Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.
The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.
Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.
Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.
The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).
A species of filamentous Pseudomonas phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
An order comprising three families of tailed bacteriophages: MYOVIRIDAE; PODOVIRIDAE; and SIPHOVIRIDAE.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.

A chromosomal region 7p11.2 transcript map: its development and application to the study of EGFR amplicons in glioblastoma. (1/25)

Cumulative information available about the organization of amplified chromosomal regions in human tumors suggests that the amplification repeat units, or amplicons, can be of a simple or complex nature. For the former, amplified regions generally retain their native chromosomal configuration and involve a single amplification target sequence. For complex amplicons, amplified DNAs usually undergo substantial reorganization relative to the normal chromosomal regions from which they evolve, and the regions subject to amplification may contain multiple target sequences. Previous efforts to characterize the 7p11.2 epidermal growth factor receptor ) amplicon in glioblastoma have relied primarily on the use of markers positioned by linkage analysis and/or radiation hybrid mapping, both of which are known to have the potential for being inaccurate when attempting to order loci over relatively short (<1 Mb) chromosomal regions. Due to the limited resolution of genetic maps that have been established through the use of these approaches, we have constructed a 2-Mb bacterial and P1-derived artificial chromosome (BAC-PAC) contig for the EGFR region and have applied markers positioned on its associated physical map to the analysis of 7p11.2 amplifications in a series of glioblastomas. Our data indicate that EGFR is the sole amplification target within the mapped region, although there are several additional 7p11.2 genes that can be coamplified and overexpressed with EGFR. Furthermore, these results are consistent with EGFR amplicons retaining the same organization as the native chromosome 7p11.2 region from which they are derived.  (+info)

The common retroviral insertion locus Dsi1 maps 30 kilobases upstream of the P1 promoter of the murine Runx3/Cbfa3/Aml2 gene. (2/25)

The Dsi1 locus was identified as a common integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) in rat thymic lymphomas, but previous efforts to identify a gene affected by these insertions were unsuccessful. We considered the Runx3 gene a potential candidate on the basis of genetic mapping which showed that Dsi1 and Runx3 are closely linked on mouse chromosome 4 and the precedent of the related Runx2 gene, which emerged recently as a Myc-collaborating gene activated by retroviral insertion in thymic lymphomas of CD2-MYC mice. We now report the physical mapping of the Dsi1 locus to a site 30 kb upstream of the distal (P1) promoter of the murine Runx3 gene. Comparison with the syntenic region of human chromosome 1 shows that the next gene is over 250 kb 5' to Runx3, suggesting that Runx3 may be the primary target of retroviral insertions at Dsi1. Screening of CD2-MYC lymphomas for rearrangements at Dsi1 revealed a tumor cell line harboring an MLV provirus at this locus, in the orientation opposite that of Runx3. Proviral insertion was associated with very high levels of expression of Runx3, with a preponderance of transcripts arising at the P1 promoter. These results confirm that Runx3 is a target of retroviral insertions at Dsi1 and indicate that Runx3 can act as an alternative to Runx2 as a Myc-collaborating gene in thymic lymphoma.  (+info)

Genes in a refined Smith-Magenis syndrome critical deletion interval on chromosome 17p11.2 and the syntenic region of the mouse. (3/25)

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome associated with behavioral abnormalities and sleep disturbance. Most patients have the same approximately 4 Mb interstitial genomic deletion within chromosome 17p11.2. To investigate the molecular bases of the SMS phenotype, we constructed BAC/PAC contigs covering the SMS common deletion interval and its syntenic region on mouse chromosome 11. Comparative genome analysis reveals the absence of all three approximately 200-kb SMS-REP low-copy repeats in the mouse and indicates that the evolution of SMS-REPs was accompanied by transposition of adjacent genes. Physical and genetic map comparisons in humans reveal reduced recombination in both sexes. Moreover, by examining the deleted regions in SMS patients with unusual-sized deletions, we refined the minimal Smith-Magenis critical region (SMCR) to an approximately 1.1-Mb genomic interval that is syntenic to an approxiamtely 1.0-Mb region in the mouse. Genes within the SMCR and its mouse syntenic region were identified by homology searches and by gene prediction programs, and their gene structures and expression profiles were characterized. In addition to 12 genes previously mapped, we identified 8 new genes and 10 predicted genes in the SMCR. In the mouse syntenic region of the human SMCR, 16 genes and 6 predicted genes were identified. The SMCR is highly conserved between humans and mice, including 19 genes with the same gene order and orientation. Our findings will facilitate both the identification of gene(s) responsible for the SMS phenotype and the engineering of an SMS mouse model.  (+info)

Transcriptional regulation of the stem cell leukemia gene (SCL)--comparative analysis of five vertebrate SCL loci. (4/25)

The stem cell leukemia (SCL) gene encodes a bHLH transcription factor with a pivotal role in hematopoiesis and vasculogenesis and a pattern of expression that is highly conserved between mammals and zebrafish. Here we report the isolation and characterization of the zebrafish SCL locus together with the identification of three neighboring genes, IER5, MAP17, and MUPP1. This region spans 68 kb and comprises the longest zebrafish genomic sequence currently available for comparison with mammalian, chicken, and pufferfish sequences. Our data show conserved synteny between zebrafish and mammalian SCL and MAP17 loci, thus suggesting the likely genomic domain necessary for the conserved pattern of SCL expression. Long-range comparative sequence analysis/phylogenetic footprinting was used to identify noncoding conserved sequences representing candidate transcriptional regulatory elements. The SCL promoter/enhancer, exon 1, and the poly(A) region were highly conserved, but no homology to other known mouse SCL enhancers was detected in the zebrafish sequence. A combined homology/structure analysis of the poly(A) region predicted consistent structural features, suggesting a conserved functional role in mRNA regulation. Analysis of the SCL promoter/enhancer revealed five motifs, which were conserved from zebrafish to mammals, and each of which is essential for the appropriate pattern or level of SCL transcription.  (+info)

Prospective screening for subtelomeric rearrangements in children with mental retardation of unknown aetiology: the Amsterdam experience. (5/25)

OBJECTIVE: The frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements in patients with unexplained mental retardation (MR) is uncertain, as most studies have been retrospective and case retrieval may have been biased towards cases more likely to have a chromosome anomaly. To ascertain the frequency of cytogenetic anomalies, including subtelomeric rearrangements, we prospectively screened a consecutive cohort of cases with unexplained MR in an academic tertiary centre. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were: age <18 years at referral, IQ<85, no aetiological diagnosis after complete examination, which included karyotyping with high resolution banding (HRB). RESULTS: In 266 karyotyped children, anomalies were detected in 20 (7.5%, seven numerical, 13 structural); 39 cases were analysed by FISH for specific interstitial microdeletions, and anomalies were found in nine (23%). FISH analyses for subtelomeric microdeletions were performed in 184 children (44% moderate-profound MR, 51% familial MR), and one rearrangement (0.5%) was identified in a non-familial MR female with mild MR (de novo deletion 12q24.33-qter). The number of probable polymorphisms was considerable: 2qter (n=7), Xpter (n=3), and Ypter (n=1). A significantly higher total number of malformations and minor anomalies was present in the cytogenetic anomaly group compared to the group without cytogenetic anomalies. CONCLUSIONS: The total frequency of cytogenetic anomalies in this prospective study was high (1:10), but the frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements was low. The most likely explanations are the high quality of HRB cytogenetic studies and the lack of clinical selection bias. Conventional cytogenetic analyses, combined with targeted microdeletion testing, remain the single most effective way of additional investigation in mentally retarded children, also in a tertiary centre.  (+info)

Comparative genomic sequence analysis of the human chromosome 21 Down syndrome critical region. (6/25)

Comprehensive knowledge of the gene content of human chromosome 21 (HSA21) is essential for understanding the etiology of Down syndrome (DS). Here we report the largest comparison of finished mouse and human sequence to date for a 1.35-Mb region of mouse chromosome 16 (MMU16) that corresponds to human chromosome 21q22.2. This includes a portion of the commonly described "DS critical region," thought to contain a gene or genes whose dosage imbalance contributes to a number of phenotypes associated with DS. We used comparative sequence analysis to construct a DNA feature map of this region that includes all known genes, plus 144 conserved sequences > or =100 bp long that show > or =80% identity between mouse and human but do not match known exons. Twenty of these have matches to expressed sequence tag and cDNA databases, indicating that they may be transcribed sequences from chromosome 21. Eight putative CpG islands are found at conserved positions. Models for two human genes, DSCR4 and DSCR8, are not supported by conserved sequence, and close examination indicates that low-level transcripts from these loci are unlikely to encode proteins. Gene prediction programs give different results when used to analyze the well-conserved regions between mouse and human sequences. Our findings have implications for evolution and for modeling the genetic basis of DS in mice.  (+info)

Annotation and BAC/PAC localization of nonredundant ESTs from drought-stressed seedlings of an indica rice. (7/25)

To decipher the genes associated with drought stress response and to identify novel genes in rice, we utilized 1540 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for functional annotation and mapping to rice genomic sequences. These ESTs were generated earlier by 3'-end single-pass sequencing of 2000 cDNA clones from normalized cDNA libraries constructed form drought-stressed seedlings of an indica rice. A rice UniGene set of 1025 transcripts was constructed from this collection through the BLASTN algorithm. Putative functions of 559 nonredundant ESTs were identified by BLAST similarity search against public databases. Putative functions were assigned at a stringency E value of 10(-6) in BLASTN and BLASTX algorithms. To understand the gene structure and function further, we have utilized the publicly available finished and unfinished rice BAC/PAC (BAC, bacterial artificial chromosome; PAC, P1 artificial chromosome) sequences for similarity search using the BLASTN algorithm. Further, 603 nonredundant ESTs have been mapped to BAC/PAC clones. BAC clones were assigned by a homology of above 95% identity along 90% of EST sequence length in the aligned region. In all, 700 ESTs showed rice EST hits in GenBank. Of the 325 novel ESTs, 128 were localized to BAC clones. In addition, 127 ESTs with identified putative functions but with no homology in IRGSP (International Rice Genome Sequencing Program) BAC/PAC sequences were mapped to the Chinese WGS (whole genome shotgun contigs) draft sequence of the rice genome. Functional annotation uncovered about a hundred candidate ESTs associated with abiotic stress in rice and Arabidopsis that were previously reported based on microarray analysis and other studies. This study is a major effort in identifying genes associated with drought stress response and will serve as a resource to rice geneticists and molecular biologists.  (+info)

Evidence for a fast, intrachromosomal conversion mechanism from mapping of nucleotide variants within a homogeneous alpha-satellite DNA array. (8/25)

Assuming that patterns of sequence variants within highly homogeneous centromeric tandem repeat arrays can tell us which molecular turnover mechanisms are presently at work, we analyzed the alpha-satellite tandem repeat array DXZ1 of one human X chromosome. Here we present accurate snapshots from this dark matter of the genome. We demonstrate stable and representative cloning of the array in a P1 artificial chromosome (PAC) library, use samples of higher-order repeats subcloned from five unmapped PACs (120-160 kb) to identify common variants, and show that such variants are presently in a fixed transition state. To characterize patterns of variant spread throughout homogeneous array segments, we use a novel partial restriction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis mapping approach. We find an older large-scale (35-50 kb) duplication event supporting the evolutionarily important unequal crossing-over hypothesis, but generally find independent variant occurrence and a paucity of potential de novo mutations within segments of highest homogeneity (99.1%-99.3%). Within such segments, a highly nonrandom variant clustering within adjacent higher-order repeats was found in the absence of haplotypic repeats. Such variant clusters are hardly explained by interchromosomal, fixation-driving mechanisms and likely reflect a fast, localized, intrachromosomal sequence conversion mechanism.  (+info)

article{550e732e-dca8-4d3e-9ebf-88dc9d73d5c3, abstract = {,p,Complex karyotype (CK) identified by chromosome-banding analysis (CBA) has shown prognostic value in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Genomic arrays offer high-resolution genome-wide detection of copy-number alterations (CNAs) and could therefore be well equipped to detect the presence of a CK. Current knowledge on genomic arrays in CLL is based on outcomes of single center studies, in which different cutoffs for CNA calling were used. To further determine the clinical utility of genomic arrays for CNA assessment in CLL diagnostics, we retrospectively analyzed 2293 arrays from 13 diagnostic laboratories according to established standards. CNAs were found outside regions captured by CLL FISH probes in 34% of patients, and several of them including gains of 8q, deletions of 9p and 18p (p<0.01) were linked to poor outcome after correction for multiple testing. Patients (n=972) could be divided in three distinct prognostic subgroups ...
8-base recognition sites will yield pieces 64,000 bases long. Since hundreds of different restriction enzymes have been characterized, DNA can be cut into many different small fragments. Physical Maps Different types of physical maps vary in their degree of resolution. The lowest- resolution physical map is the chromosomal (sometimes called cytogenetic) map, which is based on the distinctive banding patterns observed by light microscopy of stained chromosomes. A cDNA map shows the locations of expressed DNA regions (exons) on the chromosomal map. The more detailed cosmid contig map depicts the order of overlapping DNA fragments spanning the genome. A macrorestriction map describes the order and distance between enzyme cutting (cleavage) sites. The highest- resolution physical map is the complete elucidation of the DNA base- pair sequence of each chromosome in the human genome. Physical maps are described in greater detail below. Low-Resolution Physical Mapping Chromosomal map. In a chromosomal ...
Complex karyotype (CK) identified by chromosome-banding analysis (CBA) has shown prognostic value in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Genomic arrays offer high-resolution genome-wide detection of copy-number alterations (CNAs) and could therefore be well equipped to detect the presence of a CK. Current knowledge on genomic arrays in CLL is based on outcomes of single center studies, in which different cutoffs for CNA calling were used. To further determine the clinical utility of genomic arrays for CNA assessment in CLL diagnostics, we retrospectively analyzed 2293 arrays from 13 diagnostic laboratories according to established standards. CNAs were found outside regions captured by CLL FISH probes in 34% of patients, and several of them including gains of 8q, deletions of 9p and 18p (p,0.01) were linked to poor outcome after correction for multiple testing. Patients (n=972) could be divided in three distinct prognostic subgroups based on the number of CNAs. Only high genomic complexity ...
Background: Mental retardation can be caused by copy number variations (deletions, insertions, duplications), ranging in size from 1 kb to several megabases. Array based comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH) allows detection of an increasing number of genomic alterations.. Methods: A series of 46 patients with mental retardation and congenital abnormalities (previously screened for subtelomeric rearrangements) were evaluated for cryptic chromosomal imbalances by array-CGH. This array contains 6465 large-insert BAC/PAC clones, representing sequences uniformly distributed throughout the human genome. The results were confirmed by alternative techniques.. Results: Four pathogenic rearrangements were detected: two of them were novel, a deletion at 2q31.2 and a duplication at 8q12 band; the other two have been previously reported-a duplication of the Williams-Beuren region and a deletion of 3q29. By adding the subtelomeric alterations previously identified, a total rate of 18% of pathogenic ...
Bioluminescent-labelling allows sensitive non-invasive sequential imaging of tumor development and early metastasis. Current methods for the genetic modification of cells typically use integrating genotoxic viruses that can potentially disrupt the molecular behavior of cancer cell lines due to their random nature of integration. VAL401 is the reformulation of a clinical drug to enable use in the treatment of cancer. Preclinical data indicate potential use of the reformulated drug in lung cancer, where many subsets of patients have currently a high unmet medical need. We have utilized a non-viral DNA vector that comprises an S/MAR (Scaffold/Matrix Attachment Region) element to stably modify cells to be further used in xenograft studies to allow long term expression without affecting cell behavior or silencing over cell divisions. Human BxPC3 pancreatic cancer cells were stably transfected with a pSMARt-UBC-Luc and cultured for 4 weeks under selection. Colonies that formed after this period were ...
Isabel C. Barrio, Elin Lindén, Mariska Te Beest, Johan Olofsson, Adrian Rocha, Eeva M. Soininen, Juha M. Alatalo, Tommi Andersson, Ashley Asmus, Julia Boike, Kari Anne Bråthen, John P. Bryant, Agata Buchwal, C. Guillermo Bueno, Katherine S. Christie, Yulia V. Denisova, Dagmar Egelkraut, Dorothee Ehrich, LeeAnn Fishback, Bruce C. Forbes, Maite Gartzia, Paul Grogan, Martin Hallinger, Monique M. P. D. Heijmans, David S. Hik, Annika Hofgaard, Milena Holmgren, Toke T. Høye, Diane C. Huebner, Ingibjörg Svala Jónsdóttir, Elina Kaarlejärvi, Timo Kumpula, Cynthia Y. M. J. G. Lange, Jelena Lange, Esther Le´vesque, Juul Limpens, Marc Macias-Fauria, Isla Myers-Smith, Erik J. van Nieukerken, Signe Normand, Eric S. Post, Niels Martin Schmidt, Judith Sitters, Anna Skoracka, Alexander Sokolov, Natalya Sokolova, James D. M. Speed, Lorna E. Street, Maja K. Sundqvist, Otso Suominen, Nikita Tananaev, Jean-Pierre Tremblay, Christine Urbanowicz, Sergey A. Uvarov, David Watts, Martin Wilmking, Philip A. ...
Transgenic cattle carrying multiple genomic modifications have been produced by serial rounds of somatic cell chromatin transfer (cloning) of sequentially genetically targeted somatic cells. However, cloning efficiency tends to decline with the increase of rounds of cloning. It is possible that multiple rounds of cloning compromise the genome integrity or/and introduce epigenetic errors in the resulting cell lines, rendering a decline in cloning. To test these possibilities, we performed 9 high density array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) experiments to test the genome integrity in 3 independent bovine transgenic cell lineages generated from genetic modification and cloning. Our plan included the control hybridizations (self to self) of the 3 founder cell lines and 6 comparative hybridizations between these founders and their derived cell lines with either high or low cloning efficiencies. We detected similar amounts of differences between the control hybridizations (8, 13 and 39 differences)
Hox genes are essential for proper embryonic development. In mammals, 39 genes are found clustered at four genomic loci, and their internal topological.... Read more about Of HOX and TADs: The Genetic Basis of Pre-formation ...
A pilot study at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), in support of the National Cancer Institutes Early Detection Research Network (EDRN), has validated the measurement accuracy of new techniques that use mitochondrial DNA as an early indicator for certain types of cancer. Additional results suggest that a relatively simple diagnostic test using a DNA microarray chip could enable early detection of some solid tumors, including lung cancer. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) plays a role in respiration and the cells energy conversion mechanism. Since the late 1990s, researchers at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine have observed changes in mtDNA sequences in solid cancers, although the nature of the relationship remains uncertain. Their work suggested that particular changes in mtDNA might serve as early indicators for several types of solid cancer. Although promising, this approach is critically dependent on developing reliable, cost-effective, and highly sensitive ...
Scroll-Type Fluid Machiner - A scroll-type fluid machine is configured so that the scroll-type fluid machine has compact, lightweight, and long life characteristics obtained by mounting, without increasing the diameter of the barrel, a bearing having a higher load capacity and so that a degradation in the performance due to a pressure loss during a high flow-rate operation is minimized by providing the gas flow path in the center plate with a sufficient cross-sectional area. A scroll-type fluid machine is provided with: a first housing which contains a scroll mechanism; a second housing which contains an electric motor; and a center plate which is disposed between both the housings, which contains a motion conversion mechanism for converting rotational motion to orbiting motion, which has mounted thereto a rotation prevention mechanism for preventing the rotation of a movable scroll, and which holds the bearing for supporting the main shaft. At least a part of the fluid path, which connects the ...
Galli, T et al Tetanus toxin-mediated cleavage of cellubrevin impairs exocytosis of transferrin receptor-containing vesicles in CHO cells.. The Journal of Cell Biology 125.5 (1994): 1015-1024. Web. 23 Oct. 2019. ...
Nielutulehdus-suosituksen historiatiedot «Nielutulehdus, Käypä hoito -suosituksen historiatiedot»9. Puheenjohtaja:. Hans Blomberg, LL, yleislääketieteen erikoislääkäri; Sipoon terveyskeskus. Jäsenet:. Hannele Kotilainen, LL, sisätautien- ja infektiotautien erikoislääkäri, kaupunginepidemiologi; Helsingin terveyskeskus, Kaupunginsairaala, Epidemiologinen yksikkö. Tommi Liukko, LL; HYKS:n korva-, nenä- ja kurkkutautien klinikka, Suomen Terveystalo. Marjukka Mäkelä, tutkimusprofessori; Menetelmien arviointiyksikkö Finohta, Terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin laitos. Alpo Vuorio, LT, työterveyslääkäri; Mehiläinen Airport, Vantaa ja Työterveyslaitos, Lappeenranta (Käypä hoito -toimittaja). Asiantuntijat:. Olli-Pekka Alho, korva-, nenä- ja kurkkutautiopin professori; OYS:n korva-, nenä- ja kurkkutautien klinikka. Pentti Huovinen, LKT, erikoislääkäri, bakteeriopin professori, tutkimusprofessori; Turun yliopisto ja Terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin laitos. Hannu Sarkkinen, dosentti; ...
Nokia announced that it had reached 63 commercial 5G contracts worldwide, positioning among the global leaders in the delivery of end-to-end 5G solutions.. The figure includes Nokias customers such as AT&T, KDDI, Korea Telecom, LG Uplus, NTT DOCOMO, O2, SK Telecom, SoftBank, Sprint, STC, T-Mobile US, Verizon, Vodafone Italy and Zain Saudi from key 5G early adopter and progressive markets.. This milestone highlights the quality and customer confidence in our 5G portfolio and we expect this to continue this year with the addition of many more new deals, said Tommi Uitto, President of Mobile Networks at Nokia. Our global end-to-end portfolio includes products and services for every part of a network, which are helping network operators to enable key 5G capabilities such as network slicing, distributed cloud and the industrial Internet of Things. We are delighted that our technologies are helping to shape the delivery and deployment of 5G technologies worldwide and the myriad benefits these will ...
CGH stands for comparative genome hybridisation, which aims to compare the presence / absence / number of similar genes in 2 genomes (i.e. its a survey of genetic differences between 2 organisms). So, a CGH experiment might compare gemomic DNA from 2 closely related bacterial species or strains. The difference between CGH array experiments and gene expression array experiments is just the target which is hybridised to the array: labelled genomic DNA for CGH; labelled cDNA (or cRNA - derived from mRNA in either case) for gene expression. You can use exactly the same arrays for both types of experiment, although the objective of CGH is normally genome-wide comparison of 2 genomes, so CGH normally uses whole-genome microarrays (for prokaryotes, at least). In general, you can use any genomic array for either gene expression or CGH ...
Rice (Oryza sativa) is the first grass species to be sequenced, and as of September 2002, there are four draft genome sequences available. All four drafts are available to the academic community, although two drafts have some limitations with respect to access and distribution. Although none of the four draft sequences is complete, they collectively provide our first view of the landscape and the content of a monocot genome.. The first rice genome sequence made accessible in large tracts was that of the O. sativa subsp japonica cv Nipponbare generated by the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project (IRGSP;Sasaki and Burr, 2000), an international consortium of public laboratories. Using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-by-BAC approach, the IRGSP has generated draft sequence of 3,083 BAC or P1 artificial chromosome (PAC) clones that is available through GenBank/DNA data bank of Japan (DDBJ)/EMBL (as of September 17, 2002). These 3,083 BAC/PAC clones represent 426 Mb of sequence, and ...
FERRARIS KIMI RAIKKONEN is poised to make his debut in the World Rally Championship after it was announced he would compete in his home event, Rally Finland, next month.. Raikkonen, who has already competed in three minor events earlier in the year, will contest the rally in a Fiat Grande Punto S2000 alongside countryman Kaj Lindstrom, a former co-driver of four-time World Champion Tommi Makinen.. Incidentally, it will be Makinens rally outfit team, Tommi Makinen Racing that will prepare Raikkonens car for the event, the former Formula 1 World Champions first on gravel.. Lindstrom believes the challenge of competing in a gravel event will prove a stern test of Raikkonens ability to adapt to ever changing conditions.. ...
Development of protein kinase inhibitors is a focus of many drug discovery programs. A major problem, however, is the limited specificity of the commonly used adenosine triphosphate-competitive inhibitors and the weak inhibition of the more selective substrate-competitive inhibitors. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a promising drug target for treating neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimers disease (AD), but most GSK-3 inhibitors have not reached the clinic. We describe a new type of GSK-3 inhibitor, L807mts, that acts through a substrate-to-inhibitor conversion mechanism that occurs within the catalytic site of the enzyme. We determined that L807mts was a potent and highly selective GSK-3 inhibitor with reasonable pharmacological and safety properties when tested in rodents. Treatment with L807mts enhanced the clearance of β-amyloid loads, reduced inflammation, enhanced autophagic flux, and improved cognitive and social skills in the 5XFAD AD mouse model. This new modality of ...
Interfaces between materials with differently ordered phases present unique opportunities to study fundamental problems in physics. One example is the interface between a singlet superconductor and a half-metallic ferromagnet, where Cooper pairing occurs between electrons with opposite spin on the superconducting side, whereas the other exhibits 100% spin polarization. The recent surprising observation of a supercurrent through half-metallic CrO2 therefore requires a mechanism for conversion between unpolarized and completely spin-polarized supercurrents. Here, we suggest a conversion mechanism based on electron spin precession together with triplet-pair rotation at interfaces with broken spin-rotation symmetry. In the diffusive limit (short mean free path), the triplet supercurrent is dominated by inter-related odd-frequency s-wave and even-frequency p-wave pairs. In the crossover to the ballistic limit, further symmetry components become relevant. The interface region exhibits a superconducting state
Looking for Micrometer Caliper? Find out information about Micrometer Caliper. micrometer a measuring instrument whose conversion mechanism consists of a screw-nut micropair. Micrometer calipers are used to measure linear dimensions by... Explanation of Micrometer Caliper
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relaxation mechanisms of UV-photoexcited DNA and RNA nucleobases. AU - Barbatti, Mario. AU - Aquino, Adélia J.A.. AU - Szymczak, Jaroslaw J.. AU - Nachtigallová, Dana. AU - Hobza, Pavel. AU - Lischka, Hans. PY - 2010/12/14. Y1 - 2010/12/14. N2 - A comprehensive effort in photodynamical ab initio simulations of the ultrafast deactivation pathways for all five nucleobases adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil is reported. These simulations are based on a complete nonadiabatic surface-hopping approach using extended multiconfigurational wave functions. Even though all five nucleobases share the basic internal conversion mechanisms, the calculations show a distinct grouping into purine and pyrimidine bases as concerns the complexity of the photodynamics. The purine bases adenine and guanine represent the most simple photodeactivation mechanism with the dynamics leading along a diabatic ππ* path directly and without barrier to the conical intersection seam with the ...
Agra, Rosa María; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Badimon, Lina; Bodi, Vicente; Carbone, Federico; Chen, Mao; Cubedo, Judit; Dullaart, Robin P F; Eiras, Sonia; García-Monzón, Carmelo; Gary, Thomas; Gnoni, Antonio; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; Gremmel, Thomas; Hafner, Franz; Hakala, Tommi; Huang, Baotao; Ickmans, Kelly; Irace, Concetta; Kholová, Ivana; Kimer, Nina; Kytö, Ville; März, Winfried; Miazgowski, Tomasz; Møller, Søren; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Niccoli, Giampaolo; Nijs, Jo; Ozben, Serkan; Ozben, Tomris; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Papastamataki, Maria; Reina-Couto, Marta; Rios-Navarro, Cesar; Ritsch, Andreas; Sabico, Shaun; Seetho, Ian W; Severino, Anna; Sipilä, Jussi; Sousa, Teresa; Taszarek, Aleksandra; Taurino, Federica; Tietge, Uwe J F; Tripolino, Cesare; Verloop, Willemien; Voskuil, Michiel; Wilding, John P ...
Kuti9 was published in autumn 2008 with 28 pages from the Kuti team and 8 extra pages from the Finnish small press distributor Toivo. Featuring art from: Lilli Carré (USA), The Duuzers (FIN), Martin Ernstsen (NOR), Roope Eronen (FIN), Tom Gauld (UK), Matti Hagelberg (FIN), Kaltsu Kallio (FIN), Bendik Kaltenborn (NOR), Kapreles (NED), Tommi Musturi (FIN), Sami Myllyniemi (FIN), Jyrki Nissinen (FIN), Jaakko Pallasvuo (FIN), Aapo Rapi (FIN), Anna Sailamaa (FIN), Bart Schoofs (BEL), Olivier Schrauwen (BEL), Jerry Scoundrel (FRA), Walter Schifftate (USA), Petteri Tikkanen (FIN) and Jari Vaara (FIN). The issue includes an article about Yuichi Yokoyama (in Finnish) and about Extrapool (in English). Kuti9 is included in the collection of the St. Patricks Zine Library. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Tommi Pätilä, Shigeru Miyagawa, Yukiko Imanishi, Satsuki Fukushima, Antti Siltanen, Eero Mervaala, Esko Kankuri, Ari Harjula, Yoshiki Sawa].
A new one from Helsinki with an incredible Tommi Björk section (6:13), a shared Simo Mäkelä and Olli Lilja part and one hell of an ender.. By Jaro Serlas and Mikko Björk.. Cover image by Justus Hirvi.. ...
Drug Class and Mechanism. Fexofenadine is an oral, second generation antihistamine that is used to treat the signs and symptoms of allergy that are due to histamine. It is similar to the other second generation antihistamines loratadine (Claritin), cetirizine (Zyrtec) and azelastine (Astelin). Histamine is a chemical that is responsible for many of the signs and symptoms of allergic reactions, for example, swelling of the lining of the nose, sneezing, and itchy eyes. Histamine is released from histamine-storing cells (mast cells) and then attaches to other cells that have receptors for histamine. The attachment of the histamine to the receptors causes the cell to be activated, releasing other chemicals that produce the effects that we associate with allergy, e.g., sneezing. Fexofenadine blocks one type of receptor for histamine (the H1 receptor) and thus prevents activation of H1 receptor-containing cells by histamine. Unlike the first generation antihistamines, fexofenadine and other ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - High-Resolution Genomic Arrays Facilitate Detection of Novel Cryptic Chromosomal Lesions in Myelodysplastic Syndromes. AU - OKeefe, Christine L.. AU - Tiu, Ramon. AU - Gondek, Lukasz P.. AU - Powers, Jennifer. AU - Theil, Karl S.. AU - Kalaycio, Matt. AU - Lichtin, Alan. AU - Sekeres, Mikkael A.. AU - Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P.. PY - 2007/2/1. Y1 - 2007/2/1. N2 - Objective: Unbalanced chromosomal aberrations are common in myelodysplastic syndromes and have prognostic implications. An increased frequency of cytogenetic changes may reflect an inherent chromosomal instability due to failure of DNA repair. Therefore, it is likely that chromosomal defects in myelodysplastic syndromes may be more frequent than predicted by metaphase cytogenetics and new cryptic lesions may be revealed by precise analysis methods. Methods: We used a novel high-resolution karyotyping technique, array-based comparative genomic hybridization, to investigate the frequency of cryptic chromosomal lesions in a ...
We have developed FISH Oracle, an interactive web-based application to visualize segment data from an unlimited number of array CGH experiments in the context of gene annotations. Functional elements and segments are presented in a clear and concise fashion. Moreover, the zooming capability of the system makes it possible to display all elements at the resolution desired by the user. Easy to use filters allow to select groups of segments to be visualized. We expect that the high quality of the visualization and the flexibility of the software will enable life scientists to quickly derive interesting hypotheses about candidate cancer genes occurring in amplified or deleted regions. To communicate their findings, users can quickly export the generated images in different high quality formats, e.g. for publication or post-processing using standard graphics software. FISH Oracle is flexible regarding the underlying genome as long as the segment data refer to the same sequence basis as an annotation ...
To protect structures from short duration shock load in various engineering applications, a novel energy conversion mechanism with concept design is proposed. Different from conventional methods with cellular solid/structure dissipating input translational kinetic energy to plastic strain energy with large compressive deformation, the proposed approach converts part of incident translational kinetic energy to rotational kinetic energy, which is not detrimental to the protected structure. The mechanism of energy conversion is analyzed and formulated, with key factors governing the conversion efficiency identified and discussed, which sheds light on alternative approach for short duration load mitigation.
Karen S W Leong, Thilini N Jayasinghe, José G B Derraik, Benjamin B Albert, Valentina Chiavaroli, Darren M Svirskis, Kathryn L Beck, Cathryn A Conlon, Yannan Jiang, William Schierding, Tommi Vatanen, David J Holland, Justin M OSullivan, Wayne S Cutfield ...
Fexofenadine is an oral, second generation antihistamine that is used to treat the signs and symptoms of allergy that are due to histamine. It is similar to the other second generation antihistamines loratadine (Claritin), cetirizine (Zyrtec) and azelastine (Astelin). Histamine is a chemical that is responsible for many of the signs and symptoms of allergic reactions, for example, swelling of the lining of the nose, sneezing, and itchy eyes. Histamine is released from histamine-storing cells (mast cells) and then attaches to other cells that have receptors for histamine. The attachment of the histamine to the receptors causes the cell to be activated, releasing other chemicals that produce the effects that we associate with allergy, e.g., sneezing. Fexofenadine blocks one type of receptor for histamine (the H1 receptor) and thus prevents activation of H1 receptor-containing cells by histamine. Unlike the first generation antihistamines, fexofenadine and other second-generation antihistamines ...
Fexofenadine is an oral, second generation antihistamine that is used to treat the signs and symptoms of allergy that are due to histamine. It is similar to the other second generation antihistamines loratadine (Claritin), cetirizine (Zyrtec) and azelastine (Astelin). Histamine is a chemical that is responsible for many of the signs and symptoms of allergic reactions, for example, swelling of the lining of the nose, sneezing, and itchy eyes. Histamine is released from histamine-storing cells (mast cells) and then attaches to other cells that have receptors for histamine. The attachment of the histamine to the receptors causes the cell to be activated, releasing other chemicals that produce the effects that we associate with allergy, e.g., sneezing. Fexofenadine blocks one type of receptor for histamine (the H1 receptor) and thus prevents activation of H1 receptor-containing cells by histamine. Unlike the first generation antihistamines, fexofenadine and other second-generation antihistamines ...
Complete publications list available from: NASA ADS Author Search: Tommi Koskinen. Refereed publications (NASA ADS): Calendar Years 2017 through June 2020. Vriesema, J. W., Koskinen, T. T., Yelle, R. V. Electrodynamics in Saturns thermosphere at low and middle latitudes 2020Icar..34413390V. Brown, Z., Koskinen, T., Müller-Wodarg, I., West, R., Jouchoux, A., Esposito, L. A pole-to-pole pressure-temperature map of Saturns thermosphere from Cassini Grand Finale data 2020NatAs.tmp...75B. Koskinen, T. T., Sandel, B. R., Yelle, R. V., Holsclaw, G. M., Quemerais, E. Saturn in Lyman α: A comparison of Cassini and Voyager observations 2020Icar..33913594K. Cubillos, P. E., Fossati, L., Koskinen, T., Young, M. E., Salz, M., France, K., Sreejith, A. G., Haswell, C. A. Near-ultraviolet Transmission Spectroscopy of HD 209458b: Evidence of Ionized Iron Beyond the Planetary Roche Lobe 2020AJ....159..111C. Turner, J. D., de Mooij, E. J. W., Jayawardhana, R., Young, M. E., Fossati, L., Koskinen, T., ...
Shigella flexneri is the major pathogen causing bacillary dysentery in developing countries. S. flexneri is divided into at least 16 serotypes based on the combination of antigenic determinants present in the O-antigen. All the serotypes (except for serotype 6) share a basic O-unit containing one N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and three l-rhamnose residues, whereas differences between the serotypes are conferred by phage-encoded glucosylation and/or O-acetylation. Serotype Xv is a newly emerged and the most prevalent serotype in China, which can agglutinate with both MASF IV-1 and 7,8 monoclonal antibodies. The factor responsible for the presence of MASF IV-1 (E1037) epitope has not yet been identified. In this study, we analyzed the LPS structure of serotype Xv strains and found that the MASF IV-1 positive phenotype depends on an O-antigen modification with a phosphoethanolamine (PEtN) group attached at position 3 of one of the rhamnose residues. A plasmid carried gene, lpt-O (LPS phosphoethanolamine
Shigella flexneri is the major pathogen causing bacillary dysentery in developing countries. S. flexneri is divided into at least 16 serotypes based on the combination of antigenic determinants present in the O-antigen. All the serotypes (except for serotype 6) share a basic O-unit containing one N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and three l-rhamnose residues, whereas differences between the serotypes are conferred by phage-encoded glucosylation and/or O-acetylation. Serotype Xv is a newly emerged and the most prevalent serotype in China, which can agglutinate with both MASF IV-1 and 7,8 monoclonal antibodies. The factor responsible for the presence of MASF IV-1 (E1037) epitope has not yet been identified. In this study, we analyzed the LPS structure of serotype Xv strains and found that the MASF IV-1 positive phenotype depends on an O-antigen modification with a phosphoethanolamine (PEtN) group attached at position 3 of one of the rhamnose residues. A plasmid carried gene, lpt-O (LPS phosphoethanolamine
Twenty-eight genetic loci have been physically mapped to specific large restriction fragments of the Streptococcus mutans GS-5 chromosome by hybridization with probes of cloned genes or, for transposon-generated amino acid auxotrophs, with probes for Tn916. In addition, restriction fragments generated by one low-frequency-cleavage enzyme were used as probes to identify overlapping fragments generated by other restriction enzymes. The approach allowed construction of a low resolution physical map of the S. mutans GS-5 genome using restriction enzymes ApaI (5'-GGGCC/C), SmaI (5'-CCC/GGG), and NotI (5'-GC/GGCCGC).
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Binds to scaffold/matrix attachment region (S/MAR) DNA and forms a molecular assembly point to allow the formation of a transcriptosomal complex (consisting of SR proteins and RNA polymerase II) coupling transcription and RNA processing. When associated with RBMX, binds to and stimulates transcription from the SREBF1 promoter (By similarity).
Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a mental retardation syndrome with distinctive behavioral characteristics, dysmorphic features, and congenital anomalies ascribed to an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. Severe sleep disturbances and maladaptive daytime behavior have been linked to an abnor …
We undertook clinical evaluation (32 cases) and molecular evaluation (31 cases) of unrelated patients affected with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) associated with an interstitial deletion of band p11.2 of chromosome 17. Patients were evaluated both clinically and electrophysiologically for peripheral …
Moshier, M. S., York, T. P., Silberg, J. L. and Elsea, S. H. (2012), Siblings of individuals with Smith-Magenis syndrome: an investigation of the correlates of positive and negative behavioural traits. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 56: 996-1007. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2788.2012.01581.x ...
Sloneem, J and Oliver, C and Udwin, O and Woodcock, K (2011) Prevalence, phenomenology, aetiology and predictors of challenging behaviour in Smith-Magenis syndrome. Journal Of Intellectual Disability Research. ...
Tommi, Kate, and Zara are all elite competitors on the circuit, but they come from. This app makes it relatively easy to design inquiry lessons with iCircuit as the main visual and interactive component. Training program. To the uninitiated these layer types can be quite confusing, but once you have a basic understanding, youll see that it is all quite simple. A circuit diagram is a visual display of an electrical circuit using either basic images of parts or industry standard symbols. Wiring is not necessary, but can be used to show wiring that i. ) Very Simple. i want to communicate the arduino & nodeMCU together, so that i can read the value from arduino uno to nodeMCU. Its advanced simulation engine can handle both analog and digital circuits and features realtime always-on analysis. ‬ iCircuit is the easy to use electronic circuit simulator and designer - the perfect tool for students, hobbyists, and engineers. Disclosure: I am affiliated with the company that makes and sells this app. ...
Raine Sihvonen, Mika Paavola, Antti Malmivaara, Ari Itälä, Antti Joukainen, Heikki Nurmi, Juha Kalske, Anna Ikonen, Timo Järvelä, Tero A H Järvinen, Kari Kanto, Janne Karhunen, Jani Knifsund, Heikki Kröger, Tommi Kääriäinen, Janne Lehtinen, Jukka Nyrhinen, Juha Paloneva, Outi Päiväniemi, Marko Raivio, Janne Sahlman, Roope Sarvilinna, Sikri Tukiainen, Ville-Valtteri Välimäki, Ville Äärimaa, Pirjo Toivonen, Teppo L N Järvinen The FIDELITY (Finnish Degenerative Meniscal Lesion Study) Investigators ...
In the past five years we have identified the developmental stage of Tcell differentiation at which malignant transformation caused by retroviral insertion of a...
Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) is a genetic disorder with features including intellectual disability, facial abnormalities, difficulty sleeping, and numerous behavioral problems such as self-harm. Smith-Magenis syndrome affects an estimated between 1 in 15,000 to 1 in 25,000 individuals. It is a microdeletion syndrome characterized by an abnormality in the short (p) arm of chromosome 17 and is sometimes called the 17p- syndrome. Facial features of children with Smith-Magenis syndrome include a broad face, deep-set eyes, large cheeks, and a prominent jaw, as well as a flat nose bridge. The mouth curves downwards and the upper lip curves outwards. These facial features become more noticeable as the individual ages. Disrupted sleep patterns are characteristic of Smith-Magenis syndrome, typically beginning early in life. Affected people may be very sleepy during the day, but have trouble falling asleep and awaken several times each night, due to an inverted circadian rhythm of melatonin. People with ...
Smith-Magenis Syndrome is a rare chromosomal disorder characterized by abnormalities of the head and facial (craniofacial) area, delays in the acquisition of skills requiring the coordination of mental and muscular activities (psychomotor retardation), mental retardation, speech delays, and/or behavioral abnormalities.
Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a genetic condition which causes noticeable physical characteristics and some cognitive difficulties. Children with SMS tend to...
We have developed a procedure for efficient in situ hybridization of bacterial recombinants created with various types of large-insert cloning vectors. Minimal quantities of crude DNA are amplified and labeled during the degenerate-oligonucleotide-primed polymerase chain reaction. The resulting probes generate high-intensity fluorescent hybridization signals on metaphase chromosomes and on interphase nuclei.
MOUNT VERNON, Mo. - Missouri agriculture officials are receiving reports of cattle dying after grazing on drought-stressed grass. The University of Missouri Extension service says the problem is johnsongrass. During droughts like this years, it can accumulate dangerous levels of nitrates and prussic acid.
THE OHIO STATE JOURNAL VOLUME VII. CO LUMBUS, SATURDAY, JUNE 29, 1844. NUMBER 204. PUBLISHED ON TUESDAYS, THURSDAYS AND SATURDAYS, BY SCOTT St TEESDALE. Ornci corner odliga and Town street, Bultlef Building. TERMS. Daily during tho session of the Legislature, and tri-weckly the remainder or tho year $& 00 Tri-wcckly per annum 4 00 Weekly per annum 100 rpiIK barribcr hna nuoHnird with him Mr. R. X Fitch, and will continue tho lroluce and Commission Ilusiness under the iirm of 8. THOM AS & CO., at tho White Warehouse at the west end ol the Scioto llridgo, where Ihcy will be ready to attend promptly to any business that may be entrusted to them. Advauccuients made on consignments when required. S. THOMAS. May 1, IBM STUO T1AN cV tO. Forwarding nnd tommi. aio .rrchnnis Oviirrnl Produce Denlera, Agents IorN. York and Buffalo Lake lioal line; John Allens Clintoa line, and Ohio and N. York line, on the Krio Caual; T. Richmond & Co.s Diamond Line, on the Ohio Canal. While Want-House, West end ...
The best part of this trip, minus having to share my bed with FAYETH, is that I get to spend time with some of my favorite Chiari Moms. (Just wait until camp, THAT is a lot of fun, 23 of my favorite Chiari Families!!!!) Kristen has flown in from OK and I will pick her up in Mt. Prospect this afternoon. Our friend Tommi had to cancel due to her daughters surgical wound infection. Cindy will be coming along with her friend Jenni (whom I have yet to meet) Kristen and I are sharing a room. No Kids. No listening to Mommy, Mommy Mommy ...
Smith-Magenis syndrome repeat gene cluster, proximal, made of some 14 genes and pseudogenes comprising one copy of KIAA00565, and sequence homolog to LGALS9, NOS2A, SRP68, UPF3A, USP6 ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of The role of spinal angiography in the evaluation and treatment of pediatric spinal vascular pathology: a case series and systematic review. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
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P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs) have features of both P1 vectors and Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs). Similar to P1 ... Bacteriophage P1 vectors can hold inserts 70 - 100kb in size. They begin as linear DNA molecules packaged into bacteriophage P1 ... Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are linear DNA molecules containing the necessary features of an authentic yeast chromosome ... Unlike P1 vectors, they do not need to be packaged into bacteriophage particles for transduction. Instead they are introduced ...
A similar cloning vector called a PAC has also been produced from the DNA of P1 bacteriophage. BACs are often used to sequence ... Cosmid End-sequence profiling Fosmid Human artificial chromosome Yeast artificial chromosome O'Connor M, Peifer M, Bender W ( ... A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is a DNA construct, based on a functional fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid), used for ... Domi A, Moss B (September 2002). "Cloning the vaccinia virus genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli ...
P1 can also be used to create the P1-derived artificial chromosome cloning vector which can carry relatively large fragments of ... "Bacteriophage P1", in Richard Calendar (ed.), The Bacteriophages, Oxford University Press, p. 350, ISBN 0195148509 Viralzone: ... "DNA Inversion Regions Min of Plasmid p15B and Cin of Bacteriophage P1: Evolution of Bacteriophage Tail Fiber Genes". Journal of ... The genome of P1 encodes 112 proteins and 5 untranslated genes and is this about twice the size of bacteriophage lambda. The ...
A P1-derived artificial chromosome is a DNA construct that was derived from the DNA of P1 bacteriophage. It can carry large ... Yeast artificial chromosome. References[edit]. *^ Yarmolinsky M, Hoess R (November 2015). "The Legacy of Nat Sternberg: The ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=P1-derived_artificial_chromosome&oldid=903800665" ... "Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification, and recovery of DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobase pairs" ...
... usually occurs as linear chromosomes in eukaryotes, and circular chromosomes in prokaryotes. The set of chromosomes in a ... Artificial bases. Main article: Nucleic acid analogue. Several artificial nucleobases have been synthesized, and successfully ... bacteriophages) is to avoid the restriction enzymes present in bacteria. This enzyme system acts at least in part as a ... such as in chromosome 1. Chromosome 1 is the largest human chromosome with approximately 220 million base pairs, and would be ...
Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification and recovery of DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobases pairs ... such as P1 bacteriophage (=-=Sternberg, 1990-=-), bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) (Shizuya et al., 1992) and P1 ... The genome of bacteriophage P1 by Malgorzata B. Lobocka, Debra J. Rose, Guy Plunkett Iii, Marek Rusin, Arkadiusz Samojedny, ... Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification and recovery of DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobases pairs ...
4.4 Bacteriophage P1 derived vector. 4.5 P1 derived artificial chromosome (PAC). 4.6 Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) ...
A similar cloning vector called a PAC has also been produced from the DNA of P1 bacteriophage. BACs are often used to sequence ... Cosmid End-sequence profiling Fosmid Human artificial chromosome Yeast artificial chromosome OConnor M, Peifer M, Bender W ( ... A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is a DNA construct, based on a functional fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid), used for ... Domi A, Moss B (September 2002). "Cloning the vaccinia virus genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli ...
One of these recombination systems that utilize specific recognition sites is the Cre/loxP system of bacteriophage P1. It ... A. Domi and B. Moss, "Engineering of a vaccinia virus bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli by bacteriophage λ- ... Viral Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: Generation, Mutagenesis, and Removal of Mini-F Sequences. B. Karsten Tischer and ... A. Domi and B. Moss, "Cloning the vaccinia virus genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli and recovery ...
A P1-derived artificial chromosome is a DNA construct that was derived from the DNA of P1 bacteriophage. It can carry large ... Yeast artificial chromosome. References[edit]. *^ Yarmolinsky M, Hoess R (November 2015). "The Legacy of Nat Sternberg: The ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=P1-derived_artificial_chromosome&oldid=903800665" ... "Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification, and recovery of DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobase pairs" ...
P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs) have features of both P1 vectors and Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs). Similar to P1 ... Bacteriophage P1 vectors can hold inserts 70 - 100kb in size. They begin as linear DNA molecules packaged into bacteriophage P1 ... Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are linear DNA molecules containing the necessary features of an authentic yeast chromosome ... Unlike P1 vectors, they do not need to be packaged into bacteriophage particles for transduction. Instead they are introduced ...
derived from bacteriophage P1 vector. *15-16kb. *positive selection for inserts via sacB the levansucrase gene which converts ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes or BACS are circular DNA molecules which contain a replicon that is based on the F factor. ... A modular, positive selection bacterial artificial chromosome vector with multiple cloning sites. Genomics. 1999 Jun 15;58(3): ... Bacteriophage lambda cos site for fosmid packaging or lambda terminase cleavage. *Phage T7 promoter for in vitro transcription ...
... bacteriophage derived artificial chromosomes) or PACs (P1 derived artificial chromosomes) or combinations thereof. Artificial ... bacteriophage-derived artificial chromosome (BBPAC), cosmid or P1 derived artificial chromosome (PAC), that can be transfected ... Artificial chromosomes include, without limitation, BACs (bacterial artificial chromosomes), YACs (yeast artificial chromosomes ... bacteriophage-derived artificial chromosome (BBPAC), cosmid or P1 derived artificial chromosome (PAC). ...
... such as P1 bacteriophage (Sternberg, 1990), bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) (Shizuya et al., 1992) and P1 artificial ... Cre (causes recombination of the bacteriophage P1 genome) recognizes minimal loxP [locus of crossing-over (X) in P1] RSs of 34 ... Gong, S., Yang, X. W., Li, C. and Heintz, N. (2002). Highly efficient modification of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) ... Sternberg, N. (1990). Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification, and recovery of DNA fragments as large ...
Sauer B, Henderson N. Site-specific DNA recombination in mammalian cells by the Cre recombinase of bacteriophage P1. ... Domi A, Moss B. Engineering of a vaccinia virus bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli by bacteriophage λ-based ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Mutagenesis Using Recombineering. Kumaran Narayanan 1, 2 * and Qingwen Chen 2 ... Construction of human artificial chromosome vectors by recombineering. Gene. 2005;351:29-38. [PubMed] ...
PAC The artificial chromosome vector derived from the temperate bacteriophage, P1, used for cloning 100- to 200-kb DNA ... bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) Artificial chromosome vector derived from bacteria used for cloning relatively large DNA ... ring chromosome A structurally abnormal chromosome in which the end of each chromosome arm has been deleted and the broken arms ... BAC See bacterial artificial chromosome.. backcross A genetic crossing of a heterozygous organism and one of its homozygous ...
... bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), or P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC), bacteriophages such as lambda phage or M13 ... Examples of vectors include plasmids, phagemids, cosmids, artificial chromosomes such as yeast artificial chromosome (YAC), ... Genes Chromosomes Cancer 27:95-103.. *34. Saffran, D. C., et al. 2001. Anti-PSCA mAbs inhibit tumor growth and metastasis ... "Isolated" as used herein does not exclude artificial or synthetic mixtures with other compounds or materials, or the presence ...
... bacterial artificial chromosomes, and a P1 bacteriophage vectors, also described as P1-derived artificial chromosomes.68 69 70 ... Construction and characterization of a 10-fold genome equivalent rat P1-derived artificial chromosome library. Genomics. 1998; ... 71 If the markers are close on the chromosome, then the flanking yeast artificial chromosomes clones will overlap, as judged by ... Construction of a large-insert yeast artificial chromosome library of the rat genome. Mamm Genome. 1997;8:284. ...
... bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), or P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC), bacteriophages such as lambda phage or M13 ... Examples of vectors include plasmids, phagemids, cosmids, artificial chromosomes such as yeast artificial chromosome (YAC), ...
1994) A new bacteriophage P1‐derived vector for the propagation of large human DNA fragments. Nature Genetics 6(1): 84-89. ... Burke DT, Carle GF and Olson MV (1987) Cloning of large segments of exogenous DNA into yeast by means of artificial chromosome ... Sternberg N (1990) Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification, and recovery of DNA fragments as large as ... Sauer B and Henderson N (1988) Site‐specific DNA recombination in mammalian cells by the Cre recombinase of bacteriophage P1. ...
P. A. Ioannou, C. T. Amemiya, J. Garnes et al., "A new bacteriophage P1-derived vector for the propagation of large human DNA ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) libraries have been used extensively for constructing physical maps of the human genome ... J. P. P. Muyrers, Y. Zhang, G. Testa, and A. F. Stewart, "Rapid modification of bacterial artificial chromosomes by ET- ... K. Osoegawa, P. Y. Woon, B. Zhao et al., "An improved approach for construction of bacterial artificial chromosome libraries," ...
faagi P1 kunstlik kromosoom (ingl. Bacteriophage P1 artificial chromosome). Faagi P1 plasmiidvektori katkilõikamisel tekib ...
Yeast Artificial Chromosomes Medicine & Life Sciences * Cosmids Medicine & Life Sciences * Bacteriophage P1 Medicine & Life ... The physical map is composed of a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) and P1 phage contig with one gap. The majority of the ... The physical map is composed of a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) and P1 phage contig with one gap. The majority of the ... The physical map is composed of a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) and P1 phage contig with one gap. The majority of the ...
We reported previously that ~80-kilobase pair (kb) P1 bacteriophage clones spanning either the human or mouse apoB gene (clones ... To test this possibility, transgenic mice were generated with 145- and 207-kb bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) that ... Human Apolipoprotein B Transgenic Mice Generated with 207- and 145-Kilobase Pair Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. Evidence ... and 145-Kilobase Pair Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. Evidence that a distant 5-element confers appropriate transgene ...
... human ELKS gene from within a 700-kb genomic region represented by overlapping bacteriophage P1-derived artificial chromosome ( ... PAC) and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones, and localized it to chromosomal band 12p13.3 by fluorescence in situ ... Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2002; 35(1):30-7 [PubMed] Related Publications A novel gene, ELKS, whose 5 portion was fused to the ... Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1999; 25(2):97-103 [PubMed] Related Publications In papillary thyroid carcinomas, the genes for ...
Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs). • Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). • Bacteriophage P1 artificial chromosomes. ( ... Bacteriophage P1 artificial chromosomes. (PACs) have been constructed from. bacteriophage P1 chromosomes.. • BACs and PACs ... Bacteriophage Vectors. • Most bacteriophage cloning vectors have. been constructed from the phage λ. chromosome.. • The central ... Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs). • Genetically engineered yeast minichromosomes.. • Accept foreign DNA inserts of 200-500 ...
Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial/genetics , Chromosomes, Artificial, P1 Bacteriophage/genetics , Disasters , Expressed ... bacterial artificial chromosome; PAC, P1 artificial chromosome) sequences for similarity search using the BLASTN algorithm. ...
P1 Bacteriophage Artificial Chromosomes Medicine & Life Sciences * Radiation Hybrid Mapping Medicine & Life Sciences ... we have constructed a 2-Mb bacterial and P1-derived artificial chromosome (BAC-PAC) contig for the EGFR region and have applied ... we have constructed a 2-Mb bacterial and P1-derived artificial chromosome (BAC-PAC) contig for the EGFR region and have applied ... we have constructed a 2-Mb bacterial and P1-derived artificial chromosome (BAC-PAC) contig for the EGFR region and have applied ...
Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial/genetics. *Chromosomes, Artificial, P1 Bacteriophage/genetics. *Chromosomes, Artificial, ... coli homologous recombination systems have recently been developed that enable genomic DNA in bacterial artificial chromosomes ... This new form of chromosome engineering, termed recombinogenic engineering or recombineering, is efficient and greatly ...
... a P1 genomic library of 17-fold coverage and a cosmid library of 8 genome equivalents, both made from S. pombe strain 972h-, ... Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones covering the entire genome were used to subdivide the libraries, and hybridization of ... High resolution cosmid and P1 maps spanning the 14 Mb genome of the fission yeast S. pombe Cell. 1993 Apr 9;73(1):109-20. doi: ... Gridded on high density filters, a P1 genomic library of 17-fold coverage and a cosmid library of 8 genome equivalents, both ...
P1-derived Artificial Chromosome. DNA constructs that are derived from the DNA of P1 bacteriophage. They can carry large ... Yeast Artificial Chromosomes are extremely large segments of DNA from another species spliced into DNA of yeast. YACs are used ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) is a DNA construct, based on a fertility plasmid, used for transforming and cloning in ... A virus used to construct vectors that are able to stably integrate any gene cassette into the host cell chromosome. This ...
Chromosome. UN. Molecular Note. A mouse bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing the entire Npas1 gene, was modified by ... cre, cre recombinase, bacteriophage P1. Expressed Gene. RFP, Red Fluorescent Protein, coral. ... A mouse bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing the entire Npas1 gene, was modified by inserting Cre-2A (cleavable ...
An ordered yeast artificial chromosome library covering over half of rice chromosome 6. ... a P1 plasmid replicon to stably maintain that DNA in E. coli at one copy per cell chromosome, and a lac promoter-regulated P1 ... Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification, and recovery of DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobase pairs ... Bacteriophage P1 cloning system for the isolation, amplification, and recovery of DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobase pairs ...
  • however, this problem could also be overcome by the use of single or low-copy vectors, such as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). (hindawi.com)
  • Bacterial artificial chromosomes, or BACs, are fertility- (F-) factor-based plasmid vectors that replicate stably in low copy number [ 2 , 3 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Bacterial artificial chromosomes or BACS are circular DNA molecules which contain a replicon that is based on the F factor. (openwetware.org)
  • Human Apolipoprotein B Transgenic Mice Generated with 207- and 145-Kilobase Pair Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. (caltech.edu)
  • To test this possibility, transgenic mice were generated with 145- and 207-kb bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) that contained the human apoB gene and more extensive 5'- and 3'-flanking sequences. (caltech.edu)
  • Highly efficient phage-based Escherichia coli homologous recombination systems have recently been developed that enable genomic DNA in bacterial artificial chromosomes to be modified and subcloned, without the need for restriction enzymes or DNA ligases. (nih.gov)
  • Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs) are widely used to investigate the functions of genes and genomes in mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Yang Y, Seed B (2003) Site-specific gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem cells with intact bacterial artificial chromosomes. (springer.com)
  • By sequencing 8452 bacterial artificial chromosomes in pools, we assembled a sequence of 774 megabases carrying 5326 protein-coding genes, 1938 pseudogenes, and 85% of transposable elements. (jove.com)
  • Plasmids that utilize different combinations of double-counter selective markers have been used for diverse applications, including the search for extremely rare suppressor mutations of essential Escherichia coli genes, and to improve the efficiency of allelic exchange on bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). (asmscience.org)
  • BACs can also be utilized to detect genes or large sequences of interest and then used to map them onto the human chromosome using BAC arrays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones has been demonstrated to facilitate physiologically relevant levels compared to viral and nonviral cDNA vectors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cloning of large segments of exogenous DNA into yeast by means of artificial chromosome vectors" Science, 236:806-812 (1987). (patentgenius.com)
  • One of these is recombineering (recombination-mediated genetic engineering [ 14 ]), which was adapted from bacteriophage where the recombination genes were carefully delineated and moved to mobile plasmid systems that were transferable to host E. coli strains. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We have developed a new approach to screen bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries by recombination selection. (hindawi.com)
  • Sternberg N, Hamilton D (1981) Bacteriophage P1 site-specific recombination. (springer.com)
  • The distribution of structural and functional features along the chromosome revealed partitioning correlated with meiotic recombination. (jove.com)
  • A recombination system has been developed for efficient chromosome engineering in Escherichia coli by using electroporated linear DNA. (pnas.org)
  • Murphy ( 9 ) reported the highest frequencies of recombination with linear DNA containing long homologies by transforming in the presence of the bacteriophage λ recombination functions (Exo and Beta) in a bacterial recBCD mutant background. (pnas.org)
  • An impressive application of Flp in eukaryotes has been the creation of mosaic flies in Drosophila by site-specific recombination between homologous chromosomes. (asmscience.org)
  • Cre can be expressed in Tetrahymena and localizes to the macronucleus where it induces precise recombination at two loxP sequences in direct orientation in the Tetrahymena macronuclear chromosome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cre is a recombinase from the bacteriophage P1 that mediates intramolecular and intermolecular site-specific recombination between two loxP sites [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A new vector for recombination-based cloning of large DNA fragments from yeast artificial chromosomes" Nucl. (patentgenius.com)
  • cre, the site-specific recombinase from bacteriophage p1, catalyzes a recombination reaction between specific dna sequences designated as lox sites. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • the transposon contains the ura3 gene, the teta gene, a truncated lacz, and phage p1 loxp recombination sites at either end. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • The temperature-sensitive vector also carries a distinct antibiotic-resistance marker (abr2) and may also include a counterselection marker such sac B. Integration of the vector into the host chromosome occurs at the nonpermissive temperature by homologous recombination (crossover event at position A). The configuration of the integrated plasmid is shown in the middle, showing the duplication of the targeted sequences. (asmscience.org)
  • Sauer B, Henderson N. Site-specific DNA recombination in mammalian cells by the Cre recombinase of bacteriophage P1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It usually (but not always) based on λRed- or RecET-mediated recombination between bacterial chromosome and amplified DNA fragment carrying the removable selective marker, in which PCR primers provide the rather short homology to the targeted sequence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The integrated marker could be excised out of the chromosome by site-specific recombination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By using cloned fragments of chromosomes as so-called "guides" [ 4 ] it is possible to integrate the cassette by general homologous recombination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • also, the observed free State of Minds: Texas Culture and its is commonly betrayed as a selectable recombination bacteriophage to make the aliphatic compounds and prevent the risk of taking. (mid-southrealty.com)
  • The C57BL/6 mouse bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) 148M1 containing the entire Ucp1 gene, and other genes, was modified by inserting sequence encoding Cre recombinase, into the translation initiation site into exon 1 of the Ucp1 gene. (jax.org)
  • A 208 kb RPCI-23 C57BL/6J mouse bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing the entire NG2 ( Cspg4 ) gene (and 60 kbp of 5' and 114 kbp of 3' flanking sequences) was modified by inserting a cre recombinase coding sequence with a nuclear localization signal followed by a rabbit beta-globin polyA signal into the first exon of the NG2 gene. (jax.org)
  • movement of cosN and loxP sites(cloned in by bacteriophage l terminase and P1 Cre recombinase, respectively) permits linearization of the plasmid for convenient restriction mapping.There is a chloramphenicol resistance gene for negative selection of non-transformed bacteria. (blogspot.com)
  • Targeting Cre recombinase to specific neuron populations with bacterial artificial chromosome constructs. (mmrrc.org)
  • in the presence of the phage p1 cyclization recombinase cre, the transposon can delete the ura3, teta, and lacz genes between the two loxp sites. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • candidate gene approach Strategy to identify disease-associated genes based on finding candidate genes in a chromosome region in which a disorder is mapped. (kumc.edu)
  • A familial early-onset breast cancer gene (BRCA1) has been localized to chromosome 17q21. (elsevier.com)
  • To characterize this region and to aid in the identification of the BRCA1 gene, a physical map of a region of 1.0-1.5 Mb between the EDH17B1 and the PPY loci on chromosome 17q21 was generated. (elsevier.com)
  • We reported previously that ~80-kilobase pair (kb) P1 bacteriophage clones spanning either the human or mouse apoB gene (clones p158 and p649, respectively) confer apoB expression in the liver of transgenic mice, but not in the intestine. (caltech.edu)
  • The transgene integrated into an intron of Ifi208 (interferon activated gene 208) of chromosome 1. (jax.org)
  • In practice, localization of the gene to a chromosome or genomic region does not necessarily enable one to isolate or amplify the relevant genomic sequence. (f-mx.ru)
  • Assignment of the SLC25A12 gene coding for the human calcium-binding mitochondrial solute carrier protein aralar to human chromosome 2q24. (sickkids.ca)
  • Starting with markers flanking the self-incompatibility genes in Brassica , we identified the homeologous region in Arabidopsis as a previously uncharacterized segment of chromosome 1 in the immediate vicinity of the ethylene response gene ETR1 . (plantcell.org)
  • A transgenic animal is an animal which has been genetically modified by the stable incorporation, by using artificial gene transfer, of exogenous DNA into its genome, in order to introduce or delete specific characteristics of the phenotype. (jhsph.edu)
  • We describe here a P1-like bacteriophage, RCS47, carrying a blaSHV-2 gene, isolated from a clinical strain of Escherichia coli from phylogroup B1, and we report the prevalence of P1-like prophages in natural E. coli isolates. (jove.com)
  • The reference P1 prophage plasmid replication gene belonged to the IncY incompatibility group, whereas that of RCS47 was from an unknown group. (jove.com)
  • Gene disruptions and modifications of both the bacterial chromosome and bacterial plasmids are possible. (pnas.org)
  • In rec + backgrounds, gene replacement on the chromosome has been accomplished by integration and excision of episomes carrying bacterial homology ( 13 , 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • the c1 repressor gene of bacteriophage p1 and the temperature-sensitive mutants p1c1.100 and p1c1.162 was cloned into an expression vector and the repressor proteins were overproduced. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • We have generated a novel mouse model where the endogenous Arc/Arg3.1 gene is tagged in its 3′ untranslated region with stem-loops that bind a bacteriophage PP7 coat protein (PCP), allowing visualization of individual mRNAs in real time. (sciencemag.org)
  • Two examples demonstrate the application of this technique: mapping of a gene-specific ~6 kb plasmid onto an unusually small, ~55 kb circular P1 molecule and the determination of the extent of overlap between P1 molecules homologous to the human NF-κB2 locus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The discovery of toxin-antitoxin gene pairs (also called addiction modules) on extrachromosomal elements of Escherichia coli , and particularly the discovery of homologous modules on the bacterial chromosome, suggest that a potential for programmed cell death may be inherent in bacterial cultures. (asm.org)
  • Sternberg N, Sauer B, Hoess R, Abremski K. Bacteriophage P1 cre gene and its regulatory region. (biomedcentral.com)
  • METHODS: First, an extra purF gene under control of the P43 promoter was integrated into the B. subtilis chromosome at the native purF locus by single crossover, resulting in simultaneous expression of purF, purM, purN, purH and purD. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The generation of a complete physical map of the human genome should be achieved by the use of large segments of DNA contained in yeast artificial chromosomes (18), P1 clones =-=(34)-=-, and cosmid or phage contigs (32, 33). (psu.edu)
  • This approach has mostly been followed using bacteriophage lambda libraries amplified on a host containing a "probe" plasmid and then tested in a restrictive E. coli strain for selective growth of recombinant lambda clones with an integrated plasmid [ 2 - 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Gridded on high density filters, a P1 genomic library of 17-fold coverage and a cosmid library of 8 genome equivalents, both made from S. pombe strain 972h-, were ordered by hybridizing genetic markers and individual clones from the two libraries. (nih.gov)
  • Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones covering the entire genome were used to subdivide the libraries, and hybridization of short oligonucleotides and DNA pools made from randomly selected cosmids provided further mapping information. (nih.gov)
  • We also describe a method for the bulk testing of the hybridization characteristics of chromosome-specific clones spotted on microarrays by use of DNA amplified from flow-sorted chromosomes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A total of 26 genomic and 21 cDNA markers derived from Arabidopsis yeast artificial and bacterial artificial chromosome clones were used to analyze this region in the two genomes. (plantcell.org)
  • The physical maps that we derived by using these markers as well as markers isolated from bacteriophage clones spanning the S 8 haplotype revealed a high degree of synteny at the submegabase scale between the two homeologous regions. (plantcell.org)
  • Large insert recombinant DNA clones such as bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) or P1/PAC clones have established themselves in recent years as preferred starting material for probe preparations due to their low rates of chimerism and ease of use. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, the rRNA genes from different chromosomes of species A might be homo- geneous in sequence structure and those from spe- cies B might also be homogeneous. (damasgate.com)
  • Meloche S, Gopalbhai K, Beatty BG, Scherer SW, Pellerin J. Chromosome mapping of the human genes encoding the MAP kinase kinase MEK1 (MAP2K1) to 15q21 and MEK2 (MAP2K2) to 7q32. (sickkids.ca)
  • One emerging method involves inserting artificial genes into bacterial genomes and examining how the genome and its new genes adapt to each other. (springer.com)
  • Pairs of genes homologous to some of these extrachromosomal addiction modules have been found on the E. coli chromosome ( 1 , 11 , 12 , 15-17 ). (asm.org)
  • Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) libraries have been used extensively for constructing physical maps of the human genome as well as for whole-genome sequencing projects. (hindawi.com)
  • The temperate bacteriophage WO is the only known mobile genetic element that transforms the genome of Wolbachia and thus is an ideal object for studying the three-way interactions among viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotes ( 6 , 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Construction and characterization of a 10-fold genome equivalent rat P1 derived artificial chromosome library. (bacpacresources.org)
  • An alternative to whole genome screening is to focus on specific chromosomal regions, and in this article we review the application of chromosome specific probes for the detection of rearrangements involving the ends of chromosomes or telomeres. (bmj.com)
  • A similar cloning vector called a PAC has also been produced from the DNA of P1 bacteriophage. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5. The transgenic avian of claim 4 , wherein the vector is selected from the group consisting of a plasmid, a viral vector, and an artificial chromosome. (google.com)
  • bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) Artificial chromosome vector derived from bacteria used for cloning relatively large DNA fragments. (kumc.edu)
  • Presumably, the combined size of the latter fragment and the vector DNA (13 kbp) exceeds the headful capacity of P1. (pnas.org)
  • Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. (sickkids.ca)
  • 7. A vector according to claim 2, wherein said vector is selected from the group consisting of a plasmid, virus, and bacteriophage. (patentgenius.com)
  • in vitro packaging of a lambda dam vector containing ecori dna fragments of escherichia coli and phage p1. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is a DNA construct, based on a functional fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid), used for transforming and cloning in bacteria, usually E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, her research focus is on chromosome folding in bacteria. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria. (golden.com)
  • P1 bacteriophages lysogenize bacteria as independent plasmid-like elements. (jove.com)
  • Bacteria have few structural or developmental features that can be observed easily, but they have a vast array of biochemical capabilities and patterns of susceptibility to antimicrobial agents or bacteriophages. (nih.gov)
  • Chemically modified purine and pyrimidine bases are found in some bacteria and bacteriophages. (nih.gov)
  • This mechanism is found in gram-positive bacteria like ''Staphylococcus aureus'' and ''Streptomyces lividans'' as well as many bacteriophages. (openwetware.org)
  • The chromosomes of many bacteria have been found to carry toxin-antitoxin systems that are homologous to these extrachromosomal addiction modules ( 3 , 10 , 11 , 20 , 29 , 30 , 31 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • Temperate bacteriophage WO is a model system for studying tripartite interactions among viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotes, especially investigations of the genomic stability of obligate intracellular bacteria. (asm.org)
  • The Bacterial Dna Molecule.The Structure Of DNA And RNA.Deoxyribonucleosides And Deoxyribonucleotides.DNA Is Only Polymerized 5' To 3'.Double-Stranded Dna.Supercoiling Double-Stranded Dna.Replication Of The Escherichia Coli Chromosome.Constraints That Influence Dna Replication.The Replication Machinery.Dna Polymerases.Dnag Primase.Replication Of Both Strands.Theta Mode Replication.Minimizing Mistakes In Dna Replication.The Dna Replication Machinery As Molecular Tools.Summary.3. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • lactamase (ESBL)-producing and non-ESBL-producing strains (P = 0.69), but this prevalence was lower in phylogroup B2 than in the other phylogroups (P = 0.008), suggesting epistatic interactions between P1 family phages and the genetic background of E. coli strains. (jove.com)
  • We have reported on the E. coli mazEF system, a regulatable addiction module located on the bacterial chromosome. (asm.org)
  • Here, we describe the new scheme of insertion of the foreign DNA for step-by-step construction of plasmid-less marker-less recombinant E. coli strains with chromosome structure designed in advance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The development of a bacteriophage P1 cloning system capable of accepting DNA fragments as large as 100 kilobase pairs (kbp) is described. (pnas.org)
  • Cosmid End-sequence profiling Fosmid Human artificial chromosome Yeast artificial chromosome O'Connor M, Peifer M, Bender W (June 1989). (wikipedia.org)
  • The physical map is composed of a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) and P1 phage contig with one gap. (elsevier.com)
  • Hadano S, Nichol K, Brinkman RR, Nasir J, Martindale D, Koop BF, Nicholson DW, Scherer SW, Ikeda JE, Hayden MR. A yeast artificial chromosome-based physical map of the juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS2) critical region on human chromosome 2q33-q34. (sickkids.ca)
  • PAC, P1 artificial chromosome) sequences for similarity search using the BLASTN algorithm. (bvsalud.org)
  • Naturally occurring mutations in humans show that chromosomes without subtelomeric repeats can be inherited normally, implying that the sequences have no important biological role. (bmj.com)
  • In 1972, Paul Berg and colleagues made the first artificial recombinant DNA molecule. (f-mx.ru)
  • This new approach allows us to detail the design of future recombinant marker-less strains, carrying, in particular, rather large artificial insertions that could be difficult to introduce by usually used PCR-based Recombineering procedure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The bacterial chromosome is a circular molecule of DNA that functions as a self-replicating genetic element (replicon). (nih.gov)
  • Due to the limited resolution of genetic maps that have been established through the use of these approaches, we have constructed a 2-Mb bacterial and P1-derived artificial chromosome (BAC-PAC) contig for the EGFR region and have applied markers positioned on its associated physical map to the analysis of 7p11.2 amplifications in a series of glioblastomas. (elsevier.com)
  • During backcrossing, the Y chromosome may not have been fixed to the C57BL/6J genetic background. (jax.org)
  • Extrachromosomal genetic elements such as plasmids and bacteriophages are nonessential replicons which often determine resistance to antimicrobial agents, production of virulence factors, or other functions. (nih.gov)
  • Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages or phages) have DNA or RNA as genetic material. (nih.gov)
  • Such producer strains are usually constructed by sequential chromosome modifications including deletions and integration of genetic material. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chromosomal rearrangements involving the ends of chromosomes (telomeres) are emerging as an important cause of human genetic diseases. (bmj.com)
  • Homoeologous relationship of rice, wheat and maize chromosomes" Molecular and General Genetics, 241:483-90 (1993). (patentgenius.com)
  • We found that 70% of the sequence of RCS47, a 115-kb circular molecule, was common to the reference P1 bacteriophage under GenBank accession no. (jove.com)
  • In transduction, donor DNA packaged in a bacteriophage infects the recipient bacterium. (nih.gov)
  • tn10 insertion using phage p1-mediated transduction. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • However, expression levels and patterns of these ectopically expressed N-terminally tagged proteins could differ from those of their endogenous counterparts and thus might cause mislocalization of proteins or artificial interaction with other molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The method takes advantage of the fact that P1/PAC/BAC's can be isolated as circular DNA molecules, stretched out on glass slides and fine-mapped by multicolor hybridization with smaller probe molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The P1-bar prostate-specific free is found by accurately used helix molecules, while the infection insert amount leads limited by a target of optional patient-reported trends. (scoutconnection.com)
  • P1-like phages are part of the mobile elements that carry antibiotic resistance. (jove.com)
  • This inhibition also takes place in the presence of general inhibitors of transcription and/or translation such as the antibiotics rifampin, chloramphenicol, and spectinomycin ( 40 ) and through the inhibition of translation by the Doc protein of prophage P1 ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • One end of each microtubule is attached to a protein-based structure called a kinetochore, which is assembled onto the centromere of each chromosome. (elifesciences.org)
  • Stable transfer of intact high molecular weight DNA into plant chromosomes" Proc. (patentgenius.com)
  • These results demonstrate that preventing premature microtubule-kinetochore interactions is essential for establishing a meiosis I-specific chromosome architecture, and they also provide fresh insights into how the molecular machinery that is responsible for mitotic chromosome segregation can be modulated to achieve meiosis. (elifesciences.org)
  • Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (sickkids.ca)
  • Breeding the transgene to homozygosity results in mice that carry this insertion on both chromosomes, increasing the probability that the insertion will result in an observable phenotype. (mmrrc.org)
  • This bacteriophage can Here be and Prepare extrachromosomal transgene applications from responsible methods. (zimmervermietung-titze.de)
  • hfr strains of shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 were constructed by transient integration of an rp4 plasmid derivative carrying transposon tn501 into the shigella chromosome through tn501-mediated cointegration. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • This new form of chromosome engineering, termed recombinogenic engineering or recombineering, is efficient and greatly decreases the time it takes to create transgenic mouse models by traditional means. (nih.gov)
  • free Mecánica and clear and Mammalian, will remember a P1-aha development, where P1 is the attP)-LB M-step exchange and aha is the different interest modelling source. (scoutconnection.com)
  • We produced a reference sequence of the 1-gigabase chromosome 3B of hexaploid bread wheat. (jove.com)
  • Until recently, screening for telomeric rearrangements has been hampered by the complexity of the sequence structure of chromosome ends 8-13 and the technical problem of designing a highly sensitive and specific assay which would also be cost effective. (bmj.com)