In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
The dry cells of any suitable strain of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE or CANDIDA. It can be obtained as a by-product from the brewing of beer or by growing on media not suitable for beer production. Dried yeast serves as a source of protein and VITAMIN B COMPLEX.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.
The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
Protein factors released from one species of YEAST that are selectively toxic to another species of yeast.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.
PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.

11q23.1 and 11q25-qter YACs suppress tumour growth in vivo. (1/671)

Frequent allelic deletion at chromosome 11q22-q23.1 has been described in breast cancer and a number of other malignancies, suggesting putative tumour suppressor gene(s) within the approximately 8 Mb deleted region. In addition, we recently described another locus, at the 11q25-qter region, frequently deleted in breast cancer, suggesting additional tumour suppressor gene(s) in this approximately 2 Mb deleted region. An 11q YAC contig was accessed and three YACs, one containing the candidate gene ATM at 11q23.1, and two contiguous YACs (overlapping for approximately 400-600 kb) overlying most of the 11q25 deleted region, were retrofitted with a G418 resistance marker and transfected into murine A9 fibrosarcoma cells. Selected A9 transfectant clones (and control untransfected and 'irrelevant' alphoid YAC transfectant A9 clones) were assayed for in vivo tumorigenicity in athymic female Balb c-nu/nu mice. All the 11q YAC transfectant clones demonstrated significant tumour suppression compared to the control untransfected and 'irrelevant' YAC transfected A9 cells. These results define two discrete tumour suppressor loci on chromosome 11q by functional complementation, one to a approximately 1.2 Mb region on 11q23.1 (containing the ATM locus) and another to a approximately 400-600 kb subterminal region on 11q25-qter.  (+info)

Deletion of a region that is a candidate for the difference between the deletion forms of hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin and deltabeta-thalassemia affects beta- but not gamma-globin gene expression. (2/671)

The analysis of a number of cases of beta-globin thalassemia and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) due to large deletions in the beta-globin locus has led to the identification of several DNA elements that have been implicated in the switch from human fetal gamma- to adult beta-globin gene expression. We have tested this hypothesis for an element that covers the minimal distance between the thalassemia and HPFH deletions and is thought to be responsible for the difference between a deletion HPFH and deltabeta-thalassemia, located 5' of the delta-globin gene. This element has been deleted from a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) containing the complete human beta-globin locus. Analysis of this modified YAC in transgenic mice shows that early embryonic expression is unaffected, but in the fetal liver it is subject to position effects. In addition, the efficiency of transcription of the beta-globin gene is decreased, but the developmental silencing of the gamma-globin genes is unaffected by the deletion. These results show that the deleted element is involved in the activation of the beta-globin gene perhaps through the loss of a structural function required for gene activation by long-range interactions.  (+info)

Isolation of human transcripts expressed in hamster cells from YACs by cDNA representational difference analysis. (3/671)

Gene isolation methods used during positional cloning rely on physical contigs consisting of bacterial artificial chromosomes, P1, or cosmid clones. However, in most instances, the initial framework for physical mapping consists of contigs of yeast artificial chromosome (YACs), large vectors that are suboptimal substrates for gene isolation. Here we report a strategy to identify gene sequences contained within a YAC by using cDNA representational difference analysis (RDA) to directly isolate transcripts expressed from the YAC in mammalian cells. The RDA tester cDNAs were generated from a previously reported hamster cell line derived by stable transfer of a 590-kb YAC (911D5) that expressed NPC1, the human gene responsible for Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C). The driver cDNAs were generated from a control hamster cell line that did not contain the YAC that expressed NPC1. Among the gene fragments obtained by RDA, NPC1 was the most abundant product. In addition, two non-NPC1 fragments were isolated that were mapped to and expressed from 911D5. One of these RDA gene fragments (7-R) spans more than one exon and has 98% sequence identity with a human cDNA clone reported previously as an expressed sequence tag (EST), but not mapped to a chromosomal region. The other fragment (2-R) that had no significant sequence similarities with known mammalian genes or ESTs, was further localized to the region of overlap between YACs 911D5 and 844E3. The latter YAC is part of a contig across the NP-C candidate region, but does not contain NPC1. This two-part approach in which stable YAC transfer is followed by cDNA RDA should be a useful adjunct strategy to expedite the cloning of human genes when a YAC contig is available across a candidate interval.  (+info)

An improved method for routine preparation of intact artificial chromosome DNA (340-1000 kb) for transfection into human cells. (4/671)

The transfer of high molecular weight (HMW) DNA into mammalian cells is an important strategy for assessing human gene expression and chromosome structure and function. However, using current methods, it is difficult to dependably prepare intact HMW DNA because of the susceptibility of the DNA to degradation and physical shearing. Here we describe a strategy whereby intact artificial chromosome DNA (as large as 1 Mb) can be routinely prepared from yeast. Strict adherence to this protocol has resulted in: (i) >90% of liquid DNA preparations containing largely intact DNA; (ii) transfection efficiencies for the development of stable human clonal cell lines ranging from 5 x 10(-7) to 8.8 x 10(-5); and (iii) the presence of markers from both YAC arms in 30-42% of the human fibrosarcoma cell HT1080 clones and 100% of the CF lung epithelial cell lines IB3-1 and CFT1 clones, suggesting that the HMW DNA is potentially intact in a substantial proportion of clones. Using this protocol for DNA preparation, successful transfection of functional 1 Mb human artificial chromosome DNA into human cells has also been achieved. This methodology should prove useful to those interested in using HMW human DNA for gene expression and functional analysis or for linear artificial chromosome construction, since integrity is absolutely critical for the success of these studies.  (+info)

Hypersensitive site 2 specifies a unique function within the human beta-globin locus control region to stimulate globin gene transcription. (5/671)

The human beta-globin locus control region (LCR) harbors both strong chromatin opening and enhancer activity when assayed in transgenic mice. To understand the contribution of individual DNase I hypersensitive sites (HS) to the function of the human beta-globin LCR, we have mutated the core elements within the context of a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) carrying the entire locus and then analyzed the effect of these mutations on the formation of LCR HS elements and expression of the genes in transgenic mice. In the present study, we examined the consequences of two different HS2 mutations. We first generated seven YAC transgenic lines bearing a deletion of the 375-bp core enhancer of HS2. Single-copy HS2 deletion mutants exhibited severely depressed HS site formation and expression of all of the human beta-globin genes at every developmental stage, confirming that HS2 is a vital, integral component of the LCR. We also analyzed four transgenic lines in which the core element of HS2 was replaced by that of HS3 and found that while HS3 is able to restore the chromatin-opening activity of the LCR, it is not able to functionally replace HS2 in mediating high-level globin gene transcription. These results continue to support the hypothesis that HS2, HS3, and HS4 act as a single, integral unit to regulate human globin gene transcription as a holocomplex, but they can also be interpreted to say that formation of a DNase I hypersensitive holocomplex alone is not sufficient for mediating high-level globin gene transcription. We therefore propose that the core elements must productively interact with one another to generate a unique subdomain within the nucleoprotein holocomplex that interacts in a stage-specific manner with individual globin gene promoters.  (+info)

Xist yeast artificial chromosome transgenes function as X-inactivation centers only in multicopy arrays and not as single copies. (6/671)

X-chromosome inactivation in female mammals is controlled by the X-inactivation center (Xic). This locus is required for inactivation in cis and is thought to be involved in the counting process which ensures that only a single X chromosome remains active per diploid cell. The Xist gene maps to the Xic region and has been shown to be essential for inactivation in cis. Transgenesis represents a stringent test for defining the minimal region that can carry out the functions attributed to the Xic. Although YAC and cosmid Xist-containing transgenes have previously been reported to be capable of cis inactivation and counting, the transgenes were all present as multicopy arrays and it was unclear to what extent individual copies are functional. Using two different yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), we have found that single-copy transgenes, unlike multicopy arrays, can induce neither inactivation in cis nor counting. These results demonstrate that despite their large size and the presence of Xist, the YACs that we have tested lack sequences critical for autonomous function with respect to X inactivation.  (+info)

Delineation of the critical deletion region for congenital heart defects, on chromosome 8p23.1. (7/671)

Deletions in the distal region of chromosome 8p (del8p) are associated with congenital heart malformations. Other major manifestations include microcephaly, intrauterine growth retardation, mental retardation, and a characteristic hyperactive, impulsive behavior. We studied genotype-phenotype correlations in nine unrelated patients with a de novo del8p, by using the combination of classic cytogenetics, FISH, and the analysis of polymorphic DNA markers. With the exception of one large terminal deletion, all deletions were interstitial. In five patients, a commonly deleted region of approximately 6 Mb was present, with breakpoints clustering in the same regions. One patient without a heart defect or microcephaly but with mild mental retardation and characteristic behavior had a smaller deletion within this commonly deleted region. Two patients without a heart defect had a more proximal interstitial deletion that did not overlap with the commonly deleted region. Taken together, these data allowed us to define the critical deletion regions for the major features of a del8p.  (+info)

Molecular cytogenetic detection of 9q34 breakpoints associated with nail patella syndrome. (8/671)

The nail patella syndrome (NPS1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by dysplasia of the finger nails and skeletal abnormalities. NPS1 has been mapped to 9q34, to a 1 cM interval between D9S315 and the adenylate kinase gene (AK1). We have mapped the breakpoints within the candidate NPS1 region in two unrelated patients with balanced translocations. One patient [46,XY,t(1;9)(q32.1;q34)] was detected during a systematic survey of old cytogenetic files in Denmark and southern Sweden. The other patient [46,XY,t(9;17)(q34.1;q25)] was reported previously. D9S315 and AK1 were used to isolate YACs, from which endclones were used to isolate PACs. Two overlapping PAC clones span the 9q34 breakpoints in both patients, suggesting that NPS1 is caused by haploinsufficiency due to truncation or otherwise inactivation of a gene at or in the vicinity of the breakpoints.  (+info)

To test whether human GATA-1 (hGATA-1) is involved in the transcriptional control of globin gene switching, transgenic mice were produced overexpressing hGATA-1. These were crossed with mice carrying a human beta-globin locus yeast artificial chromosome (beta YAC), and globin gene expression was analyzed in their progeny. Mice carrying both the hGATA-1 and the beta YAC transgenes have normal levels of gamma- and beta-globin mRNA, with no distortion in the rate or in the timing of gamma-to-beta switch, indicating that hGATA-1 is not involved in the developmental control of gamma- and beta-globin genes. In contrast, mice carrying the hGATA-1 and the beta YAC transgenes have 5- to 6-fold lower expression of the human epsilon globin gene compared with beta YAC mice lacking the hGATA-1 transgene. These results provide direct in vivo evidence that hGATA-1 is a specific repressor of human epsilon gene expression. These findings also suggest that binary transgenic mouse systems based on overexpression ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about Yeast Artificial Chromosome (YAC) at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about Yeast Artificial Chromosome (YAC) easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
The majority of chromosomal translocations breakpoints are within regions of the genome where few DNA probes are available. The use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) containing long stretches of human DNA allows dispersed DNA markers to be used to identify the position of breakpoints but does not readily allow subcloning of the precise breakpoint within the YAC DNA nor the cDNAs containing the affected genes. We describe a procedure allowing rapid isolation of cDNAs corresponding to genes within a YAC clone. Random cDNA is hybridised to PCR-generated biotinylated fragments of total DNA from a yeast strain harbouring a YAC clone. The hybrids can be recovered to facilitate subsequent cloning of the cDNA molecules. The application of this method to the cloning of cDNA molecules carrying sequences involved in the translocation t(4;11)(q21;q23) is illustrated.
Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are genetically engineered chromosomes derived from the DNA of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is then ligated into a bacterial plasmid. By inserting large fragments of DNA, from 100-1000 kb, the inserted sequences can be cloned and physically mapped using a process called chromosome walking. This is the process that was initially used for the Human Genome Project, however due to stability issues, YACs were abandoned for the use of Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC). Beginning with the initial research of the Rankin et al., Strul et al., and Hsaio et al., the inherently fragile chromosome was stabilized by discovering the necessary autonomously replicating sequence (ARS); a refined YAC utilizing this data was described in 1983 by Murray et al. The primary components of a YAC are the ARS, centromere, and telomeres from S. cerevisiae. Additionally, selectable marker genes, such as antibiotic resistance and a visible marker, are utilized to select ...
From: Dr. Kenneth Fischbeck To: chromosome-22 at net.bio.net.in Subject: chr 22 YAC screening As part of the genome center here in Philadelphia, we have been identifying YACs with chromosome 22 STSs. We screen both a YAC library made locally from 22-only hybrid cell line KG1 and total genomic YAC libraries made by CEPH & Genethon. We now would like to make this service available to the genetics community in general. For anyone who submits primers for a chromosome 22 STS, we will screen the YAC libraries with the STS and send the positive colonies back to the submitter. There will be no charge for this service. If you are interested in participating, please let me know. K. Fischbeck e-mail: fischbeck at a1.mscf.upenn.edu ...
Originated from a bacterial plasmid, a YAC contains a yeast centromeric region (CEN), a yeast origin of DNA replication, a cluster of unique rectriction sites and a selectable marker and a telomere region at the en of each arm. YACs are capable of cloning extremely large segments of DNA (over 1 megabase long) into a host cell, where the DNA is propagated along with the other chromosomes of the yeast cell.. ...
A vector (abbreviated YAC) used to clone DNA fragments (up to 400 kilobase|kb); it is constructed from the telomere|telomeric, centromere|centromeric, a...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The large regions of DNA that can be cloned in yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are ideal for expression studies of the complex genes and gene clusters found in the mammalian genome. Such studies...
BACKGROUND:Mutagenesis of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) often requires analysis of large numbers of yeast clones to obtain correctly targeted mutants. Conventional ways to isolate yeast genomic DNA utilize either ...
Bell CJ, Budarf ML, Nieuwenhuijsen BW, Barnoski BL, Buetow KH, Campbell K, Colbert AM, Collins J, Daly M, Desjardins PR, et al, Integration of physical, breakpoint and genetic maps of chromosome 22. Localization of 587 yeast artificial chromosomes with 238 mapped markers. Hum Mol Genet4:59-69 ...
We have synthesized a 582,970-base pair Mycoplasma genitalium genome. This synthetic genome, named M. genitalium JCVI-1.0, contains all the genes of wild-type M. genitalium G37 except MG408, which was disrupted by an antibiotic marker to block pathogenicity and to allow for selection. To identify the genome as synthetic, we inserted watermarks at intergenic sites known to tolerate transposon insertions. Overlapping cassettes of 5 to 7 kilobases (kb), assembled from chemically synthesized oligonucleotides, were joined by in vitro recombination to produce intermediate assemblies of approximately 24 kb, 72 kb (1/8 genome), and 144 kb (1/4 genome), which were all cloned as bacterial artificial chromosomes in Escherichia coli. Most of these intermediate clones were sequenced, and clones of all four 1/4 genomes with the correct sequence were identified. The complete synthetic genome was assembled by transformation-associated recombination cloning in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, then ...
During the construction of yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) libraries to facilitate mapping of the human genome, two YACs may be cotransformed into the same yeast cell, making further analysis very difficult. We present a simple method to rescue the required YAC that utilizes the segregation of chromosomes at meiosis. In brief, we crossed the cotransformed yeast cell with a non-YAC-containing strain and induced the resulting diploid to sporulate and undergo meiosis. The new haploid generation included some yeast cells that contained only the desired YAC. These YACs were analyzed by conventional methods. To exclude the possibility that major rearrangement occurred during the procedure, we analyzed the YACs with restriction enzymes that cut only rarely. We conclude that this is a useful technique to rescue cotransformed YACs.
A continuous array of overlapping clones covering the entire human chromosome 21q was constructed from human yeast artificial chromosome libraries using sequence-tagged sites as landmarks specifically detected by polymerase chain reaction. The yeast artificial chromosome contiguous unit starts with pericentromeric and ends with subtelomeric loci of 21q. The resulting order of sequence-tagged sites is consistent with other physical and genetic mapping data. This set of overlapping clones will promote our knowledge of the structure of this chromosome and the function of its genes.
Typically the chromosome also contains a selection marker such as TRP1, Lys2 or Ura3. Minimal size for a YAC is between 50kb and 100kb, while maximum sizes are 1Mb to 3Mb. A common tool for constructing YACs is a shuttle plasmid such as pYAC4 which replicates in E. coli, has a multiple cloning site, and a pair of telomeres which can be cleaved to form a linear fragment. Available as an E.coli plasmid ATCC 67379, sequence at U01086. There are two common centromere sequences, CEN4 and CEN6. CEN4 is found in most yeast centromere-containiing vectors, such as pYAC4. These vectors typically use ARS1 sequences. The pRS313- pRS316 plasmids use the CEN6 + ARSH4 cassette (Sikorski89). ...
Herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) is an alphaherpesvirus that is widely used as a live vaccine against Marek's disease because of its antigenic relationship with Marek's disease virus (MDV). In spite of a similar genome structure, HVT has several unique genes, the functions of which are not completely understood. As a first step in carrying out detailed analysis of the functions of the HVT genes, a full-length infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of HVT was constructed. DNA from two independent BAC clones, upon transfection into chicken embryo fibroblasts, produced plaques similar to those produced by the wild-type virus. Viruses derived from the BAC clones were stable during in vitro passage, but showed differences in in vitro growth kinetics compared with the wild-type virus. Using a one-step mutagenesis protocol to delete the essential glycoprotein B gene from the HVT genome, followed by construction of the revertant virus, BAC clones of HVT were shown to be amenable to standard
Reverse genetics has been an indispensable tool revolutionising insights into viral pathogenesis and vaccine development. Large RNA virus genomes, such as from Coronaviruses, are cumbersome to clone and manipulate in E. coli due to size and occasional instability1-3. Therefore, an alternative rapid and robust reverse genetics platform for RNA viruses would benefit the research community. Here we show the full functionality of a yeast-based synthetic genomics platform to genetically reconstruct diverse RNA viruses, including members of the Coronaviridae, Flaviviridae and Paramyxoviridae families. Viral subgenomic fragments were generated using viral isolates, cloned viral DNA, clinical samples, or synthetic DNA, and reassembled in one step in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using transformation associated recombination (TAR) cloning to maintain the genome as a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC). T7-RNA polymerase has been used to generate infectious RNA to rescue viable virus. Based on this platform we have been
The set of clone ends is dumped as part of the gff files: http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Projects/C_elegans/WORMBASE/GFF_files.shtml This is the source for the extents displayed in WormBase. The caveat with this is that the true end is not marked up for all clones. The early cosmids do not have such annotations because nobody thought about marking them up. Later cosmids do have clone left and right ends as this became part of the standard procedure. Finally, many of the YACs do not have clone ends because the segment submitted to GenBank/EMBL is much smaller than the full clone, and hence the true ends lie within sequences already finished at that stage of the sequencing (i.e. we never went back to update clone ends in sequence already finished ...
The set of clone ends is dumped as part of the gff files: http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Projects/C_elegans/WORMBASE/GFF_files.shtml This is the source for the extents displayed in WormBase. The caveat with this is that the true end is not marked up for all clones. The early cosmids do not have such annotations because nobody thought about marking them up. Later cosmids do have clone left and right ends as this became part of the standard procedure. Finally, many of the YACs do not have clone ends because the segment submitted to GenBank/EMBL is much smaller than the full clone, and hence the true ends lie within sequences already finished at that stage of the sequencing (i.e. we never went back to update clone ends in sequence already finished ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Construction and characterization of a yeast artificial chromosome library containing 1.5 equivalents of human chromosome 21. AU - Potier, M. C.. AU - Kuo, W. L.. AU - Dutriaux, A.. AU - Gray, J.. AU - Goedert, M.. PY - 1992/10. Y1 - 1992/10. N2 - A library of yeast artificaial chromosomes (YACs) was constructed from a human/hamster somatic cell hybrid containing human chromosome 21 (q11-qter). Cells were embedded in agarose, and the DNA was partially digested with EcoRI, released into solution by agarase treatment of the agarose plugs, ligated into pYAC4, and transferred into yeast. Doule screening of the yeast transformants with human and hamster genomic DNA allowed the selection of clones hybridizing only with human DNA. The library consists of 321 clones, amounting to 1.5 equivalents (61 Mb) of chromosome 21. The mean YAC size calculated from 178 clones is 190 ± 100 kb. Screening of the library with eight sequence-tagged sites gave six positives. Among 21 YACs tested by in ...
Huntingtons disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that affects men and women in equal numbers, but some epidemiological studies indicate there may be sex differences in disease progression. One of the early symptoms of HD is disruptions in the circadian timing system, but it is currently unknown whether sex is a factor in these alterations. Since sex differences in HD could provide important insights to understand cellular and molecular mechanism(s) and designing early intervention strategies, we used the bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mouse model of HD (BACHD) to examine whether sex differences in circadian behavioral rhythms are detectable in an animal model of the disease. Similar to BACHD males, BACHD females display circadian disruptions at both 3 and 6 months of age; however, deficits to BACHD female mouse activity levels, rhythm precision, and behavioral fragmentation are either delayed or less severe relative to males. These sex differences are associated
We have used a 1-Mb YAC containing alpha satellite DNA to construct a functional HAC vector by modification with a selectable marker, human telomeres, and a putative origin of replication. YAC 674E2 was selected for this purpose because of its size from among several YACs identified during screening of a randomly chosen subset of the CEPH YAC library with a degenerate alpha satellite probe. Other than the presence of alpha satellite DNA (14) there was no a priori reason to expect that 674E2 would generate a functional HAC. It is now apparent that L2H2 efficiently forms artificial chromosomes as indicated by the formation of HACs in ≈30% of the clonal cell lines that contained both arms of the HAC vector. Detailed analysis of one of these clonal lines, 64b5, indicates that the HAC formed by L2H2 contains human telomeres, binds CENP-E, and is mitotically stable in the absence of G418 selection for more than 100 generations.. L2H2 DNA did not always form HACs after transfection; it was sometimes ...
As part of the effort to sequence the genome of Rattus norvegicus, we constructed a physical map comprised of fingerprinted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the CHORI-230 BAC library. These BAC clones provide approximately 13-fold redundant coverage of the genome and have been assembled into 376 fingerprint contigs. A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) map was also constructed and aligned with the BAC map via fingerprinted BAC and P1 artificial chromosome clones (PACs) sharing interspersed repetitive sequence markers with the YAC-based physical map. We have annotated 95% of the fingerprint map clones in contigs with coordinates on the version 3.1 rat genome sequence assembly, using BAC-end sequences and in silico mapping methods. These coordinates have allowed anchoring 358 of the 376 fingerprint map contigs onto the sequence assembly. Of these, 324 contigs are anchored to rat genome sequences localized to chromosomes, and 34 contigs are anchored to unlocalized portions of the ...
...Maren Bell and Robert Mortimer Human Genome Center Divisionof Cel... Introduction Transformation of ye... Materials and Methods The YAC use...,Electroporation,of,Yeast,Artificial,Chromosomes,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Now that weve learned a bit about F factors, you might imagine how a cloning vector could be created that was based on an F factor origin of replication. We call such engineered F plasmids BACs or Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. BACs are capable of carrying approximately 200 kbp of inserted DNA sequence, and the F factor origin of replication maintains their level at approximately one copy per cell. Of course, we neednt stop there! We can also use YACs which are Yeast Artificial Chromosomes, and depend on being able to replicate and be maintained in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. YACs can carry approximately 500 kbp of foreign DNA, though they are often criticized due to the problem of natural recombination in the host.. Handling DNA of this size is a real problem, as I have mentioned before, due to the potential for shearing. The way this is solved is to embed the cells from which a library is going to be made, in low melting point agarose. The cells can be lysed in the agarose, simply be ...
In addition to XLacZ+/- mosaics, the suitability of transgenic mice from lines Y001deltaDRR and Y223 [30] (both displaying mosaic corneal GFP expression) were evaluated for wound healing studies. These animals carry a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) containing the human PAX6 locus [31] into which a GFP reporter gene has been inserted at the PAX6 ATG start codon, placing it under the control of the PAX6 regulatory elements. This also eliminates production of PAX6 protein from the YAC ensuring that wild type Pax6 levels in these mice are unaffected. Both lines demonstrated patterns of GFP-positive and GFP-negative radial corneal stripes (Fig. 5) qualitatively similar to those observed in XLacZ+/- mosaics (Fig. 2). The reason for the mosaic transgene expression is not clear but it probably involves stochastic transgene inactivation early in development so that only a proportion of adult limbal stem cells express GFP. Line Y001 contains a single copy of the YAC with a 10-20 kb truncation, while ...
SCORE============================================Contig000140============================================ 668 ============================================Contig002535============================================ 810 2 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------,JMFF026E19 ,----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------rJMFF026E19 2 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------,JMFF035C08 ,----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------rJMFF035C08 4 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------,JMFF009N06 ,----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------rJMFF009N06 9 -------------------------------------------------------------------,JMFF012H01 ...
SCORE============================================Contig004682============================================ 660 ============================================Contig013845============================================1162 57 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------,JMFF051H21 ,----------------------------------------rJMFF051H21 68 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------,JMFF044I04 ,----------------------------------------------------rJMFF044I04 72 ---------------------------------------------------------------------,JMFF037P06 ,-----------------------------------------------------------------rJMFF037P06 81 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------,JMFF025B05 ,-----------------------------------------------------------------rJMFF025B05 110 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------,JMFF028E21 ...
Expression patterns in the globin gene cluster are subject to developmental regulation in vivo. While the γA and γG genes are expressed in fetal liver, both are silenced in adult erythrocytes. In order to decipher the role of DNA methylation in this process, we generated a YAC transgenic mouse system that allowed us to control γA methylation during development. DNA methylation causes a 20-fold repression of γA both in non-erythroid and adult erythroid cells. In erythroid cells this modification works as a dominant mechanism to repress γ gene expression, probably through changes in histone acetylation that prevent the binding of erythroid transcription factors to the promoter. These studies demonstrate that DNA methylation serves as an elegant in vivo fine-tuning device for selecting appropriate genes in the globin locus. In addition, our findings provide a mechanism for understanding the high levels of γ-globin transcription seen in patients with Hereditary Persistence of Fetal Hemoglobin, and
Thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL-) PCR is an efficient technique for amplifying insert ends from yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) and P1 clones. Highly specific amplification is achieved without resort to complex manipulations before or after PCR. The adaptation of this method for recovery and m …
A P1-derived artificial chromosome is a DNA construct that was derived from the DNA of P1 bacteriophage. It can carry large amounts (about 100-300 kilobases) of other sequences for a variety of bioengineering purposes. It is one type of vector used to clone DNA fragments (100- to 300-kb insert size; average, 150 kb) in Escherichia coli cells. P1 was developed as a cloning vector by Nat Sternberg and colleagues in the 1990s.[1][2] ...
If you are a society or association member and require assistance with obtaining online access instructions please contact our Journal Customer Services team ...
Schäfer BW، Wicki R، Engelkamp D، Mattei MG، Heizmann CW (1995). Isolation of a YAC clone covering a cluster of nine S100 genes on human chromosome 1q21: rationale for a new nomenclature of the S100 calcium-binding protein family. Genomics. 25 (3): 638-43. PMID 7759097. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(95)80005-7. ...
Winther, K. T., Thygesen, K. S., Jacobsen, K. W., Schiøtz, J., García de Abajo, F. J. & Puska, M. J.. 01/09/2011 → 13/08/2015 ...
Molecular genetic studies of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum have been hampered in part due to difficulties in stably cloning and propagating parasite genomic DNA in bacteria. This is thought to be a result of the unusual A+T bias (|80%) in the parasites DNA. Pulsed-field gel electrophoretic separation of P. falciparum chromosomes has shown that large chromosomal polymorphisms, resulting from the deletion of DNA from chromosome ends, frequently occur. Understanding the biological implications of this chromosomal polymorphism will require the analysis of large regions of genomic, and in particular telomeric, DNA. To overcome the limitations of cloning parasite DNA in bacteria, we have cloned genomic DNA from the P. falciparum strain FCR3 in yeast as artificial chromosomes. A pYAC4 library with an average insert size of approximately 100 kb was established and found to have a three to fourfold redundancy for single-copy genes. Unlike bacterial hosts, yeast stably maintain and propagate
In order to define a functional human centromere sequence, an artificial chromosome was constructed as a reproducible DNA molecule. Mammalian telomere repeats and a selectable marker were introduced into yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) containing alphoid DNA from the centromere region of human c …
Here we report a technique of laser chromosome welding that uses a violet pulse laser micro-beam for welding. The technique can integrate any size of a desired chromosome fragment into recipient chromosomes by combining with other techniques of laser chromosome manipulation such as chromosome cutting, moving, and stretching. We demonstrated that our method could perform chromosomal modifications with high precision, speed and ease of use in the absence of restriction enzymes, DNA ligases and DNA polymerases. Unlike the conventional methods such as de novo artificial chromosome synthesis, our method has no limitation on the size of the inserted chromosome fragment. The inserted DNA size can be precisely defined and the processed chromosome can retain its intrinsic structure and integrity. Therefore, our technique provides a high quality alternative approach to directed genetic recombination, and can be used for chromosomal repair, removal of defects and artificial chromosome creation. The ...
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.. A method for construction of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contigs from a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) physical map is described. An approximately 2 Mb contig, consisting of two large BAC contigs linked by a small YAC, has been assembled in the region around 80 cM of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 2. Clones from this contig will facilitate gene isolation in the region and can be used directly as substrates for DNA sequencing.. MeSH Terms ...
A series of 130 DNA probes, hybridized to the CIC YAC library, are ordered along the abscissa. A subset of 58 of the probes, mapped to chromosome 2 by RFLP analysis, serve as contact points between the genetic and physical maps. The positions of markers mapped to the recombinant inbred lines (7) are indicated in cM above the marker names. When a set of probes hybridized to the same YACs, their order is listed by their position in the genetic map (7). If no genetic or auxilliary data (e.g. cosmid contig (4)) was available, the exact probe order is indeterminate and is arbitrarily assigned.. A line drawn above a marker indicates a difference in marker order between the physical and genetic maps. Markers designated RI have been mapped by us to the recombinant inbred populations and are in correct relative position (with one exception, 15414, marked RI-?) to the markers on either side (no number is indicated as adding markers and using a different mapping program generates different absolute ...
Medical definition of bacterial artificial chromosome: a genetically engineered bacterial chromosome that is used as a vector to clone DNA segments, …
OPEC is an organization in name only and its members are political entities who are motivated by political factors, says Wells Fargo Funds Brian Jacobsen.
TY - JOUR. T1 - TTC4, a novel human gene containing the tetratricopeptide repeat and mapping to the region of chromosome 1p31 that is frequently deleted in sporadic breast cancer. AU - Su, Guanfang. AU - Roberts, Terry. AU - Cowell, John Kenneth. PY - 1999/1/15. Y1 - 1999/1/15. N2 - The 1p31 region shows loss of heterozygosity in up to 50% of human breast cancers, indicating the presence of a tumor suppressor gene in this location. We have mapped six novel ESTs to a 15-Mb contig of yeast artificial chromosomes spanning the critical region of 1p31. One of these ESTs was localized within the contig to the region most commonly undergoing loss of heterozygosity in breast cancer. The corresponding gene sequence for this EST was established by cDNA cloning and RACE procedures. This gene is 2 kb long and contains a tetratricopeptide repeat motif and a coiled-coil domain. This family of genes has been implicated in a wide variety of functions, including tumorigenesis. This is the fourth member of the ...
Ilse Jacobsen softshell coat 3 4 RAIN50 smoked pearl,ilse jacobsen factory store,ilse jacobsen softshell outlet,ilse jacobsen shoes uk,enjoy great discount,Ilse Jacobsen udsalg spar op til 75%. Online outlet,thesassylady.com
Eukaryotic DNA is packaged in chromatin, whose repeating subunit, the nucleosome, consists of an octamer of histone proteins wrapped by about 147bp of DNA. This packaging affects the accessibility of DNA and hence any process that occurs on DNA, such as replication, repair, and transcription. An early observation from genome-wide nucleosome mapping in yeast was that genes had a surprisingly characteristic structure, which has motivated studies to understand what determines this architecture. Both sequence and trans acting factors are known to influence chromatin packaging, but the relative contributions of cis and trans determinants of nucleosome positioning is debated. Here we present data using genetic approaches to examine the contributions of cis and trans acting factors on nucleosome positioning in budding yeast. We developed the use of yeast artificial chromosomes to exploit quantitative differences in the chromatin structures of different yeast species. This allows us to place approximately 150kb
Michael Tyers of the University of Montreal in Canada will develop a synthetic biology platform to generate vast libraries of natural product-like compounds and use them to identify new drugs for tuberculosis. Traditional drug discovery screens require expensive chemical libraries that are limited in size and scope. Many existing drugs are derived from the natural products of microbes which perform a wide variety of biological functions. This functional diversity is reflected by their structural diversity which is generated by the combinatorial action of hundreds of thousands of different enzymes. They will exploit this natural manufacturing process for the relatively simple and low-cost production of millions to billions of chemically-diverse natural product-like compounds. This will be achieved by expressing different combinations of the enzymes in yeast artificial chromosomes which then allows screening directly in the yeast without the need for costly and time-consuming chemical extraction ...
Michael Tyers of the University of Montreal in Canada will develop a synthetic biology platform to generate vast libraries of natural product-like compounds and use them to identify new drugs for tuberculosis. Traditional drug discovery screens require expensive chemical libraries that are limited in size and scope. Many existing drugs are derived from the natural products of microbes which perform a wide variety of biological functions. This functional diversity is reflected by their structural diversity which is generated by the combinatorial action of hundreds of thousands of different enzymes. They will exploit this natural manufacturing process for the relatively simple and low-cost production of millions to billions of chemically-diverse natural product-like compounds. This will be achieved by expressing different combinations of the enzymes in yeast artificial chromosomes which then allows screening directly in the yeast without the need for costly and time-consuming chemical extraction ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Jacobsen Syndrome (11q Deletion, or 11q-) is a rare chromosomal abnormality which affects perhaps one child in 100,000 in which a portion of the 11th chromosome is missing. It was discovered by Dr. P. Jacobsen in 1973. At that time, the disease was named Jacobsen Syndrome.
Birštonas L, Dallemulle A, López-Berges MS, Jacobsen ID, Offterdinger M, Abt B, Straßburger M, Bauer I, Schmidt O, Sarg B, Lindner H, Haas H, Gsaller F (2020) Multiplex genetic engineering exploiting pyrimidine salvage pathway-based endogenous counterselectable markers. mBio 11(2), e00230-20. Details PubMed Open Access PDF Halder LD, Jo EAH, Hasan MZ, Ferreira-Gomes M, Krüger T, Westermann M, Palme DI, Rambach G, Beyersdorf N, Speth C, Jacobsen ID, Kniemeyer O, Jungnickel B, Zipfel PF, Skerka C (2020) Immune modulation by complement receptor 3-dependent human monocyte TGF-ß1-transporting vesicles. Nat Commun 11(1), 2331. Details PubMed Open Access PDF Ruben S, Garbe E, Mogavero S, Albrecht-Eckardt D, Hellwig D, Häder A, Krüger T, Gerth K, Jacobsen ID, Elshafee O, Brunke S, Hünniger K, Kniemeyer O, Brakhage AA, Morschhäuser J, Hube B, Vylkova S, Kurzai O, Martin R (2020) Ahr1 and Tup1 contribute to the transcriptional control of virulence-associated genes in Candida albicans. mBio 11(2), ...
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
Sverige Palladium, Malmö Salomon, Säljes Skechers : Ilse Jacobsen - Barnskor Herrskor Damskor Skor för Dam Göteborg Palladium, Nätet Salomon, Autentiska Skechers
See what patients have to say about Dr. Garth Jacobsen, MD, a highly rated General Surgery Specialist in San Diego, CA specializing in Hernia Repair, Inguinal Hernia Repair, Open, Umbilical Hernia.
Dear all, Has anyone done RT-PCR from spheroplast? I mean using spheroplast as template without extracting total RNA. Originally I just used water to lyze spheroplast but all of a sudden my RTPCR has stopped working. This is telling me I have been working on the limit. Any idea how to eliminate the genomic DNA/cellular protein contaminant while keeping the integrity of mRNA? Thanks! BTW, RT=reverse transcription. Regards, Xinxiang ...
bdv sorry. It is for option 1. The mapping of contigs to a reference using BLAT (BLAT/BLAST section). From BLAT generate the syntenylist (baiscally the orientation layout of contigs) which you can use subsequently to Join (you find it in the Artemis/MUMmer section) in an artificial chromosome using spacers and/or linker providing an EMBL layout file as well for inspecting in for instance ACT or Artemis of Sanger.. ...
Design of 454 pyrosequencing contig generated from the digestion of genomic DNA with restriction enzymes (EcoRI and BspEI), the addition of restriction site spe
您的个人资料将用于在您体验本网站的整个过程中为您提供支持、管理对您帐户的访问,以及用于在我们的privacy policy中描述的其他用途。 ...
Cosmid/BAC/YAC end sequences use Cosmid/Bacterial artificial chromosome/Yeast artificial chromosome to sequence the genome from ... Yeast artificial chromosome Venter, J. Craig, Hamilton O. Smith, and Leroy Hood. "A New Cooperative Strategy for Sequencing the ... To get enough chromosome, they need a large number of E. coli culture that 2.5 - 5 litres may be a reasonable amount. Cosmid/ ...
Human artificial chromosome Yeast artificial chromosome Bacterial artificial chromosome. ...
Artificial chromosomes are manufactured chromosomes in the context of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), bacterial artificial ... an organism that transmits disease Human artificial chromosomes Yeast artificial chromosomes Bacterial artificial chromosomes ... chromosomes (BACs), or human artificial chromosomes (HACs). An artificial chromosome can carry a much larger DNA fragment than ... The four major types of vectors are plasmids, viral vectors, cosmids, and artificial chromosomes. Of these, the most commonly ...
Technologies for constructing and testing yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), synthetic yeast genomes (Sc2.0), and virus/phage ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Synthetic yeast genomes (Sc2.0)". Retrieved 2 March 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged ... the project leverages two decades of work on synthetic biology and artificial gene synthesis. The newly created GP-Write ...
Vectors are propagated most commonly in bacterial cells, but if using a YAC (Yeast Artificial Chromosome) then yeast cells may ... a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome or BAC library) or yeast such that each organism contains on average one construct (vector + ... or yeast) cell. Additionally, for cDNA libraries, a system using the Lambda Zap II phage, ExAssist, and 2 E. coli species has ... a variety of artificial methods exist for making libraries of variant genes. Variation throughout the gene can be introduced ...
Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are linear DNA molecules containing the necessary features of an authentic yeast chromosome ... P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs) have features of both P1 vectors and Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs). Similar to P1 ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are circular DNA molecules, usually about 7kb in length, that are capable of holding ... Yoo EY, Kim S, Kim JY, Kim BD (August 2001). "Construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome library ...
... synthetic genomics is to combine DNA contigs by means of homologous recombination performed by the yeast artificial chromosome ... The two new artificial nucleotides or Unnatural Base Pair (UBP) were named d5SICS and dNaM. More technically, these artificial ... The artificial strings of DNA do not encode for anything yet, but scientists speculate they could be designed to manufacture ... Sample, Ian (May 7, 2014). "First life forms to pass on artificial DNA engineered by US scientists". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 ...
... gene syndrome technology transfer transgenic trisomy tumor suppressor gene vector Western blot yeast artificial chromosome (YAC ... Exon Intron nucleotide allele animal model antisense apoptosis autosomal dominant autosome bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC ... Introduction to genetics Genetics Chromosome DNA Genetic diversity Genetic drift Genetic variation Genome Heredity Mutation ... cell heterozygous highly conserved sequence holoprosencephaly homologous recombination homozygous human artificial chromosome ( ...
... techniques for using yeast for DNA cloning, characterization of centromere DNA, and construction of the first artificial ... chromosomes. Many of his later research contributions were carried out in collaboration with his wife, Professor Louise B. ... Bloom, K. (29 April 2015). "Anniversary of the discovery/isolation of the yeast centromere by Clarke and Carbon". Molecular ...
Szostak is also credited with the construction of the world's first yeast artificial chromosome.[2][3][4] ... Yeast transformation: a model system for the study of recombination. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78:6354-6358. ... He shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2009 for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres. ... A mutant with a defect in telomere elongation leads to senescence in yeast. Cell 57:633-643 ...
Cosmid End-sequence profiling Fosmid Human artificial chromosome Yeast artificial chromosome O'Connor M, Peifer M, Bender W ( ... A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is a DNA construct, based on a functional fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid), used for ... The bacterial artificial chromosome's usual insert size is 150-350 kbp. A similar cloning vector called a PAC has also been ... Domi A, Moss B (September 2002). "Cloning the vaccinia virus genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli ...
describen o uso de cromosomas artificiais de lévedo (YAC, Yeast Artificial Chromosome),[41] e Kulesh et al. sentan as bases dos ... "Cloning of Large Segments of Exogenous DNA into Yeast by Means of Artificial Chromosome Vectors" (PDF). Science 236 (4803). ... Artificial Intelligence and Heuristic Methods in Bioinformatics. IOS Press. ISBN 1586032941.. *↑ Murray-Rust, P.; et al. (2005 ... "Proceedings of the Workshop on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems for High Energy and Nuclear ...
Yu, Weichang; Yau, Yuan-Yeu; Birchler, James A. (2016). "Plant artificial chromosome technology and its potential application ... typically yeast or mammalian cells) into a functional chromosome. This approach has been attempted for the introduction of ... The newly synthesized truncated chromosome can then be altered through the insertion of new genes for desired traits. The top- ... Minichromosome technology allows for the stacking of genes side-by-side on the same chromosome thus reducing likelihood of ...
Yeast artificial chromosome. References[edit]. *^ Yarmolinsky M, Hoess R (November 2015). "The Legacy of Nat Sternberg: The ... A P1-derived artificial chromosome is a DNA construct that was derived from the DNA of P1 bacteriophage. It can carry large ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=P1-derived_artificial_chromosome&oldid=903800665" ... Online Medical Dictionary P1-derived artificial chromosome. *P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) definition ...
... bacterial artificial chromosomes, or yeast artificial chromosomes are used. Protein productionEdit. Main article: Expression ... Yeast integrative plasmid (YIp), yeast vectors that rely on integration into the host chromosome for survival and replication, ... Yeast plasmidsEdit. Yeasts naturally harbour various plasmids. Notable among them are 2 μm plasmids-small circular plasmids ... Other examples include aberrant chromosomal fragments, such as double minute chromosomes, that can arise during artificial gene ...
... perfetto approach to in vivo site-directed mutagenesis and chromosome rearrangements with synthetic oligonucleotides in yeast. ... 25 September 2002). Artificial DNA: Methods and Applications. CRC Press. p. 13. ISBN 9781420040166. Nobel Lecture on Invention ... As the cost of DNA oligonucleotides synthesis falls, artificial synthesis of a complete gene is now a viable method for ... Storici F.; Resnick MA (2003). "Delitto perfetto targeted mutagenesis in yeast with oligonucleotides". Genetic Engineering. 25 ...
This process depends on a second homologous chromosome in addition to the damaged chromosome. During logarithmic growth, a DNA ... Enzymatic digestion or agitation with glass beads may also be used to transform yeast cells. Efficiency - Different yeast ... Artificial competence can be induced in laboratory procedures that involve making the cell passively permeable to DNA by ... "An efficient transformation procedure enabling long-term storage of competent cells of various yeast genera". Yeast. 7 (7): 691 ...
Heard E., Mongelard F., Arnaud D., Chureau C., Vourc'h C., Avner P. (1999). "Human XIST yeast artificial chromosome transgenes ...
Artificial chromosomes *P1-derived. *Bacterial. *Yeast. *Human. This genetics article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by ...
Artificial chromosomes *P1-derived *Bacterial *Yeast *Human Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=5- ...
In one application an artificial DNA catalyst was prepared by attaching a copper ion to it through a spacer.[42] The copper - ... Artificial chromosomes *P1-derived *Bacterial *Yeast *Human Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= ...
Artificial chromosomes *P1-derived *Bacterial *Yeast *Human *. Category. This genetics article is a stub. You can help ...
... usually occurs as linear chromosomes in eukaryotes, and circular chromosomes in prokaryotes. The set of chromosomes in a ... Artificial bases. Main article: Nucleic acid analogue. Several artificial nucleobases have been synthesized, and successfully ... At the time, "yeast nucleic acid" (RNA) was thought to occur only in plants, while "thymus nucleic acid" (DNA) only in animals ... such as in chromosome 1. Chromosome 1 is the largest human chromosome with approximately 220 million base pairs, and would be ...
These genes are found on all chromosomes, except the 22 and Y chromosome. High clustering on 6p is observed (140 tRNA genes), ... For example, in yeast, the splicing is not carried out in the nucleus but at the cytoplasmic side of mitochondrial membranes.[ ... Artificial suppressor elongator tRNAs are used to incorporate unnatural amino acids at nonsense codons placed in the coding ... 3D animated GIF showing the structure of phenylalanine-tRNA from yeast (PDB ID 1ehz). White lines indicate base pairing by ...
Yeast Artifitial Chromosome/YAC), বেক্টেৰিয়াৰ কৃত্ৰিম ক্ৰম'জম (Bacterial Artificial Chromosome/BAC) আৰু ভাইৰাছ। এইবোৰৰ ভিতৰত ...
The chromosomes are stained and observed for any changes. Sister chromatid exchange is a symmetrical exchange of chromosome ... Systems similar to Ames test have been developed in yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is generally used. These systems can check ... Muller HJ (July 1927). "Artificial Transmutation of the Gene" (PDF). Science. 66 (1699): 84-7. Bibcode:1927Sci....66...84M. doi ... The gene for the yellow body lies on the X-chromosome. The fruit flies are fed on a diet of test chemical, and progenies are ...
... artificial chromosomes and bacteriophage (such as lambda). The best expression system depends on the gene involved, for example ... For example, common hosts are bacteria (such as E.coli, B. subtilis), yeast (such as S.cerevisiae[4]) or eukaryotic cell lines ... Yeasts[edit]. Expression systems using either S. cerevisiae or Pichia pastoris allow stable and lasting production of proteins ... Commonly used protein production systems include those derived from bacteria,[2] yeast,[3][4]baculovirus/insect,[5] mammalian ...
Artificial chromosomes *P1-derived *Bacterial *Yeast *Human "https://ml.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=സന്ദേശവാഹക_ആർ.എൻ.ഏ& ...
... and Bacterial artificial chromosomes (1 copy per cell).[14]. During conjugation, the rolling circle mode of replication starts ... Each budding yeast origin consists of a short (~11 bp) essential DNA sequence (called the ARS consensus sequence or ACS) that ... In eukaryotes, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were first identified by their ability to support the replication of ... In humans an origin of replication has been originally identified near the Lamin B2 gene on chromosome 19 and the ORC binding ...
Castle's was perhaps the first attempt made in the scientific literature to direct evolution by artificial selection of a trait ... These QTLs are often found on different chromosomes. The number of QTLs which explain variation in the phenotypic trait ... "Finding the sources of missing heritability in a yeast cross". Nature. 494 (7436): 234-237. arXiv:1208.2865. Bibcode:2013Natur ...
Deletion in the 22q11.2 region of chromosome 22 has been associated with schizophrenia and autism.[22][23] Schizophrenia and ... Pleiotropic gene action can limit the rate of multivariate evolution when natural selection, sexual selection or artificial ... "Highly expressed genes in yeast evolve slowly". Genetics. 158 (2): 927-931. PMC 1461684. PMID 11430355 ... The disease is caused by a defect in a single gene on chromosome 12 that codes for enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase , that ...
describen o uso de cromosomas artificiais de lévedo (YAC, Yeast Artificial Chromosome),[41] e Kulesh et al. sentan as bases dos ... "Cloning of Large Segments of Exogenous DNA into Yeast by Means of Artificial Chromosome Vectors" (PDF). Science 236 (4803). ... Artificial Intelligence and Heuristic Methods in Bioinformatics. IOS Press. ISBN 1586032941.. *↑ Murray-Rust, P.; et al. (2005 ... "Proceedings of the Workshop on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems for High Energy and Nuclear ...
Pu'er is a microbially fermented tea obtained through the action of molds, bacteria and yeasts on the harvested leaves of the ... This notion has recently been refuted through a systematic chromosome analysis of the species attributed to many East Asian ... to be sold as the raw product without the artificial accelerated fermentation process. ... yeasts, and a wide range of other microflora. Control over the multiple variables in the ripening process, particularly ...
In evolution, this chromosome has lost most of its content and also most of its genes, while the X chromosome is similar to the ... Widely used model organisms include the gut bacterium Escherichia coli, the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, baker's yeast ( ... artificial selection and migration.[88] ... Although genes were known to exist on chromosomes, chromosomes ... During crossover, chromosomes exchange stretches of DNA, effectively shuffling the gene alleles between the chromosomes.[59] ...
"RNA interference is required for normal centromere function in fission yeast". Chromosome Research. 11 (2): 137-46. doi:10.1023 ... Artificial neural networks are frequently used to design siRNA libraries[120] and to predict their likely efficiency at gene ... In fission yeast this complex contains argonaute, a chromodomain protein Chp1, and a protein called Tas3 of unknown function.[ ... Most studies have focused on the mating-type region in fission yeast, which may not be representative of activities in other ...
"RNA interference is required for normal centromere function in fission yeast". Chromosome Res 11 (2): 137-46. PMID 12733640. ... Ge G, Wong G, Luo B (2005). "Prediction of siRNA knockdown efficiency using artificial neural network models". Biochem Biophys ... Drinnenberg IA, Weinberg DE, Xie KT, Nower JP, Wolfe KH, Fink GR, Bartel DP (2009). "RNAi in Budding Yeast". Science 326 (5952 ... Holmquist G, Ashley T (2006). "Chromosome organization and chromatin modification: influence on genome function and evolution ...
The transport of Mg2+ into mitochondria probably uses ΔΨ as in the mitochondria of yeast, and it is likely that chloroplasts ... Third, the technique of patch-clamp uses isolated sections of natural or artificial membrane in much the same manner as voltage ... "Familial hypomagnesaemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis maps to chromosome 3q27 and is associated with mutations in ... In single-cell organisms such as bacteria and yeast, low levels of magnesium manifests in greatly reduced growth rates. In ...
In gene conversion, a section of genetic material is copied from one chromosome to another, without the donating chromosome ... In genetic engineering, recombination can also refer to artificial and deliberate recombination of disparate pieces of DNA, ... In yeast and other eukaryotic organisms there are two recombinases required for repairing DSBs. The RAD51 protein is required ... This process appears to be an adaptation for repairing DNA damages in the recipient chromosome by HRR.[11] Transformation may ...
... so the majority of altered cells will have the new sequence in only one of the two relevant chromosomes - they are said to be ... an existing gene by replacing it or disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA. They are important animal models for ... "Production of knockout rats using ENU mutagenesis and a yeast-based screening assay". Nature Biotechnology. 21 (6): 645-51. doi ... some of the electroporated stem cells will incorporate the new sequence with the knocked-out gene into their chromosomes in ...
It does not contain gluten.[134] As a result, yeast-raised breads made with soy flour are dense in texture. Among many uses, ... Singh, Ram J.; Nelson, Randall L.; Chung, Gyuhwa (November 2, 2006). Genetic Resources, Chromosome Engineering, and Crop ... In 1931, Ford hired chemists Robert Boyer and Frank Calvert to produce artificial silk. They succeeded in making a textile ...
condensed chromosome. • cytoplasm. • chromosome. • cell nucleus. • lateral element. • macromolecular complex. • ... Artificial tethering of BRCA1 to chromatin was shown to decondense heterochromatin, though the SWI/SNF interacting domain was ... "Yeast two-hybrid screens imply involvement of Fanconi anemia proteins in transcription regulation, cell signaling, oxidative ... condensed nuclear chromosome. • gamma-tubulin ring complex. • BRCA1-A complex. • ubiquitin ligase complex. • plasma membrane. • ...
Holland, John H. (1975). Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems: An Introductory Analysis with Applications to Biology, ... Masel, Joanna; Bergman, Aviv (July 2003). "The evolution of the evolvability properties of the yeast prion [PSI+]". Evolution ( ... "Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ... Control, and Artificial Intelligence. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08460-7. OCLC 1531617.. ...
Consequently, the chromosomes of many eukaryotes contain genes that originated from the genomes of mitochondria and plastids.[ ... Smith AE, Marcker KA (December 1968). "N-formylmethionyl transfer RNA in mitochondria from yeast and rat liver". Journal of ... organelle genomes forge eukaryotic chromosomes". Nature Reviews. Genetics. 5 (2): 123-35. doi:10.1038/nrg1271. PMID 14735123. ... organelle genomes forge eukaryotic chromosomes". Nature Reviews. Genetics. 5 (2): 123-35. doi:10.1038/nrg1271. PMID 14735123. ...
In Yeast genomes, (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) there are five distinct retrotransposon families: Ty1, Ty2, Ty3, Ty4 and Ty5.[29] ... Gerald M. Rubin and Allan C. Spradling pioneered technology to use artificial P elements to insert genes into Drosophila by ... McClintock was experimenting with maize plants that had broken chromosomes.[5] In the winter of 1944-1945, McClintock planted ... Spradling AC, Rubin GM (October 1982). "Transposition of cloned P elements into Drosophila germ line chromosomes". Science. 218 ...
... perfetto approach to in vivo site-directed mutagenesis and chromosome rearrangements with synthetic oligonucleotides in yeast. ... 25 September 2002). Artificial DNA: Methods and Applications. CRC Press. p. 13. ISBN 9781420040166. .. ... As the cost of DNA oligonucleotides synthesis falls, artificial synthesis of a complete gene is now a viable method for ... Storici F.; Resnick MA (2003). "Delitto perfetto targeted mutagenesis in yeast with oligonucleotides". Genetic Engineering. 25 ...
Ang Horizontal gene transfer mula sa bakterya tungo sa mga eukaryote gaya yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae at adzuki bean beetle ... "Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (22): ... Artificial selection. *Biosocial criminology. *Ecological genetics. *Evolutionary aesthetics. *Evolutionary anthropology. * ...
... including baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae),[37][38][39] the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans,[40][41] zebrafish ... It is the partial repeat sequence that prevents the CRISPR-Cas system from targeting the chromosome as base pairing beyond the ... By manipulating the nucleotide sequence of the guide RNA, the artificial Cas9 system could be programmed to target any DNA ... A subtype of chromosomal islands called phage-inducible chromosomal island (PICI) is excised from a bacterial chromosome upon ...
The distinct chromosome territories of chromosome 2 (red) and chromosome 9 (green) are stained with fluorescent in situ ... The pores are about 125 million daltons in molecular weight and consist of around 50 (in yeast) to several hundred proteins (in ... de Roos AD (2006). "The origin of the eukaryotic cell based on conservation of existing interfaces". Artificial Life. 12 (4): ... The mitotic spindle can be seen, stained green, attached to the two sets of chromosomes, stained light blue. All chromosomes ...
Wilner, Eduardo (marts 2006). "Darwin's artificial selection as an experiment". Studies in History and Philosophy of Science ... Masel, Joanna; Bergman, Aviv (juli 2003). "The evolution of the evolvability properties of the yeast prion [PSI+]". Evolution. ... "Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A ... "The Spontaneous Appearance Rate of the Yeast Prion [PSI+] and Its Implications for the Evolution of the Evolvability ...
Number of chromosomes. 5 pairs of autosomes (I, II, III, IV and V) + 1 or 2 sex chromosomes (X[89]). ... C. elegans can also use different species of yeast, including Cryptococcus laurentii and Cryptococcus kuetzingii, as sole ... Most laboratory strains were taken from artificial environments such as gardens and compost piles. More recently, C. elegans ... Hermaphrodites of C. elegans have a matched pair of sex chromosomes (XX); the rare males have only one sex chromosome (X0). ...
B chromosomes[edit]. B chromosomes refer to chromosomes that are not required for the viability or fertility of the organism, ... Curtsinger JW (1981). "Artificial selection on the sex ratio in Drosophila pseudoobscura". Journal of Heredity. 72 (6): 377-381 ... However, since its conception, several examples have been identified, including in yeast,[89] slime moulds,[90] and fire ants.[ ... B chromosomes were first detected over a century ago.[63] Though typically smaller than normal chromosomes, their gene poor, ...
Genome linking with yeast artificial chromosomes.. Coulson A1, Waterston R, Kiff J, Sulston J, Kohara Y. ... However, with the availability of a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) vector, we decided to use this alternative source of ... The haploid genome of Caenorhabditis elegans consists of some 80 x 10(6) base pairs of DNA contained in six chromosomes. The ... and replicate in the same manner as the host chromosomes. ...
... and replication origin sequences needed for replication in yeast cells. Compare cloning vector, cosmid. From the BioTech ...
Make research projects and school reports about Yeast Artificial Chromosome (YAC) easy with credible articles from our FREE, ... and pictures about Yeast Artificial Chromosome (YAC) at Encyclopedia.com. ... Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC). The yeast artificial chromosome, which is often shortened to YAC, is an artificially ... yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) See artificial chromosome. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your ...
Yeast Artificial Chromosome). Originated from a bacterial plasmid, a YAC contains a yeast centromeric region (CEN), a yeast ... where the DNA is propagated along with the other chromosomes of the yeast cell. ...
The use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) containing long stretches of human DNA allows dispersed DNA markers to be used ... Random cDNA is hybridised to PCR-generated biotinylated fragments of total DNA from a yeast strain harbouring a YAC clone. The ... Acute Disease, Amino Acid Sequence, Base Sequence, Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast, Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11, Chromosomes, ... The use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) containing long stretches of human DNA allows dispersed DNA markers to be used ...
... breakpoint and genetic maps of chromosome 22. Localization of 587 yeast artificial chromosomes with 238 mapped markers. Hum Mol ... CHROMOSOME 22 REGIONAL MAPPING PANEL SOMATIC CELL HYBRIDS. CHROMOSOME 7 REGIONAL MAPPING PANEL SOMATIC CELL HYBRIDS. ... GENE MAPPING & DOSAGE STUDIES - CHROMOSOME 22. PCR analysis of DNA from this somatic cell hybrid gave a negative result with a ... GENE MAPPING & DOSAGE STUDIES - CHROMOSOME 7. PCR analysis of DNA from this somatic cell hybrid gave positive results with ...
These were crossed with mice carrying a human beta-globin locus yeast artificial chromosome (beta YAC), and globin gene ...
BACKGROUND:Mutagenesis of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) often requires analysis of large numbers of yeast clones to ... Rapid isolation of yeast genomic DNA: Bust n Grab Susanna Harju; Halyna Fedosyuk; Kenneth Peterson (BioMedCentral, 2004-04-21) ...
Mapping the Drosophila genome with yeast artificial chromosomes Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... The ability to clone large fragments of DNA in yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) has created the possibility of obtaining ...
They had previously created one of the 16 chromosomes which make up yeast. They have now successfully created five more and are ... As a computer scientist, I designed and developed algorithms to recode and edit the DNA sequence of yeast chromosomes. These ... The Synthetic Yeast Project team, led by geneticist Jef Boeke from New York University School of Medicine, set out to design ... The synthetic chromosomes, containing DNA, were entirely designed on a computer, in a very similar way to how we design cars ...
Yeast,Artificial,Chromosomes,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology, ... Transformation of yeast with yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) has traditionally been performed by a PEG-spheroplast ... Electroporation of Yeast Artificial Chromosomes. ...Maren Bell and Robert Mortimer Human Genome Center Divisionof Cel... ...
Mapping the Drosophila genome with yeast artificial chromosomes Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
... ) ist ein künstliches Chromosom, welches der Hefe nachempfunden ist. Es dient als Vektor und erlaubt ... Artificial chromosome - may refer to: * Yeast artificial chromosome * Bacterial artificial chromosome * Human artificial ... Yeast Artificial Chromosome. Ein YAC (Yeast Artificial Chromosome) ist ein künstliches Chromosom, welches der Hefe ... mega yeast artificial chromosome - A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) which can carry particularly large inserts (up to 1Mbp) ...
Isolation of yeast artificial chromosomes free of endogenous yeast chromosomes: construction of alternate hosts with defined ... Copy number amplification of yeast artificial chromosomes. Methods Enzymol. 1992;216:603-14. PubMed ID:1336106 , HubMed [ ... Complete sequence of the yeast artificial chromosome cloning vector pYAC4. Gene. 1994 Apr 8;141(1):125-7. PubMed ID:8163163 , ... Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are synthetic double stranded linear constructs containing the elements necessary for ...
To test whether yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) can be used in the investigation of mammalian development, we analyzed the ... Use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) in studies of mammalian development: production of beta-globin locus YAC mice ... Use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) in studies of mammalian development: production of beta-globin locus YAC mice ... Use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) in studies of mammalian development: production of beta-globin locus YAC mice ...
yeast artificial chromosome;. HAC,. human artificial chromosome;. FISH,. fluorescence in situ hybridization;. CEPH,. Centre ... A human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector was constructed from a 1-Mb yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) that was selected ... Human artificial chromosomes generated by modification of a yeast artificial chromosome containing both human alpha satellite ... Human artificial chromosomes generated by modification of a yeast artificial chromosome containing both human alpha satellite ...
Selected yeast artificial chromosome links: © 1997-2006 Healthboard.com. Healthboard.com is a purely informational website, and ... yeast artificial chromosome. A vector used to clone DNA fragments (up to 400 kb); it is constructed from the telomeric, ... centromeric, and replication origin sequences needed for replication in yeast cells. Compare cloning vector, cosmid.. ...
A human yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library was screened by polymerase chain reaction with oligonucleotide primers ... Metaphase and Interphase Cytogenetics with Alu-PCR-amplified Yeast Artificial Chromosome Clones Containing the BCR Gene and the ... Two clones yielded additional signals on other chromosomes and were excluded from further tests. The band-specific YACs were ... After chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization to GTG-banded human prometaphase chromosomes, seven of nine initially ...
Identification of 3′-terminal exons from yeast artificial chromosomes. David B. Krizman, Tiffany A. Hofmann, Udaya DeSilva, ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Identification of 3′-terminal exons from yeast artificial chromosomes. Together ...
The ADE2 gene is used for yeast selection with consequent disruption of the URA3 gene, allowing direct modification of YACs ... A modification vector has been constructed to facilitate the transfer of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) to mammalian cells ... New vector for transfer of yeast artificial chromosomes to mammalian cells. Markie D., Ragoussis J., Senger G., Rowan A., ... A modification vector has been constructed to facilitate the transfer of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) to mammalian cells ...
Expression screening of a yeast artificial chromosome contig refines the location of the mouse H3a minor histocompatibility ... A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig is described that spans the interval between D2Mit444 and D2Mit17, a region known to ... Expression screening of a yeast artificial chromosome contig refines the location of the mouse H3a minor histocompatibility ... The H3 complex, on mouse Chromosome 2, is an important model locus for understanding mechanisms underlying non-self Ag ...
Artificial, Yeast" by people in this website by year, and whether "Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast" was a major or minor topic ... A yeast artificial chromosome-based physical map of the juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS2) critical region on human ... "Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast" by people in Profiles. ...
... falciparum strain FCR3 in yeast as artificial chromosomes. A pYAC4 library with an average insert size of approximately 100 kb ... Unlike bacterial hosts, yeast stably maintain and propagate large tracts of parasite DNA. Long-range restriction enzyme mapping ... Since the telomeric ends of chromosomes are underrepresented in YAC libraries, we have enriched for these sequences by cloning ... Pulsed-field gel electrophoretic separation of P. falciparum chromosomes has shown that large chromosomal polymorphisms, ...
A yeast artificial chromosome (short YAC) is a vector used to clone large DNA fragments (larger than 100 kb and up to 3000 kb ... Yeast+Artificial+Chromosomes at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Retrieved from "https://www.wikidoc.org/index.php?title=Yeast_artificial_chromosome&oldid=348464" ... YACs are extremely useful as one can get eukaryotic protein products with posttranslational modifications as yeasts are ...
A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) which can carry particularly large inserts (up to 1Mbp) standard YACs typically carry ... mega yeast artificial chromosome. A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) which can carry particularly large inserts (up to 1Mbp ... Мега-дрожжевая искусственная хромосома - * мега дражджавая штучная храмасома * mega yeast artificial chromosome or megaYAC YAC ... Тематики биотехнологии EN mega yeast artificial chromosome … Справочник технического переводчика ...
Proteomics News Protein Online Research Yeast-artificial-chromosome-(YAC) proteomic enzymes Job Career Online Degree Bio ... Yeast artificial chromosome - Wikipedia Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are genetically engineered chromosomes derived from ... Growth Factors that Affect Plant Growth Bread Yeast Fungiwheat Scp Molasses Flavor Food How Yeast Artificial Chromosome Yac ... B. BAC, chromosome artificiel bactérien (Anglais : bacterial artificial chromosome, BAC) Vecteur chromosomique artificiel, ...
We present a simple method to rescue the required YAC that utilizes the segregation of chromosomes at meiosis. In brief, we ... The new haploid generation included some yeast cells that contained only the desired YAC. These YACs were analyzed by ... two YACs may be cotransformed into the same yeast cell, making further analysis very difficult. ... crossed the cotransformed yeast cell with a non-YAC-containing strain and induced the resulting diploid to sporulate and ...
A contig of 36 overlapping yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones has been constructed for the complete Duchenne muscular ... A yeast artificial chromosome contig containing the complete Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene. ... A yeast artificial chromosome contig containing the complete Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene. ... A contig of 36 overlapping yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones has been constructed for the complete Duchenne muscular ...
Members of the Synthetic Yeast Genome Project have synthesized five additional yeast chromosomes from scratch. ... Meet the First Artificial Embryo Made From Stem Cells. By Bob Grant , March 2, 2017 ... Five More Synthetic Yeast Chromosomes Completed. By Anna Azvolinsky , March 9, 2017 ... Image of the Day: Colorful Chromosomes. By The Scientist Staff , March 16, 2017 ...
To investigate the mechanism responsible for this frequent chromosome rearrangement, we characterized the breakpoints in 18 ... individuals with small inv dup(15) chromosomes [i.e., negative for the Prader-Willi (PWS)/Angelman syn … ... is the most common supernumerary marker chromosome in humans. ... the gap in the yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig between ... Refined molecular characterization of the breakpoints in small inv dup(15) chromosomes Hum Genet. 1997 Jan;99(1):11-7. doi: ...
... designer chromosome, a genetic structure carefully engineered to foster scientific discovery. ... In the end, all the yeast carried a bioengineered version of chromosome III. The researchers named the artificial chromosome, ... but the yeast that carry it act like normal yeast.. Previous artificial chromosomes were "copy-and-paste, more or less. It was ... To build the first artificial copy of an entire yeast chromosome, an international team of researchers produced a modified ...
Complete coverage of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome in yeast artificial chromosomes *Elmar Maier ... genome in yeast artificial chromosomes . Opens in a new window. ...
We demonstrate that transfer of a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) containing 230 kb of the human beta-globin locus into mouse ... Use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) for studying control of gene expression: correct regulation of the genes of a human ... We demonstrate that transfer of a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) containing 230 kb of the human beta-globin locus into mouse ... Peterson, Kenneth; Zitnik, Galynn; Huxley, Clare; and Lowrey, Christopher, "Use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) for ...
  • The reason the cloning vector is called a yeast artificial chromosome has to do with the structure of the vector. (encyclopedia.com)
  • YACs are capable of cloning extremely large segments of DNA (over 1 megabase long) into a host cell, where the DNA is propagated along with the other chromosomes of the yeast cell. (vectorbase.org)
  • The use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) containing long stretches of human DNA allows dispersed DNA markers to be used to identify the position of breakpoints but does not readily allow subcloning of the precise breakpoint within the YAC DNA nor the cDNAs containing the affected genes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • However, with the availability of a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) vector, we decided to use this alternative source of large DNA fragments to obtain linkage. (nih.gov)
  • A method for identifying genes within yeast artificial chromosomes: application to isolation of MLL fusion cDNAs from acute leukaemia translocations. (ox.ac.uk)
  • it is constructed from the telomeric , centromeric , and replication origin sequences needed for replication in yeast cells. (everything2.com)
  • Originated from a bacterial plasmid, a YAC contains a yeast centromeric region (CEN), a yeast origin of DNA replication, a cluster of unique rectriction sites and a selectable marker and a telomere region at the en of each arm. (vectorbase.org)
  • The yeast artificial chromosome, which is often shortened to YAC, is an artificially constructed system that can undergo replication. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This common area is the region to which components of the replication machinery of the cell attach and pull apart the chromosomes during the cell division process. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Finally, each chromosome contains a region known as the origin of replication. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The target DNA is flanked by the telomere regions that mark the ends of the chromosome, and is interspersed with the centromere region that is vital for replication. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The origin is where a molecule called DNA polymerase binds and begins to produce a copy of each strand of DNA in the double helix that makes up the chromosome. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The result is a colony of many genetically identical yeast cells, each containing a copy of the target DNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Through a subsequent series of procedures, DNA can then be isolated from the rest of the DNA inside the yeast cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The engineered YAC is put back into a yeast cell by chemical means that encourage the cell to take up the genetic material. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As the yeast cell undergoes rounds of growth and division, the artificial chromosome is replicated as if it were a natural chromosomal constituent of the cell. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A human yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library was screened by polymerase chain reaction with oligonucleotide primers defined for DNA sequences of the BCR gene and the protooncogenes c-raf-1, c-fms, and c-erB-2. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The study, which employed 358 plasma samples from pregnant women and 111 artificial plasma mixtures, used a massively multiplexed polymerase chain reaction and the Next-generation Aneuploidy Test Using SNPs (NATUS) algorithm. (medscape.com)
  • artificial chromosome vectors. (google.es)
  • by means of artificial chromosome vectors. (google.es)
  • D.T. Burke and M.V. Olson , Preparation of Clone Libraries in Yeast Artificial-Chromosome Vectors. (elsevier.com)
  • J.N. Strathern and D.R. Higgins , Recovery of Plasmids from Yeast into Escherichia coli Shuttle Vectors. (