In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.
The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, elements such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, that are required for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance in progeny cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
A characteristic symptom complex.
The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.
Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Congenital conditions of atypical sexual development associated with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions including MONOSOMY; TRISOMY; and MOSAICISM.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.

An assessment of gene prediction accuracy in large DNA sequences. (1/28)

One of the first useful products from the human genome will be a set of predicted genes. Besides its intrinsic scientific interest, the accuracy and completeness of this data set is of considerable importance for human health and medicine. Though progress has been made on computational gene identification in terms of both methods and accuracy evaluation measures, most of the sequence sets in which the programs are tested are short genomic sequences, and there is concern that these accuracy measures may not extrapolate well to larger, more challenging data sets. Given the absence of experimentally verified large genomic data sets, we constructed a semiartificial test set comprising a number of short single-gene genomic sequences with randomly generated intergenic regions. This test set, which should still present an easier problem than real human genomic sequence, mimics the approximately 200kb long BACs being sequenced. In our experiments with these longer genomic sequences, the accuracy of GENSCAN, one of the most accurate ab initio gene prediction programs, dropped significantly, although its sensitivity remained high. Conversely, the accuracy of similarity-based programs, such as GENEWISE, PROCRUSTES, and BLASTX was not affected significantly by the presence of random intergenic sequence, but depended on the strength of the similarity to the protein homolog. As expected, the accuracy dropped if the models were built using more distant homologs, and we were able to quantitatively estimate this decline. However, the specificities of these techniques are still rather good even when the similarity is weak, which is a desirable characteristic for driving expensive follow-up experiments. Our experiments suggest that though gene prediction will improve with every new protein that is discovered and through improvements in the current set of tools, we still have a long way to go before we can decipher the precise exonic structure of every gene in the human genome using purely computational methodology.  (+info)

Efficient male and female germline transmission of a human chromosomal vector in mice. (2/28)

A small accessory chromosome that was mitotically stable in human fibroblasts was transferred into the hprt(-) hamster cell line CH and developed as a human chromosomal vector (HCV) by the introduction of a selectable marker and the 3' end of an HPRT minigene preceded by a loxP sequence. This HCV is stably maintained in the hamster cell line. It consists mainly of alphoid sequences of human chromosome 20 and a fragment of human chromosome region 1p22, containing the tissue factor gene F3. The vector has an active centromere, and telomere sequences are lacking. By transfecting a plasmid containing the 5' end of HPRT and a Cre-encoding plasmid into the HCV(+) hamster cell line, the HPRT minigene was reconstituted by Cre-mediated recombination and expressed by the cells. The HCV was then transferred to male mouse R1-ES cells and it did segregate properly. Chimeras were generated containing the HCV as an independent chromosome in a proportion of the cells. Part of the male and female offspring of the chimeras did contain the HCV. The HCV(+) F1 animals harbored the extra chromosome in >80% of the cells. The HCV was present as an independent chromosome with an active centromere and the human F3 gene was expressed from the HCV in a human-tissue-specific manner. Both male and female F1 mice did transmit the HCV to F2 offspring as an independent chromosome with properties similar to the original vector. This modified small accessory chromosome, thus, shows the properties of a useful chromosomal vector: It segregates stably as an independent chromosome, sequences can be inserted in a controlled way and are expressed from the vector, and the HCV is transmitted through the male and female germline in mice.  (+info)

An efficient method for high-fidelity BAC/PAC retrofitting with a selectable marker for mammalian cell transfection. (3/28)

Large-scale genomic sequencing projects have provided DNA sequence information for many genes, but the biological functions for most of them will only be known through functional studies. Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and P1-derived artificial chromosomes (PACs) are large genomic clones stably maintained in bacteria and are very important in functional studies through transfection because of their large size and stability. Because most BAC or PAC vectors do not have a mammalian selection marker, transfecting mammalian cells with genes cloned in BACs or PACs requires the insertion into the BAC/PAC of a mammalian selectable marker. However, currently available procedures are not satisfactory in efficiency and fidelity. We describe a very simple and efficient procedure that allows one to retrofit dozens of BACs in a day with no detectable deletions or unwanted recombination. We use a BAC/PAC retrofitting vector that, on transformation into competent BAC or PAC strains, will catalyze the specific insertion of itself into BAC/PAC vectors through in vivo cre/loxP site-specific recombination.  (+info)

The Y chromosome in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha has accumulated unique repeat sequences harboring a male-specific gene. (4/28)

The haploid liverwort Marchantia polymorpha has heteromorphic sex chromosomes, an X chromosome in the female and a Y chromosome in the male. We here report on the repetitive structure of the liverwort Y chromosome through the analysis of male-specific P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) clones, pMM4G7 and pMM23-130F12. Several chromosome-specific sequence elements of approximately 70 to 400 nt are combined into larger arrangements, which in turn are assembled into extensive Y chromosome-specific stretches. These repeat sequences contribute 2-3 Mb to the Y chromosome based on the observations of three different approaches: fluorescence in situ hybridization, dot blot hybridization, and the frequency of clones containing the repeat sequences in the genomic library. A novel Y chromosome-specific gene family was found embedded among these repeat sequences. This gene family encodes a putative protein with a RING finger motif and is expressed specifically in male sexual organs. To our knowledge, there have been no other reports for an active Y chromosome-specific gene in plants. The chromosome-specific repeat sequences possibly contribute to determining the identity of the Y chromosome in M. polymorpha as well as to maintaining genes required for male functions, as in mammals such as human.  (+info)

Stable gene expression from a mammalian artificial chromosome. (5/28)

We have investigated the potential of PAC-based vectors as a route to the incorporation of a gene in a mammalian artificial chromosome (MAC). Previously we demonstrated that a PAC (PAC7c5) containing alpha-satellite DNA generated mitotically stable MACs in human cells. To determine whether a functional HPRT gene could be assembled in a MAC, PAC7c5 was co-transfected with a second PAC containing a 140 kb human HPRT gene into HPRT-deficient HT1080 cells. Lines were isolated containing a MAC hybridizing with both alpha-satellite and HPRT probes. The MACs segregated efficiently, associated with kinetochore proteins and stably expressed HPRT message after 60 days without selection. Complementation of the parental HPRT deficiency was confirmed phenotypically by growth on HAT selection. These results suggest that MACs could be further developed for delivering a range of genomic copies of genes into cells and that stable transgene expression can be achieved.  (+info)

Transcript map and complete genomic sequence for the 310 kb region of minimal allele loss on chromosome segment 11p15.5 in non-small-cell lung cancer. (6/28)

Molecular, functional, and clinical analyses strongly suggest that chromosome segment 11p15.5 contains a gene involved in lung cancer pathogenesis. The critical region of allele loss is 310 kb in size. We used our contig of P1-phage artificial chromosome (PAC) clones together with newly identified bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones and the draft human genome sequence to complete a contiguous string of 380 407 bp. Three PAC clones that span the region were used to identify transcripts by exon trapping. Computational gene prediction algorithms were used to query the sequence for potential genes and exons. Screening for expression was performed with tissue-specific and cell line derived mRNA arrays. The region contains the complete SSA/Ro52 and RRM1 genes, exons 7-12 of the GOK gene, and the psirad pseudo-gene. A cluster of six nearly identical genes with an intact open reading frame (ORF) of 585 bp that share 75% identity with the HSPC182 gene was found. In addition, five putative novel genes were identified. Sequence tagged sites (STS) and polymorphic markers were used to screen 117 lung cancer cell lines for homozygous deletions and none were identified. These data provide the basis for the identification of a lung cancer suppressor gene on 11p15.5.  (+info)

Disruption of a novel MFS transporter gene, DIRC2, by a familial renal cell carcinoma-associated t(2;3)(q35;q21). (7/28)

Previously, we described a family with a significantly increased predisposition for renal cell cancer co-segregating with a t(2;3)(q35;q21) chromosomal translocation. Several primary tumors of the clear cell type from different family members were analyzed at a molecular level. Loss of the derivative chromosome 3 was consistently found. In addition, different somatic Von Hippel Lindau (VHL) gene mutations were observed in most of the tumors analyzed, even within the same patient. Based on these results a multistep tumorigenesis model was proposed in which (non-disjunctional) loss of the derivative chromosome 3 represents an early event and somatic mutation of the VHL gene represents a late event related to tumor progression. More recently, however, we noted that these two anomalies were absent in at least one early-stage tumor sample that we tested. Similar results were obtained in another family with renal cell cancer and t(3;6)(q12;q15), thus suggesting that another genetic event may precede these two oncogenetic steps. We speculate that deregulation of a gene(s) located at or near the translocation breakpoint may act as such. In order to identify such genes, a detailed physical map encompassing the 3q21 breakpoint region was constructed. Through a subsequent positional cloning effort we found that this breakpoint targets a hitherto unidentified gene, designated DIRC2 (disrupted in renal cancer 2). Computer predictions of the putative DIRC2 protein showed significant homology to different members of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of transporters. Based on additional DIRC2 expression and mutation analyses, we propose that the observed gene disruption may result in haplo-insufficiency and, through this mechanism, in the onset of tumor growth.  (+info)

The use of chromosome-based vectors for animal transgenesis. (8/28)

This article summarizes our efforts to use chromosome-based vectors for animal transgenesis, which may have a benefit for overcoming the size constraints of cloned transgenes in conventional techniques. Since the initial trial for introducing naturally occurring human chromosome fragments (hCFs) with large and complex immunogulobulin (Ig) loci into mice we have obtained several lines of trans-chromosomic (Tc) mice with transmittable hCFs. As expected the normal tissue-specific expression of introduced human genes was reproduced in them by inclusion of essential remote regulatory elements. Recent development of 'chromosome cloning' technique that enable construction of human artificial chromosomes (HACs) containing a defined chromosomal region should prevent the introduction of additional genes other than genes of interest and thus enhance the utility of chromosome vector system. Using this technique a panel of HACs harboring inserts ranging in size from 1.5 to 10 Mb from three human chromosomes (hChr2, 7, 22) has been constructed. Tc animals containing the HACs may be valuable not only as a powerful tool for functional genomics but also as an in vivo model to study therapeutic gene delivery by HACs.  (+info)

Gene disruption by targeted integration of transfected constructs becomes increasingly popular for studies of gene function. The chicken B cell line DT40 has been widely used as a model for gene knock-outs due to its high targeted integration activity. Disruption of multiple genes and complementation of the phenotypes is, however, restricted by the number of available selectable marker genes. It is therefore highly desirable to recycle the selectable markers using a site-specific recombination system like Cre/loxP. We constructed three plasmid vectors (neoR, puroR and bsr), which carry selectable marker genes flanked by two different mutant loxP sites. After stable transfection, the marker genes can be excised from the genome by transient induction of Cre recombinase expression. This excision converts the two mutant loxP sites to an inactive double-mutant loxP. Furthermore we constructed a versatile expression vector to clone cDNA expression cassettes between mutant loxP sites. This vector can also be
Pataus Syndrome is also known as Trisomy 13. It is a chromosome-based, rare genetic disorder in which the patient has an extra copy of chromosome 13 in some or all of the cells in the body. Normally the baby should have two copies of the chromosome but in this case, there are three. The presence of the extra chromosome causes abnormal development of the fetus, often resulting in a miscarriage or stillbirth.
Concern over intersex athletes, and the possibility that men might masquerade as women, led to gender testing in track and field. From 1968 until the 1990s, all women in international competition were tested to ensure they had two X chromosomes. Those that didnt were banished. María José Martínez-Patiño was a Spanish hurdler in the eighties. When she discovered that she had a Y chromosome, she decided to challenge the established rules. She knew she was a woman and that she deserved to be able to compete as one. She found medical and scientific allies who convinced sports federations that her AIS posed no threat to other competitors, though unfortunately too late for her to compete in the Olympics.. After the Patino affair, the IAAF and IOC discontinued chromosome-based gender testing, but still tested women sporadically on the basis of suspicion until the Caster Semenya case rocked the sports world in 2009. Semenya exploded onto the scene that year as an 18-year-old, winning the 800 meter ...
The chromosome-based HPP aims to expand our understanding of the human proteome with a focus on expanding the understanding of each and every gene on each chromosome. For the most complete and up-to-date information available, visit the C-HPP portal.. ...
Note : similarity to COG0745 Response regulators consisting of a CheY-like receiver domain and a winged-helix DNA-binding domain(Evalue: 9E-49 ...
Several Kansas State University researchers were essential in helping scientists assemble a draft of a genetic blueprint of bread wheat, also known as common wheat. The food plant is grown on more than 531 million acres around the world and produces nearly 700 million tons of food each year.The International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium, which also includes faculty at Kansas State University, recently published a chromosome-based draft sequence of wheats genetic code, which is called a genome.
A Genetic Variant in the Distal Enhancer Region of the Human Renin Gene Affects Renin Expression. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
genes - MedHelps genes Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for genes. Find genes information, treatments for genes and genes symptoms.
Here, Mahler shows the acuteness of her observation and the creativity of her formulation. In seeing the various grades of space, we will appreciate how accurate this formulation is. She is stating here that there are two kinds of body-image, or in her words, the body ego contains two kinds of self-representations. One body-image is related to the outside, in ...
Dr. William F. Gadbois has a 3.0/5 rating from patients. Visit RateMDs for Dr. William F. Gadbois reviews, contact info, practice history, affiliated hospitals & more.
Naturally elaborated membrane bleb fractions BI and BII of Neisseria gonorrhoeae contain both linear and circular DNAs. Because little is known about the interactions between DNA and blebs, studies were initiated to identify specific proteins that bind DNA in elaborated membrane blebs. Western immunoblots of whole-cell and bleb proteins from transformation-competent and DNA-uptake-deficient (dud) mutants were probed with single- or double-stranded gonococcal DNA, pBR322, or synthetic DNA oligomers containing intact or altered gonococcal transformation uptake sequences. The specificity and sensitivity of a nonradioactive DNA-binding protein assay was evaluated, and the assay was used to visualize DNA-protein complexes on the blots. The complexes were then characterized by molecular mass, DNA-binding specificity, and expression in bleb fractions. The assay effectively detected blotted DNA-binding proteins. At least 17 gonococcal DNA-binding proteins were identified; unique subsets occurred in BI ...
An ordered draft sequence of the 17-gigabase hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genome has been produced by sequencing isolated chromosome arms. We have annotated 124,201 gene loci distributed nearly evenly across the homeologous chromosomes and subgenomes. Comparative gene analysis of wheat subgenomes and extant diploid and tetraploid wheat relatives showed that high sequence similarity and structural conservation are retained, with limited gene loss, after polyploidization. However, across the genomes there was evidence of dynamic gene gain, loss, and duplication since the divergence of the wheat lineages. A high degree of transcriptional autonomy and no global dominance was found for the subgenomes. These insights into the genome biology of a polyploid crop provide a springboard for faster gene isolation, rapid genetic marker development, and precise breeding to meet the needs of increasing food demand worldwide. ...
Expression of the renin gene is required to maintain normal morphological and physiological identity of renal juxtaglomerular (JG) cells, yet the mechanisms regulating renin gene transcription remain elusive. We re-examined data from Brunskill et. al (JASN 22:2213, 2011), investigating genome-wide gene expression in JG and other renal cell types. Based on our previous data implicating nuclear receptors (RAR, RXR, VDR, PPARG, Nr2f2 and Nr2f6) in the regulation of mouse and human renin gene expression, we focused our analysis on the expression of genes encoding the 48 nuclear hormone receptors and their co-regulation with renin. Several nuclear receptors have an expression pattern emulating that of renin, that is, they were similarly enriched in JG cells but not in other cell types. These include Esr1, Nr1h4, Ppara, VDR, Nr1i2, Ppard, Hnf4g, Nr1h3, Thrb, Hnf4a, Esrrg, Nr4a3, Nr3c2, and Ar. We tested the hypothesis that a nuclear receptor that is co-regulated with renin may participate in renin ...
Following manuscript should be referred in the publication on a scientific journal.1. Liu YG, Shirano Y, Fukaki H, Yanai Y, Tasaka M, Tabata S, Shibata D. Complementation of plant mutants with large genomic DNA fragments by atransformation-competent artificial chromosome vector accelerates positionalcloning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 May 25;96(11):6535-40. PubMed PMID:10339623 ...
Hi there, are you using an older version of Internet Explorer? The KOMP Phenotyping website makes use of modern web technologies that may be slow or quirky in your current browser. We recommend upgrading to any of the following browsers for a better experience: Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, or Internet Explorer 9.. CCBot/2.0 ( ...
Hi there, are you using an older version of Internet Explorer? The KOMP Phenotyping website makes use of modern web technologies that may be slow or quirky in your current browser. We recommend upgrading to any of the following browsers for a better experience: Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, or Internet Explorer 9.. CCBot/2.0 ( ...
GenomePlex® Single Cell WGA Kit CGH Data. The GenomePlex Single Cell WGA (WGA-4) provides accurate and unbiased amplification that preserves the original genome representation.
Caltech_documentation]] __TOC__ ==Geneace dump from Hinxton== Information for gene, variation, clone, strain, rearrangement, and laboratory are provided in a nightly json dump from Hinxton. The gene information is discussed [[WBGene_information_and_status_pipeline , over here]]. This current page outlines the processing of all non gene information supplied through the dump. /home/postgres/work/pgpopulation/obo_oa_ontologies/geneace/,br> ,pre> For variations: -populates obo_name/data_,datatype> tables where ,datatype> is variation, clone, strain, or rearrangement -adds any WBVarID not in the geneace nightly dump but on obo_tempfile at /home/azurebrd/public_html/cgi-bin/data/obo_tempfile and -compares WBVar to Public_name mapping in both files by both public_name and WBVar, emails curator (Karen) if its different. The curator needs to edit the obo_tempfile to resolve the differences, otherwise an email will continue to be sent. -NOTE: objects added to ...
Bioconductor version: 3.0 Dimension Reduction for Array CGH Data with Minimal Information Loss. Author: Sjoerd Vosse & Mark van de Wiel Maintainer: Sjoerd Vosse ,info at, ...
QTL mapping is an important step in gene fine mapping, map-based cloning, and the efficient use of gene information in molecular breeding. Questions are frequently met and asked in the application of QTL mapping in practical ...
Figure D is a screen shot of the web interface of the Genomic similarity search tool constructed with the Ferret toolkit. Each row shows one similar gene, its gene/ORF names, link to the genes information, its distance to the query gene, and its colored expression visualization. The figure shows the results of searching gene YHL011C. ...
Gene Information This gene encodes a protein that contains leucine-rich repeats (LRR) at its amino terminus and that is known to be involved in ligand binding. The carboxyl terminus may act as a membrane anchor. Identified structural elements suggest that the encoded protein resembles a receptor. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008]. ...
Gene Information This gene encodes a protein kinase activated by double-stranded RNA which mediates the effects of interferon in response to viral infection. Mutations in this gene have been associated with dystonia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq Nov 2008]. ...
A M Snijders, N Nowak, R Segraves, S Blackwood, N Brown, J Conroy, G Hamilton, A K Hindle, B Huey, K Kimura, S Law, K Myambo, J Palmer, B Ylstra, J P Yue, J W Gray, A N Jain, D Pinkel & D G Albertson , Assembly of microarrays for genome-wide measurement of DNA copy number, Nature Genetics 29, pp 263 - 264 (2001) Brief ...
The primary structure of human renin precursor has been deduced from its cDNA sequence. A library of cDNA clones was constructed from human kidney poly(A)+ RNA by applying the vector/primer method of Okayama and Berg. The library was screened for human renin sequences by hybridization with the previously cloned mouse renin cDNA. Of the 240,000 colonies screened, 35 colonies that were positive for hybridization were isolated. Two recombinant plasmids containing long inserts of about 1,300 and 1,600 base pairs were selected for sequence analysis. The amino acid sequence predicted from the cDNA sequence shows that the human renin precursor consists of 406 amino acids with a pre and a pro segment carrying 20 and 46 amino acids, respectively. A high degree of sequence homology was found upon comparison of the mouse and human renins. Close similarities were also observed in the primary structures of renin and aspartyl proteinases that have known three-dimensional structures, suggesting a similar ...
Subject: Nomenclature and Tact. Gentlesophs,. Please remain aware that here at the Nepenene Somatic Clinic a majority of our clients are from out of town, including many from polities where enhancement is not, as it is in Imperial space, thoroughly pervasive; baselines are not rare to the point of nonexistence; and, indeed, the use of biotechnology is considered with varying degrees of caution, skepticism, and even aversion.. As such, when explaining the function of artificial chromosomes and the fertility-preserving function of the acc3BE complex to our clients, be sure always to refer to its operation by its proper technical name, baselining excision, and not, whatever the current chic snark may be at other augmenteries, as bestiality enable.. A certain junior attendings slip of the tongue has already required me to calm down and make contractual concessions to one offended client this month, and I do not care to do so again.. Am I clear?. Doctor AGATTACCATTAGGCG, EFGc, IRCGE, IFNS ...
MICER is a method developed by Allan Bradley. It consists of four sets of genomic clones that contain a loxP site in either orientation site and either the proximal or the distal half of a HPRT mini gene. After Cre mediated recombination between the loxP sites of two different MICER clones a complete HPRT mini gene is reconstituted and one can select for the Cre induced alteration of the genome. If the two loxP sites are located within the same chromosome and have the same orientation one will end up with a deletion of the sequences located between the loxP sites. If the loxP sites are inversely orientated Cre mediated recombination will induce an inversion of the sequences between the two loxP sites (it should be noticed though, that without selection prolonged presence of Cre can lead to a reversion of the fragment). If the loxP sites are situated on different chromosomes Cre mediated recombination will lead to reciprocal translocation between the two chromosomes, which is indeed the situation ...
View Notes - chapter 7 from BIOL 2051 at LSU. Chapter 7- Genomes and Chromosomes *Read this chapter* Genetics Molecule of heredity Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Gene Information in
The Office of Research at Wichita State University in Wichita , Kansas serves as an axis of research collaboration for Wichita State University. Research, public service and sponsored programs help fulfill WSUs diverse mission. Sponsored programs are scholarly, professional and creative activities that university personnel conduct with support from external funding such as grants, contracts and cooperative agreements.
Medical definition of bacterial artificial chromosome: a genetically engineered bacterial chromosome that is used as a vector to clone DNA segments, …
FRT flanked, Pro and Euk. Neomycin Selection Cassette plus loxP site(FRT-PGK-gb2-neo-FRT-loxP) from Gene Bridges GmbH,The with a eukaryotic promoter (PGK) for expression of n,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
The LIS team continue to introduce a new look to the site and a bit of new functionality in the next few months, hopefully making the Legume Information System more useful in your work and more comfortable to use. In the works is a gene information resource that encourages you to provide annotation and comments.. Ideas and feedback?. « Recent News. ...

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