In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.
The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.
The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.

Linkage disequilibrium in inbred North African families allows fine genetic and physical mapping of triple A syndrome. (1/8)

Triple A syndrome (Allgrove syndrome, MIM No. 231550) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by ACTH-resistant adrenal insufficiency, achalasia of the cardia, and alacrimia. The triple A gene has been previously mapped to chromosome 12q13 in a maximum interval of 6 cM between loci D12S1629 and D12S312. Using linkage analysis in 12 triple A families, mostly originating from North Africa, we confirm that the disease locus maps to the 12q13 region (Zmax = 10.89 at theta = 0 for D12S1604) and suggest that triple A is a genetically homogeneous disorder. Recombination events as well as homozygosity for polymorphic markers enabled us to reduce the genetic interval to a 3.9 cM region. Moreover, total linkage disequilibrium was found at the D12S1604 locus between a rare allele and the mutant chromosomes in North African patients. Analysis of markers at five contiguous loci showed that most of the triple A chromosomes are derived from a single founder chromosome. As all markers are located in a 0 cM genetic interval and only allele 5 at the D12S1604 locus was conserved in mutant chromosomes, we speculate that the triple A mutation is due to an ancient Arabian founder effect that occurred before migration to North Africa. Since we also found linkage disequilibrium at D12S1604 in two patients from Southern Europe (France and Spain), the founder effect might well extend to other Mediterranean countries. Taking advantage of a YAC contig encompassing the triple A minimal physical region, the triple A gene was mapped to a 1.7 Mb DNA fragment accessible to gene cloning.  (+info)

Retrofitting of a satellite repeat DNA-based murine artificial chromosome (ACes) to contain loxP recombination sites. (2/8)

A satellite DNA-based mammalian artificial chromosome (ACes) was generated and subsequently modified by targeting of a loxP-red fluorescent protein (RFP) expression cassette via homologous recombination into a ribosomal DNA (rDNA)-containing locus. Clones containing correctly targeted ACes were identified by PCR from populations of RFP-expressing cells enriched by FACS sorting and were further characterized by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The targeted ACes maintained its ability to be purified to near homogeneity. Studies are currently underway to further characterize the functionality, carrying capacity, stability and transfectability of this modified ACes.  (+info)

CENP-B box is required for de novo centromere chromatin assembly on human alphoid DNA. (3/8)

Centromere protein (CENP) B boxes, recognition sequences of CENP-B, appear at regular intervals in human centromeric alpha-satellite DNA (alphoid DNA). In this study, to determine whether information carried by the primary sequence of alphoid DNA is involved in assembly of functional human centromeres, we created four kinds of synthetic repetitive sequences: modified alphoid DNA with point mutations in all CENP-B boxes, resulting in loss of all CENP-B binding activity; unmodified alphoid DNA containing functional CENP-B boxes; and nonalphoid repetitive DNA sequences with or without functional CENP-B boxes. These four synthetic repetitive DNAs were introduced into cultured human cells (HT1080), and de novo centromere assembly was assessed using the mammalian artificial chromosome (MAC) formation assay. We found that both the CENP-B box and the alphoid DNA sequence are required for de novo MAC formation and assembly of functional centromere components such as CENP-A, CENP-C, and CENP-E. Using the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we found that direct assembly of CENP-A and CENP-B in cells with synthetic alphoid DNA required functional CENP-B boxes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported evidence of a functional molecular link between a centromere-specific DNA sequence and centromeric chromatin assembly in humans.  (+info)

Transfer and stable transgene expression of a mammalian artificial chromosome into bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells. (4/8)

Mammalian artificial chromosomes (ACEs) transferred to autologous adult stem cells (SCs) provide a novel strategy for the ex vivo gene therapy of a variety of clinical indications. Unlike retroviral vectors, ACEs are stably maintained, autonomous, and nonintegrating. In this report we assessed the delivery efficiency of ACEs and evaluated the subsequent differentiation potential of ACE-transfected bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). For this, an ACE carrying multiple copies of the red fluorescent protein (RFP) reporter gene was transferred under optimized conditions into hMSCs using standard cationic transfection reagents. RFP expression was detectable in 11% of the cells 4-5 days post-transfection. The RFP-expressing hMSCs were enriched by high-speed flow cytometry and maintained their potential to differentiate along adipogenic or osteogenic lineages. Fluorescent in situ hybridization and fluorescent microscopy demonstrated that the ACEs were stably maintained as single chromosomes and expressed the RFP transgenes in both differentiated cultures. These findings demonstrate the potential utility of ACEs for human adult SC ex vivo gene therapy.  (+info)

A mammalian artificial chromosome engineering system (ACE System) applicable to biopharmaceutical protein production, transgenesis and gene-based cell therapy. (5/8)

Mammalian artificial chromosomes (MACs) provide a means to introduce large payloads of genetic information into the cell in an autonomously replicating, non-integrating format. Unique among MACs, the mammalian satellite DNA-based Artificial Chromosome Expression (ACE) can be reproducibly generated de novo in cell lines of different species and readily purified from the host cells' chromosomes. Purified mammalian ACEs can then be re-introduced into a variety of recipient cell lines where they have been stably maintained for extended periods in the absence of selective pressure. In order to extend the utility of ACEs, we have established the ACE System, a versatile and flexible platform for the reliable engineering of ACEs. The ACE System includes a Platform ACE, containing >50 recombination acceptor sites, that can carry single or multiple copies of genes of interest using specially designed targeting vectors (ATV) and a site-specific integrase (ACE Integrase). Using this approach, specific loading of one or two gene targets has been achieved in LMTK(-) and CHO cells. The use of the ACE System for biological engineering of eukaryotic cells, including mammalian cells, with applications in biopharmaceutical production, transgenesis and gene-based cell therapy is discussed.  (+info)

Shared long-range regulatory elements coordinate expression of a gene cluster encoding nicotinic receptor heteromeric subtypes. (6/8)

The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) beta4/alpha3/alpha5 gene cluster encodes several heteromeric transmitter receptor subtypes that are essential for cholinergic synaptic transmission in adrenal gland, autonomic ganglia, pineal gland, and several nuclei in the central nervous system. However, the transcriptional mechanisms coordinating expression of these subunit genes in different cell populations are unknown. Here, we used transgenic methods to investigate long-range transcriptional control of the cluster. A 132-kb P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) encoding the rat cluster recapitulated the neurally- and endocrine-restricted expression patterns of the endogenous beta4/alpha3/alpha5 genes. Mutation of ETS factor binding sites in an enhancer, beta43', embedded in the beta4 3'-untranslated exon resulted in greatly diminished beta4, alpha3, and alpha5 expression in adrenal gland and to a lesser extent in the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) but not in other tissues. Phylogenetic sequence analyses revealed several conserved noncoding regions (CNRs) upstream of beta4 and alpha5. Deletion of one of them (CNR4) located 20 kb upstream of beta4 resulted in a dramatic decrease in beta4 and alpha3 expression in the pineal gland and SCG. CNR4 was sufficient to direct LacZ transgene expression to SCG neurons, which express the endogenous beta4alpha3alpha5 subunits, and pineal cells, which express the endogenous beta4alpha3 combination. Finally, CNR4 was able to direct transgene expression to major sites of expression of the endogenous cluster in the brain. Together, our findings support a model in which cell type-specific shared long-range regulatory elements are required for coordinate expression of clustered nAChR genes.  (+info)

Remote control of gene expression. (7/8)

The elucidation of a growing number of species' genomes heralds an unprecedented opportunity to ascertain functional attributes of non-coding sequences. In particular, cis regulatory modules (CRMs) controlling gene expression constitute a rich treasure trove of data to be defined and experimentally validated. Such information will provide insight into cell lineage determination and differentiation and the genetic basis of heritable diseases as well as the development of novel tools for restricting the inactivation of genes to specific cell types or conditions. Historically, the study of CRMs and their individual transcription factor binding sites has been limited to proximal regions around gene loci. Two important by-products of the genomics revolution, artificial chromosome vectors and comparative genomics, have fueled efforts to define an increasing number of CRMs acting remotely to control gene expression. Such regulation from a distance has challenged our perspectives of gene expression control and perhaps the very definition of a gene. This review summarizes current approaches to characterize remote control of gene expression in transgenic mice and inherent limitations for accurately interpreting the essential nature of CRM activity.  (+info)

CENP-B controls centromere formation depending on the chromatin context. (8/8)

The centromere is a chromatin region that serves as the spindle attachment point and directs accurate inheritance of eukaryotic chromosomes during cell divisions. However, the mechanism by which the centromere assembles and stabilizes at a specific genomic region is not clear. The de novo formation of a human/mammalian artificial chromosome (HAC/MAC) with a functional centromere assembly requires the presence of alpha-satellite DNA containing binding motifs for the centromeric CENP-B protein. We demonstrate here that de novo centromere assembly on HAC/MAC is dependent on CENP-B. In contrast, centromere formation is suppressed in cells expressing CENP-B when alpha-satellite DNA was integrated into a chromosomal site. Remarkably, on those integration sites CENP-B enhances histone H3-K9 trimethylation and DNA methylation, thereby stimulating heterochromatin formation. Thus, we propose that CENP-B plays a dual role in centromere formation, ensuring de novo formation on DNA lacking a functional centromere but preventing the formation of excess centromeres on chromosomes.  (+info)

The generation in vitro of mammalian artificial chromosomes, in view of the possibility of developing new technologies for gene therapy, is still an ambitious goal. Mammalian artificial chromosomes, to be used as cloning and expression vectors, have been constructed either by de novo synthesis or by reduction of pre-existing chromosomes. In the work here reported, we introduced a loxP sequence into the pericentromeric region of a chromosome 9-derived X-ray-reduced minichromosome, with the purpose of generating a human chromosome vector (HCV). The modified accessory chromosome is linear and mitotically stable, has lost at least 1400 kb of alpha satellite DNA and normally binds CENP-B, CENP-C and CENP-E. The efficiency of gene targeting via loxP mediated homologous recombination was tested using the histone H2B-Green Fluorescent Protein chimaeric gene as a reporter. The frequency of site-specific insertion of the exogenous sequence was found to be about 50% and to occur in a controlled way with ...
Although studies have suggested that bone marrow human mesenchymal stem cells (BM-hMSC) may be used as delivery vehicles for cancer therapy, it remains unclear whether BM-hMSCs are capable of targeting cancer stem cells, including glioma stem cells (GSC), which are the tumor-initiating cells responsible for treatment failures. Using standard glioma models, we identify TGF-β as a tumor factor that attracts BM-hMSCs via TGF-β receptors (TGFβR) on BM-hMSCs. Using human and rat GSCs, we then show for the first time that intravascularly administered BM-hMSCs home to GSC-xenografts that express TGF-β. In therapeutic studies, we show that BM-hMSCs carrying the oncolytic adenovirus Delta-24-RGD prolonged the survival of TGF-β-secreting GSC xenografts and that the efficacy of this strategy can be abrogated by inhibition of TGFβR on BM-hMSCs. These findings reveal the TGF-β/TGFβR axis as a mediator of the tropism of BM-hMSCs for GSCs and suggest that TGF-β predicts patients in whom BM-hMSC ...
Our fundamental technology, mammalian artificial chromosome vector has some advantages against other vectors that 1) our vector can maintain in host cells without integration of host genome, 2) overexpression or suppression of the gene introduced is not occurred after long-term cultivation, 3) our vector does not limit gene size introduced ...
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An apparatus for offering at least one operation function for the remote control for operating devices and a method therefor are provided to operate devices selectively through a simple manner by comprising a storage area in which information about the operation of devices and data are stored. One or more devices(14-20) which can be remotely controlled comprises a storage area where data including information about the operational functions is stored. A data link is equipped between devices and a remote controller(22). The data link is used when transmitting the data to the remote controller from the devices. The remote controller comprises a data processing unit which processes the transmitted information. The data processing unit provides one or more operational functions by using at least one operation element(24, 26) of the remote controller based on the information.
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... bacterial artificial chromosomes, cancer cytogenetic analyses, and gene methylation. Chapters also discuss topics such as phage ... display, yeast and mammalian two-hybrid systems, RNA silencing, monoclonal antibody production, kinases and signal transduction ...
Experience with making viral knock out models of viruses; bacterial artificial chromosome and/or CRISPR ... Experience of mammalian cell culture of primary cells and cell lines. • Transfection of animal models and cell lines using AAV ...
For a typical mammalian genome the in silico experiment is computationally intensive, as it requires alignment of billions of ... with one sorted vector of CpG locations per chromosome.. cpgset = list( chr1 = c(12L, 57L, 123L), chr2 = c(45L, 95L, 99L, 111L ... for creating artificial reads from the reference genome. The function supports gz compression of the output files, decreasing ... It starts with the read from position 1 to 75 on chromosome 1 of the reference. Next read spans positions 2 to 76, etc. In the ...
Artificial oocyte activation with calcium ionophore does not cause a widespread increase in chromosome segregation errors in ... Mammalian target of rapamycin controls glucose consumption and redox balance in human Sertoli cells Our data provide evidence ... Artificial oocyte activation with calcium ionophore does not cause a widespread increase in chromosome segregation errors in ...
Artificial Intelligence Cant Solve the Knowledge Problem. In Economics, TechnologyBy Jesus Fernandez-Villaverde ... Adkins doesnt say whether she would apply this rule to all mammalian species. But why should sex be determined differently in ... "It is counter to medical science to use chromosomes, hormones, internal reproductive organs, external genitalia, or secondary ...
Mammalian life begins with fertilization of the egg. Once the egg and sperm have fused, the parental chromosomes need to be ... Artificial Intelligence (AI) used to test evolutions oldest mathematical model. Posted on August 21, 2019 by DWN ... Dual-spindle formation keeps the two parental genomes apart in 1-cell mammalian embryo. Posted on September 6, 2018 by DWN ... I cannot claim to be an expert on artificial intelligence (AI) or machine-learning, but I would say that the essence of this ...
Scientists can reprogram the CRISPR/Cas9 system with artificial guide RNAs to cleave sequences within mammalian genomes and ... CRISPR/Cas9 is a good thing because it introduces specific chromosome breaks that can be exploited to create genome edits, but ... because chromosome breakage can be hazardous, it is possible to have too much of a good thing, or to have it go on for too long ...
We are still at an at stage of savvy comprehension or the revealing powerful complication of the mammalian and human genetic ... At During Metaphase 2, each the end of Meiosis 1, each chromosome aligns singly daughter chamber has the same homolog. ... Attempts at xenotransplantation and artificial livers or support devices nevertheless are in progress. Tumor suppressor genes ...
A gene expression atlas of the central nervous system based on bacterial artificial chromosomes. Shiaoching Gong, Chen Zheng, ... Parallel processing in the mammalian retina. Heinz Wässle. Nat Rev Neurosci 2004 ...
And at that point, well have to take a closer look at artificial gravity as a mitigation. I wouldnt want to be arriving on ... "There appears to be a core mammalian set of adaptations and responses to the rigors of spaceflight." ... the ends of chromosomes, which shorten with age), and changes in the gut microbiome. ...
All sires, artificial insemination and natural service, must meet minimum Calving Ease Direct (CED) EPD requirements. In ... 1. Sorting DNA variants onto each chromosome (phasing). 2. Filling in missing genotypes. We can impute from 50,000 SNPs to ... Why is rare variation important? Most of the variation in mammalian genomes, including the genomes of cattle, contain rare ...
Questions and Answers after 12th Class we have mentioned the Class 12 supports the chromosome theory …! Ncert Class 12 Biology ... THE CALCIUM HOMEOSTATIC SYSTEM AS A PHYSIOLOGICAL REGULATOR OF CELL PROLIFERATION IN MAMMALIAN TISSUES**Issued as NRCC No. (a) ... Artificial Carpet offered comes in quality construction finish and provide for perfect support as artificial lawn carpets. ... thumb_up Like (1) visibility Views (6.8K) edit Answer . Brass Instruments and Artificial Lips. Various artificial hybridisation ...
A group of researchers from the U.S. and U.K. recently announced the creation of the first artificial chromosome, derived from ... "There is a processing structure in nature, the mammalian neocortex, that… routinely solves the most difficult recognition ... What were learning about the human brain could give us insight into how we build our artificial processing capabilities.". The ... You can define synthetic biology, loosely, as the creation of new, artificial biological structures for new purposes. The field ...
Chromosomes, Artificial [A11.284.187.178] + Chromosomes, Artificial + * Chromosomes, Bacterial [A11.284.187.190] + Chromosomes ... Polytene Chromosomes [A11.284.187.440.500] Polytene Chromosomes * Chromosomes, Mammalian [A11.284.187.520] + Chromosomes, ... Chromosomes, Insect - Preferred Concept UI. M0545769. Scope note. Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing ... Chromosomes dinsecte Entry term(s):. Chromosome, Insect. Insect Chromosome. Insect Chromosomes. Tree number(s):. A11.284. ...
When she watched individual chromosomes in corn shift their structure. It is the same state of mind that writers enter when ... The artificial may be deterministic and reversible. The natural contains elements of randomness and irreversibility. This leads ... GABA is present in high levels in the mammalian brain where it plays a major part in neurotransmission. It is also involved in ...
Chromosomes, Artificial [A11.284.187.178] + Chromosomes, Artificial + * Chromosomes, Bacterial [A11.284.187.190] + Chromosomes ... Chromosomes, Insect [A11.284.187.440] + Chromosomes, Insect + * Chromosomes, Mammalian [A11.284.187.520] + Chromosomes, ... Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.. Annotation:. do not confuse with chromosome rings ( = CHROMOSOME BANDING) ... Chromosome, Ring. Chromosomes, Ring. Ring Chromosome. Tree number(s):. A11.284.187.788. C23.550.210.760. G05.360.162.788. ...
The two pairs of chromosome would structurally correspond to left and right almost symmetric halves of vertebrates. Begin the ... The main concern is neurotoxicity, peshtigo which in stratford most mammalian species may manifest as central nervous system ... an organization syracuse that winnetka will work to improve the environment using advanced technologies like artificial ...
Tags: aging biology cancer chromosome dna genetics health healthinnovations protein science shelterin Telomerase telomere TZAP ... For the future, the researchers propose a model for telomere length regulation in mammalian cells based on their new discovery. ... Telomeres are our own personal inbuilt clock found at the end of chromosomes dictating how and when we age, with these ... The team states a novel protein, named TZAP (Telomeric Zinc finger-Associated Protein), binds the ends of chromosomes and ...
So for example, if your chromosomes are xx, we expect you to wear a dress and to be attracted to xy folks, and only to xy folks ... I remember some of the criticisms addressed at the athlete O. Pistorious for having superhuman artificial limbs that gave him ... the binary conception of sex found at the level of mammalian genetics does not provide any ontological justification for a ... 1) As a claim about biological M/F: On a physical level, our bodies conform to our sex as defined by our chromosomes, e.g. in ...
Domesticated horses tend to face greater mental challenges than wild horses, because they live in artificial environments that ... Y-chromosome) versus that passed on along the maternal, or dam line (mitochondrial DNA). There are very low levels of Y- ... Mammalian Genome 7 (12): 895-899. doi:10.1007/s003359900264. PMID 8995760.. ^ a b "Introduction to Coat Color Genetics". ... These inherited traits result from a combination of natural crosses and artificial selection methods. Horses have been ...
Well: acting on the chromosomes of the nucleus it is possible to convert one or thousands of such cells into cells such as ... That is to say that we can generate real ARTIFICIAL ATYPICAL CELL [...]. What is actually achieved in practice is to change the ... Nationalism is the modern-day extension of primate mammalian territorialism.". This sort of thing does turn the mind upside ... an outmoded concept based upon arbitrary and imaginary lines which represent artificial boundaries that do not exist in Nature ...
Pissing off mammalian mothers is a bad idea in general really. Bears will eat your face, house cats will attempt to rip it off ... Since men carry X chromosomes, we will be able to bring women back if we choose to… ... to create artificial wombs, and genetically engineer babies. It might take a few years, but Im sure if all of humanity (minus ...
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DCs are unique messenger white blood cells of the mammalian immune system. They function as specialized antigen-presenting ... His current academic and research interests include: imaging informatics, deep/machine learning in imaging, artificial ... analyses of X chromosome parent-of-origin and cognitive-behavioral assessment to elucidate the effects of monosomy and X-linked ...
  • Scientists can reprogram the CRISPR/Cas9 system with artificial guide RNAs to cleave sequences within mammalian genomes and enable the precise insertion of new fragments of genetic information into cells. (bioengineer.org)
  • Most of the variation in mammalian genomes, including the genomes of cattle, contain rare variation. (steakgenomics.org)
  • Some of these products may be the result of the integration of bacterial genomes into the host chromosomes, but in many other cases, they come from a new type of biochemical pathway in animals. (azolifesciences.com)
  • Reviews are written by experts in specific aspects of gene identification and full-length gene cloning, gene profiling (microarrays), chromatin modification of gene regulation, bacterial artificial chromosomes, cancer cytogenetic analyses, and gene methylation. (pdf-drive.com)
  • A gene expression atlas of the central nervous system based on bacterial artificial chromosomes. (cocites.com)
  • Every other method is bad science, she claims: "It is counter to medical science to use chromosomes, hormones, internal reproductive organs, external genitalia, or secondary sex characteristics to override gender identity for purposes of classifying someone as male or female. (thepublicdiscourse.com)
  • The researchers highlight six biological changes that occur in all astronauts during spaceflight: oxidative stress (an excessive accumulation of free radicals in the body's cells), DNA damage, dysfunction of the mitochondria, changes in gene regulation, alterations in the length of telomeres (the ends of chromosomes, which shorten with age), and changes in the gut microbiome. (licensetoblog.com)
  • Telomeres are our own personal inbuilt clock found at the end of chromosomes dictating how and when we age, with these protective caps ensuring no damage comes to the DNA held within. (health-innovations.org)
  • The team states a novel protein, named TZAP (Telomeric Zinc finger-Associated Protein), binds the ends of chromosomes and determines how long telomeres can be. (health-innovations.org)
  • CRISPR/Cas9 is a good thing because it introduces specific chromosome breaks that can be exploited to create genome edits, but because chromosome breakage can be hazardous, it is possible to have too much of a good thing, or to have it go on for too long,' Dr. Sontheimer said. (bioengineer.org)
  • Various artificial hybridisation techniques (under various crop , improvement programmes) involve the removal of the anther from bisexual flowers without affecting the female reproductive part (pistil) through the process of emasculation. (benvenutolimos.com)
  • For the future, the researchers propose a model for telomere length regulation in mammalian cells based on their new discovery. (health-innovations.org)
  • DCs are unique messenger white blood cells of the mammalian immune system. (stanford.edu)
  • Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular. (bvsalud.org)
  • In april of downey will launch the footprint coalition, an organization syracuse that winnetka will work to improve the environment using advanced technologies like artificial intelligence and nanotechnology. (brainee-trainee.com)
  • We are still at an at stage of savvy comprehension or the revealing powerful complication of the mammalian and human genetic vocabulary 25 mg meclizine for sale medicine 93. (fortmyersonthenet.com)
  • What we're learning about the human brain could give us insight into how we build our artificial processing capabilities. (torn-republic.com)
  • There is a processing structure in nature, the mammalian neocortex, that… routinely solves the most difficult recognition problems in real-time…" according to the agency's recently submitted budget proposal. (torn-republic.com)
  • That is, isn't it true that if someone has XX chromosomes, you'll be right most of the time if you predict that this person also has breasts, no facial hair, vagina, and uses the female public restrooms? (danceofreason.com)
  • According to the Wikipedia article: Mandrills are noted as being exceptionally colourful for mammalian standards. (stackexchange.com)
  • Artificial Carpet offered comes in quality construction finish and provide for perfect support as artificial lawn carpets. (benvenutolimos.com)

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