Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Bacteriophage T4: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Bacteriophage T7: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.T-Phages: A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Bacteriophage mu: A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Bacteriophage phi 6: Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Bacteriophage phi X 174: The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Bacteriophage P2: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Bacteriophage M13: Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Bacteriophage T3: Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.Bacteriophage P1: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Salmonella Phages: Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Siphoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, 1-3: The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Painting: A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.RNA Phages: Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Staphylococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.Chromosomes, Human, 16-18: The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Bacteriophage PRD1: Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.Pseudomonas Phages: Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Bacillus Phages: Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.Podoviridae: A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Streptococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y: The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Ring Chromosomes: Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.Viral Tail Proteins: Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Chromosomes, Human, 4-5: The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.Levivirus: A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)DNA Packaging: The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Prophages: Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Attachment Sites, Microbiological: Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Inovirus: A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Chromosome Structures: Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.Chromosomes, Human, 19-20: The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Deoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Cystoviridae: A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).Bacteriophage Pf1: A species of filamentous Pseudomonas phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Caudovirales: An order comprising three families of tailed bacteriophages: MYOVIRIDAE; PODOVIRIDAE; and SIPHOVIRIDAE.DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.TritiumDNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.Chromosomes, Artificial, Human: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.DNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.ThymineChromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Endodeoxyribonucleases: A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)DNA Primase: A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.Integrases: Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Chromosome Fragility: Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.

A chromosomal region 7p11.2 transcript map: its development and application to the study of EGFR amplicons in glioblastoma. (1/25)

Cumulative information available about the organization of amplified chromosomal regions in human tumors suggests that the amplification repeat units, or amplicons, can be of a simple or complex nature. For the former, amplified regions generally retain their native chromosomal configuration and involve a single amplification target sequence. For complex amplicons, amplified DNAs usually undergo substantial reorganization relative to the normal chromosomal regions from which they evolve, and the regions subject to amplification may contain multiple target sequences. Previous efforts to characterize the 7p11.2 epidermal growth factor receptor ) amplicon in glioblastoma have relied primarily on the use of markers positioned by linkage analysis and/or radiation hybrid mapping, both of which are known to have the potential for being inaccurate when attempting to order loci over relatively short (<1 Mb) chromosomal regions. Due to the limited resolution of genetic maps that have been established through the use of these approaches, we have constructed a 2-Mb bacterial and P1-derived artificial chromosome (BAC-PAC) contig for the EGFR region and have applied markers positioned on its associated physical map to the analysis of 7p11.2 amplifications in a series of glioblastomas. Our data indicate that EGFR is the sole amplification target within the mapped region, although there are several additional 7p11.2 genes that can be coamplified and overexpressed with EGFR. Furthermore, these results are consistent with EGFR amplicons retaining the same organization as the native chromosome 7p11.2 region from which they are derived.  (+info)

The common retroviral insertion locus Dsi1 maps 30 kilobases upstream of the P1 promoter of the murine Runx3/Cbfa3/Aml2 gene. (2/25)

The Dsi1 locus was identified as a common integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) in rat thymic lymphomas, but previous efforts to identify a gene affected by these insertions were unsuccessful. We considered the Runx3 gene a potential candidate on the basis of genetic mapping which showed that Dsi1 and Runx3 are closely linked on mouse chromosome 4 and the precedent of the related Runx2 gene, which emerged recently as a Myc-collaborating gene activated by retroviral insertion in thymic lymphomas of CD2-MYC mice. We now report the physical mapping of the Dsi1 locus to a site 30 kb upstream of the distal (P1) promoter of the murine Runx3 gene. Comparison with the syntenic region of human chromosome 1 shows that the next gene is over 250 kb 5' to Runx3, suggesting that Runx3 may be the primary target of retroviral insertions at Dsi1. Screening of CD2-MYC lymphomas for rearrangements at Dsi1 revealed a tumor cell line harboring an MLV provirus at this locus, in the orientation opposite that of Runx3. Proviral insertion was associated with very high levels of expression of Runx3, with a preponderance of transcripts arising at the P1 promoter. These results confirm that Runx3 is a target of retroviral insertions at Dsi1 and indicate that Runx3 can act as an alternative to Runx2 as a Myc-collaborating gene in thymic lymphoma.  (+info)

Genes in a refined Smith-Magenis syndrome critical deletion interval on chromosome 17p11.2 and the syntenic region of the mouse. (3/25)

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome associated with behavioral abnormalities and sleep disturbance. Most patients have the same approximately 4 Mb interstitial genomic deletion within chromosome 17p11.2. To investigate the molecular bases of the SMS phenotype, we constructed BAC/PAC contigs covering the SMS common deletion interval and its syntenic region on mouse chromosome 11. Comparative genome analysis reveals the absence of all three approximately 200-kb SMS-REP low-copy repeats in the mouse and indicates that the evolution of SMS-REPs was accompanied by transposition of adjacent genes. Physical and genetic map comparisons in humans reveal reduced recombination in both sexes. Moreover, by examining the deleted regions in SMS patients with unusual-sized deletions, we refined the minimal Smith-Magenis critical region (SMCR) to an approximately 1.1-Mb genomic interval that is syntenic to an approxiamtely 1.0-Mb region in the mouse. Genes within the SMCR and its mouse syntenic region were identified by homology searches and by gene prediction programs, and their gene structures and expression profiles were characterized. In addition to 12 genes previously mapped, we identified 8 new genes and 10 predicted genes in the SMCR. In the mouse syntenic region of the human SMCR, 16 genes and 6 predicted genes were identified. The SMCR is highly conserved between humans and mice, including 19 genes with the same gene order and orientation. Our findings will facilitate both the identification of gene(s) responsible for the SMS phenotype and the engineering of an SMS mouse model.  (+info)

Transcriptional regulation of the stem cell leukemia gene (SCL)--comparative analysis of five vertebrate SCL loci. (4/25)

The stem cell leukemia (SCL) gene encodes a bHLH transcription factor with a pivotal role in hematopoiesis and vasculogenesis and a pattern of expression that is highly conserved between mammals and zebrafish. Here we report the isolation and characterization of the zebrafish SCL locus together with the identification of three neighboring genes, IER5, MAP17, and MUPP1. This region spans 68 kb and comprises the longest zebrafish genomic sequence currently available for comparison with mammalian, chicken, and pufferfish sequences. Our data show conserved synteny between zebrafish and mammalian SCL and MAP17 loci, thus suggesting the likely genomic domain necessary for the conserved pattern of SCL expression. Long-range comparative sequence analysis/phylogenetic footprinting was used to identify noncoding conserved sequences representing candidate transcriptional regulatory elements. The SCL promoter/enhancer, exon 1, and the poly(A) region were highly conserved, but no homology to other known mouse SCL enhancers was detected in the zebrafish sequence. A combined homology/structure analysis of the poly(A) region predicted consistent structural features, suggesting a conserved functional role in mRNA regulation. Analysis of the SCL promoter/enhancer revealed five motifs, which were conserved from zebrafish to mammals, and each of which is essential for the appropriate pattern or level of SCL transcription.  (+info)

Prospective screening for subtelomeric rearrangements in children with mental retardation of unknown aetiology: the Amsterdam experience. (5/25)

OBJECTIVE: The frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements in patients with unexplained mental retardation (MR) is uncertain, as most studies have been retrospective and case retrieval may have been biased towards cases more likely to have a chromosome anomaly. To ascertain the frequency of cytogenetic anomalies, including subtelomeric rearrangements, we prospectively screened a consecutive cohort of cases with unexplained MR in an academic tertiary centre. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were: age <18 years at referral, IQ<85, no aetiological diagnosis after complete examination, which included karyotyping with high resolution banding (HRB). RESULTS: In 266 karyotyped children, anomalies were detected in 20 (7.5%, seven numerical, 13 structural); 39 cases were analysed by FISH for specific interstitial microdeletions, and anomalies were found in nine (23%). FISH analyses for subtelomeric microdeletions were performed in 184 children (44% moderate-profound MR, 51% familial MR), and one rearrangement (0.5%) was identified in a non-familial MR female with mild MR (de novo deletion 12q24.33-qter). The number of probable polymorphisms was considerable: 2qter (n=7), Xpter (n=3), and Ypter (n=1). A significantly higher total number of malformations and minor anomalies was present in the cytogenetic anomaly group compared to the group without cytogenetic anomalies. CONCLUSIONS: The total frequency of cytogenetic anomalies in this prospective study was high (1:10), but the frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements was low. The most likely explanations are the high quality of HRB cytogenetic studies and the lack of clinical selection bias. Conventional cytogenetic analyses, combined with targeted microdeletion testing, remain the single most effective way of additional investigation in mentally retarded children, also in a tertiary centre.  (+info)

Comparative genomic sequence analysis of the human chromosome 21 Down syndrome critical region. (6/25)

Comprehensive knowledge of the gene content of human chromosome 21 (HSA21) is essential for understanding the etiology of Down syndrome (DS). Here we report the largest comparison of finished mouse and human sequence to date for a 1.35-Mb region of mouse chromosome 16 (MMU16) that corresponds to human chromosome 21q22.2. This includes a portion of the commonly described "DS critical region," thought to contain a gene or genes whose dosage imbalance contributes to a number of phenotypes associated with DS. We used comparative sequence analysis to construct a DNA feature map of this region that includes all known genes, plus 144 conserved sequences > or =100 bp long that show > or =80% identity between mouse and human but do not match known exons. Twenty of these have matches to expressed sequence tag and cDNA databases, indicating that they may be transcribed sequences from chromosome 21. Eight putative CpG islands are found at conserved positions. Models for two human genes, DSCR4 and DSCR8, are not supported by conserved sequence, and close examination indicates that low-level transcripts from these loci are unlikely to encode proteins. Gene prediction programs give different results when used to analyze the well-conserved regions between mouse and human sequences. Our findings have implications for evolution and for modeling the genetic basis of DS in mice.  (+info)

Annotation and BAC/PAC localization of nonredundant ESTs from drought-stressed seedlings of an indica rice. (7/25)

To decipher the genes associated with drought stress response and to identify novel genes in rice, we utilized 1540 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for functional annotation and mapping to rice genomic sequences. These ESTs were generated earlier by 3'-end single-pass sequencing of 2000 cDNA clones from normalized cDNA libraries constructed form drought-stressed seedlings of an indica rice. A rice UniGene set of 1025 transcripts was constructed from this collection through the BLASTN algorithm. Putative functions of 559 nonredundant ESTs were identified by BLAST similarity search against public databases. Putative functions were assigned at a stringency E value of 10(-6) in BLASTN and BLASTX algorithms. To understand the gene structure and function further, we have utilized the publicly available finished and unfinished rice BAC/PAC (BAC, bacterial artificial chromosome; PAC, P1 artificial chromosome) sequences for similarity search using the BLASTN algorithm. Further, 603 nonredundant ESTs have been mapped to BAC/PAC clones. BAC clones were assigned by a homology of above 95% identity along 90% of EST sequence length in the aligned region. In all, 700 ESTs showed rice EST hits in GenBank. Of the 325 novel ESTs, 128 were localized to BAC clones. In addition, 127 ESTs with identified putative functions but with no homology in IRGSP (International Rice Genome Sequencing Program) BAC/PAC sequences were mapped to the Chinese WGS (whole genome shotgun contigs) draft sequence of the rice genome. Functional annotation uncovered about a hundred candidate ESTs associated with abiotic stress in rice and Arabidopsis that were previously reported based on microarray analysis and other studies. This study is a major effort in identifying genes associated with drought stress response and will serve as a resource to rice geneticists and molecular biologists.  (+info)

Evidence for a fast, intrachromosomal conversion mechanism from mapping of nucleotide variants within a homogeneous alpha-satellite DNA array. (8/25)

Assuming that patterns of sequence variants within highly homogeneous centromeric tandem repeat arrays can tell us which molecular turnover mechanisms are presently at work, we analyzed the alpha-satellite tandem repeat array DXZ1 of one human X chromosome. Here we present accurate snapshots from this dark matter of the genome. We demonstrate stable and representative cloning of the array in a P1 artificial chromosome (PAC) library, use samples of higher-order repeats subcloned from five unmapped PACs (120-160 kb) to identify common variants, and show that such variants are presently in a fixed transition state. To characterize patterns of variant spread throughout homogeneous array segments, we use a novel partial restriction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis mapping approach. We find an older large-scale (35-50 kb) duplication event supporting the evolutionarily important unequal crossing-over hypothesis, but generally find independent variant occurrence and a paucity of potential de novo mutations within segments of highest homogeneity (99.1%-99.3%). Within such segments, a highly nonrandom variant clustering within adjacent higher-order repeats was found in the absence of haplotypic repeats. Such variant clusters are hardly explained by interchromosomal, fixation-driving mechanisms and likely reflect a fast, localized, intrachromosomal sequence conversion mechanism.  (+info)

8-base recognition sites will yield pieces 64,000 bases long. Since hundreds of different restriction enzymes have been characterized, DNA can be cut into many different small fragments. Physical Maps Different types of physical maps vary in their degree of resolution. The lowest- resolution physical map is the chromosomal (sometimes called cytogenetic) map, which is based on the distinctive banding patterns observed by light microscopy of stained chromosomes. A cDNA map shows the locations of expressed DNA regions (exons) on the chromosomal map. The more detailed cosmid contig map depicts the order of overlapping DNA fragments spanning the genome. A macrorestriction map describes the order and distance between enzyme cutting (cleavage) sites. The highest- resolution physical map is the complete elucidation of the DNA base- pair sequence of each chromosome in the human genome. Physical maps are described in greater detail below. Low-Resolution Physical Mapping Chromosomal map. In a chromosomal ...
Background: Mental retardation can be caused by copy number variations (deletions, insertions, duplications), ranging in size from 1 kb to several megabases. Array based comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH) allows detection of an increasing number of genomic alterations.. Methods: A series of 46 patients with mental retardation and congenital abnormalities (previously screened for subtelomeric rearrangements) were evaluated for cryptic chromosomal imbalances by array-CGH. This array contains 6465 large-insert BAC/PAC clones, representing sequences uniformly distributed throughout the human genome. The results were confirmed by alternative techniques.. Results: Four pathogenic rearrangements were detected: two of them were novel, a deletion at 2q31.2 and a duplication at 8q12 band; the other two have been previously reported-a duplication of the Williams-Beuren region and a deletion of 3q29. By adding the subtelomeric alterations previously identified, a total rate of 18% of pathogenic ...
Bioluminescent-labelling allows sensitive non-invasive sequential imaging of tumor development and early metastasis. Current methods for the genetic modification of cells typically use integrating genotoxic viruses that can potentially disrupt the molecular behavior of cancer cell lines due to their random nature of integration. VAL401 is the reformulation of a clinical drug to enable use in the treatment of cancer. Preclinical data indicate potential use of the reformulated drug in lung cancer, where many subsets of patients have currently a high unmet medical need. We have utilized a non-viral DNA vector that comprises an S/MAR (Scaffold/Matrix Attachment Region) element to stably modify cells to be further used in xenograft studies to allow long term expression without affecting cell behavior or silencing over cell divisions. Human BxPC3 pancreatic cancer cells were stably transfected with a pSMARt-UBC-Luc and cultured for 4 weeks under selection. Colonies that formed after this period were ...
Isabel C. Barrio, Elin Lindén, Mariska Te Beest, Johan Olofsson, Adrian Rocha, Eeva M. Soininen, Juha M. Alatalo, Tommi Andersson, Ashley Asmus, Julia Boike, Kari Anne Bråthen, John P. Bryant, Agata Buchwal, C. Guillermo Bueno, Katherine S. Christie, Yulia V. Denisova, Dagmar Egelkraut, Dorothee Ehrich, LeeAnn Fishback, Bruce C. Forbes, Maite Gartzia, Paul Grogan, Martin Hallinger, Monique M. P. D. Heijmans, David S. Hik, Annika Hofgaard, Milena Holmgren, Toke T. Høye, Diane C. Huebner, Ingibjörg Svala Jónsdóttir, Elina Kaarlejärvi, Timo Kumpula, Cynthia Y. M. J. G. Lange, Jelena Lange, Esther Le´vesque, Juul Limpens, Marc Macias-Fauria, Isla Myers-Smith, Erik J. van Nieukerken, Signe Normand, Eric S. Post, Niels Martin Schmidt, Judith Sitters, Anna Skoracka, Alexander Sokolov, Natalya Sokolova, James D. M. Speed, Lorna E. Street, Maja K. Sundqvist, Otso Suominen, Nikita Tananaev, Jean-Pierre Tremblay, Christine Urbanowicz, Sergey A. Uvarov, David Watts, Martin Wilmking, Philip A. ...
Hox genes are essential for proper embryonic development. In mammals, 39 genes are found clustered at four genomic loci, and their internal topological.... Read more about Of HOX and TADs: The Genetic Basis of Pre-formation ...
A pilot study at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), in support of the National Cancer Institutes Early Detection Research Network (EDRN), has validated the measurement accuracy of new techniques that use mitochondrial DNA as an early indicator for certain types of cancer. Additional results suggest that a relatively simple diagnostic test using a DNA microarray "chip" could enable early detection of some solid tumors, including lung cancer. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) plays a role in respiration and the cells energy conversion mechanism. Since the late 1990s, researchers at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine have observed changes in mtDNA sequences in solid cancers, although the nature of the relationship remains uncertain. Their work suggested that particular changes in mtDNA might serve as early indicators for several types of solid cancer. Although promising, this approach is critically dependent on developing reliable, cost-effective, and highly sensitive ...
Scroll-Type Fluid Machiner - A scroll-type fluid machine is configured so that the scroll-type fluid machine has compact, lightweight, and long life characteristics obtained by mounting, without increasing the diameter of the barrel, a bearing having a higher load capacity and so that a degradation in the performance due to a pressure loss during a high flow-rate operation is minimized by providing the gas flow path in the center plate with a sufficient cross-sectional area. A scroll-type fluid machine is provided with: a first housing which contains a scroll mechanism; a second housing which contains an electric motor; and a center plate which is disposed between both the housings, which contains a motion conversion mechanism for converting rotational motion to orbiting motion, which has mounted thereto a rotation prevention mechanism for preventing the rotation of a movable scroll, and which holds the bearing for supporting the main shaft. At least a part of the fluid path, which connects the ...
Galli, T et al "Tetanus toxin-mediated cleavage of cellubrevin impairs exocytosis of transferrin receptor-containing vesicles in CHO cells.." The Journal of Cell Biology 125.5 (1994): 1015-1024. Web. 23 Oct. 2019. ...
Nielutulehdus-suosituksen historiatiedot «Nielutulehdus, Käypä hoito -suosituksen historiatiedot»9. Puheenjohtaja:. Hans Blomberg, LL, yleislääketieteen erikoislääkäri; Sipoon terveyskeskus. Jäsenet:. Hannele Kotilainen, LL, sisätautien- ja infektiotautien erikoislääkäri, kaupunginepidemiologi; Helsingin terveyskeskus, Kaupunginsairaala, Epidemiologinen yksikkö. Tommi Liukko, LL; HYKS:n korva-, nenä- ja kurkkutautien klinikka, Suomen Terveystalo. Marjukka Mäkelä, tutkimusprofessori; Menetelmien arviointiyksikkö Finohta, Terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin laitos. Alpo Vuorio, LT, työterveyslääkäri; Mehiläinen Airport, Vantaa ja Työterveyslaitos, Lappeenranta (Käypä hoito -toimittaja). Asiantuntijat:. Olli-Pekka Alho, korva-, nenä- ja kurkkutautiopin professori; OYS:n korva-, nenä- ja kurkkutautien klinikka. Pentti Huovinen, LKT, erikoislääkäri, bakteeriopin professori, tutkimusprofessori; Turun yliopisto ja Terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin laitos. Hannu Sarkkinen, dosentti; ...
Nokia announced that it had reached 63 commercial 5G contracts worldwide, positioning among the global leaders in the delivery of end-to-end 5G solutions.. The figure includes Nokias customers such as AT&T, KDDI, Korea Telecom, LG Uplus, NTT DOCOMO, O2, SK Telecom, SoftBank, Sprint, STC, T-Mobile US, Verizon, Vodafone Italy and Zain Saudi from key 5G early adopter and progressive markets.. "This milestone highlights the quality and customer confidence in our 5G portfolio and we expect this to continue this year with the addition of many more new deals," said Tommi Uitto, President of Mobile Networks at Nokia. "Our global end-to-end portfolio includes products and services for every part of a network, which are helping network operators to enable key 5G capabilities such as network slicing, distributed cloud and the industrial Internet of Things. We are delighted that our technologies are helping to shape the delivery and deployment of 5G technologies worldwide and the myriad benefits these will ...
CGH stands for comparative genome hybridisation, which aims to compare the presence / absence / number of similar genes in 2 genomes (i.e. its a survey of genetic differences between 2 organisms). So, a CGH experiment might compare gemomic DNA from 2 closely related bacterial species or strains. The difference between CGH array experiments and gene expression array experiments is just the target which is hybridised to the array: labelled genomic DNA for CGH; labelled cDNA (or cRNA - derived from mRNA in either case) for gene expression. You can use exactly the same arrays for both types of experiment, although the objective of CGH is normally genome-wide comparison of 2 genomes, so CGH normally uses whole-genome microarrays (for prokaryotes, at least). In general, you can use any genomic array for either gene expression or CGH ...
Rice (Oryza sativa) is the first grass species to be sequenced, and as of September 2002, there are four draft genome sequences available. All four drafts are available to the academic community, although two drafts have some limitations with respect to access and distribution. Although none of the four draft sequences is complete, they collectively provide our first view of the landscape and the content of a monocot genome.. The first rice genome sequence made accessible in large tracts was that of the O. sativa subsp japonica cv Nipponbare generated by the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project (IRGSP;Sasaki and Burr, 2000), an international consortium of public laboratories. Using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-by-BAC approach, the IRGSP has generated draft sequence of 3,083 BAC or P1 artificial chromosome (PAC) clones that is available through GenBank/DNA data bank of Japan (DDBJ)/EMBL (as of September 17, 2002). These 3,083 BAC/PAC clones represent 426 Mb of sequence, and ...
FERRARIS KIMI RAIKKONEN is poised to make his debut in the World Rally Championship after it was announced he would compete in his home event, Rally Finland, next month.. Raikkonen, who has already competed in three minor events earlier in the year, will contest the rally in a Fiat Grande Punto S2000 alongside countryman Kaj Lindstrom, a former co-driver of four-time World Champion Tommi Makinen.. Incidentally, it will be Makinens rally outfit team, Tommi Makinen Racing that will prepare Raikkonens car for the event, the former Formula 1 World Champions first on gravel.. Lindstrom believes the challenge of competing in a gravel event will prove a stern test of Raikkonens ability to adapt to ever changing conditions.. ...
Development of protein kinase inhibitors is a focus of many drug discovery programs. A major problem, however, is the limited specificity of the commonly used adenosine triphosphate-competitive inhibitors and the weak inhibition of the more selective substrate-competitive inhibitors. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a promising drug target for treating neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimers disease (AD), but most GSK-3 inhibitors have not reached the clinic. We describe a new type of GSK-3 inhibitor, L807mts, that acts through a substrate-to-inhibitor conversion mechanism that occurs within the catalytic site of the enzyme. We determined that L807mts was a potent and highly selective GSK-3 inhibitor with reasonable pharmacological and safety properties when tested in rodents. Treatment with L807mts enhanced the clearance of β-amyloid loads, reduced inflammation, enhanced autophagic flux, and improved cognitive and social skills in the 5XFAD AD mouse model. This new modality of ...
Looking for Micrometer Caliper? Find out information about Micrometer Caliper. micrometer a measuring instrument whose conversion mechanism consists of a screw-nut micropair. Micrometer calipers are used to measure linear dimensions by... Explanation of Micrometer Caliper
Kuti9 was published in autumn 2008 with 28 pages from the Kuti team and 8 extra pages from the Finnish small press distributor Toivo. Featuring art from: Lilli Carré (USA), The Duuzers (FIN), Martin Ernstsen (NOR), Roope Eronen (FIN), Tom Gauld (UK), Matti Hagelberg (FIN), Kaltsu Kallio (FIN), Bendik Kaltenborn (NOR), Kapreles (NED), Tommi Musturi (FIN), Sami Myllyniemi (FIN), Jyrki Nissinen (FIN), Jaakko Pallasvuo (FIN), Aapo Rapi (FIN), Anna Sailamaa (FIN), Bart Schoofs (BEL), Olivier Schrauwen (BEL), Jerry Scoundrel (FRA), Walter Schifftate (USA), Petteri Tikkanen (FIN) and Jari Vaara (FIN). The issue includes an article about Yuichi Yokoyama (in Finnish) and about Extrapool (in English). Kuti9 is included in the collection of the St. Patricks Zine Library. ...
Agra, Rosa María; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Badimon, Lina; Bodi, Vicente; Carbone, Federico; Chen, Mao; Cubedo, Judit; Dullaart, Robin P F; Eiras, Sonia; García-Monzón, Carmelo; Gary, Thomas; Gnoni, Antonio; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; Gremmel, Thomas; Hafner, Franz; Hakala, Tommi; Huang, Baotao; Ickmans, Kelly; Irace, Concetta; Kholová, Ivana; Kimer, Nina; Kytö, Ville; März, Winfried; Miazgowski, Tomasz; Møller, Søren; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Niccoli, Giampaolo; Nijs, Jo; Ozben, Serkan; Ozben, Tomris; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Papastamataki, Maria; Reina-Couto, Marta; Rios-Navarro, Cesar; Ritsch, Andreas; Sabico, Shaun; Seetho, Ian W; Severino, Anna; Sipilä, Jussi; Sousa, Teresa; Taszarek, Aleksandra; Taurino, Federica; Tietge, Uwe J F; Tripolino, Cesare; Verloop, Willemien; Voskuil, Michiel; Wilding, John P ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Tommi Pätilä, Shigeru Miyagawa, Yukiko Imanishi, Satsuki Fukushima, Antti Siltanen, Eero Mervaala, Esko Kankuri, Ari Harjula, Yoshiki Sawa].
A new one from Helsinki with an incredible Tommi Björk section (6:13), a shared Simo Mäkelä and Olli Lilja part and one hell of an ender.. By Jaro Serlas and Mikko Björk.. Cover image by Justus Hirvi.. ...
Drug Class and Mechanism. Fexofenadine is an oral, "second generation" antihistamine that is used to treat the signs and symptoms of allergy that are due to histamine. It is similar to the other second generation antihistamines loratadine (Claritin), cetirizine (Zyrtec) and azelastine (Astelin). Histamine is a chemical that is responsible for many of the signs and symptoms of allergic reactions, for example, swelling of the lining of the nose, sneezing, and itchy eyes. Histamine is released from histamine-storing cells (mast cells) and then attaches to other cells that have receptors for histamine. The attachment of the histamine to the receptors causes the cell to be "activated," releasing other chemicals that produce the effects that we associate with allergy, e.g., sneezing. Fexofenadine blocks one type of receptor for histamine (the H1 receptor) and thus prevents activation of H1 receptor-containing cells by histamine. Unlike the first generation antihistamines, fexofenadine and other ...
We have developed FISH Oracle, an interactive web-based application to visualize segment data from an unlimited number of array CGH experiments in the context of gene annotations. Functional elements and segments are presented in a clear and concise fashion. Moreover, the zooming capability of the system makes it possible to display all elements at the resolution desired by the user. Easy to use filters allow to select groups of segments to be visualized. We expect that the high quality of the visualization and the flexibility of the software will enable life scientists to quickly derive interesting hypotheses about candidate cancer genes occurring in amplified or deleted regions. To communicate their findings, users can quickly export the generated images in different high quality formats, e.g. for publication or post-processing using standard graphics software. FISH Oracle is flexible regarding the underlying genome as long as the segment data refer to the same sequence basis as an annotation ...
To protect structures from short duration shock load in various engineering applications, a novel energy conversion mechanism with concept design is proposed. Different from conventional methods with cellular solid/structure dissipating input translational kinetic energy to plastic strain energy with large compressive deformation, the proposed approach converts part of incident translational kinetic energy to rotational kinetic energy, which is not detrimental to the protected structure. The mechanism of energy conversion is analyzed and formulated, with key factors governing the conversion efficiency identified and discussed, which sheds light on alternative approach for short duration load mitigation.
Karen S W Leong, Thilini N Jayasinghe, José G B Derraik, Benjamin B Albert, Valentina Chiavaroli, Darren M Svirskis, Kathryn L Beck, Cathryn A Conlon, Yannan Jiang, William Schierding, Tommi Vatanen, David J Holland, Justin M OSullivan, Wayne S Cutfield ...
Fexofenadine is an oral, "second generation" antihistamine that is used to treat the signs and symptoms of allergy that are due to histamine. It is similar to the other second generation antihistamines loratadine (Claritin), cetirizine (Zyrtec) and azelastine (Astelin). Histamine is a chemical that is responsible for many of the signs and symptoms of allergic reactions, for example, swelling of the lining of the nose, sneezing, and itchy eyes. Histamine is released from histamine-storing cells (mast cells) and then attaches to other cells that have receptors for histamine. The attachment of the histamine to the receptors causes the cell to be "activated," releasing other chemicals that produce the effects that we associate with allergy, e.g., sneezing. Fexofenadine blocks one type of receptor for histamine (the H1 receptor) and thus prevents activation of H1 receptor-containing cells by histamine. Unlike the first generation antihistamines, fexofenadine and other second-generation antihistamines ...
Fexofenadine is an oral, "second generation" antihistamine that is used to treat the signs and symptoms of allergy that are due to histamine. It is similar to the other second generation antihistamines loratadine (Claritin), cetirizine (Zyrtec) and azelastine (Astelin). Histamine is a chemical that is responsible for many of the signs and symptoms of allergic reactions, for example, swelling of the lining of the nose, sneezing, and itchy eyes. Histamine is released from histamine-storing cells (mast cells) and then attaches to other cells that have receptors for histamine. The attachment of the histamine to the receptors causes the cell to be "activated," releasing other chemicals that produce the effects that we associate with allergy, e.g., sneezing. Fexofenadine blocks one type of receptor for histamine (the H1 receptor) and thus prevents activation of H1 receptor-containing cells by histamine. Unlike the first generation antihistamines, fexofenadine and other second-generation antihistamines ...
Shigella flexneri is the major pathogen causing bacillary dysentery in developing countries. S. flexneri is divided into at least 16 serotypes based on the combination of antigenic determinants present in the O-antigen. All the serotypes (except for serotype 6) share a basic O-unit containing one N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and three l-rhamnose residues, whereas differences between the serotypes are conferred by phage-encoded glucosylation and/or O-acetylation. Serotype Xv is a newly emerged and the most prevalent serotype in China, which can agglutinate with both MASF IV-1 and 7,8 monoclonal antibodies. The factor responsible for the presence of MASF IV-1 (E1037) epitope has not yet been identified. In this study, we analyzed the LPS structure of serotype Xv strains and found that the MASF IV-1 positive phenotype depends on an O-antigen modification with a phosphoethanolamine (PEtN) group attached at position 3 of one of the rhamnose residues. A plasmid carried gene, lpt-O (LPS phosphoethanolamine
Shigella flexneri is the major pathogen causing bacillary dysentery in developing countries. S. flexneri is divided into at least 16 serotypes based on the combination of antigenic determinants present in the O-antigen. All the serotypes (except for serotype 6) share a basic O-unit containing one N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and three l-rhamnose residues, whereas differences between the serotypes are conferred by phage-encoded glucosylation and/or O-acetylation. Serotype Xv is a newly emerged and the most prevalent serotype in China, which can agglutinate with both MASF IV-1 and 7,8 monoclonal antibodies. The factor responsible for the presence of MASF IV-1 (E1037) epitope has not yet been identified. In this study, we analyzed the LPS structure of serotype Xv strains and found that the MASF IV-1 positive phenotype depends on an O-antigen modification with a phosphoethanolamine (PEtN) group attached at position 3 of one of the rhamnose residues. A plasmid carried gene, lpt-O (LPS phosphoethanolamine
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Binds to scaffold/matrix attachment region (S/MAR) DNA and forms a molecular assembly point to allow the formation of a transcriptosomal complex (consisting of SR proteins and RNA polymerase II) coupling transcription and RNA processing. When associated with RBMX, binds to and stimulates transcription from the SREBF1 promoter (By similarity).
Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a mental retardation syndrome with distinctive behavioral characteristics, dysmorphic features, and congenital anomalies ascribed to an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. Severe sleep disturbances and maladaptive daytime behavior have been linked to an abnor …
Moshier, M. S., York, T. P., Silberg, J. L. and Elsea, S. H. (2012), Siblings of individuals with Smith-Magenis syndrome: an investigation of the correlates of positive and negative behavioural traits. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 56: 996-1007. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2788.2012.01581.x ...
Sloneem, J and Oliver, C and Udwin, O and Woodcock, K (2011) Prevalence, phenomenology, aetiology and predictors of challenging behaviour in Smith-Magenis syndrome. Journal Of Intellectual Disability Research. ...
Tommi, Kate, and Zara are all elite competitors on the circuit, but they come from. This app makes it relatively easy to design inquiry lessons with iCircuit as the main visual and interactive component. Training program. To the uninitiated these layer types can be quite confusing, but once you have a basic understanding, youll see that it is all quite simple. A circuit diagram is a visual display of an electrical circuit using either basic images of parts or industry standard symbols. Wiring is not necessary, but can be used to show wiring that i. ) Very Simple. i want to communicate the arduino & nodeMCU together, so that i can read the value from arduino uno to nodeMCU. Its advanced simulation engine can handle both analog and digital circuits and features realtime always-on analysis. ‬ iCircuit is the easy to use electronic circuit simulator and designer - the perfect tool for students, hobbyists, and engineers. Disclosure: I am affiliated with the company that makes and sells this app. ...
Raine Sihvonen, Mika Paavola, Antti Malmivaara, Ari Itälä, Antti Joukainen, Heikki Nurmi, Juha Kalske, Anna Ikonen, Timo Järvelä, Tero A H Järvinen, Kari Kanto, Janne Karhunen, Jani Knifsund, Heikki Kröger, Tommi Kääriäinen, Janne Lehtinen, Jukka Nyrhinen, Juha Paloneva, Outi Päiväniemi, Marko Raivio, Janne Sahlman, Roope Sarvilinna, Sikri Tukiainen, Ville-Valtteri Välimäki, Ville Äärimaa, Pirjo Toivonen, Teppo L N Järvinen The FIDELITY (Finnish Degenerative Meniscal Lesion Study) Investigators ...
In the past five years we have identified the developmental stage of Tcell differentiation at which malignant transformation caused by retroviral insertion of a...
Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) is a genetic disorder with features including intellectual disability, facial abnormalities, difficulty sleeping, and numerous behavioral problems such as self-harm. Smith-Magenis syndrome affects an estimated between 1 in 15,000 to 1 in 25,000 individuals. It is a microdeletion syndrome characterized by an abnormality in the short (p) arm of chromosome 17 and is sometimes called the 17p- syndrome. Facial features of children with Smith-Magenis syndrome include a broad face, deep-set eyes, large cheeks, and a prominent jaw, as well as a flat nose bridge. The mouth curves downwards and the upper lip curves outwards. These facial features become more noticeable as the individual ages. Disrupted sleep patterns are characteristic of Smith-Magenis syndrome, typically beginning early in life. Affected people may be very sleepy during the day, but have trouble falling asleep and awaken several times each night, due to an inverted circadian rhythm of melatonin. People with ...
Smith-Magenis Syndrome is a rare chromosomal disorder characterized by abnormalities of the head and facial (craniofacial) area, delays in the acquisition of skills requiring the coordination of mental and muscular activities (psychomotor retardation), mental retardation, speech delays, and/or behavioral abnormalities.
Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a genetic condition which causes noticeable physical characteristics and some cognitive difficulties. Children with SMS tend to...
We have developed a procedure for efficient in situ hybridization of bacterial recombinants created with various types of large-insert cloning vectors. Minimal quantities of crude DNA are amplified and labeled during the degenerate-oligonucleotide-primed polymerase chain reaction. The resulting probes generate high-intensity fluorescent hybridization signals on metaphase chromosomes and on interphase nuclei.
MOUNT VERNON, Mo. - Missouri agriculture officials are receiving reports of cattle dying after grazing on drought-stressed grass. The University of Missouri Extension service says the problem is johnsongrass. During droughts like this years, it can accumulate dangerous levels of nitrates and prussic acid.
THE OHIO STATE JOURNAL VOLUME VII. CO LUMBUS, SATURDAY, JUNE 29, 1844. NUMBER 204. PUBLISHED ON TUESDAYS, THURSDAYS AND SATURDAYS, BY SCOTT St TEESDALE. Ornci corner odliga and Town street, Bultlef Building. TERMS. Daily during tho session of the Legislature, and tri-weckly the remainder or tho year $& 00 Tri-wcckly per annum 4 00 Weekly per annum 100 rpiIK barribcr hna nuoHnird with him Mr. R. X Fitch, and will continue tho lroluce and Commission Ilusiness under the iirm of 8. THOM AS & CO., at tho White Warehouse at the west end ol the Scioto llridgo, where Ihcy will be ready to attend promptly to any business that may be entrusted to them. Advauccuients made on consignments when required. S. THOMAS. May 1, IBM STUO T1AN cV tO. Forwarding nnd tommi. aio .rrchnnis Oviirrnl Produce Denlera, Agents IorN. York and Buffalo Lake lioal line; John Allens Clintoa line, and Ohio and N. York line, on the Krio Caual; T. Richmond & Co.s Diamond Line, on the Ohio Canal. While Want-House, West end ...
The best part of this trip, minus having to share my bed with FAYETH, is that I get to spend time with some of my favorite Chiari Moms. (Just wait until camp, THAT is a lot of fun, 23 of my favorite Chiari Families!!!!) Kristen has flown in from OK and I will pick her up in Mt. Prospect this afternoon. Our friend Tommi had to cancel due to her daughters surgical wound infection. Cindy will be coming along with her friend Jenni (whom I have yet to meet) Kristen and I are sharing a room. No Kids. No listening to "Mommy, Mommy Mommy ...
Smith-Magenis syndrome repeat gene cluster, proximal, made of some 14 genes and pseudogenes comprising one copy of KIAA00565, and sequence homolog to LGALS9, NOS2A, SRP68, UPF3A, USP6 ...
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Identifying genetic cues of functional relevance is key to understanding the drivers of evolution and increasingly important for the conservation of biodiversity. This study introduces nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number ratios as a metric with which to screen for this functional genetic variation prior to more extensive omics analyses. To illustrate the metric, quantitative PCR was used to estimate nrDNA (18S) to mtDNA (16S) copy number ratios in muscle tissue from samples of two zooplankton species: Salpa thompsoni caught near Elephant Island (Southern Ocean) and S. fusiformis sampled off Gough Island (South Atlantic). Average 18S:16S ratios in these samples were 9:1 and 3:1, respectively. nrDNA 45S arrays and mitochondrial genomes were then deep sequenced to uncover the sources of intra-individual genetic variation underlying these 18S:16S copy number differences. The deep sequencing profiles obtained were consistent with genetic changes resulting from ...
We have investigated the properties of the electrode/electrolyte interfaces of composite electrodes based on nanostructured iron oxide cycled in Li- and Na-half cells containing analogous electrolytes (i.e., LiClO4 or NaClO4 in ethylene carbonate:diethyl carbonate (EC:DEC)). A meticulous nondestructive step-by-step analysis of the first discharge/charge cycle has been conducted via soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. In. this way, diff erent depths were probed by varying the photon energy (hν ) for both electrochemical systems. The results of this thorough study clearly highlight the diff erences and the similarities of their respective solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layers in terms of formation, composition, structure, or thickness, as well as their conversion mechanisms. We specifi cally point out that the SEI coverage is more pronounced, and a homogeneous. distribution rich in inorganic species exists in the case of Na, compared to the organic/inorganic ...
The duration of wake after sleep onset period will be measured for the Circadin 2/5 mg and placebo by a Sleep and Nap Diary after 13 weeks of double-blind treatment ...
Fiona Bull, Karen Milton, Sonja Kahlmeier, Alberto Arlotti, Andrea Backović Juričan, Olov Belander, Brian Martin, Eva Martin-Diener, Ana Marques, Jorge Mota, Tommi Vasankari, Anita Vlasveld ...
On May 21, the Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) Research Foundation will host the second annual Siennas Steps 5K Run/Walk at Memorial Hospital Miramar (located at 1901 S.W. 172nd Ave.).The 5K
Using 1007 full mitochondrial genome sequences we have identified sequence variation in mtDNA that affects mtDNA copy number. Two different clades were significantly associated with higher mtDNA copy number. Each of these clades represents statistically separate effects. The first was defined by branch 124 and consisted of individuals with haplogroup U5A1, and is defined by m.9667A,G (p.Asn154Ser). This variant has also been reported in D2A1, D4M1, and J1B2A haplogroups [69]; however, no individuals in our dataset belong to these haplogroups. We analyzed this substitution to determine if it likely causes COXIII malfunction, and then to determine whether or not it could cause the observed increase in mtDNA copy number. Our analyses suggest this substitution does not impact COXIII function. This conclusion is based on several lines of evidence; first, this is a high frequency, known substitution [70], second the substitution occurs in an unconserved site (Figure 3), third asparagine and glycine, ...
Patients of all ages with SMS may be eligible for this study. They will be evaluated by a team of medical specialists at the NIH Clinical Center over the course of several days. Parents of patients will be asked to provide copies of past medical records and tests results for review. They will provide a family medical history and information on the child s prenatal, developmental, behavioral and medical histories.. The study may involve the following evaluations: physical, neurological and psychological exams; ear, nose and throat evaluation; speech, language and swallowing evaluation; hearing test; eye examination; imaging studies (e.g., X-rays, ultrasound, MRI); developmental and behavioral assessment; rehabilitation evaluation with gait (walking) analysis; urinalysis, blood, and/or skin cell studies; sleep study; other consultations as required. A tissue sample (blood or cheek swab or skin biopsy) may be taken for genetic studies. To obtain a cheek swab, a small brush is rubbed against the ...
The general objective of our lab is to understand the functions of clathrin-coated structures (CCSs) during the different steps of cancer development. CCSs recruit specific cell surface receptors and progressively shape the plasma membrane in receptor-containing vesicles that are released in the cytosol. This endocytosis machinery allows for nutrient uptake but also for the fine-tuned control of signaling pathways triggered by cell surface receptors. As a consequence, deregulation of endocytosis has been linked to many pathological situations, including cancers.. Tumor development is accompanied by dramatic changes in the mechanical characteristics of tissues. Also, when cancer cells invade the stroma to establish distant metastases, they migrate in an environment with different topological features than the tumor mass. However, it is not known how the physical parameters of the environment impact on CCSs and what are the consequences for the cell.. Our team addresses this general question by ...
In molecular biology, the BEN domain is a protein domain which is found in diverse proteins including: SMAR1 (Scaffold/Matrix attachment region-binding protein 1; also known as BANP), a tumour-suppressor MAR-binding protein that down-regulates Cyclin D1 expression by recruiting HDAC1-mSin3A co-repressor complex at Cyclin D1 promoter locus; SMAR1 is the target of prostaglandin A2 (PGA2) induced growth arrest. NACC1, a novel member of the POZ/BTB (Pox virus and Zinc finger/Bric-a-bracTramtrack Broad complex), but which varies from other proteins of this class in that it lacks the characteristic DNA-binding motif. Mod(mdg4) isoform C, the modifier of the mdg4 locus in Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly), where mdg4 encodes chromatin proteins which are involved in position effect variegation, establishment of chromatin boundaries, nerve path finding, meiotic chromosome pairing and apoptosis. Trans-splicing of Mod(mdg4) produces at least 26 transcripts. BEND2, a protein of unknown function, that is ...
Earlier studies identified that mutation or deletion of the RAI1 gene results in Smith-Magenis Syndrome, a complex disorder characterized by obesity, sleep disturbances, negative behaviors and developmental delays.. "How this disruption of RAI1 causes Smith-Magenis Syndrome is not fully understood," said Sarah H. Elsea, Ph.D., associate professor in the VCU Departments of Pediatrics and Human and Molecular Genetics in the VCU School of Medicine. "One of the hallmarks of Smith-Magenis Syndrome is severe sleep disturbance, and through our current work, we have found that alteration of the expression or function of RAI1 disrupts the expression of other molecular clock genes, dysregulating circadian rhythm.". Circadian rhythms are physical, mental and behavioral changes that follow a roughly 24-hour cycle, responding primarily to light and darkness in the environment. In this current study, Elsea, graduate student Stephen Williams, Ph.D., and the research team have identified a novel and important ...
Infrared absorption spectrophotometry (2. (1997) Diagnosis and treatment of chronic tendon disorders in sport. 998;37707-77. 31 Y genes expressed in human testis and located in one of the AZF deletion intervals are registered.
Molecular tools to analyse and identify inherited diseases have become quickly available over the last five years. To date DNA polymorphisms covering the entire canine genome can be used by all well-equipped laboratories, to identify markers for any disease. DNA libraries of the canine genome containing large-insert clones of dog DNA are also available, which is required to focus on the smallest possible region linked to the disease, when a linked marker has been identified. When a small chromosomal region has been identified, it is possible to analyse genes of interest in that area. Here the availability of the genome map of other species, like man and mouse, is very important. Comparison of syntenic regions of different species almost always reveals genes shared by all mammalian species. With such methods it is now possible to find any functional gene mutation, even when it is an yet unknown gene of which the function has not yet been identified. The internet has become as important as the lab ...
Molecular tools to analyse and identify inherited diseases have become quickly available over the last five years. To date DNA polymorphisms covering the entire canine genome can be used by all well-equipped laboratories, to identify markers for any disease. DNA libraries of the canine genome containing large-insert clones of dog DNA are also available, which is required to focus on the smallest possible region linked to the disease, when a linked marker has been identified. When a small chromosomal region has been identified, it is possible to analyse genes of interest in that area. Here the availability of the genome map of other species, like man and mouse, is very important. Comparison of syntenic regions of different species almost always reveals genes shared by all mammalian species. With such methods it is now possible to find any functional gene mutation, even when it is an yet unknown gene of which the function has not yet been identified. The internet has become as important as the lab ...
Fall is the best time to prepare lawns for the next growing season by mowing, raking, aerating and fertilizing. The game plan changes, though, if drought-stressed grass has been dormant for a long time. In that case, preparation escalates into repair.You need to determine if the grass is dead, said Dave Minner, an extension turf-grass specialist with Iowa State University at Ames. Then youll need to renovate with re-seeding to get it going again.Ignoring dead or damaged patches in
Pro Pac, including Pro Pac - NutRNipz Dog Biscuit Treats, Pro Pac - Woof Em Down Sticks Dog Treats, Pro Pac - Smoky Sausage Bites Dog Treats, Pro..
P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs) have features of both P1 vectors and Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs). Similar to P1 ... Bacteriophage P1 vectors can hold inserts 70 - 100kb in size. They begin as linear DNA molecules packaged into bacteriophage P1 ... Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are linear DNA molecules containing the necessary features of an authentic yeast chromosome ... Unlike P1 vectors, they do not need to be packaged into bacteriophage particles for transduction. Instead they are introduced ...
... chromosomes, artificial, human MeSH A11.284.187.178.195 - chromosomes, artificial, p1 bacteriophage MeSH A11.284.187.178.200 - ... chromosomes, artificial MeSH A11.284.187.178.170 - chromosomes, artificial, bacterial MeSH A11.284.187.178.190 - chromosomes, ... chromosomes, artificial, yeast MeSH A11.284.187.190 - chromosomes, bacterial MeSH A11.284.187.190.170 - chromosomes, artificial ... chromosomes, artificial, yeast MeSH A11.284.187.520 - chromosomes, mammalian MeSH A11.284.187.520.190 - chromosomes, artificial ...
... chromosomes, artificial, human MeSH G14.162.178.195 --- chromosomes, artificial, p1 bacteriophage MeSH G14.162.178.200 --- ... chromosomes, artificial, human MeSH G14.337.249.195 --- chromosomes, artificial, p1 bacteriophage MeSH G14.337.249.200 --- ... chromosomes, artificial, human MeSH G14.162.520.300 --- chromosomes, human MeSH G14.162.520.300.117 --- chromosomes, artificial ... chromosomes, artificial, yeast MeSH G14.162.190.170 --- chromosomes, artificial, bacterial MeSH G14.162.360.800 --- chromosomes ...
A similar cloning vector called a PAC has also been produced from the DNA of P1 bacteriophage. ... Yeast artificial chromosome. References[edit]. *^ O'Connor M, Peifer M, Bender W (2018). "Construction of large DNA segments in ... A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is a DNA construct, based on a functional fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid), used for ... The bacterial artificial chromosome's usual insert size is 150-350 kbp.[4] ...
A P1-derived artificial chromosome is a DNA construct that was derived from the DNA of P1 bacteriophage. It can carry large ... Yeast artificial chromosome. References[edit]. *^ Yarmolinsky M, Hoess R (November 2015). "The Legacy of Nat Sternberg: The ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=P1-derived_artificial_chromosome&oldid=903800665" ... "Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification, and recovery of DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobase pairs" ...
BACs are based on F plasmid, another artificial chromosome called the PAC is based on the P1 phage. Insert of up to 3,000 kb ... The bacteriophages used for cloning are the phage λ and M13 phage. There is an upper limit on the amount of DNA that can be ... may be carried by yeast artificial chromosome. Human artificial chromosome may be potentially useful as a gene transfer vectors ... Insert size of up to 350 kb can be cloned in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). BACs are maintained in E. coli with a copy ...
P1 can also be used to create the P1-derived artificial chromosome cloning vector which can carry relatively large fragments of ... "Bacteriophage P1", in Richard Calendar (ed.), The Bacteriophages, Oxford University Press, p. 350, ISBN 0195148509 CS1 maint: ... "DNA Inversion Regions Min of Plasmid p15B and Cin of Bacteriophage P1: Evolution of Bacteriophage Tail Fiber Genes". Journal of ... The genome of P1 encodes 112 proteins and 5 untranslated genes and is this about twice the size of bacteriophage lambda. The ...
In engineering large constructs of >100 kb, such as the Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs), or chromosomes, recombineering ... As proteins homologous to Beta and RecT are found in many bacteria and bacteriophages (>100 as of February 2010), ... recombineering and P1 transduction in Escherichia coli". Nucleic Acids Research. 41 (22): e204. doi:10.1093/nar/gkt1075. PMC ... and for modifying DNA of any source often contained on a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), among other applications. ...
... usually occurs as linear chromosomes in eukaryotes, and circular chromosomes in prokaryotes. The set of chromosomes in a ... Artificial bases. Main article: Nucleic acid analogue. Several artificial nucleobases have been synthesized, and successfully ... bacteriophages) is to avoid the restriction enzymes present in bacteria. This enzyme system acts at least in part as a ... such as in chromosome 1. Chromosome 1 is the largest human chromosome with approximately 220 million base pairs, and would be ...
4.4 Bacteriophage P1 derived vector. 4.5 P1 derived artificial chromosome (PAC). 4.6 Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) ...
Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification and recovery of DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobases pairs ... such as P1 bacteriophage (=-=Sternberg, 1990-=-), bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) (Shizuya et al., 1992) and P1 ... The genome of bacteriophage P1 by Malgorzata B. Lobocka, Debra J. Rose, Guy Plunkett Iii, Marek Rusin, Arkadiusz Samojedny, ... Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification and recovery of DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobases pairs ...
One of these recombination systems that utilize specific recognition sites is the Cre/loxP system of bacteriophage P1. It ... A. Domi and B. Moss, "Engineering of a vaccinia virus bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli by bacteriophage λ- ... Viral Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: Generation, Mutagenesis, and Removal of Mini-F Sequences. B. Karsten Tischer and ... A. Domi and B. Moss, "Cloning the vaccinia virus genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli and recovery ...
A P1-derived artificial chromosome is a DNA construct that was derived from the DNA of P1 bacteriophage. It can carry large ... Yeast artificial chromosome. References[edit]. *^ Yarmolinsky M, Hoess R (November 2015). "The Legacy of Nat Sternberg: The ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=P1-derived_artificial_chromosome&oldid=903800665" ... "Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification, and recovery of DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobase pairs" ...
A similar cloning vector called a PAC has also been produced from the DNA of P1 bacteriophage. ... Yeast artificial chromosome. References[edit]. *^ OConnor M, Peifer M, Bender W (2018). "Construction of large DNA segments in ... A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is a DNA construct, based on a functional fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid), used for ... The bacterial artificial chromosomes usual insert size is 150-350 kbp.[4] ...
... such as P1 bacteriophage (Sternberg, 1990), bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) (Shizuya et al., 1992) and P1 artificial ... Cre (causes recombination of the bacteriophage P1 genome) recognizes minimal loxP [locus of crossing-over (X) in P1] RSs of 34 ... Gong, S., Yang, X. W., Li, C. and Heintz, N. (2002). Highly efficient modification of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) ... Sternberg, N. (1990). Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification, and recovery of DNA fragments as large ...
... bacteriophage derived artificial chromosomes) or PACs (P1 derived artificial chromosomes) or combinations thereof. Artificial ... bacteriophage-derived artificial chromosome (BBPAC), cosmid or P1 derived artificial chromosome (PAC), that can be transfected ... Artificial chromosomes include, without limitation, BACs (bacterial artificial chromosomes), YACs (yeast artificial chromosomes ... bacteriophage-derived artificial chromosome (BBPAC), cosmid or P1 derived artificial chromosome (PAC). ...
Sauer B, Henderson N. Site-specific DNA recombination in mammalian cells by the Cre recombinase of bacteriophage P1. ... Domi A, Moss B. Engineering of a vaccinia virus bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli by bacteriophage λ-based ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Mutagenesis Using Recombineering. Kumaran Narayanan 1, 2 * and Qingwen Chen 2 ... Construction of human artificial chromosome vectors by recombineering. Gene. 2005;351:29-38. [PubMed] ...
... bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), or P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC), bacteriophages such as lambda phage or M13 ... Examples of vectors include plasmids, phagemids, cosmids, artificial chromosomes such as yeast artificial chromosome (YAC), ... Genes Chromosomes Cancer 27:95-103.. *34. Saffran, D. C., et al. 2001. Anti-PSCA mAbs inhibit tumor growth and metastasis ... "Isolated" as used herein does not exclude artificial or synthetic mixtures with other compounds or materials, or the presence ...
... bacterial artificial chromosomes, and a P1 bacteriophage vectors, also described as P1-derived artificial chromosomes.68 69 70 ... Construction and characterization of a 10-fold genome equivalent rat P1-derived artificial chromosome library. Genomics. 1998; ... 71 If the markers are close on the chromosome, then the flanking yeast artificial chromosomes clones will overlap, as judged by ... Construction of a large-insert yeast artificial chromosome library of the rat genome. Mamm Genome. 1997;8:284. ...
PAC The artificial chromosome vector derived from the temperate bacteriophage, P1, used for cloning 100- to 200-kb DNA ... bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) Artificial chromosome vector derived from bacteria used for cloning relatively large DNA ... ring chromosome A structurally abnormal chromosome in which the end of each chromosome arm has been deleted and the broken arms ... BAC See bacterial artificial chromosome.. backcross A genetic crossing of a heterozygous organism and one of its homozygous ...
faagi P1 kunstlik kromosoom (ingl. Bacteriophage P1 artificial chromosome). Faagi P1 plasmiidvektori katkilõikamisel tekib ...
1994) A new bacteriophage P1‐derived vector for the propagation of large human DNA fragments. Nature Genetics 6(1): 84-89. ... Burke DT, Carle GF and Olson MV (1987) Cloning of large segments of exogenous DNA into yeast by means of artificial chromosome ... Sternberg N (1990) Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification, and recovery of DNA fragments as large as ... Sauer B and Henderson N (1988) Site‐specific DNA recombination in mammalian cells by the Cre recombinase of bacteriophage P1. ...
P. A. Ioannou, C. T. Amemiya, J. Garnes et al., "A new bacteriophage P1-derived vector for the propagation of large human DNA ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) libraries have been used extensively for constructing physical maps of the human genome ... J. P. P. Muyrers, Y. Zhang, G. Testa, and A. F. Stewart, "Rapid modification of bacterial artificial chromosomes by ET- ... K. Osoegawa, P. Y. Woon, B. Zhao et al., "An improved approach for construction of bacterial artificial chromosome libraries," ...
Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs). • Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). • Bacteriophage P1 artificial chromosomes. ( ... Bacteriophage P1 artificial chromosomes. (PACs) have been constructed from. bacteriophage P1 chromosomes.. • BACs and PACs ... Bacteriophage Vectors. • Most bacteriophage cloning vectors have. been constructed from the phage λ. chromosome.. • The central ... Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs). • Genetically engineered yeast minichromosomes.. • Accept foreign DNA inserts of 200-500 ...
... human ELKS gene from within a 700-kb genomic region represented by overlapping bacteriophage P1-derived artificial chromosome ( ... PAC) and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones, and localized it to chromosomal band 12p13.3 by fluorescence in situ ... Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2002; 35(1):30-7 [PubMed] Related Publications A novel gene, ELKS, whose 5 portion was fused to the ... Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1999; 25(2):97-103 [PubMed] Related Publications In papillary thyroid carcinomas, the genes for ...
Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial/genetics. *Chromosomes, Artificial, P1 Bacteriophage/genetics. *Chromosomes, Artificial, ... coli homologous recombination systems have recently been developed that enable genomic DNA in bacterial artificial chromosomes ... This new form of chromosome engineering, termed recombinogenic engineering or recombineering, is efficient and greatly ...
An ordered yeast artificial chromosome library covering over half of rice chromosome 6. ... a P1 plasmid replicon to stably maintain that DNA in E. coli at one copy per cell chromosome, and a lac promoter-regulated P1 ... Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification, and recovery of DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobase pairs ... Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification, and recovery of DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobase pairs ...
Chromosome. UN. Molecular Note. The 196 kb C57BL/6J mouse bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) RP23-405B24, containing the ... cre, cre recombinase, bacteriophage P1. Site of Expression. Hemizygous Scnn1a-Tg2-Cre mice are viable and fertile, with cre ... cre, cre recombinase, bacteriophage P1. Site of Expression. Hemizygous Scnn1a-Tg2-Cre mice are viable and fertile, with cre ... The 196 kb C57BL/6J mouse bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) RP23-405B24, containing the entire Scnn1a locus (and other ...
Yeast Artificial Chromosomes : YACs : Mbp --- BACs (F-plasmid derived) : kb --- PACs (large P1 clones) : kb --- T4-packaging ... system : kb ( kb) --- EBV derived vectors : kb --- P1 + P1 packaging : kb --- Cosmid vectors : kb --- Lambda replacement ... multiple chromosomes : Mbp --- Mono-chromosomal hybrids : Mbp --- Sub-chromosomal hybrids : 1-50 Mbp --- Double-minutes : Mbp ... 2 Physical Mapping Systems Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs) 200-2000 kb Bacteriophage P1 90 kb Cosmids 40 kb Bacteriophage 9 ...
... and P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs) are widely used to investigate the functions of genes and genomes in mammalian cells in ... P1 Bacteriophage Artificial Chromosomes. *Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. *Chromosomes, Artificial. *tissue culture. *DNA ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs) are widely used to investigate the functions of ... Prospects for the Use of Artificial Chromosomes and Minichromosome-Like Episomes in Gene Therapy. *Sara Pérez-Luz, Javier Díaz- ...
Thus, severing of k-MTs can lead to increased tension between chromosomes and poles. This observation cannot be explained by ... Recent experiments demonstrate that this model cannot explain force generation for anaphase chromosome movement [Pickett-Heaps ... use of the spindle for segregating chromosomes might represent a secondary, more recent development of this primary function. ... paradigm in which chromosome movement is generated and powered by disassembly of kinetochore microtubules (k-MTs) by the ...
A comprehensive analysis of allelic methylation status of CpG islands on human chromosome 11q: Comparison with chromosome 21q. ... Analysis of gene network regulating yeast multidrug resistance by artificial activation of transcription factors: Involvement ... Analysis of chromosome 21--construction of STS map and its application for contig map construction. Sakaki, Y., Hattori, M., ... A comprehensive analysis of allelic methylation status of CpG islands on human chromosome 21q. Yamada, Y., Watanabe, H., Miura ...
... lambda bacteriophage in E. coli, P1 bacteriophage in E. coli, bacterial artificial chromosomes in E. coli, yeast artificial ... Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACS)-cloning vehicles constructed from elements of yeast chromosomes which allow the vector to ... chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mammalian artificial chromosomes in cultured cells, mammalian chromosome fragments in ... Description of Artificial Sequence Primer 13 ggttctttcc gcctcagaag g 21 14 21 DNA Artificial Sequence Description of Artificial ...
A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone RP23-53E13 encoding exon 2 of the Wnt7a sequence was modified by the insertion of ... cre, cre recombinase, bacteriophage P1. Site of Expression. Cre recombinase is expressed in uterine luminal and glandular ... cre, cre recombinase, bacteriophage P1. Site of Expression. Cre recombinase is expressed in uterine luminal and glandular ... Chromosome. UN. Molecular Note. An IRES-EGFP/cre with an FRT-flanked kanamycin selection cassette was targeted to exon 2 of the ...
  • candidate gene approach Strategy to identify disease-associated genes based on finding candidate genes in a chromosome region in which a disorder is mapped. (kumc.edu)
  • The 196 kb C57BL/6J mouse bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) RP23-405B24, containing the entire Scnn1a locus (and other genes), was modified by targeting a Cre recombinase coding sequence (the CreERT2 sequence modified back to encode the normal Cre recombinase gene), SV40 polyA signal, and frt -flanked neomycin cassette to the ATG start site of the Scnn1a locus. (jax.org)
  • For example, the rRNA genes from different chromosomes of species A might be homo- geneous in sequence structure and those from spe- cies B might also be homogeneous. (damasgate.com)
  • Starting with markers flanking the self-incompatibility genes in Brassica , we identified the homeologous region in Arabidopsis as a previously uncharacterized segment of chromosome 1 in the immediate vicinity of the ethylene response gene ETR1 . (plantcell.org)
  • One emerging method involves inserting artificial genes into bacterial genomes and examining how the genome and its new genes adapt to each other. (springer.com)
  • I believe the P1 origins use the par set of genes to maintain single copy whereas the F origins use the sop set of genes. (openwetware.org)
  • Pairs of genes homologous to some of these extrachromosomal addiction modules have been found on the E. coli chromosome ( 1 , 11 , 12 , 15-17 ). (asm.org)
  • in the presence of the phage p1 cyclization recombinase cre, the transposon can delete the ura3, teta, and lacz genes between the two loxp sites. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Processed genes are found on different chromosomes from their functional counterparts. (0catch.com)
  • The eta gene is located on chromosome 11 in humans and is fourth in a series of 6 beta globin genes (five are functional). (0catch.com)
  • Here, we functionally tested 26 candidate genes implicated via a GWAS for their contribution to the female's role in sperm competition, measured as changes in the relative success of the first male to mate (P1). (genetherapy.me)
  • Of these 26 candidates, we identified eight genes that affect P1 when knocked down in females, and showed that five of them do so when knocked down in the female nervous system. (genetherapy.me)
  • Ten copies of an mpr B.amy cassette in which the GSP gene was placed between the promoter of the B. amyloliquefaciens rplU-rpmA genes and the Rho-independent transcription terminator were ectopically inserted into designated (3 copies) and random (7 copies) points in the recipient chromosome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, expression levels and patterns of these ectopically expressed N-terminally tagged proteins could differ from those of their endogenous counterparts and thus might cause mislocalization of proteins or artificial interaction with other molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The method takes advantage of the fact that P1/PAC/BAC's can be isolated as circular DNA molecules, stretched out on glass slides and fine-mapped by multicolor hybridization with smaller probe molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The P1-bar prostate-specific free is found by accurately used helix molecules, while the infection insert amount leads limited by a target of optional patient-reported trends. (scoutconnection.com)
  • P1-like phages are part of the mobile elements that carry antibiotic resistance. (jove.com)
  • This inhibition also takes place in the presence of general inhibitors of transcription and/or translation such as the antibiotics rifampin, chloramphenicol, and spectinomycin ( 40 ) and through the inhibition of translation by the Doc protein of prophage P1 ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • hfr strains of shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 were constructed by transient integration of an rp4 plasmid derivative carrying transposon tn501 into the shigella chromosome through tn501-mediated cointegration. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • This new form of chromosome engineering, termed recombinogenic engineering or recombineering, is efficient and greatly decreases the time it takes to create transgenic mouse models by traditional means. (nih.gov)
  • A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone RP23-53E13 encoding exon 2 of the Wnt7a sequence was modified by the insertion of an IRES-EGFPcre- frt -kanamycin- frt - construct and electroporated into EL250 cells. (jax.org)
  • banding The differential staining of a chromosome by a variety of techniques that results in a specific pattern of positively and negatively stained bands for each chromosomal pair. (kumc.edu)
  • When it comes time for one of these cells to duplicate, each chromosome is first replicated to generate a pair of identical chromosomes called sister chromatids, which subsequently separate in a cell division process known as mitosis to produce two identical daughter cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • Subsequently, during meiosis II, the sister chromatids separate to produce a total of four products, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original cell. (elifesciences.org)
  • 511 abnormalities will make the eukaryotic free Mecánica estadística into a Saline population as still only be the P1-bar integration. (scoutconnection.com)
  • Each A subfiber has longitudinally repeating pairs of armlike projec- tions that contain dynein (q.v.). See Chlamydomonas reinhardi, flagellum, tektin, Y chromosome. (damasgate.com)