Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Chromosome Painting: A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, 1-3: The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, 16-18: The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y: The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.Ring Chromosomes: Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromosomes, Human, 4-5: The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Chromosome Structures: Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.Chromosomes, Human, 19-20: The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Chromosomes, Artificial, Human: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Chromosome Fragility: Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Chromosome Duplication: An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Abnormalities, MultiplePolyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Polytene Chromosomes: Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Genes, X-Linked: Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Cytogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Karyotype: The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Chromosome Fragile Sites: Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Sex Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).Monosomy: The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Cricetulus: A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Philadelphia Chromosome: An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Azure Stains: PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.Chromosome Breakpoints: The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.

Linkage disequilibrium in inbred North African families allows fine genetic and physical mapping of triple A syndrome. (1/8)

Triple A syndrome (Allgrove syndrome, MIM No. 231550) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by ACTH-resistant adrenal insufficiency, achalasia of the cardia, and alacrimia. The triple A gene has been previously mapped to chromosome 12q13 in a maximum interval of 6 cM between loci D12S1629 and D12S312. Using linkage analysis in 12 triple A families, mostly originating from North Africa, we confirm that the disease locus maps to the 12q13 region (Zmax = 10.89 at theta = 0 for D12S1604) and suggest that triple A is a genetically homogeneous disorder. Recombination events as well as homozygosity for polymorphic markers enabled us to reduce the genetic interval to a 3.9 cM region. Moreover, total linkage disequilibrium was found at the D12S1604 locus between a rare allele and the mutant chromosomes in North African patients. Analysis of markers at five contiguous loci showed that most of the triple A chromosomes are derived from a single founder chromosome. As all markers are located in a 0 cM genetic interval and only allele 5 at the D12S1604 locus was conserved in mutant chromosomes, we speculate that the triple A mutation is due to an ancient Arabian founder effect that occurred before migration to North Africa. Since we also found linkage disequilibrium at D12S1604 in two patients from Southern Europe (France and Spain), the founder effect might well extend to other Mediterranean countries. Taking advantage of a YAC contig encompassing the triple A minimal physical region, the triple A gene was mapped to a 1.7 Mb DNA fragment accessible to gene cloning.  (+info)

Retrofitting of a satellite repeat DNA-based murine artificial chromosome (ACes) to contain loxP recombination sites. (2/8)

A satellite DNA-based mammalian artificial chromosome (ACes) was generated and subsequently modified by targeting of a loxP-red fluorescent protein (RFP) expression cassette via homologous recombination into a ribosomal DNA (rDNA)-containing locus. Clones containing correctly targeted ACes were identified by PCR from populations of RFP-expressing cells enriched by FACS sorting and were further characterized by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The targeted ACes maintained its ability to be purified to near homogeneity. Studies are currently underway to further characterize the functionality, carrying capacity, stability and transfectability of this modified ACes.  (+info)

CENP-B box is required for de novo centromere chromatin assembly on human alphoid DNA. (3/8)

Centromere protein (CENP) B boxes, recognition sequences of CENP-B, appear at regular intervals in human centromeric alpha-satellite DNA (alphoid DNA). In this study, to determine whether information carried by the primary sequence of alphoid DNA is involved in assembly of functional human centromeres, we created four kinds of synthetic repetitive sequences: modified alphoid DNA with point mutations in all CENP-B boxes, resulting in loss of all CENP-B binding activity; unmodified alphoid DNA containing functional CENP-B boxes; and nonalphoid repetitive DNA sequences with or without functional CENP-B boxes. These four synthetic repetitive DNAs were introduced into cultured human cells (HT1080), and de novo centromere assembly was assessed using the mammalian artificial chromosome (MAC) formation assay. We found that both the CENP-B box and the alphoid DNA sequence are required for de novo MAC formation and assembly of functional centromere components such as CENP-A, CENP-C, and CENP-E. Using the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we found that direct assembly of CENP-A and CENP-B in cells with synthetic alphoid DNA required functional CENP-B boxes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported evidence of a functional molecular link between a centromere-specific DNA sequence and centromeric chromatin assembly in humans.  (+info)

Transfer and stable transgene expression of a mammalian artificial chromosome into bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells. (4/8)

Mammalian artificial chromosomes (ACEs) transferred to autologous adult stem cells (SCs) provide a novel strategy for the ex vivo gene therapy of a variety of clinical indications. Unlike retroviral vectors, ACEs are stably maintained, autonomous, and nonintegrating. In this report we assessed the delivery efficiency of ACEs and evaluated the subsequent differentiation potential of ACE-transfected bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). For this, an ACE carrying multiple copies of the red fluorescent protein (RFP) reporter gene was transferred under optimized conditions into hMSCs using standard cationic transfection reagents. RFP expression was detectable in 11% of the cells 4-5 days post-transfection. The RFP-expressing hMSCs were enriched by high-speed flow cytometry and maintained their potential to differentiate along adipogenic or osteogenic lineages. Fluorescent in situ hybridization and fluorescent microscopy demonstrated that the ACEs were stably maintained as single chromosomes and expressed the RFP transgenes in both differentiated cultures. These findings demonstrate the potential utility of ACEs for human adult SC ex vivo gene therapy.  (+info)

A mammalian artificial chromosome engineering system (ACE System) applicable to biopharmaceutical protein production, transgenesis and gene-based cell therapy. (5/8)

Mammalian artificial chromosomes (MACs) provide a means to introduce large payloads of genetic information into the cell in an autonomously replicating, non-integrating format. Unique among MACs, the mammalian satellite DNA-based Artificial Chromosome Expression (ACE) can be reproducibly generated de novo in cell lines of different species and readily purified from the host cells' chromosomes. Purified mammalian ACEs can then be re-introduced into a variety of recipient cell lines where they have been stably maintained for extended periods in the absence of selective pressure. In order to extend the utility of ACEs, we have established the ACE System, a versatile and flexible platform for the reliable engineering of ACEs. The ACE System includes a Platform ACE, containing >50 recombination acceptor sites, that can carry single or multiple copies of genes of interest using specially designed targeting vectors (ATV) and a site-specific integrase (ACE Integrase). Using this approach, specific loading of one or two gene targets has been achieved in LMTK(-) and CHO cells. The use of the ACE System for biological engineering of eukaryotic cells, including mammalian cells, with applications in biopharmaceutical production, transgenesis and gene-based cell therapy is discussed.  (+info)

Shared long-range regulatory elements coordinate expression of a gene cluster encoding nicotinic receptor heteromeric subtypes. (6/8)

The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) beta4/alpha3/alpha5 gene cluster encodes several heteromeric transmitter receptor subtypes that are essential for cholinergic synaptic transmission in adrenal gland, autonomic ganglia, pineal gland, and several nuclei in the central nervous system. However, the transcriptional mechanisms coordinating expression of these subunit genes in different cell populations are unknown. Here, we used transgenic methods to investigate long-range transcriptional control of the cluster. A 132-kb P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) encoding the rat cluster recapitulated the neurally- and endocrine-restricted expression patterns of the endogenous beta4/alpha3/alpha5 genes. Mutation of ETS factor binding sites in an enhancer, beta43', embedded in the beta4 3'-untranslated exon resulted in greatly diminished beta4, alpha3, and alpha5 expression in adrenal gland and to a lesser extent in the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) but not in other tissues. Phylogenetic sequence analyses revealed several conserved noncoding regions (CNRs) upstream of beta4 and alpha5. Deletion of one of them (CNR4) located 20 kb upstream of beta4 resulted in a dramatic decrease in beta4 and alpha3 expression in the pineal gland and SCG. CNR4 was sufficient to direct LacZ transgene expression to SCG neurons, which express the endogenous beta4alpha3alpha5 subunits, and pineal cells, which express the endogenous beta4alpha3 combination. Finally, CNR4 was able to direct transgene expression to major sites of expression of the endogenous cluster in the brain. Together, our findings support a model in which cell type-specific shared long-range regulatory elements are required for coordinate expression of clustered nAChR genes.  (+info)

Remote control of gene expression. (7/8)

The elucidation of a growing number of species' genomes heralds an unprecedented opportunity to ascertain functional attributes of non-coding sequences. In particular, cis regulatory modules (CRMs) controlling gene expression constitute a rich treasure trove of data to be defined and experimentally validated. Such information will provide insight into cell lineage determination and differentiation and the genetic basis of heritable diseases as well as the development of novel tools for restricting the inactivation of genes to specific cell types or conditions. Historically, the study of CRMs and their individual transcription factor binding sites has been limited to proximal regions around gene loci. Two important by-products of the genomics revolution, artificial chromosome vectors and comparative genomics, have fueled efforts to define an increasing number of CRMs acting remotely to control gene expression. Such regulation from a distance has challenged our perspectives of gene expression control and perhaps the very definition of a gene. This review summarizes current approaches to characterize remote control of gene expression in transgenic mice and inherent limitations for accurately interpreting the essential nature of CRM activity.  (+info)

CENP-B controls centromere formation depending on the chromatin context. (8/8)

The centromere is a chromatin region that serves as the spindle attachment point and directs accurate inheritance of eukaryotic chromosomes during cell divisions. However, the mechanism by which the centromere assembles and stabilizes at a specific genomic region is not clear. The de novo formation of a human/mammalian artificial chromosome (HAC/MAC) with a functional centromere assembly requires the presence of alpha-satellite DNA containing binding motifs for the centromeric CENP-B protein. We demonstrate here that de novo centromere assembly on HAC/MAC is dependent on CENP-B. In contrast, centromere formation is suppressed in cells expressing CENP-B when alpha-satellite DNA was integrated into a chromosomal site. Remarkably, on those integration sites CENP-B enhances histone H3-K9 trimethylation and DNA methylation, thereby stimulating heterochromatin formation. Thus, we propose that CENP-B plays a dual role in centromere formation, ensuring de novo formation on DNA lacking a functional centromere but preventing the formation of excess centromeres on chromosomes.  (+info)

The generation in vitro of mammalian artificial chromosomes, in view of the possibility of developing new technologies for gene therapy, is still an ambitious goal. Mammalian artificial chromosomes, to be used as cloning and expression vectors, have been constructed either by de novo synthesis or by reduction of pre-existing chromosomes. In the work here reported, we introduced a loxP sequence into the pericentromeric region of a chromosome 9-derived X-ray-reduced minichromosome, with the purpose of generating a human chromosome vector (HCV). The modified accessory chromosome is linear and mitotically stable, has lost at least 1400 kb of alpha satellite DNA and normally binds CENP-B, CENP-C and CENP-E. The efficiency of gene targeting via loxP mediated homologous recombination was tested using the histone H2B-Green Fluorescent Protein chimaeric gene as a reporter. The frequency of site-specific insertion of the exogenous sequence was found to be about 50% and to occur in a controlled way with ...
Our fundamental technology, mammalian artificial chromosome vector has some advantages against other vectors that 1) our vector can maintain in host cells without integration of host genome, 2) overexpression or suppression of the gene introduced is not occurred after long-term cultivation, 3) our vector does not limit gene size introduced ...
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If youre lucky to have two or more Macs in your home or office, you no doubt find occasions where you would like to remote control a Mac either from another room or from another part of the country. You probably know that you can use the Shared feature to remotely control another Mac on the same network. But by creating some simple AppleScript commands you can control a remote Mac much faster, alleviating the need to open the Shared screen feature. If you have never worked with AppleScript before, dont fret. The following Mac remote control scripts are very Read more. ...
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I cannot program my AT&T U-verse remote control (silver) to control my Apex Digital LE2612D TV. I have tried both the - Answered by a verified TV Technician
The electronic remote control means operates according to the known principle of code stepping through which a different code word is used after each transmitting/receiving operation. In accordance with the invention the respective new code word is produced anew by linking according to a given function, starting from a stored original code word and the previous code word. In case of non-agreement between the code word received and the new code word determined at the receiver additional code words are produced in sequence at the receiver. Thereafter, if no agreement results, the receiver switches over to an increased security mode wherein two successive code words in sequence must be successfully compared.
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FatMacDaddy writes The SFGate is reporting on a remote control for manipulating humans through electrical stimulation of the inner ear nerves.The author of this article describes his experience with having a remote control for humans device used on him. The developers hope to use this with video ...
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The BBC has an interesting story about a poor woman who had the remote-control device for her brian implant stolen.The woman has a brain implant that provides tiny electrical pulses to a part of her brain. She turns it off…
By Jeff Winston - May 1st, 2000 If you re like me, the weak part of your home entertainment system is the inconvenience of your remote controls. On one hand, you can work with your complete set of remote controls in close reach (assuring any doubters of your total geek-ness). On the other hand, you can use a cool-looking pre-programmed remote that lacks keys for many of those commands you just can t live without. Admittedly, some multi-hundred-dollar devices attempt to solve this problem with intensive programmability and touch-screens, but for those of us without the bucks, our choices often appear to be limited. However, there is hope! In this article we look at the state-of-the-art in affordable programmable remotes. For context I ll provide some background on the history of the genre, and then thoroughly review the a/v producer 8, which is a good example of a currently available best of breed . When the first generation of integrated remotes hit the market several years ago, I was personally ...
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Researchers at UiB have contributed to the cracking of the code for altering the shape of proteins. The new knowledge can become useful in both biotechnology and medicine.
Ideal for reconnaissance on a moody big sister, the $200 VEXplorer Robotics System is a durable six-wheeled vehicle that can be safely controlled from the next room with a wireless remote. An onboard camera can transmit live video and audio to your TV, and an adjustable gripping claw makes it possible to grab items as large as a soda can. |p| The kit, released last month by Revell-Monogram (www.revell.com), comes mostly assembled with parts compatible with the larger VEX Robotics Design System, which was bought last year by Innovation First. |p|
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Building a machine that will be capable of operating gas/brake and wheel was not an easy obstacle to overcome, using some borrowed equipment, I managed to build a...
Hello everybody, I just installed ZA with a friend of mine (well he installed it) and I took over his PC with Radmin (remote adminstrator tool). Normally, I would not be able to change ZAs settings. I tried and I couldnt. Very good! After rebooting (for an unrelated reason), I can adjust the ZA settings. What is happening? I am very concerned!
The system comprises a plurality of objects such as lamps (11-15), venetian blinds (16, 17) and air-conditioning appliances (18) and a hand-held infrared remote control unit (40) for transmitting control signals. A separate receiver (21-28) is allocated to each one of the objects (11-18) and the transmitter of the remote control unit (40) transmits the control signals in a relatively narrow transmission beam (42). An object is selected by directing the portable transmitter (40) towards this object. Consequently, the user does not need to give a further indication of the object and the system can be operated in a simple manner. Less frequent communication with the system is possible via a separate interface unit (70). Specific objects can only be operated by certain users by transmitting an identification code along with the control signal. The identification code can also be used for the purpose of localization and for access control.
The medical imaging system includes a remote control assembly and a processing unit with one or more processors. The processing unit is configured to receive a rotational position indicator for the imaging device coupled to the remote steering assembly. The imaging device has an angle of view (e.g., 30 degrees) greater than 0 degrees with respect to the optical axis of the imaging device. The processing unit is further configured to obtain first image data from an imaging device coupled to the remote steering assembly at a first rotational position and acquire subsequent image data from an imaging device coupled to the remote steering assembly at a second rotational position. The processing unit is further configured to adjust the rotation movement of the imaging device between the first and second rotational positions and the transition between the presentation of the first image data and the subsequent image data.
ChiliPad is an innovative heating and cooling method built to determine your beds surface heat, within 1 degree between 46 -118 Fahrenheit. Utilizing sophisticated semi-conductor engineering, the ChiliPad instant remote control unit (s) let you adjust the heat of ones resting floor. The poly Chilipad may fit extra thick bedding or any standard. Skinny, soft medical grade tubing attached with a line that is built in connection which links for the control system is contained by the pad. The control model moves temperature regulated water throughout the Station.. Choose the sleeping setting that is right. If you answered yes" to anybody of these concerns, you may have a sleeping debt" thats affecting you in manners that you do not even understand. And, yourenot alone. A recent NSF Rest in the US study found that a majority of National adults encounter insomnia issues. However, few know that successful types of blocking and managing insomnia issues currently exist, or recognize the significance ...
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Remote control puppy training has quickly turneded into one of the recommended approaches when it comes to pet behavior training. The suggestion is to anchor
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According to Reddit user jolioshmolio, Hong Kong-based sex toy company Lovenses remote control vibrator app (Lovense Remote) recorded a use session without their knowledge. An audio file lasting six minutes was stored in the apps local folder, reports The Verge. The user says he or she gave th...
Meliconi may not be that well-known a brand here, but it claims to have produced Europes first universal remote control in 1992. This 6-in-1 controller sits at the lower end of its current range and has a build quality to suit its budget intentions.
Just when I thought that TLCs My Strange Addiction couldnt surprise me again, some girl named Kailyn showed up gnawing on a remote control.
And below is his routine of picking up "rubbish" off the floor. Must always check what is in the dustbin before throwing it in the big gabbage. In the picture below, he was picking up my socks I left on the floor. Other items that were picked by him were hangers, tv remote control, MY HANDPHONE and of coz proper rubbish to (i.e pieces of papers n plastics ...
Looking for online definition of RF remote control in the Medical Dictionary? RF remote control explanation free. What is RF remote control? Meaning of RF remote control medical term. What does RF remote control mean?
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Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus, GGA) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica, CCO) karyotypes are very similar. They have identical chromosome number (2n = 78) and show a high degree of synt
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A method for assigning a remote control to an ambulatory medical device includes generating and transmitting user inputs from a remote control to an ambulatory medical device, and receiving and processing the user inputs to determine whether the user inputs represent a sequence authorizing an assignment of the remote control to the ambulatory medical device.
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A few years ago I was asked to help design a remote control for a medical hearing device. Due to the nature of the project, I have had to leave out some information and results. Brief Create a new and improved remote control for a medical hearing implant. The controller is used to change volume, adjust directional microphones, equalize sound…
Remote Control Frequencies is drummer LG and vocalist/multi-instrumentalist R-Rock. Their new album Tempus is a selection of interstellar beats, classic rhyme, full on rock, cinematic samples, and a self-described overuse of electro-harmonix pedals. The result is an artful collection of sounds which flows cohesively
Remote codes for XENON TVs. If you have recently bought a universal remote control and you need the remote codes to operate your XENON TV, we have remote codes below for your TV that should be working. If the first
A modular casing for a remote control comprises a keyboard having keys thereon for selecting a predetermined function or channel selected from a group of keyboards having different layouts or shapes of keys and adapted to mate with a circuit board having switches thereon corresponding to the keys; an upper housing member having ports for receiving corresponding keys of the keyboard which extend outwardly at least partially through the ports when coupled thereto which is selected from a group of upper housing members having different layouts of ports for different layouts or shapes of keys and with or without an overlay panel; a panel section with grooves; and a lower housing member. The upper member is slidingly received in the grooves of the panel section to form a unitary cover which is secured to the lower housing member by screws or snap-fit interaction.
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The "Flashmatic" remote control, invented by Eugene Polley, another engineer at Zenith, was the first wireless remote control, replacing the signal cable based remote control devices, which never were a success. The Flashmatic used directional flashlight in the transmitter device, and photo cells in the television set itself. One of the major shortcomings of this technology was that if the television set was exposed to direct sunlight, it could inadvertently trigger one of the remote control functions. The company president sent the engineers back to the drawing board to come up with a better solution ...
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A system for playing music uses a playlist server in communication with the Internet. The playlist server has a plurality of playlists stored thereon. A content server is also in communication with the Internet. The content server has a plurality of songs stored thereon. A rendering device plays songs. A set-top box in communication with the rendering device facilitates communication of the songs from the content server to the rendering device via the Internet. A remote control controls the set-top box. The remote control is configured to obtain a playlist from the playlist server, facilitate selection of a song from the playlist, and control the set-top box so as to cause the set-top box to download the song and cause the song to play on the rendering device.
AnDRU Boxes are the key to pumping system automation. Establish triggers that will automatically operate your system based on a completely customizeable event situation. Use AnDRU boxes to control to operate your bypass remotely from a main control room.
Inspired by origami, North Carolina State University researchers have found a way to remotely control the order in which a two-dimensional (2-D) sheet folds itself into a three-dimensional (3-D) structure.
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Since the construction of the Barrier in their area in 2006, the Nijim family has been living in a virtual cage in their West Bank home, stranded in between the Barrier and the
MIT researchers have devised a way to remotely control the release of stress hormones from the adrenal gland, using magnetic nanoparticles. This approach could help scientists learn how hormone release influences mental health, and could offer a new way to treat hormone-linked disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder.
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The Supreme Courts greatest failing is not ideological bias-its the justices increasingly tenuous grasp of how the real world works
The iPoint 3D allows people to communicate with a 3-D display through simple gestures - without touching it and without 3-D glasses or a data glove.
One of Tim Cooks oddest affectations is his affinity for the phrase customer sat when hes speaking publicly. As the man in charge of the worlds most valuable company, his use of corporate-speak is strangely at odds with his plain-spoken style. But its clear Cook obsesses over it -- the [...]
A controller for a locked carrier distributed multiplexed telemetry systemhich uses on-off switching of a d.c. power supply and a pilot signal generator at a remote control unit. A pilot signal from the remote control unit is amplified and rectified. The d.c. rectifier output, occurring only during the presence of the pilot signal, is sensed by a comparator which provides rapid transition pulses to advance a counter. The counter is advanced one count for each pilot signal cycle (on-off-on) and is reset for each d.c. power supply cycle (on-off-on). The devices to be controlled are connected to the output of the counter.
Features: The B&G ZC2 Remote is perfectly designed for mounting in a cockpit pedestal, by the chart table or in other locations suiting a
A FRIEND received a phone call that her 18-year-old son had been in a serious accident. He needed delicate reconstructive surgery on his face.The Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) that provided
Im currently using a peroxide based disinfectant cleaner, and I would advise all Housekeeping Professionals to do what they can to ensure your guests are protected. Many General Managers and Owners of small hotels make the decisions on what to use based on their limited budget. If your hotel isnt willing to pay more for an extra chemical at least check out these protective covers for your remote controls. The remote is one of the most contaminated items in the room. Below is an article sent to me by a friend from Mens Health Magazine. Show this to your staff, your Room Attendants need to know how important it is to clean all surface areas in the room. Ive also added a link to these low cost remote control covers below. ...
A system for simultaneously using a video signal to provide a video picture and computer data. At the transmitting end, a video signal is digitized and then modified by substituting digital signals representative of computer data for those representative of video pixels. The modified signal is reconverted to an analog signal and transmitted to a receiver. The receiver displays the video picture corresponding to the modified signal and extracts the computer data so that they may be provided to the computer. The computer can thus be controlled by the computer data as the video picture is being displayed.
SecurityFocus is designed to facilitate discussion on computer security related topics, create computer security awareness, and to provide the Internet's largest and most comprehensive database of computer security knowledge and resources to the public. It also hosts the BUGTRAQ mailing list.
A. Lizards in-depth howto on setting up secure remote graphical desktops continues with configuring secure Internet access: managing dynamic IP addresses, creating and managing SSH keys, configuring routers, and using Wake-on-LAN for added convenience.
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RNA interference rescue by bacterial artificial chromosome transgenesis in mammalian tissue culture cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U ... Comparative profiling identifies C13orf3 as a component of the Ska complex required for mammalian cell division. EMBO J. Apr 23 ... Short RNA duplexes produced by hydrolysis with Escherichia coli RNase III mediate effective RNA interference in mammalian cells ... U.S.A., 99, 9942-7 (2002). [12] esiRNA for RNAi Screening in Mammalian Cells Production of Endoribonuclease-Prepared Short ...
... can produce contigs up to 50-kb N50 length using prokaryotic data and 3-kb N50 in mammalian bacterial artificial chromosomes ( ...
... genomic clones including human bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs)) and provides project consultation and design assistance ... The Genome Resources components includes a clone repository (Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) cDNA (mouse and human), ... May 2003). "Human chromosome 7: DNA sequence and biology". Science. 300 (5620): 767-72. doi:10.1126/science.1083423. PMC ... TCAG also hosts and curates websites and databases developed from supported projects, namely The Chromosome 7 Database, The ...
... artificial, yeast MeSH A11.284.187.520 - chromosomes, mammalian MeSH A11.284.187.520.190 - chromosomes, artificial, mammalian ... mammalian MeSH A11.284.187.178.190.117 - chromosomes, artificial, human MeSH A11.284.187.178.195 - chromosomes, artificial, p1 ... chromosomes, artificial MeSH A11.284.187.178.170 - chromosomes, artificial, bacterial MeSH A11.284.187.178.190 - chromosomes, ... artificial, human MeSH A11.284.187.520.300 - chromosomes, human MeSH A11.284.187.520.300.117 - chromosomes, artificial, human ...
... mammalian MeSH G14.162.178.190.117 --- chromosomes, artificial, human MeSH G14.162.178.195 --- chromosomes, artificial, p1 ... artificial, mammalian MeSH G14.162.520.190.117 --- chromosomes, artificial, human MeSH G14.162.520.300 --- chromosomes, human ... mammalian MeSH G14.337.249.190.117 --- chromosomes, artificial, human MeSH G14.337.249.195 --- chromosomes, artificial, p1 ... artificial, yeast MeSH G14.162.190.170 --- chromosomes, artificial, bacterial MeSH G14.162.360.800 --- chromosomes, artificial ...
Heard E; Mongelard F; Arnaud D; Chureau C; Vourc'h C; Avner P (1999). "Human XIST yeast artificial chromosome transgenes show ... In 1977, introns and RNA splicing were discovered in both mammalian viruses and in cellular genes, resulting in a 1993 Nobel to ... There are many long noncoding RNAs that regulate genes in eukaryotes, one such RNA is Xist, which coats one X chromosome in ... Girard A; Sachidanandam R; Hannon GJ; Carmell MA (2006). "A germline-specific class of small RNAs binds mammalian Piwi proteins ...
Chris Bostock and Ed Southern investigating the use of Bovine Papilloma Virus as a chassis for mammalian artificial chromosome ... "Telomere-associated chromosome breakage in fission yeast results in variegated expression of adjacent genes". EMBO J. 13: 3801 ... "A fission yeast chromosome can replicate autonomously in mouse cells". Cell. 50: 391. 1987. PMID 3475186. "Introduction of ... He subsequently joined the MRC Mammalian Genome Unit, University of Edinburgh where he obtained his PhD in 1985 under the ...
... vaccinia virus genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli and recovery of infectious virus in mammalian ... Yeast artificial chromosome. References[edit]. *^ O'Connor M, Peifer M, Bender W (2018). "Construction of large DNA segments in ... A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is a DNA construct, based on a functional fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid), used for ... The bacterial artificial chromosome's usual insert size is 150-350 kbp.[4] A similar cloning vector called a PAC has also been ...
Tassone F, Cheng S, Gardiner K (1993). "Analysis of chromosome 21 yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones". Am. J. Hum. Genet ... product of a novel human gene SON and the biological effect upon administering a changed form of this gene into mammalian cells ... and CRF2-4 genes cluster on human chromosome 21 and mouse chromosome 16". Mamm Genome. 4 (6): 338-42. doi:10.1007/BF00357094. ... This protein is found in the 21st chromosome and is mostly located in nuclear speckles. Its higher expression is seen in ...
The second pathway is a GPCR-Gq/Gβγ-IP3 pathway which is used with artificial sweeteners. Artificial sweeteners bind and ... Furthermore, the genes on chromosome 12 have higher sequence similarity than the genes found on chromosome 7. This indicats ... Mammalian bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) are encoded by a gene family of only a few dozen members. It is believed that bitter ... all human bitter taste receptor genes can be found clustered on chromosome 7 and chromosome 12. Analyzing the relationships ...
Mammalian X-chromosome inactivation is initiated from the X inactivation centre or Xic, usually found near the centromere. The ... The provision of an extra artificial Xic in early embryogenesis can induce inactivation of the single X found in male cells. ... or W chromosome rather than the diploidy of the X. The Lyon hypothesis states that in cells with multiple X chromosomes, all ... in which the father's X chromosome is always deactivated. In humans with more than one X chromosome, the number of Barr bodies ...
Holliday's original model assumed that heteroduplex DNA would be present on both chromosomes, but experimental data on yeast ... DNA nanotechnology is the design and manufacture of artificial nucleic acid structures as engineering materials for ... although as of 2004 the identification of mammalian Holliday junction resolvases remained elusive (however, see section " ... In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSH4 and MSH5 act specifically to facilitate crossovers between homologous chromosomes ...
... artificial chromosomes and bacteriophage (such as lambda). The best expression system depends on the gene involved, for example ... Mammalian in vivo expression systems have however low yield and other limitations (time-consuming, toxicity to host cells,..). ... Systems using Pichia pastoris allow stable and lasting production of proteins closer to mammalian cells, at high yield, in ... Infected insect cells (Sf9, Sf21, High Five strains) or mammalian cells (HeLa, HEK 293) allow production of glycosylated or ...
... artificial chromosomes, and on telomeres. He has been awarded a Nobel Prize for its work on telomeres. Jantina Tammes (1871- ... human and mammalian genetics and chromosome structure and function César Milstein (1927-2002) Argentine-UK, Nobel Prize for ... pioneer in chromosome mechanics Paul Nurse (born 1949), UK biochemist, Nobel Prize for work on CDK, a key regulator of the cell ... US mammalian geneticist, pioneering work on pigmentation, blood-forming cells, and germ cells Liane B. Russell (born c. 1923), ...
Cosmid/BAC/YAC end sequences use Cosmid/Bacterial artificial chromosome/Yeast artificial chromosome to sequence the genome from ... Alu elements are distributed widely in mammalian genome, and repeatability is one of the characteristics, that is why it is ... Vectors Yeast artificial chromosome Venter, J. Craig, Hamilton O. Smith, and Leroy Hood. "A New Cooperative Strategy for ... To get enough chromosome, they need a large number of E. coli culture that 2.5 - 5 litres may be a reasonable amount. Cosmid/ ...
Cremer T, Cremer C (April 2001). "Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells". Nature ... Artificial bases. Main article: Nucleic acid analogue. Several artificial nucleobases have been synthesized, and successfully ... DNA usually occurs as linear chromosomes in eukaryotes, and circular chromosomes in prokaryotes. The set of chromosomes in a ... such as in chromosome 1. Chromosome 1 is the largest human chromosome with approximately 220 million base pairs, and would be ...
The four major types of vectors are plasmids, viral vectors, cosmids, and artificial chromosomes. Of these, the most commonly ... plant or mammalian cells, and these vectors are called shuttle vectors. Such vectors have bacterial or viral elements which may ...
A comparison of the chromosomes of the plains viscacha rat and the mountain viscacha rat suggested that the chromosomes of the ... They construct complex burrow systems within large artificial mounds. Typical mounds are 13.6 by 8.7 m (45 by 29 ft) across, ... Evans, Ben J.; Upham, Nathan S.; Golding, Brian G.; Ojeda, Ricardo A.; Ojeda, Agustina A. "Evolution of the largest mammalian ... careful analysis using chromosome paints showed that there are only two copies of each chromosome in T. barrerae, not the four ...
Artificial neural membrane Neural development Neuroplasticity Neurotrophin Faiz M; Acarin L; Castellano B; Gonzalez B (2005). " ... The first evidence of adult mammalian neurogenesis in the cerebral cortex was presented by Joseph Altman in 1962, followed by a ... These chemokines include CCL11, CCL2 and CCL12, which are highly localized on mouse and human chromosomes, implicating a ... Reynolds, B. A.; Weiss, S. (Mar 1992). "Generation of neurons and astrocytes from isolated cells of the adult mammalian central ...
In 2007, a patent application was filed on methods for creating human female sperm using artificial or natural Y chromosomes ... "Methods for Female Mammalian Spermatogenesis and Male Mammalian Oogenesis Using Synthetic Nanobiology" (PDF). Gregory Aharonian ... An analogy, then, is that a cell from a woman has complete Y chromosome deficiency. While many genes on the Y chromosome have ... Female sperm can be either: A sperm that contains an X chromosome, produced in the usual way by a male, referring to the ...
2004). "Cystatin F is secreted, but artificial modification of its C-terminus can induce its endocytic targeting". Exp. Cell ... 2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ... 2002). "The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 20". Nature. 414 (6866): 865-71. doi:10.1038/414865a. ... with at least seven genes clustered at a single locus on human chromosome 20". DNA Cell Biol. 13 (2): 97-116. doi:10.1089/dna. ...
"A pathway from chromosome transfer to engineering resulting in human and mouse artificial chromosomes for a variety of ... Veomett G, Prescott DM, Shay J, Porter KR (May 1974). "Reconstruction of mammalian cells from nuclear and cytoplasmic ... mice with large pieces from human chromosomes as well as new methods for human and mouse artificial chromosomes. Doherty AM, ... Microcell Mediated Chromosome Transfer (or MMCT) is a technique used in cell biology and genetics to transfer a chromosome from ...
In species that use the ZW sex-determination system, they have either two Z chromosomes (male) or two W chromosomes (mostly non ... There are no known cases of naturally occurring mammalian parthenogenesis in the wild. Parthenogenetic progeny of mammals would ... To initiate parthenogenesis of swine oocytes, various methods exist to induce an artificial activation that mimics sperm entry ... The chromosomes may not separate at one of the two anaphases (called restitutional meiosis), or the nuclei produced may fuse or ...
Because of the controversy, Minnesotan wolf biologist L. David Mech decided to conduct an artificial hybrid experiment to test ... However, subsequent analysis on mtDNA, autosomal and sex chromosomes suggests that the wolves in the Great Lakes forests are ... Likewise, the eastern coyote's genomes were also re-analysed by North American mammalian biologist Dr. Javier Monzón in ... many North American mammalian biologists have questioned the level of wolf and coyote genes present in these Great Lakes wolves ...
Likewise, gray wolf Y chromosomes have also been found in a few individual male Texan coyotes. This study suggested that ... Unlike the F1 hybrids, which were produced via artificial insemination, the F2 litter was produced from a natural breeding. The ... Other specimens were later produced by mammalian biologists mostly for research purposes. Although the latter species are not ... The experiment, which used artificial insemination, was intended to determine whether or not the sperm of the larger gray ...
Haldane was also the first to construct human gene maps for haemophilia and colour blindness on the X chromosome and he was one ... He is the author of several books on health, artificial intelligence (AI), transhumanism, the technological singularity, and ... Donald Prothero (1954-): American geologist, paleontologist, and author who specializes in mammalian paleontology and ... He won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1933 for discoveries relating the role the chromosome plays in heredity.[ ...
Gene replacement in mammalian cells using a transfection protocol has been attempted, but the procedure is inefficient ( ... In addition, development of artificial plant chromosome vectors will facilitate the construction of artificial chromosomes that ... artificial chromosomes. The ability to construct artificial chromosomes that function in yeast, however, does not teach one ... Artificial chromosomes participate in homologous recombination preferentially. Since the artificial chromosomes remain intact ...
... is a technique by which single or small numbers of chromosomes can be transferred from one mammalian cell to another by ... Human artificial chromosomeMeasles Virus fusogenic proteinChimeric protein. Background. Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer ... MMCT is also used in gene transfer using a human artificial chromosome (HAC), mini-chromosome vector. HACs have several unique ... Refined human artificial chromosome vectors for gene therapy and animal transgenesis. Gene Therapy. 2011;18(4):384-93.View ...
Making better artificial chromosomes for mammalian cells. Project ID: HPRN-CT-2000-00089. Finanziato nellambito di: FP5-HUMAN ... Making better artificial chromosomes for mammalian cells. Dal 2000-09-01 al 2004-08-31 ...
Use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) in studies of mammalian development: production of beta-globin locus YAC mice ... Use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) in studies of mammalian development: production of beta-globin locus YAC mice ... Use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) in studies of mammalian development: production of beta-globin locus YAC mice ... Use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) in studies of mammalian development: production of beta-globin locus YAC mice ...
Mammalian Artificial Chromosomes: Methods & Protocols. Link: Mammalian Artificial Chromosomes: Methods & Protocols. Resource ...
The purpose of this work is to clone functional human centromere DNA using technology of the yeast artificial chromosome (YAC ... transformed cell lines showed that transformants of alpha21-I YAC contained a stably maintained mammalian artificial chromosome ... Publications] T.Okazaki: Properties and interaction of CENP-B and centromere satellite DNA in mammalian cells. Chromosome ... Publications] T.Okazaki: Properties and interaction of CENP-B and centromere satellite DNA in mammalian cells. Chromosome ...
... to mammalian cells in culture by targeting a dominant selectable marker (G418 resistance) to the right arm of pYAC4 clones. The ... A modification vector has been constructed to facilitate the transfer of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) ... New vector for transfer of yeast artificial chromosomes to mammalian cells. Markie D., Ragoussis J., Senger G., Rowan A., ... A modification vector has been constructed to facilitate the transfer of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) to mammalian cells ...
In this work, we explore the efficacy of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome based vector applied to production of the constant ... Blaas L, Musteanu M, Zenz R, Eferl R, Casanova E: PhiC31-mediated cassette exchange into a bacterial artificial chromosome. ... To overcome these chromatin effects, we have employed a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) as expression vector to obtain ... Use of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) as vector backbone for recombinant protein production. A) Schematic ...
2. Generation of Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs). 2.1. Homologous Recombination in Mammalian Cells. One of the most ... A. Domi and B. Moss, "Engineering of a vaccinia virus bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli by bacteriophage λ- ... Viral Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: Generation, Mutagenesis, and Removal of Mini-F Sequences. B. Karsten Tischer and ... A. Domi and B. Moss, "Cloning the vaccinia virus genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli and recovery ...
Large DNA cloning system based on yeast artificial chromosomes. EP1074617A2. Jul 28, 2000. Feb 7, 2001. Helix Research ... for the Pelle adaptor protein Pellino to mouse chromosomes 11 and 14 and human chromosomes 2p13.3 and 14q21, respectively, by ... Host cells may be prokaryotic cells such as E. coli, or eukaryotic cells such as yeast, insect, amphibian, or mammalian cells ... The terms apply to amino acid polymers in which one or more amino acid residue is an artificial chemical mimetic of a ...
Artificial chromosomes. London. Autonomously replicating mammalian artificial chromosomes; for inserting useful genes into ... Chromosome 19 gene, homologs, fragments, derivatives; for tumor suppression.. Variagenics WO 00/18967. Nucleotide variance ... Chromosome 4 gene associated with Wolfram Syndrome, mutations, encoded protein, antibodies; for therapy.. Washington Univ. WO ... Purified mammalian Flt3 ligands, variants, antibodies, modulators; for diagnostics and therapeutics.. Searle WO 00/18905. ...
1998 Construction of YAC-based mammalian artificial chromosomes. Nat. Biotech. 16: 431-439. ... Approaches for de novo artificial mammalian chromosome construction have been based on this interpretation (Harringtonet al. ... 1998 Human artificial chromosomes coming into focus. Nat. Biotech. 16: 415-416. ... Class 1 were unbroken Tγ1337 chromosomes and were discarded. Class 2 contained the homologous CyO, y+ chromosome. Class 3 were ...
... the generation and engineering of synthetic artificial chromosomes, and the induced de novo platform artificial chromosome ... Mammalian Artificial Chromosomes and Clinical Applications for Genetic Modification of Stem Cells: An Overview ... Mammalian Chromosome Engineering: Methods and Protocols provides the reader with up-to date information on this rapidly ... Authoritative and cutting-edge, Mammalian Chromosome Engineering: Methods and Protocols serves as a bench-side resource for ...
To this end, we attempted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) detection on maize chromosomes. However, without the precise ... has proved to be effective in distinguishing mammalian chromosomes (12); however, our CGH trials using chromosome 2 and 4 ... Chromosome 10. This chromosome is the smallest. There are no landmarks on this chromosome, except for abnormal 10 in the K10 ... The morphologies of chromosomes 2-4 resemble each other, as do chromosomes 7-9 (Fig. 4). Distinguishing these chromosomes ...
This is an artificial mammalian genome of size of 30 megabases (Mb). The genome has three chromosomes. In order to allow for an ... from each chromosome beginning at positions , where and are parameters that can be set by the user. We generate paired-end ... J. Kim, D. M. Larkin, Q. Cai et al., "Reference-assisted chromosome assembly," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... D. B. Jaffe, J. Butler, S. Gnerre et al., "Whole-genome sequence assembly for mammalian genomes: Arachne 2," Genome research, ...
A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was generated from a derivative of the sequenced E. coli O157:H7 Sakai strain. ... A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was generated from a derivative of the sequenced E. coli O157:H7 Sakai strain. ... Conway, T., Krogfelt, K. A., and Cohen, P. S. (2004). The Life of Commensal Escherichia coli in the Mammalian Intestine. ... A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was generated from a derivative of the sequenced E. coli O157:H7 Sakai strain. ...
mammalian artificial chromosome. maximum acceptable concentration. maximum aerobic capacity. Medical Advisory Committee ...
Electroporation of Yeast Artificial Chromosomes. 4. New Automated Yeast Cell Counter Ends Tedium & Errors of Manual Counting. 5 ... New Mammalian Two-Hybrid System Detects Protein-Protein Interactions. 8. Antibodies for Studying NMDA Receptor Protein ... closely resemble higher eukaryotic organisms regarding chromosome structure and function, cell cycle control and RNA splicing.1 ...
Artificial chromosomes: yeast (YAC) plasmid (PAC) and mammalian (MAC) made from telomeric and centromeric repeat sequences(7) ... See Schindelhauer, D. (1999). Construction of mammalian artificial chromosomes: prospects for defining an optimal centromere. ... and artificial chromosomes millions of basepairs long. The constructs typically contain antibiotic resistance marker genes plus ... Artificial vectors made by recombining viral genomes, plasmids and transposons, carrying one or more antibiotic resistance ...
does not have a selection marker for transfection into mammalian cells. *does not have a selection marker for transfection into ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes or BACS are circular DNA molecules which contain a replicon that is based on the F factor. ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes or BACS are circular DNA molecules which contain a replicon that is based on the F factor. ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes. S. Zhao and M. Stodolsky, editors, Volume 2: Functional Studies, volume 256 of Methods in ...
A mammalian artificial chromosome engineering system (ACE System) applicable to biopharmaceutical ...". Abstract - Add to ... bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) (Shizuya et al., 1992) and P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs) (Ioannou et al., 1994), ... Construction of a rice bacterial artificial chromosome library and identification of clones linked to the Xa-21 disease ... Construction of a rice bacterial artificial chromosome library and identification of clones linked to the Xa-21 disease ...
The 235-kb genomes of both human and mouse CMV are the largest genomes of mammalian DNA viruses. Sequence analysis of the human ... In a single step we cloned an infectious cytomegalovirus DNA as a bacterial artificial chromosome in E. coli and reconstituted ... The MCMV genome was cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) in Escherichia coli and viral progeny were reconstituted ... The mouse cytomegalovirus genome was cloned and maintained as a 230 kb bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) in E. coli. ...
... and further preparing a yeast strain in which mammalian telomere sequences are added to the ends of its chromosome. ... preparing a CEPH artificial yeast chromosome library containing a human genome, identifying clones having a repetitive human ... mammalian centromere sequence and a DNA replication origin with mammalian telomere sequences added to both ends of the clone, ... An artificial mammalian chromosome, more specifically, a clone containing a ...
Researchers describe a new way to form an essential part of the artificial chromosome, called the centromere, by bypassing the ... Reconstruction of ancient chromosomes offers insight into mammalian evolution. Researchers have gone back in time, at least ... In a paper published today in Cell, Penn researchers describe a new way to form an essential part of the artificial chromosome ... Penn biochemists streamline construction method for human artificial chromosomes. July 25, 2019. (PHILADELPHIA) - For the past ...
1994 Recombination during transformation as a source of chimeric mammalian artificial chromosomes in yeast (YACs). Nucleic ... It is possible that the impact of RMX DNA bridging is less in the plasmid:chromosome and oligonucleotide:chromosome DSB repair ... chromosome targeting events analyzed in Figure 4B. The chromosome mutagenesis procedure employed to create mre11-D16A involved ... 1999 The mammalian Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 protein complex: integration of functions in the cellular DNA-damage response. Am. J. Hum. ...
  • Human artificial chromosome (HAC) vectors have some unique characteristics as compared with conventional vectors, carrying large transgenes without size limitation, showing persistent expression of transgenes, and existing independently from host genome in cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the method of introduction of HACs into target cells is confined to microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT), which is less efficient than other methods of vector introduction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This technique can move the large intact genomic structures of natural chromosomes or artificially engineered chromosomes, and transferred chromosomes can be stably retained and freely segregate in recipient cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have found previously two megabase-sized domains of alphoid DNA,alpha21-I and alpha21-II,in the human chromosome 21. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Distribution of CENP-B Boxes Reflected In CREST Centromere Antigenic Sites On Long-Range Alpha-Satellite DNA Arrays Of Human Chromosome 21," Hum. (patentgenius.com)
  • In this review, we summarize recent progress made in HAC technology and concentrate on details of two of the most advanced HACs, 21HAC generated by truncation of human chromosome 21 and alphoid(tetO)-HAC generated de novo using a synthetic tetO-alphoid DNA array. (nih.gov)
  • In the zebrafish, Danio rerio, and other teleosts, the class I and class II loci of the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) reside on different chromosomes. (ebscohost.com)
  • For cell replication to occur, human centromeres are not simply coded by a DNA sequence, unlike baker's yeast long used synthetic chromosome research. (brightsurf.com)
  • 1. A recombinant mammalian host cell containing a recombinant or synthetic nucleic acid comprising an open reading frame sequence corresponding to nucleotides 1 to 3315 of SEQ ID NO: 1 that encodes a polypeptide having an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 2 or an enzymatically active fragment thereof, said open reading frame contained in a human DNA insert of an ˜3.5 kb NotI-BstEII restriction fragment of plasmid pGRN109. (google.com)
  • Recently, sequence information from autosomes, X chromosomes, and XY-shared pseudoautosomal regions has become available. (springer.com)
  • The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the 1918 pandemic virus was closer in sequence to avian strains than other mammalian ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The next two describe the use of PFGE in constructing long range restriction site maps in mammalian genomic DNA and in the detection of gross rearrangements in the DNA of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. (oup.com)
  • These chromosome classes differ with respect to several of the factors thought to affect nucleotide diversity and contrasting the levels of diversity in the different classes may thus be informative for addressing the role of population genetic factors in shaping genomic variability. (genetics.org)
  • Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) Y53G8 carries the genomic region that includes mgP34 and mgP44 , which flank daf-2 (Fig. 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • DMRs are involved in genomic imprinting because they can be methylated in accordance with either the maternal or the paternal chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the identification of somatic chromosomes has been difficult because the highly condensed chromatin structure conceals the fine details that are used for chromosome identification at the pachytene stage, such as cytologically observable knobs, heterochromatic regions, arm ratios, and total chromosome length ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Study of the maize ( Zea mays L.) somatic chromosomes (2 n = 20) has been difficult because of a lack of distinguishing characteristics. (pnas.org)
  • The rapid progression of genetics and molecular biology has turned chromosomal engineering from science fiction to reality, with the successful production of transgenic animals with engineered chromosomes and chromosomes developed for pharmaceutical protein production which are now ready for the medical industry. (springer.com)
  • This book will therefore be an essential resource book for researchers in laboratories that require PFGE in their research strategies, including those involved in molecular human genetics, mammalian genetics, molecular microbiology, molecular parasitology, biochemistry, and molecular diagnostics. (oup.com)
  • They are the most commonly used mammalian research model and are used for research in genetics, psychology, medicine and other scientific disciplines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammalian Chromosome Engineering: Methods and Protocols provides the reader with up-to date information on this rapidly evolving field and strives to take the reader into the exciting realm of chromosomal engineering from the basic principles to the practical applications of these new technologies. (springer.com)
  • Authoritative and cutting-edge, Mammalian Chromosome Engineering: Methods and Protocols serves as a bench-side resource for current protocols and aims to help scientists to explore the many prospects for future research and vital applications. (springer.com)
  • In 2007, a patent application was filed on methods for creating human female sperm using artificial or natural Y chromosomes and testicular transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods for Female Mammalian Spermatogenesis and Male Mammalian Oogenesis Using Synthetic Nanobiology" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • To identify all maize chromosomes, a multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization procedure was developed. (pnas.org)
  • Molecular characterization and chromosomal assignment of the bovine glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GART) gene on cattle chromosome 1q12.1-q12.2. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Determining the length of telomeres at the ends of the chromosomes and finding where telomerase is active are no easy matters. (bio.net)
  • Aneuploidy is defined as the alteration of chromosome number that is not a multiple of the haploid complement. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In cases in which aneuploidy is observed system-wide, the degree of aneuploidy is limited to only one additional chromosome and the consequences for the individual are severe. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here aneuploidy is not restricted to one chromosome but the disease is characterized by a high degree of numeric as well as structural karyotypic abnormalities ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This approach not only enabled us to determine whether every chromosome when present in an extra copy interferes with proliferation, but also allowed us to determine whether a general response to aneuploidy exists. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The next major step in MMCT came during the 1980s when new transfection techniques were utilized to introduce selectable markers onto chromosomes thus making it possible to select for the introduction of specific chromosomes and more easily create defined hybrids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Penn team's contribution will help speed creating useful research and clinical tools based on synthetic chromosomes. (brightsurf.com)
  • Now, he and colleagues have described the assembly of five more synthetic chromosomes: synII, synV, synVI, synX, and synXII, which correspond to the smaller yeast chromosomes. (aaas.org)
  • This protein is found in the 21st chromosome and is mostly located in nuclear speckles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FLP protein was thermolabile (denatured at elevated temperatures) and therefore was not useful in the mammalian model due to elevated body temperatures of these model systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • As expected, the protein composition of the outer membrane differs when comparing Leptospira growing in artificial medium with Leptospira present in an infected animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the sperm enter the human serum albumin, the differences in mass between the X and Y chromosomes manifest as the lighter male sperm push deeper into the protein than the females dragged down by the weight of the extra "leg" of the X sex chromosome. (wikipedia.org)