In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.
The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.
The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.

Linkage disequilibrium in inbred North African families allows fine genetic and physical mapping of triple A syndrome. (1/8)

Triple A syndrome (Allgrove syndrome, MIM No. 231550) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by ACTH-resistant adrenal insufficiency, achalasia of the cardia, and alacrimia. The triple A gene has been previously mapped to chromosome 12q13 in a maximum interval of 6 cM between loci D12S1629 and D12S312. Using linkage analysis in 12 triple A families, mostly originating from North Africa, we confirm that the disease locus maps to the 12q13 region (Zmax = 10.89 at theta = 0 for D12S1604) and suggest that triple A is a genetically homogeneous disorder. Recombination events as well as homozygosity for polymorphic markers enabled us to reduce the genetic interval to a 3.9 cM region. Moreover, total linkage disequilibrium was found at the D12S1604 locus between a rare allele and the mutant chromosomes in North African patients. Analysis of markers at five contiguous loci showed that most of the triple A chromosomes are derived from a single founder chromosome. As all markers are located in a 0 cM genetic interval and only allele 5 at the D12S1604 locus was conserved in mutant chromosomes, we speculate that the triple A mutation is due to an ancient Arabian founder effect that occurred before migration to North Africa. Since we also found linkage disequilibrium at D12S1604 in two patients from Southern Europe (France and Spain), the founder effect might well extend to other Mediterranean countries. Taking advantage of a YAC contig encompassing the triple A minimal physical region, the triple A gene was mapped to a 1.7 Mb DNA fragment accessible to gene cloning.  (+info)

Retrofitting of a satellite repeat DNA-based murine artificial chromosome (ACes) to contain loxP recombination sites. (2/8)

A satellite DNA-based mammalian artificial chromosome (ACes) was generated and subsequently modified by targeting of a loxP-red fluorescent protein (RFP) expression cassette via homologous recombination into a ribosomal DNA (rDNA)-containing locus. Clones containing correctly targeted ACes were identified by PCR from populations of RFP-expressing cells enriched by FACS sorting and were further characterized by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The targeted ACes maintained its ability to be purified to near homogeneity. Studies are currently underway to further characterize the functionality, carrying capacity, stability and transfectability of this modified ACes.  (+info)

CENP-B box is required for de novo centromere chromatin assembly on human alphoid DNA. (3/8)

Centromere protein (CENP) B boxes, recognition sequences of CENP-B, appear at regular intervals in human centromeric alpha-satellite DNA (alphoid DNA). In this study, to determine whether information carried by the primary sequence of alphoid DNA is involved in assembly of functional human centromeres, we created four kinds of synthetic repetitive sequences: modified alphoid DNA with point mutations in all CENP-B boxes, resulting in loss of all CENP-B binding activity; unmodified alphoid DNA containing functional CENP-B boxes; and nonalphoid repetitive DNA sequences with or without functional CENP-B boxes. These four synthetic repetitive DNAs were introduced into cultured human cells (HT1080), and de novo centromere assembly was assessed using the mammalian artificial chromosome (MAC) formation assay. We found that both the CENP-B box and the alphoid DNA sequence are required for de novo MAC formation and assembly of functional centromere components such as CENP-A, CENP-C, and CENP-E. Using the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we found that direct assembly of CENP-A and CENP-B in cells with synthetic alphoid DNA required functional CENP-B boxes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported evidence of a functional molecular link between a centromere-specific DNA sequence and centromeric chromatin assembly in humans.  (+info)

Transfer and stable transgene expression of a mammalian artificial chromosome into bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells. (4/8)

Mammalian artificial chromosomes (ACEs) transferred to autologous adult stem cells (SCs) provide a novel strategy for the ex vivo gene therapy of a variety of clinical indications. Unlike retroviral vectors, ACEs are stably maintained, autonomous, and nonintegrating. In this report we assessed the delivery efficiency of ACEs and evaluated the subsequent differentiation potential of ACE-transfected bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). For this, an ACE carrying multiple copies of the red fluorescent protein (RFP) reporter gene was transferred under optimized conditions into hMSCs using standard cationic transfection reagents. RFP expression was detectable in 11% of the cells 4-5 days post-transfection. The RFP-expressing hMSCs were enriched by high-speed flow cytometry and maintained their potential to differentiate along adipogenic or osteogenic lineages. Fluorescent in situ hybridization and fluorescent microscopy demonstrated that the ACEs were stably maintained as single chromosomes and expressed the RFP transgenes in both differentiated cultures. These findings demonstrate the potential utility of ACEs for human adult SC ex vivo gene therapy.  (+info)

A mammalian artificial chromosome engineering system (ACE System) applicable to biopharmaceutical protein production, transgenesis and gene-based cell therapy. (5/8)

Mammalian artificial chromosomes (MACs) provide a means to introduce large payloads of genetic information into the cell in an autonomously replicating, non-integrating format. Unique among MACs, the mammalian satellite DNA-based Artificial Chromosome Expression (ACE) can be reproducibly generated de novo in cell lines of different species and readily purified from the host cells' chromosomes. Purified mammalian ACEs can then be re-introduced into a variety of recipient cell lines where they have been stably maintained for extended periods in the absence of selective pressure. In order to extend the utility of ACEs, we have established the ACE System, a versatile and flexible platform for the reliable engineering of ACEs. The ACE System includes a Platform ACE, containing >50 recombination acceptor sites, that can carry single or multiple copies of genes of interest using specially designed targeting vectors (ATV) and a site-specific integrase (ACE Integrase). Using this approach, specific loading of one or two gene targets has been achieved in LMTK(-) and CHO cells. The use of the ACE System for biological engineering of eukaryotic cells, including mammalian cells, with applications in biopharmaceutical production, transgenesis and gene-based cell therapy is discussed.  (+info)

Shared long-range regulatory elements coordinate expression of a gene cluster encoding nicotinic receptor heteromeric subtypes. (6/8)

The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) beta4/alpha3/alpha5 gene cluster encodes several heteromeric transmitter receptor subtypes that are essential for cholinergic synaptic transmission in adrenal gland, autonomic ganglia, pineal gland, and several nuclei in the central nervous system. However, the transcriptional mechanisms coordinating expression of these subunit genes in different cell populations are unknown. Here, we used transgenic methods to investigate long-range transcriptional control of the cluster. A 132-kb P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) encoding the rat cluster recapitulated the neurally- and endocrine-restricted expression patterns of the endogenous beta4/alpha3/alpha5 genes. Mutation of ETS factor binding sites in an enhancer, beta43', embedded in the beta4 3'-untranslated exon resulted in greatly diminished beta4, alpha3, and alpha5 expression in adrenal gland and to a lesser extent in the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) but not in other tissues. Phylogenetic sequence analyses revealed several conserved noncoding regions (CNRs) upstream of beta4 and alpha5. Deletion of one of them (CNR4) located 20 kb upstream of beta4 resulted in a dramatic decrease in beta4 and alpha3 expression in the pineal gland and SCG. CNR4 was sufficient to direct LacZ transgene expression to SCG neurons, which express the endogenous beta4alpha3alpha5 subunits, and pineal cells, which express the endogenous beta4alpha3 combination. Finally, CNR4 was able to direct transgene expression to major sites of expression of the endogenous cluster in the brain. Together, our findings support a model in which cell type-specific shared long-range regulatory elements are required for coordinate expression of clustered nAChR genes.  (+info)

Remote control of gene expression. (7/8)

The elucidation of a growing number of species' genomes heralds an unprecedented opportunity to ascertain functional attributes of non-coding sequences. In particular, cis regulatory modules (CRMs) controlling gene expression constitute a rich treasure trove of data to be defined and experimentally validated. Such information will provide insight into cell lineage determination and differentiation and the genetic basis of heritable diseases as well as the development of novel tools for restricting the inactivation of genes to specific cell types or conditions. Historically, the study of CRMs and their individual transcription factor binding sites has been limited to proximal regions around gene loci. Two important by-products of the genomics revolution, artificial chromosome vectors and comparative genomics, have fueled efforts to define an increasing number of CRMs acting remotely to control gene expression. Such regulation from a distance has challenged our perspectives of gene expression control and perhaps the very definition of a gene. This review summarizes current approaches to characterize remote control of gene expression in transgenic mice and inherent limitations for accurately interpreting the essential nature of CRM activity.  (+info)

CENP-B controls centromere formation depending on the chromatin context. (8/8)

The centromere is a chromatin region that serves as the spindle attachment point and directs accurate inheritance of eukaryotic chromosomes during cell divisions. However, the mechanism by which the centromere assembles and stabilizes at a specific genomic region is not clear. The de novo formation of a human/mammalian artificial chromosome (HAC/MAC) with a functional centromere assembly requires the presence of alpha-satellite DNA containing binding motifs for the centromeric CENP-B protein. We demonstrate here that de novo centromere assembly on HAC/MAC is dependent on CENP-B. In contrast, centromere formation is suppressed in cells expressing CENP-B when alpha-satellite DNA was integrated into a chromosomal site. Remarkably, on those integration sites CENP-B enhances histone H3-K9 trimethylation and DNA methylation, thereby stimulating heterochromatin formation. Thus, we propose that CENP-B plays a dual role in centromere formation, ensuring de novo formation on DNA lacking a functional centromere but preventing the formation of excess centromeres on chromosomes.  (+info)

The generation in vitro of mammalian artificial chromosomes, in view of the possibility of developing new technologies for gene therapy, is still an ambitious goal. Mammalian artificial chromosomes, to be used as cloning and expression vectors, have been constructed either by de novo synthesis or by reduction of pre-existing chromosomes. In the work here reported, we introduced a loxP sequence into the pericentromeric region of a chromosome 9-derived X-ray-reduced minichromosome, with the purpose of generating a human chromosome vector (HCV). The modified accessory chromosome is linear and mitotically stable, has lost at least 1400 kb of alpha satellite DNA and normally binds CENP-B, CENP-C and CENP-E. The efficiency of gene targeting via loxP mediated homologous recombination was tested using the histone H2B-Green Fluorescent Protein chimaeric gene as a reporter. The frequency of site-specific insertion of the exogenous sequence was found to be about 50% and to occur in a controlled way with ...
Although studies have suggested that bone marrow human mesenchymal stem cells (BM-hMSC) may be used as delivery vehicles for cancer therapy, it remains unclear whether BM-hMSCs are capable of targeting cancer stem cells, including glioma stem cells (GSC), which are the tumor-initiating cells responsible for treatment failures. Using standard glioma models, we identify TGF-β as a tumor factor that attracts BM-hMSCs via TGF-β receptors (TGFβR) on BM-hMSCs. Using human and rat GSCs, we then show for the first time that intravascularly administered BM-hMSCs home to GSC-xenografts that express TGF-β. In therapeutic studies, we show that BM-hMSCs carrying the oncolytic adenovirus Delta-24-RGD prolonged the survival of TGF-β-secreting GSC xenografts and that the efficacy of this strategy can be abrogated by inhibition of TGFβR on BM-hMSCs. These findings reveal the TGF-β/TGFβR axis as a mediator of the tropism of BM-hMSCs for GSCs and suggest that TGF-β predicts patients in whom BM-hMSC ...
Our fundamental technology, mammalian artificial chromosome vector has some advantages against other vectors that 1) our vector can maintain in host cells without integration of host genome, 2) overexpression or suppression of the gene introduced is not occurred after long-term cultivation, 3) our vector does not limit gene size introduced ...
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2005). "RNA interference rescue by bacterial artificial chromosome transgenesis in mammalian tissue culture cells". Proc Natl ... Comparative profiling identifies C13orf3 as a component of the Ska complex required for mammalian cell division. EMBO J. Apr 23 ... esiRNA for RNAi Screening in Mammalian Cells Production of Endoribonuclease-Prepared Short Interfering RNAs (esiRNAs) for ... "Short RNA duplexes produced by hydrolysis with Escherichia coli RNase III mediate effective RNA interference in mammalian cells ...
... can produce contigs up to 50-kb N50 length using prokaryotic data and 3-kb N50 in mammalian bacterial artificial chromosomes ( ...
... genomic clones including human bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs)) and provides project consultation and design assistance ... The Genome Resources components includes a clone repository (Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) cDNA (mouse and human), ... May 2003). "Human chromosome 7: DNA sequence and biology". Science. 300 (5620): 767-72. doi:10.1126/science.1083423. PMC ... TCAG also hosts and curates websites and databases developed from supported projects, namely The Chromosome 7 Database, The ...
... artificial, yeast MeSH A11.284.187.520 - chromosomes, mammalian MeSH A11.284.187.520.190 - chromosomes, artificial, mammalian ... mammalian MeSH A11. - chromosomes, artificial, human MeSH A11. - chromosomes, artificial, p1 ... chromosomes, artificial MeSH A11. - chromosomes, artificial, bacterial MeSH A11. - chromosomes, ... artificial, human MeSH A11.284.187.520.300 - chromosomes, human MeSH A11.284.187.520.300.117 - chromosomes, artificial, human ...
... chromosomes, artificial, mammalian MeSH G14. - chromosomes, artificial, human MeSH G14.162.178.195 - chromosomes ... chromosomes, artificial, yeast MeSH G14.162.520.190 - chromosomes, artificial, mammalian MeSH G14.162.520.190.117 - chromosomes ... chromosomes, artificial, mammalian MeSH G14.337.249.190.117 - chromosomes, artificial, human MeSH G14.337.249.195 - chromosomes ... artificial, human MeSH G14.162.520.300 - chromosomes, human MeSH G14.162.520.300.117 - chromosomes, artificial, human MeSH ...
... vaccinia virus genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli and recovery of infectious virus in mammalian ... Yeast artificial chromosome. References[edit]. *^ O'Connor M, Peifer M, Bender W (2018). "Construction of large DNA segments in ... A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is a DNA construct, based on a functional fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid), used for ... The bacterial artificial chromosome's usual insert size is 150-350 kbp.[4] A similar cloning vector called a PAC has also been ...
Bostock and Edwin Southern investigating the use of bovine papillomavirus as a chassis for mammalian artificial chromosome ... Allshire, R. C; Cranston, G; Gosden, J. R; Maule, J. C; Hastie, N. D; Fantes, P. A (1987). "A fission yeast chromosome can ... Pidoux, A. L; Uzawa, S; Perry, P. E; Cande, W. Z; Allshire, R. C (2000). "Live analysis of lagging chromosomes during anaphase ... Robin Campbell Allshire (born 19 May 1960) FRS FRSE FMedSci is Professor of Chromosome Biology at University of Edinburgh and a ...
As a result of his interest in gene regulation in mammalian cells, Riggs became curious about X chromosome inactivation, in ... Arthur Riggs (born 1939) is a geneticist who worked with Genentech to express the first artificial gene in bacteria. His work ... Huberman, JA; Riggs, AD (14 March 1968). "On the mechanism of DNA replication in mammalian chromosomes". Journal of Molecular ... As graduate students at Caltech, he and Joel A. Huberman collaborated on work that later led to a classic paper on mammalian ...
Tassone F, Cheng S, Gardiner K (1993). "Analysis of chromosome 21 yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones". Am. J. Hum. Genet ... product of a novel human gene SON and the biological effect upon administering a changed form of this gene into mammalian cells ... and CRF2-4 genes cluster on human chromosome 21 and mouse chromosome 16". Mamm Genome. 4 (6): 338-42. doi:10.1007/BF00357094. ... This protein is found in the 21st chromosome and is mostly located in nuclear speckles. Its higher expression is seen in ...
BACs are based on F plasmid, another artificial chromosome called the PAC is based on the P1 phage. Yeast artificial chromosome ... A vector based on Simian virus 40 (SV40) was used in first cloning experiment involving mammalian cells. A number of vectors ... Human artificial chromosome may be potentially useful as a gene transfer vectors for gene delivery into human cells, and a tool ... Insert size of up to 350 kb can be cloned in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). BACs are maintained in E. coli with a copy ...
... while someone with one X chromosome (such as most human males) has none. Mammalian X-chromosome inactivation is initiated from ... The provision of an extra artificial Xic in early embryogenesis can induce inactivation of the single X found in male cells. ... A Barr body (named after discoverer Murray Barr) is an inactive X chromosome in a cell with more than one X chromosome, ... The Lyon hypothesis states that in cells with multiple X chromosomes, all but one are inactivated during mammalian ...
In a non-mammalian example of genes related to aggression, the fruitless gene in fruit flies is a critical determinant of ... located on the Y chromosome and the Sts (steroid sulfatase) gene. The Sts gene encodes the steroid sulfatase enzyme, which is ... certain sexually dimorphic behaviors, and its artificial alteration can result in a reversal of stereotypically male and female ... In addition, following aggressive incidents, various forms of conflict resolution have been observed in mammalian species, ...
... red panda and five Mustelid species revealed by comparative chromosome painting and G-banding". Chromosome Research. 10 (3): ... Since there is no evidence of native mammalian fauna on Cyprus, the inhabitants of this Neolithic village most likely brought ... whereas the domestic cat evolved through artificial selection. The domesticated cat and its closest wild ancestor are diploid ... Bukhnikashvili, A.; Yevlampiev, I. (eds.). Catalogue of the Specimens of Caucasian Large Mammalian Fauna in the Collection (PDF ...
Cremer T, Cremer C (April 2001). "Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells". Nature ... Artificial bases. Main article: Nucleic acid analogue. Several artificial nucleobases have been synthesized, and successfully ... DNA usually occurs as linear chromosomes in eukaryotes, and circular chromosomes in prokaryotes. The set of chromosomes in a ... such as in chromosome 1. Chromosome 1 is the largest human chromosome with approximately 220 million base pairs, and would be ...
Holliday's original model assumed that heteroduplex DNA would be present on both chromosomes, but experimental data on yeast ... DNA nanotechnology is the design and manufacture of artificial nucleic acid structures as engineering materials for ... although as of 2004 the identification of mammalian Holliday junction resolvases remained elusive (however, see section " ... In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSH4 and MSH5 act specifically to facilitate crossovers between homologous chromosomes ...
Furthermore, the genes on chromosome 12 have higher sequence similarity than the genes found on chromosome 7. This indicates ... The second pathway is a GPCR-Gq/Gβγ-IP3 pathway which is used with artificial sweeteners. Artificial sweeteners bind and ... Mammalian bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) are encoded by a gene family of only a few dozen members. It is believed that bitter ... all human bitter taste receptor genes can be found clustered on chromosome 7 and chromosome 12. Analyzing the relationships ...
... artificial chromosomes and bacteriophage (such as lambda). The best expression system depends on the gene involved, for example ... Mammalian in vivo expression systems have however low yield and other limitations (time-consuming, toxicity to host cells,..). ... Kost TA, Condreay JP, Jarvis DL (May 2005). "Baculovirus as versatile vectors for protein expression in insect and mammalian ... Baculovirus-infected insect cells (Sf9, Sf21, High Five strains) or mammalian cells (HeLa, HEK 293) allow production of ...
... artificial chromosomes, and on telomeres. He has been awarded a Nobel Prize for its work on telomeres. Jantina Tammes (1871- ... human and mammalian genetics and chromosome structure and function César Milstein (1927-2002), Argentine-UK, Nobel Prize for ... pioneer in chromosome mechanics Paul Nurse (born 1949), UK biochemist, Nobel Prize for work on CDK, a key regulator of the cell ... catalog of chromosomes in cancer Jan Mohr (1921-2009), eminent Norwegian-Danish pioneer in human gene mapping Jacques Monod ( ...
A comparison of the chromosomes of the plains viscacha rat and the mountain viscacha rat suggested that the chromosomes of the ... They construct complex burrow systems within large artificial mounds. Typical mounds are 13.6 by 8.7 m (45 by 29 ft) across, ... 2000). "Tympanoctomys barrerae" (PDF). Mammalian Species. 646: 1-4. doi:10.1644/1545-1410(2000)646.;2. Archived from the ... This species of rodent has (as of 2017) the largest number of chromosomes of any known mammal, 2n = 102. It was described as ...
Cosmid/BAC/YAC end sequences use Cosmid/Bacterial artificial chromosome/Yeast artificial chromosome to sequence the genome from ... Alu elements are distributed widely in mammalian genome, and repeatability is one of the characteristics, that is why it is ... Yeast artificial chromosome Venter, J. Craig, Hamilton O. Smith, and Leroy Hood. "A New Cooperative Strategy for Sequencing the ... To get enough chromosome, they need a large number of E. coli culture that 2.5 - 5 litres may be a reasonable amount. Cosmid/ ...
Artificial chromosomes are manufactured chromosomes in the context of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), bacterial artificial ... plant or mammalian cells, and these vectors are called shuttle vectors. Such vectors have bacterial or viral elements which may ... an organism that transmits disease Human artificial chromosomes Yeast artificial chromosomes Bacterial artificial chromosomes ... chromosomes (BACs), or human artificial chromosomes (HACs). An artificial chromosome can carry a much larger DNA fragment than ...
However, this concept was not yet demonstrated in a mammalian system. The first mammalian cloning (resulting in Dolly the sheep ... More akin to artificial formation of twins. Pig: the first cloned pigs (March 2000). By 2014, BGI in China was producing 500 ... In practice, localization of the gene to a chromosome or genomic region does not necessarily enable one to isolate or amplify ... Artificial cloning of organisms may also be called reproductive cloning. Hans Spemann, a German embryologist was awarded a ...
Chromosomes then orientate on the metaphase spindle for mitosis. This combination of the two genomes is called syngamy. The ... Indications for artificial oocyte activation include : Oocyte related activation deficiency In vitro maturation Low number of ... Bianchi E, Doe B, Goulding D, Wright GJ (2014). "Juno is the egg Izumo receptor and is essential for mammalian fertilization". ... A novel PLC isoform, PLCζ (PLCZ1), may be the equivalent of the mammalian sperm factor. A 2002 study demonstrated that ...
2004). "Cystatin F is secreted, but artificial modification of its C-terminus can induce its endocytic targeting". Exp. Cell ... 2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ... 2002). "The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 20". Nature. 414 (6866): 865-71. doi:10.1038/414865a. ... with at least seven genes clustered at a single locus on human chromosome 20". DNA Cell Biol. 13 (2): 97-116. doi:10.1089/dna. ...
... mice with large pieces from human chromosomes as well as new methods for human and mouse artificial chromosomes. Doherty AM, ... Veomett G, Prescott DM, Shay J, Porter KR (May 1974). "Reconstruction of mammalian cells from nuclear and cytoplasmic ... "A pathway from chromosome transfer to engineering resulting in human and mouse artificial chromosomes for a variety of ... Microcell Mediated Chromosome Transfer (or MMCT) is a technique used in cell biology and genetics to transfer a chromosome from ...
In species that use the ZW sex-determination system, they have either two Z chromosomes (male) or two W chromosomes (mostly non ... There are no known cases of naturally occurring mammalian parthenogenesis in the wild. Though claims of that happening date ... Parthenogenesis may be achieved through an artificial process as described below under the discussion of mammals. Apomixis can ... The chromosomes may not separate at one of the two anaphases (called restitutional meiosis) or the nuclei produced may fuse or ...
"Self-organization of microtubules into bipolar spindles around artificial chromosomes in Xenopus egg extracts". Nature. 382: ... "Synergic reprogramming of mammalian cells by combined exposure to mitotic Xenopus egg extracts and transcription factors". Proc ... Hirano T, Kobayashi R, Hirano M (1997). "Condensins, chromosome condensation protein complexes containing XCAP-C, XCAP-E and a ... 1985). "Induction of nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, and spindle formation in cell-free extracts". J. Cell ...
... that the histologically observable Barr body present in the nuclei of mammalian female cells was a hyperchromatic X chromosome ... In addition, Beutler designed the first artificial storage media for red blood cells, introduced the use of mannitol (still a ... The normal human female as a mosaic of X-chromosome activity: Studies using the gene for G-6-PD deficiency as a marker. Proc ... He soon determined that random X chromosome inactivation causes tissue mosaicism in female mammals, in that each somatic cell ...
The first evidence of adult mammalian neurogenesis in the cerebral cortex was presented by Joseph Altman in 1962, followed by a ... Artificial neural membrane Neural development Neuroplasticity Neurotrophin Neurulation Gliogenesis Noogenesis Faiz M; Acarin L ... These chemokines include CCL11, CCL2 and CCL12, which are highly localized on mouse and human chromosomes, implicating a ... Reynolds, B. A.; Weiss, S. (Mar 1992). "Generation of neurons and astrocytes from isolated cells of the adult mammalian central ...
... on mouse chromosome 17 and KCNQ1OT1 on human chromosome 11p15.5, have been shown to be essential for the imprinting of genes in ... Moore T, Haig D (February 1991). "Genomic imprinting in mammalian development: a parental tug-of-war". Trends in Genetics. 7 (2 ... "Imprinted loci in domestic livestock species as epigenomic targets for artificial selection of complex traits". Animal Genetics ... but do depend on which parent the chromosome originated from. This group of epigenetic changes that depend on the chromosome's ...
Haldane was also the first to construct human gene maps for haemophilia and colour blindness on the X chromosome and he was one ... He is the author of several books on health, artificial intelligence (AI), transhumanism, the technological singularity, and ... Donald Prothero (1954-): American geologist, paleontologist, and author who specializes in mammalian paleontology and ... He won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1933 for discoveries relating the role the chromosome plays in heredity.[ ...
Artificial cell. *Non-cellular life. *Synthetic virus *Viral vector. *Helper dependent virus ...
... link between the mammalian XY and bird/reptile ZW sex-determination systems because one of the platypus's five X chromosomes ... "artificial shrimp" if a small electric current is passed through it.[42] ... These ten chromosomes form five unique pairs of XY in males and XX in females, i.e. males are X1Y1X2Y2X3Y3X4Y4X5Y5.[76] One of ... "In the platypus a meiotic chain of ten sex chromosomes shares genes with the bird Z and mammal X chromosomes". Nature. 432 ( ...
While the black rhinoceros has 84 chromosomes (diploid number, 2N, per cell), all other rhinoceros species have 82 chromosomes ... nov., and Other Perissodactyla from the Middle Miocene of Maboko, Kenya". Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 19: 57-75. doi: ... He proposes the synthesis of an artificial substitute for rhinoceros horn. To enable authorities to distinguish the ... However, chromosomal polymorphism might lead to varying chromosome counts. For instance, in a study there were three northern ...
... s have 64 chromosomes.[37] The horse genome was sequenced in 2007. It contains 2.7 billion DNA base pairs,[38] which is ... These inherited traits result from a combination of natural crosses and artificial selection methods. Horses have been ... Mammalian Genome. 7 (12): 895-899. doi:10.1007/s003359900264. PMID 8995760.. ... "Chromosome Numbers in Different Species". 1998-01-30. Archived from the original on 2013-05-11. Retrieved ...
In evolution, this chromosome has lost most of its content and also most of its genes, while the X chromosome is similar to the ... and release of oxygen molecules within mammalian blood. ... artificial selection and migration.[88] ... During crossover, chromosomes exchange stretches of DNA, effectively shuffling the gene alleles between the chromosomes.[59] ... Chromosomes are copied, condensed, and organized. Then, as the cell divides, chromosome copies separate into the daughter cells ...
In most mammalian cells, shorter RNAs are used because long double-stranded RNA molecules induce the mammalian interferon ... Artificial neural networks are frequently used to design siRNA libraries[120] and to predict their likely efficiency at gene ... Holmquist GP, Ashley T (2006). "Chromosome organization and chromatin modification: influence on genome function and evolution ... Sen G, Blau H (2005). "Argonaute 2/RISC resides in sites of mammalian mRNA decay known as cytoplasmic bodies". Nat Cell Biol. 7 ...
Sometimes artificial ear bones are placed to substitute for damaged ones, or a disrupted ossicular chain is rebuilt in order to ... These anomalies include chromosome syndromes such as ring 18. Children may also present cases of abnormal ear canals and low ... The complex geometry of ridges on the inner surface of some mammalian ears helps to sharply focus sounds produced by prey, ... he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his research on the function of the cochlea in the mammalian ...
Artificial new species[change , change source]. Some have thought that artificial selection could not produce new species. It ... Chromosomes and male genitalia of Hawaiian Drosophila: tools for interpreting phylogeny and geography. In Wagner W.L. & Funk E ... marsupials are today totally absent from Africa and form a small portion of the mammalian fauna of South America, where ... There is no real difference in the genetic processes underlying artificial and natural selection, and the concept of artificial ...
Sen G, Blau H (2005). "Argonaute 2/RISC resides in sites of mammalian mRNA decay known as cytoplasmic bodies". Nat Cell Biol 7 ... Ge G, Wong G, Luo B (2005). "Prediction of siRNA knockdown efficiency using artificial neural network models". Biochem Biophys ... Holmquist G, Ashley T (2006). "Chromosome organization and chromatin modification: influence on genome function and evolution ... Cullen L, Arndt G (2005). "Genome-wide screening for gene function using RNAi in mammalian cells". Immunol Cell Biol 83 (3): ...
... is found on chromosome 14, and the loci containing lambda and kappa light chain genes ([email protected] and [email protected]) are found on chromosomes ... There are five types of mammalian Ig heavy chain denoted by the Greek letters: α, δ, ε, γ, and μ.[2] The type of heavy chain ... They are usually artificial peptides or proteins with a molar mass of about 3 to 20 kDa. Nucleic acids and small molecules are ... Found in sharks and skates; related to mammalian IgD.[20]. Structure[edit]. Antibodies are heavy (~150 kDa) globular plasma ...
Romani, Andrea M.P. (2013). "Chapter 4 Magnesium Homeostasis in Mammalian Cells". In Banci, Lucia (Ed.). Metallomics and the ... Third, the technique of patch-clamp uses isolated sections of natural or artificial membrane in much the same manner as voltage ... "Familial hypomagnesaemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis maps to chromosome 3q27 and is associated with mutations in ... in mammalian cell 10mM (bound), 0.5mM (free) and in blood plasma 1mM.[45] ...
Gerlai R (May 1996). "Gene-targeting studies of mammalian behavior: is it the mutation or the background genotype?". Trends in ... so the majority of altered cells will have the new sequence in only one of the two relevant chromosomes - they are said to be ... an existing gene by replacing it or disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA. They are important animal models for ... some of the electroporated stem cells will incorporate the new sequence with the knocked-out gene into their chromosomes in ...
Singh, Ram J.; Nelson, Randall L.; Chung, Gyuhwa (November 2, 2006). Genetic Resources, Chromosome Engineering, and Crop ... In 1931, Ford hired chemists Robert Boyer and Frank Calvert to produce artificial silk. They succeeded in making a textile ... Plant lignans associated with high fiber foods such as cereal brans and beans are the principal precursor to mammalian lignans ... Soybeans are a significant source of mammalian lignan precursor secoisolariciresinol containing 13-273 µg/100 g dry weight.[174 ...
The swamp buffalo has 48 chromosomes; the river buffalo has 50 chromosomes. The two types do not readily interbreed, but ... Corbet, G.B. and Hill, J.E. (1987). A World List of Mammalian Species, Second edition. London: British Natural History Museum. ... Buffalo are now crossed with riverine buffalo in artificial insemination programs, and are kept in many areas of Australia. ...
condensed chromosome. • cytoplasm. • chromosome. • cell nucleus. • lateral element. • macromolecular complex. • ... Artificial tethering of BRCA1 to chromatin was shown to decondense heterochromatin, though the SWI/SNF interacting domain was ... "Factors associated with the mammalian RNA polymerase II holoenzyme". Nucleic Acids Res. 26 (3): 847-53. doi:10.1093/nar/26.3. ... condensed nuclear chromosome. • gamma-tubulin ring complex. • BRCA1-A complex. • ubiquitin ligase complex. • plasma membrane. • ...
Artificial selectionEdit. This mixed-breed Chihuahua and Great Dane show the range of dog breed sizes produced by artificial ... Chromosomes and male genitalia of Hawaiian Drosophila: tools for interpreting phylogeny and geography. In Wagner W.L. & Funk E ... marsupials are today totally absent from Africa and form a small portion of the mammalian fauna of South America, where ... Artificial new speciesEdit. Some have thought that artificial selection could not produce new species. It now seems that it can ...
Holland, John H. (1975). Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems: An Introductory Analysis with Applications to Biology, ... Allin, Edgar F. (December 1975). "Evolution of the mammalian middle ear". Journal of Morphology (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons ... "Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ... Young, Nathan M.; HallgrÍmsson, Benedikt (December 2005). "Serial homology and the evolution of mammalian limb covariation ...
a b Belancio VP, Hedges DJ, Deininger P (March 2008). "Mammalian non-LTR retrotransposons: for better or worse, in sickness and ... Gerald M. Rubin and Allan C. Spradling pioneered technology to use artificial P elements to insert genes into Drosophila by ... McClintock was experimenting with maize plants that had broken chromosomes.[5] In the winter of 1944-1945, McClintock planted ... Spradling AC, Rubin GM (October 1982). "Transposition of cloned P elements into Drosophila germ line chromosomes". Science. 218 ...
Mammalian Biology. 78 (1): 73-77. doi:10.1016/j.mambio.2012.02.009. Retrieved February 14, 2013.. ... Beavers are well known for building dams across streams and constructing their lodges in the artificial ponds which form. When ... North American beavers have 40 chromosomes, while European beavers have 48. Also, more than 27 attempts were made in Russia to ... Mammalian Review. 39: 33-52. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2907.2008.00136.x. Retrieved March 17, 2012.. ...
... ang mga marsupial ay hindi matatagpuan sa kasalukuyan sa Aprika at bumubuo ng maliit na bahagi sa mammalian fauna sa Timog ... "Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (22): ... Artificial selection. *Biosocial criminology. *Ecological genetics. *Evolutionary aesthetics. *Evolutionary anthropology. * ... "Serial homology and the evolution of mammalian limb covariation structure". Evolution 59 (12): 2691-704. doi:10.1554/05-233.1 ...
As the X chromosome is larger (i.e. has more DNA) than the Y chromosome, the "female" (X-chromosome bearing) spermatozoa will ... 2002). "Current status of sexing mammalian spermatozoa". Reproduction. 124: 733-743. doi:10.1530/reprod/124.6.733.. ... This article is about the artificial selection of the sex of offspring. For the evolutionary concept, see sexual selection. ... As the X chromosome is larger (i.e. has more DNA) than the Y chromosome, the "female" (X-chromosome bearing) spermatozoa will ...
The distinct chromosome territories of chromosome 2 (red) and chromosome 9 (green) are stained with fluorescent in situ ... Eukaryotes usually have a single nucleus, but a few cell types, such as mammalian red blood cells, have no nuclei, and a few ... de Roos AD (2006). "The origin of the eukaryotic cell based on conservation of existing interfaces". Artificial Life. 12 (4): ... The mitotic spindle can be seen, stained green, attached to the two sets of chromosomes, stained light blue. All chromosomes ...
... bacterial artificial chromosomes, or yeast artificial chromosomes are used. Protein productionEdit. Main article: Expression ... Van Craenenbroeck K, Vanhoenacker P, Haegeman G (September 2000). "Episomal vectors for gene expression in mammalian cells". ... Other examples include aberrant chromosomal fragments, such as double minute chromosomes, that can arise during artificial gene ... Artificial plasmids are widely used as vectors in molecular cloning, serving to drive the replication of recombinant DNA ...
Wilner, Eduardo (marts 2006). "Darwin's artificial selection as an experiment". Studies in History and Philosophy of Science ... Allin, Edgar F. (december 1975). "Evolution of the mammalian middle ear". Journal of Morphology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons ... "Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A ... Young, Nathan M.; HallgrÍmsson, Benedikt (december 2005). "Serial homology and the evolution of mammalian limb covariation ...
Number of chromosomes. 5 pairs of autosomes (I, II, III, IV and V) + 1 or 2 sex chromosomes (X[89]). ... Conversely, many C. elegans genes can function similarly to mammalian genes.[34] The number of known RNA genes in the genome ... Most laboratory strains were taken from artificial environments such as gardens and compost piles. More recently, C. elegans ... Hermaphrodites of C. elegans have a matched pair of sex chromosomes (XX); the rare males have only one sex chromosome (X0). ...
Lam, Raymond H. W.; Kim, Min-Cheol; Thorsen, Todd (2009). "Culturing Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria and Mammalian Cells with a ... and artificial organs. Biological micropatterning can be used for high-throughput single cell analysis, precise control of ... "An integrated microfluidic chip for chromosome enumeration using fluorescence in situ hybridization". Lab on a Chip. 8 (12): ... However, the efficiency of these technologies in cryopreservation and the in vitro production of mammalian embryos is low. ...
Making better artificial chromosomes for mammalian cells. Project ID: HPRN-CT-2000-00089. Finanziato nellambito di: FP5-HUMAN ... Making better artificial chromosomes for mammalian cells. Dal 2000-09-01 al 2004-08-31 ...
Use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) in studies of mammalian development: production of beta-globin locus YAC mice ... Use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) in studies of mammalian development: production of beta-globin locus YAC mice ... Use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) in studies of mammalian development: production of beta-globin locus YAC mice ... Use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) in studies of mammalian development: production of beta-globin locus YAC mice ...
Mammalian Artificial Chromosomes: Methods & Protocols. Link: Mammalian Artificial Chromosomes: Methods & Protocols. Resource ...
The purpose of this work is to clone functional human centromere DNA using technology of the yeast artificial chromosome (YAC ... transformed cell lines showed that transformants of alpha21-I YAC contained a stably maintained mammalian artificial chromosome ... Publications] T.Okazaki: Properties and interaction of CENP-B and centromere satellite DNA in mammalian cells. Chromosome ... Publications] T.Okazaki: Properties and interaction of CENP-B and centromere satellite DNA in mammalian cells. Chromosome ...
... to mammalian cells in culture by targeting a dominant selectable marker (G418 resistance) to the right arm of pYAC4 clones. The ... A modification vector has been constructed to facilitate the transfer of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) ... New vector for transfer of yeast artificial chromosomes to mammalian cells. Markie D., Ragoussis J., Senger G., Rowan A., ... A modification vector has been constructed to facilitate the transfer of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) to mammalian cells ...
In this work, we explore the efficacy of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome based vector applied to production of the constant ... Blaas L, Musteanu M, Zenz R, Eferl R, Casanova E: PhiC31-mediated cassette exchange into a bacterial artificial chromosome. ... To overcome these chromatin effects, we have employed a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) as expression vector to obtain ... Use of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) as vector backbone for recombinant protein production. A) Schematic ...
... bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs); yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs); mammalian artificial chromosomes; RNA molecules, ... bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs); yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs); mammalian artificial chromosomes; and RNA ...
Development of mammalian artificial chromosomes for the treatment of genetic diseases: Sandhoff and Krabbe diseases. Expert ... Development of mammalian artificial chromosomes for the treatment of genetic diseases : Sandhoff and Krabbe diseases. / Bunnell ... Mammalian artificial chromosomes (MACs) are being developed as alternatives to viral vectors for gene therapy applications, as ... N2 - Mammalian artificial chromosomes (MACs) are being developed as alternatives to viral vectors for gene therapy applications ...
2. Generation of Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs). 2.1. Homologous Recombination in Mammalian Cells. One of the most ... A. Domi and B. Moss, "Engineering of a vaccinia virus bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli by bacteriophage λ- ... Viral Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: Generation, Mutagenesis, and Removal of Mini-F Sequences. B. Karsten Tischer and ... A. Domi and B. Moss, "Cloning the vaccinia virus genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli and recovery ...
Large DNA cloning system based on yeast artificial chromosomes. EP1074617A2. Jul 28, 2000. Feb 7, 2001. Helix Research ... for the Pelle adaptor protein Pellino to mouse chromosomes 11 and 14 and human chromosomes 2p13.3 and 14q21, respectively, by ... Host cells may be prokaryotic cells such as E. coli, or eukaryotic cells such as yeast, insect, amphibian, or mammalian cells ... The terms apply to amino acid polymers in which one or more amino acid residue is an artificial chemical mimetic of a ...
... reporter system to monitor osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells by using a mammalian artificial chromosome ... reporter system to monitor osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells by using a mammalian artificial chromosome ... Kazuki Kanako Chromosome Engineering Research Center, Tottori University/Department of Biomedical Science, Institute of ... Kazuki Yasuhiro Chromosome Engineering Research Center, Tottori University/Department of Biomedical Science, Institute of ...
1998 Construction of YAC-based mammalian artificial chromosomes. Nat. Biotech. 16: 431-439. ... Approaches for de novo artificial mammalian chromosome construction have been based on this interpretation (Harringtonet al. ... 1998 Human artificial chromosomes coming into focus. Nat. Biotech. 16: 415-416. ... Class 1 were unbroken Tγ1337 chromosomes and were discarded. Class 2 contained the homologous CyO, y+ chromosome. Class 3 were ...
Artificial chromosomes. London. Autonomously replicating mammalian artificial chromosomes; for inserting useful genes into ... Chromosome 19 gene, homologs, fragments, derivatives; for tumor suppression.. Variagenics WO 00/18967. Nucleotide variance ... Chromosome 4 gene associated with Wolfram Syndrome, mutations, encoded protein, antibodies; for therapy.. Washington Univ. WO ... Purified mammalian Flt3 ligands, variants, antibodies, modulators; for diagnostics and therapeutics.. Searle WO 00/18905. ...
... the generation and engineering of synthetic artificial chromosomes, and the induced de novo platform artificial chromosome ... Mammalian Artificial Chromosomes and Clinical Applications for Genetic Modification of Stem Cells: An Overview ... Mammalian Chromosome Engineering: Methods and Protocols provides the reader with up-to date information on this rapidly ... Authoritative and cutting-edge, Mammalian Chromosome Engineering: Methods and Protocols serves as a bench-side resource for ...
To this end, we attempted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) detection on maize chromosomes. However, without the precise ... has proved to be effective in distinguishing mammalian chromosomes (12); however, our CGH trials using chromosome 2 and 4 ... Chromosome 10. This chromosome is the smallest. There are no landmarks on this chromosome, except for abnormal 10 in the K10 ... The morphologies of chromosomes 2-4 resemble each other, as do chromosomes 7-9 (Fig. 4). Distinguishing these chromosomes ...
mammalian artificial chromosome. maximum acceptable concentration. maximum aerobic capacity. Medical Advisory Committee ...
This is an artificial mammalian genome of size of 30 megabases (Mb). The genome has three chromosomes. In order to allow for an ... from each chromosome beginning at positions , where and are parameters that can be set by the user. We generate paired-end ... J. Kim, D. M. Larkin, Q. Cai et al., "Reference-assisted chromosome assembly," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... D. B. Jaffe, J. Butler, S. Gnerre et al., "Whole-genome sequence assembly for mammalian genomes: Arachne 2," Genome research, ...
A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was generated from a derivative of the sequenced E. coli O157:H7 Sakai strain. ... A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was generated from a derivative of the sequenced E. coli O157:H7 Sakai strain. ... Conway, T., Krogfelt, K. A., and Cohen, P. S. (2004). The Life of Commensal Escherichia coli in the Mammalian Intestine. ... A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was generated from a derivative of the sequenced E. coli O157:H7 Sakai strain. ...
Electroporation of Yeast Artificial Chromosomes. 4. New Automated Yeast Cell Counter Ends Tedium & Errors of Manual Counting. 5 ... New Mammalian Two-Hybrid System Detects Protein-Protein Interactions. 8. Antibodies for Studying NMDA Receptor Protein ... closely resemble higher eukaryotic organisms regarding chromosome structure and function, cell cycle control and RNA splicing.1 ...
Artificial chromosomes: yeast (YAC) plasmid (PAC) and mammalian (MAC) made from telomeric and centromeric repeat sequences(7) ... See Schindelhauer, D. (1999). Construction of mammalian artificial chromosomes: prospects for defining an optimal centromere. ... and artificial chromosomes millions of basepairs long. The constructs typically contain antibiotic resistance marker genes plus ... Artificial vectors made by recombining viral genomes, plasmids and transposons, carrying one or more antibiotic resistance ...
A mammalian artificial chromosome engineering system (ACE System) applicable to biopharmaceutical ...". Abstract - Add to ... bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) (Shizuya et al., 1992) and P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs) (Ioannou et al., 1994), ... Construction of a rice bacterial artificial chromosome library and identification of clones linked to the Xa-21 disease ... Construction of a rice bacterial artificial chromosome library and identification of clones linked to the Xa-21 disease ...
does not have a selection marker for transfection into mammalian cells. *does not have a selection marker for transfection into ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes or BACS are circular DNA molecules which contain a replicon that is based on the F factor. ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes or BACS are circular DNA molecules which contain a replicon that is based on the F factor. ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes. S. Zhao and M. Stodolsky, editors, Volume 2: Functional Studies, volume 256 of Methods in ...
1994 Recombination during transformation as a source of chimeric mammalian artificial chromosomes in yeast (YACs). Nucleic ... It is possible that the impact of RMX DNA bridging is less in the plasmid:chromosome and oligonucleotide:chromosome DSB repair ... chromosome targeting events analyzed in Figure 4B. The chromosome mutagenesis procedure employed to create mre11-D16A involved ... 1999 The mammalian Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 protein complex: integration of functions in the cellular DNA-damage response. Am. J. Hum. ...
Construction of YAC based mammalian artificial chromosomes. Nat. Biotechnol. 16 : 431-439. ... Centromeres: the missing link in the development of human artificial chromosomes. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 8 : 219-225. ... Chromosome-specific alpha satellites: two distinct families on human chromosome 18. Genomics 11 : 15-23. ... Interestingly, α-satellite DNA from the human Y chromosome and African green monkey chromosomes contains a sequence homologous ...
1998). Construction of YAC-based mammalian artificial chromosomes. Nat. Biotechnol. 16, 431-439. doi:10.1038/nbt0598-431. ... We previously generated human artificial chromosomes (HACs) whose centromeres contain a synthetic alpha-satellite (alphoid) DNA ... The kinetochore directs accurate chromosome segregation by controlling chromosome movements through interactions with spindle ... into culture cells and established a synthetic human artificial chromosome (the alphoidtetO-HAC) carrying a functional ...
... and further preparing a yeast strain in which mammalian telomere sequences are added to the ends of its chromosome. ... preparing a CEPH artificial yeast chromosome library containing a human genome, identifying clones having a repetitive human ... mammalian centromere sequence and a DNA replication origin with mammalian telomere sequences added to both ends of the clone, ... An artificial mammalian chromosome, more specifically, a clone containing a ...
Researchers describe a new way to form an essential part of the artificial chromosome, called the centromere, by bypassing the ... Reconstruction of ancient chromosomes offers insight into mammalian evolution. Researchers have gone back in time, at least ... In a paper published today in Cell, Penn researchers describe a new way to form an essential part of the artificial chromosome ... Penn biochemists streamline construction method for human artificial chromosomes. July 25, 2019. (PHILADELPHIA) - For the past ...
... the DNA contained in eukaryotic chromosomes is linear. Linearity of the chromosomal DNA and the compartmentalized architecture ... In: Sgaramella V., Eridani S. (eds) Mammalian Artificial Chromosomes. Methods in Molecular Biology, vol 240. Humana Press. * ... 1999) Mammalian telomeres end in a large duplex loop. Cell 97, 503-514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... as the requirement to protect natural ends of chromosomes from fusion and recombination with other chromosomes and from ...
Artificial mammalian chromosome US5856174A (en) * 1995-06-29. 1999-01-05. Affymetrix, Inc.. Integrated nucleic acid diagnostic ... Rapid identification of yeast artificial chromosome clones by matrix pooling and crude lysate PCR.. ... The eukaryotic chromosome. US5807679A (en) 1998-09-15. Island hopping--a method to sequence rapidly very large fragments of DNA ... such as chromosomes, were of several hundred kbp with the existing methods almost impossible to specifically manipulate. ...
Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial. *DNA, Single-Stranded/metabolism. *Embryo, Mammalian/cytology. *Mice. *Oligonucleotides/ ...
  • In collaboration with Dr.Cooke, we constructed YAC arm vectors containing human telomere sequences and selectable markers for mammalian cells and both arms of alphoid YAC were replaced with these arms by recombination in vivo. (
  • Generation of stable cell clones for protein production using Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes offers a clear advantage over the use of conventional vectors. (
  • Interestingly, large vectors that fulfill these criteria such as Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) have been widely used for generation of transgenic mice [ 4 ] but not for production of recombinant proteins. (
  • Mammalian artificial chromosomes (MACs) are being developed as alternatives to viral vectors for gene therapy applications, as they allow for the introduction of large payloads of genetic information in a non-integrating, autonomously replicating format. (
  • however, this problem could also be overcome by the use of single or low-copy vectors, such as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). (
  • Besides the essential sequences required for replication and maintenance, many BAC vectors harbor a variety of expression cassettes that allow visualization of BAC-containing sequences in transfected cells selection in mammalian cells and, hence, ease the generation of recombinant viruses that contain the mini-F. (
  • The five overview and ten protocol chapters cover the engineering of chromosomes with extrachromosomal vectors and transposon systems, the manipulation of naturally occurred minichromosomes, the generation and engineering of synthetic artificial chromosomes, and the induced de novo platform artificial chromosome system. (
  • Simple and efficient vectors for retrofitting BACs and PACs with mammalian neoR and EGFP marker genes. (
  • Gene expression from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones has been demonstrated to facilitate physiologically relevant levels compared to viral and nonviral cDNA vectors. (
  • Bacterial artificial chromosomes, or BACs, are fertility- (F-) factor-based plasmid vectors that replicate stably in low copy number [ 2 , 3 ]. (
  • Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-based vectors have the capacity to deliver up to 150 Kbp of foreign DNA to the nucleus of most proliferating and quiescent mammalian cells, making this family of vectors a very interesting tool for gene transfer and gene therapy. (
  • Here we describe a large-scale screen to create an atlas of CNS gene expression at the cellular level, and to provide a library of verified bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors and transgenic mouse lines that offer experimental access to CNS regions, cell classes and pathways. (
  • Genomic context vectors and artificial chromosomes for cystic fibrosis gene therapy. (
  • Recombinant shuttle vectors for the study of mutation in mammalian cells," Mutagenesis 3:1:1-9 (1988). (
  • The invention provides oligonucleotide probes and primers, polynucleotide plasmids or vectors, peptides, proteins, and antibodies relating to genes and gene products associated with the senescence in mammalian cells. (
  • Some recent research into mammalian artificial chromosomes has shown how alpha-satellite DNA can seed centromeres in human cells suggesting that they have the potential to be developed as gene delivery vectors. (
  • Our fundamental technology, mammalian artificial chromosome vector has some advantages against other vectors that 1) our vector can maintain in host cells without integration of host genome, 2) overexpression or suppression of the gene introduced is not occurred after long-term cultivation, 3) our vector does not limit gene size introduced. (
  • We has developed two types of mammalian artificial chromosome vectors, human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector and mouse artificial chromosome (MAC) vector. (
  • We utilized chromosome derivatives that placed a 290-kilobase "test segment" in three different contexts within the Drosophila melanogaster genome-immediately adjacent to (1) centromeric chromatin, (2) centric heterochromatin, or (3) euchromatin. (
  • The generation of a complete physical map of the human genome should be achieved by the use of large segments of DNA contained in yeast artificial chromosomes (18), P1 clones =-=(34)-=-, and cosmid or phage contigs (32, 33). (
  • This step-by-step construction project is the goal of the Human Genome Project-Write, a collaboration to build that life-size synthetic chromosome. (
  • Second, we showed that two 1 kb sequence intervals from the Escherichia coli genome with GC-contents comparable to a mammalian CpG island are both capable of recruiting PRC2 when integrated into the ES cell genome. (
  • The full-length genome of human cytomegalovirus strain AD169 was cloned as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) plasmid, pAD/Cre. (
  • It does not contain a deletion of the viral sequence, and the BAC vector DNA is excised from the viral genome when the BAC plasmid enters mammalian cells. (
  • Pieper, F. 2009-03-21 00:00:00 Mammalian Genome 8, 285-286 (1997). (
  • Mammalian Genome 8, 285-286 (1997). (
  • These differences in DNA content indicate that a single chromosome from barley contains more DNA than one complete haploid rice genome. (
  • Pieper, F. 2009-03-24 00:00:00 Mammalian Genome 8, 148-152 (1997). (
  • Mammalian Genome 8, 148-152 (1997). (
  • Methods in genome engineering are: Insertion involves introducing a gene into a chromosome to obtain a new function. (
  • A VAC-BAC is a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing a vaccinia virus genome (VAC) that can replicate in bacteria and produce infectious virus in mammalian cells. (
  • In seven new studies, scientists of the Synthetic Yeast Genome Project (Sc2.0) who previously constructed a single yeast chromosome now report constructing five more chromosomes - representing more than one-third of yeast's entire genome. (
  • Such a genome, equipped with a full set of chromosomes that could be engineered to give new properties to yeast, would be ripe for customization. (
  • Our synthetic chromosomes permit the yeast genome to overcome this problem. (
  • To expedite the work of building synthetic yeast chromosomes, Bader and colleagues set up a summer class at Johns Hopkins called Build-A- Genome. (
  • Analysis of 570 random Y53G8 M13 subclone DNA sequences from the Genome Sequencing Center revealed that four sequences (00667, 00622, 00318, and 00706) were homologous to regions of the mammalian insulin receptor family. (
  • These arrays not only oversimplify the complexity of the mammalian genome, they are also subject to heterochromatin formation, a more repressive state of chromatin in which genes can be transcriptionally silenced. (
  • A primary goal of the Human Genome Project is to make a series of descriptive diagrams maps of each human chromosome at increasingly finer resolutions. (
  • A genome map describes the order of genes or other markers and the spacing between them on each chromosome. (
  • The blueprint for any organism is contained within its genome in the form of chromosomes and is written in the universal four "base" language of adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Chromosomes are built of chromatin , double stranded DNA wrapped around a multi-protein complex core comprised of histone proteins. (
  • Recently, a nearly complete sequence of human chromosome 17 was obtained as part of the Human Genome Project. (
  • A minimal set of 50 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones that covers almost all of the genome of M. microti OV254 was constructed, and individual BACs were compared to the corresponding BACs from M. bovis AF2122/97 and M. tuberculosis H37Rv. (
  • Genome editing - which can directly manipulate the genome information of various organisms without leaving an artificial strand - has seen rapid progress in recent years and it is gradually becoming a revolutionary tool in fields ranging from life sciences to advanced medical research. (
  • Known to be highly effective, genome editing using artificial nuclease (1) aims to cut the DNA at the target point and to modify the gene while it is repaired. (
  • Although DNA is believed to be the primary determinant of the functional centromere structure in mammalian cells, no conclusive intormation on the essential DNA structure is available until now. (
  • Publications] T.Okazaki: 'Properties and interaction of CENP-B and centromere satellite DNA in mammalian cells. (
  • Publications] T.Okazaki, H.Masumoto, K.Kitagawa, M.Ikeno, K.Yoda, M.Nakano, T.Nakamura, N.Suzuki, S.Egashira and K.Saitoh: 'Properties and interaction of CENP-B and centromere satellite DNA in mammalian cells. (
  • New vector for transfer of yeast artificial chromosomes to mammalian cells. (
  • A modification vector has been constructed to facilitate the transfer of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) to mammalian cells in culture by targeting a dominant selectable marker (G418 resistance) to the right arm of pYAC4 clones. (
  • One class of MACs, the satellite DNA-based artificial chromosome expression vehicle (ACE), is uniquely suited for gene therapy applications, in that it can be generated de novo in cells, along with being easily purified and readily transferred into a variety of recipient cell lines and primary cells. (
  • Thus, there would be advantages for the study of maize chromosomes if each of the 10 members of the karyotype could be identified in somatic cells. (
  • YAC Transfer Into Mammalian Cells By Cell Fusion," Methods in Molecular Biology 54:281-292 (1996). (
  • Transfer Of Yeast Artificial Chromosomes Into Mammalian Cells And Comparative Study Of Their Integrity," Gene 163:27-33 (1995). (
  • Microinjection Of Intact 200- to 500-kb Fragments Of YAC DNA Into Mammalian Cells," Genomics 15:659-667 (1993). (
  • The Human HPRT Gene On a Yeast Artificial Chromosome Is Functional When Transferred To Mouse Cells By Cell Fusion," Genomics 9:742-750 (1991). (
  • Targeted Integration Of Neomycin Into Yeast Artifical Chromosomes (YACs) For Transfection Into Mammalian Cells," Nucleic Acids Research 20(12):2971-2976 (1992). (
  • Inheritance of HACs from mother to daughter cells during division is key, and this speaks to the importance of the centromere--the cinched area of duplicated chromosomes responsible for holding together pairs of "sister" chromosomes created when cells divide. (
  • Building on our success, we and others in the synthetic chromosome field will now have a real chance to attain what has only been achieved so far in yeast cells. (
  • In ends-in and ends-out chromosome recombination assays using defined plasmid and oligonucleotide DNA substrates, mre11-D16A cells were as deficient as mre11 null strains, but defects were small in mre11-D56N and -H125N mutants. (
  • Several of the metabolic defects described for yeast RMX mutants are also observed in mammalian cells upon inactivation of the corresponding gene orthologs. (
  • This strategy may be developed into a scheme by which large chromosomal regions with precisely defined end points may be excised from mammalian cells and reintroduced after suitable in vitro modification. (
  • Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs) are widely used to investigate the functions of genes and genomes in mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. (
  • Bacterial delivery of large intact genomic-DNA-containing BACs into mammalian cells. (
  • Brown W.R.A., Smith M.C.M., Dafhnis-Calas F., Malla S., Xu Z. (2006) Chromosome engineering in DT40 cells and mammalian centromere function. (
  • A human artificial chromosome recapitulates the metabolism of native telomeres in mammalian cells. (
  • However, the sequences that recruit PRC2 in mammalian cells have remained obscure. (
  • To address this, we integrated a series of engineered bacterial artificial chromosomes into embryonic stem (ES) cells and examined their chromatin. (
  • The improvement of methods for efficient delivery and regulated expression of genetic material in mammalian cells has been a major objective of molecular and cellular biology, gene therapy and vaccine development over the last 25 years and it is still an area of intensive research. (
  • The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) contains a remarkable array of neural cells, each with a complex pattern of connections that together generate perceptions and higher brain functions. (
  • However, in non-mammalian vertebrate species, such as birds, neighboring glia-like supporting cells regenerate auditory hair cells by both mitotic and non-mitotic mechanisms. (
  • However, non-mammalian species regenerate lost auditory hair cells. (
  • In each case, infectious virus is generated upon delivery of the BAC plasmid into mammalian cells that support viral replication. (
  • We know that PromoFectin can efficiently deliver large YACs (Yeast Artificial Chromosomes) into mammalian cells. (
  • We aim at more fluent manipulation of mammalian cells, particularly ES cells and in mice. (
  • Further work on epigenetic regulators in eukaryotes will be accompanied by advanced engineering strategies to examine roles of epigenetic regulation in mammalian development, stem cells, ageing and disease. (
  • Purified and recombinant proteins TPC2 and TPC3 and recombinant or synthetic oligonucleotides corresponding to those proteins or fragments thereof can be used to detect regulators of telomere length and telomerase activity in mammalian cells and for a variety of related diagnostic and therapeutic pu. (
  • said nucleotide sequence characterized in coding for an protein that regulates telomere length or modulates telomerase activity and is present in human or mammalian cells that expresses telomerase activity. (
  • The present invention provides methods and reagents for regulating telomere length and modulating telomerase activity in mammalian cells as well as for detecting, diagnosing, and treating related diseases and conditions in humans and other mammals. (
  • In an important embodiment, the invention provides oligonucleotide probes and primers, polynucleotide plasmids, peptides, proteins, antibodies, and enzymes relating to genes and gene products that regulate telomere length and telomerase activity in mammalian cells. (
  • Listeria monocytogenes mediated CFTR transgene transfer to mammalian cells. (
  • VAC-BACs are clonally purified from bacterial colonies before virus reconstitution in mammalian cells. (
  • Manipulation of DNA is much simpler and faster in bacteria than in mammalian cells. (
  • Despite such changes, Bader and colleagues report, once the altered chromosomes were chemically synthesized - a process that involved stringing together individual DNA building blocks and placing the resulting chromosomes in living yeast cells - the cells grew normally. (
  • During the normal production of sperm and egg cells, DNA strands occasionally break and rejoin in different places on the same chromosome or on the other copy of the same chromosome (i.e., the homologous chromosome). (
  • Using chromosome engineering technology cultivated over the years, we provide karyotype and FISH analysis of mammalian cells. (
  • Similar results were obtained from studies of primary mouse cells ( 7 ) or human cell lines ( 8 ) with decreased chromosome segregation fidelity. (
  • To better understand the possible maintenance of T. b. gambiense in local fauna and investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation, we generated adapted cells lines (ACLs) by in vitro culture of the parasites in different mammalian sera. (
  • Aneuploidy is a feature of most cancer cells that is often accompanied by an elevated rate of chromosome mis-segregation termed chromosome instability (CIN). (
  • The identification of new compounds that increase chromosome mis-segregation rates should expedite the development of new therapeutic strategies to target the CIN phenotype in cancer cells. (
  • Janssen and co-authors [ 2 ] have analyzed the consequences of gradual increases in chromosome segregation errors on the viability of tumor cells and normal human fibroblasts. (
  • These cells were, however, much more sensitive to low doses of taxol, which enhances the amount and severity of chromosome segregation errors. (
  • Thus, targeting the mitotic checkpoint and chromosome alignment simultaneously may selectively kill tumor cells. (
  • A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is an engineered DNA molecule used to clone DNA sequences in bacterial cells (for example, E. coli). (
  • To visualize the transcription process, the researchers used living mammalian cells, each of which contained 200 copies of an artificial gene that they had inserted into one of the cells chromosomes. (
  • Our research program focuses on the mechanisms that control the proliferation of mammalian cells under normal and pathological conditions (regeneration, cancer), with a particular emphasis on stem cells and gene regulatory networks. (
  • The point mutation was induced by forming a synthetic complex (Figure 1) through removal of nuclease activity from the CRISPR system a technique using artificial nuclease and addition of deaminase, a deaminizing (base-modifying) enzyme, and then expressing it in yeasts and mammalian cells. (
  • However, in 2004, experimental manipulation by Japanese researchers of a paternal methylation imprint controlling the Igf2 gene led to the birth of a mouse (named Kaguya) with two maternal sets of chromosomes, though it is not a true parthenogenone since cells from two different female mice were used. (
  • BACs can also be utilized to detect genes or large sequences of interest and then used to map them onto the human chromosome using BAC arrays . (
  • However, until about a decade ago, the large size of BACs has presented major hurdle for their precise manipulation to introduce specific changes such as mutations, reporter genes, and markers for functional studies in the mammalian environment [ 11 - 13 ]. (
  • To investigate chromatin organization in a transcriptionally active region, the authors constructed their arrays from bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) that contained known inducible mammalian genes. (
  • This and other powerful features of BACs have made them extremely useful for mapping and sequencing mammalian genomes. (
  • Our findings demonstrate a causal role for GC-rich sequences in PRC2 recruitment and implicate a specific subset of CpG islands depleted of activating motifs as instrumental for the initial localization of this key regulator in mammalian genomes. (
  • Cloning of herpesviral genomes as bacterial artificial chromosomes. (
  • At the CNB he leads a research team interested in basic science, to understand the mechanisms controlling gene expression and organization in mammalian genomes, and in applied science, generating animal models for the study and the development of therapies for treating congenital human rare diseases, such as albinism. (
  • Use Of Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs) For Studying Control Of Gene Expression: Correct Regulation Of The Genes Of a Human .beta. (
  • There are four chapters dedicated to the use of PFGE in cloning form, construction of, analysis of, and transfer of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs). (
  • Centromere is the chromosomal domain essential to the segregation of eukaryotic chromosomes. (
  • Chromosome Segregation and aneuploidy. (
  • The centromere of higher eukaryotes was first defined as the primary constriction on mitotic chromosomes ( 39 , 40 ) which is essential for faithful chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis ( 37 ). (
  • The CENP-C gene is essential for chromosome segregation ( 17 , 29 ), and its gene product (a 140-kDa protein) is a DNA-binding protein without apparent sequence specificity ( 49 , 59 ). (
  • The kinetochore directs accurate chromosome segregation by controlling chromosome movements through interactions with spindle microtubules, and also by serving as a platform for various regulatory pathways. (
  • Involved are: 1) aspects of gene duplication and evolution and 2) specialized features of mitosis -- particularly the centromere structure and function that underlie proper chromosome segregation. (
  • This quantitative assay for chromosome mis-segregation is based on the use of a non-essential human artificial chromosome (HAC) carrying a constitutively expressed EGFP transgene. (
  • Thus, this new and simple assay allows for a quick and efficient screen of hundreds of drugs to identify those affecting chromosome mis-segregation. (
  • Partial reduction of essential mitotic checkpoint components in tumor cell lines caused mild chromosome mis-segregation, but no lethality. (
  • To overcome these chromatin effects, we have employed a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) as expression vector to obtain stable cell lines suitable for protein production. (
  • In this work, we explore the efficacy of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome based vector applied to production of the constant region of the human IgG1. (
  • A modular, positive selection bacterial artificial chromosome vector with multiple cloning sites. (
  • These limitations stimulated the development of a chromosome-based vector system suitable for transferring large genes, gene complexes, and/or multiple genes together with regulatory elements for safe, controlled, and persistent expression, avoiding rearrangements that are often linked with insertion events. (
  • Considerable progress has been made in developing mammalian chromosome-based vector systems either by engineering endogenous chromosomes (top-down approach) or by artificial composition of cloned chromosomal constituents into functional chromosomes (bottom-up approach). (
  • To circumvent the necessity of de novo centromere formation, modification of existing chromosomes to generate a chromosome-based vector can be achieved by at least two different routes. (
  • Homologous recombination into sites flanking Nf-1 was used to introduce artificial sequences (triple-helix, loxP, vector backbone) that can be employed for in vitro recovery of intervening sequences or the generation of in vivo deletions. (
  • The cloning vector segment is divided into plasmid, phage, cosmid, Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC), Yeast Artificial Chromosome (YAC), and Human Artificial Chromosome (HAC). (
  • This invention relates to a VAC-BAC shuttle vector system for the creation of recombinant poxviruses from DNA cloned in a bacterial artificial chromosome. (
  • Our fundamental technology is a mammalian artificial chromosome vector, and it was developed Prof, Oshimura of Tottori Univ. (
  • We can provide contract service to construct cell lines you desired using mammalian artificial chromosome vector. (
  • The mammalian glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GART) genes encode a trifunctional polypeptide involved in the de novo purine biosynthesis. (
  • The purpose of this work is to clone functional human centromere DNA using technology of the yeast artificial chromosome (YAC). (
  • Engineering a Mini-herpesvirus As a General Strategy To Transduce Up To 180 kb Of Functional Self-replicating Human Mini-chromosomes," Gene Therapy 3:1081-1088 (1996). (
  • We've taken our centromere bypass method to make a fully functional HAC without the cloning nightmares that repetitive centromere DNA has presented to mammalian chromosome engineers through the last two decades," Black said. (
  • A bacterial artificial chromosome ( BAC ) is a DNA construct , based on a functional fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid ), used for transforming and cloning in bacteria , usually E. coli . (
  • It was thus recognized that the ends of chromosomes must have specialized structural and functional features required for chromosome stability. (
  • The method has been used to generate functional bacterial or yeast chromosomes containing approximately one million base pairs. (
  • This is the first report of a differentiated functional male-specific gene on platypus Y chromosomes, providing new insights into sex chromosome evolution and a candidate gene for male-specific function in monotremes. (
  • In females, all chromosomes remain euchromatic and functional. (
  • Mapping Human Telomere Regions With YAC and P1 Clones: Chromosome-Specific Markers For 27 Telomeres Including 149 STSs and 24 Polymorphisms For 14 Proterminal Regions," Genomics 36:492-506 (1996). (
  • Colinearity of a large region from barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) chromosome 5H and rice ( Oryza sativa ) chromosome 3 has been demonstrated by mapping of several common restriction fragment-length polymorphism clones on both regions. (
  • One of these clones, WG644, was hybridized to rice and barley bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries to select homologous clones. (
  • S ullivan and W illard 1998 ), and arrays of alphoid repeat DNA integrated into human chromosomes are not able to assemble kinetochores ( W arburton and C ooke 1997 ). (
  • The procedure uses tandemly repeated DNA sequences to generate a distinctive banding pattern for each of the 10 chromosomes. (
  • Screening was carried out on random PCR libraries to recover sequences that were used as FISH probes to identify the somatic chromosomes. (
  • Two consecutive homologous recombination events introduced the desired artificial sequences at markers D11Bhm100 and D11Bhm109, flanking the Nf-1 gene at either end ( Figure 1a ). (
  • Grk1-overexpressing transgenic mice (Grk1 + ) were generated by using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) construct containing mouse Grk1, along with its flanking sequences. (
  • The next two describe the use of PFGE in constructing long range restriction site maps in mammalian genomic DNA and in the detection of gross rearrangements in the DNA of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. (
  • In this study, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of genomic DNA from peripheral blood. (
  • The bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system is widely used in isolation of large genomic fragments of interest. (
  • Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) Y53G8 carries the genomic region that includes mgP34 and mgP44 , which flank daf-2 (Fig. 1 ). (
  • These two were separately incorporated into human β-globin yeast artificial chromosomes, which were then used to generate γ-globin mutant transgenic mice. (
  • 1. A recombinant mammalian host cell containing a recombinant or synthetic nucleic acid comprising an open reading frame sequence corresponding to nucleotides 1 to 3315 of SEQ ID NO: 1 that encodes a polypeptide having an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 2 or an enzymatically active fragment thereof, said open reading frame contained in a human DNA insert of an ˜3.5 kb NotI-BstEII restriction fragment of plasmid pGRN109. (
  • To identify all maize chromosomes, a multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization procedure was developed. (
  • Because the second targeting event may affect either homolog of chromosome 11, cell lines with targeted integrations on one or two chromosomes, respectively, were subsequently selected by fluorescence in situ hybridization ( Figure 2 ). (
  • To better understand the molecular basis of chromosome rearrangements and their part in karyotype evolution, we have investigated the history of human chromosome 17 by comparative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and sequence analysis. (
  • EUKARYOTIC organisms repair broken chromosomes by at least two distinct DNA repair pathways, homologous recombination and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). (
  • Huxley, "Mammalian Artificial Chromosomes and Chromosome Transgenics," Trends Genet. (
  • Aneuploidy is defined as the alteration of chromosome number that is not a multiple of the haploid complement. (
  • In cases in which aneuploidy is observed system-wide, the degree of aneuploidy is limited to only one additional chromosome and the consequences for the individual are severe. (
  • Here aneuploidy is not restricted to one chromosome but the disease is characterized by a high degree of numeric as well as structural karyotypic abnormalities ( 3 ). (
  • To begin to shed light on this question, we characterized the effects of aneuploidy on mammalian cell proliferation and physiology. (
  • This approach not only enabled us to determine whether every chromosome when present in an extra copy interferes with proliferation, but also allowed us to determine whether a general response to aneuploidy exists. (
  • For cell replication to occur, human centromeres are not simply coded by a DNA sequence, unlike baker's yeast long used synthetic chromosome research. (
  • We previously generated human artificial chromosomes (HACs) whose centromeres contain a synthetic alpha-satellite (alphoid) DNA array containing the tetracycline operator (alphoid tetO ). (
  • Human artificial chromosome (HAC, green) with two sister centromeres (red), similar to that of the natural host chromosomes (blue). (
  • The results , published in the 10 March issue of Science , are major progress on the road to building the first fully synthetic eukaryotic - or nucleus-containing - organism, which the Sc2.0 consortium hopes to complete in the next two years by swapping all 16 yeast chromosomes for engineered ones. (
  • Now, he and colleagues have described the assembly of five more synthetic chromosomes: synII, synV, synVI, synX, and synXII, which correspond to the smaller yeast chromosomes. (
  • read affect and artificial: have plasmid of satellite for spleen. (
  • Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC) have been developed to hold much larger pieces of DNA than a plasmid can. (
  • To this end, we attempted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) detection on maize chromosomes. (
  • One problem was identified early by Muller ( 2 , 3 ) and by McClintock ( 4 ), as the requirement to protect natural ends of chromosomes from fusion and recombination with other chromosomes and from exonucleolytic erosion. (
  • Despite utilizing different sex chromosomes, the differentiation of male- or female-specific Y and W chromosomes due to lack of recombination is a common theme in sex chromosomes evolution, and leads to similar patterns of sequence differentiation on X/Y or Z/W chromosomes (Charlesworth et al. (
  • The generally accepted model of sex chromosome evolution is that accumulation of sexually antagonist genes in proximity of a sex-determining locus provides a selective advantage for lack of recombination between sex chromosomes (Charlesworth 1991 ). (
  • While the X and Z chromosomes will undergo recombination in the homogametic sex, the Y and W chromosomes will accumulate mutations. (
  • supported the argument for a Notch pathway activity in mammalian nephrogenesis. (
  • These three probes, plus centromeric satellite 4 (Cent4), centromeric satellite C (CentC), knob, nucleolus-organizing region (NOR), pMTY9ER telomere-associated sequence, and tandemly repeated DNA sequence 1 (TR-1) were used as a mixture for hybridization to root-tip chromosomes. (
  • Computational analyses of DNA regulatory elements in LRRK2 show a primate-specific promoter sequence that does not exist in lower mammalian species. (
  • We isolated a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone containing the bovine GART gene and determined the complete DNA sequence of the BAC clone. (
  • Recently, sequence information from autosomes, X chromosomes, and XY-shared pseudoautosomal regions has become available. (
  • 1. Artificial nuclease: An enzyme artificially designed for recognizing and cutting arbitrary sequence of DNA strand. (
  • Using irradiation mutagenesis, we freed this test segment from the source chromosome and genetically assayed whether the liberated "test fragment" exhibited centromere activity. (
  • A markerless point mutation introduced in the start codon by two-step en passant Red mutagenesis abrogated ORF9 expression and resulted in a dramatic growth defect that was not observed in a revertant virus. (
  • The Penn team's contribution will help speed creating useful research and clinical tools based on synthetic chromosomes. (
  • In the zebrafish, Danio rerio, and other teleosts, the class I and class II loci of the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) reside on different chromosomes. (
  • Barring exceptional instances, the DNA contained in eukaryotic chromosomes is linear. (
  • These are other markers along the chromosome. (
  • A genetic linkage map shows the relative locations of specific DNA markers along the chromosome. (
  • Expression of the pathogenic LRRK2-G2019S protein from mouse bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) constructs closely mimics endogenous LRRK2 distribution in the mouse brain. (
  • Because the BAC is much smaller than the endogenous bacterial chromosome, it is straightforward to purify the BAC DNA away from the rest of the bacteria cell's DNA, and thus have the cloned DNA in a purified form. (
  • The rapid progression of genetics and molecular biology has turned chromosomal engineering from science fiction to reality, with the successful production of transgenic animals with engineered chromosomes and chromosomes developed for pharmaceutical protein production which are now ready for the medical industry. (
  • This book will therefore be an essential resource book for researchers in laboratories that require PFGE in their research strategies, including those involved in molecular human genetics, mammalian genetics, molecular microbiology, molecular parasitology, biochemistry, and molecular diagnostics. (
  • Our limited understanding of centromere function and maintenance is one of the obstacles on the way to generating artificial chromosomes. (
  • However, the identification of somatic chromosomes has been difficult because the highly condensed chromatin structure conceals the fine details that are used for chromosome identification at the pachytene stage, such as cytologically observable knobs, heterochromatic regions, arm ratios, and total chromosome length ( 5 ). (
  • Huxley, "Mammalian Artificial Chromosomes: A New Tool For Gene Therapy," Gene Therapy 1:7-12 (1994). (
  • In order to facilitate the generation of mutant viruses of varicella-zoster virus (VZV), the agent causing varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles), we generated a full-length infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of the P-Oka strain. (
  • Using the HAC-based chromosome loss assay, we have analyzed several well-known anti-mitotic, spindle-targeting compounds, all of which have been reported to induce micronuclei formation and chromosome loss. (
  • The molecular mechanisms underlying CIN include defects in chromosome cohesion, mitotic checkpoint function, centrosome copy number, kinetochore-microtubule attachment dynamics, and cell-cycle regulation. (
  • Once equipped with a full set of synthetic and changeable chromosomes, baker's yeast could produce better versions of the important commodities it already delivers, including new antibiotics or more environmentally friendly biofuels. (
  • Determining the length of telomeres at the ends of the chromosomes and finding where telomerase is active are no easy matters. (
  • The yeast S. pombe is a unicellular eukaryotic organism, with properties that closely resemble higher eukaryotic organisms regarding chromosome structure and function, cell cycle control and RNA splicing. (
  • These nucleic acids range from oligonucleotides consisting of less than 20 nucleotides to artificial constructs thousands or millions of basepairs in length, typically containing a heterogeneous collection of genes from pathogenic bacteria, viruses and other genetic parasites belonging to practically every kingdom of living organisms. (
  • The Award Committee considered that Dr. Montoliu's work that established artificial chromosome-type mouse transgenesis led to a new foray into genetically modified organisms that allowed for inclusion of critical regulatory elements that were often missing in previous experiments, thereby represents a major improvement in transgenic technology. (
  • Here, we describe a versatile procedure for chromosomal engineering that was used to generate an ES cell line with a megabase deletion encompassing the tumour suppressor gene neurofibromatosis-1 (Nf-1) on mouse chromosome 11, which is often deleted in tumours of neural crest origin. (
  • THE metazoan centromere was first identified cytologically as the region of the primary constriction of a metaphase chromosome ( F lemming 1880 ). (
  • Mammalian Chromosome Engineering: Methods and Protocols provides the reader with up-to date information on this rapidly evolving field and strives to take the reader into the exciting realm of chromosomal engineering from the basic principles to the practical applications of these new technologies. (
  • Additionally, engineered chromosomes could be used to address questions concerning the function of specific chromosomal domains (e.g., centromeric regions). (
  • We know today that another potential cause of chromosomal instability that must be dealt with is that unless it is protected, a DNA end will be recognized as damaged DNA that the cell will attempt to heal with ensuing loss of chromosome integrity and cell viability. (
  • Molecular characterization and chromosomal assignment of the bovine glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GART) gene on cattle chromosome 1q12.1-q12.2. (
  • That imprinting might be a feature of mammalian development was suggested in breeding experiments in mice carrying reciprocal chromosomal translocations. (
  • For example, mammals depend on the CENP-A protein to specify centromere location on chromosomes for precise cell division. (
  • failure to do so leads to chromosome loss or damage and loss of linked genetic material. (
  • In no vertebrate other than the mouse, may one target a gene to eliminate its function in the whole organism or in one tissue, carry out forward genetic screens, or introduce transgenes as cDNAs or bacterial artificial chromosomes. (
  • FISH analyzes of the transformed cell lines showed that transformants of alpha21-I YAC contained a stably maintained mammalian artificial chromosome but those of alpha21-II YAC was integrated at telomere or centromere. (
  • We established MEFs trisomic for either chromosome 1, 13, 16, or 19 using mice with balanced Robertsonian translocations. (
  • Engineered Plant Minichromosomes: A Resurrection of B Chromosomes? (
  • Telomere-Associated Chromosome Fragmentation: A Strategy to Generate Minichromosomes by Truncation of Natural Chromosomes. (
  • PHILADELPHIA) - For the past 20 years, researchers have been trying to perfect the construction of human artificial chromosomes, or HACs for short. (
  • Our developments streamline the construction and characterization of HACs to aid in efforts to make synthetic whole human chromosomes," said Ben Black, PhD, a professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, who has dedicated decades to understanding the process. (
  • HACs essentially function as new mini-chromosomes carrying engineered sets of genes that are inherited alongside a cell's natural set of chromosomes. (
  • Think of the HACs we build now as model-sized chromosomes," said first author Glennis Logsdon, PhD, a doctoral student in Black's lab at the time of the study and now a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Washington. (
  • Life-span regulation by insulin-like metabolic control is analogous to mammalian longevity enhancement induced by caloric restriction, suggesting a general link between metabolism, diapause, and longevity. (
  • The E2 read affect and artificial intelligence has 73 metabolism robotic to the episode analysis from Microbispora bispora, but this came the illustrious release based with personal definition sites. (
  • and with Chromos Molecular Systems Inc., of Vancouver, to study delivery of mammalian artificial chromosomes to cell interiors, using Inex's technology. (
  • To ensure that replication of chromosomes occurs just once each cell cycle, activation of origins in S phase coincides with the inactivation and disassembly of pre-RCs, and CDKs and other proteins block their reassembly until the end of mitosis, when CDK activity is destroyed (for a review, see Diffley, 2001 ). (