Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, 1-3: The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Painting: A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, 16-18: The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y: The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.Ring Chromosomes: Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.Chromosomes, Human, 4-5: The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Chromosome Structures: Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.Chromosomes, Human, 19-20: The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Chromosomes, Artificial, Human: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Chromosome Fragility: Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Chromosome Duplication: An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Abnormalities, MultiplePolytene Chromosomes: Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Cytogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.Karyotype: The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Chromosome Fragile Sites: Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Sex Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).Monosomy: The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Genes, X-Linked: Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Philadelphia Chromosome: An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Azure Stains: PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chromosomes, Archaeal: Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Chromosome Breakpoints: The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sex Chromatin: In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Chromosomes, Artificial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, elements such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, that are required for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance in progeny cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Sister Chromatid Exchange: An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Pachytene Stage: The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Genes, Y-Linked: Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.Euchromatin: Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Meiotic Prophase I: The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Radiation Hybrid Mapping: A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Genetic Heterogeneity: The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Sex Chromosome Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions of atypical sexual development associated with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions including MONOSOMY; TRISOMY; and MOSAICISM.
Novel generation of human satellite DNA-based artificial chromosomes in mammalian cells. (1/58)An in vivo approach has been developed for generation of artificial chromosomes, based on the induction of intrinsic, large-scale amplification mechanisms of mammalian cells. Here, we describe the successful generation of prototype human satellite DNA-based artificial chromosomes via amplification-dependent de novo chromosome formations induced by integration of exogenous DNA sequences into the centromeric/rDNA regions of human acrocentric chromosomes. Subclones with mitotically stable de novo chromosomes were established, which allowed the initial characterization and purification of these artificial chromosomes. Because of the low complexity of their DNA content, they may serve as a useful tool to study the structure and function of higher eukaryotic chromosomes. Human satellite DNA-based artificial chromosomes containing amplified satellite DNA, rDNA, and exogenous DNA sequences were heterochromatic, however, they provided a suitable chromosomal environment for the expression of the integrated exogenous genetic material. We demonstrate that induced de novo chromosome formation is a reproducible and effective methodology in generating artificial chromosomes from predictable sequences of different mammalian species. Satellite DNA-based artificial chromosomes formed by induced large-scale amplifications on the short arm of human acrocentric chromosomes may become safe or low risk vectors in gene therapy. (+info)
Genomic structure, chromosomal localization and identification of mutations in the xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XPV) gene. (2/58)The xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XP-V) is one of the most common forms of this cancer-prone syndrome. XP groups A through G are characterized by defective nucleotide excision repair, whereas the XP-V phenotype is proficient in this pathway. The XPV gene encodes DNA polymerase eta, which catalyzes an accurate translesion synthesis, indicating that the XPV gene contributes tumor suppression in normal individuals. Here we describe the genomic structure and chromosomal localization of the XPV gene, which includes 11 exons covering the entire coding sequence, lacks a TATA sequence in the upstream region of the transcription-initiation, and is located at the chromosome band 6p21.1-6p12. Analyses of patient-derived XP-V cell lines strongly suggested that three of four cell lines carried homozygous mutations in the XPV gene. The fourth cell line, XP1RO, carried heterozygous point mutations in the XPV gene, one of which was located at the splice acceptor site of exon 2, resulting in the omission of exon 2 from the mature mRNA. These findings provide a basis for diagnosis and therapy of XP-V patients. (+info)
Molecular and cytological analysis of a 5.5 Mb minichromosome. (3/58)Mammalian artificial chromosomes (MACs) provide a new tool for the improvement of our knowledge of chromosome structure and function. Moreover, they constitute an alternative and potentially powerful tool for gene delivery both in cultured cells and for the production of transgenic animals. In the present work we describe the molecular structure of MC1, a human minichromosome derived from chromosome 1. By means of restriction and hybridization analysis, satellite-PCR, in situ hybridization on highly extended chromatin fibres, and indirect immunofluorescence, we have established that: (i) MC1 has a size of 5.5 Mb; (ii) it consists of 1.1 Mb alphoid, 3.5 Mb Sat2 DNA, and telomeric and subtelomeric sequences at both ends; (iii) it contains an unusual region of interspersed Sat2 and alphoid DNAs at the junction of the alphoid and the Sat2 blocks; and (iv) the two alphoid blocks and the Sat2-alphoid region bind centromeric proteins suggesting that they participate in the formation of a functional kinetochore. (+info)
Functional complementation of a genetic deficiency with human artificial chromosomes. (4/58)We have shown functional complementation of a genetic deficiency in human cultured cells, using artificial chromosomes derived from cloned human genomic fragments. A 404-kb human-artificial-chromosome (HAC) vector, consisting of 220 kb of alphoid DNA from the centromere of chromosome 17, human telomeres, and the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) genomic locus, was transferred to HPRT-deficient HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. We generated several cell lines with low-copy-number, megabase-sized HACs containing a functional centromere and one or possibly several copies of the HPRT1 gene complementing the metabolic deficiency. The HACs consisted of alternating alphoid and nonalphoid DNA segments derived only from the input DNA (within the sensitivity limits of FISH detection), and the largest continuous alphoid segment was 158-250 kb. The study of both the structure and mitotic stability of these HACs offers insights into the mechanisms of centromere formation in synthetic chromosomes and will further the development of this human-gene-transfer technology. (+info)
Genomic and genetic definition of a functional human centromere. (5/58)The definition of centromeres of human chromosomes requires a complete genomic understanding of these regions. Toward this end, we report integration of physical mapping, genetic, and functional approaches, together with sequencing of selected regions, to define the centromere of the human X chromosome and to explore the evolution of sequences responsible for chromosome segregation. The transitional region between expressed sequences on the short arm of the X and the chromosome-specific alpha satellite array DXZ1 spans about 450 kilobases and is satellite-rich. At the junction between this satellite region and canonical DXZ1 repeats, diverged repeat units provide direct evidence of unequal crossover as the homogenizing force of these arrays. Results from deletion analysis of mitotically stable chromosome rearrangements and from a human artificial chromosome assay demonstrate that DXZ1 DNA is sufficient for centromere function. Evolutionary studies indicate that, while alpha satellite DNA present throughout the pericentromeric region of the X chromosome appears to be a descendant of an ancestral primate centromere, the current functional centromere based on DXZ1 sequences is the product of the much more recent concerted evolution of this satellite DNA. (+info)
A new approach to genome mapping and sequencing: slalom libraries. (6/58)We describe here an efficient strategy for simultaneous genome mapping and sequencing. The approach is based on physically oriented, overlapping restriction fragment libraries called slalom libraries. Slalom libraries combine features of general genomic, jumping and linking libraries. Slalom libraries can be adapted to different applications and two main types of slalom libraries are described in detail. This approach was used to map and sequence (with approximately 46% coverage) two human P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) clones, each of approximately 100 kb. This model experiment demonstrates the feasibility of the approach and shows that the efficiency (cost-effectiveness and speed) of existing mapping/sequencing methods could be improved at least 5-10-fold. Furthermore, since the efficiency of contig assembly in the slalom approach is virtually independent of length of sequence reads, even short sequences produced by rapid, high throughput sequencing techniques would suffice to complete a physical map and a sequence scan of a small genome. (+info)
Alpha-satellite DNA and vector composition influence rates of human artificial chromosome formation. (7/58)Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) have been proposed as a new class of potential gene transfer and gene therapy vector. HACs can be formed when bacterial cloning vectors containing alpha-satellite DNA are transfected into cultured human cells. We have compared the HAC-forming potential of different sequences to identify features critical to the efficiency of the process. Chromosome 17 or 21 alpha-satellite arrays are highly competent HAC-forming substrates in this assay. In contrast, a Y-chromosome-derived alpha-satellite sequence is inefficient, suggesting that centromere specification is at least partly dependent on DNA sequence. The length of the input array is also an important determinant, as reduction of the chromosome-17-based array from 80 kb to 35 kb reduced the frequency of HAC formation. In addition to the alpha-satellite component, vector composition also influenced HAC formation rates, size, and copy number. The data presented here have a significant impact on the design of future HAC vectors that have potential to be developed for therapeutic applications and as tools for investigating human chromosome structure and function. (+info)
Chromosome engineering: prospects for gene therapy. (8/58)Recent advances in chromosome engineering and the potential for downstream applications in gene therapy were presented at the Artificial Chromosome Session of Genome Medicine: Gene Therapy for the Millennium in Rome, Italy in September 2001. This session concentrated primarily on the structure and function of human centromeres and the ongoing challenge of equipping human artificial chromosomes (HACs) with centromeres to ensure their mitotic stability. Advances in the 'bottom up' construction of HACs included the transfer into HT1080 cells of circular PACs containing alpha satellite DNA, and the correction of HPRT deficiency in cells using HACs. Advances in the 'top down' construction of HACs using telomere associated chromosome fragmentation in DT40 cells included the formation of HACs that are less than a megabase in size and transfer of HACs through the mouse germline. Significant progress has also been made in the use of human minichromosomes for stable trans-gene expression. While many obstacles remain towards the use of HACs for gene therapy, this session provided an optimistic outlook for future success. (+info)
The present invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule which contains the telomere and, optionally, the centromere of a higher eukaryote, particularly a plant, the telomere itself, the centromere
Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT) is a technique by which single or small numbers of chromosomes can be transferred from one mammalian cell to another by microcell fusion [1-3]. This technique can move the large intact genomic structures of natural chromosomes or artificially engineered chromosomes, and transferred chromosomes can be stably retained and freely segregate in recipient cells. Taking advantage of these features, MMCT has been employed very successfully in various basic science studies, e.g., genetic mapping and identification of tumor suppressor genes, analysis of genomic imprinting and production of animal models of disease [4-7]. Furthermore, MMCT is also used in gene transfer using a human artificial chromosome (HAC), mini-chromosome vector. HACs have several unique characteristics as gene-delivery vectors, including stable episomal maintenance in mammalian cells, the capacity to carry large transgenes, and less susceptibility to gene silencing, and have been applied ...
A human artificial chromosome (HAC) is a microchromosome that can act as a new chromosome in a population of human cells. That is, instead of 46 chromosomes, the cell could have 47 with the 47th being very small, roughly 6-10 megabases (Mb) in size instead of 50-250 Mb for natural chromosomes, and able to carry new genes introduced by human researchers. Ideally, researchers could integrate different genes that perform a variety of functions, including disease defense. Alternative methods of creating transgenes, such as utilizing yeast artificial chromosomes and bacterial artificial chromosomes, lead to unpredictable problems. The genetic material introduced by these vectors not only leads to different expression levels, but the inserts also disrupt the original genome. HACs differ in this regard, as they are entirely separate chromosomes. This separation from existing genetic material assumes that no insertional mutants would arise. This stability and accuracy makes HACs preferable to other ...
The present invention relates to the expression and screening of genomic DNA sequences encoding uncharacterized genes and proteins. The present invention provides systems utilizing unique features of retroviral replication to analyze uncharacterized genes derived from genomic DNA samples. In preferred embodiments, a segment of genomic DNA is inserted between 5′ and 3′ viral long terminal repeats (LTRs) in a vector (e.g., a plasmid, cosmid, or artificial chromosome vector). The resulting vector (or library of vectors containing a plurality of independent genomic sequences) is then introduced into a retroviral packaging cell. The resulting provirus or proteins expression from the provirus are then analyzed.
Following manuscript should be referred in the publication on a scientific journal.1. Liu YG, Shirano Y, Fukaki H, Yanai Y, Tasaka M, Tabata S, Shibata D. Complementation of plant mutants with large genomic DNA fragments by atransformation-competent artificial chromosome vector accelerates positionalcloning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 May 25;96(11):6535-40. PubMed PMID:10339623 ...
In order to define a functional human centromere sequence, an artificial chromosome was constructed as a reproducible DNA molecule. Mammalian telomere repeats and a selectable marker were introduced into yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) containing alphoid DNA from the centromere region of human c …
Replication of alpha-satellite DNA arrays in endogenous human centromeric regions and in human artificial chromosome Indri Erliandri, Haiqing Fu, Megumi Nakano, Jung-Hyun Kim, Karen H. Miga,Mikhail Liskovykh, William C. Earnshaw, Hiroshi Masumoto, Natalay Kouprina, Mirit I. Aladjem, and Vladimir Larionov Nucl. Acids Res. 2014 42: 11502-11516 ...
Local paddlers and participants from around the Northwest celebrated Central Oregons kayaking culture Sunday at a Northwest Cup Slalom Paddle Series race in Bend. About 30 racers braved freezing rain, raging water and a difficult course at the sixth annual Riverhouse Rendezvous slalom kayak race on the Deschutes River behind the Riverhouse Hotel & Convention Center in Bend. The race is a Junior Olympic qualifier. Spectators lined the shore and leaned over the two walking
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Giving people an extra chromosome may one day help conquer genetic diseases - as artificial chromosomes are used successfully in mice
Seattle's Amazon Web Services and consulting firm Slalom will open joint Launch Centers to help accelerate enterprise customers cloud migrations and modernize their information technology services
Ski with the medallists in the mens super giant slalom, Kjetil Andre Aamodt (Norway, gold), Hermann Maier (Austria, silver) and Ambrosi Hoffmann (Swit
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The 2019 Isonic slalom boards from Starboard are the ultimate in slalom windsurfing performance. If you want the lightest, fastest windsurfing board you can get your hands on, you want an Isonic!
Our fundamental technology, mammalian artificial chromosome vector has some advantages against other vectors that 1) our vector can maintain in host cells without integration of host genome, 2) overexpression or suppression of the gene introduced is not occurred after long-term cultivation, 3) our vector does not limit gene size introduced ...
The generation in vitro of mammalian artificial chromosomes, in view of the possibility of developing new technologies for gene therapy, is still an ambitious goal. Mammalian artificial chromosomes, to be used as cloning and expression vectors, have been constructed either by de novo synthesis or by reduction of pre-existing chromosomes. In the work here reported, we introduced a loxP sequence into the pericentromeric region of a chromosome 9-derived X-ray-reduced minichromosome, with the purpose of generating a human chromosome vector (HCV). The modified accessory chromosome is linear and mitotically stable, has lost at least 1400 kb of alpha satellite DNA and normally binds CENP-B, CENP-C and CENP-E. The efficiency of gene targeting via loxP mediated homologous recombination was tested using the histone H2B-Green Fluorescent Protein chimaeric gene as a reporter. The frequency of site-specific insertion of the exogenous sequence was found to be about 50% and to occur in a controlled way with ...
... - reflects the multidimensional character of chemical biology, focusing in particular on the fundamental science of biological structures and systems, the use of chemical and biological techniques to elucidate
Citation. Curto Mde L, Lorenzi HA, Moraes Barros RR, Souza RT, Levin MJ, Da Silveira JF, Schijman AG. Cloning and Expression of Transgenes Using Linear Vectors in Trypanosoma Cruzi.. International Journal for Parasitology. 2014 Jun 01; 44: 447-56.. External Citation. Abstract. The identification of new targets for vaccine and drug development for the treatment of Chagas disease is dependent on deepening our understanding of the parasite genome. Vectors for genetic manipulation in Trypanosoma cruzi basically include those that remain as circular episomes and those that integrate into the parasites genome. Artificial chromosomes are alternative vectors to overcome problematic transgene expression often occurring with conventional vectors in this parasite. We have constructed a series of vectors named pTACs (Trypanosome Artificial Chromosomes), all of them carrying telomeric and subtelomeric sequences and genes conferring resistance to different selection drugs. In addition, one pTAC harbours a ...
Paul Anthony Brain born 26 June 1964 in Stratford-upon-Avon is a British Slalom Canoeist who competed from the late 1970s to the early 1990s. He finished 17th in the C-2 event at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona. Paul was introduced to Canoeing in the local Scouts Group in Stratford upon Avon at the age of 13. He started in competitive canoeing in June 1978, entering the Novice event at Shepperton Weir on the River Thames in Surrey. Over the next few years, along with his Stratford on Avon Kayakists (SOAK) fellow canoeists, he competed in all of the canoe competition disciplines of: Canoe Slalom in the disciplines of Kayak Singles (K1), Canadian Singles (C1) and Canadian Doubles (C2) - in the Canadian classes paddlers kneel in their boat with a small cockpit sealed with a Spraydeck. Paulss Slalom Ranking History is listed below. (Canoe Polo) - in single Kayak (K1) (Wild Water Racing) - in Single Kayak (K1) (Marathon Canoe Racing) - in Single Kayak (K1) Pauls Canoe Slalom history: Canadian ...
At the 2002 Winter Paralympics, womens downhill and mens unable to see downhill were on day 1. Mens standing and being seated downhill were on day 2. Mens standing and being seated Super-G was on day 3. Mens unable to see and womens Super-G was on day 5. Mens standing and being seated Giant Slalom was on day 7. Womens and mens unable to see Giant Slalom was on day 8. Mens standing and being seated Slalom was on day 9. Womens and mens unable to see Slalom was on day 10. ...
MARIBOR, Slovenia (AP) - Results Saturday in a women's World Cup giant slalom: 1. Tessa Worley, France, 2 minutes, 16.96 seconds. 2. Sofia Goggia, Italy, 2:1...
American teenager Mikaela Shiffrin fought through snow and rain to win her second World Cup slalom of the season Sunday, showing her ability to deal with all types of conditions a month before the Sochi Olympics.
Soft, light styles jump on board at full speed, amid controlled scarf slaloms and acrobatic tie jumps. Tie them before the finish line!
This ski carves out a tight radius and feels like a slalom ski. In short turns it is brilliant with massive amounts of grip with a wide shovel that really drives you into the turn. The front of the ski dictates the character of how it behaves, constantly sniffing out the next opportunity to turn! The other upside of the wider nose is that it is easy to steer at slower speeds. On longer turns the shape can feel a bit too eager and makes it harder to carve out long, smooth turns ...
Scott Toomey went skiing for the first time last February and won medals in a slalom competition. He followed that up by competing in -- and winning -- a 100-meter dash in September. At times, he
This item appeared in the paper as a stand alone photograph. Caption information is provided below. Photo: The Swiss brothers Philipp, right, and Simon Schoch riding to the gold and silver medal, respectively, yesterday in the mens parallel giant slalom. (Photo by John D. McHugh/Agence France-Presse -- Getty Images ...
Plasmid pEnt R3L2 TetO(fl)-2 from Dr. Edward Hsiaos lab is published in Stem Cell Res Ther. 2011 Mar 4. 2(2):11. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
In less time than it takes him to manoeuvre his way down a slalom course, Campbell Walsh moved from third to fourth place and then back to third again before it was finally decided that the 26-year-old Glaswegian had actually won silver in Fridays K1 kayaking final.
Arresting. Stylistically, Knight slaloms through old-fashioned noir and snarky postmodernism, and from Barthelmean set pieces to a riff on Stonewall Jackson
The unique detachable and adjustable Maxilla break away chin guard, which can be fixed or set to break away at varying impact levels. The Maxilla break away chin-guard has been designed to minimize any potential injury to the neck or face and to meet the needs of different types of slalom racers and courses. The innovative and simple self-adjustment system gives racers all the flexibility they need for training and race day ...
Autori: Lefter LP, Sunamura M, Furukawa T, Yastsuoka T, Abe H, Inoue H, Abe T, Egawa S, Miura K, Morita R, Horii A, Matsuno S.. Editorial: Asian J Surg. 2004 Apr;27(2):85-92., 2004.. Rezumat:. BACKGROUND: In a previous work, we demonstrated that loss of heterozygosity of 18q is a frequent event significantly associated with poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer. We hypothesized that restoration of heterozygosity of chromosome 18 in pancreatic cancer cells would reduce their tumorigenicity. This study was intended to provide functional evidence for the existence of new tumour suppressor gene(s) located on chromosome 18. METHOD: Restoration of heterozygosity was achieved by introducing a normal copy of chromosome 18 into pancreatic ductal carcinoma using a microcell-mediated chromosome transfer technique. The tumorigenicity and metastatic ability of both the parental cells and resulting hybrids were assessed in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: In vitro growth of hybrid clones was significantly delayed ...
Preliminary1 estimates for 2015 show a 21 percent decline in hospital-acquired conditions (HACs) since 2010. A cumulative total of 3.1 million fewer HACs were experienced by hospital patients over the 5 years (2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015) relative to the number of HACs that would have occurred if rates had remained steady at the 2010 level. The preliminary 2015 rate is 115 HACs per 1,000 discharges, down from 2013 and 2014, which had held at 121 HACs per 1,000 discharges. We estimate that nearly 125,000 fewer patients died in the hospital as a result of HACs and that approximately $28 billion in health care costs were saved from 2010 to 2015 due to the reductions in HACs.
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There was heartbreak for Australias Ian Borrows, denied a place in the C1 Olympic canoe slalom final by his best friend on the paddling tour and pre-Games training partner.Borrows, in his Olympic debut, finished in 11th place, one position and 0.09 seconds behind American Casey Eichfeld.It was also revealed after the race that Borrows had been battling illness in the days leading up to the final, barely able to eat.
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We report the interaction between a human centromere antigen and an alphoid DNA, a human centromeric satellite DNA, which consists of 170-bp repeating units. A cloned alphoid DNA fragment incubated with a HeLa cell nuclear extract is selectively immunoprecipitated by the anticentromere sera from scleroderma patients. Immunoprecipitation of the DNA made by primer extension defines the 17-bp segment on the alphoid DNA that is required for formation of DNA-antigen complex. On the other hand, when proteins bound to the biotinylated alphoid DNA carrying the 17-bp motif are recovered by streptavidin agarose and immunoblotted, the 80-kD centromere antigen (CENP-B) is detected. DNA binding experiments for proteins immunoprecipitated with anticentromere serum, separated by gel electrophoresis, and transferred to a membrane strongly suggest that the 80-kD antigen specifically binds to the DNA fragment with the 17-bp motif. The 17-bp motif is termed the "CENP-B box." Alphoid monomers with the CENP-B box ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Alpine skiing has been an Olympic event since the first Winter Games in 1936. Nowadays, skiers compete in four main events: slalom, giant slalom, super-G and downhill. Here, we present an update on the biomechanics of alpine ski racers and their equipment. The technical and tactical ability of todays world-class skiers have adapted substantially to changes in equipment, snow conditions and courses. The wide variety of terrain, slopes, gate setups and snow conditions involved in alpine skiing requires skiers to continuously adapt, alternating between the carving and skidding turning techniques. The technical complexity places a premium on minimizing energy dissipation, employing strategies and ski equipment that minimize ski-snow friction and aerodynamic drag. Access to multiple split times along the racing course, in combination with analysis of the trajectory and speed provide information that can be utilized to enhance performance. Peak ground reaction forces, which can be as high as five times body
Saffery, Richard, Sumer, Huseyin, Hassan, Sara, Wong, Lee H, Craig, Jeffrey M, Todokoro, Kazuo, Anderson, Melissa, Stafford, Angela and Choo, KH Andy 2003, Transcription within a functional human centromere, Molecular cell, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 509-516, doi: 10.1016/S1097-2765(03)00279-X. ...
Im not sure what you mean by wavy conditions, and I havent used my NW 6.2s in breaking waves, but I love em in Gorge swell. When everybody else is sitting on shore because theyre 5.0 snobs, or BAFfing on slalom gear, or getting occasional short rides between long slogs on those 5.0s, Im out there not only planing full time but also slashing and jumping and laying it down and bouncing off swell-tops up to chest high, pretending Im having fun. I may be on anything from 96 to 78 liters, depending on conditions, but Im doing a good enough job of pretending Im on a 4.2 that some guys my size actually launch on their 4.2s and cant figure out why theres no way in HELL theyre going to plane. I did go to a Featherlite for its higher foot for better clearance in tight jibes on bigger swell (not to mention its stunning wind range and stability), but my earlier ZXs still worked fine as long as I kept their lower foot out of the water ...
www.rcpsych.ac.uk/files/pdfversion/OP85.pdf Und in den Vereinigten Staaten hat sich das National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse an der Columbia University (CASA Columbia) mit der Studie Addiction Medicine: Closing the Gap between Science and Practice an die Öffentlichkeit gewandt. (CASA Columbia, 26.06.2012) www.casacolumbia.org/templates/PressReleases.aspx Das aktuelle Thema des diesjährigen DGS-Kongresses wird deshalb Suchterkrankungen in Lehre und Ausbildung zum Inhalt haben. In aller Kürze: Die Bundesopiumstelle hat sogenannte Mischrezepte in der Substitutionsbehandlung für rechtens erklärt. (RECHT UND GESETZ, SUBSTITUTIONSRECHT) Im Leittext hat sich Robert Hämmig, Präsident der Schweizerischen Gesellschaft für Suchtmedizin des Themas „Slalom der Tabak-Massnahmen und die vergessene Schadensminderung" angenommen. Zum Schluss möchten wir Sie bitten, eine Petition zum Erhalt der Kriminologischen Lehre an der Universität Hamburg zu unterstützen. ...
Ted Ligety cemented his status as the worlds top giant slalom skier on Saturday in Slovenia by winning his fifth race of the season and clinching the World Cup discipline title with a race to spare.
Two groupers have been developed to support the implementation of the hospital-acquired complications (HACs) list. These tools that can be used by hospitals, health services and system managers to identify and monitor HACs.. ...
The HACs are identified using a combination of ICD-10-AM codes to identify the diagnosis and the condition onset flag (METeOR identifier: 354816) to indicate that the diagnosis occurred during the episode of admitted patient care.. Some HACs also require other codes to define the complication such as procedure and external cause codes.. ...
This program reads in sequences of real data values and prints their Fourier sine transforms (as computed by nag_fft_multiple_sine (c06hac)). It then calls nag_fft_multiple_sine (c06hac) again and prints the results which may be compared with the original sequence ...
Jinde ve svete takove sluzby funguji a prijde to i k nam. Jako se pacienti museji naucit brat tato hodnoceni s rezervou a psat posudky ferove, tak se i lekari budou muset naucit s tim zit. Hodnoceni kladna i zaporna se mezi lidmi siri per hubam odnepameti a nikdo nema kontrolu nad jejich objektivitou. Internet jen ten proces zrychluje, takze se informace i dezinformace dostanou k lidem mnohem rychleji nez driv.. K teto konkretni strance musim souhlasit, ze je velice pomala a nestabilni, uzivatelsky neprivetiva (aspon moznost volby razeni podle abecedy bych prosil) a vubec, je to internetove embryo. Snad az vyvstane konkurence, tak se situace pro nas konzumenty zlepsi.. ...
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I wasnt terrible in the first complex -- step up lunges, side-to-side & front-to-back single leg hops, skater plyo leap, and Tonys triangle. I cant even really explain these right now because of time, but I promise I will. Then I got into the second complex and was pretty bad at the squat reach in which you balance on one leg, squat down over a medicine ball, and then extend your arm and leg in opposite directions -- they were doing 8, I made it up to 6. Then this complex includes killer katherine lunges with height, monster slalom (which bothered my left knee), and side bridge lift (which I could only hold for 5-8 seconds at a time, compared to 30 seconds ...
On a snowy night more suitable to slaloms than soccer, Clint Dempsey scored early in his first start as the American captain and the United States beat Costa Rica 1-0 on Friday in a key qualifier for next years World Cup.
Christmas holidays seem to draw people out by the thousands to our most popular lakes and rivers. I cant say I blame them. Our waterways provide excellent outdoor fun and great camping opportunities. I braved the crowds on Leslie Dam just after Christmas and it was pretty hectic out there. Up the back of the dam, where it is less than 100m wide, the water skiers were doing slalom (zigzag) runs through the lure trollers. It was almost just as busy in the main basin and the banks were littered with cars, people and a tent city ...
Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus, GGA) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica, CCO) karyotypes are very similar. They have identical chromosome number (2n = 78) and show a high degree of synt
The new Proton. In stores now. Building on the immense success of its first generation, it is even more refined, precise, and without beating around the bush, simply faster, which is what the Proton is all about.. Gabriel Browne, Team Rider on the PWA: "The new Proton is a totally new design and concept. The three volume numbers are the same, and thats about it. All sizes come with all new shapes, fine tuned rockers, volume flow, rails, outlines, deck shapes. Everything you love about the old Proton is improved on the new Proton.. Its a Slalom board designed to win races everywhere in all conditions and for someone who wants to push hard and get the max out of it. During the second generation R&D we had the chance to test in different places, Denmark, Brazil and Maui. The Proton is designed to get the max out of a racing course, meaning starts, acceleration, speed and jibes.. From my side, as the rider, as a racer, the boards feel very free, powerful and fast with the new outlines, bottom, ...
The Naito lane is more demanding to bike down than the Waterfront path mostly because of all the stopping and starting (its hard to catch more than 2 greens in a row). Its also a test of patience to stop and wait for a timed light when there are no pedestrians or cars crossing the bike lane, which happens at the vast majority of red lights on Natio.. Because of this I use waterfront for my daily commute. I take it slow, but there are many bikers who dont, which contributes to the pedestrian stress level. Ive seen many close calls, lots of weaving cyclists taking the path like a slalom. Not good. Furthermore Waterfront is becoming a tourist hot spot, I hate that people visiting feel threatened by bikers going too fast/weaving.. Id prefer bike speed limit signs or a no-pedestrian bike lane painted onto the waterfront path over this attempt to get people to use the inferior facility.. Ideally, we could get a two way track along Naito. I remember Hales saying Naito could get a wider bike lane ...
Downloadable! A new family of kernels is suggested for use in heteroskedasticity and autocorrelation consistent (HAC) and long run variance (LRV) estimation and robust regression testing. The kernels are constructed by taking powers of the Bartlett kernel and are intended to be used with no truncation (or bandwidth) parameter. As the power parameter (rho) increases, the kernels become very sharp at the origin and increasingly downweight values away fro the origin, thereby achieving effects similar to a bandwidth parameter. Sharp origin kernels can be used in regression testing in much the same way as conventional kernels with no truncation, as suggested in the work of Kiefer and Vogelsang (2002a, 2002b). A unified representation of HAC limit theory for untruncated kernels is provided using a new proof based on Mercers theorem that allows for kernels which may or may not be differentiable at the origin. This new representation helps to explain earlier findings like the dominance of the Bartlett kernel
Summary of SAMSN1 (HACS1, NASH1, SASH2, SH3D6B, SLy2) expression in human tissue. Cytoplasmic expression in several different tissues, most abundant in Leydig cells and immune cells.
Hi We have used ethanol in stead of methanol with great succes for a long period of time. Stain: 0.25% CBB, 50% EtOH, 10% HAc in water (Stain for 5 min. at 65 C or 15 min at RT), 1st destain: 50% EtOH, 10% HAc in water (destain 5-10 min. at RT), 2nd destain: 10% HAc in water (destain for 2-48 hours). Using this procedure, no fading of bands is observed. Klavs ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about Yeast Artificial Chromosome (YAC) at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about Yeast Artificial Chromosome (YAC) easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
By Rebecca Edwards. The most talented developing athletes from every region of B.C. will travel to Vernon February 23-26 for the 2012 BC Winter Games - including a large team from the Kootenay region, and a number of athletes from the Elk Valley.. The local representation at the bi-annual provincial games includes:. • Fernie Judo Club members Cole Goodman, Sydney Koevoet, Nik Dunn and Kiam Teetzel who will compete both individually and as a team against other young athletes in their weight class.. • Fernie Skating Club figure skaters Gabrielle Runzer and Jodi Stemberger. • Fernie Alpine Ski Teams Ethan Blair, who will compete in the alpine ski slalom, grand slalom and ski cross events. • Cross country skier Jacob Blair. • Freestyle skier Andrea Byrne. • Hockey players Kimberley Huisman and Lindsey Weech. For many of the young athletes this will be one of the first times they have competed at a provincial level against athletes from outside their regional zones, so it is an ...
Henry Meece, a 25-year-old customer of Independence Northwest brokerage, can be found jam-skating at the local rink, paddling on a dragon-boat, competing in Special Olympics sports, snowshoeing, and snowboarding- when hes not riding his skateboard to work. In March 2015, Henry was interviewed on ESPN after winning a gold medal in the 2015 X Games in the first unified dual slalom race, and in 2013 Henrys athleticism took him to his birthplace of Korea for the Special Olympic World Games where he won a gold medal in slalom snowboarding. Henry has completed three marathons. He is proud of his athletic ability, and the interesting life that he leads. He thrives on a rigorous day-to-day schedule that he has shaped with the help of his mom, his brokerage, and his providers. He says his brokerage supports give him "something to do" and help him "stay active, make friends," and lead an "independent life." His mom says, "I would say of all the people we know, Henry is the most active.". Henry was ...
Abstract: Accurate measurement of the mechanical properties of artificial or cultivated cartilage is a major factor for determining successive regeneration of defective soft tissues. In this study, we developed a novel method that enabled the bulk modulus (k-modulus) to be measured nondestructively using the relationship between volume and pressure of living soft tissues. In order to validate this method we estimated the bulk modulus of soft silicone rubbers using our new method and a conventional method. The results showed a 5 ~ 10% difference between the results obtained with the two methods. Our method was used subsequently to measure the mechanical properties of cultivated cartilage samples (collagen gel type), that had been incubated for four weeks in the presence or absence of human articular chondrocytes (HACs). Our experiments showed that cultivated cartilage tissues grown in the presence of HACs had a higher bulk modulus (120 ± 20 kPa) than samples grown without HACs (90 ± 15 kPa). ...
Medical definition of bacterial artificial chromosome: a genetically engineered bacterial chromosome that is used as a vector to clone DNA segments, …
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an intracellular signaling pathway that is activated by the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The UPR results in an increase in transcription of ER-resident proteins that facilitate protein folding in the ER. A key regulatory step in UPR activation is the regulated splicing of HAC1 mRNA, which encodes Hac1p, a transcription factor dedicated to this pathway. Hac1p can be detected only when the spliced form of HAC1 mRNA (termed HAC1i mRNA, for induced) is produced; this was surprising because the unspliced HAC1u mRNA (HAC1u for uninduced) is equally stable in cells.. ...
This system is an improvement of the original experiment with the GFP. To see the fluorescence better, we decided to concentrate the YFP fluorescent molecules fused to TetR on the TetO array to make them more visible in the cell. We have been kindly given the plasmids containing the YFP:TetR construct and the TetO array by D. Lane. We biobricked the YFP:TetR construct and the TetO array so that they can be used by the synthetic biology community. The results are presented here in detail.. ...
El diseño y aplicación del Hormigón Autocompactable (HAC) constituye uno de los temas de mayor impacto e interés en el mundo en el campo de la tecnología del hormigón. En términos reológicos un HAC se caracteriza por poseer ...
August 12, 2013 at 9:14 am I really loved your video, I have been struggling lately with HACing after losing some weight in my face; my typical routine isnt working anymore to give me the look I desire. I am now working with a narrower face and a larger , thinner- looking (and not thinner in a good way) nose and struggling to make everything look defined without making my face look even narrower and my nose look even thinner and bigger and more protruding than it already is - so I found many of the tips in your tutorial very informative as well as your product suggestions. There are so many tutorials out there and you REALLY seem to know what you are talking about and you explain it at a perfect pace~ so kudos for that and thank you!! Now my question is : After you finish HACing and applying all of your face makeup and coverage do you ever set it with a powder? I personally feel like I have to in order to make everything "stay in place" , I have weird combination skin, so at times my skin is ...
Formula: C9H17NO5 , HAC = 15 , Mw = 219 Da Purity: , 99.0% (1H NMR, 13C NMR, HPLC, LC-MS) , Diamagnetic Category: Fragment For Larger Quantities or Similar Compounds, Request a QUOTATION ...
FIFTEEN-YEAR-OLD Raymond Radebe from the Valley of a Thousand Hills is set to represent South Africa at the junior and U23 Canoe Slalom World Championships in Slovakia.
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Modifying stem cells by insertion of anti-HIV gene or gene editing technologies can theoretically result in an HIV proof immune system in patients after stem ce...
Hace algunos años, varios actores hacían chistes sobre el productor acusado de abuso. Ahora las bromas suenan bastante incómodas.
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Scientists in Australia have developed a new gene therapy vector that uses the same machinery as viruses to transport their cargo into cells.
Será difícil removerme, y sin embargo estoy inquieto. Esta mañana, cuando aún estaba en la cama y alguien hacía girar rápidamente la llave de la cerradura, durante unos instantes tuve cerraduras por todo el cuerpo, como en un baile de disfraces, y en breves intervalos, se abría o se cerraba una cerradura aquí, otra allá ...
1946: The artificial kidney. *1953: Medical ultrasound. *1956: Human chromosome number. *1957: Dopamine ... Other examples of pioneering innovations are the artificial kidney, which laid the foundations for the multinational company ... Britta Holmström (1911-1992) was the founder of Individuell Människohjälp (IM), a human rights organization with activities in ... the determination of the number of chromosomes of man, the establishment of osseointegration, the development of the Bluetooth ...
Dysregulation of gene expression in the artificial human trisomy cells of chromosome 8 associated with transformed cell ... Heba N.H.N. Abdelrazik Heba N.H.N. i inni, Molecular characterization of chromosome 7 in AML and MDS patients, „Afr J Health ... Molecular genetics of human leukemias: new insights into therapy. „Semin Hematol". 39 (4 Suppl 3), s. 6-11, Oct 2002. DOI: ... Molecular anatomy of chromosome 7q deletions in myeloid neoplasms: evidence for multiple critical loci.. „Proc Natl Acad Sci U ...
Insert of up to 3,000 kb may be carried by yeast artificial chromosome. Human artificial chromosome may be potentially useful ... "Human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector with a conditional centromere for correction of genetic deficiencies in human cells". ... Kouprina N, Earnshaw WC, Masumoto H, Larionov V (2013). "A new generation of human artificial chromosomes for functional ... Insert size of up to 350 kb can be cloned in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). BACs are maintained in E. coli with a copy ...
June 1996). "Construction and characterization of a human bacterial artificial chromosome library". Genomics. 34 (2): 213-8. ... P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs) have features of both P1 vectors and Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs). Similar to P1 ... Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are linear DNA molecules containing the necessary features of an authentic yeast chromosome ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are circular DNA molecules, usually about 7kb in length, that are capable of holding ...
"Cloning and in vivo expression of the human GART gene using yeast artificial chromosomes". EMBO J. 10 (7): 1629-34. PMC 452831 ... 2000). "The DNA sequence of human chromosome 21". Nature. 405 (6784): 311-9. doi:10.1038/35012518. PMID 10830953. Banerjee D, ... 1997). "The human GARS-AIRS-GART gene encodes two proteins which are differentially expressed during human brain development ... Trifunctional purine biosynthetic protein adenosine-3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GART gene. This protein is ...
One popular way of studying EBV in vitro is to use bacterial artificial chromosomes. Epstein-Barr virus can be maintained and ... The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also called human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is one of eight known human herpesvirus types in the ... Human CD35, also known as complement receptor 1 (CR1), is an additional attachment factor for gp350/220, and can provide a ... Viruses lacking the gp42 portion are able to bind to human B cells but unable to infect. EBV can infect both B cells and ...
1997 - Team led by Professor Huntington Willard (Chair of Genetics) create world's first artificial human chromosome. M. Scott ... of the world's first human artificial chromosome. Integrated MD-PhD Training: In 1956, CWRU School of Medicine began an ... 1975 - Discovery that human renin, an enzyme produced by the kidney, is involved in hypertension 1990 - National team led by ... Research History: Development of the modern technique for human blood transfusion using a cannula to connect blood vessels; ...
The assembly of the genome sequence in M. truncatula was based on bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). This is the same ... approach used to sequence the genomes of humans, the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, and the model plant, Arabidopsis ...
"Cloning human herpes virus 6A genome into bacterial artificial chromosomes and study of DNA replication intermediates". ... For instance, human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6)(hibv) expresses a set of "early genes" that are believed to be involved in this ... Human Papillomavirus-16 (HPV-16) is another virus that employs rolling replication to produce progeny at a high rate. HPV-16 ... "The molecular biology of human herpesvirus-6 latency and telomere integration". Microbes and infection. 13 (8-9). doi:10.1016/j ...
"Cloning human herpes virus 6A genome into bacterial artificial chromosomes and study of DNA replication intermediates". ... In the case of human herpesvirus-6, its entire genome is made over and over on a single strand. These long concatemers are ... "The molecular biology of human herpesvirus-6 latency and telomere integration". Microbes and infection. 13 (8-9). doi:10.1016/j ...
He is credited with the construction of the world's first yeast artificial chromosome. That achievement helped scientists to ... His research findings in this area are also instrumental to the Human Genome Project. He was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize for ... His achievements in this area are also instrumental to the Human Genome Project. His discoveries have helped to clarify the ... the specialized DNA sequences at the tips of chromosomes. In the early 90s his laboratory shifted its research direction and ...
"Analysis of the 1.1-Mb human alpha/delta T-cell receptor locus with bacterial artificial chromosome clones". Genome Res. 7 (4 ... OR10G3 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text ... Malnic B, Godfrey PA, Buck LB (2004). "The human olfactory receptor gene family". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (8): 2584-9 ... Olfactory receptor 10G3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR10G3 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ...
"Analysis of the 1.1-Mb human alpha/delta T-cell receptor locus with bacterial artificial chromosome clones". Genome Res. 7 (4 ... 1994). "The human T-cell receptor TCRAC/TCRDC (C alpha/C delta) region: organization, sequence, and evolution of 97.6 kb of DNA ... OR4E2 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ... Malnic B, Godfrey PA, Buck LB (2004). "The human olfactory receptor gene family". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (8): 2584-9 ...
In addition, human genes can be studied and similarly genetically manipulated in yeast by using yeast artificial chromosomes ( ... 2001) Novel human p53 mutations that are toxic to yeast can enhance transactivation of specific promoters and reactive tumor ... 1979) Replacement of chromosome segments with altered DNA sequences constructed in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 76:4951-5. ... GAL1-I-SceI - Increases the efficiency of targeting to the CORE cassette-containing chromosome in diploid cells. It contains ...
As the sperm enter the human serum albumin, the differences in mass between the X and Y chromosomes manifest as the lighter ... This article is about the artificial selection of the sex of offspring. For the evolutionary concept, see sexual selection. ... As the X chromosome is larger (i.e. has more DNA) than the Y chromosome, the "female" (X-chromosome bearing) spermatozoa will ... As the X chromosome is larger (i.e. has more DNA) than the Y chromosome, the "female" (X-chromosome bearing) spermatozoa will ...
Heard E; Mongelard F; Arnaud D; Chureau C; Vourc'h C; Avner P (1999). "Human XIST yeast artificial chromosome transgenes show ... There are many long noncoding RNAs that regulate genes in eukaryotes, one such RNA is Xist, which coats one X chromosome in ... Yu Q; Morrow CD (2001). "Identification of critical elements in the tRNA acceptor stem and TΨC loop necessary for human ... R.N. Shukla (2014-06-30). Analysis of Chromosomes. ISBN 9789384568177. Berg JM; Tymoczko JL; Stryer L (2002). Biochemistry (5th ...
Mapping and sequencing of the chromosomal region was performed with the aid of bacterial artificial chromosome clones. Around ... Insertion of both human mutations into mice, whose version of FOXP2 otherwise differs from the human and chimpanzee versions in ... in which part of chromosome 7 had become exchanged with part of chromosome 5. The site of breakage of chromosome 7 was located ... Human gene differs from non-human primates by the substitution of two amino acids, threonine to asparagine substitution at ...
RNA interference rescue by bacterial artificial chromosome transgenesis in mammalian tissue culture cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U ... Genome-scale RNAi profiling of cell division in human tissue culture cells. Nat. Cell Biol., 9, 1401-12 (2007).  Kittler, R ... Kittler, R; Pelletier, L (2004). "An endoribonuclease-prepared siRNA screen in human cells identifies genes essential for cell ... HAUS, the 8-Subunit Human Augmin Complex, Regulates Centrosome and Spindle Integrity. Curr Biol. 2009 May 19(:816-26 (2009). [1 ...
Germline engineering and even the engineering of human artificial chromosomes (which presently allow increased reliability) are ... This had already been done in mice and, if successful in humans, could be the first case of germline engineering. Designer baby ... Chinese scientists reported in 2015 that they had modified the genomes of non-viable human embryos, Fredreik Lanner, a Swedish ... Callaway, Ewen (2016-02-04). "UK scientists gain licence to edit genes in human embryos". Nature. 530 (7588): 18-18. doi: ...
Mitochondrial EC 126.96.36.199 CblE The gene was mapped to human chromosome 5. Gene specific primer pairs resulted in PCR ... Exact gene cytogenic position was determined by mapping to an artificial chromosomal construct containing the gene via ... Methionine synthase reductase also known as MSR is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MTRR gene. Methionine is an ... amplification of a product matched by size to a hybrid-mapping panel containing only chromosome 5 as its human genetic material ...
... artificial chromosomes and bacteriophage (such as lambda). The best expression system depends on the gene involved, for example ... Chinese Hamster ovary Mouse myeloma lymphoblstoid Fully Human Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293) Human embryonic retinal ... Insect or mammal cell lines are used when human-like splicing of mRNA is required. Nonetheless, bacterial expression has the ... The C. glutamicum species is widely used for producing glutamate and lysine, components of human food, animal feed and ...
"A yeast artificial chromosome-based physical map of the juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS2) critical region on human ... Alsin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ALS2 gene. ALS2 orthologs have been identified in all mammals for which ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... 2001). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XVIII. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones ...
In 2007, a patent application was filed on methods for creating human female sperm using artificial or natural Y chromosomes ... An analogy, then, is that a cell from a woman has complete Y chromosome deficiency. While many genes on the Y chromosome have ... Female sperm can be either: A sperm that contains an X chromosome, produced in the usual way by a male, referring to the ... Since the late 1980s, scientists have explored how to produce sperm where all of the chromosomes come from a female donor. In ...
"A Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library for Sequencing the Complete Human Genome". Genome Research. 11 (3): 483-96. doi: ... Human Brain Project Human Connectome Project Human Cytome Project Human Microbiome Project Human proteome project Human Variome ... one X chromosome and one Y chromosome) compared to female samples (which contain two X chromosomes). The other 22 chromosomes ( ... "About the Human Genome Project: What is the Human Genome Project". The Human Genome Management Information System (HGMIS). 2011 ...
Borenstein, R.; Frenkel, N. (2009). "Cloning human herpes virus 6A genome into bacterial artificial chromosomes and study of ... 2010). "The latent human herpesvirus-6A genome specifically integrates in telomeres of human chromosomes in vivo and in vitro ... Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is the common collective name for human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B). ... Human herpesvirus 6 lives primarily on humans and, while variants of the virus can cause mild to fatal illnesses, can live ...
A QTL for osteoporosis on the human chromosome 20. QTL mapping. ... Castle's was perhaps the first attempt made in the scientific literature to direct evolution by artificial selection of a trait ... "Human Genetics for 1st Year Students: Multifactorial Inheritance". Retrieved 6 January 2007.. ... An example of a polygenic trait is human skin color variation. Several genes factor into determining a person's natural skin ...
Yeast artificial chromosomes and bacterial artificial chromosomes were created before human artificial chromosomes, which first ... A human artificial chromosome (HAC) is a microchromosome that can act as a new chromosome in a population of human cells. That ... In 2010, a refined human artificial chromosome called 21HAC was reported. 21HAC is based on a stripped copy of human chromosome ... "A new chromosome 14-based human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector system for efficient transgene expression in human primary ...
Human artificial chromosomeMeasles Virus fusogenic proteinChimeric protein. Background. Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer ... Human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector with a conditional centromere for correction of genetic deficiencies in human cells. ... Human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector provides long-term therapeutic transgene expression in normal human primary ... A gene delivery system with a human artificial chromosome vector based on migration of mesenchymal stem cells towards human ...
This discovery may help to further the development of artificial human chromosomes, which could be used for gene therapies in ... Scientists would like to develop artificial human chromosomes as an alternative to gene therapy using viruses. "Like their ... During cell division, the kinetochore provides a point of attachment for the cell skeleton and enables the chromosomes to move ... The cell skeleton, which distributes the chromosomes to the two daughter cells during cell division, attaches to the ...
Researchers describe a new way to form an essential part of the artificial chromosome, called the centromere, by bypassing the ... Human artificial chromosome (HAC, green) with two sister centromeres (red), similar to that of the natural host chromosomes ( ... Penn biochemists streamline construction method for human artificial chromosomes Bypassing the Need for DNA from the centromere ... PHILADELPHIA) - For the past 20 years, researchers have been trying to perfect the construction of human artificial chromosomes ...
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Generation of human artificial chromosomes via bottom-up approach. Each human chromosome contains a centromere consisting of ... An example of construction of the engineered human artificial chromosome via top-down approach. a The human chromosome 21 was ... A new generation of human artificial chromosomes for functional genomics and gene therapy.. Kouprina N1, Earnshaw WC, Masumoto ... An example of construction of the de novo generated human artificial chromosome via bottom-up approach using a synthetic ...
Researchers describe a new way to form an essential part of the artificial chromosome, called the centromere, by bypassing the ... How human eggs end up with the wrong number of chromosomes. One day before ovulation, human oocytes begin to divide into what ... Penn biochemists streamline construction method for human artificial chromosomes. July 25, 2019. (PHILADELPHIA) - For the past ... researchers have been trying to perfect the construction of human artificial chromosomes, or HACs for short. In a paper ...
Yeast artificial chromosomes and bacterial artificial chromosomes were invented before human artificial chromosomes, which ... A human artificial chromosome (short HAC) is a microchromosome that can act as a new chromosome in a population of human cells ... They are useful in expression studies as gene transfer vectors and are a tool for elucidating human chromosome function. Grown ... Formation of de novo centromeres and construction of first-generation human artificial microchromosomes in Nature Genetics 15, ...
... production of beta-globin locus YAC mice carrying human globin developmental mutants. K R Peterson, Q L Li, C H Clegg, T ... Use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) in studies of mammalian development: production of beta-globin locus YAC mice ... Use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) in studies of mammalian development: production of beta-globin locus YAC mice ... Use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) in studies of mammalian development: production of beta-globin locus YAC mice ...
Mammalian telomere repeats and a selectable marker were introduced into yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) containing alphoid ... an artificial chromosome was constructed as a reproducible DNA molecule. ... DNA from the centromere region of human c … ... In order to define a functional human centromere sequence, ... Assay of centromere function using a human artificial chromosome Chromosoma. 1998 Dec;107(6-7):406-16. doi: 10.1007/ ...
Analysis of the 1.1-Mb human alpha/delta T-cell receptor locus with bacterial artificial chromosome clones.. Boysen C1, Simon ... Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones are effective mapping and sequencing reagents. The 1.1-Mb alpha/delta T-cell ... These BAC features led to the proposal of a new approach to sequence the human genome. ... receptor locus of humans was mapped and partially sequenced with BAC clones. Seventeen BAC clones covered the 1.1-Mb alpha/ ...
What is human artificial chromosome? Meaning of human artificial chromosome medical term. What does human artificial chromosome ... Looking for online definition of human artificial chromosome in the Medical Dictionary? human artificial chromosome explanation ... human artificial chromosome. Also found in: Dictionary, Acronyms, Wikipedia. human artificial chromosome. n.. A large DNA ... Human artificial chromosome , definition of human artificial chromosome by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
Subsequent reports using either yeast artificial chromosomes, bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), or P1 phage artificial ... Expression of human smooth muscle calponin in transgenic mice revealed with a bacterial artificial chromosome. Joseph M. Miano ... 1997) Human apolipoprotein B transgenic mice generated with 207- and 145-kilobase pair bacterial artificial chromosomes: ... Expression of human smooth muscle calponin in transgenic mice revealed with a bacterial artificial chromosome ...
Human Apolipoprotein B Transgenic Mice Generated with 207- and 145-Kilobase Pair Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. Evidence ... Human Apolipoprotein B Transgenic Mice Generated with 207- and 145-Kilobase Pair Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. Evidence ... and 207-kb bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) that contained the human apoB gene and more extensive 5- and 3-flanking ... We reported previously that ~80-kilobase pair (kb) P1 bacteriophage clones spanning either the human or mouse apoB gene (clones ...
Reversible immortalisation of human dystrophic muscle progenitors with a novel human artificial chromosome (HAC) containing the ... Tedesco FS (2015) Human artificial chromosomes for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and beyond: challenges and hopes. Chromosome Res ... Generation of a novel human artificial chromosome containing the entire human dystrophin locus. To facilitate pre‐clinical ... Kouprina N, Tomilin AN, Masumoto H, Earnshaw WC, Larionov V (2014) Human artificial chromosome‐based gene delivery vectors for ...
Cloning of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genome as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli: a new ... The full-length genome of human cytomegalovirus strain AD169 was cloned as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) ... Construction of a Self-Excisable Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Containing the Human Cytomegalovirus Genome and Mutagenesis of ... Construction of a Self-Excisable Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Containing the Human Cytomegalovirus Genome and Mutagenesis of ...
My main interest during the last four years has been the study of the centromere by using human artificial chromosomes (HACs) ( ... Figure 2. Micrograph of condensed human chromosomes (left) and diagram of a chromosome (right). We can distinguish the DNA ( ... usually for the study of chromosome structure and function, as these chromosomes are not essential for the cell viability. They ... I am sure that you have heard about chromosomes, but do you know what are they? Most of the time, the DNA (the instruction ...
Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC). A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is an engineered DNA molecule used to clone DNA ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC). A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is an engineered DNA molecule used to clone DNA ... A large piece of DNA can be engineered in a fashion that allows it be propagated as a circular artificial chromosome in ... A large piece of DNA can be engineered in a fashion that allows it be propagated as a circular artificial chromosome in ...
Making better artificial chromosomes for mammalian cells. Project ID: HPRN-CT-2000-00089. Finanziato nellambito di: FP5-HUMAN ... Making better artificial chromosomes for mammalian cells. Dal 2000-09-01 al 2004-08-31 ...
chromosome;. YAC,. yeast artificial chromosome;. LLC,. Lewis lung carcinoma line;. hybrid,. yeast ×human hybrid. ... Three yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones spanning the minimal loss of heterozygosity region were modified, and ... Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 11q23 is observed at high frequency in human nonsmall cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs), ... Ongoing conversion of the 939b12 YAC to bacterial artificial chromosomes carrying a mammalian selectable marker, which can be ...
... was to test the ability of oligonucleotide-based arrays to reproduce the results of focused bacterial artificial chromosome ( ... platform to give high-resolution coverage of regions within the genome sequence coordinates of BAC/P1 artificial chromosome ( ... High-resolution human genome scanning using whole-genome BAC arrays. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 2003; 68: 323-329. ... P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs), or bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), or of polymerase chain reaction products ...
... and 145-kilobase pair bacterial artificial chromosomes. Evidence that a distant 5-element confers appropriate transgene ... Human apolipoprotein B transgenic mice generated with 207- and 145-kilobase pair bacterial artificial chromosomes. Evidence ... and 207-kb bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) that contained the human apoB gene and more extensive 5- and 3-flanking ... We reported previously that approximately 80-kilobase pair (kb) P1 bacteriophage clones spanning either the human or mouse apoB ...
... but researchers have demonstrated a new technique using pulsed violet lasers to cut and paste chromosome fragments. Click to ... Laser chromosome welding may sound like sci-fi, ... Confocal microscopy for imaging cellular structures in human ... Technique of Laser Chromosome Welding for Chromosome Repair and Artificial Chromosome Creation. July 17, 2018, via OSA - The ... Technique of Laser Chromosome Welding for Chromosome Repair and Artificial Chromosome Creation ...
... the National Human Genome Research Institute, identified a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone 433k6 (Research Genetics ... Isolation of the Human GLI2 Gene. Primer pairs were designed within a partial cDNA 3′ UTR sequence for human GLI2 and then ... We report on a functional association between GLI2 and human disease and highlight the role of GLI2 in human head development. ... Human GLI2 and frog Gli2 thus appear to have divergent functions in this assay. In contrast, human GLI1 and GLI2 behave ...
GeneticVectorsGenomicCellsTransgenicGenesSegregationMammalianChromosomalBacterial artificial chromoSequencesCloned as an infectious bacterial artiPlasmidsMetaphaseProteinsContigHybridizationFunctionalHaploidAbstractProteinSyntheticSomatic cellEnds of chromosomesGenetically-engineeredConstructed a yeast artificialTelomeresHACsInheritanceMultiple chromosomesHost chromosomesWhole chromosomesIndividual chromosomesAlleleDiploidIsolation
- HACs are useful in expression studies as gene transfer vectors, as a tool for elucidating human chromosome function, and as a method for actively annotating the human genome. (wikipedia.org)
- There are currently two accepted models for the creation of human artificial chromosome vectors. (wikipedia.org)
- Human artificial chromosome (HAC) vectors have some unique characteristics as compared with conventional vectors, carrying large transgenes without size limitation, showing persistent expression of transgenes, and existing independently from host genome in cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- HACs were first constructed de novo in 1997 by adding alpha-satellite DNA to telomeric and genomic DNA in human HT1080 cells. (wikipedia.org)
- This technique can move the large intact genomic structures of natural chromosomes or artificially engineered chromosomes, and transferred chromosomes can be stably retained and freely segregate in recipient cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- 21HAC was also able to be transferred into cells from a variety of species (mice, chickens, humans). (wikipedia.org)
- However, the method of introduction of HACs into target cells is confined to microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT), which is less efficient than other methods of vector introduction. (biomedcentral.com)
- Application of Measles Virus (MV) fusogenic proteins to MMCT instead of polyethylene glycol (PEG) has partly solved this drawback, whereas the tropism of MV fusogenic proteins is restricted to human CD46- or SLAM-positive cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Efficacy of chimeric fusogenic proteins was evaluated by the evidence that the HAC, tagged with a drug-resistant gene and an EGFP gene, was transferred from CHO donor cells into human fibroblasts. (biomedcentral.com)
- It was demonstrated that higher efficiency of microcell fusion was achieved in some human cells by means of microcells which expressed MV-derived fusion machinery, both the hemagglutinin (H) protein and fusion (F) protein, as compared to PEG-induced fusion. (biomedcentral.com)
- HACs essentially function as new mini-chromosomes carrying engineered sets of genes that are inherited alongside a cell's natural set of chromosomes. (eurekalert.org)
- That is, instead of 46 chromosomes, the cell could have 47 with the 47th being very small, roughly 6-10 megabases (Mb) in size instead of 50-250 Mb for natural chromosomes, and able to carry new genes introduced by human researchers. (wikipedia.org)
- and third, identifying and characterizing genes associated with human disease. (genome.gov)
- Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 3p (Chr 3p) and Chr 11 has been reported in NSCLC, suggesting the presence of additional tumor suppressor genes in these regions ( 5 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
- These combined maps and the YAC clones provide a set of extended DNA loci ordered at high odds that can be used to isolate additional polymorphic loci and genes, and to serve as a framework for obtaining a higher resolution physical map of the chromosome. (elsevier.com)
- A similar approach may be useful for studying complex control regions surrounding many other genes important in embryonic development and human disease. (nih.gov)
- Promoter conservation among the mouse, human, and chicken Bmp5 genes. (nih.gov)
- During interphase, the genes carried on the chromosomes are transcribed , to form proteins needed by the cell. (encyclopedia.com)
- Every human cell carries 46 chromosomes, the DNA-and-protein packages that transmit genes from generation to generation as cells divide. (technologyreview.com)
- Lately, scientists have been wondering whether they can fool the machinery of the cell by inserting a synthetic 47th chromosome furnished with genes of their own choosing. (technologyreview.com)
- they are testing artificial chromosomes as a safe and effective way to introduce therapeutic genes into patients suffering from deadly genetic disorders. (technologyreview.com)
- An artificial chromosome can carry any number of genes, is ignored by the immune system, and functions independently of other chromosomes, so the technique "represents potentially a response or an answer to those challenges," says Huntington F. Willard, director of the Duke University Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy. (technologyreview.com)
- Michle Calos, a Stanford University geneticist who previously had worked with artificial chromosomes, has since shifted her focus to other gene-therapy methods such as inserting therapeutic genes at specific places on natural chromosomes. (technologyreview.com)
- We constructed two megabase-sized YACs containing large contiguous fragments of the human heavy and kappa (kappa) light chain immunoglobulin (Ig) loci in nearly germline configuration, including approximately 66 VH and 32 V kappa genes. (nih.gov)
- Gene silencing associated with aberrant methylation of promoter region CpG islands is an acquired epigenetic alteration that serves as an alternative to genetic defects in the inactivation of tumor suppressor and other genes in human cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
- Accordingly, the identification of gene targets of methylation-associated silencing could lead to novel genes involved in the initiation and progression of human neoplasia. (aacrjournals.org)
- Isolation of single-copy human genes from a library of yeast artificial chromosomes", Science 244:1348-1351 (1989). (freepatentsonline.com)
- Therefore, the availability of large-insert genomic librairies such as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) is a valuable tool for identifying cancer genes. (hindawi.com)
- The invention relates to transgenic non-human animals capable of producing heterologous antibodies and transgenic non-human animals having inactivated endogenous immunoglobulin genes. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Heterologous antibodies are encoded by immunoglobulin genes not normally found in the genome of that species of non-human animal. (freepatentsonline.com)
- In one aspect of the invention, one or more transgenes containing sequences of unrearranged heterologous human immunoglobulin heavy chains are introduced into a non-human animal thereby forming a transgenic animal capable of functionally rearranging transgenic immunoglobulin sequences and producing a repertoire of antibodies of various isotypes encoded by human immunoglobulin genes. (freepatentsonline.com)
- BACs can also be utilized to detect genes or large sequences of interest and then used to map them onto the human chromosome using BAC arrays. (wikipedia.org)
- It's also going to be a powerful tool for understanding gene function not just for yeast but for humans," Bader added, noting that many human genes share a common ancestor with their yeast counterparts. (aaas.org)
- Geneticists at Emory University School of Medicine have demonstrated a method that enables the routine amplification of all the genes on the X chromosome. (innovations-report.com)
- The technology allows the rapid and highly accurate sequencing and identification of novel genetic variants affecting X chromosome genes. (innovations-report.com)
- Because the X chromosome is a hotspot for genes that are suspected of contributing to autism and intellectual disability, the Emory team's finding could speed new discoveries and eventually make routine clinical diagnosis of autism and intellectual disability easier. (innovations-report.com)
- The presence of more functional P450 genes in the mouse relative to humans is also reflected in the organization of the Cyp3a cluster, which in the mouse comprises eight functional genes. (aspetjournals.org)
- Researchers are experimenting with introducing an artificial 47th human chromosome to deliver new genes. (dailypress.com)
- Building a public collection of gene transcripts (as cDNAs) for use in studying the structure and function of human, mouse, and rat genes. (genome.gov)
- Our recent discovery of the amplification of the SPANX gene family at the Hereditary Prostate Cancer on chromosome X (HPCX) locus suggests that these genes could still be evolving in humans. (cancer.gov)
- The procedure involved replacing the genes in the original chromosome with synthetic versions and the finished synthesized chromosome was then integrated into a yeast cell. (wikipedia.org)
- The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint. (wikipedia.org)
- For instance, human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6)(hibv) expresses a set of "early genes" that are believed to be involved in this process. (wikipedia.org)
- His discoveries have helped to clarify the events that lead to chromosomal recombination-the reshuffling of genes that occurs during meiosis-and the function of telomeres, the specialized DNA sequences at the tips of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition, human genes can be studied and similarly genetically manipulated in yeast by using yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs). (wikipedia.org)
- This could be done through genetic screening of blastocysts (early embryos), or through germline engineering, which refers to human genetic engineering used to alter genes in the first cells of the blastocyst. (wikipedia.org)
- Chinese scientists reported in 2015 that they had modified the genomes of non-viable human embryos, Fredreik Lanner, a Swedish scientist, was reported in 2016 to have modified the genomes of healthy human embryos which were destroyed before they were 14 days old and British scientists in 2016 received permission to edit genes in human embryos which were to be destroyed after seven days. (wikipedia.org)
- 2001). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. (wikipedia.org)
- Biologists have well established that male sperm production relies on certain genes on the Y chromosome, which, when missing or defective, lead to such men producing little to no sperm in their testicles. (wikipedia.org)
- While many genes on the Y chromosome have backups (homologues) on other chromosomes, a few genes such as RBMY on the Y chromosome do not have such backups, and their effects must be compensated for to convert cells from a woman into sperm. (wikipedia.org)
- CGH does, however, allow for the exploration of all 46 human chromosomes in single test and the discovery of deletions and duplications, even on the microscopic scale which may lead to the identification of candidate genes to be further explored by other cytological techniques. (wikipedia.org)
- CRISPR/Cas9 technique can be used to knock-out/in genes that are related to ALS, and it is very beneficial in increasing the expression of the genes to mimic the human model of ALS for a faster onset of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
- Under this mechanism, a human influenza virus could exchange genes with an avian strain, and that is how pandemic strains arise. (wikipedia.org)
- In this case, human H1N1 strains and avian influenza A genes were mixed. (wikipedia.org)
- These changes allow for almost endless possibilities for new viral strains to arise and it is the antigenic drift of the HA and NA genes that allow for the virus to infect humans that receive vaccines for other strains of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
- Repeats of entire genes has immediate effects on expression of that particular gene, and the fact that the copy number variation of the AMY1 gene has been related to diet is a remarkable example of recent human evolutionary adaptation. (wikipedia.org)
- At the MRC HGU, Edinburgh (1990 - 2002), and subsequently at the Wellome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh (2002-present), he discovered that genes are silenced when placed within fission yeast centromeres and telomeres, and then utilised this gene silencing to gain fundamental insights into the processes of chromosome segregation, and heterochromatin and kinetochore CENP-A chromatin establishment and maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
- Artificial gene synthesis, sometimes known as DNA printing is a method in synthetic biology that is used to create artificial genes in the laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
- Before the completion of the human genome in 2001 through the Human Genome Project, most of the early associative gene comparisons relied on the belief that essential housekeeping genes were clustered in the same areas of the genome for ease of access and tight regulation. (wikipedia.org)
- The Holliday junction is a key intermediate in homologous recombination, a biological process that increases genetic diversity by shifting genes between two chromosomes, as well as site-specific recombination events involving integrases. (wikipedia.org)
- 2003 - The Human Genome Project is completed, providing information on the locations and sequence of human genes on all 46 chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
- chromatin chromosomal crossover chromosomal duplication chromosome a molecular "package" for carrying DNA in cells, organized as two double-helical DNA molecules that encode many genes. (wikipedia.org)
- An important aspect of the formation of the parent offspring is the chromosome, which is a structure of DNA which contains many genes. (wikipedia.org)
- The explanation that proves the theory of the offspring having genes from both parent generations, is proven through a process called crossing-over, which consists of taking genes from the male chromosomes and genes from the female chromosome, resulting in a process of meiosis occurring, and leading to the splitting of the chromosomes evenly. (wikipedia.org)
- Mutations affecting OR genes on the chromosome are primarily responsible for the evolution of smell. (wikipedia.org)
- OR genes are grouped in clusters along multiple chromosomes and are responsible for coding respective OR proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- OR genes are located on error-prone regions of the chromosome, and consequently, the DNA of the OR gene is periodically duplicated during crossover. (wikipedia.org)
- The diversity of smelling genes present in humans today are attributed to multiple rounds of mutations that have occurred throughout vertebrate evolution. (wikipedia.org)
- Therefore, for genes sufficiently distant on the same chromosome, the amount of crossover is high enough to destroy the correlation between alleles. (wikipedia.org)
- Because two genes that are close together are less likely to become separated than genes that are farther apart, geneticists can deduce roughly how far apart two genes are on a chromosome if they know the frequency of the crossovers. (wikipedia.org)
- In the cell nucleus, it seems that promoters are distributed preferentially at the edge of the chromosomal territories, likely for the co-expression of genes on different chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
- The haploid human genome (23 chromosomes) is estimated to be about 3.2 billion bases long and to contain 20,000-25,000 distinct protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
- Thanks to the use of HACs, scientists have been able to study the minimal requirements to assemble and maintain such complex machinery as the centromeres that are necessary, as stated above, to ensure proper chromosome segregation during cell division. (sruk.org.uk)
- Although there is a lot to know about the function and maintenance of the centromeres, HACs have proven a unique tool for the study of these chromosomic regions and for the study of the mechanism of chromosome segregation during cell division. (sruk.org.uk)
- The live-cell imaging revealed that about half of embryos judged as morphologically transferable by IETS criteria had nuclear/chromosomal abnormalities, such as abnormal number of pronuclei and abnormal chromosome segregation, which may lead abortion. (eurekalert.org)
- YACs contain cis -acting DNA elements known to be required for chromosome replication, segregation, and stability ( i.e ., centromere, origin of replication, and telomeres). (genetics.org)
- Importantly, since YACs are not essential for the viability of a yeast cell, they are useful for the analysis of chromosome segregation as their loss and/or rearrangement can be monitored without detrimental effects to the cell. (genetics.org)
- Overview of course research project to isolate and characterize yeast mutants with defects in mitotic chromosome segregation. (genetics.org)
- Now, a study published by Cell Press in the April 29th issue of the journal Cell , provides fascinating new insight into the complex of proteins that orchestrates the proper segregation of human chromosomes during cell division. (scienceblog.com)
- We found that although CENP-A is essential for specifying the site of kinetochore formation, CENP-T and CENP-C can act as key components to drive assembly of a functional kinetochore capable of binding microtubules to allow accurate chromosome segregation," concludes first author Dr. Karen Gascoigne. (scienceblog.com)
- Aneuploidy is a feature of most cancer cells that is often accompanied by an elevated rate of chromosome mis-segregation termed chromosome instability (CIN). (biomedcentral.com)
- This quantitative assay for chromosome mis-segregation is based on the use of a non-essential human artificial chromosome (HAC) carrying a constitutively expressed EGFP transgene. (biomedcentral.com)
- Thus, this new and simple assay allows for a quick and efficient screen of hundreds of drugs to identify those affecting chromosome mis-segregation. (biomedcentral.com)
- The identification of new compounds that increase chromosome mis-segregation rates should expedite the development of new therapeutic strategies to target the CIN phenotype in cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Janssen and co-authors [ 2 ] have analyzed the consequences of gradual increases in chromosome segregation errors on the viability of tumor cells and normal human fibroblasts. (biomedcentral.com)
- Partial reduction of essential mitotic checkpoint components in tumor cell lines caused mild chromosome mis-segregation, but no lethality. (biomedcentral.com)
- These cells were, however, much more sensitive to low doses of taxol, which enhances the amount and severity of chromosome segregation errors. (biomedcentral.com)
- Involved are: 1) aspects of gene duplication and evolution and 2) specialized features of mitosis -- particularly the centromere structure and function that underlie proper chromosome segregation. (cancer.gov)
- bipolar attachment of sister kinetochores to microtubules emanating from opposite cell poles couples opposing tension forces, aligning chromosomes at the cell equator and poising them for segregation to daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
- We've taken our centromere bypass method to make a fully functional HAC without the cloning nightmares that repetitive centromere DNA has presented to mammalian chromosome engineers through the last two decades," Black said. (eurekalert.org)
- The subject invention provides non-human mammalian hosts characterized by inactivated endogenous Ig loci and functional human Ig loci for response to an immunogen to produce human antibodies or analogs thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Centromeric regions of mammalian chromosomes exhibit a high rate of evolutionary change. (cancer.gov)
- RNA interference rescue by bacterial artificial chromosome transgenesis in mammalian tissue culture cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Immortalized cell lines are widely used as a simple model for more complex biological systems, for example for the analysis of the biochemistry and cell biology of mammalian (including human) cells. (wikipedia.org)
- A Barr body (named after discoverer Murray Barr) is the inactive X chromosome in a female somatic cell, rendered inactive in a process called lyonization, in those species in which sex is determined by the presence of the Y (including humans) or W chromosome rather than the diploidy of the X. The Lyon hypothesis states that in cells with multiple X chromosomes, all but one are inactivated during mammalian embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
- Mammalian X-chromosome inactivation is initiated from the X inactivation centre or Xic, usually found near the centromere. (wikipedia.org)
- We reported previously that LOH in the chromosomal region 11q23 is observed frequently in human NSCLC. (pnas.org)
- Since chromosome banding techniques have been applied to the analysis of chromosomal aberrations in leukemia and cancer, several hundreds of recurring chromosomal breakpoints have been identified. (hindawi.com)
- Neither migration nor admixture are mentioned in the text, and, in my opinion, these processes have shaped modern human Y chromosomal variation. (blogspot.com)
- As the yeast cell undergoes rounds of growth and division, the artificial chromosome is replicated as if it were a natural chromosomal constituent of the cell. (encyclopedia.com)
- 2 ) reported mechanistic studies demonstrating that DNA molecules taken up during yeast transformation can integrate into yeast chromosomes through homologous recombination, and that the ends of the linear-transforming DNA are highly recombinogenic and react directly with homologous chromosomal sequences, whereas circular plasmids carrying yeast sequences integrate by a single crossover and only at low frequency. (pnas.org)
- Exact gene cytogenic position was determined by mapping to an artificial chromosomal construct containing the gene via fluorescence in situ hybridization. (wikipedia.org)
- Mapping and sequencing of the chromosomal region was performed with the aid of bacterial artificial chromosome clones. (wikipedia.org)
- In this case the child, known as CS, carried a chromosomal rearrangement (a translocation) in which part of chromosome 7 had become exchanged with part of chromosome 5. (wikipedia.org)
- Using a fluorescence microscope and computer software, the differentially coloured fluorescent signals are then compared along the length of each chromosome for identification of chromosomal differences between the two sources. (wikipedia.org)
- This is because balanced chromosomal abnormalities such as reciprocal translocations, inversions or ring chromosomes do not affect copy number, which is what is detected by CGH technologies. (wikipedia.org)
- FISH allows the analysis of a large series of archival cases much easier to identify the pinpointed chromosome by creating a probe with an artificial chromosomal foundation that will attract similar chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
- Recombination may also occur during mitosis in eukaryotes where it ordinarily involves the two sister chromosomes formed after chromosomal replication. (wikipedia.org)
- Chromosomal crossover involves recombination between the paired chromosomes inherited from each of one's parents, generally occurring during meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
- Here we describe the use of bacterial artificial chromosome clones to rapidly survey hundreds of kilobases of DNA for potential regulatory sequences surrounding the mouse bone morphogenetic protein-5 (Bmp5) gene. (nih.gov)
- We present a method, called fingerprint profiling (FPP), that uses restriction digest fingerprints of bacterial artificial chromosome clones to detect and classify rearrangements in the human genome. (biomedcentral.com)
- Clone coverage of the human genome could then be achieved with only a small fraction of the clones required to achieve comparable genome coverage in clone end sequences. (biomedcentral.com)
- In contrast to natural nucleotide sequences, artificial random sequences give non-regular patterns. (mdpi.com)
- Examples of binary mosaics of long nucleotide sequences are shown, including cases of human chromosomes and penicillins. (mdpi.com)
- By inserting large fragments of DNA, from 100-1000 kb, the inserted sequences can be cloned and physically mapped using a process called chromosome walking. (wikipedia.org)
- Without these sequences, the chromosome will not be stable during extracellular replication, and would not be distinguishable from colonies without the vector. (wikipedia.org)
- 4. Ligation of artificial telomeric sequences to convert circular plasmid into a linear piece of DNA 5. (wikipedia.org)
- In eukaryotes, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were first identified by their ability to support the replication of mini-chromosomes or plasmids, giving rise to the name Autonomously replicating sequences or ARS elements. (wikipedia.org)
- citation needed] In other eukaryotes, including humans, the base pair sequences at the replication origins vary. (wikipedia.org)
- It was developed by biomedical researchers in the early 1980s and is used to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
- Most of Zakian's research concerns telomeres, which are "the region[s] of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromatid, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
- It was designed to view manual annotations of human, mouse and zebrafish genomic sequences, and it is the central cache for genome sequencing centers to deposit their annotation of human chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
- Common DNA sources and delivery mechanisms are viruses (such as baculovirus, retrovirus, adenovirus), plasmids, artificial chromosomes and bacteriophage (such as lambda). (wikipedia.org)
- Following size-fractionation, the fragments is cloned into plasmids to construct artificial chromosome such as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) which will be sequenced and compared to the reference genome. (wikipedia.org)
- Basically, the target chromosome is randomly digested and inserted into plasmids which are transformed and cloned in bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
- for example, in the condensation of chromosomes at metaphase. (encyclopedia.com)
- Microfluidic whole genome haplotyping is a technique for the physical separation of individual chromosomes from a metaphase cell followed by direct resolution of the haplotype for each allele. (wikipedia.org)
- For CISH to work optimally, chromosomes must be in either interphase or metaphase. (wikipedia.org)
- Then, an interphase or metaphase chromosome preparation is produced. (wikipedia.org)
- Human cytomegalovirus has a complex double-stranded DNA genome of ≈240,000 bp that contains ≈150 ORFs likely to encode proteins, most of whose functions are not well understood. (pnas.org)
- Various proteins act to stabilize DNA in interphase, while additional proteins are required to condense the chromosomes over a thousandfold to form the compact chromosomes required for mitosis and cell division. (encyclopedia.com)
- Diverse Ig gene usage together with somatic hypermutation enables the mice to generate high affinity fully human antibodies to multiple antigens, including human proteins. (nih.gov)
- Students are immersed in a research project with the ultimate goal of identifying proteins important for chromosome transmission in mitosis. (genetics.org)
- This cutting action produces the mRNA needed to create histone proteins that combine with DNA to form chromosomes. (innovations-report.com)
- Histone proteins help organize and compact within the nucleus the 6 billion nucleotides, or DNA bases, that make up the human genome - combinations of "A's," "T's," "G's" and "C's. (innovations-report.com)
- During the process of mitosis, DNA and its associated packing proteins are arranged into structures called chromosomes that are duplicated and then segregated. (scienceblog.com)
- The kinetochore is composed of more than one hundred proteins and serves as the binding site for microtubules that are attached to opposite ends of the cell and will physically pull the two identical chromosomes apart. (scienceblog.com)
- Sensitization to taxol was achieved by reducing the levels of Mps1 or BubR1, proteins with dual roles in checkpoint activation and chromosome alignment. (biomedcentral.com)
- It also facilitates the interaction of SR proteins with RNA polymerase II and is required for processing of weak constitutive splice sites, having also strong implications in cancer and other human diseases. (wikipedia.org)
- The human engrailed homologs 1 and 2 encode homeodomain-containing proteins and have been implicated in the control of pattern formation during development of the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
- Artificial expression of key proteins required for immortality, for example telomerase which prevents degradation of chromosome ends during DNA replication in eukaryotes Hybridoma technology, specifically used for the generation of immortalized antibody-producing B cell lines, where an antibody-producing B cell is fused with a myeloma (B cell cancer) cell. (wikipedia.org)
- it is found in all proteins and in some artificial sweeteners. (wikipedia.org)
- Besides chromosomes, the spindle apparatus is composed of hundreds of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- The dynamic lengthening and shortening of spindle microtubules, through a process known as dynamic instability determines to a large extent the shape of the mitotic spindle and promotes the proper alignment of chromosomes at the spindle midzone.Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) associate with microtubules at the midzone and the spindle poles to regulate their dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
- CLIP-associated proteins like CLASP1 in humans have also been shown to localize to plus-ends and the outer kinetochore as well as to modulate the dynamics of kinetochore microtubules (Maiato 2003). (wikipedia.org)
- Opposing the action of these microtubule-stabilizing proteins are a number of microtubule-depolymerizing factors which permit the dynamic remodeling of the mitotic spindle to promote chromosome congression and attainment of bipolarity. (wikipedia.org)
- The type 2 cystatin proteins are a class of cysteine proteinase inhibitors found in a variety of human fluids and secretions. (wikipedia.org)
- This can be important for the study of human liver diseases that are caused by an incorrect subcellular distribution of cell surface proteins, e.g., hepatocanalicular transport defects such as Dubin-Johnson Syndrome and progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC), and familial hypercholesterolemia. (wikipedia.org)
- Since their description in the late 1990s, human artificial chromosomes (HACs) carrying a functional kinetochore were considered as a promising system for gene delivery and expression with a potential to overcome many problems caused by the use of viral-based gene transfer systems. (nih.gov)
- We report on a functional association between GLI2 and human disease and highlight the role of GLI2 in human head development. (pnas.org)
- The method has been used to generate functional bacterial or yeast chromosomes containing approximately one million base pairs. (wikipedia.org)
- This page discusses the methods utilized in studying adult neurogenesis, the pros and cons of presently used animal models of this research, and the possible functional roles it plays in humans. (wikipedia.org)
- citation needed] The Human Genome Project originally aimed to map the nucleotides contained in a human haploid reference genome (more than three billion). (wikipedia.org)
- Once each chromosome has been identified each pair of homologs can be assorted into one of two haploid genomes. (wikipedia.org)
- The chromosomes in this snail are small, and the haploid number of chromosomes is 18. (wikipedia.org)
- From a philosophical perspective, it directed mainstream linguistic research away from behaviorism, constructivism, empiricism and structuralism and towards mentalism, nativism, rationalism and generativism, respectively, taking as its main object of study the abstract, inner workings of the human mind related to language acquisition and production. (wikipedia.org)
- Abstract) Lyon, M. F. (1961), Gene Action in the X-chromosome of the Mouse (Mus musculus L.) Nature. (wikipedia.org)
- doi:10.1038/190372a0 PMID 13764598 (Abstract) Brown,C.J., Robinson,W.P., (1997), XIST Expression and X-Chromosome Inactivation in Human Preimplantation Embryos. (wikipedia.org)
- Here, we show that retargeting of microcell fusion by adding anti-Transferrin receptor (TfR) single chain antibodies (scFvs) to the extracellular C-terminus of the MV-H protein improves the efficiency of MV-MMCT to human fibroblasts which originally barely express both native MV receptors, and are therefore resistant to MV-MMCT. (biomedcentral.com)
- In the context of HPE, it was therefore important to elucidate which GLI protein(s) mediates SHH signaling in humans. (pnas.org)
- TMS1 is localized to chromosome 16p11.2-12.1 and encodes a 22-kDa predicted protein containing a COOH-terminal caspase recruitment domain, a recently described protein interaction motif found in apoptotic signaling molecules. (aacrjournals.org)
- Scientists at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine have identified an elusive protein that performs a necessary step in the production of human chromosomes. (innovations-report.com)
- Human amyloid related protein monoclonal antibody. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Trifunctional purine biosynthetic protein adenosine-3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GART gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Olfactory receptor 10G3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR10G3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- OR10G3 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain. (wikipedia.org)
- Forkhead box protein P2 (FOXP2) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the FOXP2 gene, also known as CAGH44, SPCH1 or TNRC10, and is required for proper development of speech and language. (wikipedia.org)
- Two amino acid substitutions distinguish the human FOXP2 protein from that found in chimpanzees, but only one of these two changes is unique to humans. (wikipedia.org)
- Alsin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ALS2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- BRAIN Initiative ENCODE EuroPhysiome Genome Compiler HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee Human Cytome Project Human Microbiome Project Human Proteome Project Human Protein Atlas Human Variome Project List of biological databases Personal Genome Project Pollack, Andrew (2 June 2016). (wikipedia.org)
- The Ericsson method separates male and female sperm by passing them through a column filled with blood protein, human serum albumin. (wikipedia.org)
- As the sperm enter the human serum albumin, the differences in mass between the X and Y chromosomes manifest as the lighter male sperm push deeper into the protein than the females dragged down by the weight of the extra "leg" of the X sex chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
- The most common gene name of this splicing protein- which is only found in Humans (Homo sapiens)- is SON, but C21orf50, DBP5, KIAA1019 and NREBP can also be used as synonyms. (wikipedia.org)
- This protein is found in the 21st chromosome and is mostly located in nuclear speckles. (wikipedia.org)
- Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HNRNPA3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Homeobox protein engrailed-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EN2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Transcription factor MafB also known as V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAFB gene. (wikipedia.org)
- As expected, the protein composition of the outer membrane differs when comparing Leptospira growing in artificial medium with Leptospira present in an infected animal. (wikipedia.org)
- Expression of the protein has been observed in various human cancer cell lines established from malignant tumors. (wikipedia.org)
- Since the original VEGA publication, the number of human gene loci annotated has more than doubled to over 49,000 (September 2012 release), over 20,000 of which are predicted to be protein coding. (wikipedia.org)
- Our developments streamline the construction and characterization of HACs to aid in efforts to make synthetic whole human chromosomes," said Ben Black, PhD, a professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, who has dedicated decades to understanding the process. (eurekalert.org)
- This step-by-step construction project is the goal of the Human Genome Project-Write, a collaboration to build that life-size synthetic chromosome. (eurekalert.org)
- The Penn team's contribution will help speed creating useful research and clinical tools based on synthetic chromosomes. (eurekalert.org)
- In this review, we summarize recent progress made in HAC technology and concentrate on details of two of the most advanced HACs, 21HAC generated by truncation of human chromosome 21 and alphoid(tetO)-HAC generated de novo using a synthetic tetO-alphoid DNA array. (nih.gov)
- In seven new studies, scientists of the Synthetic Yeast Genome Project (Sc2.0) who previously constructed a single yeast chromosome now report constructing five more chromosomes - representing more than one-third of yeast's entire genome. (aaas.org)
- The results , published in the 10 March issue of Science , are major progress on the road to building the first fully synthetic eukaryotic - or nucleus-containing - organism, which the Sc2.0 consortium hopes to complete in the next two years by swapping all 16 yeast chromosomes for engineered ones. (aaas.org)
- Our synthetic chromosomes permit the yeast genome to overcome this problem. (aaas.org)
- Once equipped with a full set of synthetic and changeable chromosomes, baker's yeast could produce better versions of the important commodities it already delivers, including new antibiotics or more environmentally friendly biofuels. (aaas.org)
- In March 2014, researchers led by Bader built the first synthetic yeast eukaryotic chromosome, synIII. (aaas.org)
- To expedite the work of building synthetic yeast chromosomes, Bader and colleagues set up a summer class at Johns Hopkins called Build-A- Genome. (aaas.org)
- Now, he and colleagues have described the assembly of five more synthetic chromosomes: synII, synV, synVI, synX, and synXII, which correspond to the smaller yeast chromosomes. (aaas.org)
- In one of the unpublished studies, researchers made a human artificial chromosome in the laboratory from chemical building blocks rather than chipping away at an existing human chromosome, indicating the increasingly powerful technology behind the new field of synthetic biology. (thetruthwins.com)
- This leverages two decades of work on Synthetic Biology and Artificial gene synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
- Technologies for constructing and testing Yeast artificial chromosomes, synthetic yeast genomes (Sc2.0) and virus/phage-resistant bacterial genomes have industrial, agricultural and medical applications. (wikipedia.org)
- 1982 - Humulin, Genentech's human insulin drug produced by genetically engineered bacteria for the treatment of diabetes, is the first biotech drug to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration. (wikipedia.org)
- In Vitroes are a fictional genetically engineered subspecies of humans in the science fiction television series Space: Above and Beyond. (wikipedia.org)
- He was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, along with Elizabeth Blackburn and Carol W. Greider, for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres. (wikipedia.org)
- This work resulted from following the fate of fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) telomeres after introdroducing fission yeast chromosomes into mouse cell in collaoration with Peter Fantes. (wikipedia.org)
- PHILADELPHIA) - For the past 20 years, researchers have been trying to perfect the construction of human artificial chromosomes, or HACs for short. (eurekalert.org)
- Think of the HACs we build now as model-sized chromosomes," said first author Glennis Logsdon, PhD, a doctoral student in Black's lab at the time of the study and now a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Washington. (eurekalert.org)
- HACs differ in this regard, as they are entirely separate chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
- Remarkably, the inheritance of the disorder from one generation to the next was consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance, i.e., mutation of only a single gene on an autosome (non-sex chromosome) acting in a dominant fashion. (wikipedia.org)
- In 1998, Oxford University geneticists Simon Fisher, Anthony Monaco, Cecilia S. L. Lai, Jane A. Hurst, and Faraneh Vargha-Khadem identified an autosomal dominant monogenic inheritance that is localized on a small region of chromosome 7 from DNA samples taken from the affected and unaffected members. (wikipedia.org)
- To focus more on the offspring and how it results in the formation of the f1 generation, is an inheritance called sex-linkage, which is a gene which is located on the sex chromosome and patterns of these inheritance differ in both male and female. (wikipedia.org)
- In copy-neutral LOH, one allele or whole chromosome from a parent is missing. (wikipedia.org)
- Pleiotropy not only affects humans, but also animals, such as chickens and laboratory house mice, where the mice have the "mini-muscle" allele. (wikipedia.org)
- Pleiotropic gene action can limit the rate of multivariate evolution when natural selection, sexual selection or artificial selection on one trait favors one allele, while selection on other traits favors a different allele. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, in humans, one allele of the eye-color gene produces blue eyes and another allele of the eye-color gene produces brown eyes. (wikipedia.org)