Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Chromosomes, Human, 1-3: The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.Chromosome Painting: A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, 16-18: The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y: The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Ring Chromosomes: Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Chromosomes, Human, 4-5: The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Yeast, Dried: The dry cells of any suitable strain of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE or CANDIDA. It can be obtained as a by-product from the brewing of beer or by growing on media not suitable for beer production. Dried yeast serves as a source of protein and VITAMIN B COMPLEX.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Chromosome Structures: Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.Chromosomes, Human, 19-20: The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Saccharomycetales: An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Chromosomes, Artificial, Human: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Chromosome Fragility: Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Chromosome Duplication: An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Abnormalities, MultipleHeterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Polytene Chromosomes: Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Chromosome Fragile Sites: Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Cytogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.Karyotype: The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Monosomy: The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.Sex Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Genes, X-Linked: Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Killer Factors, Yeast: Protein factors released from one species of YEAST that are selectively toxic to another species of yeast.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Philadelphia Chromosome: An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Chromosome Breakpoints: The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.

11q23.1 and 11q25-qter YACs suppress tumour growth in vivo. (1/671)

Frequent allelic deletion at chromosome 11q22-q23.1 has been described in breast cancer and a number of other malignancies, suggesting putative tumour suppressor gene(s) within the approximately 8 Mb deleted region. In addition, we recently described another locus, at the 11q25-qter region, frequently deleted in breast cancer, suggesting additional tumour suppressor gene(s) in this approximately 2 Mb deleted region. An 11q YAC contig was accessed and three YACs, one containing the candidate gene ATM at 11q23.1, and two contiguous YACs (overlapping for approximately 400-600 kb) overlying most of the 11q25 deleted region, were retrofitted with a G418 resistance marker and transfected into murine A9 fibrosarcoma cells. Selected A9 transfectant clones (and control untransfected and 'irrelevant' alphoid YAC transfectant A9 clones) were assayed for in vivo tumorigenicity in athymic female Balb c-nu/nu mice. All the 11q YAC transfectant clones demonstrated significant tumour suppression compared to the control untransfected and 'irrelevant' YAC transfected A9 cells. These results define two discrete tumour suppressor loci on chromosome 11q by functional complementation, one to a approximately 1.2 Mb region on 11q23.1 (containing the ATM locus) and another to a approximately 400-600 kb subterminal region on 11q25-qter.  (+info)

Deletion of a region that is a candidate for the difference between the deletion forms of hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin and deltabeta-thalassemia affects beta- but not gamma-globin gene expression. (2/671)

The analysis of a number of cases of beta-globin thalassemia and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) due to large deletions in the beta-globin locus has led to the identification of several DNA elements that have been implicated in the switch from human fetal gamma- to adult beta-globin gene expression. We have tested this hypothesis for an element that covers the minimal distance between the thalassemia and HPFH deletions and is thought to be responsible for the difference between a deletion HPFH and deltabeta-thalassemia, located 5' of the delta-globin gene. This element has been deleted from a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) containing the complete human beta-globin locus. Analysis of this modified YAC in transgenic mice shows that early embryonic expression is unaffected, but in the fetal liver it is subject to position effects. In addition, the efficiency of transcription of the beta-globin gene is decreased, but the developmental silencing of the gamma-globin genes is unaffected by the deletion. These results show that the deleted element is involved in the activation of the beta-globin gene perhaps through the loss of a structural function required for gene activation by long-range interactions.  (+info)

Isolation of human transcripts expressed in hamster cells from YACs by cDNA representational difference analysis. (3/671)

Gene isolation methods used during positional cloning rely on physical contigs consisting of bacterial artificial chromosomes, P1, or cosmid clones. However, in most instances, the initial framework for physical mapping consists of contigs of yeast artificial chromosome (YACs), large vectors that are suboptimal substrates for gene isolation. Here we report a strategy to identify gene sequences contained within a YAC by using cDNA representational difference analysis (RDA) to directly isolate transcripts expressed from the YAC in mammalian cells. The RDA tester cDNAs were generated from a previously reported hamster cell line derived by stable transfer of a 590-kb YAC (911D5) that expressed NPC1, the human gene responsible for Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C). The driver cDNAs were generated from a control hamster cell line that did not contain the YAC that expressed NPC1. Among the gene fragments obtained by RDA, NPC1 was the most abundant product. In addition, two non-NPC1 fragments were isolated that were mapped to and expressed from 911D5. One of these RDA gene fragments (7-R) spans more than one exon and has 98% sequence identity with a human cDNA clone reported previously as an expressed sequence tag (EST), but not mapped to a chromosomal region. The other fragment (2-R) that had no significant sequence similarities with known mammalian genes or ESTs, was further localized to the region of overlap between YACs 911D5 and 844E3. The latter YAC is part of a contig across the NP-C candidate region, but does not contain NPC1. This two-part approach in which stable YAC transfer is followed by cDNA RDA should be a useful adjunct strategy to expedite the cloning of human genes when a YAC contig is available across a candidate interval.  (+info)

An improved method for routine preparation of intact artificial chromosome DNA (340-1000 kb) for transfection into human cells. (4/671)

The transfer of high molecular weight (HMW) DNA into mammalian cells is an important strategy for assessing human gene expression and chromosome structure and function. However, using current methods, it is difficult to dependably prepare intact HMW DNA because of the susceptibility of the DNA to degradation and physical shearing. Here we describe a strategy whereby intact artificial chromosome DNA (as large as 1 Mb) can be routinely prepared from yeast. Strict adherence to this protocol has resulted in: (i) >90% of liquid DNA preparations containing largely intact DNA; (ii) transfection efficiencies for the development of stable human clonal cell lines ranging from 5 x 10(-7) to 8.8 x 10(-5); and (iii) the presence of markers from both YAC arms in 30-42% of the human fibrosarcoma cell HT1080 clones and 100% of the CF lung epithelial cell lines IB3-1 and CFT1 clones, suggesting that the HMW DNA is potentially intact in a substantial proportion of clones. Using this protocol for DNA preparation, successful transfection of functional 1 Mb human artificial chromosome DNA into human cells has also been achieved. This methodology should prove useful to those interested in using HMW human DNA for gene expression and functional analysis or for linear artificial chromosome construction, since integrity is absolutely critical for the success of these studies.  (+info)

Hypersensitive site 2 specifies a unique function within the human beta-globin locus control region to stimulate globin gene transcription. (5/671)

The human beta-globin locus control region (LCR) harbors both strong chromatin opening and enhancer activity when assayed in transgenic mice. To understand the contribution of individual DNase I hypersensitive sites (HS) to the function of the human beta-globin LCR, we have mutated the core elements within the context of a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) carrying the entire locus and then analyzed the effect of these mutations on the formation of LCR HS elements and expression of the genes in transgenic mice. In the present study, we examined the consequences of two different HS2 mutations. We first generated seven YAC transgenic lines bearing a deletion of the 375-bp core enhancer of HS2. Single-copy HS2 deletion mutants exhibited severely depressed HS site formation and expression of all of the human beta-globin genes at every developmental stage, confirming that HS2 is a vital, integral component of the LCR. We also analyzed four transgenic lines in which the core element of HS2 was replaced by that of HS3 and found that while HS3 is able to restore the chromatin-opening activity of the LCR, it is not able to functionally replace HS2 in mediating high-level globin gene transcription. These results continue to support the hypothesis that HS2, HS3, and HS4 act as a single, integral unit to regulate human globin gene transcription as a holocomplex, but they can also be interpreted to say that formation of a DNase I hypersensitive holocomplex alone is not sufficient for mediating high-level globin gene transcription. We therefore propose that the core elements must productively interact with one another to generate a unique subdomain within the nucleoprotein holocomplex that interacts in a stage-specific manner with individual globin gene promoters.  (+info)

Xist yeast artificial chromosome transgenes function as X-inactivation centers only in multicopy arrays and not as single copies. (6/671)

X-chromosome inactivation in female mammals is controlled by the X-inactivation center (Xic). This locus is required for inactivation in cis and is thought to be involved in the counting process which ensures that only a single X chromosome remains active per diploid cell. The Xist gene maps to the Xic region and has been shown to be essential for inactivation in cis. Transgenesis represents a stringent test for defining the minimal region that can carry out the functions attributed to the Xic. Although YAC and cosmid Xist-containing transgenes have previously been reported to be capable of cis inactivation and counting, the transgenes were all present as multicopy arrays and it was unclear to what extent individual copies are functional. Using two different yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), we have found that single-copy transgenes, unlike multicopy arrays, can induce neither inactivation in cis nor counting. These results demonstrate that despite their large size and the presence of Xist, the YACs that we have tested lack sequences critical for autonomous function with respect to X inactivation.  (+info)

Delineation of the critical deletion region for congenital heart defects, on chromosome 8p23.1. (7/671)

Deletions in the distal region of chromosome 8p (del8p) are associated with congenital heart malformations. Other major manifestations include microcephaly, intrauterine growth retardation, mental retardation, and a characteristic hyperactive, impulsive behavior. We studied genotype-phenotype correlations in nine unrelated patients with a de novo del8p, by using the combination of classic cytogenetics, FISH, and the analysis of polymorphic DNA markers. With the exception of one large terminal deletion, all deletions were interstitial. In five patients, a commonly deleted region of approximately 6 Mb was present, with breakpoints clustering in the same regions. One patient without a heart defect or microcephaly but with mild mental retardation and characteristic behavior had a smaller deletion within this commonly deleted region. Two patients without a heart defect had a more proximal interstitial deletion that did not overlap with the commonly deleted region. Taken together, these data allowed us to define the critical deletion regions for the major features of a del8p.  (+info)

Molecular cytogenetic detection of 9q34 breakpoints associated with nail patella syndrome. (8/671)

The nail patella syndrome (NPS1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by dysplasia of the finger nails and skeletal abnormalities. NPS1 has been mapped to 9q34, to a 1 cM interval between D9S315 and the adenylate kinase gene (AK1). We have mapped the breakpoints within the candidate NPS1 region in two unrelated patients with balanced translocations. One patient [46,XY,t(1;9)(q32.1;q34)] was detected during a systematic survey of old cytogenetic files in Denmark and southern Sweden. The other patient [46,XY,t(9;17)(q34.1;q25)] was reported previously. D9S315 and AK1 were used to isolate YACs, from which endclones were used to isolate PACs. Two overlapping PAC clones span the 9q34 breakpoints in both patients, suggesting that NPS1 is caused by haploinsufficiency due to truncation or otherwise inactivation of a gene at or in the vicinity of the breakpoints.  (+info)

*Yeast artificial chromosome

Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are genetically engineered chromosomes derived from the DNA of the yeast, Saccharomyces ... Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) Cosmid Fosmid Genetic engineering Human artificial chromosome Autonomously replicating ... yeast integrating plasmids), and YEps (yeast episomal plasmids), have an advantage over bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs ... "Mapping human chromosomes by walking with sequence-tagged sites from end fragments of yeast artificial chromosome inserts". ...

*Glossary of biology

yeast artificial chromosome . yolk . Z lines . zoology . zygote . Contents: 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X ... chromosome A threadlike strand of DNA in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order. clonal selection . cloning ... artificial selection Professionals study the genotype and phenotype of parent organisms in the hope of producing a hybrid that ... aneuploidy The presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell. antibiotic A type of antimicrobial drug used in the ...

*Bacterial artificial chromosome

Cosmid End-sequence profiling Fosmid Human artificial chromosome Yeast artificial chromosome O'Connor M, Peifer M, Bender W ( ... A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is a DNA construct, based on a functional fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid), used for ... The bacterial artificial chromosome's usual insert size is 150-350 kbp. A similar cloning vector called a PAC has also been ... Domi A, Moss B (2002). "Cloning the vaccinia virus genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli and recovery ...

*Cloning vector

Insert of up to 3,000 kb may be carried by yeast artificial chromosome. Human artificial chromosome may be potentially useful ... and other organisms such as yeast may be used. Cloning vectors in yeast include yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs). All ... Insert size of up to 350 kb can be cloned in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). BACs are maintained in E. coli with a copy ... BACs are based on F plasmid, another artificial chromosome called the PAC is based on the P1 phage. ...

*Trifunctional purine biosynthetic protein adenosine-3

"Cloning and in vivo expression of the human GART gene using yeast artificial chromosomes". EMBO J. 10 (7): 1629-34. PMC 452831 ... 2000). "The DNA sequence of human chromosome 21". Nature. 405 (6784): 311-9. doi:10.1038/35012518. PMID 10830953. Banerjee D, ...

*SON (gene)

Tassone F, Cheng S, Gardiner K (1993). "Analysis of chromosome 21 yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones". Am. J. Hum. Genet ... Greenhalf W, Lee J, Chaudhuri B (1999). "A selection system for human apoptosis inhibitors using yeast". Yeast. 15 (13): 1307- ... and CRF2-4 genes cluster on human chromosome 21 and mouse chromosome 16". Mamm Genome. 4 (6): 338-42. doi:10.1007/BF00357094. ... This protein is found in the 21st chromosome and is mostly located in nuclear speckles. Its higher expression is seen in ...

*Jack W. Szostak

He is credited with the construction of the world's first yeast artificial chromosome. That achievement helped scientists to ... for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres. Szostak grew up in Montreal and Ottawa. Although Szostak does ... the specialized DNA sequences at the tips of chromosomes. In the early 90s his laboratory shifted its research direction and ... and the construction of artificial cellular life in the laboratory. Beyond his research, he has delivered talks about the ...

*Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase

1989). "Isolation of single-copy human genes from a library of yeast artificial chromosome clones". Science. 244 (4910): 1348- ... 1999). "Fine mapping of a polymorphic CA repeat marker on human chromosome 19 and its use in population studies". Gene. 230 (2 ... is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GPI gene on chromosome 19. This gene encodes a member of the glucose phosphate ...

*Minimal genome

The whole assembled genome was transplanted in yeast cells and grown as yeast artificial chromosome. This synthetic cell will ... In several bacteria (or other microbes such as yeast) all or most genes have been deleted individually to determine which genes ... The team has synthesized a 1.08 million base pair chromosome of a modified Mycoplasma mycoides. The synthetic cell is called: ... The original proteins and biological materials of the converted cell use the new artificial DNA to generate daughter cells. ...

*Tac-Promoter

... genetics/expression-vectors.html Human artificial chromosome Yeast artificial chromosome Bacterial artificial chromosome. ...

*Genome survey sequence

Cosmid/BAC/YAC end sequences use Cosmid/Bacterial artificial chromosome/Yeast artificial chromosome to sequence the genome from ... Vectors Yeast artificial chromosome Venter, J. Craig, Hamilton O. Smith, and Leroy Hood. "A New Cooperative Strategy for ... To get enough chromosome, they need a large number of E. coli culture that 2.5 - 5 litres may be a reasonable amount. Cosmid/ ...

*RNA

Heard E; Mongelard F; Arnaud D; Chureau C; Vourc'h C; Avner P (1999). "Human XIST yeast artificial chromosome transgenes show ... The sequence of the 77 nucleotides of a yeast tRNA was found by Robert W. Holley in 1965, winning Holley the 1968 Nobel Prize ... There are many long noncoding RNAs that regulate genes in eukaryotes, one such RNA is Xist, which coats one X chromosome in ... R.N. Shukla (2014-06-30). Analysis of Chromosomes. ISBN 9789384568177. Berg JM; Tymoczko JL; Stryer L (2002). Biochemistry (5th ...

*Human artificial chromosome

Yeast artificial chromosomes and bacterial artificial chromosomes were created before human artificial chromosomes, which first ... Alternative methods of creating transgenes, such as utilizing yeast artificial chromosomes and bacterial artificial chromosomes ... producing a chromosome 5 Mb in length. Truncation of chromosome 21 resulted in a human artificial chromosome that is ... A human artificial chromosome (HAC) is a microchromosome that can act as a new chromosome in a population of human cells. That ...

*Delitto perfetto

In addition, human genes can be studied and similarly genetically manipulated in yeast by using yeast artificial chromosomes ( ... For example, mutagenized yeast strains cannot be used for further genetic analysis such as tetrad analysis. Markers would have ... CORE-containing yeast cells are transformed with oligonucleotides containing the desired mutation such that they lead to the ... The reporter gene allows for the selection of yeast cells that receive the CORE cassette during the first step of the process. ...

*ALS2

1999). "A yeast artificial chromosome-based physical map of the juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS2) critical region ... on chromosome 2q33". Neurogenetics. 2 (1): 34-42. doi:10.1007/s100480050049. PMID 9933298. Nagase T, Kikuno R, Nakayama M, et ... on human chromosome 2q33-q34". Genomics. 55 (1): 106-12. doi:10.1006/geno.1998.5637. PMID 9889004. Hosler BA, Sapp PC, Berger R ...

*Library (biology)

Vectors are propagated most commonly in bacterial cells, but if using a YAC (Yeast Artificial Chromosome) then yeast cells may ... a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome or BAC library) or yeast such that each organism contains on average one construct (vector + ... or yeast) cell. Additionally, for cDNA libraries, a system using the Lambda Zap II phage, ExAssist, and 2 E. coli species has ...

*Genome Project-Write

Technologies for constructing and testing Yeast artificial chromosomes, synthetic yeast genomes (Sc2.0) and virus/phage- ... "Synthetic yeast genomes (Sc2.0)". Retrieved 2 Mar 2017. McElheny, Victor K. (2010). Drawing the Map of Life: Inside the Human ... This leverages two decades of work on Synthetic Biology and Artificial gene synthesis. The newly created GP-Write project will ...

*MAFB (gene)

"A yeast artificial chromosome-based map of the region of chromosome 20 containing the diabetes-susceptibility gene, MODY1, and ... This gene maps to chromosome 20q11.2-q13.1, consists of a single exon and spans around 3 kb. MafB is a basic leucine zipper ( ... "An autosomal dominant posterior polar cataract locus maps to human chromosome 20p12-q12". European Journal of Human Genetics. 8 ...

*Genomic library

Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are linear DNA molecules containing the necessary features of an authentic yeast chromosome ... P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs) have features of both P1 vectors and Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs). Similar to P1 ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are circular DNA molecules, usually about 7kb in length, that are capable of holding ... Yoo EY, Kim S, Kim JY, Kim BD (August 2001). "Construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome library ...

*MTAP

1995). "Construction of a 2.8-megabase yeast artificial chromosome contig and cloning of the human methylthioadenosine ... fusion transcript identifies a new gene on chromosome 9p21 that is frequently deleted in cancer". Oncogene. 19 (50): 5747-54. ... "Assignment of the gene for methylthioadenosine phosphorylase to human chromosome 9 by mouse-human somatic cell hybridization". ...

*HNRPA3

1993). "A 1.5-megabase yeast artificial chromosome contig from human chromosome 10q11.2 connecting three genetic loci (RET, ... 2005). "Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4". Nature. 434 (7034): 724-31. doi:10.1038/ ...

*Synthetic genomics

... synthetic genomics is to combine DNA contigs by means of homologous recombination performed by the yeast artificial chromosome ... The two new artificial nucleotides or Unnatural Base Pair (UBP) were named d5SICS and dNaM. More technically, these artificial ... The artificial strings of DNA do not encode for anything yet, but scientists speculate they could be designed to manufacture ... Sample, Ian (May 7, 2014). "First life forms to pass on artificial DNA engineered by US scientists". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 ...

*Artificial chromosome

... may refer to: Yeast artificial chromosome Bacterial artificial chromosome Human artificial chromosome P1- ... derived artificial chromosome Synthetic DNA of a base pair size comparable to a chromosome. ...

*ATP2B2

1994). "One-megabase yeast artificial chromosome and 400-kilobase cosmid-phage contigs containing the von Hippel-Lindau tumor ... to human chromosomes 3p26→p25 and Xq28, respectively". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 67 (1): 41-5. doi:10.1159/000133794. PMID 8187550 ...

*Synthetic genomes

... synthetic genomics is to combine DNA contigs by means of homologous recombination performed by the Yeast Artificial Chromosome ... Kouprina, Natalay; Larionov, Vladimir (2003-12-01). "Exploiting the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the study of the ... or artificial gene synthesis to create new DNA or entire lifeforms.. The field that studies synthetic genomes, is called ... YAC). Of importance is the CEN element within the YAC vector, which corresponds to the yeast centromere. This sequence gives ...

*Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance

Specifically, the paternally derived chromosome carried an abnormal maternal mark at the SNURF-SNRPN, and this abnormal mark ... Zhang Z, Shibahara K, Stillman B (November 2000). "PCNA connects DNA replication to epigenetic inheritance in yeast". Nature. ... the establishment and fixation of cell line identity during early embryogenesis has recently stimulated interest in artificial ... were causing these syndromes were localized on a chromosome with a specific parental and grandparental origin. ...
To test whether human GATA-1 (hGATA-1) is involved in the transcriptional control of globin gene switching, transgenic mice were produced overexpressing hGATA-1. These were crossed with mice carrying a human beta-globin locus yeast artificial chromosome (beta YAC), and globin gene expression was analyzed in their progeny. Mice carrying both the hGATA-1 and the beta YAC transgenes have normal levels of gamma- and beta-globin mRNA, with no distortion in the rate or in the timing of gamma-to-beta switch, indicating that hGATA-1 is not involved in the developmental control of gamma- and beta-globin genes. In contrast, mice carrying the hGATA-1 and the beta YAC transgenes have 5- to 6-fold lower expression of the human epsilon globin gene compared with beta YAC mice lacking the hGATA-1 transgene. These results provide direct in vivo evidence that hGATA-1 is a specific repressor of human epsilon gene expression. These findings also suggest that binary transgenic mouse systems based on overexpression ...
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The majority of chromosomal translocations breakpoints are within regions of the genome where few DNA probes are available. The use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) containing long stretches of human DNA allows dispersed DNA markers to be used to identify the position of breakpoints but does not readily allow subcloning of the precise breakpoint within the YAC DNA nor the cDNAs containing the affected genes. We describe a procedure allowing rapid isolation of cDNAs corresponding to genes within a YAC clone. Random cDNA is hybridised to PCR-generated biotinylated fragments of total DNA from a yeast strain harbouring a YAC clone. The hybrids can be recovered to facilitate subsequent cloning of the cDNA molecules. The application of this method to the cloning of cDNA molecules carrying sequences involved in the translocation t(4;11)(q21;q23) is illustrated.
Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are genetically engineered chromosomes derived from the DNA of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is then ligated into a bacterial plasmid. By inserting large fragments of DNA, from 100-1000 kb, the inserted sequences can be cloned and physically mapped using a process called chromosome walking. This is the process that was initially used for the Human Genome Project, however due to stability issues, YACs were abandoned for the use of Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC). Beginning with the initial research of the Rankin et al., Strul et al., and Hsaio et al., the inherently fragile chromosome was stabilized by discovering the necessary autonomously replicating sequence (ARS); a refined YAC utilizing this data was described in 1983 by Murray et al. The primary components of a YAC are the ARS, centromere, and telomeres from S. cerevisiae. Additionally, selectable marker genes, such as antibiotic resistance and a visible marker, are utilized to select ...
From: Dr. Kenneth Fischbeck To: chromosome-22 at net.bio.net.in Subject: chr 22 YAC screening As part of the genome center here in Philadelphia, we have been identifying YACs with chromosome 22 STSs. We screen both a YAC library made locally from 22-only hybrid cell line KG1 and total genomic YAC libraries made by CEPH & Genethon. We now would like to make this service available to the genetics community in general. For anyone who submits primers for a chromosome 22 STS, we will screen the YAC libraries with the STS and send the positive colonies back to the submitter. There will be no charge for this service. If you are interested in participating, please let me know. K. Fischbeck e-mail: fischbeck at a1.mscf.upenn.edu ...
Originated from a bacterial plasmid, a YAC contains a yeast centromeric region (CEN), a yeast origin of DNA replication, a cluster of unique rectriction sites and a selectable marker and a telomere region at the en of each arm. YACs are capable of cloning extremely large segments of DNA (over 1 megabase long) into a host cell, where the DNA is propagated along with the other chromosomes of the yeast cell.. ...
A vector (abbreviated YAC) used to clone DNA fragments (up to 400 kilobase|kb); it is constructed from the telomere|telomeric, centromere|centromeric, a...
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The large regions of DNA that can be cloned in yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are ideal for expression studies of the complex genes and gene clusters found in the mammalian genome. Such studies...
BACKGROUND:Mutagenesis of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) often requires analysis of large numbers of yeast clones to obtain correctly targeted mutants. Conventional ways to isolate yeast genomic DNA utilize either ...
Bell CJ, Budarf ML, Nieuwenhuijsen BW, Barnoski BL, Buetow KH, Campbell K, Colbert AM, Collins J, Daly M, Desjardins PR, et al, Integration of physical, breakpoint and genetic maps of chromosome 22. Localization of 587 yeast artificial chromosomes with 238 mapped markers. Hum Mol Genet4:59-69 ...
During the construction of yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) libraries to facilitate mapping of the human genome, two YACs may be cotransformed into the same yeast cell, making further analysis very difficult. We present a simple method to rescue the required YAC that utilizes the segregation of chromosomes at meiosis. In brief, we crossed the cotransformed yeast cell with a non-YAC-containing strain and induced the resulting diploid to sporulate and undergo meiosis. The new haploid generation included some yeast cells that contained only the desired YAC. These YACs were analyzed by conventional methods. To exclude the possibility that major rearrangement occurred during the procedure, we analyzed the YACs with restriction enzymes that cut only rarely. We conclude that this is a useful technique to rescue cotransformed YACs.
Typically the chromosome also contains a selection marker such as TRP1, Lys2 or Ura3. Minimal size for a YAC is between 50kb and 100kb, while maximum sizes are 1Mb to 3Mb. A common tool for constructing YACs is a shuttle plasmid such as pYAC4 which replicates in E. coli, has a multiple cloning site, and a pair of telomeres which can be cleaved to form a linear fragment. Available as an E.coli plasmid ATCC 67379, sequence at U01086. There are two common centromere sequences, CEN4 and CEN6. CEN4 is found in most yeast centromere-containiing vectors, such as pYAC4. These vectors typically use ARS1 sequences. The pRS313- pRS316 plasmids use the CEN6 + ARSH4 cassette (Sikorski89). ...
Herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) is an alphaherpesvirus that is widely used as a live vaccine against Marek's disease because of its antigenic relationship with Marek's disease virus (MDV). In spite of a similar genome structure, HVT has several unique genes, the functions of which are not completely understood. As a first step in carrying out detailed analysis of the functions of the HVT genes, a full-length infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of HVT was constructed. DNA from two independent BAC clones, upon transfection into chicken embryo fibroblasts, produced plaques similar to those produced by the wild-type virus. Viruses derived from the BAC clones were stable during in vitro passage, but showed differences in in vitro growth kinetics compared with the wild-type virus. Using a one-step mutagenesis protocol to delete the essential glycoprotein B gene from the HVT genome, followed by construction of the revertant virus, BAC clones of HVT were shown to be amenable to standard
Reverse genetics has been an indispensable tool revolutionising insights into viral pathogenesis and vaccine development. Large RNA virus genomes, such as from Coronaviruses, are cumbersome to clone and manipulate in E. coli due to size and occasional instability1-3. Therefore, an alternative rapid and robust reverse genetics platform for RNA viruses would benefit the research community. Here we show the full functionality of a yeast-based synthetic genomics platform to genetically reconstruct diverse RNA viruses, including members of the Coronaviridae, Flaviviridae and Paramyxoviridae families. Viral subgenomic fragments were generated using viral isolates, cloned viral DNA, clinical samples, or synthetic DNA, and reassembled in one step in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using transformation associated recombination (TAR) cloning to maintain the genome as a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC). T7-RNA polymerase has been used to generate infectious RNA to rescue viable virus. Based on this platform we have been
As part of the effort to sequence the genome of Rattus norvegicus, we constructed a physical map comprised of fingerprinted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the CHORI-230 BAC library. These BAC clones provide approximately 13-fold redundant coverage of the genome and have been assembled into 376 fingerprint contigs. A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) map was also constructed and aligned with the BAC map via fingerprinted BAC and P1 artificial chromosome clones (PACs) sharing interspersed repetitive sequence markers with the YAC-based physical map. We have annotated 95% of the fingerprint map clones in contigs with coordinates on the version 3.1 rat genome sequence assembly, using BAC-end sequences and in silico mapping methods. These coordinates have allowed anchoring 358 of the 376 fingerprint map contigs onto the sequence assembly. Of these, 324 contigs are anchored to rat genome sequences localized to chromosomes, and 34 contigs are anchored to unlocalized portions of the ...