In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.
The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, elements such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, that are required for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance in progeny cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
A characteristic symptom complex.
The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.
Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Congenital conditions of atypical sexual development associated with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions including MONOSOMY; TRISOMY; and MOSAICISM.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.

Novel generation of human satellite DNA-based artificial chromosomes in mammalian cells. (1/58)

An in vivo approach has been developed for generation of artificial chromosomes, based on the induction of intrinsic, large-scale amplification mechanisms of mammalian cells. Here, we describe the successful generation of prototype human satellite DNA-based artificial chromosomes via amplification-dependent de novo chromosome formations induced by integration of exogenous DNA sequences into the centromeric/rDNA regions of human acrocentric chromosomes. Subclones with mitotically stable de novo chromosomes were established, which allowed the initial characterization and purification of these artificial chromosomes. Because of the low complexity of their DNA content, they may serve as a useful tool to study the structure and function of higher eukaryotic chromosomes. Human satellite DNA-based artificial chromosomes containing amplified satellite DNA, rDNA, and exogenous DNA sequences were heterochromatic, however, they provided a suitable chromosomal environment for the expression of the integrated exogenous genetic material. We demonstrate that induced de novo chromosome formation is a reproducible and effective methodology in generating artificial chromosomes from predictable sequences of different mammalian species. Satellite DNA-based artificial chromosomes formed by induced large-scale amplifications on the short arm of human acrocentric chromosomes may become safe or low risk vectors in gene therapy.  (+info)

Genomic structure, chromosomal localization and identification of mutations in the xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XPV) gene. (2/58)

The xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XP-V) is one of the most common forms of this cancer-prone syndrome. XP groups A through G are characterized by defective nucleotide excision repair, whereas the XP-V phenotype is proficient in this pathway. The XPV gene encodes DNA polymerase eta, which catalyzes an accurate translesion synthesis, indicating that the XPV gene contributes tumor suppression in normal individuals. Here we describe the genomic structure and chromosomal localization of the XPV gene, which includes 11 exons covering the entire coding sequence, lacks a TATA sequence in the upstream region of the transcription-initiation, and is located at the chromosome band 6p21.1-6p12. Analyses of patient-derived XP-V cell lines strongly suggested that three of four cell lines carried homozygous mutations in the XPV gene. The fourth cell line, XP1RO, carried heterozygous point mutations in the XPV gene, one of which was located at the splice acceptor site of exon 2, resulting in the omission of exon 2 from the mature mRNA. These findings provide a basis for diagnosis and therapy of XP-V patients.  (+info)

Molecular and cytological analysis of a 5.5 Mb minichromosome. (3/58)

Mammalian artificial chromosomes (MACs) provide a new tool for the improvement of our knowledge of chromosome structure and function. Moreover, they constitute an alternative and potentially powerful tool for gene delivery both in cultured cells and for the production of transgenic animals. In the present work we describe the molecular structure of MC1, a human minichromosome derived from chromosome 1. By means of restriction and hybridization analysis, satellite-PCR, in situ hybridization on highly extended chromatin fibres, and indirect immunofluorescence, we have established that: (i) MC1 has a size of 5.5 Mb; (ii) it consists of 1.1 Mb alphoid, 3.5 Mb Sat2 DNA, and telomeric and subtelomeric sequences at both ends; (iii) it contains an unusual region of interspersed Sat2 and alphoid DNAs at the junction of the alphoid and the Sat2 blocks; and (iv) the two alphoid blocks and the Sat2-alphoid region bind centromeric proteins suggesting that they participate in the formation of a functional kinetochore.  (+info)

Functional complementation of a genetic deficiency with human artificial chromosomes. (4/58)

We have shown functional complementation of a genetic deficiency in human cultured cells, using artificial chromosomes derived from cloned human genomic fragments. A 404-kb human-artificial-chromosome (HAC) vector, consisting of 220 kb of alphoid DNA from the centromere of chromosome 17, human telomeres, and the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) genomic locus, was transferred to HPRT-deficient HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. We generated several cell lines with low-copy-number, megabase-sized HACs containing a functional centromere and one or possibly several copies of the HPRT1 gene complementing the metabolic deficiency. The HACs consisted of alternating alphoid and nonalphoid DNA segments derived only from the input DNA (within the sensitivity limits of FISH detection), and the largest continuous alphoid segment was 158-250 kb. The study of both the structure and mitotic stability of these HACs offers insights into the mechanisms of centromere formation in synthetic chromosomes and will further the development of this human-gene-transfer technology.  (+info)

Genomic and genetic definition of a functional human centromere. (5/58)

The definition of centromeres of human chromosomes requires a complete genomic understanding of these regions. Toward this end, we report integration of physical mapping, genetic, and functional approaches, together with sequencing of selected regions, to define the centromere of the human X chromosome and to explore the evolution of sequences responsible for chromosome segregation. The transitional region between expressed sequences on the short arm of the X and the chromosome-specific alpha satellite array DXZ1 spans about 450 kilobases and is satellite-rich. At the junction between this satellite region and canonical DXZ1 repeats, diverged repeat units provide direct evidence of unequal crossover as the homogenizing force of these arrays. Results from deletion analysis of mitotically stable chromosome rearrangements and from a human artificial chromosome assay demonstrate that DXZ1 DNA is sufficient for centromere function. Evolutionary studies indicate that, while alpha satellite DNA present throughout the pericentromeric region of the X chromosome appears to be a descendant of an ancestral primate centromere, the current functional centromere based on DXZ1 sequences is the product of the much more recent concerted evolution of this satellite DNA.  (+info)

A new approach to genome mapping and sequencing: slalom libraries. (6/58)

We describe here an efficient strategy for simultaneous genome mapping and sequencing. The approach is based on physically oriented, overlapping restriction fragment libraries called slalom libraries. Slalom libraries combine features of general genomic, jumping and linking libraries. Slalom libraries can be adapted to different applications and two main types of slalom libraries are described in detail. This approach was used to map and sequence (with approximately 46% coverage) two human P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) clones, each of approximately 100 kb. This model experiment demonstrates the feasibility of the approach and shows that the efficiency (cost-effectiveness and speed) of existing mapping/sequencing methods could be improved at least 5-10-fold. Furthermore, since the efficiency of contig assembly in the slalom approach is virtually independent of length of sequence reads, even short sequences produced by rapid, high throughput sequencing techniques would suffice to complete a physical map and a sequence scan of a small genome.  (+info)

Alpha-satellite DNA and vector composition influence rates of human artificial chromosome formation. (7/58)

Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) have been proposed as a new class of potential gene transfer and gene therapy vector. HACs can be formed when bacterial cloning vectors containing alpha-satellite DNA are transfected into cultured human cells. We have compared the HAC-forming potential of different sequences to identify features critical to the efficiency of the process. Chromosome 17 or 21 alpha-satellite arrays are highly competent HAC-forming substrates in this assay. In contrast, a Y-chromosome-derived alpha-satellite sequence is inefficient, suggesting that centromere specification is at least partly dependent on DNA sequence. The length of the input array is also an important determinant, as reduction of the chromosome-17-based array from 80 kb to 35 kb reduced the frequency of HAC formation. In addition to the alpha-satellite component, vector composition also influenced HAC formation rates, size, and copy number. The data presented here have a significant impact on the design of future HAC vectors that have potential to be developed for therapeutic applications and as tools for investigating human chromosome structure and function.  (+info)

Chromosome engineering: prospects for gene therapy. (8/58)

Recent advances in chromosome engineering and the potential for downstream applications in gene therapy were presented at the Artificial Chromosome Session of Genome Medicine: Gene Therapy for the Millennium in Rome, Italy in September 2001. This session concentrated primarily on the structure and function of human centromeres and the ongoing challenge of equipping human artificial chromosomes (HACs) with centromeres to ensure their mitotic stability. Advances in the 'bottom up' construction of HACs included the transfer into HT1080 cells of circular PACs containing alpha satellite DNA, and the correction of HPRT deficiency in cells using HACs. Advances in the 'top down' construction of HACs using telomere associated chromosome fragmentation in DT40 cells included the formation of HACs that are less than a megabase in size and transfer of HACs through the mouse germline. Significant progress has also been made in the use of human minichromosomes for stable trans-gene expression. While many obstacles remain towards the use of HACs for gene therapy, this session provided an optimistic outlook for future success.  (+info)

The present invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule which contains the telomere and, optionally, the centromere of a higher eukaryote, particularly a plant, the telomere itself, the centromere
Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT) is a technique by which single or small numbers of chromosomes can be transferred from one mammalian cell to another by microcell fusion [1-3]. This technique can move the large intact genomic structures of natural chromosomes or artificially engineered chromosomes, and transferred chromosomes can be stably retained and freely segregate in recipient cells. Taking advantage of these features, MMCT has been employed very successfully in various basic science studies, e.g., genetic mapping and identification of tumor suppressor genes, analysis of genomic imprinting and production of animal models of disease [4-7]. Furthermore, MMCT is also used in gene transfer using a human artificial chromosome (HAC), mini-chromosome vector. HACs have several unique characteristics as gene-delivery vectors, including stable episomal maintenance in mammalian cells, the capacity to carry large transgenes, and less susceptibility to gene silencing, and have been applied ...
We have used a 1-Mb YAC containing alpha satellite DNA to construct a functional HAC vector by modification with a selectable marker, human telomeres, and a putative origin of replication. YAC 674E2 was selected for this purpose because of its size from among several YACs identified during screening of a randomly chosen subset of the CEPH YAC library with a degenerate alpha satellite probe. Other than the presence of alpha satellite DNA (14) there was no a priori reason to expect that 674E2 would generate a functional HAC. It is now apparent that L2H2 efficiently forms artificial chromosomes as indicated by the formation of HACs in ≈30% of the clonal cell lines that contained both arms of the HAC vector. Detailed analysis of one of these clonal lines, 64b5, indicates that the HAC formed by L2H2 contains human telomeres, binds CENP-E, and is mitotically stable in the absence of G418 selection for more than 100 generations.. L2H2 DNA did not always form HACs after transfection; it was sometimes ...
A human artificial chromosome (HAC) is a microchromosome that can act as a new chromosome in a population of human cells. That is, instead of 46 chromosomes, the cell could have 47 with the 47th being very small, roughly 6-10 megabases (Mb) in size instead of 50-250 Mb for natural chromosomes, and able to carry new genes introduced by human researchers. Ideally, researchers could integrate different genes that perform a variety of functions, including disease defense. Alternative methods of creating transgenes, such as utilizing yeast artificial chromosomes and bacterial artificial chromosomes, lead to unpredictable problems. The genetic material introduced by these vectors not only leads to different expression levels, but the inserts also disrupt the original genome. HACs differ in this regard, as they are entirely separate chromosomes. This separation from existing genetic material assumes that no insertional mutants would arise. This stability and accuracy makes HACs preferable to other ...
A human artificial chromosome (HAC) is a microchromosome that can act as a new chromosome in a population of human cells. That is, instead of 46 chromosomes, the cell could have 47 with the 47th being very small, roughly 6-10 megabases (Mb) in size instead of 50-250 Mb for natural chromosomes, and able to carry new genes introduced by human researchers.
The present invention relates to the expression and screening of genomic DNA sequences encoding uncharacterized genes and proteins. The present invention provides systems utilizing unique features of retroviral replication to analyze uncharacterized genes derived from genomic DNA samples. In preferred embodiments, a segment of genomic DNA is inserted between 5′ and 3′ viral long terminal repeats (LTRs) in a vector (e.g., a plasmid, cosmid, or artificial chromosome vector). The resulting vector (or library of vectors containing a plurality of independent genomic sequences) is then introduced into a retroviral packaging cell. The resulting provirus or proteins expression from the provirus are then analyzed.
Following manuscript should be referred in the publication on a scientific journal.1. Liu YG, Shirano Y, Fukaki H, Yanai Y, Tasaka M, Tabata S, Shibata D. Complementation of plant mutants with large genomic DNA fragments by atransformation-competent artificial chromosome vector accelerates positionalcloning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 May 25;96(11):6535-40. PubMed PMID:10339623 ...
cosmid hybridization. Nucleic Aads Res. 17, 5611-5621. 17. Burke, DT, Carle, GF, and Olson, M. V (1987) Cloning of large segments of exogenous DNA into means of artificial chromosome vectors. Science 236, 806-812. 18. De Jonge, P., De Jongh, F C. M , Meyers, R., Steensma, H Y., and Scheffers, W. A ...
In order to define a functional human centromere sequence, an artificial chromosome was constructed as a reproducible DNA molecule. Mammalian telomere repeats and a selectable marker were introduced into yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) containing alphoid DNA from the centromere region of human c …
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Geroscience, the science of aging, is a relatively young field. Despite steady increases in life expectancy across much of the globe, we have yet to see any drastic leaps or breakthroughs in human…
Slalom, LLC is a modern consulting firm focused on strategy, technology, and effective organizational transformation, with locations throughout the country and nationwide reach.. Slalom provides members with leading-edge online learning program consulting and faculty training to create positive student and faculty experiences. Slaloms teams of consultants include education professionals who move fast and are driven to help members realize their vision. The teams are backed by regional technology innovation hubs, a culture of collaboration, and partnerships with top online learning technology providers.. Slalom brings depth and drive to online learning, providing technology enablement along with faculty training and workshops to help your institution transform classroom learning into a modern, sustainable, and engaging virtual learning experience for faculty and students. The company partners with members to analyze your online learning needs and helps you develop a plan to accomplish your ...
Replication of alpha-satellite DNA arrays in endogenous human centromeric regions and in human artificial chromosome Indri Erliandri, Haiqing Fu, Megumi Nakano, Jung-Hyun Kim, Karen H. Miga,Mikhail Liskovykh, William C. Earnshaw, Hiroshi Masumoto, Natalay Kouprina, Mirit I. Aladjem, and Vladimir Larionov Nucl. Acids Res. 2014 42: 11502-11516 ...
Research Interests. 1). Standards & reference materials for cancer biomarker clinical analysis. Currently, we are working on the development of cell line based genomic DNA reference materials for gene copy number variations biomarker HER2/EGFR/MET, and spike-in based mimic cell- free DNA reference materials for cancer detection of rare allele mutation in non-invasive circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) from patients blood. Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) carrying a functional kinetochore were considered as a promising system for gene delivery and expression with a potential to overcome many problems caused by the use of viral-based gene transfer systems. We are interested in engineering a tailored reference material platform based on HAC and genome editing tools such as CRISPR/Cas9 for the production of defined gene copies and gene mutation, or defined fold protein overexpression reference materials.. 2). Metrology for cancer biomarker and biosystems. A variety of genetic alterations, including ...
Skis de Slalom Importados de USA marca CONNELLY (la marcha N°1 del mundo en Ski) modelo CONCEPT (gama Alta) 66″ (167,6cm) y 68″ (172,7cm) con Bota de nivel Avanzado TEMPEST y Estribo ajustables con cordones talles M (38 a 40), L (40 a 43) y XL (43 a 46). Quilla de aluminio regulable con spoiler. Ideal para uso de esquiadores de nivel avanzado con intenciones de hacer slalom a un nivel de pista de competencia.. 66″ Desde 40 a ...
Local paddlers and participants from around the Northwest celebrated Central Oregons kayaking culture Sunday at a Northwest Cup Slalom Paddle Series race in Bend. About 30 racers braved freezing rain, raging water and a difficult course at the sixth annual Riverhouse Rendezvous slalom kayak race on the Deschutes River behind the Riverhouse Hotel & Convention Center in Bend. The race is a Junior Olympic qualifier. Spectators lined the shore and leaned over the two walking
Official source of upcoming events, live results, rules and technical information, and competition history for the ICF discipline Canoe Slalom.
We have your BFGoodrich Winter Slalom KSI 205/50R-16 tires at a discounted price of $144.92. Save on them today and well ship to an installer near you. Saving is Simple.
Giving people an extra chromosome may one day help conquer genetic diseases - as artificial chromosomes are used successfully in mice
British Canoeing Coaching and Qualifications Department are looking for Canoe, Slalom and Touring specialists to help shape qualifications and awards, advise on discipline developments and support the Head of Coaching and Qualifications. Applications are now open for anyone who feels they are able to commit and contribute for a 4 year period. Please read the Technical Groups Terms of Reference and complete the Application Form.. Applications will close at 5pm on the 20th November 2020 with a review of all applications and appointments made shortly afterwards. If you have any questions, please contact [email protected]. Please note, members of the Technical Group do not need to be members of a National Association. ...
Seattle's Amazon Web Services and consulting firm Slalom will open joint Launch Centers to help accelerate enterprise customers cloud migrations and modernize their information technology services
Proposal from Wojtek DOMAŃSKI POL Proposal title Removing unsafe slaloms which require kicking sticks. Existing text  3.C2 THE FOUR STICKS Objective This task is intended as a small break task between elements of an overall ...
Hello hello hello Slalom Tokyo Drifters and Drift-ettes. Hope you are all having a great summer full of knee rehab and upper body workouts ...
Canoe slalom athlete Hannah Thomas has her sights set on the 2024 Olympics. Thomas, from Beachlands, started kayaking in the UK and competed for Great Britain before emigrating with her family to New Zealand in 2018. Hannahs results in 2019 gained her selection onto High Performance Sport New Zealands carded programme where she is supported…
You spelled Dual wrong. Or did we!? With one digger each, our colleagues fight it out to build the most epic Bike Glendhu Dual Slalom.
Kyle Strait invited a handful of riders to compete on his own dual slalom course and with such a high calibre of talent the racing was incredibly tight.
Ski with the medallists in the mens super giant slalom, Kjetil Andre Aamodt (Norway, gold), Hermann Maier (Austria, silver) and Ambrosi Hoffmann (Swit
The Scottish Alpine Ski Team returned recently from a successful technical ski camp in Stelvio Italy. This camp was planned to have 8 days skiing on the Glacier with the focus on technical Giant Slalom. The excellent conditions at the start of the camp meant that the 6 FIS and 5 U16 athletes were able to get many runs, both free skiing and in the GS courses. This conditions allowed athletes to show great progress in their skiing and the ability to experiment with their tactics of line in a course. The end of the week saw some slalom training which added to the summer of slalom indoor training sessions athletes have experienced in Landgraf and the FIS Teams trip to South Africa earlier in the season. As always at the time of year the weather played its part and there was a day mid-week where the hill was closed due to weather. This enabled the coaches to deliver a strength and conditioning session provided by John Coogans from the Scottish Institute of Sport to work on maintenance of their home ...
For the World Slalom Series events in Mexico please contact : Carolina Villavicencio Sandoval representative in Mexico [email protected] ...
The thing I wanted to do on this first outing was beat my personal best Alpha (500m with a gybe midway, ending within 50m of the start) of 21.2knots. I was close on several attempts but did not quite make it with 20.05 being my fastest (results can be found here). I was very pleased to see that I had a lot of Alphas above 19knots, more I think than ever before in one session, which equates to full planing gybes. This seems to be my cut off point for full planing gybes, below 18knots I can do with non-planing, above either needs to be very windy and only a second off the plane or planing all the way round without dropping below 10-12knots. I was happy that it gybed so easily, this I think I can say is due to both the board and the fin. They work really well together. Ever since going over to Black Project fins I have found my gybes improve consistently where I spent much of the early part of this year and the last half of last at a plateau where I was on the edge of full planing all the time ...
The 2019 Isonic slalom boards from Starboard are the ultimate in slalom windsurfing performance. If you want the lightest, fastest windsurfing board you can get your hands on, you want an Isonic!
Sullen rain simmers, pretends to slalom and surrenders,recoils in the clouds of sodden discontent.Arid thoughts smother the sapless jelly of life.It is the month of August, the fat middle ofan unrelenting virus, spinning off the sporesof a shivering November,its nowhere as dead as it is nowhere as living. People mask fragile streaks of breath, leaden…
Predposledné kolo autoSlalomShow Cup bolo výnimočné. V sobotu 6. októbra 2018 sa slalomári po niekoľkých rokoch vrátili na letisko v Trenčíne.
Nitra je špecifická a slalom na výstavisku Agrokomplex je iný ako všetky ostatné. Pretekári seriálu autoSlalomShow Cup to vedia a radi sa sem vracajú.
Our fundamental technology, mammalian artificial chromosome vector has some advantages against other vectors that 1) our vector can maintain in host cells without integration of host genome, 2) overexpression or suppression of the gene introduced is not occurred after long-term cultivation, 3) our vector does not limit gene size introduced ...
Official biography for Wildwater Canoeing, Canoe Slalom, Canoe Freestyle, Extreme Canoe Slalom athlete Domen MARINKO, who competes for Slovenia.
The generation in vitro of mammalian artificial chromosomes, in view of the possibility of developing new technologies for gene therapy, is still an ambitious goal. Mammalian artificial chromosomes, to be used as cloning and expression vectors, have been constructed either by de novo synthesis or by reduction of pre-existing chromosomes. In the work here reported, we introduced a loxP sequence into the pericentromeric region of a chromosome 9-derived X-ray-reduced minichromosome, with the purpose of generating a human chromosome vector (HCV). The modified accessory chromosome is linear and mitotically stable, has lost at least 1400 kb of alpha satellite DNA and normally binds CENP-B, CENP-C and CENP-E. The efficiency of gene targeting via loxP mediated homologous recombination was tested using the histone H2B-Green Fluorescent Protein chimaeric gene as a reporter. The frequency of site-specific insertion of the exogenous sequence was found to be about 50% and to occur in a controlled way with ...
Chromosome Formation - CHEMICAL BIOLOGY - reflects the multidimensional character of chemical biology, focusing in particular on the fundamental science of biological structures and systems, the use of chemical and biological techniques to elucidate
Citation. Curto Mde L, Lorenzi HA, Moraes Barros RR, Souza RT, Levin MJ, Da Silveira JF, Schijman AG. Cloning and Expression of Transgenes Using Linear Vectors in Trypanosoma Cruzi.. International Journal for Parasitology. 2014 Jun 01; 44: 447-56.. External Citation. Abstract. The identification of new targets for vaccine and drug development for the treatment of Chagas disease is dependent on deepening our understanding of the parasite genome. Vectors for genetic manipulation in Trypanosoma cruzi basically include those that remain as circular episomes and those that integrate into the parasites genome. Artificial chromosomes are alternative vectors to overcome problematic transgene expression often occurring with conventional vectors in this parasite. We have constructed a series of vectors named pTACs (Trypanosome Artificial Chromosomes), all of them carrying telomeric and subtelomeric sequences and genes conferring resistance to different selection drugs. In addition, one pTAC harbours a ...
To determine the relevance of genetic information on chromosome 11 in the development of metastatic breast tumors, we introduced a normal human chromosome 11 into the highly metastatic MDA-MB-435 breast carcinoma cell line via the microcell-mediated chromosome transfer technique. Although the MDA-MB-435 recipient cell line and four randomly selected microcell hybrid clones remained tumorigenic in nude mice, the hybrids were ,95% suppressed for metastasis to lung and regional lymph nodes (P , 0.01). We also tested whether chromosome 6 harbors a metastasis-suppressor gene for breast cancer as observed previously for human melanoma. Grouped together, the four neo6 microcell hybrids had no statistically significant reduction in the incidence or number of lung or lymph node metastases compared to the weakly metastatic, subcloned parent cell line, MDA-MB-435.7. Expression of nm23-H1 (NME1), a known metastasis-suppressor gene in this breast cancer cell line, did not correlate with metastasis ...
TOKYO, JAPAN (July 25, 2021) - Olympic competition officially kicked off today at the Kasai Canoe Slalom Centre with the womens kayak and mens canoe heats. Florence Maheu (Salaberry-de-Valleyfield, QC) was the first Canadian down the course, paddling a strong first run, positioning herself well leading into the second run. Florence cementing her spot into the semi-finals following the second run and will compete on Tuesday July 27. I am really proud to perform at my best today, said Maheu. I was definitely nervous, and you put that pressure on yourself to deliver a good performance and I felt I did that today. Sometimes you are able to have some good moves but you are not able to put everything together in the race but today I was able to do that in my first run and that is all I can ask for. Cameron Smedley (Dunrobin, ON) had a tough day on the Olympic course and did not find his form on either of the qualification race runs, taking several punishing penalties that set him back in the ...
Paul Anthony Brain born 26 June 1964 in Stratford-upon-Avon is a British Slalom Canoeist who competed from the late 1970s to the early 1990s. He finished 17th in the C-2 event at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona. Paul was introduced to Canoeing in the local Scouts Group in Stratford upon Avon at the age of 13. He started in competitive canoeing in June 1978, entering the Novice event at Shepperton Weir on the River Thames in Surrey. Over the next few years, along with his Stratford on Avon Kayakists (SOAK) fellow canoeists, he competed in all of the canoe competition disciplines of: Canoe Slalom in the disciplines of Kayak Singles (K1), Canadian Singles (C1) and Canadian Doubles (C2) - in the Canadian classes paddlers kneel in their boat with a small cockpit sealed with a Spraydeck. Paulss Slalom Ranking History is listed below. (Canoe Polo) - in single Kayak (K1) (Wild Water Racing) - in Single Kayak (K1) (Marathon Canoe Racing) - in Single Kayak (K1) Pauls Canoe Slalom history: Canadian ...
At the end people who want to change the result of a race appear in any race for different reasons. Everytime there will be a specific problem not ruled by Issa rules so the staff under stress from days and days have to decide on specific events real time. When a racer is disappointed on specific event related to the own run it takes time to understand and take decision supported in different times by differents point of you, and I dont speak about rumors, I speak about movies taken from different point of view. Im also sure that this is not the right place to discuss about these topics but in the ISSA forum which is its natural site ...
Official source of athlete bios, event schedule, live coverage, results, video highlights and news for Olympic Canoe Slalom WORLD CUP in MARKKLEEBERG, 30 August - 1 September 2019 .
At the 2002 Winter Paralympics, womens downhill and mens unable to see downhill were on day 1. Mens standing and being seated downhill were on day 2. Mens standing and being seated Super-G was on day 3. Mens unable to see and womens Super-G was on day 5. Mens standing and being seated Giant Slalom was on day 7. Womens and mens unable to see Giant Slalom was on day 8. Mens standing and being seated Slalom was on day 9. Womens and mens unable to see Slalom was on day 10.[1] ...
Official videos from the ICF of the Canoe Slalom WORLD CUP in PRAGUE, 11 - 13 June 2021 , including competition highlights and top athletes.
MARIBOR, Slovenia (AP) - Results Saturday in a women's World Cup giant slalom: 1. Tessa Worley, France, 2 minutes, 16.96 seconds. 2. Sofia Goggia, Italy, 2:1...
Not even a broken bone in her hand could keep Denise Karbon from winning a World Cup giant slalom ski race in Ofterschwang, Germany. Karbon, who broke a bone in her left thumb during training on Wednesday, won her fifth race in six tries this season. The Italian had a combined time of 2:22.26, just 0.08 seconds ahead of overall womens leader Nicole Hosp of Austria. Elisabeth Goergl of Austria finished third, 0.09 seconds behind the Italian. Lindsey Vonn was the top American finisher in sixth place, more than one-half second off the leader.
American teenager Mikaela Shiffrin fought through snow and rain to win her second World Cup slalom of the season Sunday, showing her ability to deal with all types of conditions a month before the Sochi Olympics.
Made for use with closer-fitting snow sports boots that perhaps need a lighter, thinner sock layer, these mens SOCKSHOP Heat Holders 1.0 TOG Slalom Adventure Ultra Lite Ski Socks provide the added warmth you want, and extra resilience too, with a specially reinforced heel for heavy sporting activity. Despite the lighter, minimum thickness of these Ultra Lite socks, their thermal abilities are still in evidence, rating a 1.04 TOG, three times warmer than a basic cotton sock. This is due to the combination of Japanese-designed advanced heavy bulk thermal yarn, and an intensively brushed loop pile lining. This soft lining creates a network of fibres that capture and hold body-heated air for legs and feet that stay warm. Heat Holders are non-binding too, so diabetics, or anyone prone to cold limbs from circulation problems can stay warm too.
One thing we have found is that using the R.U. Ready LCD screens really adds to the race day experience, not only for racers but spectators, they can easily see who won each race (or at least before a cone count). By keeping it stand alone you do need to transpose the times to a computer system manually or a whiteboard, and we usually get the starter to have a pad to write the times on as a backup. By having the screens showing the times its easy for mates to double check your times without looking over the shoulders of the timing table or looking at a screen. Its great at the races we do as once the finish line has been crossed the times are on full display for everyone at the head of the course. If both raers hit the same amount of cones or none at all you immediatly know who has won. Thats why I dont like staggered starts, as you NEVER know who won until the timers tell you ...
The Worldcup Rebels i.GS RD Team delivers proven winning performance to a new generation of Giant Slalom racers. It is armed with a highly responsive positive camber for enhanced carving and acceleration, as well as our Worldcup Sandwich wood core with Titanal and the miracle material Graphene for stronger, lighter and
Soft, light styles jump on board at full speed, amid controlled scarf slaloms and acrobatic tie jumps. Tie them before the finish line!
This ski carves out a tight radius and feels like a slalom ski. In short turns it is brilliant with massive amounts of grip with a wide shovel that really drives you into the turn. The front of the ski dictates the character of how it behaves, constantly sniffing out the next opportunity to turn! The other upside of the wider nose is that it is easy to steer at slower speeds. On longer turns the shape can feel a bit too eager and makes it harder to carve out long, smooth turns ...
The Volata Mips represents the latest in FIS approved race helmets. This model can be fitted with the Slalom chin guard making it suitable for all disciplines.
Scott Toomey went skiing for the first time last February and won medals in a slalom competition. He followed that up by competing in -- and winning -- a 100-meter dash in September. At times, he
This item appeared in the paper as a stand alone photograph. Caption information is provided below. Photo: The Swiss brothers Philipp, right, and Simon Schoch riding to the gold and silver medal, respectively, yesterday in the mens parallel giant slalom. (Photo by John D. McHugh/Agence France-Presse -- Getty Images ...
Speed: I am not sure a foil is 5 knots slower. Check this link out And by what metric? I rarely went above 28 knots max with my Isonic vs the 30-35 knots max speed of the CA 52. I just dont have the body to go overpowered with it. The best 10 speeds on the Is-111 are at least 2-3 knots slower, 500 meters drop and additional 4-6 knots. From what I read 24-26 knots average over long distance are very feasible on a fast foil (not on a Naish or Slingshot!). But sure, give me a smaller slalom and overpowered sail and I might be faster. ...
I know next to nothing about Olympics sports or athletes but it has been great fun being able to tune in now and then and instantly become deeply invested in whatevers currently happening. Its an interesting phenomenon, really: one minute none of us have given a single thought to, say, womens slalom skiing, the next were all hanging on every gate turn and offering our in-depth opinions about their technical scores. John mentioned that it would be awesome if you could choose your commentary track - like, you can pick the discipline expert sportscaster who carefully explains all the mechanics and mishaps unfolding onscreen, OR you can choose to listen to a couple of drunk guys trying to figure out curling.. I have been watching an unusual amount of TV lately because my back went from hmmm to NOPE and so I spent several days in a recliner with a heating pad which was just as exciting as it sounds. I didnt even have a good book on hand and ended up reading a bunch of dirty Sherlock/Watson ...
Plasmid pEnt R3L2 TetO(fl)-2 from Dr. Edward Hsiaos lab is published in Stem Cell Res Ther. 2011 Mar 4. 2(2):11. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
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Mapping the whole human genome by fingerprinting yeast artificial chromosomes. Cell. 1992 Sep 18;70(6):1059-68. Cited 248 times ... "Mapping the whole human genome by fingerprinting yeast artificial chromosomes". Cell. 70 (6): 1059-1068. doi:10.1016/0092-8674( ... "Construction and characterization of a human bacterial artificial chromosome library". Genomics. 34 (2): 213-8. doi:10.1006/ ... He contributed to the first physical map of the Human Genome at Genethon and at Genset Corporation as a member of Daniel Cohen ...
April 25 - Scientists announce that human artificial chromosomes have been created. July 10 - In London, scientists report ... 1997). "Formation of de novo centromeres and construction of first-generation human artificial microchromosomes". Nature ... November 6 - The discovery of klotho, a gene involved in human aging, is reported. November 19 - In Des Moines, Iowa, Bobbi ... March 4 - United States President Bill Clinton bars federal funding for any research on human cloning. March 14 - The widely ...
Human artificial chromosome may be potentially useful as a gene transfer vectors for gene delivery into human cells, and a tool ... BACs are based on F plasmid, another artificial chromosome called the PAC is based on the P1 phage. Yeast artificial chromosome ... "Human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector with a conditional centromere for correction of genetic deficiencies in human cells". ... Kouprina N, Earnshaw WC, Masumoto H, Larionov V (2013). "A new generation of human artificial chromosomes for functional ...
June 1996). "Construction and characterization of a human bacterial artificial chromosome library". Genomics. 34 (2): 213-8. ... P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs) have features of both P1 vectors and Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs). Similar to P1 ... Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are linear DNA molecules containing the necessary features of an authentic yeast chromosome ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are circular DNA molecules, usually about 7kb in length, that are capable of holding ...
"Construction and Characterization of a Human Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library". Genomics. 34 (2): 213-218. doi:10.1006/ ... The group's scientists were among the main developers of the maps of human chromosome 16 and human chromosome 22. In 2002 Simon ... Simon's group invented in 1992 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and in 1994 phage artificial chromosomes (PACs) using ... Simon's laboratory group at Caltech played an important role in the Human Genome Project (HGP) and built many of the initial ...
"Cloning and in vivo expression of the human GART gene using yeast artificial chromosomes". EMBO J. 10 (7): 1629-34. doi:10.1002 ... 2000). "The DNA sequence of human chromosome 21". Nature. 405 (6784): 311-9. Bibcode:2000Natur.405..311H. doi:10.1038/35012518 ... 1997). "The human GARS-AIRS-GART gene encodes two proteins which are differentially expressed during human brain development ... Genes on human chromosome 21, All stub articles, Protein stubs). ... 2002). "Crystal structures of human GAR Tfase at low and high ...
One popular way of studying EBV in vitro is to use bacterial artificial chromosomes. Epstein-Barr virus can be maintained and ... The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), formally called Human gammaherpesvirus 4, is one of the nine known human herpesvirus types in the ... Human CD35, also known as complement receptor 1 (CR1), is an additional attachment factor for gp350/220, and can provide a ... Viruses lacking the gp42 portion are able to bind to human B cells, but unable to infect. EBV can infect both B cells and ...
"Yeast artificial chromosomes spanning 8 megabases and 10-15 centimorgans of human cytogenetic band Xq26". Proceedings of the ... He is known for his directorship of the development of the map of the X chromosome. His family moved from Toronto to Chicago in ... There he was the director of the Human Genome Center from 1987 to 1997. In 1995 he was the president of the American Society ... He has done research on microbial genomes, as well as the human genome. At NIA he headed the Laboratory of Genetics from 1997 ...
1997 - Team led by Professor Huntington Willard (Chair of Genetics) create world's first artificial human chromosome. M. Scott ... of the world's first human artificial chromosome.[citation needed] In 2019, the School of Medicine relocated to the Samson ... 1975 - Discovery that human renin, an enzyme produced by the kidney, is involved in hypertension 1990 - National team led by ... "Physicians for Human Rights - PHR Board of Directors". Archived from the original on 2010-06-29. ...
Cosmid/BAC/YAC end sequences use Cosmid/Bacterial artificial chromosome/Yeast artificial chromosome to sequence the genome from ... By using special Alu sequence as target locus, specific human DNA can be obtained from clone of TAC, BAC, PAC or human-mouse ... Yeast artificial chromosome Venter, J. Craig, Hamilton O. Smith, and Leroy Hood. "A New Cooperative Strategy for Sequencing the ... To get enough chromosome, they need a large number of E. coli culture that 2.5 - 5 litres may be a reasonable amount. Cosmid/ ...
The assembly of the genome sequence in M. truncatula was based on bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). This is the same ... approach used to sequence the genomes of humans, the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, and the model plant, Arabidopsis ...
"Transgenic mice containing a human heavy chain immunoglobulin gene fragment cloned in a yeast artificial chromosome". Nature ... was the first to produce a transgenic mouse harboring a large human genomic sequence cloned in a yeast artificial chromosome ( ... Loring founded Arcos Bioscience in 1997 in part to work on human embryonic stem cells and derived nine of the human embryonic ... The goal of this research is to identify the mechanism by which the human cells induced recovery from paralysis in the mouse. ...
Borenstein, Ronen; Frenkel, Niza (2009). "Cloning human herpes virus 6A genome into bacterial artificial chromosomes and study ... For instance, human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6)(hibv) expresses a set of "early genes" that are believed to be involved in this ... Human Papillomavirus-16 (HPV-16) is another virus that employs rolling replication to produce progeny at a high rate. HPV-16 ... Arbuckle, Jesse (2011). "The molecular biology of human herpesvirus-6 latency and telomere integration". Microbes and Infection ...
Borenstein, Ronen; Frenkel, Niza (2009). "Cloning human herpes virus 6A genome into bacterial artificial chromosomes and study ... In the case of human herpesvirus-6, its entire genome is made over and over on a single strand. These long concatemers are ... Arbuckle, Jesse (2011). "The molecular biology of human herpesvirus-6 latency and telomere integration". Microbes and Infection ...
He is credited with the construction of the world's first yeast artificial chromosome. That achievement helped scientists to ... His research findings in this area are also instrumental to the Human Genome Project. He was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize for ... which are found in chromosomes inside its cells' nuclei. When a cell divides, it is important that its chromosomes are copied ... At each end of a chromosome lies a "cap" or telomere, as it is known, which protects it. After Elizabeth Blackburn discovered ...
Yeast artificial chromosome or YAC is a DNA molecule that is developed by humans to take the DNA sequences that belong to yeast ... "Yeast Artificial Chromosome (YAC)". Retrieved 2019-05-31. Kleyn PW, Wang CH, Lien LL, Vitale E, Pan J, Ross BM, ... Yeast artificial chromosomes can be inserted with fragments of DNA from the organism of interest. Yeast cells will then ... Vectorette PCR helps with this process by bringing about not only the isolation of the yeast artificial chromosome's ends but ...
Genes on human chromosome 5, Articles needing additional medical references from October 2017, All articles needing additional ... Exact gene cytogenic position was determined by mapping to an artificial chromosomal construct containing the gene via ... Mitochondrial EC CblE The gene was mapped to human chromosome 5. Gene specific primer pairs resulted in PCR ... Methionine synthase reductase, also known as MSR, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MTRR gene. Methionine is an ...
"Analysis of the 1.1-Mb human alpha/delta T-cell receptor locus with bacterial artificial chromosome clones". Genome Res. 7 (4 ... v t e (Genes on human chromosome 14, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the United States National Library of Medicine ... Koop BF, Rowen L, Wang K, Kuo CL, Seto D, Lenstra JA, Howard S, Shan W, Deshpande P, Hood L (Jun 1994). "The human T-cell ... OR10G2+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text ...
"Isolation of single-copy human genes from a library of yeast artificial chromosome clones". Science. 244 (4910): 1348-1351. ... April 1999). "Fine mapping of a polymorphic CA repeat marker on human chromosome 19 and its use in population studies". Gene. ... that in humans is encoded by the GPI gene on chromosome 19. This gene encodes a member of the glucose phosphate isomerase ... Genes on human chromosome 19, Protein domains, EC 5.3.1, Tumor markers, Glycolysis enzymes, Glycolysis). ...
In addition, human genes can be studied and similarly genetically manipulated in yeast by using yeast artificial chromosomes ( ... 2001) Novel human p53 mutations that are toxic to yeast can enhance transactivation of specific promoters and reactive tumor ... 1979) Replacement of chromosome segments with altered DNA sequences constructed in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 76:4951-5. ... GAL1-I-SceI - Increases the efficiency of targeting to the CORE cassette-containing chromosome in diploid cells. It contains ...
Computer scientist Marvin Minsky wrote on relationships between human and artificial intelligence beginning in the 1960s. Over ... Public health professor Gregory Stock points to artificial chromosomes as an alleged safer alternative to existing genetic ... such as human clones, human-animal chimeras, or bioroids, but even lesser dislocations of humans and non-humans from social and ... They believe that humans can and should use these technologies to become more than human. Therefore, they support the ...
"Analysis of the 1.1-Mb human alpha/delta T-cell receptor locus with bacterial artificial chromosome clones". Genome Res. 7 (4 ... v t e (Genes on human chromosome 14, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the United States National Library of Medicine ... Koop BF, Rowen L, Wang K, Kuo CL, Seto D, Lenstra JA, Howard S, Shan W, Deshpande P, Hood L (Jun 1994). "The human T-cell ... OR10G3+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text ...
Mapping and sequencing of the chromosomal region was performed with the aid of bacterial artificial chromosome clones. Around ... The human gene differs from that in non-human primates by the substitution of two amino acids, a threonine to asparagine ... in which part of chromosome 7 had become exchanged with part of chromosome 5. The site of breakage of chromosome 7 was located ... Insertion of both human mutations into mice, whose version of FOXP2 otherwise differs from the human and chimpanzee versions in ...
"Analysis of the 1.1-Mb human alpha/delta T-cell receptor locus with bacterial artificial chromosome clones". Genome Res. 7 (4 ... v t e (Genes on human chromosome 14, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the United States National Library of Medicine ... 1994). "The human T-cell receptor TCRAC/TCRDC (C alpha/C delta) region: organization, sequence, and evolution of 97.6 kb of DNA ... OR4E2+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ...
... artificial chromosomes and bacteriophage (such as lambda). The best expression system depends on the gene involved, for example ... Fully Human Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293) Human embryonic retinal cells (Crucell's Per.C6) Human amniocyte cells ( ... Insect or mammal cell lines are used when human-like splicing of mRNA is required. Nonetheless, bacterial expression has the ... The C. glutamicum species is widely used for producing glutamate and lysine, components of human food, animal feed and ...
"A bacterial artificial chromosome library for sequencing the complete human genome". Genome Research. 11 (3): 483-96. doi: ... truly complete sequence of a human chromosome, the X chromosome. Similarly, an end-to-end complete sequence of human autosomal ... one X chromosome and one Y chromosome) compared to female samples (which contain two X chromosomes). The other 22 chromosomes ( ... Committee for human gene name standards Human Brain Project Human Connectome Project - Research project Human Cytome Project ...
... bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), or human artificial chromosomes (HACs). An artificial chromosome can carry a much ... an organism that transmits disease Human artificial chromosomes Yeast artificial chromosomes Bacterial artificial chromosomes ... Artificial chromosomes are manufactured chromosomes in the context of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), ... The four major types of vectors are plasmids, viral vectors, cosmids, and artificial chromosomes. Of these, the most commonly ...
In 2008, research was done specifically for methods on creating human female sperm using artificial or natural Y chromosomes ... artificial insemination artificial reproduction cloning (see human cloning for the special case of human beings) cytoplasmic ... A UK-based group predicted they would be able to create human female sperm within five years. So far no conclusive successes ... Experts noted that there was little chance of these techniques being applied to humans in the near future. Recent technological ...
"A yeast artificial chromosome-based physical map of the juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS2) critical region on human ... Genes on human chromosome 2, All stub articles, Human chromosome 2 gene stubs). ... Alsin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ALS2 gene. ALS2 orthologs have been identified in all mammals for which ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
Heard, Edith; Mongelard, Fabien; Arnaud, Danielle; Avner, Philip (April 1999). "Xist Yeast Artificial Chromosome Transgenes ... "European Society of Human Genetics: ESHG Award Laureates". Archived from the original on 22 September 2021. Retrieved ... in particular focussing on X-chromosome inactivation, which occurs when one of the two copies of the X chromosomes in female ... Heard is noted for her studies of X-chromosome-inactivation. Heard graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Natural Sciences ...
... s production in the human body (known as "human chitinases") may be in response to allergies, and asthma has been ... artificial skin and sutures with these qualities are already being produced) and enhancement of insecticides and fungicides.[42 ... Chitinase activity can also be detected in human blood[21][22] and possibly cartilage.[23] As in plant chitinases this may be ... Human chitinases may explain the link between some of the most common allergies (dust mites, mold spores-both of which contain ...
... s that reflect the full range of visible light are generally perceived as white by a human observer. An important feature ... despite being artificial,[109] was used extensively for the following seven decades, before being replaced by the system of ... two copies of each chromosome) cell.[78] ... Humans observers will perceive this as degrees of saturation ( ... History shows that flowers have been used by humans for thousands of years, to serve a variety of purposes. An early example of ...
Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC)-end sequencing (end-sequence profiling): Identifies chromosomal breakpoints by generating ... Yu, Man (2012). Somatic Mitochondrial DNA Mutations in Human Cancers. Advances in Clinical Chemistry. Vol. 57. pp. 99-138. doi: ... As pointed out by Gao et al.,[26] the stability and integrity of the human genome are maintained by the DNA-damage response ( ... A human Phase II clinical trial, with 41 patients, evaluated one synthetic lethal approach for tumors with or without MMR ...
Mice differ from humans in several immune properties: mice are more resistant to some toxins than humans; have a lower total ... 3,000 Mb distributed over 19 autosomal chromosomes plus 1 respectively 2 sex chromosomes), therefore equal to the size of the ... due to many generations of artificial selection, some of these characteristics now vary markedly. Due to the large number of ... The current count of primary coding genes in the laboratory mouse is 23,139.[12] compared to an estimated 20,774 in humans.[12] ...
When the chromosome is replicated, this gives rise to one daughter chromosome that is heavily methylated downstream of the ... In human cells, and eukaryotic cells in general, DNA is found in two cellular locations - inside the nucleus and inside the ... ultraviolet [UV 200-400 nm] radiation from the sun or other artificial light sources ... In human cells, oxidative DNA damage occurs about 10,000 times a day and DNA double-strand breaks occur about 10 to 50 times a ...
The 1p21.1 region of human chromosome 1 contains many copies of these genes, variously named AMY1A, AMY1B, AMY1C, AMY2A, AMY2B ... "On the specifically-acting principles of natural and artificial pancreatic fluid]. Virchows Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie ... Starch has become a staple of the human diet. Despite the obvious benefits, early humans did not possess salivary amylase, a ... suggesting they acquired the extra copies as they followed humans around.[23] Unlike humans whose amylase levels depend on ...
The human mitochondrial genome has retained genes encoding 2 rRNAs (blue), 22 tRNAs (white), and 13 redox proteins (yellow, ... Consequently, the chromosomes of many eukaryotes contain genes that originated from the genomes of mitochondria and plastids.[ ... Some species including Pediculus humanus (lice) have multiple chromosomes in the mitochondrion. This and the phylogenetics of ... organelle genomes forge eukaryotic chromosomes". Nature Reviews Genetics. 5 (2): 123-135. doi:10.1038/nrg1271. PMID 14735123. ...
Stewart, Dugald (1792). Elements of the philosophy of the human mind (1 ed.). p. 80. Retrieved 14 April 2022.. ... These conditions are mediated by the OPN1SW gene on Chromosome 7. Other genetic causes[edit]. Several inherited diseases are ... Distinguishing colors associated with artificial flavors (e.g. jelly beans, sports drinks) ... "Human Vision and Color Perception". Florida State University. Archived from the original on 27 August 2007. Retrieved 5 April ...
For example, in the Homininae, two chromosomes fused to produce human chromosome 2; this fusion did not occur in the lineage of ... This classification is obviously relative and somewhat artificial: a harmful mutation can quickly turn into a beneficial ... In humans, the mutation rate is about 50-90 de novo mutations per genome per generation, that is, each human accumulates about ... Ségurel L, Bon C (August 2017). "On the Evolution of Lactase Persistence in Humans". Annual Review of Genomics and Human ...
白色念珠菌在環境中與人體中皆可形成生物薄膜。在醫療器材上,白色念珠菌是最常被發現的真菌種類[15],導尿管、靜脈導管、心律調節器、人工瓣膜(英语:Artificial heart valve)、人工關節、隱形眼鏡與假牙等醫療器材上均可能有白色念珠菌的生物 ... Candida albicans Biofilms and Human Disease. Annu Rev Microbiol.. 2015, 69: 71-92. doi:10.1146/annurev-micro-091014-104330.. ... Completion of a parasexual cycle in Candida albicans
Relationship with humans[edit]. As introduced non-native species[edit]. See also: Beaver eradication in Tierra del Fuego ... Beavers are well known for building dams across streams and constructing their lodges in the artificial ponds which form. When ... North American beavers have 40 chromosomes, while European beavers have 48. Also, more than 27 attempts were made in Russia to ... "Beavers: Wetlands & Wildlife: Solutions to Beaver/Human Conflicts". Archived from the original on February 20, ...
... are found on chromosomes 22 and 2 in humans. One of these domains is called the variable domain, which is present in each heavy ... They consist of artificial peptides or proteins, or aptamer-based nucleic acid molecules with a molar mass of about 3 to 20 kDa ... In humans and most mammals, an antibody unit consists of four polypeptide chains; two identical heavy chains and two identical ... Rhoades RA, Pflanzer RG (2002). Human Physiology (5th ed.). Thomson Learning. p. 584. ISBN 978-0-534-42174-8. .. ...
"Life in deep Earth totals 15 to 23 billion tons of carbon - hundreds of times more than humans - Deep Carbon Observatory ...
Sex chromosome *X chromosome. *Y chromosome. *Testis-determining factor. *Hermaphrodite *Sequential hermaphroditism ...
... on mouse chromosome 17 and KCNQ1OT1 on human chromosome 11p15.5, have been shown to be essential for the imprinting of genes in ... "Imprinted loci in domestic livestock species as epigenomic targets for artificial selection of complex traits". Animal Genetics ... of the mouse paternally expressed imprinted gene Zdbf2 on chromosome 1 and its imprinted human homolog ZDBF2 on chromosome 2". ... DIRAS3 is a paternally expressed and maternally imprinted gene located on chromosome 1 in humans. Reduced DIRAS3 expression is ...
"Gene promoters show chromosome-specificity and reveal chromosome territories in humans". BMC Genomics. 14 (278): 278. doi: ... Artificial promoters with conserved -10 and -35 elements transcribe more slowly. All DNAs have "Closely spaced promoters" ... Furthermore, in humans, promoters show certain structural features characteristic for each chromosome. In bacteria, the ... "Prevalence of the initiator over the TATA box in human and yeast genes and identification of DNA motifs enriched in human TATA- ...
Only fertilised queens can lay diploid eggs (one set of chromosomes from a drone, one from the queen) that mature into workers ... The sting is painful to humans, and not medically significant in most cases, although it may trigger an allergic reaction in ... Little artificial fertiliser was used. Farms thus provided flowering clover and flower-rich meadows, favouring bumblebees. ... Bumblebee workers can lay unfertilised haploid eggs (with only a single set of chromosomes) that develop into viable male ...
In 2007, a patent application was filed on methods for creating human female sperm using artificial or natural Y chromosomes ... An analogy, then, is that a cell from a woman has complete Y chromosome deficiency. While many genes on the Y chromosome have ... Female sperm can refer to either: A sperm which contains an X chromosome, produced in the usual way in the testicles, referring ... Since the late 1980s, scientists have explored how to produce sperm where all of the chromosomes come from a female donor. ...
For instance, human and chimpanzee chromosomes are very similar and FISH can demonstrate that two chimpanzee chromosomes fused ... each population maintaining a single artificial chromosome, are stored in various laboratories around the world. The artificial ... so each human chromosome can be identified by a characteristic color using whole-chromosome probe mixtures and a variety of ... have similar chromosomes but with increasing distance chromosomes tend to break and fuse and thus result in mosaic chromosomes ...
There is also some evidence for human sacrifice among the European Huns. Maenchen-Helfen argues that humans appear to have been ... 1, 8-9. "[O]ur findings confirmed that the Xiongnu had a strongly admixed mitochondrial and Y-chromosome gene pools and ... They are believed to have used bronze cauldrons and to have performed artificial cranial deformation. No description exists of ... Many migrations during human history have made the Carpathian Basin the melting pot of Europe. New ancient genomes confirm the ...
Human sacrifice was found in the death pits at the Ur royal cemetery where Queen Puabi was accompanied in death by her servants ... The city was provided with towers and stood on an artificial platform; the house also had a tower-like appearance. It was ... a result that finds some support from Y chromosome analysis which shows that the Natufians and successor Levantine Neolithic ... The gods were said to have created human beings from clay for the purpose of serving them. The temples organized the mass ...
37] reported that it caused reduction in the formation of 5-HETE in human leucocytes when used. MS can thus be considered a ... More invasive surgical treatment can include the insertion of a urethral sling or an artificial urinary sphincter, which is a ... Loss of cancer suppressor genes, early in prostatic carcinogenesis, have been localized to chromosomes 8p, 10q, 13q, and 16q. ... Alimirah F, Chen J, Basrawala Z, Xin H, Choubey D (April 2006). "DU-145 and PC-3 human prostate cancer cell lines express ...
According to a 2007 study submitted by the University of Ottawa to the Department of Health and Human Services in Washington, D ... November 2011). "Chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals living in high background radiation ... 1 (1). Muller HJ (July 1927). "Artificial Transmutation of the Gene" (PDF). Science. 66 (1699): 84-7. Bibcode:1927Sci....66... ... January 2012). "Evidence for formation of DNA repair centers and dose-response nonlinearity in human cells". Proceedings of the ...
African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR). Keller H, Grover L (2012). "General Comments of the Human Rights ... Sperm Chromosomes. Reproductive hazards can affect the chromosomes found in sperm. The sperm and egg each contribute 23 ... Young SD, Crowley JS, Vermund SH (August 2021). "Artificial intelligence and sexual health in the USA". The Lancet. Digital ... adopted by the Human Rights Committee in 2018, defines, for the first time ever, a human right to abortion - in certain ...
Prior to human cultivation, it consisted of just a few species, though the status of some as distinct species has yet to be ... seem to be natural or artificial hybrids of a small number of core ancestral species, including the citron, pomelo, mandarin, ... analysis of chromosome 2". BMC Genetics. 15 (1): 152. doi:10.1186/s12863-014-0152-1. ISSN 1471-2156. PMC 4302129. PMID 25544367 ... In humans, some (not all) of these chemical compounds act as strong photosensitizers when applied topically to the skin, while ...
2007). "Cross-species chromosome painting among camel, cattle, pig and human: further insights into the putative ... Scientists collected semen from a camel via an artificial vagina and inseminated a llama after stimulating ovulation with ... When humans first domesticated camels is disputed. Dromedaries may have first been domesticated by humans in Somalia or South ... The Y is a small metacentric chromosome, while the X is a large metacentric chromosome. The hybrid camel, a hybrid between ...
... some stem cell researchers are investigating the possibility of creating artificial eggs. If successful, human egg donations ... It is theorized the critical embryonic genes are physically linked to oocyte chromosomes, enucleation negatively affects these ... "prohibit all forms of human cloning in as much as they are incompatible with human dignity and the protection of human life." ... Human eggs have been a notable exception to this rule for some time. To address the problem of creating a human egg market, ...
"Toward a consensus on SNP and STR mutation rates on the human Y-chromosome (Review)". Human Genetics. 136 (5): 575-590. doi: ... In 2019 were autosomally analyzed three 5th century individuals with artificial cranial deformation from Osijek, probably of ... July 2010). "Human Y-chromosome short tandem repeats: a tale of acculturation and migrations as mechanisms for the diffusion of ... 2005). "The peopling of modern Bosnia-Herzegovina: Y-chromosome haplogroups in the three main ethnic groups". Annals of Human ...
Their laboratory constructed the first human chromosome array (15) and later the first whole genome array to map transcription ... Ravindran, Sandeep (14 March 2022). "Here Come the Artificial Intelligence Nutritionists". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 May ... Snyder was elected and has served as President of US Human Proteome Organization (2006-2008) and the international Human ... Later, the lab began to use the same techniques to look at the human genome. In 2003, the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE ...
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Centromere regions on human artificial chromosomes and host chromosomes have similar amounts of CenH3 but exhibit highly ... To address these models, we assayed formation of heterochromatin and euchromatin on de novo human artificial chromosomes ... Heterochromatin-depleted artificial chromosomes replicated in early S phase whereas heterochromatin-enriched artificial ... The formation of euchromatin on all artificial chromosomes demonstrates that they can provide a chromosome context suitable for ...
Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). A plasmid vector used to clone large fragments of DNA (average size of 150 kb) in E. ... Describing effects or processes that are derived from human activities, as opposed to effects or processes that occur in the ... Bacterial artificial chromosome. A plasmid vector used to clone large fragments of DNA (average size of 150 kb) in E. coli. ... and technology destroy human dignity and independence while also encouraging vice and moral weakness. In the 1920s and 1930s a ...
Altered metabolism of familial Alzheimers disease-linked amyloid precursor protein variants in yeast artificial chromosome ... Hemizygous: These R1.40 transgenic mice express all mRNA and protein isoforms of the human amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein ... A 650 kb YAC transgene containing the entire human amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein (APP) gene, and approximately 250 kb of ...
... can building new artificial chromosomes help us understand how natural chromosomes work; and how are the key enzymes protecting ... Smith and his team have used computer biomechanical modeling, in vitro and in vivo testing in parallel with seminal human ... He has leveraged this observation to dissect the immunologic pathways that drive human autoimmunity. His work focuses on how ... In addition to his work to advance technologies for building synthetic chromosomes for applications in research and medicine, ...
Think of the human genome as Tolstoys War and Peace in the original Russian-immense, exciting, but for most, indecipherable. ... During that time Harrington coinvented the first man-made human chromosome; gene therapists are now investigating how to use ... such artificial chromosomes to penetrate cells and repair disease-causing genes. In his academic work, Harrington discovered ... "Right now we have no way of saying, Give me a drug candidate, then give me a list of every protein in the human body it ...
A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig of this region would assist in the further localization and isolation of these genes ... A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig of this region would assist in the further localization and isolation of these genes ... A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig of this region would assist in the further localization and isolation of these genes ... A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig of this region would assist in the further localization and isolation of these genes ...
The available genomic data shows that the sequence features encompassing the purported chromosome 2 fusion site are too ... The chromosome 2 fusion is thought to account for the fact that humans have only 46 (2N) chromosomes and the great apes, ... bacterial artificial chromosomes; BACs) and BAC contig-based physical mapping strategies.. The advent of high-throughput DNA ... Fan, Y. et al., Gene content and function of the ancestral chromosome fusion site in human chromosome 2q13-2q14.1 and ...
Moreover, deeper knowledge of human sequence variation has begun to alter the practice of medicine. The Human Genome Project ... as well as the recently announced Human Brain Project and the emerging Human Proteome Project. ... The Human Genome Project has transformed biology through its integrated big science approach to deciphering a reference human ... to decipher the sequence instead of the piecemeal clone-by-clone approach using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors ...
BAC stand for bacterial artificial chromosome. It is a peice of human DNA fitted into a bacterial vector. ... YAC stands for Yeast artifial chromosomes. It can carry large segments of DNA from other species to another. (in humans) A YAC ... Joe Hin Tjio had discovered the exact number of chromosomes that each human recieves. He was first interested in cancer cells. ... The International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium announced the successful completion of the Human Genome Project more than ...
After their artificial chromosome breakthrough, the two started Athersys. They later developed a technique to induce genes to ... In 1997, The Plain Dealer ran a long feature about the companys first discovery -- a synthetic human chromosome. With ... The future of chromosomes is certainly brighter than the future of cold-rolled steel. Yet when LTV teetered on shutdown, 3,200 ... Since the human genome was sequenced, companies have rushed to patent genes that may or may not unlock a life mystery. ...
... consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. ... Chromosome Banding * Chromosome Mapping * Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial * Computational Biology * Consensus Sequence * CpG ... The assemblies effectively cover the euchromatic regions of the human chromosomes. More than 90% of the genome is in scaffold ... The sequence of the human genome Science. 2001 Feb 16;291(5507):1304-51. doi: 10.1126/science.1058040. ...
A high-resolution radiation hybrid map of chicken chromosome 5 and comparison with human chromosomes The resolution of ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosome) contig maps. Moreover, once framework RH maps of a genome have been constructe... ... Genome annotation of a 1.5 Mb region of human chromosome 6q23 encompassing a quantitative trait locus for fetal hemoglobin ... Rodents and humans have remarkably similar gen... Authors: Diego G Silva, Christian Schönbach, Vladimir Brusic, Luis A Socha, ...
Brain stem cells of modern humans make fewer mistakes in the distribution of their chromosomes to the daughter cells ... Artificial intelligence as behavioral analyst. Computer algorithms disassemble prey capture behavior of zebrafish into its ... With the help of artificial intelligence, Max Planck neurobiologists have broken down the hunting behavior of zebrafish larvae ... With the help of artificial intelligence, Max Planck neurobiologists have broken down the hunting behavior of zebrafish larvae ...
Genetic issues are of great importance to human life. We have compiled an extensive list of genetic research paper topics and ... Replacement of genes and artificial chromosomes.. *Cloning.. *Gene mutations.. *Human genetics.. *Genetics and its impact on ... Who owns the right to the human genome?. What are the hottest topics in genetics?. The latest research states that most ... From the discovery of DNA structure to gene sequencing that is behind human life, tremendous progress has been achieved. ...
A gene expression atlas of the central nervous system based on bacterial artificial chromosomes. Nature 2003;425:917-25.doi: ... In absence of mouse models, development of human modelling systems, for example, using purified basal cells from adult human ... Normal human pancreatic ducts harbour a rare ΔNp63+ cell population that becomes more prevalent in CP and in a subset of PDAC. ... P63 expression in human tumors and normal tissues: a tissue microarray study on 10,200 tumors. Biomark Res 2021;9.doi:10.1186/ ...
... which is homologously recombined to the human IL6 gene in a bacterial artificial chromosome vector34. Thus, WIM-6 mice emit ... WIM-6 mice express the luciferase gene under the control of the human IL6 promoter, and IL6-inducing stimuli lead to the ... In human clinical studies, NRF2 inducer Tecfidera (dimethyl fumarate) has been approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis ... Establishment and characterization of a human acute monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1). Int. J. Cancer 26, 171-176 (1980). ...
Human artificial chromosomes or HACs are the first step in creating a genetically engineered synthetic human genome.. Chans ... "Human Genome Project-write"). By Chans own account, she was interested in human artificial chromosomes for "genome writing" ... Her work at Eric Landers Broad Institute involves creating human artificial chromosomes for the Pentagons Defense Advanced ... She hacks human cells for a project that could result in the wholesale genetic engineering of human beings.. ...
Artificial intelligence methods Autonomous Environmental Monitoring and Management, supported by NASA.. *Machine learning ... Development of various tools for modeling 3D structures of proteins and chromosomes, supported by NSF and NIH. ... Deep learning for improving human health. Selected Research Involvements. * ...
Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). A plasmid vector used to clone large fragments of DNA (average size of 150 kb) in E. ... Describing effects or processes that are derived from human activities, as opposed to effects or processes that occur in the ... Bacterial artificial chromosome. A plasmid vector used to clone large fragments of DNA (average size of 150 kb) in E. coli. ... and technology destroy human dignity and independence while also encouraging vice and moral weakness. In the 1920s and 1930s a ...
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8 Medicine & Life Sciences 89% * Cleft Palate Medicine & Life Sciences 73% ... Duplication deficiency of the short arm of chromosome 8 following artificial insemination. / Weleber, R. G.; Verma, R. S.; ... Duplication deficiency of the short arm of chromosome 8 following artificial insemination. Annales de Genetique. 1976 Dec 1;19( ... Duplication deficiency of the short arm of chromosome 8 following artificial insemination. In: Annales de Genetique. 1976 ; Vol ...
The Genome Resource Center (GRC) provides expertise in BAC (bacterial artificial chromosomes) lib... ... Human Studies Core, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, 1660 S. Colombian Way, Seattle, WA 98108 ... The Human Studies Core (HSC), formerly called the Clinical Research Core (CRC), provides speciali... ... LUTE facilities can support a wide range of research methods used across the human centered desig... ...
Rapid Methods for Human Artificial Chromosome (HAC) Formation. The subject technology is a methodology for generating human ... In vitro Generation of an Autologous Thymic Organoid from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. The thymus is the only organ capable of ... Thus, they are able to generate HPCs in a fully human, autologous system, which can be used to further generate immune cells ... artificial chromosomes for gene expression and delivery, screening of new anticancer drugs and engineered synthetic centromeric ...
... thus in one step permitting selection of the artificial chromosome and eliminating human pathogenicity. ... These intermediates were cloned into bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and sequenced, and then the final chromosomes were ... These markers were diagnostic for the artificial chromosome, as was the insertion of an antibiotic resistance element in a gene ... using yeast artificial chromosome vectors (YACs). This final assembly was isolated and clones with the correct sequence ...
Here, we report the characterization of a new type I TA system present on the chromosome of the major human gastric pathogen, ... Natural and artificial riboswitches were discussed. Recent advances for the design of mutated polymerases and of chemically ... The interaction of the TAR RNA element of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with a 2-O-methyl analogue of an RNA ... The intense study of Helicobacter pylori, one of the most prevalent human pathogens, has contributed much to understanding of ...
  • Fiona Brinkman therefore hypothesizes that some of their genes are similar to human genes. (
  • The human chromosome 5q31-q33 region contains an interesting cluster of growth factor and receptor genes. (
  • A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig of this region would assist in the further localization and isolation of these genes. (
  • Thomas Hunt Morgan and his group, used a bunch of fruit flies to help prove that genes, strung on chromosomes are the units of heredity. (
  • Barbara McClintock had discoverd that genes can jump around on chromosomes. (
  • Since the human genome was sequenced, companies have rushed to patent genes that may or may not unlock a life mystery. (
  • Replacement of genes and artificial chromosomes. (
  • Do companies have the right to patent human genes? (
  • Information from known human mutations and mouse studies suggest that FOXP2 regulates genes involved in the development of tissues such as brain, lung, and gut. (
  • Among other things, Sir3 and specific other proteins attach themselves near the tips of chromosomes, obscuring the nearby genes," says Cormack. (
  • It turns out that the yeast's adhesion-promoting genes are near the chromosome tips and are usually silenced by this process. (
  • Turning to laboratory dishes again, Domergue discovered that the yeast rapidly became drug-resistant (indicating the adhesion-promoting genes had been turned on) when they were grown in artificial urine -- a mix of specific chemicals in known amounts. (
  • Polyploidy and Gene Duplication: copying existing genes or chromosomes. (
  • Interestingly, when many of these same genes are deleted in humans, they are known to cause a behavioral syndrome called Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WBS). (
  • We will explore the possibility that the same set of genes that cause WBS in humans may actually have been under selection when we domesticated wolves. (
  • In understanding the genes that experienced artificial selection during dog domestication and breed formation, we will begin to understand the genetics underpinnings of canine personality and behavioral differences. (
  • The X chromosome carries genes that have a role in many organ systems, playing a part, for example, in testes function, brain development, and growth. (
  • Scientists have found a way to modify animals using human genes that could one day lead to transplants between species. (
  • Scientists for the first time have successfully inserted human genes into a pair of lambs, endowing them with the DNA to aid burn victims. (
  • In humans, genes vary in size from a few hundred DNA bases to more than 2 million bases. (
  • A chromosome consists of a long strand of DNA containing many genes. (
  • A human chromosome can have up to 500 million base pairs of DNA with thousands of genes. (
  • Humans have approximately 20,000 protein-coding genes. (
  • This type of oculocutaneous mutation is caused by a defect in a gene located in human chromosome 11 and is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, which means that an individual must inherit 2 defective genes from his/her parents for the disorder to occur. (
  • On the other hand, a female will only develop ocular albinism if she inherits 2 X chromosomes with the defective genes. (
  • 2) Genes implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders are active in human fetal brain, yet difficult to study in a longitudinal fashion. (
  • Telomeres are end-cap DNA repeat motifs (TTAGGG) n located at the termini of linear mammalian chromosomes, recently reviewed by Tomkins and Bergman. (
  • Dr. Black's research centers on understanding a major question in genetics: what defines human centromeres, the chromosomal loci that confer genetic stability at cell division? (
  • Controversial issues also include the issue of human genetic information confidentiality and whether genetic testing should be mandatory. (
  • She is a scientist whose Broad Institute work involves Pentagon-funded human genetic engineering. (
  • She is one of a surprising number of advocates for human genetic engineering, eugenics and transhumanism involved in investigating the origins of COVID-19. (
  • They include the DARPA-funded platforms used to produce DNA and RNA vaccines, classes of vaccine that has never been approved for human use in the U.S. and involve injecting foreign genetic material into the human body. (
  • Her project, "Human Artificial Chromosomes as a Platform for Multiplexed Expression of CRISP-Based Genetic Recording System," started in August 2018. (
  • Noninvasive fetal aneuploidy detection technology allows for the detection of fetal genetic conditions, specifically having three chromosomes, a condition called aneuploidy, by analyzing a simple blood sample from the pregnant woman. (
  • Cri du chat syndrome is a rare genetic condition that is caused by the deletion of genetic material on the the p arm of chromosome 5. (
  • We recently found a few genetic mutations that occur in both dogs and wolves that appear to increase their friendliness towards humans. (
  • However, in canines, we see genetic insertions instead of the deletions found in humans. (
  • A team of researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics and Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin led by human geneticists Malte Spielmann and Stefan Mundlos analyzed clinical samples from patients with genetic developmental disorders with the Hi-C method. (
  • Here, they�ve used gene targeting to replace a sheep gene with the corresponding human gene and they have much more control of the genetic modifications,' said Overstrom. (
  • a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is located usually on a chromosome and that is the functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits by specifying the structure of a particular polypeptide and especially a protein or controlling the function of other genetic material. (
  • Ocular albinism is an X-linked genetic disorder, meaning the defective gene (GPR143 gene) is located in the X chromosome. (
  • BAC stand for bacterial artificial chromosome. (
  • The sheep CHORI-243 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library is being used in the construction of the virtual sheep genome, the sequencing and construction of the actual sheep genome assembly and as a source of DNA for regions of the genome of biological interest. (
  • We have generated mouse transgenic lines using yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) technology which demonstrate expression from the human NK1 receptor (NK1R) locus. (
  • Development of various tools for modeling 3D structures of proteins and chromosomes, supported by NSF and NIH. (
  • Phenylalanine is found in all proteins and in some artificial sweeteners. (
  • They are hoping that their new technique could mean significant strides in the production of human proteins in livestock. (
  • Archeal sequences or sequences with an unidentified taxonomic category assigned were excluded (these include, for example, human artificial chromosome vectors, for which no taxonomic category could be defined). (
  • Westbury has spent her summer working with plasmids, circular pieces of DNA, to conduct DNA isolation and study the process of building artificial chromosomes. (
  • Background: We previously reported the identification of the aapA1/IsoA1 locus as part of a new family of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems in the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori. (
  • gene, unit of hereditary information that occupies a fixed position (locus) on a chromosome. (
  • A set of 56 SNP locus/phenotype associations was identified and the genomic regions harboring these loci were distributed over nine of the 12 eggplant chromosomes. (
  • These R1.40 transgenic mice express all mRNA and protein isoforms of the human amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein APP containing the Familial Alzheimer's Disease (FAD) Swedish mutation K670N/M671L. (
  • These transgenic lines may prove a good pre-clinical model as drugs can be addressed against both the human receptor and modulators of its expression in vivo. (
  • The expression and regulation of hCD27 in hCD27-transgenic (hCD27-Tg) mice were consistent with the understood biology of CD27 in humans. (
  • The two transgenic lambs entered the world armed with a human gene that gives them the ability to produce human serum albumin, a protein that is often used in surgeries and is essential to the treatment of burn victims. (
  • Centromeric nucleosomes are at the interface of the chromosome and the kinetochore that connects to spindle microtubules in mitosis. (
  • At mitosis, we propose that CCNC asymmetry accommodates its asymmetric connections at the chromosome/kinetochore interface. (
  • abstract = "Human kinetochores are transcriptionally active, producing very low levels of transcripts of the underlying alpha-satellite DNA. (
  • Human centromere regions are characterized by the presence of alpha-satellite DNA, replication late in S phase and a heterochromatic appearance. (
  • Centromere regions on human artificial chromosomes and host chromosomes have similar amounts of CenH3 but exhibit highly varying degrees of heterochromatin, suggesting that only a small amount of heterochromatin may be required for centromere function. (
  • The earlier replication of the heterochromatin-depleted artificial chromosomes suggests that replication late in S phase is not a requirement for centromere function. (
  • Defining the minimal DNA sequences required for centromere function on a normal human chromosome has proved challenging, owing to the complex nature of inter- and intra-chromosomal homology and variability in genomic DNA content near the primary constriction. (
  • The DNA sequence evidence for a purported inactivated cryptic centromere site on chromosome 2, supposedly composed of centromeric alphoid repeats, is even more ambiguous and untenable than the case for a fusion site. (
  • In addition, no ortholog for a cryptic centromere homologous to the alphoid sequence at human chromosome 2 exists on chimpanzee chromosomes 2A and 2B. (
  • Here, we have engineered two types of acetylated chromatin within the centromere of a synthetic human artificial chromosome. (
  • Murdoch Institute Desiree is a cytogeneticist who has characterised a human DNA sequence that can act as a centromere and therefore may provide the basis for a human artificial chromosome. (
  • The alphoid sequences in this region are quite variable and do not cluster with known functional human centromeric sequences. (
  • The Human Genome Project has transformed biology through its integrated big science approach to deciphering a reference human genome sequence along with the complete sequences of key model organisms. (
  • The subject technology is a methodology for generating human artificial chromosomes for gene expression and delivery, screening of new anticancer drugs and engineered synthetic centromeric sequences. (
  • In some embodiments, the antibody or antigen-binding fragment comprises one, two or three heavy chain complementarity determining regions (HCDR1, HCDR2 and/or HCDR3) having the amino acid sequences of heavy chain CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3 of human mAb 5H7. (
  • The antibody or antigen-binding fragment can further comprise one, two or three light chain complementarity determining regions (LCDR1, LCDR2 and/or LCDR3) having the amino acid sequences of light chain CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3 of human mAb 5H7. (
  • The GIFT technique was created in hopes of generating an artificial insemination process that mimicked the physiological sequences of normal conception. (
  • The natural centromeric DNA path in our structures corresponds to symmetric surfaces for CCNC assembly, deviating from what is observed in prior structures using artificial sequences. (
  • Several cases of developmental verbal dyspraxia in humans have been linked to mutations in the FOXP2 gene [2] . (
  • This funding will allow us to learn more about the specific mutations that are associated with human-directed hyper-sociability behaviors in canines. (
  • The state of anxiety is conceptualized as a transitory emotional state or a condition of the human organism characterized by a consciously noticed unpleasant feeling of tension and apprehension, and an increase in autonomous nervous system activity. (
  • XXY aneuploidy, the most common human sex chromosome disorder, has a prevalence of 1 in 500 males. (
  • Results In normal human pancreas, rare ΔNp63 + cells exist in ducts while their prevalence increases in CP and in a subset of PDAC. (
  • A comparative oxidative stress H 2 O 2 -induced was performed by addition and enzymatic generation using glucose oxidase on human retinal pigment epithelial cells line. (
  • RESULTS: Stimulation of Epac1 inactivated agonist-induced hyperpermeability in the mouse cremaster muscle and in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC). (
  • Because when a parent cell divides in to daughter cells then it gives equal number of chromosomes to. (
  • The PPL scientists introduced a gene in the chromosomes of livestock cells in culture. (
  • Science has been studying the phenomena of fetal cell microchimerism for more than 30 years, after researchers at Stanford University were shocked in 1979 to discover a pregnant mother's blood containing cells with Y sex chromosomes. (
  • Since women only have X chromosomes, they concluded that the cells must have entered into her body from the male baby she carried within her. (
  • Organoids from human pluripotent cells can be used to model cerebral cortical development. (
  • It�s another installment in the procession of advances that combine transgenics and cloning to produce therapeutics for animal and human health. (
  • Artificial insemination vs. ordinary pregnancy. (
  • A chromosomally abnormal child with psychomotor retardation and multiple anomalies, including agenesis of the corpus callosum and cleft palate, was born following artificial insemination by donor. (
  • The advent of high-throughput DNA sequencing and its accompanying technologies has largely replaced these earlier technologies for comparing both chromosomes and genomes. (
  • The Human Genome Project has inspired subsequent large-scale data acquisition initiatives such as the International HapMap Project, 1000 Genomes, and The Cancer Genome Atlas, as well as the recently announced Human Brain Project and the emerging Human Proteome Project. (
  • A random pair of human haploid genomes differed at a rate of 1 bp per 1250 on average, but there was marked heterogeneity in the level of polymorphism across the genome. (
  • We also examined the relationship between chromatin composition and replication timing of artificial chromosomes. (
  • Analyses were performed to understand how chromatin organization and/or epigenome affects origin of structural variations in human genome. (
  • Common to all normal human centromeres are large amounts of alpha-satellite DNA, which is comprised of a family of diverged 'monomers' of around 171 base-pairs (bp) that have been amplified in multimeric groups (higher-order repeats) on different chromosomes to form chromosome-specific arrays typically megabases in length [ 15 - 17 ]. (
  • Chromosome staining and hybridization techniques do not provide detailed DNA sequence information, but rather indicate putative areas of homology. (
  • A 650 kb YAC transgene containing the entire human amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein (APP) gene, and approximately 250 kb of flanking sequence, was altered to include the Swiss mutation K670N/M671L associated with Familial Alzheimer's Disease (FAD). (
  • The general model involves the hypothetical fusion of two small, acrocentric, 12 ape-like precursor chromosomes thought to have fused end-to-end, forming the single large human chromosome 2, as illustrated in figure 1. (
  • YACs can carry million base pair long fragments of human DNA. (
  • A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. (
  • A pair of stained chromosomes under the microscope. (
  • The first working draft of the human genome generated in both the public and private sectors was available in 2001 and a more complete draft of the public human genome sequence became available in 2003. (
  • The idea of the HGP was first publicly advocated by Renato Dulbecco in an article published in 1984, in which he argued that knowing the human genome sequence would facilitate an understanding of cancer [ 4 ]. (
  • The US Department of Energy (DOE) initially pushed for the HGP, partly using the argument that knowing the genome sequence would help us understand the radiation effects on the human genome resulting from exposure to atom bombs and other aspects of energy transmission [ 7 ]. (
  • Biological technologies (BTO) - research in engineering biology, including omix technology, synthetic biology, metabolic engineering, gene therapy (including the artificial human chromosome), and applied aspects of neuroscience. (
  • The Human Genome Project (HGP) has profoundly changed biology and is rapidly catalyzing a transformation of medicine [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • Though DARPA's futuristic weapons of war often get the most attention from media, the agency has longstanding interests in tinkering with, not just the biology of plants, but of humans. (
  • As of late, some of DARPA's human biology and biotech projects at its BTO have been getting a massive PR boost thanks to the current coronavirus crisis, with recent reports even claiming that the agency " might have created the best hopes for stopping Covid-19 . (
  • This particular yeast has in some sense committed to living with the human host and so it takes advantage of us to provide certain key nutrients," says Brendan Cormack, Ph.D., professor of molecular biology and genetics in Johns Hopkins' Institute for Basic Biomedical Sciences. (
  • But Fuentes has moved on to going after other aspects of biology, and in the article above he commits what I see as the cardinal sin of woke scientists who should know better: denying that, in humans at least, sex is a binary. (
  • The IPRL provides a wide range of intellectual and scientific services to investigators, including basic consultation, methodological design, sample size determination, selection of appropriate neurobehavioral measures, and data summary and interpretation to CHDD Research Affiliates studying non-human primates. (
  • Our analysis of the available genomic data shows that the sequence features encompassing the purported chromosome 2 fusion site are too ambiguous to accurately infer a fusion event. (
  • Chromosome staining used to achieve visible banding markers yields information related to GC base content, repeat content, CpG island density, and degree of condensation over large areas rather than specific sequence homology. (
  • From a DNA sequence perspective, it is claimed that human chromosome 2 contains two key regions in its landscape. (
  • Moreover, deeper knowledge of human sequence variation has begun to alter the practice of medicine. (
  • Two assembly strategies-a whole-genome assembly and a regional chromosome assembly-were used, each combining sequence data from Celera and the publicly funded genome effort. (
  • While all DNA is stained blue, a specific sequence stained pink appears duplicated in one of the two copies of chromosome 17, but not the other. (
  • We have generated five mouse lines that express the human NK1 receptor gene with and without the marker gene. (
  • Varius banding techniques were employed to identify the origin of the extra chromosomal material as most likely a duplication deficiency of the short arm of chromosome No. 8. (
  • [ 1 ] The etiology was thought to be due to an endocrine disorder of unknown cause, until 1959, when Jacobs et al recognized that Klinefelter syndrome was a chromosomal disorder in which there is an extra X chromosome, resulting in the karyotype 47,XXY. (
  • Today, the term Klinefelter syndrome (KS) refers to a group of chromosomal disorders in which the normal male karyotype, 46,XY, has at least one extra X chromosome. (
  • The researchers applied a method called 'Hi-C' (High-throughput Chromosome Conformation Capture) to samples from patients with developmental disorders suspected to be caused by chromosomal rearrangements. (
  • The classical analysis of chromosomal defects is done by a karyogram, which is a microscopic view of stained chromosomes. (
  • Failure in the function of these elements can lead to genomic instability, with often catastrophic consequences in humans such as miscarriage, congenital birth defects or cancer. (
  • We actually can cure AIDS and cancer with RA SHIELD, since these two diseases are caused by the failure in crystallization of Chromosomes due to failure of Wave Optics during cell division (so-called translocation, transposition, deletions, and other structural defects of chromosomes). (
  • Hi-C, a method to map the three-dimensional structure of chromosomes, promises more reliable and accurate diagnoses of such defects, but is not used in the clinic yet. (
  • American Journal of Human Genetics. (
  • As the team led by human geneticists Stefan Mundlos and Malte Spielmann describe in the current issue of The American Journal of Human Genetics , a method from basic research could improve clinical diagnostics considerably at some point in the future. (
  • All artificial chromosomes assembled markers of euchromatin (histone H3 lysine 4 methylation), which may partly reflect marker-gene expression. (
  • In other words, if you had a gene for down syndrome, the genetically modified anti-biotic could mutate the malice chromosome into something less harmfull. (
  • Defect in a gene on chromosome 9 causes OCA type 3 which is genetically confirmed in African and African-American individuals. (
  • Aided by artificial intelligence, Mearns and his colleagues from the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology have broken down the hunting behavior of larval zebrafish into its basic building blocks. (
  • With the help of artificial intelligence, Max Planck neurobiologists have broken down the hunting behavior of zebrafish larvae into its components. (
  • Artificial intelligence methods Autonomous Environmental Monitoring and Management, supported by NASA. (
  • We developed an artificial intelligence-based method to analyze natural daily behavior data from people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, using machine-learning algorithms to accurately predict their personal disease trajectories better than conventional clinical assessments. (
  • Artificial intelligence has the potential to revolutionize healthcare, yet clinical trials in neurological diseases continue to rely on subjective, semiquantitative and motivation-dependent endpoints for drug development. (
  • The main objective of this article is, therefore, to present a powerful combination of techniques originated in Artificial Intelligence - a multidisciplinary field more related to Engineering than to Mathematics, where Statistics has its origins and deductive basis. (
  • williamsx mysterious laboratory will diet pills nashville tn mysterious laboratory, engaged in the future hightech that shakes the world development, but stronger than google engaged in nanotechnology, robotics, artificial intelligence, solar energy, nuclear curb your appetite pills . (
  • Scientists at the UK's Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) demonstrated a new-method, antenatal reflex DNA screening, for three serious chromosome disorders. (
  • Since then, however, developments in microsurgical techniques and advances in artificial reproductive technologies (ART) have enabled over 50% of men with Klinefelter syndrome to sire their own children. (
  • Artificial reproduction and reproductive rights / Athena Liu. (
  • There are no individuals that produce intermediate forms of gametes who can be the basis of a third reproductive class of humans. (
  • They have a very nifty way of queuing the human genome database for answers," says Ron Cohen, CEO of Acorda Therapeutics, a biotech company developing therapies for spinal cord injuries. (
  • The desired effect is to produce human therapeutics in the milk of animals, to be later isolated and administered to humans. (
  • Although the PPL advances are likely to aid in the development of human therapeutics through animals, there are also risks for both animals and humans, Overstrom cautioned. (
  • Human gene targeting has been successful to a degree in mice, but the birth of Cupid and Diana represents the first time the technique has succeeded in large animals, said Dr. Eric Overstrom, associate professor in the School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University. (
  • Which is having 3 nstead of 2 copies of chromosomes. (
  • In 1977, the company produced the first human protein in a bacterium. (
  • To date, a role for agouti signalling protein (ASIP) in human pigmentation has not been well characterized. (
  • Other companies such as Genzyme are currently engineering goats to produce milk that contains a protein that regulates blood clotting in humans. (
  • DEHP is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3) because peroxisome proliferation has not been documented in human hepatocyte cultures exposed to DEHP nor in the liver of exposed non-human primates. (
  • Muslims, for whom male circumcision at ering of the glans penis and clitoris of all an early age is a religious recommendation human and non-human primates [1,2]. (
  • To address these models, we assayed formation of heterochromatin and euchromatin on de novo human artificial chromosomes containing alpha-satellite DNA. (
  • The formation of euchromatin on all artificial chromosomes demonstrates that they can provide a chromosome context suitable for gene expression. (
  • The sperm may not be viable-it may be dead, it may contain the wrong number of chromosomes, it may have been stored too long after its formation. (
  • Dr. Black serves as Co-Director of the newly established Penn Center for Genome Integrity (PCGI), whose mission is to understand the molecular basis of diseases that arise from structural aberrations to the human genome. (
  • It is generated by several reactive oxygen species (ROS), may limit lifespan and has been related to several human diseases. (
  • Evidence in humans and animal models suggests that IgE-mediated mast cell activation gives rise to both the acute and late-phase responses. (
  • The extra chromosomes affect the development of the brain and body. (
  • As the number of supernumerary X chromosomes increases, somatic and cognitive development are more likely to be affected. (
  • Gonadal development is particularly susceptible to each additional X chromosome, resulting in seminiferous tubule dysgenesis and infertility, as well as hypoplastic and malformed genitalia, as seen in polysomy X males. (
  • in 1983 Hunington Disease was found on chromosome 4. (
  • A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 6. (
  • The PAH gene is found on chromosome 12 . (
  • Nonradioactive cobalt has not been found to cause cancer in humans or animals following exposure in food or water. (
  • OCA type 2 is caused by a defect in the gene found in chromosome 15 and is also inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. (
  • DARPA was founded in 1958 in response to the launch of the first artificial Earth satellite in the USSR. (
  • In September 2015, a DARPA spokesman stated that several dozen people who had implanted artificial implants developed by the agency that provide targeted electrical discharges to specific parts of the brain showed significant improvements in memory test tests. (
  • In certain embodiments, the antibodies and antigen-binding fragments can also bind ligand-binding variants of human CXCR3 and/or fragments of human CXCR3. (
  • Design We evaluated ΔNp63 expression in human pancreas, chronic pancreatitis (CP) and PDAC. (
  • We introduced a 380 kb fragment encompassing the human NK1R gene and flanking regions which we hoped would recapitulate the expected endogenous expression of the human gene. (
  • The lack of a human specific NK1R antibody determined that we could not distinguish between expression of the transgene and endogenous NK1R. (
  • Our analysis has shown transgene expression in brain areas known to express NK1R in human such as the hippocampus and caudate putamen. (