In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.
The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, elements such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, that are required for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance in progeny cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
A characteristic symptom complex.
The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.
Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Congenital conditions of atypical sexual development associated with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions including MONOSOMY; TRISOMY; and MOSAICISM.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.

Novel generation of human satellite DNA-based artificial chromosomes in mammalian cells. (1/58)

An in vivo approach has been developed for generation of artificial chromosomes, based on the induction of intrinsic, large-scale amplification mechanisms of mammalian cells. Here, we describe the successful generation of prototype human satellite DNA-based artificial chromosomes via amplification-dependent de novo chromosome formations induced by integration of exogenous DNA sequences into the centromeric/rDNA regions of human acrocentric chromosomes. Subclones with mitotically stable de novo chromosomes were established, which allowed the initial characterization and purification of these artificial chromosomes. Because of the low complexity of their DNA content, they may serve as a useful tool to study the structure and function of higher eukaryotic chromosomes. Human satellite DNA-based artificial chromosomes containing amplified satellite DNA, rDNA, and exogenous DNA sequences were heterochromatic, however, they provided a suitable chromosomal environment for the expression of the integrated exogenous genetic material. We demonstrate that induced de novo chromosome formation is a reproducible and effective methodology in generating artificial chromosomes from predictable sequences of different mammalian species. Satellite DNA-based artificial chromosomes formed by induced large-scale amplifications on the short arm of human acrocentric chromosomes may become safe or low risk vectors in gene therapy.  (+info)

Genomic structure, chromosomal localization and identification of mutations in the xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XPV) gene. (2/58)

The xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XP-V) is one of the most common forms of this cancer-prone syndrome. XP groups A through G are characterized by defective nucleotide excision repair, whereas the XP-V phenotype is proficient in this pathway. The XPV gene encodes DNA polymerase eta, which catalyzes an accurate translesion synthesis, indicating that the XPV gene contributes tumor suppression in normal individuals. Here we describe the genomic structure and chromosomal localization of the XPV gene, which includes 11 exons covering the entire coding sequence, lacks a TATA sequence in the upstream region of the transcription-initiation, and is located at the chromosome band 6p21.1-6p12. Analyses of patient-derived XP-V cell lines strongly suggested that three of four cell lines carried homozygous mutations in the XPV gene. The fourth cell line, XP1RO, carried heterozygous point mutations in the XPV gene, one of which was located at the splice acceptor site of exon 2, resulting in the omission of exon 2 from the mature mRNA. These findings provide a basis for diagnosis and therapy of XP-V patients.  (+info)

Molecular and cytological analysis of a 5.5 Mb minichromosome. (3/58)

Mammalian artificial chromosomes (MACs) provide a new tool for the improvement of our knowledge of chromosome structure and function. Moreover, they constitute an alternative and potentially powerful tool for gene delivery both in cultured cells and for the production of transgenic animals. In the present work we describe the molecular structure of MC1, a human minichromosome derived from chromosome 1. By means of restriction and hybridization analysis, satellite-PCR, in situ hybridization on highly extended chromatin fibres, and indirect immunofluorescence, we have established that: (i) MC1 has a size of 5.5 Mb; (ii) it consists of 1.1 Mb alphoid, 3.5 Mb Sat2 DNA, and telomeric and subtelomeric sequences at both ends; (iii) it contains an unusual region of interspersed Sat2 and alphoid DNAs at the junction of the alphoid and the Sat2 blocks; and (iv) the two alphoid blocks and the Sat2-alphoid region bind centromeric proteins suggesting that they participate in the formation of a functional kinetochore.  (+info)

Functional complementation of a genetic deficiency with human artificial chromosomes. (4/58)

We have shown functional complementation of a genetic deficiency in human cultured cells, using artificial chromosomes derived from cloned human genomic fragments. A 404-kb human-artificial-chromosome (HAC) vector, consisting of 220 kb of alphoid DNA from the centromere of chromosome 17, human telomeres, and the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) genomic locus, was transferred to HPRT-deficient HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. We generated several cell lines with low-copy-number, megabase-sized HACs containing a functional centromere and one or possibly several copies of the HPRT1 gene complementing the metabolic deficiency. The HACs consisted of alternating alphoid and nonalphoid DNA segments derived only from the input DNA (within the sensitivity limits of FISH detection), and the largest continuous alphoid segment was 158-250 kb. The study of both the structure and mitotic stability of these HACs offers insights into the mechanisms of centromere formation in synthetic chromosomes and will further the development of this human-gene-transfer technology.  (+info)

Genomic and genetic definition of a functional human centromere. (5/58)

The definition of centromeres of human chromosomes requires a complete genomic understanding of these regions. Toward this end, we report integration of physical mapping, genetic, and functional approaches, together with sequencing of selected regions, to define the centromere of the human X chromosome and to explore the evolution of sequences responsible for chromosome segregation. The transitional region between expressed sequences on the short arm of the X and the chromosome-specific alpha satellite array DXZ1 spans about 450 kilobases and is satellite-rich. At the junction between this satellite region and canonical DXZ1 repeats, diverged repeat units provide direct evidence of unequal crossover as the homogenizing force of these arrays. Results from deletion analysis of mitotically stable chromosome rearrangements and from a human artificial chromosome assay demonstrate that DXZ1 DNA is sufficient for centromere function. Evolutionary studies indicate that, while alpha satellite DNA present throughout the pericentromeric region of the X chromosome appears to be a descendant of an ancestral primate centromere, the current functional centromere based on DXZ1 sequences is the product of the much more recent concerted evolution of this satellite DNA.  (+info)

A new approach to genome mapping and sequencing: slalom libraries. (6/58)

We describe here an efficient strategy for simultaneous genome mapping and sequencing. The approach is based on physically oriented, overlapping restriction fragment libraries called slalom libraries. Slalom libraries combine features of general genomic, jumping and linking libraries. Slalom libraries can be adapted to different applications and two main types of slalom libraries are described in detail. This approach was used to map and sequence (with approximately 46% coverage) two human P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) clones, each of approximately 100 kb. This model experiment demonstrates the feasibility of the approach and shows that the efficiency (cost-effectiveness and speed) of existing mapping/sequencing methods could be improved at least 5-10-fold. Furthermore, since the efficiency of contig assembly in the slalom approach is virtually independent of length of sequence reads, even short sequences produced by rapid, high throughput sequencing techniques would suffice to complete a physical map and a sequence scan of a small genome.  (+info)

Alpha-satellite DNA and vector composition influence rates of human artificial chromosome formation. (7/58)

Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) have been proposed as a new class of potential gene transfer and gene therapy vector. HACs can be formed when bacterial cloning vectors containing alpha-satellite DNA are transfected into cultured human cells. We have compared the HAC-forming potential of different sequences to identify features critical to the efficiency of the process. Chromosome 17 or 21 alpha-satellite arrays are highly competent HAC-forming substrates in this assay. In contrast, a Y-chromosome-derived alpha-satellite sequence is inefficient, suggesting that centromere specification is at least partly dependent on DNA sequence. The length of the input array is also an important determinant, as reduction of the chromosome-17-based array from 80 kb to 35 kb reduced the frequency of HAC formation. In addition to the alpha-satellite component, vector composition also influenced HAC formation rates, size, and copy number. The data presented here have a significant impact on the design of future HAC vectors that have potential to be developed for therapeutic applications and as tools for investigating human chromosome structure and function.  (+info)

Chromosome engineering: prospects for gene therapy. (8/58)

Recent advances in chromosome engineering and the potential for downstream applications in gene therapy were presented at the Artificial Chromosome Session of Genome Medicine: Gene Therapy for the Millennium in Rome, Italy in September 2001. This session concentrated primarily on the structure and function of human centromeres and the ongoing challenge of equipping human artificial chromosomes (HACs) with centromeres to ensure their mitotic stability. Advances in the 'bottom up' construction of HACs included the transfer into HT1080 cells of circular PACs containing alpha satellite DNA, and the correction of HPRT deficiency in cells using HACs. Advances in the 'top down' construction of HACs using telomere associated chromosome fragmentation in DT40 cells included the formation of HACs that are less than a megabase in size and transfer of HACs through the mouse germline. Significant progress has also been made in the use of human minichromosomes for stable trans-gene expression. While many obstacles remain towards the use of HACs for gene therapy, this session provided an optimistic outlook for future success.  (+info)

The present invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule which contains the telomere and, optionally, the centromere of a higher eukaryote, particularly a plant, the telomere itself, the centromere
Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT) is a technique by which single or small numbers of chromosomes can be transferred from one mammalian cell to another by microcell fusion [1-3]. This technique can move the large intact genomic structures of natural chromosomes or artificially engineered chromosomes, and transferred chromosomes can be stably retained and freely segregate in recipient cells. Taking advantage of these features, MMCT has been employed very successfully in various basic science studies, e.g., genetic mapping and identification of tumor suppressor genes, analysis of genomic imprinting and production of animal models of disease [4-7]. Furthermore, MMCT is also used in gene transfer using a human artificial chromosome (HAC), mini-chromosome vector. HACs have several unique characteristics as gene-delivery vectors, including stable episomal maintenance in mammalian cells, the capacity to carry large transgenes, and less susceptibility to gene silencing, and have been applied ...
We have used a 1-Mb YAC containing alpha satellite DNA to construct a functional HAC vector by modification with a selectable marker, human telomeres, and a putative origin of replication. YAC 674E2 was selected for this purpose because of its size from among several YACs identified during screening of a randomly chosen subset of the CEPH YAC library with a degenerate alpha satellite probe. Other than the presence of alpha satellite DNA (14) there was no a priori reason to expect that 674E2 would generate a functional HAC. It is now apparent that L2H2 efficiently forms artificial chromosomes as indicated by the formation of HACs in ≈30% of the clonal cell lines that contained both arms of the HAC vector. Detailed analysis of one of these clonal lines, 64b5, indicates that the HAC formed by L2H2 contains human telomeres, binds CENP-E, and is mitotically stable in the absence of G418 selection for more than 100 generations.. L2H2 DNA did not always form HACs after transfection; it was sometimes ...
A human artificial chromosome (HAC) is a microchromosome that can act as a new chromosome in a population of human cells. That is, instead of 46 chromosomes, the cell could have 47 with the 47th being very small, roughly 6-10 megabases (Mb) in size instead of 50-250 Mb for natural chromosomes, and able to carry new genes introduced by human researchers. Ideally, researchers could integrate different genes that perform a variety of functions, including disease defense. Alternative methods of creating transgenes, such as utilizing yeast artificial chromosomes and bacterial artificial chromosomes, lead to unpredictable problems. The genetic material introduced by these vectors not only leads to different expression levels, but the inserts also disrupt the original genome. HACs differ in this regard, as they are entirely separate chromosomes. This separation from existing genetic material assumes that no insertional mutants would arise. This stability and accuracy makes HACs preferable to other ...
A human artificial chromosome (HAC) is a microchromosome that can act as a new chromosome in a population of human cells. That is, instead of 46 chromosomes, the cell could have 47 with the 47th being very small, roughly 6-10 megabases (Mb) in size instead of 50-250 Mb for natural chromosomes, and able to carry new genes introduced by human researchers.
The present invention relates to the expression and screening of genomic DNA sequences encoding uncharacterized genes and proteins. The present invention provides systems utilizing unique features of retroviral replication to analyze uncharacterized genes derived from genomic DNA samples. In preferred embodiments, a segment of genomic DNA is inserted between 5′ and 3′ viral long terminal repeats (LTRs) in a vector (e.g., a plasmid, cosmid, or artificial chromosome vector). The resulting vector (or library of vectors containing a plurality of independent genomic sequences) is then introduced into a retroviral packaging cell. The resulting provirus or proteins expression from the provirus are then analyzed.
Following manuscript should be referred in the publication on a scientific journal.1. Liu YG, Shirano Y, Fukaki H, Yanai Y, Tasaka M, Tabata S, Shibata D. Complementation of plant mutants with large genomic DNA fragments by atransformation-competent artificial chromosome vector accelerates positionalcloning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 May 25;96(11):6535-40. PubMed PMID:10339623 ...
cosmid hybridization. Nucleic Aads Res. 17, 5611-5621. 17. Burke, DT, Carle, GF, and Olson, M. V (1987) Cloning of large segments of exogenous DNA into yeast...by means of artificial chromosome vectors. Science 236, 806-812. 18. De Jonge, P., De Jongh, F C. M , Meyers, R., Steensma, H Y., and Scheffers, W. A ...
In order to define a functional human centromere sequence, an artificial chromosome was constructed as a reproducible DNA molecule. Mammalian telomere repeats and a selectable marker were introduced into yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) containing alphoid DNA from the centromere region of human c …
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Replication of alpha-satellite DNA arrays in endogenous human centromeric regions and in human artificial chromosome Indri Erliandri, Haiqing Fu, Megumi Nakano, Jung-Hyun Kim, Karen H. Miga,Mikhail Liskovykh, William C. Earnshaw, Hiroshi Masumoto, Natalay Kouprina, Mirit I. Aladjem, and Vladimir Larionov Nucl. Acids Res. 2014 42: 11502-11516 ...
Research Interests. 1). Standards & reference materials for cancer biomarker clinical analysis. Currently, we are working on the development of cell line based genomic DNA reference materials for gene copy number variations biomarker HER2/EGFR/MET, and spike-in based mimic cell- free DNA reference materials for cancer detection of rare allele mutation in non-invasive circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) from patients blood. Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) carrying a functional kinetochore were considered as a promising system for gene delivery and expression with a potential to overcome many problems caused by the use of viral-based gene transfer systems. We are interested in engineering a tailored reference material platform based on HAC and genome editing tools such as CRISPR/Cas9 for the production of defined gene copies and gene mutation, or defined fold protein overexpression reference materials.. 2). Metrology for cancer biomarker and biosystems. A variety of genetic alterations, including ...
Local paddlers and participants from around the Northwest celebrated Central Oregons kayaking culture Sunday at a Northwest Cup Slalom Paddle Series race in Bend. About 30 racers braved freezing rain, raging water and a difficult course at the sixth annual Riverhouse Rendezvous slalom kayak race on the Deschutes River behind the Riverhouse Hotel & Convention Center in Bend. The race is a Junior Olympic qualifier. Spectators lined the shore and leaned over the two walking
We have your BFGoodrich Winter Slalom KSI 205/50R-16 tires at a discounted price of $144.92. Save on them today and well ship to an installer near you. Saving is Simple.
Giving people an extra chromosome may one day help conquer genetic diseases - as artificial chromosomes are used successfully in mice
Seattle's Amazon Web Services and consulting firm Slalom will open joint Launch Centers to help accelerate enterprise customers cloud migrations and modernize their information technology services
Kyle Strait invited a handful of riders to compete on his own dual slalom course and with such a high calibre of talent the racing was incredibly tight.
Ski with the medallists in the mens super giant slalom, Kjetil Andre Aamodt (Norway, gold), Hermann Maier (Austria, silver) and Ambrosi Hoffmann (Swit
For the World Slalom Series events in Mexico please contact : Carolina Villavicencio Sandoval representative in Mexico [email protected] ...
The 2019 Isonic slalom boards from Starboard are the ultimate in slalom windsurfing performance. If you want the lightest, fastest windsurfing board you can get your hands on, you want an Isonic!
Sullen rain simmers, pretends to slalom and surrenders,recoils in the clouds of sodden discontent.Arid thoughts smother the sapless jelly of life.It is the month of August, the fat middle ofan unrelenting virus, spinning off the sporesof a shivering November,its nowhere as dead as it is nowhere as living. People mask fragile streaks of breath, leaden…
Our fundamental technology, mammalian artificial chromosome vector has some advantages against other vectors that 1) our vector can maintain in host cells without integration of host genome, 2) overexpression or suppression of the gene introduced is not occurred after long-term cultivation, 3) our vector does not limit gene size introduced ...
The generation in vitro of mammalian artificial chromosomes, in view of the possibility of developing new technologies for gene therapy, is still an ambitious goal. Mammalian artificial chromosomes, to be used as cloning and expression vectors, have been constructed either by de novo synthesis or by reduction of pre-existing chromosomes. In the work here reported, we introduced a loxP sequence into the pericentromeric region of a chromosome 9-derived X-ray-reduced minichromosome, with the purpose of generating a human chromosome vector (HCV). The modified accessory chromosome is linear and mitotically stable, has lost at least 1400 kb of alpha satellite DNA and normally binds CENP-B, CENP-C and CENP-E. The efficiency of gene targeting via loxP mediated homologous recombination was tested using the histone H2B-Green Fluorescent Protein chimaeric gene as a reporter. The frequency of site-specific insertion of the exogenous sequence was found to be about 50% and to occur in a controlled way with ...
Chromosome Formation - CHEMICAL BIOLOGY - reflects the multidimensional character of chemical biology, focusing in particular on the fundamental science of biological structures and systems, the use of chemical and biological techniques to elucidate
Citation. Curto Mde L, Lorenzi HA, Moraes Barros RR, Souza RT, Levin MJ, Da Silveira JF, Schijman AG. Cloning and Expression of Transgenes Using Linear Vectors in Trypanosoma Cruzi.. International Journal for Parasitology. 2014 Jun 01; 44: 447-56.. External Citation. Abstract. The identification of new targets for vaccine and drug development for the treatment of Chagas disease is dependent on deepening our understanding of the parasite genome. Vectors for genetic manipulation in Trypanosoma cruzi basically include those that remain as circular episomes and those that integrate into the parasites genome. Artificial chromosomes are alternative vectors to overcome problematic transgene expression often occurring with conventional vectors in this parasite. We have constructed a series of vectors named pTACs (Trypanosome Artificial Chromosomes), all of them carrying telomeric and subtelomeric sequences and genes conferring resistance to different selection drugs. In addition, one pTAC harbours a ...
Paul Anthony Brain born 26 June 1964 in Stratford-upon-Avon is a British Slalom Canoeist who competed from the late 1970s to the early 1990s. He finished 17th in the C-2 event at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona. Paul was introduced to Canoeing in the local Scouts Group in Stratford upon Avon at the age of 13. He started in competitive canoeing in June 1978, entering the Novice event at Shepperton Weir on the River Thames in Surrey. Over the next few years, along with his Stratford on Avon Kayakists (SOAK) fellow canoeists, he competed in all of the canoe competition disciplines of: Canoe Slalom in the disciplines of Kayak Singles (K1), Canadian Singles (C1) and Canadian Doubles (C2) - in the Canadian classes paddlers kneel in their boat with a small cockpit sealed with a Spraydeck. Paulss Slalom Ranking History is listed below. (Canoe Polo) - in single Kayak (K1) (Wild Water Racing) - in Single Kayak (K1) (Marathon Canoe Racing) - in Single Kayak (K1) Pauls Canoe Slalom history: Canadian ...
At the end people who want to change the result of a race appear in any race for different reasons. Everytime there will be a specific problem not ruled by Issa rules so the staff under stress from days and days have to decide on specific events real time. When a racer is disappointed on specific event related to the own run it takes time to understand and take decision supported in different times by differents point of you, and I dont speak about rumors, I speak about movies taken from different point of view. Im also sure that this is not the right place to discuss about these topics but in the ISSA forum which is its natural site ...
Not even a broken bone in her hand could keep Denise Karbon from winning a World Cup giant slalom ski race in Ofterschwang, Germany. Karbon, who broke a bone in her left thumb during training on Wednesday, won her fifth race in six tries this season. The Italian had a combined time of 2:22.26, just 0.08 seconds ahead of overall womens leader Nicole Hosp of Austria. Elisabeth Goergl of Austria finished third, 0.09 seconds behind the Italian. Lindsey Vonn was the top American finisher in sixth place, more than one-half second off the leader.
American teenager Mikaela Shiffrin fought through snow and rain to win her second World Cup slalom of the season Sunday, showing her ability to deal with all types of conditions a month before the Sochi Olympics.
At the 2002 Winter Paralympics, womens downhill and mens unable to see downhill were on day 1. Mens standing and being seated downhill were on day 2. Mens standing and being seated Super-G was on day 3. Mens unable to see and womens Super-G was on day 5. Mens standing and being seated Giant Slalom was on day 7. Womens and mens unable to see Giant Slalom was on day 8. Mens standing and being seated Slalom was on day 9. Womens and mens unable to see Slalom was on day 10.[1] ...
MARIBOR, Slovenia (AP) - Results Saturday in a women's World Cup giant slalom: 1. Tessa Worley, France, 2 minutes, 16.96 seconds. 2. Sofia Goggia, Italy, 2:1...
One thing we have found is that using the R.U. Ready LCD screens really adds to the race day experience, not only for racers but spectators, they can easily see who won each race (or at least before a cone count). By keeping it stand alone you do need to transpose the times to a computer system manually or a whiteboard, and we usually get the starter to have a pad to write the times on as a backup. By having the screens showing the times its easy for mates to double check your times without looking over the shoulders of the timing table or looking at a screen. Its great at the races we do as once the finish line has been crossed the times are on full display for everyone at the head of the course. If both raers hit the same amount of cones or none at all you immediatly know who has won. Thats why I dont like staggered starts, as you NEVER know who won until the timers tell you ...
Soft, light styles jump on board at full speed, amid controlled scarf slaloms and acrobatic tie jumps. Tie them before the finish line!
This ski carves out a tight radius and feels like a slalom ski. In short turns it is brilliant with massive amounts of grip with a wide shovel that really drives you into the turn. The front of the ski dictates the character of how it behaves, constantly sniffing out the next opportunity to turn! The other upside of the wider nose is that it is easy to steer at slower speeds. On longer turns the shape can feel a bit too eager and makes it harder to carve out long, smooth turns ...
Scott Toomey went skiing for the first time last February and won medals in a slalom competition. He followed that up by competing in -- and winning -- a 100-meter dash in September. At times, he
Speed: I am not sure a foil is 5 knots slower. Check this link out https://www.windsurfing33.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=42&t=115314&sid=7a35e0111936087d280d2373d08e2a1b And by what metric? I rarely went above 28 knots max with my Isonic vs the 30-35 knots max speed of the CA 52. I just dont have the body to go overpowered with it. The best 10 speeds on the Is-111 are at least 2-3 knots slower, 500 meters drop and additional 4-6 knots. From what I read 24-26 knots average over long distance are very feasible on a fast foil (not on a Naish or Slingshot!). But sure, give me a smaller slalom and overpowered sail and I might be faster. ...
I know next to nothing about Olympics sports or athletes but it has been great fun being able to tune in now and then and instantly become deeply invested in whatevers currently happening. Its an interesting phenomenon, really: one minute none of us have given a single thought to, say, womens slalom skiing, the next were all hanging on every gate turn and offering our in-depth opinions about their technical scores. John mentioned that it would be awesome if you could choose your commentary track - like, you can pick the discipline expert sportscaster who carefully explains all the mechanics and mishaps unfolding onscreen, OR you can choose to listen to a couple of drunk guys trying to figure out curling.. I have been watching an unusual amount of TV lately because my back went from hmmm to NOPE and so I spent several days in a recliner with a heating pad which was just as exciting as it sounds. I didnt even have a good book on hand and ended up reading a bunch of dirty Sherlock/Watson ...
This item appeared in the paper as a stand alone photograph. Caption information is provided below. Photo: The Swiss brothers Philipp, right, and Simon Schoch riding to the gold and silver medal, respectively, yesterday in the mens parallel giant slalom. (Photo by John D. McHugh/Agence France-Presse -- Getty Images ...
Plasmid pEnt R3L2 TetO(fl)-2 from Dr. Edward Hsiaos lab is published in Stem Cell Res Ther. 2011 Mar 4. 2(2):11. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
The Artic SL SPIN is a no compromise slalom helmet designed for competition skiers and which provides the ultimate adjustable safety and performance. The Artic SL SPIN features the unique detachable and adjustable Maxilla break-away chin guard, which can be fixed or set to break-away at varying impact levels.. To deliver on our mission, and developed using feedback from our pro-team athletes and medical experts, POC helmets are all developed with our whole helmet concept at the center of our design process; using optimized materials throughout the helmet, such as an advanced multi-impact EPP liner and a very robust ABS shell which results in a very safe and durable helmet. In addition, to meet the specific needs of slalom racers the helmet also features POCs patented VPD 2.0 technology in the helmet to reduce the force of impact and deflect energy away from the helmet liner and user.. The Maxilla break away chin-guard has been designed to minimize any potential injury to the neck or face and to ...
Welcome to our new team pilot, Leah Catullo!. Leah is a talented and passionate acro PPG pilot from Florida, USA. Leah flies almost daily, training acrobatic flight in paraglider and paramotors, both. She has participated in many national and international paramotor events, and in 2020 she is planning to compete in the Classic and Slalom PPG World Championships. Leah says, I fly because, like so many others, I had dreams of running into the air. I find peace, focus, exhilaration, and meaning in flight. My goals are to master acro in paramotor as well as start slalom racing. I hope to be an inspiration and model to female pilots. I would love to travel the World visiting all the events and share the passion of flying with international community Were excited to add Leah to the team, and look forward to flying with her for many years to come. Cheers, from all of us here at Ozone.. ...
In less time than it takes him to manoeuvre his way down a slalom course, Campbell Walsh moved from third to fourth place and then back to third again before it was finally decided that the 26-year-old Glaswegian had actually won silver in Fridays K1 kayaking final.
Arresting. Stylistically, Knight slaloms through old-fashioned noir and snarky postmodernism, and from Barthelmean set pieces to a riff on Stonewall Jackson
The unique detachable and adjustable Maxilla break away chin guard, which can be fixed or set to break away at varying impact levels. The Maxilla break away chin-guard has been designed to minimize any potential injury to the neck or face and to meet the needs of different types of slalom racers and courses. The innovative and simple self-adjustment system gives racers all the flexibility they need for training and race day ...
The Best water ski in the world. Holder of all national and world records for water skiing, jump skiing and trick skiing. We are the 3 event Masters, US Open and World Championship, water ski winners with skiers Nate Smith for Slalom at 2.5 at @ 43 off and Freddy Krueger for Jumping 250 feet as our top pro skiers Team Pro Adam Pickos for trick,
Autori: Lefter LP, Sunamura M, Furukawa T, Yastsuoka T, Abe H, Inoue H, Abe T, Egawa S, Miura K, Morita R, Horii A, Matsuno S.. Editorial: Asian J Surg. 2004 Apr;27(2):85-92., 2004.. Rezumat:. BACKGROUND: In a previous work, we demonstrated that loss of heterozygosity of 18q is a frequent event significantly associated with poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer. We hypothesized that restoration of heterozygosity of chromosome 18 in pancreatic cancer cells would reduce their tumorigenicity. This study was intended to provide functional evidence for the existence of new tumour suppressor gene(s) located on chromosome 18. METHOD: Restoration of heterozygosity was achieved by introducing a normal copy of chromosome 18 into pancreatic ductal carcinoma using a microcell-mediated chromosome transfer technique. The tumorigenicity and metastatic ability of both the parental cells and resulting hybrids were assessed in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: In vitro growth of hybrid clones was significantly delayed ...
Dicentric chromosomes have been identified as instigators of the genome instability associated with cancer, but this instability is often resolved by one of a number of different secondary events. These include centromere inactivation, inversion, and intercentromeric deletion. Deletion or excision of one of the centromeres may be a significant occurrence in myeloid malignancy and other malignancies but has not previously been widely recognized, and our reports are the first describing centromere deletion in cancer cells. We review what is known about dicentric chromosomes and the mechanisms by which they can undergo stabilization in both constitutional and cancer genomes. The failure to identify centromere deletion in cancer cells until recently can be partly explained by the standard approaches to routine diagnostic cancer genome analysis, which do not identify centromeres in the context of chromosome organization. This hitherto hidden group of primary dicentric, secondary monocentric chromosomes,
Preliminary1 estimates for 2015 show a 21 percent decline in hospital-acquired conditions (HACs) since 2010. A cumulative total of 3.1 million fewer HACs were experienced by hospital patients over the 5 years (2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015) relative to the number of HACs that would have occurred if rates had remained steady at the 2010 level. The preliminary 2015 rate is 115 HACs per 1,000 discharges, down from 2013 and 2014, which had held at 121 HACs per 1,000 discharges. We estimate that nearly 125,000 fewer patients died in the hospital as a result of HACs and that approximately $28 billion in health care costs were saved from 2010 to 2015 due to the reductions in HACs.
We are in need of an individual to be in charge of race timing at Fiddlers Elbow this year. This is not a difficult job. This person will oversee the timers as they start and stop the watches and report the times to the scoring table. If you can do this please call me at 717-nine 3 eight-6302. Thanks in advance ...
Alpine Ski VR by Suchworks Studios brings the thrill of skiing to your desktop. There are three different game types: Slalom, Freestyle and Heliski. Beat the splits on the 6 slalom levels, pull some tricks on the 6 freestyle levels, or cruise around the 100km2 offpiste; complete with your own helicopter!
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There was heartbreak for Australias Ian Borrows, denied a place in the C1 Olympic canoe slalom final by his best friend on the paddling tour and pre-Games training partner.Borrows, in his Olympic debut, finished in 11th place, one position and 0.09 seconds behind American Casey Eichfeld.It was also revealed after the race that Borrows had been battling illness in the days leading up to the final, barely able to eat.
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Mapping the whole human genome by fingerprinting yeast artificial chromosomes. Cell. 1992 Sep 18;70(6):1059-68. Cited 229 times ... "Mapping the whole human genome by fingerprinting yeast artificial chromosomes". Cell. 70 (6): 1059-1068. doi:10.1016/0092-8674( ... "Construction and characterization of a human bacterial artificial chromosome library". Genomics. 34 (2): 213-8. doi:10.1006/ ... He contributed to the first physical map of the Human Genome at Genethon and at Genset Corporation as a member of Daniel Cohen ...
April 25 - Scientists announce that human artificial chromosomes have been created. July 10 - In London, scientists report ... November 6 - The discovery of klotho, a gene involved in human aging, is reported. November 19 - In Des Moines, Iowa, Bobbi ... March 4 - United States President Bill Clinton bars federal funding for any research on human cloning. March 14 - The widely ... their DNA analysis findings from a Neandertal skeleton which support the out of Africa theory of human evolution placing an " ...
Human artificial chromosome may be potentially useful as a gene transfer vectors for gene delivery into human cells, and a tool ... BACs are based on F plasmid, another artificial chromosome called the PAC is based on the P1 phage. Yeast artificial chromosome ... "Human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector with a conditional centromere for correction of genetic deficiencies in human cells". ... Kouprina N, Earnshaw WC, Masumoto H, Larionov V (2013). "A new generation of human artificial chromosomes for functional ...
June 1996). "Construction and characterization of a human bacterial artificial chromosome library". Genomics. 34 (2): 213-8. ... P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs) have features of both P1 vectors and Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs). Similar to P1 ... Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are linear DNA molecules containing the necessary features of an authentic yeast chromosome ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are circular DNA molecules, usually about 7kb in length, that are capable of holding ...
"Cloning and in vivo expression of the human GART gene using yeast artificial chromosomes". EMBO J. 10 (7): 1629-34. doi:10.1002 ... 2000). "The DNA sequence of human chromosome 21". Nature. 405 (6784): 311-9. Bibcode:2000Natur.405..311H. doi:10.1038/35012518 ... 1997). "The human GARS-AIRS-GART gene encodes two proteins which are differentially expressed during human brain development ... Trifunctional purine biosynthetic protein adenosine-3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GART gene. This protein is ...
One popular way of studying EBV in vitro is to use bacterial artificial chromosomes. Epstein-Barr virus can be maintained and ... The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), formally called Human gammaherpesvirus 4, is one of the nine known human herpesvirus types in the ... Human CD35, also known as complement receptor 1 (CR1), is an additional attachment factor for gp350/220, and can provide a ... Viruses lacking the gp42 portion are able to bind to human B cells, but unable to infect. EBV can infect both B cells and ...
Human artificial chromosome Yeast artificial chromosome Bacterial artificial chromosome. ...
1997 - Team led by Professor Huntington Willard (Chair of Genetics) create world's first artificial human chromosome. M. Scott ... of the world's first human artificial chromosome.[citation needed] In 2019, the School of Medicine relocated to the Samson ... 1975 - Discovery that human renin, an enzyme produced by the kidney, is involved in hypertension 1990 - National team led by ... "Physicians for Human Rights - Press Room". physiciansforhumanrights.org. Archived from the original on 2010-06-29. Retrieved ...
Cosmid/BAC/YAC end sequences use Cosmid/Bacterial artificial chromosome/Yeast artificial chromosome to sequence the genome from ... By using special Alu sequence as target locus, specific human DNA can be obtained from clone of TAC, BAC, PAC or human-mouse ... Yeast artificial chromosome Venter, J. Craig, Hamilton O. Smith, and Leroy Hood. "A New Cooperative Strategy for Sequencing the ... To get enough chromosome, they need a large number of E. coli culture that 2.5 - 5 litres may be a reasonable amount. Cosmid/ ...
The assembly of the genome sequence in M. truncatula was based on bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). This is the same ... approach used to sequence the genomes of humans, the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, and the model plant, Arabidopsis ...
Borenstein, Ronen; Frenkel, Niza (2009). "Cloning human herpes virus 6A genome into bacterial artificial chromosomes and study ... For instance, human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6)(hibv) expresses a set of "early genes" that are believed to be involved in this ... Human Papillomavirus-16 (HPV-16) is another virus that employs rolling replication to produce progeny at a high rate. HPV-16 ... Arbuckle, Jesse (2011). "The molecular biology of human herpesvirus-6 latency and telomere integration". Microbes and Infection ...
Borenstein, Ronen; Frenkel, Niza (2009). "Cloning human herpes virus 6A genome into bacterial artificial chromosomes and study ... In the case of human herpesvirus-6, its entire genome is made over and over on a single strand. These long concatemers are ... Arbuckle, Jesse (2011). "The molecular biology of human herpesvirus-6 latency and telomere integration". Microbes and Infection ...
He is credited with the construction of the world's first yeast artificial chromosome. That achievement helped scientists to ... His research findings in this area are also instrumental to the Human Genome Project. He was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize for ... which are found in chromosomes inside its cells' nuclei. When a cell divides, it is important that its chromosomes are copied ... At each end of a chromosome lies a "cap" or telomere, as it is known, which protects it. After Elizabeth Blackburn discovered ...
Yeast artificial chromosome or YAC is a DNA molecule that is developed by humans to take the DNA sequences that belong to yeast ... "Yeast Artificial Chromosome (YAC)". Genome.gov. Retrieved 2019-05-31. Kleyn PW, Wang CH, Lien LL, Vitale E, Pan J, Ross BM, ... Yeast artificial chromosomes can be inserted with fragments of DNA from the organism of interest. Yeast cells will then ... Vectorette PCR helps with this process by bringing about not only the isolation of the yeast artificial chromosome's ends but ...
"Analysis of the 1.1-Mb human alpha/delta T-cell receptor locus with bacterial artificial chromosome clones". Genome Res. 7 (4 ... Koop BF, Rowen L, Wang K, Kuo CL, Seto D, Lenstra JA, Howard S, Shan W, Deshpande P, Hood L (Jun 1994). "The human T-cell ... OR10G3+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text ... Malnic B, Godfrey PA, Buck LB (2004). "The human olfactory receptor gene family". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (8): 2584-9 ...
1946: The artificial kidney. *1953: Medical ultrasound. *1956: Human chromosome number. *1957: Dopamine ... Other examples of pioneering innovations are the artificial kidney, which laid the foundations for the multinational company ... Britta Holmström (1911-1992) was the founder of Individuell Människohjälp (IM), a human rights organization with activities in ... the determination of the number of chromosomes of man, the establishment of osseointegration, the development of the Bluetooth ...
In addition, human genes can be studied and similarly genetically manipulated in yeast by using yeast artificial chromosomes ( ... 2001) Novel human p53 mutations that are toxic to yeast can enhance transactivation of specific promoters and reactive tumor ... 1979) Replacement of chromosome segments with altered DNA sequences constructed in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 76:4951-5. ... GAL1-I-SceI - Increases the efficiency of targeting to the CORE cassette-containing chromosome in diploid cells. It contains ...
Computer scientist Marvin Minsky wrote on relationships between human and artificial intelligence beginning in the 1960s. Over ... Public health professor Gregory Stock points to artificial chromosomes as an alleged safer alternative to existing genetic ... such as human clones, human-animal chimeras, or bioroids, but even lesser dislocations of humans and non-humans from social and ... They believe that humans can and should use these technologies to become more than human. Therefore, they support the ...
Mapping and sequencing of the chromosomal region was performed with the aid of bacterial artificial chromosome clones. Around ... The human gene differs from that in non-human primates by the substitution of two amino acids, a threonine to asparagine ... in which part of chromosome 7 had become exchanged with part of chromosome 5. The site of breakage of chromosome 7 was located ... Insertion of both human mutations into mice, whose version of FOXP2 otherwise differs from the human and chimpanzee versions in ...
"Analysis of the 1.1-Mb human alpha/delta T-cell receptor locus with bacterial artificial chromosome clones". Genome Res. 7 (4 ... 1994). "The human T-cell receptor TCRAC/TCRDC (C alpha/C delta) region: organization, sequence, and evolution of 97.6 kb of DNA ... OR4E2+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ... Malnic B, Godfrey PA, Buck LB (2004). "The human olfactory receptor gene family". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (8): 2584-9 ...
Mitochondrial EC 1.16.1.8 CblE The gene was mapped to human chromosome 5. Gene specific primer pairs resulted in PCR ... Exact gene cytogenic position was determined by mapping to an artificial chromosomal construct containing the gene via ... Methionine synthase reductase also known as MSR is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MTRR gene. Methionine is an ... amplification of a product matched by size to a hybrid-mapping panel containing only chromosome 5 as its human genetic material ...
... artificial chromosomes and bacteriophage (such as lambda). The best expression system depends on the gene involved, for example ... Fully Human Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293) Human embryonic retinal cells (Crucell's Per.C6) Human amniocyte cells ( ... Insect or mammal cell lines are used when human-like splicing of mRNA is required. Nonetheless, bacterial expression has the ... The C. glutamicum species is widely used for producing glutamate and lysine, components of human food, animal feed and ...
... bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), or human artificial chromosomes (HACs). An artificial chromosome can carry a much ... an organism that transmits disease Human artificial chromosomes Yeast artificial chromosomes Bacterial artificial chromosomes ... Artificial chromosomes are manufactured chromosomes in the context of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), ... The four major types of vectors are plasmids, viral vectors, cosmids, and artificial chromosomes. Of these, the most commonly ...
In 2008, research was done specifically for methods on creating human female sperm using artificial or natural Y chromosomes ... artificial insemination artificial reproduction cloning (see human cloning for the special case of human beings) cytoplasmic ... These advances may actually hinder the human race. With the conclusion of the Human Genome Project, which is rapidly imminent, ... This is inhady with reproduction, which is the ability of a species to perpetuate and in the human species it is looked upon as ...
"A yeast artificial chromosome-based physical map of the juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS2) critical region on human ... Alsin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ALS2 gene. ALS2 orthologs have been identified in all mammals for which ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... 2001). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XVIII. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones ...
In 2007, a patent application was filed on methods for creating human female sperm using artificial or natural Y chromosomes ... An analogy, then, is that a cell from a woman has complete Y chromosome deficiency. While many genes on the Y chromosome have ... Female sperm can refer to either: A sperm which contains an X chromosome, produced in the usual way by a male, referring to the ... Since the late 1980s, scientists have explored how to produce sperm where all of the chromosomes come from a female donor. In ...
"Mutagenesis of the human apolipoprotein B gene in a yeast artificial chromosome reveals the site of attachment for ... After a 1992 PhD thesis titled 'Hypobetalipoproteinaemia and truncated forms of human apolipoprotein B' at the Lincoln ... "High-density lipoprotein reduces the human monocyte inflammatory response." Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology ...
In 2009 Riggs published work done with Gerd Pfeifer on the "methylome" of the genome of a human B cell, examining the DNA ... Arthur Riggs (born 1939) is a geneticist who worked with Genentech to express the first artificial gene in bacteria. His work ... As a result of his interest in gene regulation in mammalian cells, Riggs became curious about X chromosome inactivation, in ... Next the group created a gene coding for human insulin, one that was about ten times larger than the somatostatin encoding. ...
Technologies for constructing and testing yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), synthetic yeast genomes (Sc2.0), and virus/phage ... HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee Human Cytome Project Human Microbiome Project Human Proteome Project Human Protein Atlas Human ... including the human genome in a sub-project known as Human Genome Project-Write (HGP-Write). Formally announced on 2 June 2016 ... This project, which had as its primary goal the sequencing of the three billion base pairs that make up human genome, was 95% ...
A QTL for osteoporosis on the human chromosome 20. QTL mapping[edit]. ... Castle's was perhaps the first attempt made in the scientific literature to direct evolution by artificial selection of a trait ... "Human Genetics for 1st Year Students: Multifactorial Inheritance". Retrieved 6 January 2007.. ... An example of a polygenic trait is human skin color variation. Several genes factor into determining a person's natural skin ...
In search of the genetic footprints of Sumerians: a survey of Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation in the Marsh Arabs of Iraq - - ... and was either constructed at the waterside or on an artificial island of reeds called a kibasha; a more permanent island of ... Human rights *in pre-Saddam Iraq. *in Saddam Hussein's Iraq. *in post-invasion Iraq *in ISIL-controlled territory ...
Deletion in the 22q11.2 region of chromosome 22 has been associated with schizophrenia and autism.[22][23] Schizophrenia and ... An example of pleiotropy is phenylketonuria, an inherited disorder that affects the level of phenylalanine in the human body. ... Pleiotropic gene action can limit the rate of multivariate evolution when natural selection, sexual selection or artificial ... The disease is caused by a defect in a single gene on chromosome 12 that codes for enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase , that ...
... so each human chromosome can be identified by a characteristic color using whole-chromosome probe mixtures and a variety of ... each population maintaining a single artificial chromosome, are stored in various laboratories around the world. The artificial ... The chromosomes can be seen in blue. The chromosome that is labeled with green and red spots (upper left) is the one where the ... Then, an interphase or metaphase chromosome preparation is produced. The chromosomes are firmly attached to a substrate, ...
describen o uso de cromosomas artificiais de lévedo (YAC, Yeast Artificial Chromosome),[41] e Kulesh et al. sentan as bases dos ... Human Genome Project (2003). "International Consortium Completes Human Genome Project". Human Genome Project Information (en ... U. S. Human Genome Project (2008). Office of Science - U. S. Dpt. of Energy, ed. "Major Events in the U.S. Human Genome Project ... National Human Genome Research Istitute - NHGRI (NIH) (2004). "Scientists Compare Rat Genome With Human, Mouse" (en inglés). ...
Prior to human cultivation, it consisted of just a few species, though the status of some as distinct species has yet to be ... seem to be natural or artificial hybrids of a small number of core ancestral species, including the citron, pomelo, mandarin, ... "Next generation haplotyping to decipher nuclear genomic interspecific admixture in Citrusspecies: analysis of chromosome 2" ... The earliest introductions of citrus species by human migrations was during the Austronesian expansion (c. 3000-1500 BCE), ...
Larger specimens of this shape are sometimes called "human-head tea" (人頭茶), due in part to its size and shape, and because in ... This notion has recently been refuted through a systematic chromosome analysis of the species attributed to many East Asian ... to be sold as the raw product without the artificial accelerated fermentation process. ... Wild trees (gŭshù, 古树; literally "old tree"): Teas from old wild trees, grown without human intervention, are the highest ...
Claims of human dependency[edit]. European honey bees are often described as being essential to all human food production, ... Workers have two sets of chromosomes.[60] They are produced from an egg that the queen has selectively fertilized from stored ... Periodically robbed of their honey by human "honey hunters", colonies are easily capable of stinging a human being to death if ... The ten most important crops,[28] comprising 60% of all human food energy,[29] all fall into this category: Plantains are ...
Haldane was also the first to construct human gene maps for haemophilia and colour blindness on the X chromosome and he was one ... He is the author of several books on health, artificial intelligence (AI), transhumanism, the technological singularity, and ... famous for describing human behaviour from a zoological perspective in his books The Naked Ape and The Human Zoo.[240][241] ... UCLA Oral History of Human Genetics. October 27, 2005. But that tells you about my religious affiliation, which is not very ...
... suggesting that certain genes of the Y chromosome may act as modifiers. However, no candidate genes on the Y chromosome have ... Bilateral renal agenesis (BRA) was first recognized as a defect of human fetal development in 1671 by Wolfstrigel.[14] ... The infant did not need artificial respiration and could breathe on her own. Her parents kept her on kidney dialysis at home ... Potter went on to become a pioneer in the field of human renal development and her contributions are still employed and ...
"From the Great Ketchup Wars to combating human trafficking: the silly and the serious private members' bills of 2016". tvo.org ... This trait/allele is physically linked (or is very close) to the desired allele along the chromosome. In introducing the ... 3 October 2014), "Appraisal of artificial screening techniques of tomato to accurately reflect field performance of the late ... However, even in the case of potatoes, while solanine poisoning resulting from dosages several times normal human consumption ...
These ten chromosomes form five unique pairs of XY in males and XX in females, i.e. males are X1Y1X2Y2X3Y3X4Y4X5Y5.[76] One of ... Although powerful enough to kill smaller animals such as dogs, the venom is not lethal to humans, but the pain is so ... "artificial shrimp" if a small electric current is passed through it.[42] ... "In the platypus a meiotic chain of ten sex chromosomes shares genes with the bird Z and mammal X chromosomes". Nature. 432 ( ...
Human Reproduction. 17 (10): 2694-2699. doi:10.1093/humrep/17.10.2694.. *^ Fauser, Bart; Devroey, Paul (27 October 2011). Baby- ... Couples who are at a high risk of having abnormal number of chromosomes or who have an history of single gene defects or ... "A preclinical evaluation of pronuclear formation by microinjection of human spermatozoa into human oocytes". Fertility and ... "Human Reproduction. 33 (4): 541-545. doi:10.1093/humrep/dey020. PMC 5989613. PMID 29425298.. ...
200kb bacterial artificial chromosomes to small oligonucleotides) that represent unique regions of the genome. This method is ... Medical genetics differs from human genetics in that human genetics is a field of scientific research that may or may not apply ... Chromosome studies[edit]. Chromosome studies are used in the general genetics clinic to determine a cause for developmental ... Chromosome painting is a technique that uses fluorescent probes specific for each chromosome to differentially label each ...
The work was praised by the Financial Times for "tackling big themes-gods, messiahs, artificial intelligence, alienness-with ... The book's plot involves a planet inhabited by evolved spiders uplifted by human scientists, and their much later discovery by ... The Calcutta Chromosome (1997). *The Sparrow (1998). *Dreaming in Smoke (1999). *Distraction (2000) ... the last humans alive in the universe.[6][7][8] The work plays off the contrast between the societal development of the spiders ...
Timeline of human prehistory. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw- ... According to the theory of the recent African origin of modern humans, anatomically modern humans began migrating out of Africa ... The use of fire became widespread for the first time in human prehistory during the Middle Paleolithic and humans began to cook ... modern humans before 40,000 or 50,000 BCE and Neandertals) and evolved relatively recently in human prehistory. The sexual ...
... occurs in other animals, including cats, dogs, and horses.[147][148] Unlike humans, dogs rarely suffer from ... Small genetic deletions on the X chromosome around the STS (steroid sulfatase) gene are associated with increased rates of AF ... attributable to moderate to severe mitral valve stenosis or atrial fibrillation in the presence of a mechanical artificial ... The medications used in animals for atrial fibrillation are largely similar to those used in humans.[147] Electrical ...
Prior to human cultivation, it consisted of just a few species, namely:. *Citrus crenatifolia - species name is unresolved, ... Most cultivated Citrus seem to be natural or artificial hybrids of four core ancestral species[14] - the citron, pummelo, ... "Next generation haplotyping to decipher nuclear genomic interspecific admixture in Citrusspecies: analysis of chromosome 2" ...
Attacks on humans[edit]. Main article: Dingo attack. Dingoes generally avoid conflict with humans, but they are large enough to ... This suggests that no artificial selection has been applied over this period and that the dingo represents an early form of dog ... The wolf-like canids are a group of large carnivores that are genetically closely related because their chromosomes number 78, ... Dingoes can be very tame when they come in frequent contact with humans.[67] Furthermore, some dingoes live with humans (due to ...
While the black rhinoceros has 84 chromosomes (diploid number, 2N, per cell), all other rhinoceros species have 82 chromosomes ... However, because of human influence, they now exist in only several protected areas of India (in Assam, West Bengal, and a few ... He proposes the synthesis of an artificial substitute for rhinoceros horn. To enable authorities to distinguish the ... Rhinoceros are killed by some humans for their horns, which are bought and sold on the black market, and used by some cultures ...
... and human epidemiological data, the committee found no differences that implicate a higher risk to human health from GE foods ... Genetic testing identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins.[38] Most of the time, testing is used to find changes ... creation of artificial organs and new diagnostics of diseases.[24] As well as the development of hormones, stem cells, ... Overall finding on purported adverse effects on human health of foods derived from GE crops: On the basis of detailed ...
"From the Great Ketchup Wars to combating human trafficking: the silly and the serious private members' bills of 2016". tvo.org ... Tomato Genome Sequencing Project - Sequencing of the twelve tomato chromosomes.. *Tomato core collection database - Phenotypes ... 3 October 2014), "Appraisal of artificial screening techniques of tomato to accurately reflect field performance of the late ... However, even in the case of potatoes, while solanine poisoning resulting from dosages several times normal human consumption ...
Artificial chromosomes *P1-derived *Bacterial *Yeast *Human Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=5- ...
Evolution of the human brain[edit]. Further information: Evolution of human intelligence and Human brain § Comparative anatomy ... There has been a gradual increase in brain volume as the ancestors of modern humans progressed along the human timeline of ... Even mammals, including humans, show the segmented bilaterian body plan at the level of the nervous system. The spinal cord ... Iain Davidson summarizes the opposite evolutionary constraints on human brain size as "As large as you need and as small as you ...
These changes have made the domesticated strains entirely dependent upon humans for survival.[19] The eggs are kept in ... Bombyx mori females are also one of the few organisms with homologous chromosomes held together only by the synaptonemal ... including an artificial diet.[citation needed] Research on the genome also raises the possibility of genetically engineering ... The domesticated moth cannot fly, so it needs human assistance in finding a mate, and it lacks fear of potential predators. The ...
... s & Humans: The Evolution of Human-Equine Relationships. Oxford, UK: Archaeopress. pp. 81-113. ISBN 978-1-84171-990-0.. ... Horses have 64 chromosomes.[37] The horse genome was sequenced in 2007. It contains 2.7 billion DNA base pairs,[38] which is ... These inherited traits result from a combination of natural crosses and artificial selection methods. Horses have been ... Horses are not ruminants, they have only one stomach, like humans, but unlike humans, they can utilize cellulose, a major ...
In one application an artificial DNA catalyst was prepared by attaching a copper ion to it through a spacer.[42] The copper - ... human rhinovirus 14[33] and HCV[34] ...
Double lines: pathways not in humans (occurs in e.g. plants, fungi, prokaryotes). Orange nodes: carbohydrate metabolism. Violet ... Chloroplasts have many similarities with photosynthetic bacteria, including a circular chromosome, prokaryotic-type ribosome, ... "First practical artificial leaf makes debut". Discovery News.. *Photosynthesis - Light Dependent & Light Independent Stages ... which is about eight times the current power consumption of human civilization.[11] Photosynthetic organisms also convert ...
Interaction with humans. Worldwide, horses play a role within human cultures and have done so for millennia. Horses are used ... Horses have 64 chromosomes.[37] The horse genome was sequenced in 2007. It contains 2.7 billion DNA base pairs,[38] which is ... These inherited traits result from a combination of natural crosses and artificial selection methods. Horses have been ... Horses are not ruminants, they have only one stomach, like humans, but unlike humans, they can utilize cellulose, a major ...
Researchers describe a new way to form an essential part of the artificial chromosome, called the centromere, by bypassing the ... Human artificial chromosome (HAC, green) with two sister centromeres (red), similar to that of the natural host chromosomes ( ... Penn biochemists streamline construction method for human artificial chromosomes Bypassing the Need for DNA from the centromere ... PHILADELPHIA) - For the past 20 years, researchers have been trying to perfect the construction of human artificial chromosomes ...
Yeast artificial chromosomes and bacterial artificial chromosomes were created before human artificial chromosomes, which were ... A human artificial chromosome (HAC) is a microchromosome that can act as a new chromosome in a population of human cells. That ... In 2010, a refined human artificial chromosome called 21HAC was reported. 21HAC is based on a stripped copy of human chromosome ... "A new chromosome 14-based human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector system for efficient transgene expression in human primary ...
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Generation of human artificial chromosomes via bottom-up approach. Each human chromosome contains a centromere consisting of ... An example of construction of the engineered human artificial chromosome via top-down approach. a The human chromosome 21 was ... A new generation of human artificial chromosomes for functional genomics and gene therapy.. Kouprina N1, Earnshaw WC, Masumoto ... An example of construction of the de novo generated human artificial chromosome via bottom-up approach using a synthetic ...
... nounA large DNA sequence constructed in the laboratory to function like a human chromosome.... ... human artificial chromosome. human artificial chromosome. noun. A large DNA sequence constructed in the laboratory to function ... Human artificial chromosome. (n.d.). In YourDictionary. Retrieved from https://www.yourdictionary.com/human-artificial- ... Human artificial chromosome. (n.d.). In YourDictionary. Retrieved from https://www.yourdictionary.com/human-artificial- ...
Researchers describe a new way to form an essential part of the artificial chromosome, called the centromere, by bypassing the ... How human eggs end up with the wrong number of chromosomes. One day before ovulation, human oocytes begin to divide into what ... Penn biochemists streamline construction method for human artificial chromosomes. July 25, 2019. (PHILADELPHIA) - For the past ... researchers have been trying to perfect the construction of human artificial chromosomes, or HACs for short. In a paper ...
... utilizing human artificial chromosomes (HAC), which behave as autonomous endogenous host chromosomes and segregate correctly ... We present a novel and efficient non-integrating gene expression system in human embryonic stem cells (hESc) ... Functional human artificial chromosomes are generated and stably maintained in human embryonic stem cells Hum Mol Genet. 2011 ... utilizing human artificial chromosomes (HAC), which behave as autonomous endogenous host chromosomes and segregate correctly ...
Yeast artificial chromosomes and bacterial artificial chromosomes were invented before human artificial chromosomes, which ... A human artificial chromosome (short HAC) is a microchromosome that can act as a new chromosome in a population of human cells ... They are useful in expression studies as gene transfer vectors and are a tool for elucidating human chromosome function. Grown ... Formation of de novo centromeres and construction of first-generation human artificial microchromosomes in Nature Genetics 15, ...
... production of beta-globin locus YAC mice carrying human globin developmental mutants. K R Peterson, Q L Li, C H Clegg, T ... Use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) in studies of mammalian development: production of beta-globin locus YAC mice ... Use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) in studies of mammalian development: production of beta-globin locus YAC mice ... Use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) in studies of mammalian development: production of beta-globin locus YAC mice ...
Human artificial chromosomes generated by modification of a yeast artificial chromosome containing both human alpha satellite ... Human artificial chromosomes generated by modification of a yeast artificial chromosome containing both human alpha satellite ... Human artificial chromosomes generated by modification of a yeast artificial chromosome containing both human alpha satellite ... Human artificial chromosomes generated by modification of a yeast artificial chromosome containing both human alpha satellite ...
Mammalian telomere repeats and a selectable marker were introduced into yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) containing alphoid ... an artificial chromosome was constructed as a reproducible DNA molecule. ... DNA from the centromere region of human c … ... In order to define a functional human centromere sequence, ... Assay of centromere function using a human artificial chromosome Chromosoma. 1998 Dec;107(6-7):406-16. doi: 10.1007/ ...
Analysis of the 1.1-Mb human alpha/delta T-cell receptor locus with bacterial artificial chromosome clones.. Boysen C1, Simon ... Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones are effective mapping and sequencing reagents. The 1.1-Mb alpha/delta T-cell ... These BAC features led to the proposal of a new approach to sequence the human genome. ... receptor locus of humans was mapped and partially sequenced with BAC clones. Seventeen BAC clones covered the 1.1-Mb alpha/ ...
What is human artificial chromosome? Meaning of human artificial chromosome medical term. What does human artificial chromosome ... Looking for online definition of human artificial chromosome in the Medical Dictionary? human artificial chromosome explanation ... human artificial chromosome. Also found in: Dictionary, Acronyms, Wikipedia. human artificial chromosome. n.. A large DNA ... Human artificial chromosome , definition of human artificial chromosome by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
Combining gene delivery using a human artificial chromosome with stem cell transplantation ameliorates muscular dystrophy in a ... Combining gene delivery using a human artificial chromosome with stem cell transplantation ameliorates muscular dystrophy in a ... Stem Cell-Mediated Transfer of a Human Artificial Chromosome Ameliorates Muscular Dystrophy ... Stem Cell-Mediated Transfer of a Human Artificial Chromosome Ameliorates Muscular Dystrophy ...
Subsequent reports using either yeast artificial chromosomes, bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), or P1 phage artificial ... Expression of human smooth muscle calponin in transgenic mice revealed with a bacterial artificial chromosome. Joseph M. Miano ... 1997) Human apolipoprotein B transgenic mice generated with 207- and 145-kilobase pair bacterial artificial chromosomes: ... Expression of human smooth muscle calponin in transgenic mice revealed with a bacterial artificial chromosome ...
Human Apolipoprotein B Transgenic Mice Generated with 207- and 145-Kilobase Pair Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. Evidence ... Human Apolipoprotein B Transgenic Mice Generated with 207- and 145-Kilobase Pair Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. Evidence ... and 207-kb bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) that contained the human apoB gene and more extensive 5- and 3-flanking ... We reported previously that ~80-kilobase pair (kb) P1 bacteriophage clones spanning either the human or mouse apoB gene (clones ...
Reversible immortalisation of human dystrophic muscle progenitors with a novel human artificial chromosome (HAC) containing the ... Tedesco FS (2015) Human artificial chromosomes for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and beyond: challenges and hopes. Chromosome Res ... Generation of a novel human artificial chromosome containing the entire human dystrophin locus. To facilitate pre‐clinical ... Kouprina N, Tomilin AN, Masumoto H, Earnshaw WC, Larionov V (2014) Human artificial chromosome‐based gene delivery vectors for ...
Cloning of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genome as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli: a new ... The full-length genome of human cytomegalovirus strain AD169 was cloned as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) ... Construction of a Self-Excisable Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Containing the Human Cytomegalovirus Genome and Mutagenesis of ... Construction of a Self-Excisable Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Containing the Human Cytomegalovirus Genome and Mutagenesis of ...
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Human artificial chromosomeMeasles Virus fusogenic proteinChimeric protein. Background. Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer ... Human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector with a conditional centromere for correction of genetic deficiencies in human cells. ... Human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector provides long-term therapeutic transgene expression in normal human primary ... A gene delivery system with a human artificial chromosome vector based on migration of mesenchymal stem cells towards human ...
My main interest during the last four years has been the study of the centromere by using human artificial chromosomes (HACs) ( ... Figure 2. Micrograph of condensed human chromosomes (left) and diagram of a chromosome (right). We can distinguish the DNA ( ... usually for the study of chromosome structure and function, as these chromosomes are not essential for the cell viability. They ... I am sure that you have heard about chromosomes, but do you know what are they? Most of the time, the DNA (the instruction ...
... is a microchromosome that can act as a new chromosome in a population of human cells. That is, instead of 46 chromosomes, the ... in size instead of 50-250 Mb for natural chromosomes, and able to carry new genes introduced by human researchers. ... A human artificial chromosome (HAC) is a microchromosome that can act as a new chromosome in a population of human cells. That ... Alternative methods of creating transgenes, such as utilizing yeast artificial chromosomes and bacterial artificial chromosomes ...
Making better artificial chromosomes for mammalian cells. Project ID: HPRN-CT-2000-00089. Finanziato nellambito di: FP5-HUMAN ... Making better artificial chromosomes for mammalian cells. Dal 2000-09-01 al 2004-08-31 ...
Replication of SARS-CoV-2 in human respiratory epithelium * Treatment of Severe COVID-19 with human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal ... SARS-CoV-2 Productively Infects Human Gut Enterocytes * TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4 mediate SARS-CoV-2 infection of human small ... Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 infections in engineered human tissues using clinical-grade soluble human ACE2 ... A human monoclonal antibody blocking SARS-CoV-2 infection * Functional assessment of cell entry and receptor usage for lineage ...
... was to test the ability of oligonucleotide-based arrays to reproduce the results of focused bacterial artificial chromosome ( ... platform to give high-resolution coverage of regions within the genome sequence coordinates of BAC/P1 artificial chromosome ( ... High-resolution human genome scanning using whole-genome BAC arrays. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 2003; 68: 323-329. ... P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs), or bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), or of polymerase chain reaction products ...
... everything you need for studying or teaching Chromosome. ... Immediately download the Chromosome summary, chapter-by-chapter ... Human Artificial Chromosomes (Hac) Human artificial chromosomes (HAC) are synthetic chromosomes that are structurally similar ... Chromosome Segregation and Rearrangement Chromosome segregation refers to the coordinated movement of chromosomes to opposite ... Chromosomes, Eukaryotic Chromosomes are microscopic units containing organized genetic information, eukaryotic chromosomes are ...
Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC). A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is an engineered DNA molecule used to clone DNA ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC). A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is an engineered DNA molecule used to clone DNA ... A large piece of DNA can be engineered in a fashion that allows it be propagated as a circular artificial chromosome in ... A large piece of DNA can be engineered in a fashion that allows it be propagated as a circular artificial chromosome in ...
... but researchers have demonstrated a new technique using pulsed violet lasers to cut and paste chromosome fragments. Click to ... Laser chromosome welding may sound like sci-fi, ... Confocal microscopy for imaging cellular structures in human ... Technique of Laser Chromosome Welding for Chromosome Repair and Artificial Chromosome Creation. July 17, 2018, via OSA - The ... Technique of Laser Chromosome Welding for Chromosome Repair and Artificial Chromosome Creation ...
A novel human artificial chromosome gene expression system using herpes simplex virus type 1 vectors ... A novel human artificial chromosome gene expression system using herpes simplex virus type 1 vectors ... A novel human artificial chromosome gene expression system using herpes simplex virus type 1 vectors ... Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics awarded funding for the next 5 years ...
... of centromere formation into large segments of cloned DNA facilitates their transformation into artificial chromosomes. ... Human artificial chromosome formation approach. Components. Rationale. Stability of HAC Clones. Sequence-based. 40-200 kb of α- ... BUILDING A CENTROMERE: To convert a piece of cloned DNA into a centromere-containing human artificial chromosome (HAC), an ... Streamlined Artificial Chromosome Creation. Recruiting an epigenetic instigator of centromere formation into large segments of ...
  • That is, instead of 46 chromosomes, the cell could have 47 with the 47th being very small, roughly 6-10 megabases (Mb) in size instead of 50-250 Mb for natural chromosomes, and able to carry new genes introduced by human researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • This technique can move the large intact genomic structures of natural chromosomes or artificially engineered chromosomes, and transferred chromosomes can be stably retained and freely segregate in recipient cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HACs are tiny synthetic chromosomes generated in the laboratory, which have an autonomous replication in the cell and show a similar stability as the natural chromosomes during the cell division. (sruk.org.uk)
  • Like natural chromosomes, artificial ones need centromeres to attach to mitotic spindles and separate sister chromatids during cell divisions. (the-scientist.com)
  • Michle Calos, a Stanford University geneticist who previously had worked with artificial chromosomes, has since shifted her focus to other gene-therapy methods such as inserting therapeutic genes at specific places on natural chromosomes. (technologyreview.com)
  • If these elements are spliced into DNA in the proper location and orientation, then a yeast cell will replicate the artificial chromosome along with the other, natural chromosomes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • But those were relatively faithful copies of natural chromosomes, the tiny thread-like structures made of tightly packed DNA that serve as the body's blueprints. (usatoday.com)
  • Telomere-Associated Chromosome Fragmentation: A Strategy to Generate Minichromosomes by Truncation of Natural Chromosomes. (plantcell.org)
  • Thanks to the use of HACs, scientists have been able to study the minimal requirements to assemble and maintain such complex machinery as the centromeres that are necessary, as stated above, to ensure proper chromosome segregation during cell division. (sruk.org.uk)
  • Although there is a lot to know about the function and maintenance of the centromeres, HACs have proven a unique tool for the study of these chromosomic regions and for the study of the mechanism of chromosome segregation during cell division. (sruk.org.uk)
  • Chromosome Segregation and Rearrangement Chromosome segregation refers to the coordinated movement of chromosomes to opposite poles of the cell during either cellular reproduction (mitosis) or the pro. (bookrags.com)
  • The live-cell imaging revealed that about half of embryos judged as morphologically transferable by IETS criteria had nuclear/chromosomal abnormalities, such as abnormal number of pronuclei and abnormal chromosome segregation, which may lead abortion. (eurekalert.org)
  • The longest standing goal of my lab has been to understand how particular proteins direct accurate chromosome segregation at mitosis and meiosis. (upenn.edu)
  • YACs contain cis -acting DNA elements known to be required for chromosome replication, segregation, and stability ( i.e ., centromere, origin of replication, and telomeres). (genetics.org)
  • Importantly, since YACs are not essential for the viability of a yeast cell, they are useful for the analysis of chromosome segregation as their loss and/or rearrangement can be monitored without detrimental effects to the cell. (genetics.org)
  • Overview of course research project to isolate and characterize yeast mutants with defects in mitotic chromosome segregation. (genetics.org)
  • Now, a study published by Cell Press in the April 29th issue of the journal Cell , provides fascinating new insight into the complex of proteins that orchestrates the proper segregation of human chromosomes during cell division. (scienceblog.com)
  • We found that although CENP-A is essential for specifying the site of kinetochore formation, CENP-T and CENP-C can act as key components to drive assembly of a functional kinetochore capable of binding microtubules to allow accurate chromosome segregation," concludes first author Dr. Karen Gascoigne. (scienceblog.com)
  • Aneuploidy is a feature of most cancer cells that is often accompanied by an elevated rate of chromosome mis-segregation termed chromosome instability (CIN). (biomedcentral.com)
  • This quantitative assay for chromosome mis-segregation is based on the use of a non-essential human artificial chromosome (HAC) carrying a constitutively expressed EGFP transgene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, this new and simple assay allows for a quick and efficient screen of hundreds of drugs to identify those affecting chromosome mis-segregation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The identification of new compounds that increase chromosome mis-segregation rates should expedite the development of new therapeutic strategies to target the CIN phenotype in cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Janssen and co-authors [ 2 ] have analyzed the consequences of gradual increases in chromosome segregation errors on the viability of tumor cells and normal human fibroblasts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Partial reduction of essential mitotic checkpoint components in tumor cell lines caused mild chromosome mis-segregation, but no lethality. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These cells were, however, much more sensitive to low doses of taxol, which enhances the amount and severity of chromosome segregation errors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Centromere is the chromosomal domain essential to the segregation of eukaryotic chromosomes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Chromosome Segregation and aneuploidy. (nii.ac.jp)
  • HACs essentially function as new mini-chromosomes carrying engineered sets of genes that are inherited alongside a cell's natural set of chromosomes. (eurekalert.org)
  • and third, identifying and characterizing genes associated with human disease. (genome.gov)
  • Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance The chromosomal theory of inheritance is the idea that genes, the units of heredity, are physical in nature and are found in the chromosomes. (bookrags.com)
  • Chromosome Chromosomes are structures in the nucleus of the cell that contain the DNA or hereditary material which form genes. (bookrags.com)
  • Chromosome Chromosomes are thread-like bodies in the cell nucleus of all plants and animals that hold the genes--the blueprints of heredity. (bookrags.com)
  • Chromosome Mapping Also known as cytogenetic mapping or genetic mapping, chromosome mapping is a technique used to locate particular characteristics (coded for by specific genes) on specific chromosom. (bookrags.com)
  • Chromosomes contain the genes, or segments of DNA, that encode for. (bookrags.com)
  • Chromosome Identification and Banding Each pair of chromosomes in the eukaryotic cell contains a unique set of genes and thus the DNA sequence is also unique for each different chromosome pair. (bookrags.com)
  • Chromosome Mapping and Sequencing A chromosome map describes the order of genes and other markers, and the spacing between them on the chromosome. (bookrags.com)
  • To identify metastasis suppressor genes on human chromosomes, several groups have used the refined process of transferring individual human chromosomes into highly metastatic Dunning R-3327 rat prostate cancer cells by microcell-mediated chromosome transfer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • During interphase, the genes carried on the chromosomes are transcribed , to form proteins needed by the cell. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Every human cell carries 46 chromosomes, the DNA-and-protein packages that transmit genes from generation to generation as cells divide. (technologyreview.com)
  • Lately, scientists have been wondering whether they can fool the machinery of the cell by inserting a synthetic 47th chromosome furnished with genes of their own choosing. (technologyreview.com)
  • they are testing artificial chromosomes as a safe and effective way to introduce therapeutic genes into patients suffering from deadly genetic disorders. (technologyreview.com)
  • An artificial chromosome can carry any number of genes, is ignored by the immune system, and functions independently of other chromosomes, so the technique "represents potentially a response or an answer to those challenges," says Huntington F. Willard, director of the Duke University Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy. (technologyreview.com)
  • These combined maps and the YAC clones provide a set of extended DNA loci ordered at high odds that can be used to isolate additional polymorphic loci and genes, and to serve as a framework for obtaining a higher resolution physical map of the chromosome. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, the availability of large-insert genomic librairies such as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) is a valuable tool for identifying cancer genes. (hindawi.com)
  • It's also going to be a powerful tool for understanding gene function not just for yeast but for humans," Bader added, noting that many human genes share a common ancestor with their yeast counterparts. (aaas.org)
  • Geneticists at Emory University School of Medicine have demonstrated a method that enables the routine amplification of all the genes on the X chromosome. (innovations-report.com)
  • The technology allows the rapid and highly accurate sequencing and identification of novel genetic variants affecting X chromosome genes. (innovations-report.com)
  • Because the X chromosome is a hotspot for genes that are suspected of contributing to autism and intellectual disability, the Emory team's finding could speed new discoveries and eventually make routine clinical diagnosis of autism and intellectual disability easier. (innovations-report.com)
  • BACs can also be utilized to detect genes or large sequences of interest and then used to map them onto the human chromosome using BAC arrays . (wikipedia.org)
  • WGSS revealed that the genes are located on opposite arms of a novel chromosome. (ubc.ca)
  • These genes can be activated by spinach or smurf berry treatment (via CpG demethylation) or by exposure to γ- radiation (via physical separation of chromosome γ from X). This suggests a potential for the discovery of additional "super" genes and chromosomes in association with previously defined chromosomes. (ubc.ca)
  • Here, we identify a novel chromosome associated with the X-chromosome contain-ing two genes that contribute to the observed Hulk phenotype. (ubc.ca)
  • Isolation of single-copy human genes from a library of yeast artificial chromosomes", Science 244:1348-1351 (1989). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • His discoveries have helped to clarify the events that lead to chromosomal recombination-the reshuffling of genes that occurs during meiosis -and the function of telomeres , the specialized DNA sequences at the tips of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For certain diseases it could be very useful to have the ability to deliver multiple therapeutic genes," says Gil Van Bokkelen, chief executive of Athersys in Cleveland, Ohio, one of several teams worldwide trying to develop artificial chromosomes. (newscientist.com)
  • A single gene or even multiple genes up to 1.5 million DNA bases long can be added to the chromosome before it is inserted into cells. (newscientist.com)
  • The Human Genome Project read the sequence of all the genes in humans - that's about 3 billion basepairs! (ubc.ca)
  • They deleted sections of chromosome that seemed unnecessary, and they spliced in bits of DNA that allow them to scramble the yeast's genes on command. (usatoday.com)
  • The presence of more functional P450 genes in the mouse relative to humans is also reflected in the organization of the Cyp3a cluster, which in the mouse comprises eight functional genes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These limitations stimulated the development of a chromosome-based vector system suitable for transferring large genes, gene complexes, and/or multiple genes together with regulatory elements for safe, controlled, and persistent expression, avoiding rearrangements that are often linked with insertion events. (plantcell.org)
  • Reduced Expression of Genes Regulating Cohesion Induces Chromosome Instability that May Promote Cancer and Impact Patient Outcomes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Subsequent direct tests involving a subset of prioritized genes also revealed significant changes in chromosome numbers with corresponding increases in moderate and severe cohesion defects within mitotic chromosome spreads. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Human artificial chromosome (HAC) for measuring chromosome instability (CIN) and identification of genes required for proper chromosome transmission. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Genes responsive to rapamycin and serum deprivation are clustered on chromosomes and undergo re-organization within local chromatin environments. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Researchers are experimenting with introducing an artificial 47th human chromosome to deliver new genes. (dailypress.com)
  • Use Of Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs) For Studying Control Of Gene Expression: Correct Regulation Of The Genes Of a Human .beta. (patentgenius.com)
  • To test this possibility, transgenic mice were generated with 145- and 207-kb bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) that contained the human apoB gene and more extensive 5'- and 3'-flanking sequences. (caltech.edu)
  • Until recently, most clinical applications of array-CGH, other than some cancer studies, have been based on arrays constructed by covalent attachment to glass slides of DNA from whole clones, typically cosmids, P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs), or bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), or of polymerase chain reaction products generated from such clones. (nature.com)
  • Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes, Second Edition expands upon the previous edition with current, detailed methods developed for working with BACs. (springer.com)
  • Cloning of the genomes of human cytomegalovirus strains Toledo, TownevarRIT3, and Towne long as BACs and site-directed mutagenesis using a PCR-based technique. (biomedsearch.com)
  • USA 98, 7829-7834), and the pathogenic strain Toledo into bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). (biomedsearch.com)
  • BACs are often used to sequence the genome of organisms in genome projects , for example the Human Genome Project . (wikipedia.org)
  • however, this problem could also be overcome by the use of single or low-copy vectors, such as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). (hindawi.com)
  • The groups generate bacterial artificial chromosome sequences (BACS). (brainscape.com)
  • Alternative methods of creating transgenes, such as utilizing yeast artificial chromosomes and bacterial artificial chromosomes, lead to unpredictable problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeast artificial chromosomes and bacterial artificial chromosomes were created before human artificial chromosomes, which were first developed in 1997. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeast artificial chromosomes and bacterial artificial chromosomes were invented before human artificial chromosomes, which first appeared in 1997 . (wikidoc.org)
  • Analysis of the 1.1-Mb human alpha/delta T-cell receptor locus with bacterial artificial chromosome clones. (nih.gov)
  • Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones are effective mapping and sequencing reagents. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we report on the use of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) to begin understanding the in vivo regulation of smooth muscle calponin (SM-Calp). (physiology.org)
  • Human Apolipoprotein B Transgenic Mice Generated with 207- and 145-Kilobase Pair Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. (caltech.edu)
  • The full-length genome of human cytomegalovirus strain AD169 was cloned as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) plasmid, pAD/Cre. (asm.org)
  • Purpose: The goal of this work was to test the ability of oligonucleotide-based arrays to reproduce the results of focused bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based arrays used clinically in comparative genomic hybridization experiments to detect constitutional copy number changes in genomic DNA. (nature.com)
  • A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is an engineered DNA molecule used to clone DNA sequences in bacterial cells (for example, E. coli). (genome.gov)
  • A large piece of DNA can be engineered in a fashion that allows it be propagated as a circular artificial chromosome in bacteria--so-called bacterial artificial chromosome, or BAC. (genome.gov)
  • Bacterial artificial chromosome Human artificial chromosome Yeast artificial chromosome Yarmolinsky M, Hoess R (November 2015). (wikipedia.org)
  • Authoritative and cutting-edge, Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes, Second Edition seeks to aid scientists in advancing their research using these exciting BAC techniques and strategies. (springer.com)
  • The development of the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system was driven in part by the human genome project in order to construct genomic DNA libraries and physical maps for genomic sequencing. (hindawi.com)
  • The gl locus was identified in a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig by functional genetic complementation in transgenic mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Generation of human CD20 (hCD20) + mice was accomplished through the use bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) incorporating the hCD20 locus. (jimmunol.org)
  • A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was generated from a derivative of the sequenced E. coli O157:H7 Sakai strain. (frontiersin.org)
  • A bacterial artificial chromosome ( BAC ) is a DNA construct , based on a functional fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid ), used for transforming and cloning in bacteria , usually E. coli . (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacterial artificial chromosome's usual insert size is 150-350 kbp . (wikipedia.org)
  • Whole Genome Shotgun Sequencing (WGSS) was subsequently performed on the Hulk, from which chromosome γ was assembled and Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC) were created. (ubc.ca)
  • Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC) have been developed to hold much larger pieces of DNA than a plasmid can. (ubc.ca)
  • To elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms in Huntington's disease (HD) elicited by expression of full-length human mutant huntingtin (fl-mhtt), a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-mediated transgenic mouse model (BACHD) was developed expressing fl-mhtt with 97 glutamine repeats under the control of endogenous htt regulatory machinery on the BAC. (jneurosci.org)
  • We present a method, called fingerprint profiling (FPP), that uses restriction digest fingerprints of bacterial artificial chromosome clones to detect and classify rearrangements in the human genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Presently, various array-based methods, such as the 32 K bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) array and Affy 100 K SNP array [ 21 - 23 ], are the most common approaches to detecting and localizing copy number variants, which are one class of genomic variation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector was constructed from a 1-Mb yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) that was selected based on its size from among several YACs identified by screening a randomly chosen subset of the Centre d'Étude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) (Paris) YAC library with a degenerate alpha satellite probe. (pnas.org)
  • The ascertainment of these elements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided the basis for the construction of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), which have proven to be important tools both for the study of yeast chromosomal function and as large capacity cloning vectors ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • 18 ) used two 100-kb YACs containing alpha satellite DNA from human chromosome 21 propagated in a recombination deficient strain, which necessitated transient expression of a recombination protein (Rad52) to modify the YAC with telomere sequences and selectable markers ( 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • Mammalian telomere repeats and a selectable marker were introduced into yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) containing alphoid DNA from the centromere region of human chromosome 21 in a recombination-deficient yeast host. (nih.gov)
  • Sequence-tagged sites (STSs) derived from end fragments of chromosome-specific yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) can facilitate the assembly of an overlapping YAC/STS map. (wustl.edu)
  • The mapping strategy is shown to be successful in simulations with portions of the X chromosome already largely mapped into overlapping YACs by other means. (wustl.edu)
  • Transformation of yeast with yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) has traditionally been performed by a PEG-spheroplast procedure. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A library of yeast artificaial chromosomes (YACs) was constructed from a human/hamster somatic cell hybrid containing human chromosome 21 (q11-qter). (elsevier.com)
  • Among 21 YACs tested by in situ hybridization, 17 mapped to chromosome 21. (elsevier.com)
  • Almost immediately, YACs were used in large-scale determination of genetic sequences, most prominently the Human Genome Project. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The segments are introduced by fusion with yeast spheroplasts comprising yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) which include the xenogeneic DNA segments and a selective marker such as HPRT, and embryonic stem cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • We transformed a cultured human cell line with these human telomere and alphoid containing YAC and obtained transformants with both YACs. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Targeted Integration Of Neomycin Into Yeast Artifical Chromosomes (YACs) For Transfection Into Mammalian Cells," Nucleic Acids Research 20(12):2971-2976 (1992). (patentgenius.com)
  • Addition Of Functional Human Telomeres To YACs," Human Molecular Genetics 3(8):1383-1386 (1994). (patentgenius.com)
  • HACs were first constructed de novo in 1997 by adding alpha-satellite DNA to telomeric and genomic DNA in human HT1080 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The undefined genomic DNA component appeared to play an important role in the ability to form HACs, leaving unanswered questions as to what sequences, other than telomeres and alpha satellite DNA, were necessary for chromosome formation. (pnas.org)
  • Artificial chromosomes, which harbor hundreds of kilobases of genomic DNA, preserve a large sequence landscape containing most, if not all, regulatory elements controlling the expression of a particular gene. (physiology.org)
  • An important outgrowth of the Human Genome Project that has assisted investigators in defining the boundaries of genomic DNA necessary for the complete expression of a particular gene has been the development of artificial chromosomes ( 4 , 50 ). (physiology.org)
  • Doule screening of the yeast transformants with human and hamster genomic DNA allowed the selection of clones hybridizing only with human DNA. (elsevier.com)
  • DNA methylation is a common epigenetic marker and plays important roles in the regulation of gene expression, genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation, embryonic development, and cancer5. (ubc.ca)
  • Here we describe a novel multiple humanized mouse line that combines a humanization for PXR, the closely related constitutive androstane receptor, and a replacement of the mouse Cyp3a cluster with a large human genomic region carrying CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 . (aspetjournals.org)
  • Analysis of a limited set of mouse mammary gland (MG) adenocarcinomas proposed SEPT9 as a novel oncogene because of its high level of genomic amplification in the form of double-minute chromosomes and jumping translocations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For cell replication to occur, human centromeres are not simply coded by a DNA sequence, unlike baker's yeast long used synthetic chromosome research. (eurekalert.org)
  • A large DNA sequence constructed in the laboratory to function like a human chromosome. (yourdictionary.com)
  • As the time rapidly approaches when the complete sequence of a human chromosome will be known, it is striking how little is known about how human chromosomes function. (pnas.org)
  • It has been demonstrated that telomeric DNA, consisting of tandem repeats of the sequence T 2 AG 3 , can seed the formation of new telomeres when reintroduced into human cells ( 4 - 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • As for the third required element, the study of origins of DNA replication also has led to conflicting reports, with no apparent consensus sequence having yet been determined for the initiation of DNA synthesis in human cells ( 15 , 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • In order to define a functional human centromere sequence, an artificial chromosome was constructed as a reproducible DNA molecule. (nih.gov)
  • These BAC features led to the proposal of a new approach to sequence the human genome. (nih.gov)
  • Long and accurate polymerase chain reaction, sequencing, and in silico analyses facilitated the complete sequence annotation of a BAC harboring human SM-Calp (hSM-Calp). (physiology.org)
  • The sequence of the TRL13 open reading frame in the low-passage Toledo strain of human cytomegalovirus is quite different from the corresponding region in the AD169 strain. (asm.org)
  • Methods: Custom oligonucleotide (oligo) arrays were designed using the Agilent Technologies platform to give high-resolution coverage of regions within the genome sequence coordinates of BAC/P1 artificial chromosome (PAC) clones that had already been validated for use in previous versions of clone arrays used in clinical practice. (nature.com)
  • The region of human chromosome 8 retained in each microcell hybrid was determined by a PCR analysis with sequence-tagged site markers, and this analysis placed the metastasis suppressor gene in the interval between D8S2249 and D8S2244 on human chromosome 8p21-p12. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we review the progress in centromere genomics spanning the discovery of the sequence to its molecular characterization and the work done during the Human Genome Project era to elucidate alpha satellite structure and sequence variation. (mdpi.com)
  • We discuss exciting recent advances in alpha satellite sequence assembly that have provided important insight into the abundance and complex organization of this sequence on human chromosomes. (mdpi.com)
  • In humans, the chromosomal element-the centromere-that directs this process is not defined by a particular DNA sequence. (upenn.edu)
  • The team used data from the HapMap Project, a partnership coordinated by the Human Genome Research Institute, as a reference standard for genetic sequence variation.Sex is determined by having two X chromosomes (female) or an X and a Y chromosome (male). (innovations-report.com)
  • Then, sufficient copies of each piece of the human genome could be generated so that automatic sequencing machines would have enough material to sequence the DNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As a computer scientist, I designed and developed algorithms to recode and edit the DNA sequence of yeast chromosomes. (essex.ac.uk)
  • Different groups are each given a chromosome to sequence. (brainscape.com)
  • In June 2000, the draft sequence of the human genome was announced. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • HACs are useful in expression studies as gene transfer vectors, as a tool for elucidating human chromosome function, and as a method for actively annotating the human genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are currently two accepted models for the creation of human artificial chromosome vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, HACs avoid the limited cloning capacity, lack of copy number control and insertional mutagenesis due to integration into host chromosomes that plague viral vectors. (nih.gov)
  • They are useful in expression studies as gene transfer vectors and are a tool for elucidating human chromosome function. (wikidoc.org)
  • Human artificial chromosome (HAC) vectors have some unique characteristics as compared with conventional vectors, carrying large transgenes without size limitation, showing persistent expression of transgenes, and existing independently from host genome in cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cloning of large segments of exogenous DNA into yeast by means of artificial chromosome vectors," Science 236:806-812 (1987). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Using plasmid vectors, more than 1.8 billion clones are required to examine an entire human genome. (ubc.ca)
  • artificial chromosome vectors. (google.es)
  • Burke DT, Carle GF, Olsen MV (1987) Cloning of large segments of exogenous DNA into yeast by means of artif1cial chromosome vectors. (google.es)
  • by means of artificial chromosome vectors. (google.es)
  • In collaboration with Dr.Cooke, we constructed YAC arm vectors containing human telomere sequences and selectable markers for mammalian cells and both arms of alphoid YAC were replaced with these arms by recombination in vivo. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Inheritance of HACs from mother to daughter cells during division is key, and this speaks to the importance of the centromere--the cinched area of duplicated chromosomes responsible for holding together pairs of "sister" chromosomes created when cells divide. (eurekalert.org)
  • Building on our success, we and others in the synthetic chromosome field will now have a real chance to attain what has only been achieved so far in yeast cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • A human artificial chromosome (HAC) is a microchromosome that can act as a new chromosome in a population of human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 21HAC was also able to be transferred into cells from a variety of species (mice, chickens, humans). (wikipedia.org)
  • a The human chromosome 21 was transferred from human cells to recombination-proficient chicken DT40 cells. (nih.gov)
  • A HOR DNA array of 30-200 kb in size isolated as a BAC forms a HAC after its transfection into human fibrocarcoma HT1080 cells. (nih.gov)
  • We present a novel and efficient non-integrating gene expression system in human embryonic stem cells (hESc) utilizing human artificial chromosomes (HAC), which behave as autonomous endogenous host chromosomes and segregate correctly during cell division. (nih.gov)
  • The resultant HAC vector was introduced into human cells by lipid-mediated DNA transfection, and HACs were identified that bound the active kinetochore protein CENP-E and were mitotically stable in the absence of selection for at least 100 generations. (pnas.org)
  • The use of a similar strategy in human cells to produce human artificial chromosomes (HACs) might be expected to provide an important tool for the manipulation of large DNA sequences in human cells. (pnas.org)
  • However, of the three required chromosomal elements, only telomeres have been well defined in human cells to date. (pnas.org)
  • The production of HACs from cloned DNA sources should help to define the elements necessary for human chromosomal function and to provide an important vector suitable for the manipulation of large DNA sequences in human cells. (pnas.org)
  • Two approaches to generate chromosomes with the "bottom up" strategy in human cells from human elements have recently been described. (pnas.org)
  • The use of human artificial chromosomes overcomes both of these problems by providing a new chromosome in addition to the ones that already exist in the cells of the subject. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • She said that the point of creating the human artificial chromosome project is to develop a shuttle vector for gene delivery into human cells to study gene function in human cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When pAD/Cre was transfected into primary human foreskin fibroblast cells, Cre was expressed and mediated site-specific recombination between the two LoxP sites, excising the BAC DNA backbone. (asm.org)
  • Cre recombinase is produced, and the BAC vector DNA is excised by site-specific Cre/LoxP recombination upon introduction of the BAC DNA into human cells, generating a wild-type virus with only a 34-bp LoxP site following the Us28 gene. (asm.org)
  • However, the method of introduction of HACs into target cells is confined to microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT), which is less efficient than other methods of vector introduction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Application of Measles Virus (MV) fusogenic proteins to MMCT instead of polyethylene glycol (PEG) has partly solved this drawback, whereas the tropism of MV fusogenic proteins is restricted to human CD46- or SLAM-positive cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Efficacy of chimeric fusogenic proteins was evaluated by the evidence that the HAC, tagged with a drug-resistant gene and an EGFP gene, was transferred from CHO donor cells into human fibroblasts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It was demonstrated that higher efficiency of microcell fusion was achieved in some human cells by means of microcells which expressed MV-derived fusion machinery, both the hemagglutinin (H) protein and fusion (F) protein, as compared to PEG-induced fusion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The DNA is in blue and the network of microtubules in green, the machinery that helps the chromosomes to be distributed equally into the two identical daughter cells. (sruk.org.uk)
  • Eventual errors in the distribution of the genetic material between the two daughter cells, phenomena known as aneuploidy, give rise to alterations of the number of chromosomes, which are the cause of many types of cancer and different congenital diseases, such as Down's syndrome (caused by an error in the chromosome 21 distribution during cell division). (sruk.org.uk)
  • A rtificial chromosomes are essentially miniature versions of real chromosomes that can replicate alongside their natural counterparts in host cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • The DNA is then transfected into human cells that have been engineered to express a fusion protein consisting of a LacO binding domain and a factor called HJURP. (the-scientist.com)
  • They then transfect the LacO-containing DNA into human cells engineered to express a fusion protein composed of a LacO binding domain and a protein called HJURP-an epigenetic factor responsible for incorporating CENP-A into chromatin. (the-scientist.com)
  • To define further the region harboring the metastasis suppressor gene, a truncated human chromosome 8 containing this region was transferred into highly metastatic AT6.3 rat prostate cancer cells by microcell-mediated chromosome transfer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This demonstrates that the 60-kb fragment from the human chromosome 8p21-p12 region contains the metastasis suppressor gene for the AT6.3 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To define further the region of the metastasis suppressor gene on human chromosome 8, a truncated human chromosome 8 with the metastasis suppressor activity that was generated with the initial irradiated microcell-mediated chromosome transfer was retransferred into the rat prostate cancer cells by microcell-mediated chromosome transfer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The resultant microcell hybrids were analyzed to determine which portion of human chromosome 8 suppressed the metastatic ability of the rat prostate cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The dual problem of how to store this large amount of genetic information but also to keep it accessible for use and for faithful maintenance, copying, and distribution to daughter cells during cell division , is solved by using proteins to package the DNA into chromosomes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Since the binding of DNA by histones interferes with this access, cells have evolved specific mechanism to destabilize nucleosomes in chromosome regions that must be transcribed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In experiments on mice, Chromos has demonstrated that the bogus chromosomes are transmitted from mother cells to daughter cells during cell division and from one generation to the next as animals reproduce. (technologyreview.com)
  • More recently, Chromos scientists proved that they can raise red blood cell counts in mice by injecting cells that contain artificial chromosomes bearing the gene for erythropoeitin, a protein that stimulates blood cell production. (technologyreview.com)
  • The cell skeleton, which distributes the chromosomes to the two daughter cells during cell division, attaches to the centromeres. (redorbit.com)
  • Using this approach, the researchers succeeded in distributing artificial minichromosomes between the two daughter cells during cell division. (redorbit.com)
  • After mutagenizing yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, students implement a genetic screen that allows for visual detection of mutants with an increased loss of an ADE2 -marked yeast artificial chromosome (YAC). (genetics.org)
  • Despite such changes, Bader and colleagues report, once the altered chromosomes were chemically synthesized - a process that involved stringing together individual DNA building blocks and placing the resulting chromosomes in living yeast cells - the cells grew normally. (aaas.org)
  • Cultivating human cells in the Petri dish is not a big challenge today. (innovations-report.com)
  • However, CENP-A is not sufficient for kinetochore formation in human cells. (scienceblog.com)
  • They found that in human cells, CENP-C and CENP-T/W could direct functional kinetochore formation in the absence of CENP-A. (scienceblog.com)
  • Thus, targeting the mitotic checkpoint and chromosome alignment simultaneously may selectively kill tumor cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Treatment of normal cells with γ-radiation caused a dissociation of the γ- from the X-chromosome. (ubc.ca)
  • Researchers are looking at actin polymerization and calcium uptake in human cells to study mitochondrial division. (the-scientist.com)
  • This is an artificial chromosome that contains telomeres (disposable buffers at the ends of chromosomes which are cut off during cell division) with origins of replication, a yeast centromere (part of a chromosome that links sister chromatids or a dyad), and a selectable marker for identification in yeast cells. (thoughtco.com)
  • This type of vector is potentially useful for gene delivery into human cells, and a tool for expression studies and determining human chromosome function. (thoughtco.com)
  • Scientists have used yeast as a model organism because these cells share many features with human cells, but are simpler and easier to study. (essex.ac.uk)
  • Genetic diseases might one day be treated by adding an entirely new chromosome to people's cells. (newscientist.com)
  • Cells with the artificial chromosome carrying the gene were selected and injected into mice. (newscientist.com)
  • As expected, the animals showed significant increases in their red blood cell counts compared with others injected with cells carrying the artificial chromosome without the added gene. (newscientist.com)
  • The artificial chromosome carrying the correct version of a gene would be inserted into cells - possibly stem cells - taken from a patient, and the modified cells would then be injected back into the patient. (newscientist.com)
  • Brown W.R.A., Smith M.C.M., Dafhnis-Calas F., Malla S., Xu Z. (2006) Chromosome engineering in DT40 cells and mammalian centromere function. (springer.com)
  • According to LifeNews.com , researchers at the University of Wisconsin have successfully transferred cells from human embryos into the brains of mice. (thetruthwins.com)
  • Then the researchers replaced those damaged cells with cells derived from human embryos. (thetruthwins.com)
  • For the Rochester study, researchers implanted newborn mice with nascent human glial cells, which help support and nourish neurons in the brain. (thetruthwins.com)
  • Transfer Of Yeast Artificial Chromosomes Into Mammalian Cells And Comparative Study Of Their Integrity," Gene 163:27-33 (1995). (patentgenius.com)
  • The Human HPRT Gene On a Yeast Artificial Chromosome Is Functional When Transferred To Mouse Cells By Cell Fusion," Genomics 9:742-750 (1991). (patentgenius.com)
  • Human artificial chromosome (HAC, green) with two sister centromeres (red), similar to that of the natural host chromosomes (blue). (eurekalert.org)
  • Formation of de novo centromeres and construction of first-generation human artificial microchromosomes in Nature Genetics 15, 345 - 355 (1997) Harrington and Bokkelen et al. (wikidoc.org)
  • Three important elements appear to be required for the mitotic stability of linear chromosomes: centromeres, telomeres, and origins of replication. (pnas.org)
  • The second required element, a human centromere, is thought to consist mainly of repeated DNA, specifically the alpha satellite DNA family, which is found at all normal human centromeres ( 10 - 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, normal human centromeres are large in size and complex in organization, and sequences lacking alpha satellite repeats also have been shown to be capable of human centromere function ( 13 , 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Centromeres are labelled in red and the chromosomes in grey. (sruk.org.uk)
  • However, this potential isn't always realized because there's a stubborn hurdle hindering artificial chromosome construction: creating centromeres. (the-scientist.com)
  • Centromeres tend to be buried deep in a jungle of repetitive DNA, known as α-satellite DNA in humans, and those repeats often contain binding sites for CENP-B, a protein thought to contribute to CENP-A loading. (the-scientist.com)
  • α-satellite DNA is found at all human centromeres. (the-scientist.com)
  • Human centromeres are located at repetitive alpha satellite DNA arrays that compose approximately 5% of the genome. (mdpi.com)
  • Centromeres are specialised regions of the genome, which can be identified under the microscope as the primary constriction in X-shaped chromosomes. (redorbit.com)
  • Highly Conserved Repetitive DNA Sequences Are Present At Human Centromeres," Proc. (patentgenius.com)
  • Chromosomal Aberrations Chromosomal aberrations are abnormalities in the structure or number of chromosomes and are often responsible for genetic disorders. (bookrags.com)
  • Chromosomal Banding A chromosome banding pattern is comprised of alternating light and dark stripes, or bands, that appear along its length after being stained with a dye. (bookrags.com)
  • Chromosomal Mutations and Abnormalities Chromosome abnormalities describe alterations in the normal number of chromosomes or structural problems within the chromosomes themselves. (bookrags.com)
  • The centromere is the chromosomal locus essential for chromosome inheritance and genome stability. (mdpi.com)
  • Since chromosome banding techniques have been applied to the analysis of chromosomal aberrations in leukemia and cancer, several hundreds of recurring chromosomal breakpoints have been identified. (hindawi.com)
  • Neither migration nor admixture are mentioned in the text, and, in my opinion, these processes have shaped modern human Y chromosomal variation. (blogspot.com)
  • As the yeast cell undergoes rounds of growth and division, the artificial chromosome is replicated as if it were a natural chromosomal constituent of the cell. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Additionally, engineered chromosomes could be used to address questions concerning the function of specific chromosomal domains (e.g., centromeric regions). (plantcell.org)
  • Considerable progress has been made in developing mammalian chromosome-based vector systems either by engineering endogenous chromosomes (top-down approach) or by artificial composition of cloned chromosomal constituents into functional chromosomes (bottom-up approach). (plantcell.org)
  • Chromosomal instability (CIN) is one of the characteristics of cancer inherent for tumor initiation and progression, which is defined as a persistent, high rate of gain/loss of whole chromosomes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The chromosome research study is also the first time a non-invasive technology has been able to identify a specific chromosomal abnormality - trisomy 21 - based on morphological assessment through AI. (prweb.com)
  • This step-by-step construction project is the goal of the Human Genome Project-Write, a collaboration to build that life-size synthetic chromosome. (eurekalert.org)
  • The completion of the sequencing phase of the Human Genome Project has provided important raw data for the mining of regulatory elements governing the expression profile of a gene ( 54 ). (physiology.org)
  • In seven new studies, scientists of the Synthetic Yeast Genome Project (Sc2.0) who previously constructed a single yeast chromosome now report constructing five more chromosomes - representing more than one-third of yeast's entire genome. (aaas.org)
  • His research findings in this area are also instrumental to the Human Genome Project . (wikipedia.org)
  • Microdissected HACs used as fluorescence in situ hybridization probes localized to the HAC itself and not to the arms of any endogenous human chromosomes, suggesting that the HAC was not formed by telomere fragmentation. (pnas.org)
  • Because the BAC is much smaller than the endogenous bacterial chromosome, it is straightforward to purify the BAC DNA away from the rest of the bacteria cell's DNA, and thus have the cloned DNA in a purified form. (genome.gov)
  • The subject invention provides non-human mammalian hosts characterized by inactivated endogenous Ig loci and functional human Ig loci for response to an immunogen to produce human antibodies or analogs thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Fully human antibodies against a specific antigen can be prepared by administering the antigen to a transgenic animal which has been modified to produce such antibodies in response to antigenic challenge, but whose endogenous loci have been disabled. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The 1.1-Mb alpha/delta T-cell receptor locus of humans was mapped and partially sequenced with BAC clones. (nih.gov)
  • We reported previously that ~80-kilobase pair (kb) P1 bacteriophage clones spanning either the human or mouse apoB gene (clones p158 and p649, respectively) confer apoB expression in the liver of transgenic mice, but not in the intestine. (caltech.edu)
  • The library consists of 321 clones, amounting to 1.5 equivalents (61 Mb) of chromosome 21. (elsevier.com)
  • We have isolated and characterized a set of overlapping cDNA clones that encode the human centromere autoantigen centromere protein C (CENP-C). The identity of these clones has been established using several criteria. (semanticscholar.org)
  • By using a vector that can hold larger pieces of DNA, the number of clones required to cover the human genome six times theoretically could drop from 1.8 billion to about 50 million. (ubc.ca)
  • Clone coverage of the human genome could then be achieved with only a small fraction of the clones required to achieve comparable genome coverage in clone end sequences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mapping Human Telomere Regions With YAC and P1 Clones: Chromosome-Specific Markers For 27 Telomeres Including 149 STSs and 24 Polymorphisms For 14 Proterminal Regions," Genomics 36:492-506 (1996). (patentgenius.com)
  • Researchers therefore generally include α-satellite DNA with CENP-B binding sites in sequences they wish to convert to human artificial chromosomes (HACs), but even with these seemingly appropriate sequences, centromere formation is hit-and-miss. (the-scientist.com)
  • BUILDING A CENTROMERE: To convert a piece of cloned DNA into a centromere-containing human artificial chromosome (HAC), an array of repeated LacO sequences is incorporated into the DNA. (the-scientist.com)
  • Within the Human Molecular Genetics area, there is an emphasis on the role of repetitive DNA sequences in health and disease, and in chromosome stability. (prospects.ac.uk)
  • Chromos has engineered its artificial chromosome so that extra sequences can be added in specific locations. (newscientist.com)
  • In contrast to natural nucleotide sequences, artificial random sequences give non-regular patterns. (mdpi.com)
  • Examples of binary mosaics of long nucleotide sequences are shown, including cases of human chromosomes and penicillins. (mdpi.com)
  • A Modified S. cerevisiae Telomerase that Synthesizes the Human Telomeric Repeats in vivo," Cell Structure and Function (Abstract IP-03), 21:582 (1996).i. (patentgenius.com)
  • PHILADELPHIA) - For the past 20 years, researchers have been trying to perfect the construction of human artificial chromosomes, or HACs for short. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our developments streamline the construction and characterization of HACs to aid in efforts to make synthetic whole human chromosomes," said Ben Black, PhD, a professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, who has dedicated decades to understanding the process. (eurekalert.org)
  • Think of the HACs we build now as model-sized chromosomes," said first author Glennis Logsdon, PhD, a doctoral student in Black's lab at the time of the study and now a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Washington. (eurekalert.org)
  • HACs differ in this regard, as they are entirely separate chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • HACs have been used to create transgenic animals for use as animal models of human disease and for production of therapeutic products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since their description in the late 1990s, human artificial chromosomes (HACs) carrying a functional kinetochore were considered as a promising system for gene delivery and expression with a potential to overcome many problems caused by the use of viral-based gene transfer systems. (nih.gov)
  • In this review, we summarize recent progress made in HAC technology and concentrate on details of two of the most advanced HACs, 21HAC generated by truncation of human chromosome 21 and alphoid(tetO)-HAC generated de novo using a synthetic tetO-alphoid DNA array. (nih.gov)
  • My main interest during the last four years has been the study of the centromere by using human artificial chromosomes (HACs) ( Figure 3 ). (sruk.org.uk)
  • Since their first description, HACs have been used in basic research in cell and molecular biology, usually for the study of chromosome structure and function, as these chromosomes are not essential for the cell viability. (sruk.org.uk)
  • The researchers were even able to generate HACs using a region of chromosome 4 that entirely lacked α-satellite repeats. (the-scientist.com)
  • Human Molecular Genetics , 3 (2), 243-246. (elsevier.com)
  • Senior author Michael Zwick, PhD, assistant professor of human genetics at Emory University School of Medicine, is using the method to identify genetic variants that contribute to autism spectrum disorders. (innovations-report.com)
  • Human Huntingtin Derived From YAC Transgenes Compensates For Loss Of Murine Huntingtin By Rescue Of The Embryonic Lethal Phenotype," Human Molecular Genetics 5(12):1875-1885 (1996). (patentgenius.com)
  • Our ability to manipulate the HAC vector by recombinant genetic methods should allow us to further define the elements necessary for mammalian chromosome function. (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, MMCT is also used in gene transfer using a human artificial chromosome (HAC), mini-chromosome vector. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The reason the cloning vector is called a yeast artificial chromosome has to do with the structure of the vector. (encyclopedia.com)
  • yeast artificial chromosome - A vector system that allows extremely large segments of DNA to be cloned. (academic.ru)
  • Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) - A vector (carrier) created and used in the laboratory to clone pieces of DNA. (academic.ru)
  • To circumvent the necessity of de novo centromere formation, modification of existing chromosomes to generate a chromosome-based vector can be achieved by at least two different routes. (plantcell.org)
  • Various proteins act to stabilize DNA in interphase, while additional proteins are required to condense the chromosomes over a thousandfold to form the compact chromosomes required for mitosis and cell division. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These centromeric proteins interact directly with the DNA to create a specialized chromatin compartment that is distinct from any other part of the chromosome. (upenn.edu)
  • Students are immersed in a research project with the ultimate goal of identifying proteins important for chromosome transmission in mitosis. (genetics.org)
  • This course involves an interdisciplinary research project aimed at identifying proteins important for chromosome transmission during mitosis in the excellent genetic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae (common baker's yeast). (genetics.org)
  • During the process of mitosis, DNA and its associated packing proteins are arranged into structures called chromosomes that are duplicated and then segregated. (scienceblog.com)
  • The kinetochore is composed of more than one hundred proteins and serves as the binding site for microtubules that are attached to opposite ends of the cell and will physically pull the two identical chromosomes apart. (scienceblog.com)
  • Sensitization to taxol was achieved by reducing the levels of Mps1 or BubR1, proteins with dual roles in checkpoint activation and chromosome alignment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • But before Chromos or anyone else can move to human trials, says Huntington Willard of Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, they will have to run a series of rigorous studies to prove that their product is stable and consistently churns out the desired proteins. (newscientist.com)
  • Truncation of chromosome 21 resulted in a human artificial chromosome that was mitotically stable. (wikipedia.org)
  • The TEL/Δq-hisD and TEL/Δp-PGK-Puro constructs were used for chromosome 21 truncation. (nih.gov)
  • The first is to create a small mini-chromosome by altering a natural human chromosome. (foglets.com)
  • The Penn team's contribution will help speed creating useful research and clinical tools based on synthetic chromosomes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Human Artificial Chromosomes (Hac) Human artificial chromosomes (HAC) are synthetic chromosomes that are structurally similar to normal chromosomes that, in addition to being artificially created, car. (bookrags.com)
  • We are using the understanding gained from this work to advance technologies for building synthetic chromosomes for applications in research and medicine. (upenn.edu)
  • The results , published in the 10 March issue of Science , are major progress on the road to building the first fully synthetic eukaryotic - or nucleus-containing - organism, which the Sc2.0 consortium hopes to complete in the next two years by swapping all 16 yeast chromosomes for engineered ones. (aaas.org)
  • Our synthetic chromosomes permit the yeast genome to overcome this problem. (aaas.org)
  • Once equipped with a full set of synthetic and changeable chromosomes, baker's yeast could produce better versions of the important commodities it already delivers, including new antibiotics or more environmentally friendly biofuels. (aaas.org)
  • In March 2014, researchers led by Bader built the first synthetic yeast eukaryotic chromosome, synIII. (aaas.org)
  • To expedite the work of building synthetic yeast chromosomes, Bader and colleagues set up a summer class at Johns Hopkins called Build-A- Genome. (aaas.org)
  • Now, he and colleagues have described the assembly of five more synthetic chromosomes: synII, synV, synVI, synX, and synXII, which correspond to the smaller yeast chromosomes. (aaas.org)
  • The synthetic chromosomes, containing DNA, were entirely designed on a computer, in a very similar way to how we design cars and microchips. (essex.ac.uk)
  • Until now, the only synthetic DNA structures were designed for bacteria and viruses, which don't belong to the grouping that includes humans and yeast. (usatoday.com)
  • The researchers named the artificial chromosome, described in this week's edition of Science , synIII, derived from the word "synthetic. (usatoday.com)
  • In one of the unpublished studies, researchers made a human artificial chromosome in the laboratory from chemical building blocks rather than chipping away at an existing human chromosome, indicating the increasingly powerful technology behind the new field of synthetic biology. (thetruthwins.com)
  • This YAC, which also included non-alpha satellite DNA, was modified to contain human telomeric DNA and a putative origin of replication from the human β-globin locus. (pnas.org)
  • A haploid individual has one allele at every locus while a diploid individual has two alleles at each locus (one on each set of chromosomes), which can be the same or different. (dummies.com)
  • Content and organization of the human Ig V.sub.h locus: definition of three new V.sub.h families and linkage to the Ig C.sub.h locus" EMBO J 7:727-738 (1988). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Human antibody production in transgenic mice: expression from 100 kb of the human IgH locus," Eur. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Our limited understanding of centromere function and maintenance is one of the obstacles on the way to generating artificial chromosomes. (plantcell.org)
  • In a paper published today in Cell , Penn researchers describe a new way to form an essential part of the artificial chromosome, called the centromere, by bypassing the biological requirements needed to form a natural one. (eurekalert.org)
  • In 2011, researchers formed a human artificial chromosome by truncating chromosome 14. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laser chromosome welding may sound like sci-fi, but researchers have demonstrated a new technique using pulsed violet lasers to cut and paste chromosome fragments. (microscopyu.com)
  • Willard and Athersys researchers created the first human artificial chromosomes five years ago. (technologyreview.com)
  • In certain cases, the researchers did move especially large swaths of DNA from one chromosome to another. (aaas.org)
  • Researchers from the Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley have created an artificial photosynthesis system that synthesizes the combination of carbon dioxide and water into acetate, the most common building block today for biosynthesis. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The artificial photosynthetic technique developed by the Berkeley researchers solves the storage problem by putting the captured carbon dioxide to good use. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The researchers started with two cell lines containing the artificial chromosome, and added the gene for the human blood hormone erythropoietin to the chromosome. (newscientist.com)
  • Some researchers regard artificial chromosomes as the most promising method for germ-line genetic engineering of humans ( New Scientist print edition, 3 October 1998). (newscientist.com)
  • Researchers have chopped, spliced and manipulated DNA to craft the first "designer chromosome," a genetic structure carefully engineered to foster scientific discovery. (usatoday.com)
  • To build the first artificial copy of an entire yeast chromosome, an international team of researchers produced a modified version of yeast chromosome III. (usatoday.com)
  • In making the souped-up yeast chromosome, the researchers altered roughly 15% of the original. (usatoday.com)
  • FISH analyzes of the transformed cell lines showed that transformants of alpha21-I YAC contained a stably maintained mammalian artificial chromosome but those of alpha21-II YAC was integrated at telomere or centromere. (nii.ac.jp)
  • He was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine , along with Elizabeth Blackburn and Carol W. Greider , for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres . (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecular mechanisms underlying CIN include defects in chromosome cohesion, mitotic checkpoint function, centrosome copy number, kinetochore-microtubule attachment dynamics, and cell-cycle regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chromos Molecular Systems of Burnaby, British Columbia, has taken a different approach, creating its artificial chromosome by building it up from the key elements of a normal mouse chromosome. (newscientist.com)
  • Chromosomes The genetic material in plants, animals, and fungi is called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), a long, linear polymer that is physically organized at the microscopic level into chromosomes. (bookrags.com)
  • Chromosome A chromosome consists of the body's genetic material, the deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, along with many kinds of protein. (bookrags.com)
  • The end of each chromosome arm contains a region of DNA called the telomere. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The telomere DNA does not code for any product, but serves as a border to define the size of the chromosome. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The target DNA is flanked by the telomere regions that mark the ends of the chromosome, and is interspersed with the centromere region that is vital for replication. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Recent studies suggest that some of the artificial chromosomes created by other groups might not be as stable as real chromosomes. (newscientist.com)
  • Without it, whole chromosomes can be lost during cell division. (eurekalert.org)
  • The sections that follow summarize key concepts concerning the structure of eukaryotic chromosomes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, when the cell starts the process of cell division, chromosomes condense generating the typical X-shaped structures that we are more familiar with ( Figure 1 , Prophase). (sruk.org.uk)
  • We constructed a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) framework map of human chromosome 4 by screening a YAC library with 63 polymorphic DNA markers located on the chromosome. (elsevier.com)
  • A study by Ovation Fertility and Life Whisperer used artificial intelligence to accurately detect aneuploidy of chromosome 21, which causes Down syndrome. (prweb.com)
  • A recent, international collaborative study by U.S.-based Ovation Fertility and Australia-based Life Whisperer suggests that artificial intelligence (AI) models, applied to 2D images of Day 5 blastocysts, can non-invasively detect aneuploidy, specifically related to chromosome 21 - the chromosome linked to Down syndrome - with a high degree of accuracy. (prweb.com)
  • This is accomplished by truncating the natural chromosome, followed by the introduction of unique genetic material via the Cre-Lox system of recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different strategies are employed for recombination of the human loci randomly or at analogous host loci. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Combining gene delivery using a human artificial chromosome with stem cell transplantation ameliorates muscular dystrophy in a mouse model. (sciencemag.org)
  • This elegant in vivo approach was an important step toward constructing a gene delivery system based on engineered human chromosomes ( Lim and Farr, 2004 ). (plantcell.org)
  • To ensure an equal distribution of genetic material and that every chromosome arm goes to a daughter cell, the centromeric region plays a fundamental role ( Figure 2 ). (sruk.org.uk)
  • failure to do so leads to chromosome loss or damage and loss of linked genetic material. (genetics.org)
  • In essence, the yeast is fooled into accepted genetic material that mimics a chromosome. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Using irradiation mutagenesis, we freed this test segment from the source chromosome and genetically assayed whether the liberated "test fragment" exhibited centromere activity. (genetics.org)
  • We utilized chromosome derivatives that placed a 290-kilobase "test segment" in three different contexts within the Drosophila melanogaster genome-immediately adjacent to (1) centromeric chromatin, (2) centric heterochromatin, or (3) euchromatin. (genetics.org)
  • There exists a novel chromosome, which is somehow intertwined with the centromeric region of the X-chromosome. (ubc.ca)
  • We've taken our centromere bypass method to make a fully functional HAC without the cloning nightmares that repetitive centromere DNA has presented to mammalian chromosome engineers through the last two decades," Black said. (eurekalert.org)
  • The last two weeks have seen all manner of "different" Bills proposed that would appear to be "total bans" on human cloning. (lifeissues.net)
  • But upon closer inspection, what has actually been done is essentially the mixing together and rearranging of only two basic Bill "templates", unfortunately, neither of which would ban any human cloning - not even the SCNT technique - regardless of which Bill "parts" were used. (lifeissues.net)
  • For an analysis of the original State of Louisiana human cloning "ban" (2003), please see D. N. Irving, at http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irvi/irvi_07louisianabill.html . (lifeissues.net)
  • The result is that neither of these Bills ban ANY human cloning - not even cloning by means of the SCNT technique. (lifeissues.net)
  • The purpose of this work is to clone functional human centromere DNA using technology of the yeast artificial chromosome (YAC). (nii.ac.jp)
  • Each human chromosome contains a centromere consisting of identical (high-order repeats or HOR) and diverged alphoid DNA repeats that form an array of 0.5-5 Mb in size. (nih.gov)
  • S ullivan and W illard 1998 ), and arrays of alphoid repeat DNA integrated into human chromosomes are not able to assemble kinetochores ( W arburton and C ooke 1997 ). (genetics.org)
  • We have found previously two megabase-sized domains of alphoid DNA,alpha21-I and alpha21-II,in the human chromosome 21. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Duplicated chromosomes are attached together at a region called the centromere. (scienceblog.com)
  • This suggests the possibility that such a system could be used to generate human artificial chromosomes. (scienceblog.com)