Wang X1, Rudner DZ.. Author information. 1. Department of Microbiology and ... Bacterial chromosomes are organized in stereotypical patterns that are faithfully and robustly regenerated in daughter cells. ... The left and right chromosome arms are shown as thick blue and purple lines (or blobs). The chromosome arms are shown with a ... analysis of chromosome organization in a larger and more diverse set of bacteria and a deeper characterization of chromosome ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25460798?dopt=Abstract

Arabidopsis Transformation with Large Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes | SpringerLinkArabidopsis Transformation with Large Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes | SpringerLink

Alonso J.M., Stepanova A.N. (2014) Arabidopsis Transformation with Large Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. In: Sanchez-Serrano ... Generation of a high-quality P1 library of Arabidopsis suitable for chromosome walking. Plant J 7:351-358CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Complementation of plant mutants with large genomic DNA fragments by a transformation-competent artificial chromosome vector ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/protocol/10.1007%2F978-1-62703-580-4_15

Construction of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library | SpringerLinkConstruction of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library | SpringerLink

Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) represent a very useful cloning system for large DNA fragments and utilize the ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Isolation Buffer Average Insert Size Partial Digestion Haploid Genomic Size These keywords were ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) represent a very useful cloning system for large DNA fragments and utilize the ... Choi, S. and Wing, R. A. (2000) The construction of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries from plants, in Plant ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/protocol/10.1385/1-59259-235-X:057

Viral Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: Generation, Mutagenesis, and Removal of Mini-F SequencesViral Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: Generation, Mutagenesis, and Removal of Mini-F Sequences

... B. Karsten Tischer and ... Finally, we review the reconstitution of viruses from BAC vectors and the removal of the bacterial sequences from the virus ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2012/472537/abs/

Viral Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: Generation, Mutagenesis, and Removal of Mini-F SequencesViral Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: Generation, Mutagenesis, and Removal of Mini-F Sequences

A. Domi and B. Moss, "Engineering of a vaccinia virus bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli by bacteriophage λ- ... Viral Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: Generation, Mutagenesis, and Removal of Mini-F Sequences. B. Karsten Tischer and ... 2. Generation of Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs). 2.1. Homologous Recombination in Mammalian Cells. One of the most ... A. Domi and B. Moss, "Cloning the vaccinia virus genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli and recovery ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2012/472537/

A gene expression atlas of the central nervous system based on bacterial artificial chromosomes.  - PubMed - NCBIA gene expression atlas of the central nervous system based on bacterial artificial chromosomes. - PubMed - NCBI

A gene expression atlas of the central nervous system based on bacterial artificial chromosomes.. Gong S1, Zheng C, Doughty ML ... and to provide a library of verified bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors and transgenic mouse lines that offer ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14586460?dopt=Abstract

THE BIG BAD BAC: BACTERIAL ARTIFICIAL CHROMOSOMES | SCQTHE BIG BAD BAC: BACTERIAL ARTIFICIAL CHROMOSOMES | SCQ

Super-Sized Inserts Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC) have been developed to hold much larger pieces of DNA than a plasmid ... With such a vector, it is easier to grow sufficient amounts of the herpes virus for research, since it can live in bacterial ... For instance, there are researchers studying the herpes virus who have made a BAC vector that can be cultured in bacterial ... breed healthier farm animals or even process radioactive waste are just a few examples of what Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes ...
more infohttps://www.scq.ubc.ca/the-big-bad-bac-bacterial-artificial-chromosomes/

Relative entropy differences in bacterial chromosomes, plasmids, phages and genomic islandsRelative entropy differences in bacterial chromosomes, plasmids, phages and genomic islands

Results: Relative entropy was highest in bacterial chromosomes and had the sequence chromosomes ,GI,phage,plasmid. There was an ... Relative entropy differences in bacterial chromosomes, plasmids, phages and genomic islands. Author(s). Bohlin, J.; Passel, M.W ... The rate at which amelioration of horizontally acquired DNA occurs within the chromosome is likely to account for the small ... We analyzed the differences in information capacity between prokaryotic chromosomes, genomic islands (GI), phages, and plasmids ...
more infohttp://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/421622

Gene order and chromosome dynamics coordinate spatiotemporal gene expression during the bacterial growth cycle | PNASGene order and chromosome dynamics coordinate spatiotemporal gene expression during the bacterial growth cycle | PNAS

Gene order and chromosome dynamics coordinate spatiotemporal gene expression during the bacterial growth cycle. Patrick ... Gene order and chromosome dynamics coordinate spatiotemporal gene expression during the bacterial growth cycle ... Gene order and chromosome dynamics coordinate spatiotemporal gene expression during the bacterial growth cycle ... Gene order and chromosome dynamics coordinate spatiotemporal gene expression during the bacterial growth cycle ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/109/2/E42?ijkey=e2ff09c5981870323c13b87652d353ae9cbdc87b&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Bacterial artificial chromosome-emulation oligonucleotide arrays for targeted clinical array-comparative genomic hybridization...Bacterial artificial chromosome-emulation oligonucleotide arrays for targeted clinical array-comparative genomic hybridization...

... was to test the ability of oligonucleotide-based arrays to reproduce the results of focused bacterial artificial chromosome ( ... platform to give high-resolution coverage of regions within the genome sequence coordinates of BAC/P1 artificial chromosome ( ... P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs), or bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), or of polymerase chain reaction products ... Ou, Z., Kang, S., Shaw, C. et al. Bacterial artificial chromosome-emulation oligonucleotide arrays for targeted clinical array- ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/gim200842?error=cookies_not_supported&code=fa3a7603-707e-4216-a6c3-060ae5ac5813

Hans Ris (1914-2004): Genophore, chromosomes and the bacterial origin of chloroplastsHans Ris (1914-2004): Genophore, chromosomes and the bacterial origin of chloroplasts

Hans Ris (1914-2004). Genophore, chromosomes and the bacterial origin of chloroplasts ... Ris was very disappointed when his appropriate name for the "bacterial chromosome, the "genophore ", a term he coined, was not ... Even in some marine protists, the dinoflagellates, whose peculiar chromosomes (made of bacterial-like 25 nm-small fibrils that ... The chromatids (half-chromosomes) of the large X chromosomes do not separate from each other in the first meiotic cell division ...
more infohttp://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1139-67092005000200011&lng=es&nrm=i

Template:Replication of a circular bacterial chromosome - Metadata - CitizendiumTemplate:Replication of a circular bacterial chromosome - Metadata - Citizendium

This is a central location for all information relating to the Replication of a circular bacterial chromosome cluster. It is ... abc = Replication of a circular bacterial chromosome. cat_check = n. status = 1. underlinked = n. cleanup = y. Workgroup ... pagename = Replication of a circular bacterial chromosome. variant = Article size = 21,698 bytes. Cluster subpages. Required ... Template:Replication of a circular bacterial chromosome/Metadata. From Citizendium, the Citizens Compendium ...
more infohttp://en.citizendium.org/wiki/Template:Replication_of_a_circular_bacterial_chromosome/Metadata

Bacterial Chromosome Structure | Springer for Research & DevelopmentBacterial Chromosome Structure | Springer for Research & Development

The structure of the bacterial chromosome can be considered at several different levels. By analogy with protein structure one ... Bacterial Chromosome Oxolinic Acid Bacterial Nucleoid Domain Substructure Torsional Tension These keywords were added by ... coli chromosome. In: Riley M, Drlica K (eds) The bacterial chromosome. ASM Publishing, Washington, DC (in press)Google Scholar ... Pettijohn D (1988) Histone-like proteins and bacterial chromosome structure. J Biol Chem 263: 12793-12796PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-84150-7_9

High-Resolution Mapping of the Spatial Organization of a Bacterial Chromosome | ScienceHigh-Resolution Mapping of the Spatial Organization of a Bacterial Chromosome | Science

... and chromosome segregation. Although bacterial chromosomes are probably highly organized within cells (1-6), the resolution of ... Dynamics of the bacterial SMC complex and SMC-like proteins involved in DNA repair. Chromosome Res. 17, 265-275 (2009). doi: ... High-Resolution Mapping of the Spatial Organization of a Bacterial Chromosome. By Tung B. K. Le, Maxim V. Imakaev, Leonid A. ... High-Resolution Mapping of the Spatial Organization of a Bacterial Chromosome. By Tung B. K. Le, Maxim V. Imakaev, Leonid A. ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/342/6159/731?ijkey=dda2d44d53a84f17c19121fb12f640caa2b728d7&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Modification of Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) and Preparation of Intact BAC DNA for Generation of Transgenic Mice -...Modification of Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) and Preparation of Intact BAC DNA for Generation of Transgenic Mice -...

If you are a society or association member and require assistance with obtaining online access instructions please contact our Journal Customer Services team ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/0471142301.ns0521s31/pdf

Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of Triticum monococcumBacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of Triticum monococcum

Triticum monococcum bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library D. Lijavetzky, G. Muzzi, T. Wicker, B. Keller, R. Wing, and J ...
more infohttp://www.plantsciences.ucdavis.edu/dubcovsky/BAC-library/BAC_Home.htm

Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Mutagenesis Using RecombineeringBacterial Artificial Chromosome Mutagenesis Using Recombineering

Rapid modification of bacterial artificial chromosomes by ET-recombination. Nucleic Acids Research. 1999;27(6):1555-1557. [PMC ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Mutagenesis Using Recombineering. Kumaran Narayanan 1, 2 * and Qingwen Chen 2 ... Modification of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and preparation of intact BAC DNA for generation of transgenic mice. [ ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes, or BACs, are fertility- (F-) factor-based plasmid vectors that replicate stably in low copy ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3005948/

Conferences and events | Biochemical Society - The Biology and Physics of Bacterial Chromosome Organisation 2018Conferences and events | Biochemical Society - The Biology and Physics of Bacterial Chromosome Organisation 2018

The Biology and Physics of Bacterial Chromosome Organisation 2018. 4-6 June 2018. Golden Tulip, Leiden, The Netherlands ... Future Events , The Biology and Physics of Bacterial Chromosome Organisation 2018 , Registration ...
more infohttp://www.biochemistry.org/Events/tabid/379/View/registration/MeetingNo/SA212/Default.aspx

Conferences and events | Biochemical Society - The Biology and Physics of Bacterial Chromosome Organisation 2018Conferences and events | Biochemical Society - The Biology and Physics of Bacterial Chromosome Organisation 2018

New approaches and technologies have revolutionized the field of bacterial chromosome biology in the last fifteen years. For ... The Biology and Physics of Bacterial Chromosome Organisation 2018. 4-6 June 2018. Golden Tulip, Leiden, The Netherlands ... between biologists and physicists have generated key discoveries regarding our understanding of bacterial chromosome structure ... physics models allow researchers to tackle questions that go far beyond the traditional biological description of chromosome ...
more infohttp://www.biochemistry.org/Events/tabid/379/MeetingNo/SA212/view/Conference/Default.aspx

Nalidixic acid and bacterial chromosome replication - Semantic ScholarNalidixic acid and bacterial chromosome replication - Semantic Scholar

... has been described as a specific inhibitor of bacterial DNA synthesis in vivo and in vitro1-3, but its mechanism of action on ... Nalidixic acid and bacterial chromosome replication. @article{Crumplin1976NalidixicAA, title={Nalidixic acid and bacterial ... NALIDIXIC acid (NAL) has been described as a specific inhibitor of bacterial DNA synthesis in vivo and in vitro1-3, but its ... chromosome replication}, author={Geoff Crumplin and Jeffrey T. L. Smith}, journal={Nature}, year={1976}, volume={260}, pages={ ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Nalidixic-acid-and-bacterial-chromosome-replication-Crumplin-Smith/36d5feb8ab75df74f4811847043a80b6d3da80ab

Difference between revisions of Bacterial artificial chromosomes - OpenWetWareDifference between revisions of "Bacterial artificial chromosomes" - OpenWetWare

Bacterial artificial chromosomes or BACS are circular DNA molecules which contain a replicon that is based on the F factor. ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes or BACS are circular DNA molecules which contain a replicon that is based on the F factor. ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes. S. Zhao and M. Stodolsky, editors, Volume 2: Functional Studies, volume 256 of Methods in ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes. S. Zhao and M. Stodolsky, editors, Volume 1: Library Construction, Physical Mapping, and ...
more infohttps://openwetware.org/wiki/?title=Bacterial_artificial_chromosomes&diff=111020&oldid=8155

Difference between revisions of Bacterial artificial chromosomes - OpenWetWareDifference between revisions of "Bacterial artificial chromosomes" - OpenWetWare

Bacterial artificial chromosomes or BACS are circular DNA molecules which contain a replicon that is based on the F factor. ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes or BACS are circular DNA molecules which contain a replicon that is based on the F factor. ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes. S. Zhao and M. Stodolsky, editors, Volume 2: Functional Studies, volume 256 of Methods in ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes. S. Zhao and M. Stodolsky, editors, Volume 1: Library Construction, Physical Mapping, and ...
more infohttps://openwetware.org/wiki/?title=Bacterial_artificial_chromosomes&diff=111020&oldid=8039

Birth of a W sex chromosome by horizontal transfer of Wolbachia bacterial symbiont genome | Proceedings of the National Academy...Birth of a W sex chromosome by horizontal transfer of Wolbachia bacterial symbiont genome | Proceedings of the National Academy...

Birth of a W sex chromosome by horizontal transfer of Wolbachia bacterial symbiont genome. Sébastien Leclercq, Julien Thézé, ... Here we provide evidence indicating that Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts triggered the evolution of new sex chromosomes in ... Birth of a W sex chromosome by horizontal transfer of Wolbachia bacterial symbiont genome ... In many animals, sex determination is controlled by sex chromosomes. Sex chromosomes are heterozygous in males in XY/XX systems ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/113/52/15036.full
  • There was an association between relative entropy and AT content in chromosomes, phages, plasmids and GIs with the strongest association being in phages. (wur.nl)
  • Conclusions: We argue that relative entropy differences reflect how plasmids, phages and GIs interact with microbial host chromosomes and that all these biological entities are, or have been, subjected to different selective pressures. (wur.nl)
  • In this paper we analyzed oligonucleotide usage (OU) biases in a comprehensive collection of 155 completely sequenced bacterial chromosomes, 316 plasmids and 104 phages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The work Bacterial artificial chromosomes, Volume 1, Library construction, physical mapping, and sequencing represents a distinct intellectual or artistic creation found in University of Oklahoma Libraries . (ou.edu)
  • Flashner Y, Gralla J (1988) DNA dynamic flexibility and protein recognition: differential stimulation by bacterial histone-like protein HU. (springer.com)
  • The speed at which chromosomes segregate appears to require an active process, but the machinery remains elusive. (wiley.com)
  • The dif /XerCD chromosome dimer resolution system seems widely conserved. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We refined the "Nucleation & caging" model and successfully applied it to the chromosomally encoded Par system of Vibrio cholerae , indicating that this stochastic self‐assembly mechanism is widely conserved from plasmids to chromosomes. (embopress.org)
  • Analysis of Hi-C data and polymer modeling indicates that the Caulobacter crescentus chromosome consists of multiple, largely independent spatial domains that are probably composed of supercoiled plectonemes arrayed into a bottle brush-like fiber. (sciencemag.org)
  • At low surface area-to-volume ratios the diffusion of nutrients and waste products across the bacterial cell membrane limits the rate at which microbial metabolism can occur, making the cell less evolutionarily fit. (bionity.com)
  • In the males (which are XO), spermatocytes contain one oversized X chromosome and cell division is very unequal. (isciii.es)
  • The chromatids (half-chromosomes) of the large X chromosomes do not separate from each other in the first meiotic cell division in the testes. (isciii.es)
  • We propose a model in which ObgE is required to license chromosome segregation and subsequent cell cycle events. (wiley.com)
  • What part of the bacterial cell helps it stick to surfaces? (reference.com)
  • What is a bacterial cell? (reference.com)
  • A bacterial cell is a microorganism that may be pathogenic or nonpathogenic. (reference.com)
  • During the DNA synthesis (S) phase, the cell replicates its chromosomes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • During the mitosis (M) phase, the duplicated chromosomes are segregated, migrating to opposite poles of the cell. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cell shape is generally characteristic of a given bacterial species, but can vary depending on growth conditions. (bionity.com)
  • About half of the dry mass of a bacterial cell consists of carbon, and also about half of it can be attributed to proteins. (bionity.com)
  • As in other organisms, the bacterial cell wall provides structural integrity to the cell. (bionity.com)
  • The bacterial cell wall differs from that of all other organisms by the presence of peptidoglycan (poly- N -acetylglucosamine and N -acetylmuramic acid), which is located immediately outside of the cytoplasmic membrane . (bionity.com)
  • Peptidoglycan is responsible for the rigidity of the bacterial cell wall and for the determination of cell shape. (bionity.com)
  • While all bacterial cell walls (with a few exceptions e.g. intracellular parasites such as Mycoplasma ) contain peptidoglycan, not all cell walls have the same overall structures. (bionity.com)
  • There are two main types of bacterial cell walls, Gram positive and Gram negative, which are differentiated by their Gram staining characteristics. (bionity.com)
  • Repeated binding and unbinding of chromosomal segments to these tethering sites eventually can mediate segregation of sister chromosomes by biasing their random movement toward the poles in a Brownian ratchet-like manner. (dkfz.de)
  • Our approach enables the selection of drug compounds that disrupt normal division of cancer cells," said William C Earnshaw, Ph.D., professor of chromosome dynamics at the University of Edinburgh's School of Biological Sciences, who participated in the study. (genengnews.com)