In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.
The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, elements such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, that are required for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance in progeny cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
A characteristic symptom complex.
The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.
Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Congenital conditions of atypical sexual development associated with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions including MONOSOMY; TRISOMY; and MOSAICISM.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.

Physical map of a 1.5 mb region on 12p11.2 harbouring a synpolydactyly associated chromosomal breakpoint. (1/1638)

Synpolydactyly (SPD) is a rare malformation of the distal limbs known to be caused by mutations in HOXD13. We have previously described a complex form of SPD associated with synostoses in three members of a Belgian family, which co-segregates with a t(12;22)(p11.2;q13.3) chromosomal translocation. The chromosome 12 breakpoint of this translocation maps to 12p11.2 between markers D12S1034 and D12S1596. Here we show that a mutation in the HOXD13 gene is not responsible for the phenotype, and present a physical map of the region around the 12p11.2 breakpoint. Starting from D12S1034 and D12S1596, we have established a contig approximately 1.5 Mb in length, containing 13 YAC clones, 16 BAC clones, and 11 cosmid clones. FISH analysis shows that cosmid LL12NCO1-149H4 maps across the breakpoint, and Southern blot experiments using fragments of this cosmid as probes identify a rearranged BamHI fragment in the patients carrying the translocation. A search for expressed sequences within the contig have so far revealed one CpG island, seven anonymous ESTs and three previously characterised genes, DAD-R, KRAG and HT21, all of which were found not to be directly disrupted by the translocation. The gene represented by EST R72964 was found to be disrupted by the translocation. These findings lay the groundwork for further efforts to characterise a gene critical for normal distal limb development that is perturbed by this translocation.  (+info)

Granulation rescue and developmental marking of juxtaglomerular cells using "piggy-BAC" recombination of the mouse ren locus. (2/1638)

Mice lacking a functional Ren-1(d) gene exhibit a complete lack of renal juxtaglomerular cell granulation and atypical macula densa morphology. Transgenic mice carrying a 145-kilobase BAC clone encompassing the Ren-1(d) and Ren-2 loci were generated, characterized, and backcrossed with Ren-1(d-/-) mice. Homozygous Ren-1(d)-null mice expressing the BAC clone exhibited complete restoration of normal renal structure. Homologous recombination in Escherichia coli was used to generate a modified version of the BAC clone, in which an IRESbeta-geo cassette was inserted specifically into the Ren-1(d) gene. When introduced into the germline, the modified clone provided a marker for juxtaglomerular cell differentiation and beta-geo was expressed appropriately in juxtaglomerular cells throughout development. Parallel backcross experiments onto the Ren-1(d)-null background demonstrated that the juxtaglomerular cells expressed the modified Ren-1(d) locus in the absence of regranulation. These data demonstrate that the nongranulated cells constitute bona fide juxtaglomerular cells despite their altered morphology, that overexpression of renin-2 cannot compensate for the loss of renin-1(d), and that primary structural differences between the two isoforms are responsible for the differences in granulation. The use of BAC modification as part of functional complementation studies illustrates the potential for in vivo molecular dissection of key physiological mechanisms.  (+info)

Effects of 2-G exposure on temperature regulation, circadian rhythms, and adiposity in UCP2/3 transgenic mice. (3/1638)

Altered ambient force environments affect energy expenditure via changes in thermoregulation, metabolism, and body composition. Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) have been implicated as potential enhancers of energy expenditure and may participate in some of the adaptations to a hyperdynamic environment. To test this hypothesis, this study examined the homeostatic and circadian profiles of body temperature (T(b)) and activity and adiposity in wild-type and UCP2/3 transgenic mice exposed to 1 and 2 G. There were no significant differences between the groups in the means, amplitudes, or phases of T(b) and activity rhythms at either the 1- or 2-G level. Percent body fat was significantly lower in transgenic (5.2 +/- 0. 2%) relative to the wild-type mice (6.2 +/- 0.1%) after 2-G exposure; mass-adjusted mesenteric and epididymal fat pads in transgenic mice were also significantly lower (P < 0.05). The data suggest that 1) the actions of two UCPs (UCP2 and UCP3) do not contribute to an altered energy balance at 2 G, although 2) UCP2 and UCP3 do contribute to the utilization of lipids as a fuel substrate at 2 G.  (+info)

Comparative fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of a 431-kb Arabidopsis thaliana bacterial artificial chromosome contig reveals the role of chromosomal duplications in the expansion of the Brassica rapa genome. (4/1638)

Comparative genome studies are important contributors to our understanding of genome evolution. Most comparative genome studies in plants have been based on genetic mapping of homologous DNA loci in different genomes. Large-scale comparative physical mapping has been hindered by the lack of efficient and affordable techniques. We report here the adaptation of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques for comparative physical mapping between Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa. A set of six bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) representing a 431-kb contiguous region of chromosome 2 of A. thaliana was mapped on both chromosomes and DNA fibers of B. rapa. This DNA fragment has a single location in the A. thaliana genome, but hybridized to four to six B. rapa chromosomes, indicating multiple duplications in the B. rapa genome. The sizes of the fiber-FISH signals from the same BACs were not longer in B. rapa than those in A. thaliana, suggesting that this genomic region is duplicated but not expanded in the B. rapa genome. The comparative fiber-FISH mapping results support that chromosomal duplications, rather than regional expansion due to accumulation of repetitive sequences in the intergenic regions, played the major role in the evolution of the B. rapa genome.  (+info)

Computational and experimental characterization of physically clustered simple sequence repeats in plants. (5/1638)

The type and frequency of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in plant genomes was investigated using the expanding quantity of DNA sequence data deposited in public databases. In Arabidopsis, 306 genomic DNA sequences longer than 10 kb and 36,199 EST sequences were searched for all possible mono- to pentanucleotide repeats. The average frequency of SSRs was one every 6.04 kb in genomic DNA, decreasing to one every 14 kb in ESTs. SSR frequency and type differed between coding, intronic, and intergenic DNA. Similar frequencies were found in other plant species. On the basis of these findings, an approach is proposed and demonstrated for the targeted isolation of single or multiple, physically clustered SSRs linked to any gene that has been mapped using low-copy DNA-based markers. The approach involves sample sequencing a small number of subclones of selected randomly sheared large insert DNA clones (e.g., BACs). It is shown to be both feasible and practicable, given the probability of fortuitously sequencing through an SSR. The approach is demonstrated in barley where sample sequencing 34 subclones of a single BAC selected by hybridization to the Big1 gene revealed three SSRs. These allowed Big1 to be located at the top of barley linkage group 6HS.  (+info)

Two translocations of chromosome 15q associated with dyslexia. (6/1638)

Developmental dyslexia is characterised by difficulties in learning to read. As reading is a complex cognitive process, multiple genes are expected to contribute to the pathogenesis of dyslexia. The genetics of dyslexia has been a target of molecular studies during recent years, but so far no genes have been identified. However, a locus for dyslexia on chromosome 15q21 (DYX1) has been established in previous linkage studies. We have identified two families with balanced translocations involving the 15q21-q22 region. In one family, the translocation segregates with specific dyslexia in three family members. In the other family, the translocation is associated with dyslexia in one family member. We have performed fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) studies to refine the position of the putative dyslexia locus further. Our results indicate that both translocation breakpoints on 15q map within an interval of approximately 6-8 Mb between markers D15S143 and D15S1029, further supporting the presence of a locus for specific dyslexia on 15q21.  (+info)

Cloning of a type I cytokine receptor most related to the IL-2 receptor beta chain. (7/1638)

We have identified a type I cytokine receptor, which we have termed novel interleukin receptor (NILR), that is most related to the IL-2 receptor beta chain (IL-2Rbeta) and physically adjacent to the IL-4 receptor alpha chain gene on chromosome 16. NILR mRNA is most highly expressed in thymus and spleen, and is induced by phytohemagglutinin in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. NILR protein was detected on human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-transformed T cell lines, Raji B cells, and YT natural killer-like cells. Artificial homodimerization of the NILR cytoplasmic domain confers proliferation to Ba/F3 murine pro-B cells but not to 32D myeloid progenitor cells or CTLL-2 murine helper T cells. In these latter cells, heterodimerization of IL-2Rbeta and the common cytokine receptor gamma chain (gamma(c)) cytoplasmic domains allows potent proliferation, whereas such heterodimerization of NILR with gamma(c) does not. This finding suggests that NILR has signaling potential but that a full understanding of its signaling partner(s) is not yet clear. Like IL-2Rbeta, NILR associates with Jak1 and mediates Stat5 activation.  (+info)

MSK1 is required for CREB phosphorylation in response to mitogens in mouse embryonic stem cells. (8/1638)

Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells homozygous for disruption of the MSK1 gene had no detectable MSK1 activity. However, their activators (extracellular signal related kinase (ERK)1/ERK2) were stimulated normally in mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase (MSK)1-/- and wild type cells in response to tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). TPA and EGF induced the phosphorylation of cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) at Ser-133 and ATF1 at Ser-63 in wild type cells and this was abolished by inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. In contrast, the TPA- and EGF-induced phosphorylation of CREB/ATF1 was barely detectable in MSK1-/- cells. However, basal and forskolin-induced phosphorylation was similar, indicating that the MSK1 'knockout' did not prevent CREB phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Thus MSK1 is required for CREB and ATF1 phosphorylation after mitogenic stimulation of ES cells.  (+info)

© 2008 Cottingham et al. The production, manipulation and rescue of a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of Vaccinia virus (VAC-BAC) in order to expedite construction of expression vectors and mutagenesis of the genome has been described (Domi & Moss, 2002, PNAS 99 12415-20). The genomic BAC clone was rescued back to infectious virus using a Fowlpox virus helper to supply transcriptional machinery. We apply here a similar approach to the attenuated strain Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), now widely used as a safe non-replicating recombinant vaccine vector in mammals, including humans. Four apparently full-length, rescuable clones were obtained, which had indistinguishable immunogenicity in mice. One clone was shotgun sequenced and found to be identical to the parent. We employed GalK recombination-mediated genetic engineering (recombineering) of MVA-BAC to delete five selected viral genes. Deletion of C12L, A44L, A46R or B7R did not significantly affect CD8+ T cell immunogenicity in BALB/c
Thus far, the partial RFG8 cDNA sequence consists of 3673 bp and the corresponding amino acid sequence of 1081 amino acids (Fig. 3) ⇓ . Database searches using both cDNA and protein sequences revealed the following significant similarities: (a) the human bacterial artificial chromosome clone RG300C03 (human bacterial artificial chromosome library CITB-HS-A) mapped to chromosome 7q31.2 was detected showing several interrupted sequence similarities between 51 and 78%. We conclude that a RFG8-related gene on chromosome 7 may exist; (b) several EST clone sequences from mice, rats, and humans have been identified showing very high similarities to the RFG8 sequence (up to 99%), indicating that the same or a highly related gene is expressed in these species. Most of the human EST sequences cover 3′ RFG8 sequence regions, and some of them belong to clones that are mapped to chromosome 18 (e.g., cDNA clones NHTBCae15h12 and IMAGE:36907). Therefore, it cannot be excluded that they have sequences ...
Herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) is an alphaherpesvirus that is widely used as a live vaccine against Marek's disease because of its antigenic relationship with Marek's disease virus (MDV). In spite of a similar genome structure, HVT has several unique genes, the functions of which are not completely understood. As a first step in carrying out detailed analysis of the functions of the HVT genes, a full-length infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of HVT was constructed. DNA from two independent BAC clones, upon transfection into chicken embryo fibroblasts, produced plaques similar to those produced by the wild-type virus. Viruses derived from the BAC clones were stable during in vitro passage, but showed differences in in vitro growth kinetics compared with the wild-type virus. Using a one-step mutagenesis protocol to delete the essential glycoprotein B gene from the HVT genome, followed by construction of the revertant virus, BAC clones of HVT were shown to be amenable to standard
Huntingtons disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that affects men and women in equal numbers, but some epidemiological studies indicate there may be sex differences in disease progression. One of the early symptoms of HD is disruptions in the circadian timing system, but it is currently unknown whether sex is a factor in these alterations. Since sex differences in HD could provide important insights to understand cellular and molecular mechanism(s) and designing early intervention strategies, we used the bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mouse model of HD (BACHD) to examine whether sex differences in circadian behavioral rhythms are detectable in an animal model of the disease. Similar to BACHD males, BACHD females display circadian disruptions at both 3 and 6 months of age; however, deficits to BACHD female mouse activity levels, rhythm precision, and behavioral fragmentation are either delayed or less severe relative to males. These sex differences are associated
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7 can cause serious gastrointestinal and systemic disease in humans following direct or indirect exposure to the bacterium excreted in ruminant feces. The main colonization site of EHEC O157:H7 in cattle is the terminal rectum where the bacteria intimately attach to the epithelium and multiply in the intestinal mucus. This study aimed to identify genomic regions of EHEC O157:H7 that contribute to colonization and multiplication at this site. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was generated from a derivative of the sequenced E. coli O157:H7 Sakai strain. The library contains 1152 clones averaging 150 kbp. To verify the library, clones containing a complete locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) were identified by DNA hybridization. In line with a previous report, these did not confer a type III secretion capacity to the K-12 host strain. However, conjugation of one of the BAC clones into a strain containing a partial LEE deletion restored type III
The muscle-specific transcription factors Myf5 and Mrf4 are two of the four myogenic regulatory factors involved in the transcriptional cascade responsible for skeletal myogenesis in the vertebrate embryo. Myf5 is the first of these four genes to be expressed in the mouse. We have previously described discrete enhancers that drive Myf5 expression in epaxial and hypaxial somites, branchial arches and central nervous system, and argued that additional elements are required for proper expression (Summerbell, D., Ashby, P. R., Coutelle, O., Cox, D., Yee, S. P. and Rigby, P. W. J. (2000) Development 127, 3745-3757). We have now investigated the transcriptional regulation of both Myf5 and Mrf4 using bacterial artificial chromosome transgenesis. We show that a clone containing Myf5 and 140 kb of upstream sequences is sufficient to recapitulate the known expression patterns of both genes. Our results confirm and reinforce the conclusion of our earlier studies, that Myf5 expression is regulated ...
Citation: Murdoch, B., Fu, A., Meng, Y., Li, C., Hansen, C., Snelling, W.M., Moore, S.S. 2004. Assignment of the SIAT4A gene to bovine chromosome 14 by linkage mapping of an associated microsatellite. Animal Genetics 35:146-147. Interpretive Summary: A new DNA marker for the Sialyltransferase 4A (SIAT4A) gene was developed and mapped. The marker was developed from the CHORI-240 bacterial artificial chromosome library. Cattle from an Angus-based commercial seedstock line, and two USDA-MARC reference families were genotyped. The USDA-MARC reference family genotypes were used to map the marker onto cattle chromosome 14. Technical Abstract: CHORI-240 bovine bacterial artificial chromosome library high density filters were probed with gene-specific overgo primers for Sialyltransferase 4A (SIAT4A). All positive clones were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with different gene-specific primers. Subsequently the clones were digested with Sau3 AI and subcloned into the E. coli cloning vector ...
Mice carrying bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenes have become important tools for neuroscientists, providing a powerful means of dissecting complex neural circuits in the brain. Recently, it was reported that one popular line of these mice--mice possessing a BAC transgene with a D(2) dopamine receptor (Drd2) promoter construct coupled to an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter--had abnormal striatal gene expression, physiology, and motor behavior. Unlike most of the work using BAC mice, this interesting study relied upon mice backcrossed on the outbred Swiss Webster (SW) strain that were homozygous for the Drd2-eGFP BAC transgene. The experiments reported here were conducted to determine whether mouse strain or zygosity was a factor in the reported abnormalities. As reported, SW mice were very sensitive to transgene expression. However, in more commonly used inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6, FVB/N) that were hemizygous for the transgene, the Drd2-eGFP BAC transgene did ...
In this communication, we report a novel strategy for the genetic manipulation of large viral DNA genomes. In a single step we cloned an infectious cytomegalovirus DNA as a bacterial artificial chromosome in E. coli and reconstituted virus progeny after transfection of the BAC plasmid into eukaryotic cells. This approach makes the CMV genome accessible to the genetic techniques established for E. coli. As an example for the power of the mutagenesis procedures, we performed a targeted insertion of four nucleotides into the 230-kb MCMV genome. In principle, any mutation (point mutations, insertions, and deletions) in any region of the genome can now be introduced using the described mutagenesis procedure. Moreover, other procedures, for example a random transposon mutagenesis of the CMV genome are conceivable. Multiple mutations can be introduced in consecutive rounds of mutagenesis without the need to reconstitute infectious viral intermediates. Construction of revertant genomes can be easily ...
The construction and analysis of metagenomic (microbial community) libraries has provided knowledge of the genetics and biochemistry of noncultivable inhabitants of soil and marine communities (4, 9, 27). We have followed the same technological approach to begin to investigate the metabolic structure of the bowel community and to detect, by a functional screen, enzymes encoded by the genomes of the gut microbiota of mice. Phylogeny of bacterial communities can also be investigated by screening metagenomic libraries for 16S rRNA genes. We did not pursue this option because a catalogue of the murine gut microbiota derived from PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes has been provided by Salzman et al. (30) and because Béjà et al. (4) have reported that the qualitative phylogenetic representation obtained with a BAC library was in general agreement with previous reports about the recovery of PCR-amplified rRNA genes from a marine community.. As in the case of soil, the digesta contains compounds that ...
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a principal model organism in metazoan genetics and molecular biology. Here, we describe a BAC-based physical map of chromosomes 2 and 3 constructed as part of the effort to determine the D. melanogaster genome sequence (1). There are five chromosomes (X, 2,3, 4, and Y), and the second and third together account for ∼97 Mb of the ∼120-Mb euchromatic portion of the genome. Several clone-based physical maps have been described previously. Low-resolution yeast artificial chromosome maps of the genome have been produced by polytene chromosome in situ hybridization (2), and cosmid maps of regions of theX chromosome have been made by STS content and fingerprint mapping (3). The most complete previous map is the P1-based map by Kimmerly et al. (4) [also see (5)], constructed by polymerase chain reaction-based STS content mapping and polytene chromosome in situ hybridization. On chromosomes 2 and 3, it comprises 348 sets of contiguously overlapping clones ...
How does the genome encode instructions that guide embryonic development? Our research uses genes that are expressed during vertebrate development as systems for investigating this question. We have two long-term goals. The first is to shed light on regulatory events driving bone and cartilage development. This is relevant to understanding birth defects, osteoporosis and arthritis. The second is to locate and understand the function of long-range genomic sequences that control gene regulation. These sequences can act across hundreds of kilobases and are often well conserved. We study these elements using tools such as BAC (Bacterial Artificial Chromosome) transgenesis and genomic sequence comparisons. Currently, we are studying three BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Protein) family genes. All are transcribed in complex patterns during development. Precise regulation of these genes is controlled by multiple, distant cis-regulatory elements. Using transgenic assays in mice and zebrafish, we are charting
To align the developing chicken BAC contig physical maps with the existing linkage map, its necessary to identify BACs corresponding to the DNA-based markers on the latter. Chicken BAC libraries, derived from DNA of a single UCD001 inbred Red Jungle Fowl, have been generated by our collaborators. Characterization of the first BAC library based on BamHI partial digest fragments initially was done by filter hybridization with pools of labeled, PCR-amplified fragments based on marker or gene DNA sequences. Individual marker/BAC assignments were made by Southern hybridization of BAC DNA with individual marker probes and/or PCR analysis. In this manner, 31 markers from 9 linkage groups generated 71 BamHI BAC candidates (2.3 clones per locus). This approach is labor- and cost-intensive. Thus, we began using pools of overgo probes, that are complementary synthetic oligonucleotides extended in vitro to generate ~40 base pair, double-stranded DNA probes. Two BAC libraries were hybridized to pools of 36 ...
BACs are now being utilized to a greater extent in modelling genetic diseases, often alongside transgenic mice. BACs have been useful in this field as complex genes may have several regulatory sequences upstream of the encoding sequence, including various promoter sequences that will govern a genes expression level. BACs have been used to some degree of success with mice when studying neurological diseases such as Alzheimers disease or as in the case of aneuploidy associated with Down syndrome. There have also been instances when they have been used to study specific oncogenes associated with cancers. They are transferred over to these genetic disease models by electroporation/transformation, transfection with a suitable virus or microinjection. BACs can also be utilized to detect genes or large sequences of interest and then used to map them onto the human chromosome using BAC arrays. BACs are preferred for these kind of genetic studies because they accommodate much larger sequences without ...
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As part of the effort to sequence the genome of Rattus norvegicus, we constructed a physical map comprised of fingerprinted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the CHORI-230 BAC library. These BAC clones provide approximately 13-fold redundant coverage of the genome and have been assembled into 376 fingerprint contigs. A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) map was also constructed and aligned with the BAC map via fingerprinted BAC and P1 artificial chromosome clones (PACs) sharing interspersed repetitive sequence markers with the YAC-based physical map. We have annotated 95% of the fingerprint map clones in contigs with coordinates on the version 3.1 rat genome sequence assembly, using BAC-end sequences and in silico mapping methods. These coordinates have allowed anchoring 358 of the 376 fingerprint map contigs onto the sequence assembly. Of these, 324 contigs are anchored to rat genome sequences localized to chromosomes, and 34 contigs are anchored to unlocalized portions of the ...
The construction of cDNA clones encoding large-size RNA molecules of biological interest, like coronavirus genomes, which are among the largest mature RNA molecules known to biology, has been hampered by the instability of those cDNAs in bacteria. Herein, we show that the application of two strategi …
Regulatory elements controlling gene expression are often found in separate, sometimes remote, regions around gene loci. Artificial chromosomes offer a means to capture all regulatory elements for study of gene regulation in a near-correct genomic context. The smooth muscle calponin gene (CNN1) encodes for a multifunctional protein involved in signaling, contractile force generation, and growth regulation. While CNN1s physiology has been studied extensively, its transcriptional regulation has proven to be intractable to conventional in vivo assays. Four evolutionarily-conserved serum response factor (SRF) binding sites (called CArG boxes) are present in the first intron of CNN1 and appear to be required for full transcriptional competence of CNN1 in cultured smooth muscle cells (SMC). To assess the functionality of CNN1 CArG elements in vivo, we exploited a 103-kb bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing the human CNN1 locus shown previously to completely recapitulate endogenous mouse ...
References. Ammiraju, J.S.S.; Luo, M.; Goicoechea, J.L.; Wang, W.; Kudrna, D.; Mueller, C.; Talag, J.; Kim, H.; Sisneros N.B.; Blackmon, B.; Fang, E.; Tomkins, J.B.; Brar, D.; Mackill, D.; MacCouch, S.; Kurata, N.; Lambert, G.; Galbraith, D.W.; Arumuganathan, K.; Rao, K.; Walling, J.G.; Gill, N.; Yu, Y.; Sanmiguel, P.; Soderlund, C.; Jackson, S.; Wing, R.A. 2006. The Oryza bacterial artificial chromosome library resource: construction and analysis of 12 deep-coverage large-insert BAC libraries that represent the 10 genome types of the genus Oryza. Genome Research 16: 140-147. [ Links ] Azevedo, C.F.; Resende, M.D.V.; Silva, F.F.; Viana, J.M.S.; Valente, M.S.F.; Resende Junior, M.F.R.; Muñoz, P. 2015. Ridge, Lasso and Bayesian additive-dominance genomic models. BMC Genetics 16: 105. [ Links ] Bennewitz, J.; Meuwissen, T.H.E. 2010. The distribution of QTL additive and dominance effects in porcine F2 crosses. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 127: 171-179. [ Links ] De los Campos, G.; ...
BELARMINO, Luis C. et al. Mining plant genome browsers as a means for efficient connection of physical, genetic and cytogenetic mapping: an example using soybean. Genet. Mol. Biol. [online]. 2012, vol.35, n.1, suppl.1, pp.335-347. ISSN 1415-4757. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-47572012000200015.. Physical maps are important tools to uncover general chromosome structure as well as to compare different plant lineages and species, helping to elucidate genome structure, evolution and possibilities regarding synteny and colinearity. The increasing production of sequence data has opened an opportunity to link information from mapping studies to the underlying sequences. Genome browsers are invaluable platforms that provide access to these sequences, including tools for genome analysis, allowing the integration of multivariate information, and thus aiding to explain the emergence of complex genomes. The present work presents a tutorial regarding the use of genome browsers to develop targeted physical ...
Anchored physical maps represent essential frameworks for map-based cloning, comparative genomics studies, and genome sequencing projects. High throughput anchoring can be achieved by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library pools with molecular markers. However, for large genomes such as wheat, the development of high dimension pools and the number of reactions that need to be performed can be extremely large making the screening laborious and costly. To improve the cost efficiency of anchoring in such large genomes, we have developed a new software named Elephant (electronic physical map anchoring tool) that combines BAC contig information generated by FingerPrinted Contig with results of BAC library pools screening to identify BAC addresses with a minimal amount of PCR reactions. Elephant was evaluated during the construction of a physical map of chromosome 3B of hexaploid wheat. Results show that a one dimensional pool screening can be sufficient to
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Citation: Ma, J., Cannon, S.B., Jackson, S.A., Shoemaker, R.C. 2010. Soybean Comparative Genomics. In: Bilyeu, K., Ratnaparkhe, M.B., and Kole, C., editors. Genetics, Genomics, and Breeding of Soybean. Routledge, New York. p. 245-262. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: The soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) has developed into a reference species complete with a full set of genomic resources. Several Bacterial Artificial Chromosome libraries have been produced and physical maps have been assembled in genotypes representing both Northern and Southern germplasm. High throughput sequencing has already been applied to transcript profiling . A very large Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) collection has been developed. These ESTs have been evaluated to demonstrate that the soybean genome has undergone at least two rounds of large-scale duplication events. Soybean has one of the most dense molecular maps of any crop species. Molecular markers include RFLPs, SSRs and SNPs. The GeneChip by Affymetrix is ...
Genome sequencing of barley has been delayed due to its large genome size (ca. 5,000Mbp). Among the fast sequencing systems, 454 liquid phase pyrosequencing provides the longest reads and is the most promising method for BAC clones. Here we report the results of pooled sequencing of BAC clones selected with ESTs genetically mapped to chromosome 3H. We sequenced pooled barley BAC clones using a 454 parallel genome sequencer. A PCR screening system based on primer sets derived from genetically mapped ESTs on chromosome 3H was used for clone selection in a BAC library developed from cultivar Haruna Nijo. The DNA samples of 10 or 20 BAC clones were pooled and used for shotgun library development. The homology between contig sequences generated in each pooled library and mapped EST sequences was studied. The number of contigs assigned on chromosome 3H was 372. Their lengths ranged from 1,230 bp to 58,322 bp with an average 14,891 bp. Of these contigs, 240 showed homology and colinearity with the genome
The interpretation of genome sequences requires reliable and standardized methods to assess protein function at high throughput. Here we describe a fast and reliable pipeline to study protein function in mammalian cells based on protein tagging in bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). The large size of the BAC transgenes ensures the presence of most, if not all, regulatory elements and results in expression that closely matches that of the endogenous gene. We show that BAC transgenes can be rapidly and reliably generated using 96-well-format recombineering. After stable transfection of these transgenes into human tissue culture cells or mouse embryonic stem cells, the localization, protein-protein and/or protein-DNA interactions of the tagged protein are studied using generic, tag-based assays. The same high-throughput approach will be generally applicable to other model systems.
This chapter provides a broad overview of many applications of plasmids for genetic analysis, primarily in bacteria. Ever since DNA sequencing became accessible to most research laboratories, reverse genetic analysis has become a standard experimental approach to study bacterial gene function. Similar suicide vectors have also been used for nontargeted insertional mutagenesis by cloning random chromosomal DNA fragments into the plasmid. The use of suicide vectors also allows for easy identification of the insertion mutations. Plasmids that utilize different combinations of double-counter selective markers have been used for diverse applications, including the search for extremely rare suppressor mutations of essential Escherichia coli genes, and to improve the efficiency of allelic exchange on bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). Although temperature-sensitive vectors represent the majority of conditionally replicating plasmids, other plasmids that exhibit conditional replication have been described
Identifying enhancers in genomes is crucial for the understanding of the complexity and mechanisms of gene regulation [50]. Traditionally, regulatory regions have been identified and mapped by cloning candidate sequences upstream of a minimal promoter fused to a reporter gene and testing their transcriptional activity in cell lines or in transgenic organisms. Although more laborious and expensive to make, transgenic animals have the great advantage of providing complete spatio-temporal expression information simultaneously in all tissues and cell types of an overall healthy animal. More and more laboratories map enhancers using 100-200 kb bacterial artificial chromosomes, which allow for the testing of regulatory regions in a context that better resembles the endogenous one, compared with small constructs [51]. Detailed studies using these methods have determined that genes involved in embryonic development are controlled by several enhancers, like the example of the mouse Shh gene mentioned in ...
The expression of genes from genomic loci can be relatively complex, utilizing exonic, intronic and flanking sequences to regulate tissue and developmental specificity. Infectious bacterial artificial chromosomes (iBACs) have been shown to deliver and express large genomic loci (up to 135 kb) into primary cells for functional analyses. The delivery of large genomic DNA inserts allows the expression of complex loci and of multiple splice variants. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time that an iBAC will deliver and correctly express in human glioma cells the entire CDKN2A/CDKN2B genomic region, which encodes for at least three important cell-cycle regulatory proteins (p16(INK4a), p14(ARF) and p15(INK4b)). Two of these proteins are expressed from overlapping genes, utilizing alternative splicing and promoter usage. The delivered locus expresses each gene at physiological levels and cellular responses (apoptosis versus growth arrest) occur dependent on cellular p53 status, as expected. The work further
This track shows the location of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)-mapped clones along the assembly sequence. The locations of these clones were obtained from the NCBI Human BAC Resource here. Earlier versions of this track obtained this information directly from the paper Cheung, et al. (2001). More information about the BAC clones, including how they may be obtained, can be found at the Human BAC Resource and the Clone Registry web sites hosted by NCBI. To view Clone Registry information for a clone, click on the clone name at the top of the details page for that item.. ...
This track shows the location of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)-mapped clones along the assembly sequence. The locations of these clones were obtained from the NCBI Human BAC Resource here. Earlier versions of this track obtained this information directly from the paper Cheung, et al. (2001). More information about the BAC clones, including how they may be obtained, can be found at the Human BAC Resource and the Clone Registry web sites hosted by NCBI. To view Clone Registry information for a clone, click on the clone name at the top of the details page for that item.. ...
Breaking (shearing) DNA by Alkali Hydrolysis Suitable for BAC clones before labelling using random-primer (random priming, oligolabeling) labeling (which is best and most random with shorter fragments than the full-length BACs; autoclaving of syringing the DNA requires too much volume). 300 ng DNA + 6.5 ul 4M NaOH made up to 155 ul, final NaOH 200 mM Mix and incubate room temperature 20min Add 65 ul 5M ammonium acetate, 550 ul ice cold 100% ethanol (total volume 770ul) Allow to precipitate (e.g. 2 hr), centrifuge as usual and redissolve are required. Trude Schwarzacher September 2004. ...
Binary Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BiBAC) are large insert cloning vectors that contain the necessary features required for Agrobacterium‐mediated transformation
Binary Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BiBAC) are large insert cloning vectors that contain the necessary features required for Agrobacterium‐mediated transformation
2. Transfer 50ul of culture to a 50ml flask with 50ml 2XYT + CM (12.5ug/ml), and incubate/shake for 14-16 hours at 250rpm. (14 hour incubation best ...
In summary, while BAC libraries and BESs should be useful for genomics studies, BES-SSR markers, and the genetic map should be very useful for linking the genetic map with a future physical map as well as for molecular breeding in pigeonpea.
Fungi are prolific producers of secondary metabolites (SMs) and have been producing 45% of bioactive molecules from all microbial sources since the turn of the century (Bérdy, 2012). Conservative estimates suggest that there are more than 5 million fungal species (Blackwell, 2011), of which fewer than 5% have been described and less than 1% are available in the worlds culture collections (Colwell, 1997). In addition, each of these fungal genomes may harbor 50 or more different SM gene clusters (Norberg et al., 2013). Fungal secondary metabolite (SM) gene cluster sequences available for characterization far outstrip our current ability to characterize each cluster, as most of the fungi are not genetically amendable. To address this post-genomic SM characterization gridlock, we have demonstrated a new technology that generates unbiased shuttle bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) or fungal artificial chromosome (FAC) libraries, pooled FAC next-gen sequences to rapidly capture all the SM gene ...
Thanks again, perneseblue! For yesterdays experiment, I used SW102 cells (modified E. Coli from NCI-Frederick for recombineering) directly from glycerol stock (40% final concentration of glycerol). I didnt specifically prepare the bacteria in the regular way people make electrocompetent cells (by washing sequentially with 10% glycerol) because they are electrocompetent cells already. I used 0.2 cm cuvette (thats the only one i can find in the lab), with capacitance of 25uF, and i got ~3.5 millisecond time constant and an arcing, w/o beeping ...
In an attempt to establish a method that allows for scalable generation of recombineered BACs and transgenic lines, we have implemented a procedure comprising three distinct main phases: (1) in silico design of the experiment and selection of an appropriate BAC (see http://www.hubrecht.eu/research/schulte-merker/protocols.html); (2) BAC recombineering (Fig. 1); and (3) the actual generation of the transgenic line. In using this method, we were particularly interested in addressing whether there is a negative correlation between BAC size and the rate of transgenesis, whether the recombineered BACs show sufficiently widespread expression to make them immediately useful for transient experiments (without the need to generate a transgenic line), and whether position effects are observable among different lines generated from the same BAC.. In previous experiments (Spoorendonk et al., 2008; Hogan et al., 2009), we have used I-SceI-mediated transgenesis (Grabher et al., 2004; Kimura et al., 2006) to ...
Targeted disruption of Paip2a. A PCR fragment amplified with a primer set of Paip2a 5′ Fwd and Rev (Supplemental Table 1) was used as a probe to isolate genomic BAC DNA clone 103F10 from the 129/Sv mouse BAC genomic library RPCI-22. The targeting vector was constructed by recombination (55), and routine cloning methods were employed with a 10.5-kbp mouse Paip2a genomic fragment from clone 103F10, as illustrated in Figure 2A. The final targeting fragment was excised from its cloning vector backbone by NotI and electroporated into R1 ES cells. Southern blot analysis was performed with two probes corresponding to the 5′ and 3′ sequences outside the targeting region, as indicated in Figure 2A. To generate the 5′ and 3′ probes, the primer sets (Paip2a 5′ Fwd and Rev for the 5′ probe and Paip2a 3′ Fwd and Rev for the 3′ probe) listed in Supplemental Table 1 were used. After the LoxP-flanked Neo cassette was eliminated by subsequent transient transfection with a cre recombinase ...
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
Many functional studies require the transfection of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones into mammalian cells. Because most BAC vectors do not have a mammalian selection marker or do not have...
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.. A method for construction of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contigs from a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) physical map is described. An approximately 2 Mb contig, consisting of two large BAC contigs linked by a small YAC, has been assembled in the region around 80 cM of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 2. Clones from this contig will facilitate gene isolation in the region and can be used directly as substrates for DNA sequencing.. MeSH Terms ...
The DNA construct for simultaneous generation of a null and a conditional allele for Zfp521 was made using recombineering, essentially as described previously (Liu et al., 2003; Warming et al., 2006). First, a retrieval vector was prepared by three-way ligation of mini-homology arms into pBlight-TK (a plasmid backbone containing the thymidine kinase from HSV) for counter-selection in embryonic stem cells using Ganciclovir (Warming et al., 2006). The homology arms were amplified from a mouse BAC containing the Zfp521 genomic region using the primers listed below. The BAC (CITB 454L20) was identified by screening a 129-based BAC library (CJ7 embryonic stem cell DNA, CITB, Research Genetics/Invitrogen), and BAC DNA was prepared using the BAC Nucleobond kit (Takara Bio Inc., BD). All primers were from Integrated DNA Technologies, and all PCR reactions were performed using Expand High Fidelity (Roche): 5′ retrieval F, 5′-AATAAAGGATCCGTGCTCCAGGCACTATAGAT-3′; 5′ retrieval R, ...
The kits utilize a novel strategy of cloning end-repaired, randomly sheared DNA instead of the conventional approach of cloning fragments generated by partial restriction endonuclease digestion. First, genomic DNA is sheared by passing it through a syringe needle. The sheared DNA is end-repaired to generate 5-phosphorylated blunt ends and size-selected using a low melting point agarose gel. The size-selected DNA is then ligated into the supplied linearized and dephosphorylated pWEB-TNCTM or pWEBTM Cosmid Vector, packaged using ultra-high efficiency MaxPlaxTM Lambda Packaging Extracts (,109 pfu/μg for phage lambda) and plated on phage T1-resistant EPI100TM-T1R E. coli plating cells, all included in the kit. The result is a complete and unbiased primary cosmid library ...
The kits utilize a novel strategy of cloning end-repaired, randomly sheared DNA instead of the conventional approach of cloning fragments generated by partial restriction endonuclease digestion. First, genomic DNA is sheared by passing it through a syringe needle. The sheared DNA is end-repaired to generate 5-phosphorylated blunt ends and size-selected using a low melting point agarose gel. The size-selected DNA is then ligated into the supplied linearized and dephosphorylated pWEB-TNCTM or pWEBTM Cosmid Vector, packaged using ultra-high efficiency MaxPlaxTM Lambda Packaging Extracts (,109 pfu/μg for phage lambda) and plated on phage T1-resistant EPI100TM-T1R E. coli plating cells, all included in the kit. The result is a complete and unbiased primary cosmid library ...
Genomic sequence contigs for unfinished chromosomes are assembled and laid out based largely on the clone tiling path. However, the tiling paths do not specify the orientation of the clone sequences or how they should be joined; therefore, data on the alignment of the input genomic sequences to each other and to other sequences are also used to guide the assembly. Genomic sequences that augment the initial set of genomic contigs based on the tiling path clones are also incorporated ...
P[acman]- developed by Dr. Koen Venken (http://flypush.imgen.bcm.tmc.edu/lab/koenv/index.html) in Bellens laboratory- allows scientists to study large chunks of DNA in living flies. The vector - officially P/phiC31 artificial chromosome for manipulation - combines different technologies: a specially designed bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) that allows maintenance of large pieces of DNA in bacteria, recombineering that allows the manipulation of large pieces of DNA in bacteria, and the ability to insert the genomic DNA into the genome of the fly at a specific site using phiC31-mediated transgenesis.. Venken adapted the P[acman] vector to create genomic libraries, so that a researcher can choose a gene and find the corresponding clones in the library that cover that gene. Their collaborators at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Drs. Roger Hoskins and Joseph Carlson, played a key role in the design, construction, and annotation of the libraries. ...
Economy Package for BAC Clone isolation:. In projects where the investigator is looking for only one or few positive clones from the library, and does not need the remaining library in plates-Rx Biosciences offers the economy package to its customers saving significant amount of cost and time. In the economy package, the library construction is performed either by random shearing or restriction enzyme methods in steps and harvested as pools of 100 to 1000 primary clones. He pools are screened for the presence of desired positive clone(s). In case the desired clone is not present in the pools, additional pools are made and screened until the desired cloned is obtained. The pool containing the specific clone is spread on large plates and individual clones, grown as glycerol stock and further screened by quickly making pools and super pools or by arraying on the nylon membrane. In this manner, the researcher gets the desired clone in fraction of the cost of the project.. ...
To identify BAC clones containing ULBP genes, filter membranes containing the RPCI-42 male Holstein BAC library (12X genome coverage; Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute) were screened by Southern blot hybridization using the full-length ULBP1 [GenBank: AF317556] cDNA clone as a probe. Probe amplification and labelling, membrane hybridization, washing conditions and autoradiography were performed as previously described [1]. ULBP-containing BACs were cultured in 3 ml 2x LB media with 20 μg/ml chloramphenicol (Sigma) overnight at 37°C with shaking. Cultures were centrifuged at 3000 × g for 3 min. The cell pellet was resuspended in 400 μl of a solution containing 0.05 M Tris, 0.01 M EDTA (pH 7.5) and 50 μg/ml RNase A (Sigma), lysed by addition of 400 μl of a solution containing 0.2 N NaOH and 1% SDS, neutralized by addition of 400 μl of a solution containing 4 M guanidine-HCl and 0.75 M KOAc (pH 4.6), and centrifuged at 10,000 × g for 10 min. An 860 μl aliquot of cleared lysate ...
Background Crocodilians (Order Crocodylia) are an ancient vertebrate group of tremendous ecological, social, and evolutionary importance. They are the only extant reptilian members of Archosauria, a monophyletic group that also includes birds, dinosaurs, and pterosaurs. Consequently, crocodilian genomes represent a gateway through which the molecular evolution of avian lineages can be explored. To facilitate comparative genomics within Crocodylia and between crocodilians and other archosaurs, we have constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the Australian saltwater crocodile, Crocodylus porosus. This is the first BAC library for a crocodile and only the second BAC resource for a crocodilian. Results The C. porosus BAC library consists of 101,760 individually archived clones stored in 384-well microtiter plates. Not I digestion of random clones indicates an average insert size of 102 kb. Based on a genome size estimate of 2778 Mb, the library affords 3.7 fold (3.7×) coverage of
OPPORTUNITY TO PROPOSE ORGANISMS FOR BAC LIBRARY CONSTRUCTION Release Date: December 19, 2001 NOTICE: NOT-HG-02-004 National Human Genome Research Institute Annual Submission Dates: February 10, June 10 and October 10 Over the past several years, the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) has emerged as the vector system of choice for the construction of the large- insert chromosomal DNA libraries that are needed in genomic studies. Because BAC clones are relatively large and appear to faithfully represent an organisms genome, the BAC system will also be the vehicle of choice for the isolation of targeted regions of genomic DNA from additional organisms being used in specific biological studies, a variety of mouse strains, and even from individual humans. With the increasing interest in genomic approaches to biological research, the demand for new BAC libraries is expected to increase rapidly in the next several years. To meet the need to increase the number of available BAC libraries, NHGRI, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - 1-Mb resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization using a BAC clone set optimized for cancer gene analysis. AU - Greshock, Joel. AU - Naylor, Tara L.. AU - Margolin, Adam. AU - Diskin, Sharon. AU - Cleaver, Stephen H.. AU - Futreal, P. Andrew. AU - deJong, Pieter J.. AU - Zhao, Shaying. AU - Liebman, Michael. AU - Weber, Barbara L.. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. N2 - Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is a recently developed tool for genome-wide determination of DNA copy number alterations. This technology has tremendous potential for disease-gene discovery in cancer and developmental disorders as well as numerous other applications. However, widespread utilization of aCGH has been limited by the lack of well characterized, high-resolution clone sets optimized for consistent performance in aCGH assays and specifically designed analytic software. We have assembled a set of ∼4100 publicly available human bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Construction and characterization of a yeast artificial chromosome library containing 1.5 equivalents of human chromosome 21. AU - Potier, M. C.. AU - Kuo, W. L.. AU - Dutriaux, A.. AU - Gray, J.. AU - Goedert, M.. PY - 1992/10. Y1 - 1992/10. N2 - A library of yeast artificaial chromosomes (YACs) was constructed from a human/hamster somatic cell hybrid containing human chromosome 21 (q11-qter). Cells were embedded in agarose, and the DNA was partially digested with EcoRI, released into solution by agarase treatment of the agarose plugs, ligated into pYAC4, and transferred into yeast. Doule screening of the yeast transformants with human and hamster genomic DNA allowed the selection of clones hybridizing only with human DNA. The library consists of 321 clones, amounting to 1.5 equivalents (61 Mb) of chromosome 21. The mean YAC size calculated from 178 clones is 190 ± 100 kb. Screening of the library with eight sequence-tagged sites gave six positives. Among 21 YACs tested by in ...
Although second generation sequencing (2GS) technologies allow re-sequencing of previously gold-standard-sequenced genomes, whole genome shotgun sequencing and de novo assembly of large and complex eukaryotic genomes is still difficult. Availability of a genome-wide physical map is therefore still a prerequisite for whole genome sequencing for genomes like barley. To start such an endeavor, large insert genomic libraries, i.e. Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) libraries, which are unbiased and representing deep haploid genome coverage, need to be ready in place. Result: Five new BAC libraries were constructed for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar Morex. These libraries were constructed in different cloning sites (HindIII, EcoRI, MboI and BstXI ) of the respective vectors. In order to enhance unbiased genome representation and to minimize the number of gaps between BAC contigs, which are often due to uneven distribution of restriction sites, a mechanically sheared library was also ...
Short-lived TCR microclusters and a longer-lived protein kinase Ctheta-focusing central supramolecular activation cluster (cSMAC) have been defined in model immunological synapses (IS). In different model systems, CD28-mediated costimulatory interactions have been detected in microclusters, the cSMAC, or segregated from the TCR forming multiple distinct foci. The relationship between TCR and costimulatory molecules in the physiological IS of T cell-dendritic cell (DC) is obscure. To study the dynamic relationship of CD28-CD80 and TCR interactions in the T cell-DC IS during Ag-specific T cell activation, we generated CD80-eCFP mice using bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic technology. In splenic DCs, endogenous CD80 and CD80-eCFP localized to plasma membrane and Golgi apparatus, and CD80-eCFP was functional in vivo. In the OT-II T cell-DC IS, multiple segregated TCR, CD80, and LFA-1 clusters were detected. In the T cell-DC synapse CD80 clusters were colocalized with CD28 and PKCtheta, a
TY - JOUR. T1 - Global genomic diversity of Oryza sativa varieties revealed by comparative physical mapping. AU - Wang, Xiaoming. AU - Kudrna, David A.. AU - Pan, Yonglong. AU - Wang, Hao. AU - Liu, Lin. AU - Lin, Haiyan. AU - Zhang, Jianwei. AU - Song, Xiang. AU - Goicoechea, Jose Luis. AU - Wing, Rod A.. AU - Zhang, Qifa. AU - Luo, Meizhong. PY - 2014/4. Y1 - 2014/4. N2 - Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) physical maps embedding a large number of BAC end sequences (BESs) were generated for Oryza sativa ssp. indica varieties Minghui 63 (MH63) and Zhenshan 97 (ZS97) and were compared with the genome sequences of O. sativa spp. japonica cv. Nipponbare and O. sativa ssp. indica cv. 93-11. The comparisons exhibited substantial diversities in terms of large structural variations and small substitutions and indels. Genome-wide BAC-sized and contig-sized structural variations were detected, and the shared variations were analyzed. In the expansion regions of the Nipponbare reference sequence, in ...
Cultivated peanut is an allotetraploid with two nuclear genomic components, AA and BB. Although it is generally agreed that these component genomes are derived from diploid wild ancestors, the exact species involved has been a matter of some research and discussion. Although the evidence is not completely clear cut, analysis of data from molecular markers, cytogenetics, morphology and geographical distributions support that A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis are the direct ancestors of cultivated peanut [8, 30].. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) of A. hypogaea metaphase chromosomes with total genomic DNA from the AA genome of A. duranensis and the BB genome of A. ipaënsis allowed a clear differentiation of the A and B chromosomes. Firstly, this observation reinforces the evidence of the close relationship between the genomes of A. duranensis, A. ipaënsis and cultivated peanut. Secondly, since GISH relies largely on the hybridization of repetitive sequences, it also indicates that A. duranensis ...
In drug users, drug-related cues alone can induce dopamine release in the dorsal striatum. Instructive cues activate inputs to the striatum from both dopaminergic and cholinergic neurons, which are thought to work together to support motor learning and motivated behaviors. Imbalances in these neuromodulatory influences can impair normal action selection and might thus contribute to pathologically repetitive and compulsive behaviors such as drug addiction. Dopamine and acetylcholine can have either antagonistic or synergistic effects on behavior, depending on the state of the animal and the receptor signaling systems at play. Semi-synchronized activation of cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum drives dopamine release via presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors located on dopamine terminals. Nicotinic receptor blockade is known to diminish abnormal repetitive behaviors (stereotypies) induced by psychomotor stimulants. By contrast, blockade of postsynaptic acetylcholine muscarinic
Medical definition of bacterial artificial chromosome: a genetically engineered bacterial chromosome that is used as a vector to clone DNA segments, …
Chromosome segregation and cell division are essential, highly ordered processes that depend on numerous protein complexes. Results from recent RNA interference screens indicate that the identity and composition of these protein complexes is incompletely understood. Using gene tagging on bacterial artificial chromosomes, protein localization, and tandem-affinity purification-mass spectrometry, the MitoCheck consortium has analyzed about 100 human protein complexes, many of which had not or had only incompletely been characterized. This work has led to the discovery of previously unknown, evolutionarily conserved subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex and the gamma-tubulin ring complex--large complexes that are essential for spindle assembly and chromosome segregation. The approaches we describe here are generally applicable to high-throughput follow-up analyses of phenotypic screens in mammalian cells ...
Schambra, U.B.,Lauder, J.M., Connelly, B., Centeno, A., Rosen G., and Williams, R.W. http://epmba.org/. Electronic Prenatal Mouse Brain Atlas. 2007 to present. Schambra, U.B., Mackensen, G.B., Stafford Smith, M., Haines, D.E., and Schwinn, D.A. (2005). Neuron Specific a-Adrenergic Receptor Expression in Human Cerebellum: Implications for Emerging Cerebellar Roles in Neurologic Disease. Neuroscience 135:507-523. Gong, S., Zheng, C., Doughty, M.L., Losos, K., Didkovsky, N., Schambra, U.B., Nowak, N.J., Joyner, A., Leblanc, G., Hatten, M.E., Heintz, N. (2003) A gene expression atlas of the central nervous system based on bacterial artificial chromosomes. Nature 425, 917-925. Stafford Smith, M., Schambra, U. B., Wilson, K. H., Page, S. O., and Schwinn, D. A. (1999). a1-Adrenergic receptors in human spinal cord: Specific localized expression of mRNA encoding a1-adrenergic receptor subtypes at four distinct levels. Molecular Brain Research 63, 254-261. Stafford Smith, M., Schambra, U.B., Wilson, K.H., ...
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Cloned DNA libraries in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) are the most widely used form of large-insert DNA libraries. BAC libraries are typically represented by ordered clones derived from...
The past decade witnessed the wide spread use of clones from BAC libraries of numerous organisms for functional studies. The large insert DNA size and easy maneuverability of that DNA in bacteria has contributed to the growing popularity of BACs in transgenic animal studies. The realization that many control elements of genes important during vertebrate development are actually located at large distances along the DNA from the coding sequences of the gene have made BACs increasingly indispensable for studies of developmentally regulated genes using transgenic animals. A different area of interest arose from the same attractive features of BACs, and relates to their use as vectors for cloning the very large genomes of several DNA viruses. Faithful propagation and easy mutational analyses of the BAC-viral DNA in bacteria allowed rapid assignment of function(s) to the numerous open reading frames in the viral genome when that BAC-viral DNA was reintroduced into permissive hosts for a productive ...
Genome analysis of soybean (Glycine max L.) has been complicated by its paleo-autopolyploid nature and conserved homeologous regions. Landmarks of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) located within a minimum tile path (MTP) of contiguous (contig) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones or radiation hybrid set can identify stress and defense related gene rich regions in the genome. A physical map of about 2,800 contigs and MTPs of 8,064 BAC clones encompass the soybean genome. That genome is being sequenced by whole genome shotgun methods so that reliable estimates of gene family size and gene locations will provide a useful tool for finishing. The aims here were to develop methods to anchor plant defense- and stress-related gene paralogues on the MTP derived from the soybean physical map, to identify gene rich regions and to correlate those with QTL for disease resistance. The probes included 143 ESTs from a root library selected by subtractive hybridization from a multiply disease resistant soybean
Empty clones: 1.33 %. Hybridization with labeled total DV92 DNA showed that all the other BAC clones have wheat DNA. 85% of the Not I fragments showed strong hybridization signal suggesting the presence of repetitive sequences.. ...
A major innovation of the Human Genome Project has been the development of BACs, which harbor large, stable genomic fragments of DNA (50). BACs have been the workhorses in the sequencing of the human genome (12, 13, 53). In addition, BACs have been used to complement genetic mutations leading to gene identification (2, 43) and to pinpoint distal regulatory elements that confer cell-restricted gene expression in transgenic mice (37). The latter approach has been of particular interest inasmuch as many muscle-restricted transcription units are governed bycis-acting elements that may reside tens of kilobases away from the core promoter region (9, 47, 57). Defining such distal elements through small phage genomic clones can be time consuming and may have untoward effects on the expression of the reporter transgene (see below). In this report we used a BAC harboring the hSM-Calp transcription unit to show first that the expression of hSM-Calp exhibited similar regulatory expression in an in vitro ...
Rosalind M John is Professor of Developmental Epigenetics and Head of the Biomedicine Division within the School of Biosciences at Cardiff University. She received her PhD from Imperial College, University of London and trained at University of San Francisco California (UCSF) and Stanford, USA, and Cambridge University. She has a ,20 year track record in the epigenetics of fetal and placental development using animal models to study the relevance of genomic imprinting, and how gene dosage may be influenced by environmental factors mediating short and life long phenotypic outcomes. She is an expert in the generation of BAC transgenic mice (Phlda2, Cdkn1c and Ascl2) and the use of loss-of-function models (Cdkn1c, Phlda2 and Peg3) to gain insight in the relevance of controlled gene dosage. Her group have reported phenotypes affecting fetal growth, placental development, metabolism, adult behaviour and, most recently, maternal behaviour in response to placental endocrine dysfunction. Professor John ...
Laboratoire de Phytopathologie Moleculaire, URA CNRS 1128, Universite Paris-sud, Orsay, France.. A new Arabidopsis thaliana (ecotype Columbia) genomic library has been constructed in Yeast Artificial Chromosomes: the CIC library (for CEPH, INRA and CNRS). Optimization of plant culture conditions and protoplast preparation allowed the recovery of large amounts of viable protoplasts. Mechanical shearing of DNA was minimized by isolation of DNA from protoplasts embedded in agarose. Cloning of large inserts was favored by including two successive size fractionation steps (after partial EcoRI digestion and after ligation with the vector arms), which selected DNA fragments larger than 350 kb. The library consists of 1152 clones with an average insert size of 420 kb. Clones carrying chloroplast DNA and various nuclear repeated sequences have been identified. Twenty-one per cent of the clones are found to contain chloroplast DNA. Therefore, the library represents around four nuclear genome equivalents. ...
After all this is verified, we perform mass transformations, plating and pick. We use the following robotic platforms: G3 (Genomic Solutions), QPIX2 (Genetix) and MegaPIX (Genetix). The robots do blue/white selection and pick white clones into 384-well plates of glycerol storage solution. The plates of clones are grown overnight (~18 hours), and then we determine the exact plate and well position for all wells that did not grow (we call these missed wells).. We re-grid a subset of the clones onto 22cm x 22cm agar plates with XGAL+IPTG+Antibiotics and allow the colonies to grow 18 hours, then incubate for several days at a specific temp to allow any blue clones to be very obvious. We then count the blue clones and enter into a database. Example of Custom Mouse BAC Library QC Data There are several sheets in this file, including one that tracks if any pins on the robot are going bad. Your team will get a similar Excel file when the library is completed. The combined missed wells and blue ...
Image shows a z-series of a mouse ES cell carrying a multi-copy alpha-globin BAC transgene array. Relative distribution of the BAC sequences, identif...
Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors were first developed to facilitate the propagation and manipulation of large DNA fragments in molecular biology studies for uses such as genome sequencing projects and genetic disease models. To facilitate these studies, methodologies have been developed to introduce specific mutations that can be directly applied to the mutagenesis of infectious clones (icBAC) using BAC technologies. This has resulted in rapid identification of gene function and expression at unprecedented rates. Here we review the major developments in BAC mutagenesis in vitro. This review summarises the technologies used to construct and introduce mutations into herpesvirus icBAC. It also explores developing technologies likely to provide the next leap in understanding these important viruses.
My own research interests which map onto these targets are flowering time, leaf senescence and how plant chemistry affects the conversion efficiency of energy crops. Research tools that have or are being developed include bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries, genetic, trait and physical maps, the establishment of forward mutation populations, the exploitation of syntenic relationships to associate genotype to phenotype, and the development of high throughput virtual phenotyping methods including the use of infrared spectroscopy for cell wall chemistry.. ...
My own research interests which map onto these targets are flowering time, leaf senescence and how plant chemistry affects the conversion efficiency of energy crops. Research tools that have or are being developed include bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries, genetic, trait and physical maps, the establishment of forward mutation populations, the exploitation of syntenic relationships to associate genotype to phenotype, and the development of high throughput virtual phenotyping methods including the use of infrared spectroscopy for cell wall chemistry.. ...
Now that weve learned a bit about F factors, you might imagine how a cloning vector could be created that was based on an F factor origin of replication. We call such engineered F plasmids BACs or Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. BACs are capable of carrying approximately 200 kbp of inserted DNA sequence, and the F factor origin of replication maintains their level at approximately one copy per cell. Of course, we neednt stop there! We can also use YACs which are Yeast Artificial Chromosomes, and depend on being able to replicate and be maintained in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. YACs can carry approximately 500 kbp of foreign DNA, though they are often criticized due to the problem of natural recombination in the host.. Handling DNA of this size is a real problem, as I have mentioned before, due to the potential for shearing. The way this is solved is to embed the cells from which a library is going to be made, in low melting point agarose. The cells can be lysed in the agarose, simply be ...
Description: Cloned unidirectionally. Primer: Oligo dT. Average insert size 2.2 kb. Constructed by Life Technologies. Note: this is a Xenopus Gene Collection library ...
Tumor formation requires several genetic and epigenetic changes (hits) that occur stochastically in a given tissue. Cooperating hits are positively selected and give rise to progressed tumors. Cooperation of hits in tumors is a crucial issue in cancer therapy. Currently, cooperation is addressed in combinatorial mouse models that harbour several genetic changes (presence of oncogenic transgenes and/or loss of tumor suppressor genes). However, this approach is biased and does not mimic the evolution process of cancer that selects the most potent cooperating hits. Being aware of these drawbacks, we are establishing Multi-Hit mouse models that are based on the Cre/loxP technology and harbour Multi-Hit BAC transgenes that allow the randomized introduction of several hits in a given tissue. Currently, we employ this approach to identify the requirement and cooperations between the MAPK, Ral and Pi3K pathways activated by oncogenic Ras in different cancers.. ...
Finds sub-sequence or patterns in the sequence and highlights the matching region. The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in protein sequences ...
Investigating and assigning gene functions of herpesviruses is a process, which profits from consistent technical innovation. Cloning of bacterial artificial chromosomes encoding herpesvirus genomes permits nearly unlimited possibilities in the construction of genetically modified viruses. Targeted or randomized screening approaches allow rapid identification of essential viral proteins. Nevertheless, mapping of essential genes reveals only limited insight into function. The usage of dominant-negative (DN) proteins has been the tool of choice to dissect functions of proteins during the viral life cycle. DN proteins also facilitate the analysis of host-virus interactions. Finally, DNs serve as starting-point for design of new antiviral strategies.
The chromosome-based HPP aims to expand our understanding of the human proteome with a focus on expanding the understanding of each and every gene on each chromosome. For the most complete and up-to-date information available, visit the C-HPP portal.. ...
Mapping resources The group discussed the benefits of construction of a database of restriction fragment fingerprints for a BAC library. The value of this database will be to reduce the redundancy of the clone sets with which the mappers have to work, thereby simplifying the mapping problem. End sequences from the fingerprinted clones would be very valuable as an additional data set. There is no evidence that fingerprints are a true measure of clone fidelity. The issue was raised as to whether further investment should be made in generating and mapping additional random STSs to assist in long-range mapping. It was agreed that additional markers will be needed but that the most useful ones will be those generated from the ends of contigs, rather than random markers. There was some agreement that there may be a need for rapid RH mapping of such directed markers in a year or so. More importantly, there was general agreement that a long range mapping plan is needed. ...
Complete information for ALPK2 gene (Protein Coding), Alpha Kinase 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
利用者は、研究成果の公表にあたって寄託者の指定する文献を引用する(Genes Genet. Syst. 83, 245-256, 2008)。ショウジョウバエBACクローンを用いた研究成果の公表に当たっては、ナショナルバイオリソースプロジェクト「ショウジョウバエ」に対する謝辞の表明を必要とする ...
We have used massively parallel paired end sequencing strategies to reconstruct the genomic landscape of 24 breast cancer genomes, through the identification and characterization of 2166 somatically acquired genomic rearrangements. These studies have revealed considerable complexity in the patterns of structural variation, identified novel fusion genes and unveiled new insights into the complex structure of amplicons. ...
bdv sorry. It is for option 1. The mapping of contigs to a reference using BLAT (BLAT/BLAST section). From BLAT generate the syntenylist (baiscally the orientation layout of contigs) which you can use subsequently to Join (you find it in the Artemis/MUMmer section) in an artificial chromosome using spacers and/or linker providing an EMBL layout file as well for inspecting in for instance ACT or Artemis of Sanger.. ...
R. Beck, G90(1). Grass silage; country of origin unknown. Type strain. Taxonomy/description (3239, 3767, 38511). Sequence accession no. whole genome shotgun sequence: AYZB00000000. Murein: A11.31 (3239). (Medium 11, 30°C ...
Screenlist: File Name: lactation_fetish 198.avi | Duration: 21min 47s | File Size: 217 MB | Resolution: 416x320 Download File: lactation_fetish 198.rar
Ive done quite a bit of TOPO cloning and, if it works, is easy, fast and efficient. I did have a problem when trying to subclone a large insert (9.5 kb) as it would always be in the wrong orientation. TOPO is supposed to be a 50/50 for orientation but sometimes (especially with large inserts) it can take on a tertiary structure which inhibits the TOPO ligation. Only way to find out is to try it!. ...
The value listed under genome equivalents is for the amplified library. Coverage was calculated by dividing the number of independent recombinants by the genome equivalents of the unamplified library. This value is 53 ...
The value listed under genome equivalents is for the amplified library. Coverage was calculated by dividing the number of independent recombinants by the genome equivalents of the unamplified library. This value is 53 ...
One of the biggest BAC testing myths is that breathalizer it always accurate. It can yield a false reading when it measures alcohol present in your mouth.
P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs) have features of both P1 vectors and Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs). Similar to P1 ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are circular DNA molecules, usually about 7kb in length, that are capable of holding ... Yoo EY, Kim S, Kim JY, Kim BD (August 2001). "Construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome library ... Osoegawa K, de Jong PJ, Frengen E, Ioannou PA (May 2001). "Construction of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC/PAC) libraries ...
In Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. Ed P. Chatterjee, In Tech Open Access Publisher, Croatia, p1-22. Ellery, David (20 March ... Deakin, J, Koina, E, Waters, P et al 2008, 'Physical map of two tammar wallaby chromosomes: a strategy for mapping in non-model ... Deakin, J.E. and Graves, J.A.M. (2010). Mapping genes on tammar wallaby target chromosomes. Macropods: The biology of kangaroos ... The status of dosage compensation in the multiple X chromosomes of the platypus', PLoS Genetics, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 1-13. ...
"Construction of an infectious clone of canine herpesvirus genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome". Microbes Infect. 8 (4 ...
Bioengineers have created F plasmids that can contain inserted foreign DNA; this is called a bacterial artificial chromosome. ... F' (F-prime) bacteria are formed by incorrect excision from the chromosome, resulting in F plasmid carrying bacterial sequences ... F+ bacteria possess F factor as a plasmid independent of the bacterial genome. The F plasmid contains only F factor DNA and no ... The episome that harbors the F factor can exist as an independent plasmid or integrate into the bacterial cell's genome. There ...
In engineering large constructs of >100 kb, such as the Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs), or chromosomes, recombineering ... "Rapid modification of bacterial artificial chromosomes by ET- recombination". Nucleic Acids Research. 27 (6): 1555-1557. doi: ... and for modifying DNA of any source often contained on a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), among other applications. ... Recombineering is widely used for bacterial genetics, in the generation of target vectors for making a conditional mouse ...
"Construction and characterization of a human bacterial artificial chromosome library". Genomics. 34 (2): 213-8. doi:10.1006/ ... Mapping the whole human genome by fingerprinting yeast artificial chromosomes. Cell. 1992 Sep 18;70(6):1059-68. Cited 229 times ... "Mapping the whole human genome by fingerprinting yeast artificial chromosomes". Cell. 70 (6): 1059-1068. doi:10.1016/0092-8674( ...
2005). "RNA interference rescue by bacterial artificial chromosome transgenesis in mammalian tissue culture cells". Proc Natl ...
One popular way of studying EBV in vitro is to use bacterial artificial chromosomes. Epstein-Barr virus can be maintained and ...
Shizuya, H; Kouros-Mehr, H (2001). "The development and applications of the bacterial artificial chromosome cloning system". ... "Using bacterial artificial chromosomes in leukemia research: The experience at the university cytogenetics laboratory in Brest ... labelled and mapped from bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). BACs were developed during the Human Genome Project as it was ... For CISH to work optimally, chromosomes must be in either interphase or metaphase. Tissue samples are securely attached to a ...
... "bacterial artificial chromosomes", or BACs, which are derived from bacterial chromosomes which have been genetically engineered ... one X chromosome and one Y chromosome) compared to female samples (which contain two X chromosomes). The other 22 chromosomes ( ... Osoegawa K, Mammoser AG, Wu C, Frengen E, Zeng C, Catanese JJ, de Jong PJ (March 2001). "A bacterial artificial chromosome ... truly complete sequence of a human chromosome, the X-chromosome. Work to complete the remaining chromosomes using the same ...
April 2000). "Construction and characterization of a Schistosoma mansoni bacterial artificial chromosome library". Genomics. 65 ... Chromosomes range in size from 18 to 73 MB and can be distinguished by size, shape, and C banding. In 2000, the first BAC ... Schistosoma mansoni has 8 pairs of chromosomes (2n = 16)-7 autosomal pairs and 1 sex pair. The female schistosome is ... of the bases organised into chromosomes. Schistosome eggs, which may become lodged within the hosts tissues, are the major ...
Human artificial chromosome Yeast artificial chromosome Bacterial artificial chromosome. ... Bacterial promoters consist of two parts, the '-35' region and the '-10' region (the Pribnow box). These two regions bind the ...
The assembly of the genome sequence in M. truncatula was based on bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). This is the same ...
Borenstein, Ronen; Frenkel, Niza (2009). "Cloning human herpes virus 6A genome into bacterial artificial chromosomes and study ... For example, RCA has been successfully used for detecting the existence of viral and bacterial DNA from clinical samples, which ... replication mechanism of HPV may have physiological implications into the integration of the virus into the host chromosome and ...
Borenstein, Ronen; Frenkel, Niza (2009). "Cloning human herpes virus 6A genome into bacterial artificial chromosomes and study ... and may be seen in the late stage of bacterial infection by phages. As an example, if the genes in the phage DNA are arranged ...
October 2000). "Construction and analysis of bacterial artificial chromosome libraries from a marine microbial assemblage". ... recent advances in molecular biological techniques allowed the construction of libraries in bacterial artificial chromosomes ( ... of the reads could be aligned to 194 public human gut bacterial genomes and 7.6-21.2% to bacterial genomes available in GenBank ... In many bacterial communities, natural or engineered (such as bioreactors), there is significant division of labor in ...
The classic strategy to construct an artificial chromosome is bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). Basically, the target ... the fragments are cloned into plasmids to construct artificial chromosomes such as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) which ... Another commonly used artificial chromosome is fosmid. The difference between BAC and fosmids is the size of the DNA inserted. ... ESP can be applied for either with or without constructed artificial chromosome. With BAC, precious samples can be immortalized ...
"Analysis of the 1.1-Mb human alpha/delta T-cell receptor locus with bacterial artificial chromosome clones". Genome Res. 7 (4 ...
"Genome-wide Copy Number Profiling on High-density Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes, Single-nucleotide Polymorphisms, and ... In copy-neutral LOH, one allele or whole chromosome from a parent is missing. This problem leads to duplication of the other ...
The most common type of large-insert clone is the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). With BAC, the genome is first split ... P1 artificial chromosomes (PAC), yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) and transformation-competent artificial chromosomes (TACs) ... The pieces of DNA are then inserted into BAC clones that are further multiplied by inserting them into bacterial cells that ... Next, using the map from the first step the contigs are assembled back into the chromosomes. The first complete plant genome ...
"A bacterial artificial chromosome library for Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate snail host of Schistosoma mansoni". Memórias ... The chromosomes in this snail are small, and the haploid number of chromosomes is 18. A complete genome sequence from the ... 2015). "A Novel Bacterial Pathogen of Biomphalaria glabrata: A Potential Weapon for Schistosomiasis Control?". PLOS Neglected ... Like other species, this snail is "light sensitive" and can be disrupted by artificial light. Biomphalaria glabrata feeds on ...
Insert size of up to 350 kb can be cloned in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). BACs are maintained in E. coli with a copy ... BACs are based on F plasmid, another artificial chromosome called the PAC is based on the P1 phage. Yeast artificial chromosome ... and bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). Some DNA, however, cannot be stably maintained in E. coli, for example very large ... Human artificial chromosome may be potentially useful as a gene transfer vectors for gene delivery into human cells, and a tool ...
If the gap is large (,20kb) then the large fragment is cloned in special vectors such as BAC (Bacterial artificial chromosomes ... From this map, a minimal number of fragments that cover the entire chromosome are selected for sequencing.[14] In this way, the ... The amplified genome is first sheared into larger pieces (50-200kb) and cloned into a bacterial host using BACs or PACs. ... Two principal methods are used for this: primer walking (or "chromosome walking") which progresses through the entire strand ...
Mapping and sequencing of the chromosomal region was performed with the aid of bacterial artificial chromosome clones. Around ... in which part of chromosome 7 had become exchanged with part of chromosome 5. The site of breakage of chromosome 7 was located ... non-sex chromosome) acting in a dominant fashion. This is one of the few known examples of Mendelian (monogenic) inheritance ... Faraneh Vargha-Khadem identified an autosomal dominant monogenic inheritance that is localized on a small region of chromosome ...
... bacterial artificial chromosomes, or yeast artificial chromosomes are used. Another major use of plasmids is to make large ... Biology portal Bacterial artificial chromosome Bacteriophage DNA recombination Plasmidome Provirus Segrosome Transposon ... Other examples include aberrant chromosomal fragments, such as double minute chromosomes, that can arise during artificial gene ... A typical bacterial replicon may consist of a number of elements, such as the gene for plasmid-specific replication initiation ...
"Anchoring 9,371 maize expressed sequence tagged unigenes to the bacterial artificial chromosome contig map by two-dimensional ... 1997 ), on chromosome 7, another by igl1, indole-3-glycerol phosphate lyase1(Frey et al. 1997, on chromosome 1, and another by ... AB chromosome translocation analyses place on short arm of chromosome 4 (4S; Simcox and Weber 1985 ). There is close linkage to ... The X-ray structure of BX1 protein has been resolved and compared with bacterial TSA (tryptophan synthase alpha subunit, Kulik ...
Cosmid/BAC/YAC end sequences use Cosmid/Bacterial artificial chromosome/Yeast artificial chromosome to sequence the genome from ... Yeast artificial chromosome Venter, J. Craig, Hamilton O. Smith, and Leroy Hood. "A New Cooperative Strategy for Sequencing the ... To get enough chromosome, they need a large number of E. coli culture that 2.5 - 5 litres may be a reasonable amount. Cosmid/ ...
... can produce contigs up to 50-kb N50 length using prokaryotic data and 3-kb N50 in mammalian bacterial artificial chromosomes ( ...
... and his group created the Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) vector along with many of the first libraries providing the ... he was a member of the laboratory team that was first to illustrate how a rotary motor drives bacterial flagella; ...
"Alignment of the Genomes of Brachypodium distachyon and Temperate Cereals and Grasses Using Bacterial Artificial Chromosome ... At about 272 million base pairs and with five chromosomes, it has a small genome for a grass species. Brachypodium distachyon's ... Chromosome Research. 12 (4): 397-403. doi:10.1023/B:CHRO.0000034130.35983.99. PMID 15241018. S2CID 8142728. Routledge, Andrew P ...
... each population maintaining a single artificial chromosome, are stored in various laboratories around the world. The artificial ... Bacterial FISH probes are often primers for the 16s rRNA region. FISH is widely used in the field of microbial ecology, to ... The chromosomes can be seen in blue. The chromosome that is labeled with green and red spots (upper left) is the one where the ... Then, an interphase or metaphase chromosome preparation is produced. The chromosomes are firmly attached to a substrate, ...
seem to be natural or artificial hybrids of a small number of core ancestral species, including the citron, pomelo, mandarin, ... The real danger lies that the psyllid can carry a deadly, bacterial tree disease called Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as ... "Next generation haplotyping to decipher nuclear genomic interspecific admixture in Citrusspecies: analysis of chromosome 2" ...
The bacterial and fungal cultures found in the fermenting piles were found to vary widely from factory to factory throughout ... This notion has recently been refuted through a systematic chromosome analysis of the species attributed to many East Asian ... to be sold as the raw product without the artificial accelerated fermentation process. ... Tian, Jianqing; Zhu, Zixiang; Wu, Bing; Wang, Lin; Liu, Xingzhong (2013-08-19). "Bacterial and fungal communities in Pu'er tea ...
Nudler E, Mironov AS (Jan 2004). "The riboswitch control of bacterial metabolism". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 29 (1): 11-7 ... Artificial cell. *Non-cellular life. *Synthetic virus *Viral vector. *Helper dependent virus ...
200kb bacterial artificial chromosomes to small oligonucleotides) that represent unique regions of the genome. This method is ... Chromosome studies[edit]. Chromosome studies are used in the general genetics clinic to determine a cause for developmental ... Chromosome painting is a technique that uses fluorescent probes specific for each chromosome to differentially label each ... A large number of different methods have been developed for chromosome analysis:. *Chromosome analysis using a karyotype ...
"Complementation of plant mutants with large genomic DNA fragments by a transformation-competent artificial chromosome vector ... The bacterial T-DNA is about 24,000 base pairs long and contains genes that code for enzymes synthesizing opines and ... Several other bacterial virulence effectors like VirB5, VirB7 (the minor components of the T-complex), VirD5, VirE2, VirE3, and ... The bacterial virulence genes expression of approximately 10 operons is activated by perception of phenolic compounds such as ...
Small genetic deletions on the X chromosome around the STS (steroid sulfatase) gene are associated with increased rates of AF ... attributable to moderate to severe mitral valve stenosis or atrial fibrillation in the presence of a mechanical artificial ... Subacute bacterial endocarditis. *non-infective endocarditis *Libman-Sacks endocarditis. *Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis ...
Most cultivated Citrus seem to be natural or artificial hybrids of four core ancestral species[14] - the citron, pummelo, ... bacterial tree disease called Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening disease.[25] ... "Next generation haplotyping to decipher nuclear genomic interspecific admixture in Citrusspecies: analysis of chromosome 2" ...
Genetic testing identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins.[38] Most of the time, testing is used to find changes ... In 1940, penicillin became available for medicinal use to treat bacterial infections in humans.[10] ... creation of artificial organs and new diagnostics of diseases.[24] As well as the development of hormones, stem cells, ... In addition to studying chromosomes to the level of individual genes, genetic testing in a broader sense includes biochemical ...
Artificial chromosomes *P1-derived *Bacterial *Yeast *Human Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=5- ...
... females are also one of the few organisms with homologous chromosomes held together only by the synaptonemal ... including an artificial diet.[citation needed] Research on the genome also raises the possibility of genetically engineering ... Lysocin E is a new antibiotic that targets menaquinone in the bacterial membrane. Nat. Chem. Biol. 11, 127-133 PMID 25485686 ... Gerton and Hawley (2005). "Homologous Chromosome Interactions in Meiosis: Diversity Amidst Conservation". Nature Reviews ...
In one application an artificial DNA catalyst was prepared by attaching a copper ion to it through a spacer.[42] The copper - ... Artificial chromosomes *P1-derived *Bacterial *Yeast *Human Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= ...
Chloroplasts have many similarities with photosynthetic bacteria, including a circular chromosome, prokaryotic-type ribosome, ... "Development of the bacterial photosynthetic apparatus". Current Opinion in Microbiology. 9 (6): 625-631. doi:10.1016/j.mib. ... "First practical artificial leaf makes debut". Discovery News.. *Photosynthesis - Light Dependent & Light Independent Stages ... "Atomic-level structural and functional model of a bacterial photosynthetic membrane vesicle". Proceedings of the National ...
Genetic testing identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins.[6] Usually, testing is used to find changes that are ... Shine J, Dalgarno L (1975). "Determinant of cistron specificity in bacterial ribosomes". Nature. 254 (5495): 34-8. doi:10.1038/ ... be digitally altered and be used as templates for creating new actual DNA using artificial gene synthesis. ... In addition to studying chromosomes to the level of individual genes, genetic testing in a broader sense includes biochemical ...
In evolution, this chromosome has lost most of its content and also most of its genes, while the X chromosome is similar to the ... Natural bacterial transformation occurs in many bacterial species, and can be regarded as a sexual process for transferring DNA ... artificial selection and migration.[88] ... Although genes were known to exist on chromosomes, chromosomes ... During crossover, chromosomes exchange stretches of DNA, effectively shuffling the gene alleles between the chromosomes.[59] ...
RNAi could potentially be used to treat viruses,[136] bacterial diseases,[137] parasites,[138] maladaptive genetic mutations,[ ... Artificial neural networks are frequently used to design siRNA libraries[120] and to predict their likely efficiency at gene ... Holmquist GP, Ashley T (2006). "Chromosome organization and chromatin modification: influence on genome function and evolution ... Therefore, artificial or nanoparticle encapsulated siRNA must be used. However, transporting siRNA across the cell membrane ...
Ge G, Wong G, Luo B (2005). "Prediction of siRNA knockdown efficiency using artificial neural network models". Biochem Biophys ... Holmquist G, Ashley T (2006). "Chromosome organization and chromatin modification: influence on genome function and evolution ... "Translational repression is sufficient for gene silencing by bacterial small noncoding RNAs in the absence of mRNA destruction ... "Design of a genome-wide siRNA library using an artificial neural network". Nat Biotechnol 23 (8): 995-1001. PMID 16025102. doi: ...
... is found on chromosome 14, and the loci containing lambda and kappa light chain genes ([email protected] and [email protected]) are found on chromosomes ... They are usually artificial peptides or proteins with a molar mass of about 3 to 20 kDa. Nucleic acids and small molecules are ... Neutralisation, in which neutralizing antibodies block parts of the surface of a bacterial cell or virion to render its attack ... Artificial antibodies are largely diverse protein motifs that use the functional strategy of the antibody molecule, but aren't ...
Third, the technique of patch-clamp uses isolated sections of natural or artificial membrane in much the same manner as voltage ... Bui, D.M.; Gregan, J.; Jarosch, E.; Ragnini, A.; Schweyen, R. J. (1999). "The bacterial magnesium transporter CorA can ... "Familial hypomagnesaemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis maps to chromosome 3q27 and is associated with mutations in ...
Houseflies have a small number of chromosomes, haploid six or diploid 12.[59] Because the somatic tissue of the housefly ... Japanese Yagi bombs developed at Pingfan consisted of two compartments, one with houseflies and another with a bacterial slurry ...
In gene conversion, a section of genetic material is copied from one chromosome to another, without the donating chromosome ... unsuccessful transfer or abortive transfer which is any bacterial DNA transfer of the donor cell recipients who have set the ... In genetic engineering, recombination can also refer to artificial and deliberate recombination of disparate pieces of DNA, ... This process appears to be an adaptation for repairing DNA damages in the recipient chromosome by HRR.[11] Transformation may ...
Artificial chromosomes *P1-derived. *Bacterial. *Yeast. *Human. This genetics article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by ...
The sex assay utilizes AluSTXa for the X chromosome, AluSTYa for the Y chromosome, or both AluSTXa and AluSTYa, to reduce the ... Artificial amplification is used in research,[1] forensics,[2] and medicine[1] for purposes that include detection and ... which is part of every bacterial and archaeal genome and is highly conserved, bacteria can be taxonomically classified by ... The inserted chromosome yields a large fragment when the homologous region is amplified. The males are distinguished as having ...
Singh, Ram J.; Nelson, Randall L.; Chung, Gyuhwa (November 2, 2006). Genetic Resources, Chromosome Engineering, and Crop ... In 1931, Ford hired chemists Robert Boyer and Frank Calvert to produce artificial silk. They succeeded in making a textile ... Soybean plants are vulnerable to a wide range of bacterial diseases, fungal diseases, viral diseases and parasites. The corn ...
The swamp buffalo has 48 chromosomes; the river buffalo has 50 chromosomes. The two types do not readily interbreed, but ... Buffalo are now crossed with riverine buffalo in artificial insemination programs, and are kept in many areas of Australia. ... "Biodiversity of bacterial ecosystems in traditional Egyptian Domiati cheese". Applied Environ Microbiol. 73 (4): 1248-1255. ...
2000). "FLS2: an LRR receptor-like kinase involved in the perception of the bacterial elicitor flagellin in Arabidopsis". ... and examination of chromosomes in maize allowed Barbara McClintock to demonstrate their connection to inherited traits.[102] ... "Bacterial proteins pinpoint a single eukaryotic root". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (7): E693-E699. ...
Holland, John H. (1975). Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems: An Introductory Analysis with Applications to Biology, ... February 6, 2009). "The Bacterial Species Challenge: Making Sense of Genetic and Ecological Diversity". Science (Washington, D. ... "Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ... Control, and Artificial Intelligence. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08460-7. OCLC 1531617.. ...
The strongest gene, IDDM1, is located in the MHC Class II region on chromosome 6, at staining region 6p21. Certain variants of ... As of 2016 an artificial pancreas looks promising with safety issues still being studied.[62] In 2018 they were deemed to be ... and bacterial infections like paratuberculosis.[30] ... "A Review of Safety and Design Requirements of the Artificial ... "Artificial pancreas treatment for outpatients with type 1 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis". BMJ. 361: k1310. doi ...
A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is a DNA construct, based on a functional fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid), used for ... The bacterial artificial chromosomes usual insert size is 150-350 kbp.[4] A similar cloning vector called a PAC has also been ... The Big Bad BAC: Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes - a review from the Science Creative Quarterly ... "The development and applications of the bacterial artificial chromosome cloning system" (PDF). Keio J Med. 50 (1): 26-30. doi: ...
... everything you need for studying or teaching Bacterial artificial chromosome. ... Immediately download the Bacterial artificial chromosome summary, chapter-by-chapter analysis, book notes, essays, quotes, ... Bacterial artificial chromosome Summary. Everything you need to understand or teach Bacterial artificial chromosome. ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (Bac) Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) involve a cloning system that is derived from a ...
Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes, Second Edition expands upon the previous edition with current, detailed methods developed for ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes, Second Edition expands upon the previous edition with current, detailed methods developed for ... Authoritative and cutting-edge, Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes, Second Edition seeks to aid scientists in advancing their ... Herpesvirus Mutagenesis Facilitated by Infectious Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (iBACs) Karl E. Robinson, Timothy J. Mahony ...
Alonso J.M., Stepanova A.N. (2014) Arabidopsis Transformation with Large Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. In: Sanchez-Serrano ... Complementation of plant mutants with large genomic DNA fragments by a transformation-competent artificial chromosome vector ... Generation of a high-quality P1 library of Arabidopsis suitable for chromosome walking. Plant J 7:351-358CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
... B. Karsten Tischer and ... Finally, we review the reconstitution of viruses from BAC vectors and the removal of the bacterial sequences from the virus ...
A. Domi and B. Moss, "Engineering of a vaccinia virus bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli by bacteriophage λ- ... Viral Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: Generation, Mutagenesis, and Removal of Mini-F Sequences. B. Karsten Tischer and ... 2. Generation of Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs). 2.1. Homologous Recombination in Mammalian Cells. One of the most ... A. Domi and B. Moss, "Cloning the vaccinia virus genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli and recovery ...
A gene expression atlas of the central nervous system based on bacterial artificial chromosomes.. Gong S1, Zheng C, Doughty ML ... and to provide a library of verified bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors and transgenic mouse lines that offer ...
Efficient studies of long-distance Bmp5 gene regulation using bacterial artificial chromosomes.. DiLeone RJ1, Marcus GA, ... Here we describe the use of bacterial artificial chromosome clones to rapidly survey hundreds of kilobases of DNA for potential ... Efficient studies of long-distance Bmp5 gene regulation using bacterial artificial chromosomes ... Efficient studies of long-distance Bmp5 gene regulation using bacterial artificial chromosomes ...
In a single step we cloned an infectious cytomegalovirus DNA as a bacterial artificial chromosome in E. coli and reconstituted ... The MCMV genome was cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) in Escherichia coli and viral progeny were reconstituted ... The mouse cytomegalovirus genome was cloned and maintained as a 230 kb bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) in E. coli. ... Cloning and mutagenesis of a herpesvirus genome as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome. Martin Messerle, Irena ...
Super-Sized Inserts Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC) have been developed to hold much larger pieces of DNA than a plasmid ... breed healthier farm animals or even process radioactive waste are just a few examples of what Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes ... With such a vector, it is easier to grow sufficient amounts of the herpes virus for research, since it can live in bacterial ... For instance, there are researchers studying the herpes virus who have made a BAC vector that can be cultured in bacterial ...
... was to test the ability of oligonucleotide-based arrays to reproduce the results of focused bacterial artificial chromosome ( ... platform to give high-resolution coverage of regions within the genome sequence coordinates of BAC/P1 artificial chromosome ( ... P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs), or bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), or of polymerase chain reaction products ... Ou, Z., Kang, S., Shaw, C. et al. Bacterial artificial chromosome-emulation oligonucleotide arrays for targeted clinical array- ...
Bacterial artificial chromosomes or BACS are circular DNA molecules which contain a replicon that is based on the F factor. ... A modular, positive selection bacterial artificial chromosome vector with multiple cloning sites. Genomics. 1999 Jun 15;58(3): ... Retrieved from "https://openwetware.org/mediawiki/index.php?title=Bacterial_artificial_chromosomes&oldid=111020" ...
If you are a society or association member and require assistance with obtaining online access instructions please contact our Journal Customer Services team ...
Triticum monococcum bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library D. Lijavetzky, G. Muzzi, T. Wicker, B. Keller, R. Wing, and J ...
Rapid modification of bacterial artificial chromosomes by ET-recombination. Nucleic Acids Research. 1999;27(6):1555-1557. [PMC ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Mutagenesis Using Recombineering. Kumaran Narayanan 1, 2 * and Qingwen Chen 2 ... Modification of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and preparation of intact BAC DNA for generation of transgenic mice. [ ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes, or BACs, are fertility- (F-) factor-based plasmid vectors that replicate stably in low copy ...
2000) A bacterial artificial chromosome library for barley (Hordeum vulgare). Theor Appl Genet 101:1093-1099. ... Comparative Sequence Analysis of Colinear Barley and Rice Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes Message Subject (Your Name) has sent ... Comparative Sequence Analysis of Colinear Barley and Rice Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. Jorge Dubcovsky, Wusirika ... Comparative Sequence Analysis of Colinear Barley and Rice Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. Jorge Dubcovsky, Wusirika ...
Bacterial artificial chromosomes or BACS are circular DNA molecules which contain a replicon that is based on the F factor. ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes or BACS are circular DNA molecules which contain a replicon that is based on the F factor. ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes. S. Zhao and M. Stodolsky, editors, Volume 2: Functional Studies, volume 256 of Methods in ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes. S. Zhao and M. Stodolsky, editors, Volume 1: Library Construction, Physical Mapping, and ...
The bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) (1) is now the most widely utilized vector system to construct large-insert genomic ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Positive Clone Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library Yeast Artificial Chromosome Colony ... The bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) (1) is now the most widely utilized vector system to construct large-insert genomic ... Yasukochi Y. (2002) PCR-Based Screening for Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Libraries. In: Chen BY., Janes H.W. (eds) PCR ...
... ... and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end sequences; and annotated genes. The contig scaffold is used by TOPAAS for ...
A Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) acts as a vehicle to artificially carry and store DNA into a bacterial cell. Because ... Making a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) Library This animation provides an overview of the techniques involved in making ... Creating BAC clones by inserting DNA fragments into vectors and transferring them into bacterial cells. ...
Role of MITF Phosphorylation Sites During Coat Color and Eye Development in Mice Analyzed by Bacterial Artificial Chromosome ... Role of MITF Phosphorylation Sites During Coat Color and Eye Development in Mice Analyzed by Bacterial Artificial Chromosome ... Role of MITF Phosphorylation Sites During Coat Color and Eye Development in Mice Analyzed by Bacterial Artificial Chromosome ... Role of MITF Phosphorylation Sites During Coat Color and Eye Development in Mice Analyzed by Bacterial Artificial Chromosome ...
Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries are extremely valuable for the genome-wide genetic dissection of complex ... Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries are extremely valuable for the genome-wide genetic dissection of complex ... Construction and Analysis of Siberian Tiger Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library with Approximately 6.5-Fold Genome ... "Construction and Analysis of Siberian Tiger Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library with Approximately 6.5-Fold Genome ...
A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was generated from a derivative of the sequenced E. coli O157:H7 Sakai strain. ... A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was generated from a derivative of the sequenced E. coli O157:H7 Sakai strain. ... A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was generated from a derivative of the sequenced E. coli O157:H7 Sakai strain. ... Figure 3. Bacterial artificial chromosome-CGH of mucus-cultured clones. E. coli O157:H7 strain Sakai BAC clones were selected ...
Engineering the Largest RNA Virus Genome as an Infectious Bacterial Artificial Chromosome F Almazán 1 , J M González, Z Pénzes ... Engineering the Largest RNA Virus Genome as an Infectious Bacterial Artificial Chromosome F Almazán et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosome-Based Lambda Red Recombination with the I-SceI Homing Endonuclease for Genetic Alteration of ... Herein, we show that the application of two strategies, cloning of the cDNAs into a bacterial artificial chromosome and nuclear ...
Subsequent reports using either yeast artificial chromosomes, bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), or P1 phage artificial ... Here, we report on the use of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) to begin understanding the in vivo regulation of smooth ... Expression of human smooth muscle calponin in transgenic mice revealed with a bacterial artificial chromosome. Joseph M. Miano ... 2000) Point mutation of bacterial artificial chromosomes by ET recombination. EMBO J 1:239-243. ...
Title: Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: Volume 1: Library Construction, Physical Mapping, and Sequencing (Methods in Molecular ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: Volume 1: Library Construction, Physical Mapping, and Sequencing (Methods in Molecular ...
Based on electrophoretic conditions described in this report, we can determine the size of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC ... Pulsed field separation of large supercoiled and open-circular DNAs and its application to bacterial artificial chromosome ...
... BAC libraries are essential resources in model organism research. We are ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) Project ...
To test this possibility, transgenic mice were generated with 145- and 207-kb bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) that ... Human Apolipoprotein B Transgenic Mice Generated with 207- and 145-Kilobase Pair Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. Evidence ... and 145-Kilobase Pair Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. Evidence that a distant 5-element confers appropriate transgene ...
  • BACs can also be utilized to detect genes or large sequences of interest and then used to map them onto the human chromosome using BAC arrays . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are large F-based plasmid vectors that can accommodate large inserts of DNA. (bookrags.com)
  • Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (Bac) Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) involve a cloning system that is derived from a particular plasmid found in the bacterium Escherichia coli. (bookrags.com)
  • Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes, Second Edition expands upon the previous edition with current, detailed methods developed for working with BACs. (springer.com)
  • however, this problem could also be overcome by the use of single or low-copy vectors, such as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). (hindawi.com)
  • Until recently, most clinical applications of array-CGH, other than some cancer studies, have been based on arrays constructed by covalent attachment to glass slides of DNA from whole clones, typically cosmids, P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs), or bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), or of polymerase chain reaction products generated from such clones. (nature.com)
  • Bacterial artificial chromosomes or BACS are circular DNA molecules which contain a replicon that is based on the F factor. (openwetware.org)
  • Bacterial artificial chromosomes, or BACs, are fertility- (F-) factor-based plasmid vectors that replicate stably in low copy number [ 2 , 3 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To test this possibility, transgenic mice were generated with 145- and 207-kb bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) that contained the human apoB gene and more extensive 5'- and 3'-flanking sequences. (caltech.edu)
  • A minimal set of 50 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones that covers almost all of the genome of M. microti OV254 was constructed, and individual BACs were compared to the corresponding BACs from M. bovis AF2122/97 and M. tuberculosis H37Rv. (epfl.ch)
  • Interestingly, large vectors that fulfill these criteria such as Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) have been widely used for generation of transgenic mice [ 4 ] but not for production of recombinant proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this context the recent demonstration by Dr. Koichi Kawakami and colleagues that the vertebrate transposon system Tol2 can be re-engineered to facilitate integration of BAC DNA into the chromosomes of zebrafish and mice is likely to accelerate the use of BACs in a variety of studies with transgenic animals. (openaccessbooks.com)
  • This book focuses on the numerous applications of Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) in a variety of studies. (openaccessbooks.com)
  • The large size of the insert DNA in BACs and the ease of engineering mutations in that DNA within the bacterial host, allowed manipulating the BAC-viral DNA of Varicella-Zoster Virus. (openaccessbooks.com)
  • This study evaluated the individual and combined diagnostic performance of the bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs)-on-Beads (BoBs™) assay and conventional karyotyping for the prenatal detection of chromosomal abnormalities in pregnant women who were 35 or more years-old. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The BACs, with their inserted DNA, are then taken up by bacterial cells. (genome.gov)
  • Screening indicated a degree of synteny between these species and B. distachyon, which was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization of the marker-selected BACs (BAC landing) to the 10 chromosome arms of the karyotype, with most of the BACs hybridizing as single loci on known chromosomes. (aber.ac.uk)
  • Contiguous BACs colocalized on individual chromosomes, thereby confirming the conservation of genome synteny and proving that B. distachyon has utility as a temperate grass model species alternative to rice. (aber.ac.uk)
  • USA 98, 7829-7834), and the pathogenic strain Toledo into bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here we describe the use of bacterial artificial chromosome clones to rapidly survey hundreds of kilobases of DNA for potential regulatory sequences surrounding the mouse bone morphogenetic protein-5 (Bmp5) gene. (nih.gov)
  • Methods: Custom oligonucleotide (oligo) arrays were designed using the Agilent Technologies platform to give high-resolution coverage of regions within the genome sequence coordinates of BAC/P1 artificial chromosome (PAC) clones that had already been validated for use in previous versions of clone arrays used in clinical practice. (nature.com)
  • Gene expression from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones has been demonstrated to facilitate physiologically relevant levels compared to viral and nonviral cDNA vectors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Colinearity of a large region from barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) chromosome 5H and rice ( Oryza sativa ) chromosome 3 has been demonstrated by mapping of several common restriction fragment-length polymorphism clones on both regions. (plantphysiol.org)
  • One of these clones, WG644, was hybridized to rice and barley bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries to select homologous clones. (plantphysiol.org)
  • 1992) Continuum of overlapping clones spanning the entire human chromosome 21q. (springer.com)
  • Creating BAC clones by inserting DNA fragments into vectors and transferring them into bacterial cells. (yourgenome.org)
  • Based on electrophoretic conditions described in this report, we can determine the size of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones without restriction enzyme digestion and have enriched the percentage of larger size clones in BAC cloning. (nih.gov)
  • A metagenomic (community genomic) library consisting of 5,760 bacterial artificial chromosome clones was prepared in Escherichia coli DH10B from DNA extracted from the large-bowel microbiota of BALB/c mice. (asm.org)
  • Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones have proven invaluable for genetic manipulation of herpesvirus genomes. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Generation of stable cell clones for protein production using Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes offers a clear advantage over the use of conventional vectors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have constructed a common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library consisting of 33 792 clones and an estimated 3- to 5-fold coverage of the common bean genome. (elsevier.com)
  • Here we present a physical map of rice chromosome 10 developed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) mapping of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones on meiotic pachytene chromosomes. (elsevier.com)
  • The telomere-centromere orientation of DNA clones separated by 40 kb can be resolved on early pachytene chromosomes. (elsevier.com)
  • Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones containing molecular markers mapped across sorghum linkage group A were labeled as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). (tamu.edu)
  • Using pyrosequencing of BAC clones, in this work we studied the organization of two distinct 5S rDNA-tagged regions of the 5BS chromosome of bread wheat. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Three BAC-clones containing 5S rDNA were identified in the 5BS chromosome-specific BAC-library of Triticum aestivum . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many BAC clones represent linking clones between sequenced cosmids, allowing full coverage of the H37Rv chromosome, and they are now being shotgun sequenced in the framework of the H37Rv sequencing project. (pasteur.fr)
  • The minimal overlapping set contains 68 unique BAC clones and spans the whole H37Rv chromosome with the exception of a single gap of approximately 150 kb. (pasteur.fr)
  • We have developed a linkage map for the silkworm Bombyx mori based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between strains p50T and C108T initially found on regions corresponding to the end sequences of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. (elsevier.com)
  • Finally, we review the reconstitution of viruses from BAC vectors and the removal of the bacterial sequences from the virus genome during this process. (hindawi.com)
  • The mouse cytomegalovirus genome was cloned and maintained as a 230 kb bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) in E. coli . (pnas.org)
  • The MCMV genome was cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) in Escherichia coli and viral progeny were reconstituted by transfection of the MCMV BAC plasmid into eukaryotic cells that support virus production. (pnas.org)
  • These differences in DNA content indicate that a single chromosome from barley contains more DNA than one complete haploid rice genome. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) ( 1 ) is now the most widely utilized vector system to construct large-insert genomic libraries for genome analysis. (springer.com)
  • Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries are extremely valuable for the genome-wide genetic dissection of complex organisms. (mdpi.com)
  • Liu C, Bai C, Guo Y, Liu D, Lu T, Li X, Ma J, Ma Y, Guan W. Construction and Analysis of Siberian Tiger Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library with Approximately 6.5-Fold Genome Equivalent Coverage. (mdpi.com)
  • A cDNA encoding an infectious coronavirus RNA genome has been cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome. (nih.gov)
  • An important outgrowth of the Human Genome Project that has assisted investigators in defining the boundaries of genomic DNA necessary for the complete expression of a particular gene has been the development of artificial chromosomes ( 4 , 50 ). (physiology.org)
  • The full-length genome of human cytomegalovirus strain AD169 was cloned as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) plasmid, pAD/Cre. (asm.org)
  • In the present study, we describe the cloning of the KHV genome as a stable and infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone that can be used to produce KHV recombinant strains. (pasteur.fr)
  • A large DNA sequence that is artificially inserted into a bacterial genome for replication or expression. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the A genome of wheat. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Battistoni F, Bartels D, Kaiser O, Reamon-Buettner SM, Hurek T, Reinhold-Hurek B. Physical map of the Azoarcus sp strain BH72 genome based on a bacterial artificial chromosome library as a platform for genome sequencing and functional analysis. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • We have constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for bovine use in genome mapping. (wcgalp.org)
  • We report the cloning of the entire genome of cowpox virus strain Brighton Red (BR) as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) in Escherichia coli and the recovery of infectious virus from cloned DNA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This integrated genomic map describes the first pair of homoeologous chromosomes of an allotetraploid genome in which BAC contigs were identified and partially separated through the use of chromosome-specific probes and locus-specific genetic markers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, no genome-wide physical map or chromosome contig map has been reported for any Gossypium species including Upland cotton ( G. hirsutum L.). Genomics research of cotton has lagged behind that of other major crop plants such as maize, soybean, and wheat. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The dynamic regulation of microtubules (MTs) during mitosis is critical for accurate chromosome segregation and genome stability. (rupress.org)
  • Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors were first developed to facilitate the propagation and manipulation of large DNA fragments in molecular biology studies for uses such as genome sequencing projects and genetic disease models. (mdpi.com)
  • Recently the SVV genome was cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and BAC-derived SVV displayed similar replication kinetics as wild-type (WT) SVV in vitro . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Whole Genome Shotgun Sequencing (WGSS) was subsequently performed on the Hulk, from which chromosome γ was assembled and Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC) were created. (ubc.ca)
  • They have the same chromosome number and genome sizes, and they occupy the same ecological niche. (plos.org)
  • Here we describe a large-scale screen to create an atlas of CNS gene expression at the cellular level, and to provide a library of verified bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors and transgenic mouse lines that offer experimental access to CNS regions, cell classes and pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Burke, D. T., Carle, G. F., and Olson, M. V. (1987) Cloning of large-segments of exogenous DNA into yeast by means of artificial chromosome vectors. (springer.com)
  • Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors are especially suitable in the preparation of metagenomic clone libraries because they stably maintain large DNA inserts (greater than 100 kbp) in Escherichia coli ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Bacterial artificial chromosome libraries have also been used to develop physical maps for genomic regions containing resistance gene analog sequences (Marek and Shoemaker, 1997). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Abstract We have constructed three bacterial artificial chromosome BAC libraries of wheat cultivar Triticum aestivum Wangshuibai, germplasms T. monococcum TA2026 and TA2033. (duhnnae.com)
  • The work Bacterial artificial chromosomes, Volume 1, Library construction, physical mapping, and sequencing represents a distinct intellectual or artistic creation found in University of Oklahoma Libraries . (ou.edu)
  • BackgroundEfficient screening of bacterial artificial chromosome BAC libraries with polymerase chain reaction PCR-based markers is feasible provided that a multidimensional pooling strategy is implemented. (duhnnae.com)
  • Large0insect bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries, plant-transformation-competent binary BAC (BIBAC) libraries, and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are essential for many aspects of genomics research. (edu.au)
  • Construction, characterization, and preliminary BAC-end sequencing analysis of a bacterial artificial chromosome library of white clover (Trifolium repens L. (aber.ac.uk)
  • Construction and characterization of a deep-coverage bacterial artificial chromosome library for maize. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Vanhouten, W & MacKenzie, S 1999, ' Construction and characterization of a common bean bacterial artificial chromosome library ', Plant molecular biology , vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 977-983. (elsevier.com)
  • A bacterial artificial chromosome ( BAC ) is a DNA construct , based on a functional fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid ), used for transforming and cloning in bacteria , usually E. coli . (wikipedia.org)
  • Liu YG, Shirano Y, Fukaki H, Yanai Y, Tasaka M, Tabata S, Shibata D (1999) Complementation of plant mutants with large genomic DNA fragments by a transformation-competent artificial chromosome vector accelerates positional cloning. (springer.com)
  • A modular, positive selection bacterial artificial chromosome vector with multiple cloning sites. (openwetware.org)
  • Herein, we show that the application of two strategies, cloning of the cDNAs into a bacterial artificial chromosome and nuclear expression of RNAs that are typically produced within the cytoplasm, is useful for the engineering of large RNA molecules. (nih.gov)
  • To develop the resources for positional cloning and structural genomic analyses in barley, we constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the cultivar Morex using the cloning enzyme HindIII. (arizona.edu)
  • Reddy SM, Sun A, Khan OA, Lee LF, Lupiani B. Cloning of a very virulent plus, 686 strain of Marek's disease virus as a bacterial artificial chromosome. (uchicago.edu)
  • A Streptomyces artificial chromosomal conjugation vector, pSBAC, was previously successfully applied for precise cloning and tandem integration of a large polyketide tautomycetin (TMC) biosynthetic gene cluster (Nah et al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The reason the cloning vector is called a yeast artificial chromosome has to do with the structure of the vector. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) cloning system is capable of stably propagating large, complex DNA inserts in Escherichia coli. (pasteur.fr)
  • bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) Artificial chromosome vector derived from bacteria used for cloning relatively large DNA fragments. (kumc.edu)
  • A markerless point mutation introduced in the start codon by two-step en passant Red mutagenesis abrogated ORF9 expression and resulted in a dramatic growth defect that was not observed in a revertant virus. (asm.org)
  • The BAC allows the application of bacterial mutagenesis procedures including minimal modifications and markerless approaches. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chromosomes, Artificial Artificial chromosomes are laboratory constructs that contain DNA sequences and that perform the critical functions of natural chromosomes. (bookrags.com)
  • A solution to the problems was the maintenance and modification of virus genomes in bacteria where the accuracy of the bacterial polymerase allows clonal maintenance of viral sequences in E. coli . (hindawi.com)
  • Several new technologies have been developed to alter sequences in BAC DNA within its bacterial host. (openaccessbooks.com)
  • A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is an engineered DNA molecule used to clone DNA sequences in bacterial cells (for example, E. coli). (genome.gov)
  • Upon successful establishment of the infectious BR clone, we modified the full-length clone such that recombination-mediated excision of bacterial sequences can occur upon transfection in eukaryotic cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This self-excision of the bacterial replicon is made possible by a sequence duplication within mini-F sequences and allows recovery of recombinant virus progeny without remaining marker or vector sequences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sixteen distinct sites distributed on all five Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) chromosomes have been tagged using different fluorescent proteins and one of two different bacterial operator-repressor systems: (1) a yellow fluorescent protein-Tet repressor fusion protein bound to tet operator sequences, or (2) a green or red fluorescent protein-Lac repressor fusion protein bound to lac operator sequences. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Using the results of pyrosequencing and assembling, we obtained six 5S rDNA- containing contigs with a total length of 140,417 bp, and two sets (pools) of individual 5S rDNA sequences belonging to separate, but closely located genomic regions on the 5BS chromosome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A linkage map of the sex chromosomes with several molecular and phenotypic markers is available ( 7 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • We used structural genomic resources for Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench to target and develop multiple molecular cytogenetic probes that would provide extensive coverage for a specific chromosome of sorghum. (tamu.edu)
  • A majority of her work has focused on the Australian marsupials and monotremes where her cytogenetic and molecular research on marsupial chromosomes and development of strategies to map genomes has provided important insight into the evolution of mammalian genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This physical map is fully integrated with a genetic linkage map of rice chromosome 10 because each BAC clone is anchored by a genetically mapped restriction fragment length polymorphism marker. (elsevier.com)
  • Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC) have been developed to hold much larger pieces of DNA than a plasmid can. (ubc.ca)
  • Liu Y, Mitsukawa N, Vazquez-Tello A, Whittier RF (1995) Generation of a high-quality P1 library of Arabidopsis suitable for chromosome walking. (springer.com)
  • This animation provides an overview of the techniques involved in making a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library. (yourgenome.org)
  • A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was generated from a derivative of the sequenced E. coli O157:H7 Sakai strain. (frontiersin.org)
  • We have constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of an advanced breeding line of white clover. (aber.ac.uk)
  • To facilitate comparative genomics within Crocodylia and between crocodilians and other archosaurs, we have constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the Australian saltwater crocodile, Crocodylus porosus . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uchicago.edu)
  • Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library of durum wheat. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed and analysed. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • do first online Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: Volume 1 Library Construction, Physical Mapping, and Sequencing to the military Workshop quantum car that which is you a national support name! (benevisions.net)
  • Construction of a bovine bacterial artificial chromosome library. (wcgalp.org)
  • A bacterial artificial chromosome library for the Australian saltwater" by Xueyan Shan, David A. Ray et al. (wvu.edu)
  • The gl locus was identified in a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig by functional genetic complementation in transgenic mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Although multiple karyotypes were reported as normal, a bacterial artificial chromosome array comparative genomic hybridization revealed the presence of a de novo 14.8-Mb mosaic deletion of chromosome 7q31. (aappublications.org)
  • Our FISH mapping effort also revealed the precise genetic position of the centromere on chromosome 10. (elsevier.com)
  • The centromere and NOR were located in a large heterochromatic region that spans approximately 60% of chromosome 1. (tamu.edu)
  • Each chromosome consists of two arms of DNA that are linked by a region known as the centromere. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The target DNA is flanked by the telomere regions that mark the ends of the chromosome, and is interspersed with the centromere region that is vital for replication. (encyclopedia.com)
  • FISH probes revealed that in all cases, save the Hulk, the γ-chromosome was associated with the centromere of the X-chromosome. (ubc.ca)
  • A unique Hind III restriction site was precisely inserted at one of the border regions of the pikromycin biosynthetic gene cluster within the chromosome of Streptomyces venezuelae , followed by site-specific recombination of pSBAC into the flanking region of the pikromycin gene cluster. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic recombination is generally evenly distributed along rice chromosome 10. (elsevier.com)
  • Cosmid End-sequence profiling Fosmid Human artificial chromosome Yeast artificial chromosome O'Connor M, Peifer M, Bender W (June 1989). (wikipedia.org)
  • The yeast artificial chromosome, which is often shortened to YAC, is an artificially constructed system that can undergo replication. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Thus, testing for fetal chromosomal abnormalities in the cells of amniotic fluid using a combination of chromosome G karyotype analysis and the BoBs™ assay should provide more accurate results [ 21 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A chromosome is a structure that occurs within cells and that contains the cell's genetic material. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In prokaryotes, or cells without a nucleus, the chromosome is merely a circle of DNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In eukaryotes, or cells with a distinct nucleus, chromosomes are much more complex in structure. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As the bacterial cells grow and divide, they amplify the BAC DNA, which can then be isolated and used in sequencing DNA. (genome.gov)
  • To define further the region harboring the metastasis suppressor gene, a truncated human chromosome 8 containing this region was transferred into highly metastatic AT6.3 rat prostate cancer cells by microcell-mediated chromosome transfer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This demonstrates that the 60-kb fragment from the human chromosome 8p21-p12 region contains the metastasis suppressor gene for the AT6.3 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To identify metastasis suppressor genes on human chromosomes, several groups have used the refined process of transferring individual human chromosomes into highly metastatic Dunning R-3327 rat prostate cancer cells by microcell-mediated chromosome transfer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To define further the region of the metastasis suppressor gene on human chromosome 8, a truncated human chromosome 8 with the metastasis suppressor activity that was generated with the initial irradiated microcell-mediated chromosome transfer was retransferred into the rat prostate cancer cells by microcell-mediated chromosome transfer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The resultant microcell hybrids were analyzed to determine which portion of human chromosome 8 suppressed the metastatic ability of the rat prostate cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cells lacking GTSE1 have defects in chromosome alignment and spindle positioning as a result of MT instability caused by excess MCAK activity. (rupress.org)
  • Reducing GTSE1 levels in CIN cancer cell lines reduces chromosome missegregation defects, whereas artificially inducing GTSE1 levels in chromosomally stable cells elevates chromosome missegregation and CIN. (rupress.org)
  • Individual homozygous lines and progeny of intercrosses between lines have been used to study various aspects of interphase chromosome organization in root cells of living, untreated seedlings. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The overall findings are consistent with a random and largely static arrangement of interphase chromosomes in nuclei of root cells. (plantphysiol.org)
  • As an alternate technique, bacterial operator-repressor systems combined with fluorescent proteins offer a unique opportunity to visualize fluorescence-tagged loci in nuclei of living, unfixed cells. (plantphysiol.org)
  • We have used these lines to analyze various aspects of interphase chromosome arrangement and movement in root cells of living, untreated seedlings. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Treatment of normal cells with γ-radiation caused a dissociation of the γ- from the X-chromosome. (ubc.ca)
  • XCI leads to equalization of X-linked gene dosage between male and female cells by inactivation of one X chromosome in every female somatic cell 1 . (nature.com)
  • At the blastocyst stage, the inactivated paternal X is reactivated within the pluripotent cells of the inner cell mass (ICM) 4 , while extraembryonic tissues such as the placenta and visceral yolk sac endoderm (VYSE) retain an inactive paternal X chromosome. (nature.com)
  • Upon formation of the epiblast, the cells of the embryo inactivate their maternal or paternal X chromosome (Xm and Xp, respectively) through random X chromosome inactivation (rXCI). (nature.com)
  • Later during development, the inactive X (Xi) chromosome is reactivated in female primordial germ cells (PGCs) to erase the inactive state prior to conception 5 . (nature.com)
  • In addition, rXCI is severely affected upon differentiation of Rnf12 −/− embryonic stem cells (ESCs), while Rnf12 heterozygous ESCs manage to inactivate an X chromosome, indicating that one functional copy of Rnf12 is required to properly initiate rXCI in vitro 9 , 10 . (nature.com)
  • If these elements are spliced into DNA in the proper location and orientation, then a yeast cell will replicate the artificial chromosome along with the other, natural chromosomes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These genes can be activated by spinach or smurf berry treatment (via CpG demethylation) or by exposure to γ- radiation (via physical separation of chromosome γ from X). This suggests a potential for the discovery of additional "super" genes and chromosomes in association with previously defined chromosomes. (ubc.ca)
  • The region of human chromosome 8 retained in each microcell hybrid was determined by a PCR analysis with sequence-tagged site markers, and this analysis placed the metastasis suppressor gene in the interval between D8S2249 and D8S2244 on human chromosome 8p21-p12. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Artificial chromosomes, which harbor hundreds of kilobases of genomic DNA, preserve a large sequence landscape containing most, if not all, regulatory elements controlling the expression of a particular gene. (physiology.org)
  • Purpose: The goal of this work was to test the ability of oligonucleotide-based arrays to reproduce the results of focused bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based arrays used clinically in comparative genomic hybridization experiments to detect constitutional copy number changes in genomic DNA. (nature.com)
  • Most studies so far have used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to visualize interphase chromosomes in nonliving, fixed material (e.g. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Features reported here include distances between transgene alleles, distances between transgene inserts on different chromosomes, distances between transgene inserts on the same chromatin fiber, alignment of homologous chromosomes, and chromatin movement. (plantphysiol.org)
  • bivalent A pair of homologous chromosomes in association as seen at metaphase of the first meiotic division. (kumc.edu)
  • DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. (uchicago.edu)
  • A large piece of DNA can be engineered in a fashion that allows it be propagated as a circular artificial chromosome in bacteria--so-called bacterial artificial chromosome, or BAC. (genome.gov)
  • Because the BAC is much smaller than the endogenous bacterial chromosome, it is straightforward to purify the BAC DNA away from the rest of the bacteria cell's DNA, and thus have the cloned DNA in a purified form. (genome.gov)
  • The origin is where a molecule called DNA polymerase binds and begins to produce a copy of each strand of DNA in the double helix that makes up the chromosome. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A detailed structural organization of two closely located 5S rDNA-tagged genomic regions on the 5BS chromosome of bread wheat has been established. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Especially useful is the quart strain, where the sex chromosomes express different alleles of the lf pigment marker. (pnas.org)
  • In order to facilitate the generation of mutant viruses of varicella-zoster virus (VZV), the agent causing varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles), we generated a full-length infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of the P-Oka strain. (asm.org)
  • strain BH72 chromosome to be directly used in functional analysis and as a part of an Azoarcus sp. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Here we describe the generation of a recombinant clone of RRV strain 17577 (RRV 17577 ) utilizing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology. (elsevier.com)
  • The pachytene chromosome-based FISH mapping shows a superior resolving power compared to the somatic metaphase chromosome-based methods. (elsevier.com)
  • The successful development of multiprobe FISH cocktails suggests that it is feasible to develop chromosome-specific "paints" from genomic resources rather than flow sorting or microdissection and that when applied to pachytene chromatin, such cocktails provide an especially powerful framework for mapping. (tamu.edu)
  • To determine the potential of wild-derived mouse strains for fine QTL mapping, we constructed a haplotype map of a 250-kb region of the t -complex on chromosome 17 containing the Hybrid sterility 1 ( Hst1 ) gene. (genetics.org)
  • The lengths of the haplotype blocks deduced from 36 domesticus chromosomes were in tens of kilobases, suggesting that the wild-derived Mmd strains are suitable for fine interval-specific mapping. (genetics.org)
  • The order of individual BAC-FISH loci along the chromosome was fully concordant to that of marker loci along the linkage map. (tamu.edu)
  • We resequenced 33 loci from up to 80 chromosomes of five mouse (sub)species. (genetics.org)
  • This is the only functional gene in this chromosome segment and maps precisely to the male sex-determining locus. (pnas.org)
  • However, the master regulator encoded by the sex-determining locus ( SD ) on the Y chromosome of most mammalian species, SRY , is not functioning like that in some mammals ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • We also characterized the nurse shark TCRαδ locus with a targeted bacterial artifical chromosome sequencing approach and found that the TCRδ locus houses a complex of V segments from multiple lineages. (jimmunol.org)
  • Utility and performance of bacterial artificial chromosomes-on-beads assays in chromosome analysis of clinical prenatal samples, products of conception and blood samples. (metasystems-international.com)
  • Signals from single-, dual-, and multiprobe BAC-FISH to spreads of mitotic chromosomes and pachytene bivalents were associated with the largest sorghum chromosome, which bears the nucleolus organizing region (NOR). (tamu.edu)
  • Traditional chromosome analyses enable the detection of large genomic alterations, such as triploid, aneusomy, balanced and unbalanced chromosomal rearrangements of at least 3-5 Mb in size, and mosaicism [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, GTSE1 inhibition of MCAK activity regulates the balance of MT stability that determines the fidelity of chromosome alignment, segregation, and chromosomal stability. (rupress.org)
  • Persistent errors in chromosome segregation lead to chromosomal instability (CIN), the increased rate of gain or loss of chromosomes within a cell population. (rupress.org)
  • Partial chromosomal imbalance detection rate was ~64% and KaryoLite BoBs indicated the presence of a ring chromosome in all four cases. (metasystems-international.com)
  • As the yeast cell undergoes rounds of growth and division, the artificial chromosome is replicated as if it were a natural chromosomal constituent of the cell. (encyclopedia.com)
  • banding The differential staining of a chromosome by a variety of techniques that results in a specific pattern of positively and negatively stained bands for each chromosomal pair. (kumc.edu)
  • A method of determining the DNA sequence of a chromosome by extending out from a known region, designing a new sequencing primer to read out from the newly sequenced region and continuing until the desired section of DNA has been sequenced. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • An integrated genetic and physical map of homoeologous chromosomes 12 and 26 in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum L. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human Apolipoprotein B Transgenic Mice Generated with 207- and 145-Kilobase Pair Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. (caltech.edu)
  • DNA methylation is a common epigenetic marker and plays important roles in the regulation of gene expression, genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation, embryonic development, and cancer5. (ubc.ca)
  • In mice, imprinted X chromosome inactivation (iXCI) of the paternal X in the pre-implantation embryo and extraembryonic tissues is followed by X reactivation in the inner cell mass (ICM) of the blastocyst to facilitate initiation of random XCI (rXCI) in all embryonic tissues. (nature.com)
  • Evolution of the eutherian sex chromosomes and the concomitant gradual loss of nearly all ancestral genes from the Y chromosome forced co-evolution of intricate dosage compensation mechanisms including X chromosome inactivation (XCI). (nature.com)
  • Alonso J.M., Stepanova A.N. (2014) Arabidopsis Transformation with Large Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. (springer.com)
  • Bacterial antibiotic resistance cassettes present in the BAC vector backbone allow the selection in E. coli . (hindawi.com)
  • Procedures for the Purification of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) DNA. (prinsep.com)
  • No one supplements free Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: Volume 2 Functional Studies 2004 for mistakes! (artfrees.com)
  • Three links, Union of Christian and Centre Democrats, National Alliance and New Italian Socialist Party, shared to find from the Berlusconi free Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: Volume 2 Functional Studies 2004. (artfrees.com)
  • To overcome these chromatin effects, we have employed a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) as expression vector to obtain stable cell lines suitable for protein production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This antibiotic is a bacteriostatic agent that inhibits protein synthesis by binding to the 23S RNA of the 50S subunit of bacterial ribosomes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These transgenic lines provide tools for in-depth analyses of interphase chromosome organization, expression, and dynamics in living plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In this work, we explore the efficacy of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome based vector applied to production of the constant region of the human IgG1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A Bacterial Artificial Chromosome array is a highly efficient and accurate means of detecting genetic abnormalities responsible for a variety of human maladies, such as Down Syndrome, autism, and cancer. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In October, Solexa announced that Company scientists had sequenced a human Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) on an early laboratory prototype instrument. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Further, last month we announced the successful resequencing of a human bacterial artificial chromosome , which demonstrates that our reversible-terminator chemistry and Clonal Single-Molecule Array(TM) technology can be applied to resequence human DNA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Nasdaq:SLXA) today announced that its scientists have sequenced a human bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), an important milestone demonstrating that Solexa's reversible-terminator chemistry and Clonal Single-Molecule Array(TM) technology can be applied to resequence human DNA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We recently demonstrated that the human chromosome 8p21-p12 region encodes a metastasis suppressor gene for rat prostate cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the present study, we undertook a refinement of the region of the metastasis suppressor gene on human chromosome 8. (aacrjournals.org)