In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.
The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, elements such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, that are required for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance in progeny cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
A characteristic symptom complex.
The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.
Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Congenital conditions of atypical sexual development associated with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions including MONOSOMY; TRISOMY; and MOSAICISM.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.

An assessment of gene prediction accuracy in large DNA sequences. (1/28)

One of the first useful products from the human genome will be a set of predicted genes. Besides its intrinsic scientific interest, the accuracy and completeness of this data set is of considerable importance for human health and medicine. Though progress has been made on computational gene identification in terms of both methods and accuracy evaluation measures, most of the sequence sets in which the programs are tested are short genomic sequences, and there is concern that these accuracy measures may not extrapolate well to larger, more challenging data sets. Given the absence of experimentally verified large genomic data sets, we constructed a semiartificial test set comprising a number of short single-gene genomic sequences with randomly generated intergenic regions. This test set, which should still present an easier problem than real human genomic sequence, mimics the approximately 200kb long BACs being sequenced. In our experiments with these longer genomic sequences, the accuracy of GENSCAN, one of the most accurate ab initio gene prediction programs, dropped significantly, although its sensitivity remained high. Conversely, the accuracy of similarity-based programs, such as GENEWISE, PROCRUSTES, and BLASTX was not affected significantly by the presence of random intergenic sequence, but depended on the strength of the similarity to the protein homolog. As expected, the accuracy dropped if the models were built using more distant homologs, and we were able to quantitatively estimate this decline. However, the specificities of these techniques are still rather good even when the similarity is weak, which is a desirable characteristic for driving expensive follow-up experiments. Our experiments suggest that though gene prediction will improve with every new protein that is discovered and through improvements in the current set of tools, we still have a long way to go before we can decipher the precise exonic structure of every gene in the human genome using purely computational methodology.  (+info)

Efficient male and female germline transmission of a human chromosomal vector in mice. (2/28)

A small accessory chromosome that was mitotically stable in human fibroblasts was transferred into the hprt(-) hamster cell line CH and developed as a human chromosomal vector (HCV) by the introduction of a selectable marker and the 3' end of an HPRT minigene preceded by a loxP sequence. This HCV is stably maintained in the hamster cell line. It consists mainly of alphoid sequences of human chromosome 20 and a fragment of human chromosome region 1p22, containing the tissue factor gene F3. The vector has an active centromere, and telomere sequences are lacking. By transfecting a plasmid containing the 5' end of HPRT and a Cre-encoding plasmid into the HCV(+) hamster cell line, the HPRT minigene was reconstituted by Cre-mediated recombination and expressed by the cells. The HCV was then transferred to male mouse R1-ES cells and it did segregate properly. Chimeras were generated containing the HCV as an independent chromosome in a proportion of the cells. Part of the male and female offspring of the chimeras did contain the HCV. The HCV(+) F1 animals harbored the extra chromosome in >80% of the cells. The HCV was present as an independent chromosome with an active centromere and the human F3 gene was expressed from the HCV in a human-tissue-specific manner. Both male and female F1 mice did transmit the HCV to F2 offspring as an independent chromosome with properties similar to the original vector. This modified small accessory chromosome, thus, shows the properties of a useful chromosomal vector: It segregates stably as an independent chromosome, sequences can be inserted in a controlled way and are expressed from the vector, and the HCV is transmitted through the male and female germline in mice.  (+info)

An efficient method for high-fidelity BAC/PAC retrofitting with a selectable marker for mammalian cell transfection. (3/28)

Large-scale genomic sequencing projects have provided DNA sequence information for many genes, but the biological functions for most of them will only be known through functional studies. Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and P1-derived artificial chromosomes (PACs) are large genomic clones stably maintained in bacteria and are very important in functional studies through transfection because of their large size and stability. Because most BAC or PAC vectors do not have a mammalian selection marker, transfecting mammalian cells with genes cloned in BACs or PACs requires the insertion into the BAC/PAC of a mammalian selectable marker. However, currently available procedures are not satisfactory in efficiency and fidelity. We describe a very simple and efficient procedure that allows one to retrofit dozens of BACs in a day with no detectable deletions or unwanted recombination. We use a BAC/PAC retrofitting vector that, on transformation into competent BAC or PAC strains, will catalyze the specific insertion of itself into BAC/PAC vectors through in vivo cre/loxP site-specific recombination.  (+info)

The Y chromosome in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha has accumulated unique repeat sequences harboring a male-specific gene. (4/28)

The haploid liverwort Marchantia polymorpha has heteromorphic sex chromosomes, an X chromosome in the female and a Y chromosome in the male. We here report on the repetitive structure of the liverwort Y chromosome through the analysis of male-specific P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) clones, pMM4G7 and pMM23-130F12. Several chromosome-specific sequence elements of approximately 70 to 400 nt are combined into larger arrangements, which in turn are assembled into extensive Y chromosome-specific stretches. These repeat sequences contribute 2-3 Mb to the Y chromosome based on the observations of three different approaches: fluorescence in situ hybridization, dot blot hybridization, and the frequency of clones containing the repeat sequences in the genomic library. A novel Y chromosome-specific gene family was found embedded among these repeat sequences. This gene family encodes a putative protein with a RING finger motif and is expressed specifically in male sexual organs. To our knowledge, there have been no other reports for an active Y chromosome-specific gene in plants. The chromosome-specific repeat sequences possibly contribute to determining the identity of the Y chromosome in M. polymorpha as well as to maintaining genes required for male functions, as in mammals such as human.  (+info)

Stable gene expression from a mammalian artificial chromosome. (5/28)

We have investigated the potential of PAC-based vectors as a route to the incorporation of a gene in a mammalian artificial chromosome (MAC). Previously we demonstrated that a PAC (PAC7c5) containing alpha-satellite DNA generated mitotically stable MACs in human cells. To determine whether a functional HPRT gene could be assembled in a MAC, PAC7c5 was co-transfected with a second PAC containing a 140 kb human HPRT gene into HPRT-deficient HT1080 cells. Lines were isolated containing a MAC hybridizing with both alpha-satellite and HPRT probes. The MACs segregated efficiently, associated with kinetochore proteins and stably expressed HPRT message after 60 days without selection. Complementation of the parental HPRT deficiency was confirmed phenotypically by growth on HAT selection. These results suggest that MACs could be further developed for delivering a range of genomic copies of genes into cells and that stable transgene expression can be achieved.  (+info)

Transcript map and complete genomic sequence for the 310 kb region of minimal allele loss on chromosome segment 11p15.5 in non-small-cell lung cancer. (6/28)

Molecular, functional, and clinical analyses strongly suggest that chromosome segment 11p15.5 contains a gene involved in lung cancer pathogenesis. The critical region of allele loss is 310 kb in size. We used our contig of P1-phage artificial chromosome (PAC) clones together with newly identified bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones and the draft human genome sequence to complete a contiguous string of 380 407 bp. Three PAC clones that span the region were used to identify transcripts by exon trapping. Computational gene prediction algorithms were used to query the sequence for potential genes and exons. Screening for expression was performed with tissue-specific and cell line derived mRNA arrays. The region contains the complete SSA/Ro52 and RRM1 genes, exons 7-12 of the GOK gene, and the psirad pseudo-gene. A cluster of six nearly identical genes with an intact open reading frame (ORF) of 585 bp that share 75% identity with the HSPC182 gene was found. In addition, five putative novel genes were identified. Sequence tagged sites (STS) and polymorphic markers were used to screen 117 lung cancer cell lines for homozygous deletions and none were identified. These data provide the basis for the identification of a lung cancer suppressor gene on 11p15.5.  (+info)

Disruption of a novel MFS transporter gene, DIRC2, by a familial renal cell carcinoma-associated t(2;3)(q35;q21). (7/28)

Previously, we described a family with a significantly increased predisposition for renal cell cancer co-segregating with a t(2;3)(q35;q21) chromosomal translocation. Several primary tumors of the clear cell type from different family members were analyzed at a molecular level. Loss of the derivative chromosome 3 was consistently found. In addition, different somatic Von Hippel Lindau (VHL) gene mutations were observed in most of the tumors analyzed, even within the same patient. Based on these results a multistep tumorigenesis model was proposed in which (non-disjunctional) loss of the derivative chromosome 3 represents an early event and somatic mutation of the VHL gene represents a late event related to tumor progression. More recently, however, we noted that these two anomalies were absent in at least one early-stage tumor sample that we tested. Similar results were obtained in another family with renal cell cancer and t(3;6)(q12;q15), thus suggesting that another genetic event may precede these two oncogenetic steps. We speculate that deregulation of a gene(s) located at or near the translocation breakpoint may act as such. In order to identify such genes, a detailed physical map encompassing the 3q21 breakpoint region was constructed. Through a subsequent positional cloning effort we found that this breakpoint targets a hitherto unidentified gene, designated DIRC2 (disrupted in renal cancer 2). Computer predictions of the putative DIRC2 protein showed significant homology to different members of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of transporters. Based on additional DIRC2 expression and mutation analyses, we propose that the observed gene disruption may result in haplo-insufficiency and, through this mechanism, in the onset of tumor growth.  (+info)

The use of chromosome-based vectors for animal transgenesis. (8/28)

This article summarizes our efforts to use chromosome-based vectors for animal transgenesis, which may have a benefit for overcoming the size constraints of cloned transgenes in conventional techniques. Since the initial trial for introducing naturally occurring human chromosome fragments (hCFs) with large and complex immunogulobulin (Ig) loci into mice we have obtained several lines of trans-chromosomic (Tc) mice with transmittable hCFs. As expected the normal tissue-specific expression of introduced human genes was reproduced in them by inclusion of essential remote regulatory elements. Recent development of 'chromosome cloning' technique that enable construction of human artificial chromosomes (HACs) containing a defined chromosomal region should prevent the introduction of additional genes other than genes of interest and thus enhance the utility of chromosome vector system. Using this technique a panel of HACs harboring inserts ranging in size from 1.5 to 10 Mb from three human chromosomes (hChr2, 7, 22) has been constructed. Tc animals containing the HACs may be valuable not only as a powerful tool for functional genomics but also as an in vivo model to study therapeutic gene delivery by HACs.  (+info)

Gene disruption by targeted integration of transfected constructs becomes increasingly popular for studies of gene function. The chicken B cell line DT40 has been widely used as a model for gene knock-outs due to its high targeted integration activity. Disruption of multiple genes and complementation of the phenotypes is, however, restricted by the number of available selectable marker genes. It is therefore highly desirable to recycle the selectable markers using a site-specific recombination system like Cre/loxP. We constructed three plasmid vectors (neoR, puroR and bsr), which carry selectable marker genes flanked by two different mutant loxP sites. After stable transfection, the marker genes can be excised from the genome by transient induction of Cre recombinase expression. This excision converts the two mutant loxP sites to an inactive double-mutant loxP. Furthermore we constructed a versatile expression vector to clone cDNA expression cassettes between mutant loxP sites. This vector can also be
Pataus Syndrome is also known as Trisomy 13. It is a chromosome-based, rare genetic disorder in which the patient has an extra copy of chromosome 13 in some or all of the cells in the body. Normally the baby should have two copies of the chromosome but in this case, there are three. The presence of the extra chromosome causes abnormal development of the fetus, often resulting in a miscarriage or stillbirth.
The chromosome-based HPP aims to expand our understanding of the human proteome with a focus on expanding the understanding of each and every gene on each chromosome. For the most complete and up-to-date information available, visit the C-HPP portal.. ...
Note : similarity to COG0745 Response regulators consisting of a CheY-like receiver domain and a winged-helix DNA-binding domain(Evalue: 9E-49 ...
A Genetic Variant in the Distal Enhancer Region of the Human Renin Gene Affects Renin Expression. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
genes - MedHelps genes Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for genes. Find genes information, treatments for genes and genes symptoms.
Here, Mahler shows the acuteness of her observation and the creativity of her formulation. In seeing the various grades of space, we will appreciate how accurate this formulation is. She is stating here that there are two kinds of body-image, or in her words, the body ego contains two kinds of self-representations. One body-image is related to the outside, in ...
Dr. William F. Gadbois has a 3.0/5 rating from patients. Visit RateMDs for Dr. William F. Gadbois reviews, contact info, practice history, affiliated hospitals & more.
Naturally elaborated membrane bleb fractions BI and BII of Neisseria gonorrhoeae contain both linear and circular DNAs. Because little is known about the interactions between DNA and blebs, studies were initiated to identify specific proteins that bind DNA in elaborated membrane blebs. Western immunoblots of whole-cell and bleb proteins from transformation-competent and DNA-uptake-deficient (dud) mutants were probed with single- or double-stranded gonococcal DNA, pBR322, or synthetic DNA oligomers containing intact or altered gonococcal transformation uptake sequences. The specificity and sensitivity of a nonradioactive DNA-binding protein assay was evaluated, and the assay was used to visualize DNA-protein complexes on the blots. The complexes were then characterized by molecular mass, DNA-binding specificity, and expression in bleb fractions. The assay effectively detected blotted DNA-binding proteins. At least 17 gonococcal DNA-binding proteins were identified; unique subsets occurred in BI ...
An ordered draft sequence of the 17-gigabase hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genome has been produced by sequencing isolated chromosome arms. We have annotated 124,201 gene loci distributed nearly evenly across the homeologous chromosomes and subgenomes. Comparative gene analysis of wheat subgenomes and extant diploid and tetraploid wheat relatives showed that high sequence similarity and structural conservation are retained, with limited gene loss, after polyploidization. However, across the genomes there was evidence of dynamic gene gain, loss, and duplication since the divergence of the wheat lineages. A high degree of transcriptional autonomy and no global dominance was found for the subgenomes. These insights into the genome biology of a polyploid crop provide a springboard for faster gene isolation, rapid genetic marker development, and precise breeding to meet the needs of increasing food demand worldwide. ...
Expression of the renin gene is required to maintain normal morphological and physiological identity of renal juxtaglomerular (JG) cells, yet the mechanisms regulating renin gene transcription remain elusive. We re-examined data from Brunskill et. al (JASN 22:2213, 2011), investigating genome-wide gene expression in JG and other renal cell types. Based on our previous data implicating nuclear receptors (RAR, RXR, VDR, PPARG, Nr2f2 and Nr2f6) in the regulation of mouse and human renin gene expression, we focused our analysis on the expression of genes encoding the 48 nuclear hormone receptors and their co-regulation with renin. Several nuclear receptors have an expression pattern emulating that of renin, that is, they were similarly enriched in JG cells but not in other cell types. These include Esr1, Nr1h4, Ppara, VDR, Nr1i2, Ppard, Hnf4g, Nr1h3, Thrb, Hnf4a, Esrrg, Nr4a3, Nr3c2, and Ar. We tested the hypothesis that a nuclear receptor that is co-regulated with renin may participate in renin ...
Following manuscript should be referred in the publication on a scientific journal.1. Liu YG, Shirano Y, Fukaki H, Yanai Y, Tasaka M, Tabata S, Shibata D. Complementation of plant mutants with large genomic DNA fragments by atransformation-competent artificial chromosome vector accelerates positionalcloning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 May 25;96(11):6535-40. PubMed PMID:10339623 ...
Hi there, are you using an older version of Internet Explorer? The KOMP Phenotyping website makes use of modern web technologies that may be slow or quirky in your current browser. We recommend upgrading to any of the following browsers for a better experience: Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, or Internet Explorer 9.. CCBot/2.0 ( ...
GenomePlex® Single Cell WGA Kit CGH Data. The GenomePlex Single Cell WGA (WGA-4) provides accurate and unbiased amplification that preserves the original genome representation.
Caltech_documentation]] __TOC__ ==Geneace dump from Hinxton== Information for gene, variation, clone, strain, rearrangement, and laboratory are provided in a nightly json dump from Hinxton. The gene information is discussed [[WBGene_information_and_status_pipeline , over here]]. This current page outlines the processing of all non gene information supplied through the dump. /home/postgres/work/pgpopulation/obo_oa_ontologies/geneace/,br> ,pre> For variations: -populates obo_name/data_,datatype> tables where ,datatype> is variation, clone, strain, or rearrangement -adds any WBVarID not in the geneace nightly dump but on obo_tempfile at /home/azurebrd/public_html/cgi-bin/data/obo_tempfile and -compares WBVar to Public_name mapping in both files by both public_name and WBVar, emails curator (Karen) if its different. The curator needs to edit the obo_tempfile to resolve the differences, otherwise an email will continue to be sent. -NOTE: objects added to ...
QTL mapping is an important step in gene fine mapping, map-based cloning, and the efficient use of gene information in molecular breeding. Questions are frequently met and asked in the application of QTL mapping in practical ...
Figure D is a screen shot of the web interface of the Genomic similarity search tool constructed with the Ferret toolkit. Each row shows one similar gene, its gene/ORF names, link to the genes information, its distance to the query gene, and its colored expression visualization. The figure shows the results of searching gene YHL011C. ...
Gene Information This gene encodes a protein kinase activated by double-stranded RNA which mediates the effects of interferon in response to viral infection. Mutations in this gene have been associated with dystonia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq Nov 2008]. ...
A M Snijders, N Nowak, R Segraves, S Blackwood, N Brown, J Conroy, G Hamilton, A K Hindle, B Huey, K Kimura, S Law, K Myambo, J Palmer, B Ylstra, J P Yue, J W Gray, A N Jain, D Pinkel & D G Albertson , Assembly of microarrays for genome-wide measurement of DNA copy number, Nature Genetics 29, pp 263 - 264 (2001) Brief ...
The primary structure of human renin precursor has been deduced from its cDNA sequence. A library of cDNA clones was constructed from human kidney poly(A)+ RNA by applying the vector/primer method of Okayama and Berg. The library was screened for human renin sequences by hybridization with the previously cloned mouse renin cDNA. Of the 240,000 colonies screened, 35 colonies that were positive for hybridization were isolated. Two recombinant plasmids containing long inserts of about 1,300 and 1,600 base pairs were selected for sequence analysis. The amino acid sequence predicted from the cDNA sequence shows that the human renin precursor consists of 406 amino acids with a pre and a pro segment carrying 20 and 46 amino acids, respectively. A high degree of sequence homology was found upon comparison of the mouse and human renins. Close similarities were also observed in the primary structures of renin and aspartyl proteinases that have known three-dimensional structures, suggesting a similar ...
MICER is a method developed by Allan Bradley. It consists of four sets of genomic clones that contain a loxP site in either orientation site and either the proximal or the distal half of a HPRT mini gene. After Cre mediated recombination between the loxP sites of two different MICER clones a complete HPRT mini gene is reconstituted and one can select for the Cre induced alteration of the genome. If the two loxP sites are located within the same chromosome and have the same orientation one will end up with a deletion of the sequences located between the loxP sites. If the loxP sites are inversely orientated Cre mediated recombination will induce an inversion of the sequences between the two loxP sites (it should be noticed though, that without selection prolonged presence of Cre can lead to a reversion of the fragment). If the loxP sites are situated on different chromosomes Cre mediated recombination will lead to reciprocal translocation between the two chromosomes, which is indeed the situation ...
View Notes - chapter 7 from BIOL 2051 at LSU. Chapter 7- Genomes and Chromosomes *Read this chapter* Genetics Molecule of heredity Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Gene Information in
Gene Information This gene encodes a protein belonging to ubiE/COQ5 methyltransferase family. The gene is deleted in Williams syndrome a multisystem developmental disorder caused by the deletion of contiguous genes at 7q11.22-q11.23. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008]. ...
The Office of Research at Wichita State University in Wichita , Kansas serves as an axis of research collaboration for Wichita State University. Research, public service and sponsored programs help fulfill WSUs diverse mission. Sponsored programs are scholarly, professional and creative activities that university personnel conduct with support from external funding such as grants, contracts and cooperative agreements.
Medical definition of bacterial artificial chromosome: a genetically engineered bacterial chromosome that is used as a vector to clone DNA segments, …
FRT flanked, Pro and Euk. Neomycin Selection Cassette plus loxP site(FRT-PGK-gb2-neo-FRT-loxP) from Gene Bridges GmbH,The with a eukaryotic promoter (PGK) for expression of n,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
The LIS team continue to introduce a new look to the site and a bit of new functionality in the next few months, hopefully making the Legume Information System more useful in your work and more comfortable to use. In the works is a gene information resource that encourages you to provide annotation and comments.. Ideas and feedback?. « Recent News. ...
In Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. Ed P. Chatterjee, In Tech Open Access Publisher, Croatia, p1-22. http://www.canberratimes. ... Deakin, J, Koina, E, Waters, P et al 2008, 'Physical map of two tammar wallaby chromosomes: a strategy for mapping in non-model ... Deakin, J.E. and Graves, J.A.M. (2010). Mapping genes on tammar wallaby target chromosomes. Macropods: The biology of kangaroos ... The status of dosage compensation in the multiple X chromosomes of the platypus', PLoS Genetics, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 1-13. ...
yeast artificial chromosome . yolk . Z lines . zoology . zygote . Contents: 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X ... chromosome A threadlike strand of DNA in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order. clonal selection . cloning ... artificial selection Professionals study the genotype and phenotype of parent organisms in the hope of producing a hybrid that ... aneuploidy The presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell. antibiotic A type of antimicrobial drug used in the ...
Bioengineers have created F plasmids that can contain inserted foreign DNA; this is called a bacterial artificial chromosome. ... F' (F-prime) bacteria are formed by incorrect excision from the chromosome, resulting in F plasmid carrying bacterial sequences ...
Insert of up to 3,000 kb may be carried by yeast artificial chromosome. Human artificial chromosome may be potentially useful ... Insert size of up to 350 kb can be cloned in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). BACs are maintained in E. coli with a copy ... BACs are based on F plasmid, another artificial chromosome called the PAC is based on the P1 phage. ... Kouprina N, Earnshaw WC, Masumoto H, Larionov V (2013). "A new generation of human artificial chromosomes for functional ...
In engineering large constructs of >100 kb, such as the Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs), or chromosomes, recombineering ... and for modifying DNA of any source often contained on a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), among other applications. ... "Rapid modification of bacterial artificial chromosomes by ET- recombination". Nucleic Acids Res. 27: 1555-1557. doi:10.1093/nar ... 2000). "An efficient recombination system for chromosome engineering in Escherichia coli". Proceedings of the National Academy ...
The classic strategy to construct an artificial chromosome is bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). Basically, the target ... the fragments is cloned into plasmids to construct artificial chromosome such as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) which ... Another commonly used artificial chromosome is fosmid. The difference between BAC and fosmids is the size of the DNA inserted. ... ESP can be applied for either with or without constructed artificial chromosome. With BAC, precious samples can be immortalized ...
P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs) have features of both P1 vectors and Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs). Similar to P1 ... Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are linear DNA molecules containing the necessary features of an authentic yeast chromosome ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are circular DNA molecules, usually about 7kb in length, that are capable of holding ... Yoo EY, Kim S, Kim JY, Kim BD (August 2001). "Construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome library ...
So, in order to fully simulate an artificial neural network one must somehow encode these components in a linear chromosome and ... Both methods can be implemented to operate between chromosomes or within a chromosome or even within a single gene. Inversion ... Recombination usually involves two parent chromosomes to create two new chromosomes by combining different parts from the ... Create chromosomes of initial population randomly; 5. For each program in population: a) Express chromosome; b) Execute program ...
... Type Replication: a type of bacterial DNA replication specific to circular chromosomes. Threshold value of an artificial ...
"Construction of an infectious clone of canine herpesvirus genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome". Microbes Infect. 8 (4 ...
The four major types of vectors are plasmids, viral vectors, cosmids, and artificial chromosomes. Of these, the most commonly ...
"Self-organization of microtubules into bipolar spindles around artificial chromosomes in Xenopus egg extracts". Nature. 382 ( ... At the University of California, San Francisco, Hyman investigated the interaction between chromosomes and microtubules that ... Elegans using RNAi of genes on chromosome III". Nature. 408 (6810): 331-6. doi:10.1038/35042526. PMID 11099034. Hyman, A. A.; ... create the mitotic forces that separate chromosomes in the lab of Tim Mitchison. He also created a number of tools that are ...
"Cloning and in vivo expression of the human GART gene using yeast artificial chromosomes". EMBO J. 10 (7): 1629-34. PMC 452831 ... 2000). "The DNA sequence of human chromosome 21". Nature. 405 (6784): 311-9. doi:10.1038/35012518. PMID 10830953. Banerjee D, ...
1951 - Artificial insemination of livestock is accomplished using frozen semen. 1952 - L.V. Radushkevich and V.M. Lukyanovich ... 1878 - Walther Flemming discovers chromatin leading to the discovery of chromosomes. 1881 - Louis Pasteur develops vaccines ... 1871 - Ernst Hoppe-Seyler discovers invertase, which is still used for making artificial sweeteners. 1877 - Robert Koch ... providing information on the locations and sequence of human genes on all 46 chromosomes. 2008 - Japanese astronomers launch ...
One popular way of studying EBV in vitro is to use bacterial artificial chromosomes. Epstein-Barr virus can be maintained and ...
Yu, Weichang; Yau, Yuan-Yeu; Birchler, James A. (2016). "Plant artificial chromosome technology and its potential application ... The top-down approach is generally considered as the more plausible means of generating extra-numary chromosomes for the use of ... Minichromosome technology allows for the stacking of genes side-by-side on the same chromosome thus reducing likelihood of ... By minimizing the amount of unnecessary genetic information on the chromosome and including the basic components necessary for ...
Shizuya, H; Kouros-Mehr, H (2001). "The development and applications of the bacterial artificial chromosome cloning system". ... "Using bacterial artificial chromosomes in leukemia research: The experience at the university cytogenetics laboratory in Brest ... labelled and mapped from bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). BACs were developed during the Human Genome Project as it was ... For CISH to work optimally, chromosomes must be in either interphase or metaphase. Tissue samples are securely attached to a ...
... "bacterial artificial chromosomes", or BACs, which are derived from bacterial chromosomes which have been genetically engineered ... one X chromosome and one Y chromosome) compared to female samples (which contain two X chromosomes). The other 22 chromosomes ( ... "A Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library for Sequencing the Complete Human Genome". Genome Research. 11 (3): 483-96. doi: ... In May 2006, another milestone was passed on the way to completion of the project, when the sequence of the last chromosome was ...
April 2000). "Construction and characterization of a Schistosoma mansoni bacterial artificial chromosome library". Genomics. 65 ... Chromosomes range in size from 18 to 73 MB and can be distinguished by size, shape, and C banding. In 2000, the first BAC ... Schistosoma mansoni has 8 pairs of chromosomes (2n = 16)-7 autosomal pairs and 1 sex pair. The female schistosome is ... of the bases organised into chromosomes. Schistosome eggs, which may become lodged within the hosts tissues, are the major ...
1996). "Self-organization of microtubules into bipolar spindles around artificial chromosomes in Xenopus egg extracts". Nature ... aligning chromosomes at the cell equator and poising them for segregation to daughter cells. Once every chromosome is bi- ... a process that produces gametes with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell. Besides chromosomes, the spindle ... If chromosomes are not properly attached to the mitotic spindle by the time of this checkpoint, the onset of anaphase will be ...
The whole assembled genome was transplanted in yeast cells and grown as yeast artificial chromosome. This synthetic cell will ... The team has synthesized a 1.08 million base pair chromosome of a modified Mycoplasma mycoides. The synthetic cell is called: ... The original proteins and biological materials of the converted cell use the new artificial DNA to generate daughter cells. ...
1997 - Team led by Professor Huntington Willard (Chair of Genetics) create world's first artificial human chromosome. M. Scott ... of the world's first human artificial chromosome. Integrated MD-PhD Training: In 1956, CWRU School of Medicine began an ... Shuvo Roy, Professor, Inventor of Artificial Kidney Nancy Talbot Clarke (1852 MD alumna) & Emily Blackwell (1854 MD alumna) - ...
1946: The artificial kidney. *1953: Medical ultrasound. *1956: Human chromosome number. *1957: Dopamine ... Other examples of pioneering innovations are the artificial kidney, which laid the foundations for the multinational company ... the determination of the number of chromosomes of man, the establishment of osseointegration, the development of the Bluetooth ...
... each population maintaining a single artificial chromosome, are stored in various laboratories around the world. The artificial ... The chromosomes can be seen in blue. The chromosome that is labeled with green and red spots (upper left) is the one where the ... Then, an interphase or metaphase chromosome preparation is produced. The chromosomes are firmly attached to a substrate, ... Probes that hybridize along an entire chromosome are used to count the number of a certain chromosome, show translocations, or ...
They were also able to show that about half of the chromosomes typically paired for meiosis. Since A. bradleyi is a hybrid of ... Wagner and Darling were able to grow the wild and artificial specimens together. While they were clearly the same species, the ... The species has a chromosome number of 144 (2 × 72) in the sporophyte. A. × gravesii can potentially be confused with its ... Maxon describes the basal pinnae as sessile; Wagner and Darling provide drawings of the fronds of wild and artificial specimens ...
The assembly of the genome sequence in M. truncatula was based on bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). This is the same ...
"Cloning human herpes virus 6A genome into bacterial artificial chromosomes and study of DNA replication intermediates". ... replication mechanism of HPV may have physiological implications into the integration of the virus into the host chromosome and ...
Borenstein, R.; Frenkel, N. (2009). "Cloning human herpes virus 6A genome into bacterial artificial chromosomes and study of ... 2010). "The latent human herpesvirus-6A genome specifically integrates in telomeres of human chromosomes in vivo and in vitro ... and preferentially does so into the proximal end of chromosomes 9, 17, 18, 19, and 22, but has also occasionally been found in ... chromosomes 10 and 11. Nearly 70 million individuals are suspected to carry chromosomally integrated HHV-6. A number of genes ...
"Cloning human herpes virus 6A genome into bacterial artificial chromosomes and study of DNA replication intermediates". ...
Castle's was perhaps the first attempt made in the scientific literature to direct evolution by artificial selection of a trait ... These QTLs are often found on different chromosomes. The number of QTLs which explain variation in the phenotypic trait ...
In search of the genetic footprints of Sumerians: a survey of Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation in the Marsh Arabs of Iraq - - ... and was either constructed at the waterside or on an artificial island of reeds called a kibasha; a more permanent island of ...
Deletion in the 22q11.2 region of chromosome 22 has been associated with schizophrenia and autism.[22][23] Schizophrenia and ... Pleiotropic gene action can limit the rate of multivariate evolution when natural selection, sexual selection or artificial ... The disease is caused by a defect in a single gene on chromosome 12 that codes for enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase , that ... and can be caused by any of a large number of mutations in the single gene on chromosome 12 that codes for the enzyme ...
describen o uso de cromosomas artificiais de lévedo (YAC, Yeast Artificial Chromosome),[41] e Kulesh et al. sentan as bases dos ... "Cloning of Large Segments of Exogenous DNA into Yeast by Means of Artificial Chromosome Vectors" (PDF). Science 236 (4803). ... Artificial Intelligence and Heuristic Methods in Bioinformatics. IOS Press. ISBN 1586032941.. *↑ Murray-Rust, P.; et al. (2005 ... "Proceedings of the Workshop on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems for High Energy and Nuclear ...
seem to be natural or artificial hybrids of a small number of core ancestral species, including the citron, pomelo, mandarin, ... "Next generation haplotyping to decipher nuclear genomic interspecific admixture in Citrusspecies: analysis of chromosome 2" ...
This notion has recently been refuted through a systematic chromosome analysis of the species attributed to many East Asian ... to be sold as the raw product without the artificial accelerated fermentation process. ... teas aged naturally for 10-15 years and so this period saw a demand-driven boom in the production of hēichá by the artificial ...
Workers have two sets of chromosomes.[60] They are produced from an egg that the queen has selectively fertilized from stored ... Males, or drones, are typically haploid, having only one set of chromosomes, and primarily exist for the purpose of ...
Haldane was also the first to construct human gene maps for haemophilia and colour blindness on the X chromosome and he was one ... He is the author of several books on health, artificial intelligence (AI), transhumanism, the technological singularity, and ... He won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1933 for discoveries relating the role the chromosome plays in heredity.[ ... The Nobel Prize-winning geneticist and stringent atheist Thomas Hunt Morgan was developing the chromosome theory of heredity by ...
Artificial cell. *Non-cellular life. *Synthetic virus *Viral vector. *Helper dependent virus ...
... suggesting that certain genes of the Y chromosome may act as modifiers. However, no candidate genes on the Y chromosome have ... The infant did not need artificial respiration and could breathe on her own. Her parents kept her on kidney dialysis at home ...
This trait/allele is physically linked (or is very close) to the desired allele along the chromosome. In introducing the ... 3 October 2014), "Appraisal of artificial screening techniques of tomato to accurately reflect field performance of the late ... Tomato Genome Sequencing Project - Sequencing of the twelve tomato chromosomes.. *Tomato core collection database - Phenotypes ... where pollination must be aided by artificial wind, vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an " ...
These ten chromosomes form five unique pairs of XY in males and XX in females, i.e. males are X1Y1X2Y2X3Y3X4Y4X5Y5.[76] One of ... "artificial shrimp" if a small electric current is passed through it.[42] ... "In the platypus a meiotic chain of ten sex chromosomes shares genes with the bird Z and mammal X chromosomes". Nature. 432 ( ... the X chromosomes of the platypus has great homology to the bird Z chromosome.[77] The platypus genome also has both reptilian ...
Couples who are at a high risk of having abnormal number of chromosomes or who have an history of single gene defects or ... chromosome defects are ideal candidates for this procedure. It is used to diagnose a large number of genetic defects at present ...
200kb bacterial artificial chromosomes to small oligonucleotides) that represent unique regions of the genome. This method is ... Chromosome studies[edit]. Chromosome studies are used in the general genetics clinic to determine a cause for developmental ... Chromosome painting is a technique that uses fluorescent probes specific for each chromosome to differentially label each ... A large number of different methods have been developed for chromosome analysis:. *Chromosome analysis using a karyotype ...
The work was praised by the Financial Times for "tackling big themes-gods, messiahs, artificial intelligence, alienness-with ... The Calcutta Chromosome (1997). *The Sparrow (1998). *Dreaming in Smoke (1999). *Distraction (2000) ...
"Complementation of plant mutants with large genomic DNA fragments by a transformation-competent artificial chromosome vector ... Low Transgene Copy Plants by Launching T-DNA from the Agrobacterium Chromosome". Plant Physiology. 152 (3): 1158-1166. doi: ...
The earliest evidence of behavioral modernity first appears during the Middle Paleolithic; undisputed evidence of behavioral modernity, however, only becomes common during the following Upper Paleolithic period.[1] Middle Paleolithic burials at sites such as Krapina in Croatia (dated to c. 130,000 BP) and the Qafzeh and Es Skhul caves in Israel (c. 100,000 BP) have led some anthropologists and archeologists (such as Philip Lieberman) to believe that Middle Paleolithic cultures may have possessed a developing religious ideology which included concepts such as an afterlife; other scholars suggest the bodies were buried for secular reasons.[3][4] According to recent[when?] archeological findings from Homo heidelbergensis sites in the Atapuerca Mountains, the practice of intentional burial may have begun much earlier during the late Lower Paleolithic, but this theory is widely questioned in the scientific community. Cut-marks on Neandertal bones from various sites - such as Combe Grenal and the ...
Small genetic deletions on the X chromosome around the STS (steroid sulfatase) gene are associated with increased rates of AF ... attributable to moderate to severe mitral valve stenosis or atrial fibrillation in the presence of a mechanical artificial ...
Most cultivated Citrus seem to be natural or artificial hybrids of four core ancestral species[14] - the citron, pummelo, ... "Next generation haplotyping to decipher nuclear genomic interspecific admixture in Citrusspecies: analysis of chromosome 2" ...
This suggests that no artificial selection has been applied over this period and that the dingo represents an early form of dog ... The wolf-like canids are a group of large carnivores that are genetically closely related because their chromosomes number 78, ... Establishment of artificial packs in captive dingoes has failed.[80] ... this suggests that no artificial selection has been applied over this period.[15] ...
While the black rhinoceros has 84 chromosomes (diploid number, 2N, per cell), all other rhinoceros species have 82 chromosomes ... He proposes the synthesis of an artificial substitute for rhinoceros horn. To enable authorities to distinguish the ... However, chromosomal polymorphism might lead to varying chromosome counts. For instance, in a study there were three northern ... Houck, ML; Ryder, OA; Váhala, J; Kock, RA; Oosterhuis, JE (January-February 1994). "Diploid chromosome number and chromosomal ...
... Genome Sequencing Project - Sequencing of the twelve tomato chromosomes.. *Tomato core collection database - Phenotypes ... 3 October 2014), "Appraisal of artificial screening techniques of tomato to accurately reflect field performance of the late ... where pollination must be aided by artificial wind, vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an " ...
Artificial chromosomes *P1-derived *Bacterial *Yeast *Human Retrieved from " ...
Even mammals, including humans, show the segmented bilaterian body plan at the level of the nervous system. The spinal cord contains a series of segmental ganglia, each giving rise to motor and sensory nerves that innervate a portion of the body surface and underlying musculature. On the limbs, the layout of the innervation pattern is complex, but on the trunk it gives rise to a series of narrow bands. The top three segments belong to the brain, giving rise to the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain.[9] Bilaterians can be divided, based on events that occur very early in embryonic development, into two groups (superphyla) called protostomes and deuterostomes.[10] Deuterostomes include vertebrates as well as echinoderms and hemichordates (mainly acorn worms). Protostomes, the more diverse group, include arthropods, molluscs, and numerous types of worms. There is a basic difference between the two groups in the placement of the nervous system within the body: protostomes possess a nerve cord on the ...
... females are also one of the few organisms with homologous chromosomes held together only by the synaptonemal ... including an artificial diet.[citation needed] Research on the genome also raises the possibility of genetically engineering ... Gerton and Hawley (2005). "Homologous Chromosome Interactions in Meiosis: Diversity Amidst Conservation". Nature Reviews ...
... s have 64 chromosomes.[37] The horse genome was sequenced in 2007. It contains 2.7 billion DNA base pairs,[38] which is ... These inherited traits result from a combination of natural crosses and artificial selection methods. Horses have been ... "Chromosome Numbers in Different Species". 1998-01-30. Archived from the original on 2013-05-11. Retrieved ... Domesticated horses may face greater mental challenges than wild horses, because they live in artificial environments that ...
In one application an artificial DNA catalyst was prepared by attaching a copper ion to it through a spacer.[42] The copper - ...
Chloroplasts have many similarities with photosynthetic bacteria, including a circular chromosome, prokaryotic-type ribosome, ... "First practical artificial leaf makes debut". Discovery News.. *Photosynthesis - Light Dependent & Light Independent Stages ...
Yeast artificial chromosome. References[edit]. *^ OConnor M, Peifer M, Bender W (2018). "Construction of large DNA segments in ... A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is a DNA construct, based on a functional fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid), used for ... The bacterial artificial chromosomes usual insert size is 150-350 kbp.[4] A similar cloning vector called a PAC has also been ... The Big Bad BAC: Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes - a review from the Science Creative Quarterly ...
Yeast artificial chromosome. References[edit]. *^ Yarmolinsky M, Hoess R (November 2015). "The Legacy of Nat Sternberg: The ... A P1-derived artificial chromosome is a DNA construct that was derived from the DNA of P1 bacteriophage. It can carry large ... Retrieved from "" ... Online Medical Dictionary P1-derived artificial chromosome. *P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) definition ...
... everything you need for studying or teaching Bacterial artificial chromosome. ... Immediately download the Bacterial artificial chromosome summary, chapter-by-chapter analysis, book notes, essays, quotes, ... Bacterial artificial chromosome Summary. Everything you need to understand or teach Bacterial artificial chromosome. ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (Bac) Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) involve a cloning system that is derived from a ...
Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes, Second Edition expands upon the previous edition with current, detailed methods developed for ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes, Second Edition expands upon the previous edition with current, detailed methods developed for ... Authoritative and cutting-edge, Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes, Second Edition seeks to aid scientists in advancing their ... Herpesvirus Mutagenesis Facilitated by Infectious Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (iBACs) Karl E. Robinson, Timothy J. Mahony ...
Genome linking with yeast artificial chromosomes.. Coulson A1, Waterston R, Kiff J, Sulston J, Kohara Y. ... However, with the availability of a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) vector, we decided to use this alternative source of ... The haploid genome of Caenorhabditis elegans consists of some 80 x 10(6) base pairs of DNA contained in six chromosomes. The ... and replicate in the same manner as the host chromosomes. ...
Alonso J.M., Stepanova A.N. (2014) Arabidopsis Transformation with Large Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. In: Sanchez-Serrano ... Complementation of plant mutants with large genomic DNA fragments by a transformation-competent artificial chromosome vector ... Generation of a high-quality P1 library of Arabidopsis suitable for chromosome walking. Plant J 7:351-358CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
A vector (abbreviated YAC) used to clone DNA fragments (up to 400 kilobase|kb); it is constructed from the telomere|telomeric, centromere|centromeric, a...
Researchers describe a new way to form an essential part of the artificial chromosome, called the centromere, by bypassing the ... Human artificial chromosome (HAC, green) with two sister centromeres (red), similar to that of the natural host chromosomes ( ... In a paper published today in Cell, Penn researchers describe a new way to form an essential part of the artificial chromosome ... Penn biochemists streamline construction method for human artificial chromosomes Bypassing the Need for DNA from the centromere ...
In addition, development of artificial plant chromosome vectors will facilitate the construction of artificial chromosomes that ... artificial chromosomes. The ability to construct artificial chromosomes that function in yeast, however, does not teach one ... Artificial chromosomes participate in homologous recombination preferentially. Since the artificial chromosomes remain intact ... where they are maintained as artificial chromosomes. These artificial yeast chromosomes contain cloned genes, replicators, ...
Artificial chromosome may refer to: Yeast artificial chromosome Bacterial artificial chromosome Human artificial chromosome P1- ... derived artificial chromosome Synthetic DNA of a base pair size comparable to a chromosome. ...
In his Perspective, Willard looks at the potential advantages of using a human artificial chromosome to maintain expression of ...
Making better artificial chromosomes for mammalian cells. Project ID: HPRN-CT-2000-00089. Finanziato nellambito di: FP5-HUMAN ... Making better artificial chromosomes for mammalian cells. Dal 2000-09-01 al 2004-08-31 ...
... specifically related to chromosome 21 - the chromosome linked to Down syndrome - with a high degree of accuracy. The chromosome ... A study by Ovation Fertility and Life Whisperer used artificial intelligence to accurately detect aneuploidy of chromosome 21, ... New Research: Artificial Intelligence Non-Invasively Detects Chromosome 21-Linked Genetic Disorders. ... While preliminary data from this chromosome research study is convincing, additional validation with larger data sets is ...
Mapping the Drosophila genome with yeast artificial chromosomes Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... The ability to clone large fragments of DNA in yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) has created the possibility of obtaining ...
Yeast artificial chromosomes and bacterial artificial chromosomes were created before human artificial chromosomes, which first ... Alternative methods of creating transgenes, such as utilizing yeast artificial chromosomes and bacterial artificial chromosomes ... producing a chromosome 5 Mb in length. Truncation of chromosome 21 resulted in a human artificial chromosome that is ... A human artificial chromosome (HAC) is a microchromosome that can act as a new chromosome in a population of human cells. That ...
The synthetic chromosomes, containing DNA, were entirely designed on a computer, in a very similar way to how we design cars ... They had previously created one of the 16 chromosomes which make up yeast. They have now successfully created five more and are ... As a computer scientist, I designed and developed algorithms to recode and edit the DNA sequence of yeast chromosomes. These ... News Synthetic yeast chromosomes bring us closer to artificial life News. Synthetic yeast chromosomes bring artificial life ...
Viral Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: Generation, Mutagenesis, and Removal of Mini-F Sequences. B. Karsten Tischer and ...
A. Domi and B. Moss, "Engineering of a vaccinia virus bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli by bacteriophage λ- ... Viral Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: Generation, Mutagenesis, and Removal of Mini-F Sequences. B. Karsten Tischer and ... A. Domi and B. Moss, "Cloning the vaccinia virus genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli and recovery ... Y. Saeki, T. Ichikawa, A. Saeki et al., "Herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA amplified as bacterial artificial chromosome in ...
Artificial,Chromosomes,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest ... Electroporation of Yeast Artificial Chromosomes. ...Maren Bell and Robert Mortimer Human Genome Center Divisionof Cel... ... Transformation of yeast with yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) has traditionally been performed by a PEG-spheroplast ...
... of centromere formation into large segments of cloned DNA facilitates their transformation into artificial chromosomes. ... Human artificial chromosome formation approach. Components. Rationale. Stability of HAC Clones. Sequence-based. 40-200 kb of α- ... Streamlined Artificial Chromosome Creation. Recruiting an epigenetic instigator of centromere formation into large segments of ... Like natural chromosomes, artificial ones need centromeres to attach to mitotic spindles and separate sister chromatids during ...
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Generation of human artificial chromosomes via bottom-up approach. Each human chromosome contains a centromere consisting of ... An example of construction of the engineered human artificial chromosome via top-down approach. a The human chromosome 21 was ... A new generation of human artificial chromosomes for functional genomics and gene therapy.. Kouprina N1, Earnshaw WC, Masumoto ... An example of construction of the de novo generated human artificial chromosome via bottom-up approach using a synthetic ...
Artificial Chromosome Poised to Pump Up GM Crops with Extra Genes. Easier transfer of multigene "stacks" may help biofuel ... A new method for creating artificial plant chromosomes may pave the way for engineering transgenic crops faster, along with ... When injected into single cells that grew into plants, the mini-chromosome was passed down to up to 93 percent of the plants ... A team of researchers engineered a "maize mini-chromosome" (MMC) by stitching together a circular loop of DNA designed to fool ...
... nounA large DNA sequence constructed in the laboratory to function like a human chromosome.... ... human artificial chromosome. human artificial chromosome. noun. A large DNA sequence constructed in the laboratory to function ... Human artificial chromosome. (n.d.). In YourDictionary. Retrieved from ... Human artificial chromosome. (n.d.). In YourDictionary. Retrieved from ...
In a single step we cloned an infectious cytomegalovirus DNA as a bacterial artificial chromosome in E. coli and reconstituted ... The MCMV genome was cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) in Escherichia coli and viral progeny were reconstituted ... The mouse cytomegalovirus genome was cloned and maintained as a 230 kb bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) in E. coli. ... Cloning of an infectious viral genome as a yeast artificial chromosome and genetic manipulation in yeast has been described for ...
Super-Sized Inserts Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC) have been developed to hold much larger pieces of DNA than a plasmid ... breed healthier farm animals or even process radioactive waste are just a few examples of what Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC) have been developed to hold much larger pieces of DNA than a plasmid can. BAC vectors ... breed healthier farm animals or even process radioactive waste are just a few examples of what Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes ...
... preparing a CEPH artificial yeast chromosome library containing a human genome, identifying clones having a repetitive human ... telomere sequences are added to the ends of its chromosome. ... An artificial mammalian chromosome, more specifically, a clone ... An "artificial chromosome" that is a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) vector has been developed. A long-chain DNA molecule ... Any cell into which the artificial chromosome is to be introduced can be used as long as the artificial chromosome can function ...
... ) ist ein künstliches Chromosom, welches der Hefe nachempfunden ist. Es dient als Vektor und erlaubt ... Artificial chromosome - may refer to: * Yeast artificial chromosome * Bacterial artificial chromosome * Human artificial ... Yeast Artificial Chromosome. Ein YAC (Yeast Artificial Chromosome) ist ein künstliches Chromosom, welches der Hefe ... mega yeast artificial chromosome - A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) which can carry particularly large inserts (up to 1Mbp) ...
Make research projects and school reports about Yeast Artificial Chromosome (YAC) easy with credible articles from our FREE, ... and pictures about Yeast Artificial Chromosome (YAC) at ... yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) See artificial chromosome. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your ... Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC). The yeast artificial chromosome, which is often shortened to YAC, is an artificially ...
  • BACs can also be utilized to detect genes or large sequences of interest and then used to map them onto the human chromosome using BAC arrays . (
  • Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are large F-based plasmid vectors that can accommodate large inserts of DNA. (
  • Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (Bac) Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) involve a cloning system that is derived from a particular plasmid found in the bacterium Escherichia coli. (
  • Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes, Second Edition expands upon the previous edition with current, detailed methods developed for working with BACs. (
  • however, this problem could also be overcome by the use of single or low-copy vectors, such as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). (
  • Until recently, most clinical applications of array-CGH, other than some cancer studies, have been based on arrays constructed by covalent attachment to glass slides of DNA from whole clones, typically cosmids, P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs), or bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), or of polymerase chain reaction products generated from such clones. (
  • Bacterial artificial chromosomes, or BACs, are fertility- (F-) factor-based plasmid vectors that replicate stably in low copy number [ 2 , 3 ]. (
  • To test this possibility, transgenic mice were generated with 145- and 207-kb bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) that contained the human apoB gene and more extensive 5'- and 3'-flanking sequences. (
  • A minimal set of 50 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones that covers almost all of the genome of M. microti OV254 was constructed, and individual BACs were compared to the corresponding BACs from M. bovis AF2122/97 and M. tuberculosis H37Rv. (
  • By inference it is applicable to the purification of large inserts from other single-copy plasmid vectors such as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). (
  • Interestingly, large vectors that fulfill these criteria such as Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) have been widely used for generation of transgenic mice [ 4 ] but not for production of recombinant proteins. (
  • In this context the recent demonstration by Dr. Koichi Kawakami and colleagues that the vertebrate transposon system Tol2 can be re-engineered to facilitate integration of BAC DNA into the chromosomes of zebrafish and mice is likely to accelerate the use of BACs in a variety of studies with transgenic animals. (
  • This book focuses on the numerous applications of Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) in a variety of studies. (
  • This study evaluated the individual and combined diagnostic performance of the bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs)-on-Beads (BoBs™) assay and conventional karyotyping for the prenatal detection of chromosomal abnormalities in pregnant women who were 35 or more years-old. (
  • Transformation of yeast with yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) has traditionally been performed by a PEG-spheroplast procedure. (
  • Use Of Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs) For Studying Control Of Gene Expression: Correct Regulation Of The Genes Of a Human .beta. (
  • Targeted Integration Of Neomycin Into Yeast Artifical Chromosomes (YACs) For Transfection Into Mammalian Cells," Nucleic Acids Research 20(12):2971-2976 (1992). (
  • Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are synthetic double stranded linear constructs containing the elements necessary for replication as independent chromosomes in yeast. (
  • YACs are capable of cloning extremely large segments of DNA (over 1 megabase long) into a host cell, where the DNA is propagated along with the other chromosomes of the yeast cell. (
  • Mammalian telomere repeats and a selectable marker were introduced into yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) containing alphoid DNA from the centromere region of human chromosome 21 in a recombination-deficient yeast host. (
  • The band-specific YACs were successfully applied to visualize specific structural chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood cells from patients with myelodysplasia exhibiting del(5)(q13q34), chronic myeloid leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia with t(9;22)(q34;q11), acute promyelocytic leukemia (M3) with t(15;17)(q22;q21), and in a cell line established from a proband with the constitutional translocation t(3;8)(p14.2;q24). (
  • A modification vector has been constructed to facilitate the transfer of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) to mammalian cells in culture by targeting a dominant selectable marker (G418 resistance) to the right arm of pYAC4 clones. (
  • During the construction of yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) libraries to facilitate mapping of the human genome, two YACs may be cotransformed into the same yeast cell, making further analysis very difficult. (
  • A bacterial artificial chromosome ( BAC ) is a DNA construct , based on a functional fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid ), used for transforming and cloning in bacteria , usually E. coli . (
  • The bacterial artificial chromosome's usual insert size is 150-350 kbp . (
  • Everything you need to understand or teach Bacterial artificial chromosome . (
  • Authoritative and cutting-edge, Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes, Second Edition seeks to aid scientists in advancing their research using these exciting BAC techniques and strategies. (
  • Alonso J.M., Stepanova A.N. (2014) Arabidopsis Transformation with Large Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. (
  • Alternative methods of creating transgenes, such as utilizing yeast artificial chromosomes and bacterial artificial chromosomes, lead to unpredictable problems. (
  • Yeast artificial chromosomes and bacterial artificial chromosomes were created before human artificial chromosomes, which first appeared in 1997. (
  • The mouse cytomegalovirus genome was cloned and maintained as a 230 kb bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) in E. coli . (
  • The MCMV genome was cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) in Escherichia coli and viral progeny were reconstituted by transfection of the MCMV BAC plasmid into eukaryotic cells that support virus production. (
  • Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC) have been developed to hold much larger pieces of DNA than a plasmid can. (
  • Purpose: The goal of this work was to test the ability of oligonucleotide-based arrays to reproduce the results of focused bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based arrays used clinically in comparative genomic hybridization experiments to detect constitutional copy number changes in genomic DNA. (
  • Gene expression from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones has been demonstrated to facilitate physiologically relevant levels compared to viral and nonviral cDNA vectors. (
  • One of these clones, WG644, was hybridized to rice and barley bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries to select homologous clones. (
  • The bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) ( 1 ) is now the most widely utilized vector system to construct large-insert genomic libraries for genome analysis. (
  • This animation provides an overview of the techniques involved in making a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library. (
  • Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries are extremely valuable for the genome-wide genetic dissection of complex organisms. (
  • Liu C, Bai C, Guo Y, Liu D, Lu T, Li X, Ma J, Ma Y, Guan W. Construction and Analysis of Siberian Tiger Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library with Approximately 6.5-Fold Genome Equivalent Coverage. (
  • A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was generated from a derivative of the sequenced E. coli O157:H7 Sakai strain. (
  • Here, we report on the use of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) to begin understanding the in vivo regulation of smooth muscle calponin (SM-Calp). (
  • Human Apolipoprotein B Transgenic Mice Generated with 207- and 145-Kilobase Pair Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. (
  • The full-length genome of human cytomegalovirus strain AD169 was cloned as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) plasmid, pAD/Cre. (
  • A metagenomic (community genomic) library consisting of 5,760 bacterial artificial chromosome clones was prepared in Escherichia coli DH10B from DNA extracted from the large-bowel microbiota of BALB/c mice. (
  • Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors are especially suitable in the preparation of metagenomic clone libraries because they stably maintain large DNA inserts (greater than 100 kbp) in Escherichia coli ( 3 ). (
  • Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones have proven invaluable for genetic manipulation of herpesvirus genomes. (
  • To develop the resources for positional cloning and structural genomic analyses in barley, we constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the cultivar Morex using the cloning enzyme HindIII. (
  • Construction, characterization, and preliminary BAC-end sequencing analysis of a bacterial artificial chromosome library of white clover (Trifolium repens L. (
  • We have constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of an advanced breeding line of white clover. (
  • As a first step in carrying out detailed analysis of the functions of the HVT genes, a full-length infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of HVT was constructed. (
  • Procedures for the Purification of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) DNA. (
  • To facilitate comparative genomics within Crocodylia and between crocodilians and other archosaurs, we have constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the Australian saltwater crocodile, Crocodylus porosus . (
  • To overcome these chromatin effects, we have employed a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) as expression vector to obtain stable cell lines suitable for protein production. (
  • In this work, we explore the efficacy of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome based vector applied to production of the constant region of the human IgG1. (
  • Generation of stable cell clones for protein production using Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes offers a clear advantage over the use of conventional vectors. (
  • In the present study, we describe the cloning of the KHV genome as a stable and infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone that can be used to produce KHV recombinant strains. (
  • Construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the A genome of wheat. (
  • Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library of durum wheat. (
  • a pioneer of bacterial artificial chromosome technology. (
  • Bacterial artificial chromosome libraries have also been used to develop physical maps for genomic regions containing resistance gene analog sequences (Marek and Shoemaker, 1997). (
  • Construction and characterization of a deep-coverage bacterial artificial chromosome library for maize. (
  • We have now launched a test based on our Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Platform (see http://www. (
  • With the Spectral Genomics Array CGH Platform, PerkinElmer is now the only company to offer a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) based integrated solution consisting of the SpectralChip 2600 array, the Constitutional Chip 3. (
  • A Bacterial Artificial Chromosome array is a highly efficient and accurate means of detecting genetic abnormalities responsible for a variety of human maladies, such as Down Syndrome, autism, and cancer. (
  • In October, Solexa announced that Company scientists had sequenced a human Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) on an early laboratory prototype instrument. (
  • Further, last month we announced the successful resequencing of a human bacterial artificial chromosome , which demonstrates that our reversible-terminator chemistry and Clonal Single-Molecule Array(TM) technology can be applied to resequence human DNA. (
  • Nasdaq:SLXA) today announced that its scientists have sequenced a human bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), an important milestone demonstrating that Solexa's reversible-terminator chemistry and Clonal Single-Molecule Array(TM) technology can be applied to resequence human DNA. (
  • The Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) system was developed soon after by Drs. Hiroaki Shizuya, Bruce Birren, Ung-Jin Kim, Melvin Simon and colleagues. (
  • We have constructed a common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library consisting of 33 792 clones and an estimated 3- to 5-fold coverage of the common bean genome. (
  • Vanhouten, W & MacKenzie, S 1999, ' Construction and characterization of a common bean bacterial artificial chromosome library ', Plant molecular biology , vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 977-983. (
  • A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed and analysed. (
  • Battistoni F, Bartels D, Kaiser O, Reamon-Buettner SM, Hurek T, Reinhold-Hurek B. Physical map of the Azoarcus sp strain BH72 genome based on a bacterial artificial chromosome library as a platform for genome sequencing and functional analysis. (
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  • Mapping Human Telomere Regions With YAC and P1 Clones: Chromosome-Specific Markers For 27 Telomeres Including 149 STSs and 24 Polymorphisms For 14 Proterminal Regions," Genomics 36:492-506 (1996). (
  • Methods: Custom oligonucleotide (oligo) arrays were designed using the Agilent Technologies platform to give high-resolution coverage of regions within the genome sequence coordinates of BAC/P1 artificial chromosome (PAC) clones that had already been validated for use in previous versions of clone arrays used in clinical practice. (
  • Colinearity of a large region from barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) chromosome 5H and rice ( Oryza sativa ) chromosome 3 has been demonstrated by mapping of several common restriction fragment-length polymorphism clones on both regions. (
  • 1992) Continuum of overlapping clones spanning the entire human chromosome 21q. (
  • After chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization to GTG-banded human prometaphase chromosomes, seven of nine initially isolated YAC clones yielded strong signals exclusively in the chromosome bands containing the respective genes. (
  • Two clones yielded additional signals on other chromosomes and were excluded from further tests. (
  • In addition to the analysis of metaphase spreads, we demonstrate the particular usefulness of these YAC clones in combination with whole chromosome painting to analyze specific chromosome aberrations directly in the interphase nucleus. (
  • A contig of 36 overlapping yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones has been constructed for the complete Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene in Xp21. (
  • HACs essentially function as new mini-chromosomes carrying engineered sets of genes that are inherited alongside a cell's natural set of chromosomes. (
  • That is, instead of 46 chromosomes, the cell could have 47 with the 47th being very small, roughly 6-10 megabases (Mb) in size instead of 50-250 Mb for natural chromosomes, and able to carry new genes introduced by human researchers. (
  • The conventional way of engineering transgenic crops introduces a gene or a stack of genes at random into the plant's chromosomes, which can disrupt existing genes or strand the new ones in a part of the genome that prevents them from switching on. (
  • That is the implication of two new studies that look at the evolution of the Y chromosome, which has retained a small set of genes that have survived millions of years of evolution. (
  • Since then, researchers have found that the Y chromosome holds some important genes, but even these were related to male fertility. (
  • Some 300 million years ago, the X and Y chromosomes shared a common collection of genes, from which they diverged. (
  • X chromosomes today have retained some 98 percent of these original genes, while the Y chromosome has retained a scant 3 percent of these common ancestral genes. (
  • In this case, the persistent survivors are 36 ancestral genes on the Y chromosomes across each of the mammals in the sample that have a comparable gene on the X chromosomes. (
  • Meloche S, Gopalbhai K, Beatty BG, Scherer SW, Pellerin J. Chromosome mapping of the human genes encoding the MAP kinase kinase MEK1 (MAP2K1) to 15q21 and MEK2 (MAP2K2) to 7q32. (
  • Geneticists already do this for a few genes at once, but synthetic chromosomes would allow them to go much further - a big plus when it comes to testing new drugs and other therapies. (
  • This allows researchers to generate random rearrangements of the genome at will, deleting and duplicating portions of the chromosome or putting genes in different genomic neighbourhoods. (
  • I've gone through hundreds of genes involved in chromosome biology and the genes from mouse to human are always there one to one," says de Lange. (
  • But one day far in the future, doctors may give us an extra miniature chromosome containing therapeutic genes to treat disease. (
  • Korean scientists have created the world's first 'artificial species' - a robot with genes that it can pass on to other robots. (
  • We are developing ex vivo gene therapy using artificial chromosomes containing reporter genes (LacZ or RFP) for local delivery of genes in rats with adjuvant arthritis. (
  • Over the last five years, scientists have built bacterial chromosomes and viral DNA, but this is the first report of an entire eukaryotic chromosome, the thread-like structure that carries genes in the nucleus of all plant and animal cells, built from scratch. (
  • They deleted sections of chromosome that seemed unnecessary, and they spliced in bits of DNA that allow them to scramble the yeast's genes on command. (
  • Genome linking with yeast artificial chromosomes. (
  • The haploid genome of Caenorhabditis elegans consists of some 80 x 10(6) base pairs of DNA contained in six chromosomes. (
  • This step-by-step construction project is the goal of the Human Genome Project-Write, a collaboration to build that life-size synthetic chromosome. (
  • Mapping the whole human genome by fingerprinting yeast artificial chromosomes. (
  • Yeast artificial chromosome - This is a photo of two copies of the Washington University Human Genome YAC Library. (
  • In seven new studies, scientists of the Synthetic Yeast Genome Project (Sc2.0) who previously constructed a single yeast chromosome now report constructing five more chromosomes - representing more than one-third of yeast's entire genome. (
  • Such a genome, equipped with a full set of chromosomes that could be engineered to give new properties to yeast, would be ripe for customization. (
  • Our synthetic chromosomes permit the yeast genome to overcome this problem. (
  • To expedite the work of building synthetic yeast chromosomes, Bader and colleagues set up a summer class at Johns Hopkins called Build-A- Genome. (
  • These differences in DNA content indicate that a single chromosome from barley contains more DNA than one complete haploid rice genome. (
  • The diploid germline genome in the micronucleus is composed of long conventional chromosomes. (
  • The macronucleus contains a somatic genome which is naturally fragmented into thousands of kilobase-sized chromosomes. (
  • The use of artificial chromosomes in Oxytricha enables an array of genetic and molecular biological assays, as well as new avenues of inquiry into the epigenetic programming of macronuclear development and genome rearrangement. (
  • An important outgrowth of the Human Genome Project that has assisted investigators in defining the boundaries of genomic DNA necessary for the complete expression of a particular gene has been the development of artificial chromosomes ( 4 , 50 ). (
  • The team that built the first synthetic yeast chromosome three years ago has now added five more chromosomes, totalling roughly a third of the yeast's genome. (
  • Boeke's team has since edited the entire yeast genome (see "Re-engineering yeast", below), before farming out the synthesis of the 16 rewritten chromosomes to an international consortium of geneticists and yeast biologists. (
  • However, with the availability of a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) vector, we decided to use this alternative source of large DNA fragments to obtain linkage. (
  • Liu YG, Shirano Y, Fukaki H, Yanai Y, Tasaka M, Tabata S, Shibata D (1999) Complementation of plant mutants with large genomic DNA fragments by a transformation-competent artificial chromosome vector accelerates positional cloning. (
  • yeast artificial chromosome - A vector system that allows extremely large segments of DNA to be cloned. (
  • Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) - A vector (carrier) created and used in the laboratory to clone pieces of DNA. (
  • The reason the cloning vector is called a yeast artificial chromosome has to do with the structure of the vector. (
  • She said that the point of creating the human artificial chromosome project is to develop a shuttle vector for gene delivery into human cells to study gene function in human cells. (
  • A Streptomyces artificial chromosomal conjugation vector, pSBAC, was previously successfully applied for precise cloning and tandem integration of a large polyketide tautomycetin (TMC) biosynthetic gene cluster (Nah et al. (
  • New vector for transfer of yeast artificial chromosomes to mammalian cells. (
  • Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. (
  • However, the method of introduction of HACs into target cells is confined to microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT), which is less efficient than other methods of vector introduction. (
  • Furthermore, MMCT is also used in gene transfer using a human artificial chromosome (HAC), mini-chromosome vector. (
  • A yeast artificial chromosome (short YAC ) is a vector used to clone large DNA fragments (larger than 100 kb and up to 3000 kb ). (
  • Artificial chromosomes, which harbor hundreds of kilobases of genomic DNA, preserve a large sequence landscape containing most, if not all, regulatory elements controlling the expression of a particular gene. (
  • These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms. (
  • This technique can move the large intact genomic structures of natural chromosomes or artificially engineered chromosomes, and transferred chromosomes can be stably retained and freely segregate in recipient cells. (
  • Traditional chromosome analyses enable the detection of large genomic alterations, such as triploid, aneusomy, balanced and unbalanced chromosomal rearrangements of at least 3-5 Mb in size, and mosaicism [ 6 ]. (
  • Centromere is the chromosomal domain essential to the segregation of eukaryotic chromosomes. (
  • Chromosome Segregation and aneuploidy. (
  • Thanks to the use of HACs, scientists have been able to study the minimal requirements to assemble and maintain such complex machinery as the centromeres that are necessary, as stated above, to ensure proper chromosome segregation during cell division. (
  • Although there is a lot to know about the function and maintenance of the centromeres, HACs have proven a unique tool for the study of these chromosomic regions and for the study of the mechanism of chromosome segregation during cell division. (
  • The centromere/kinetochore interaction is responsible for the pairing and segregation of replicated chromosomes in eukaryotes. (
  • Rescue of a single yeast artificial chromosome from a cotransformation event utilizing segregation at meiosis. (
  • We present a simple method to rescue the required YAC that utilizes the segregation of chromosomes at meiosis. (
  • We've taken our centromere bypass method to make a fully functional HAC without the cloning nightmares that repetitive centromere DNA has presented to mammalian chromosome engineers through the last two decades," Black said. (
  • Characterization of yeast artificial chromosomes from Plasmodium falciparum: construction of a stable, representative library and cloning of telomeric DNA fragments. (
  • A human yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library was screened by polymerase chain reaction with oligonucleotide primers defined for DNA sequences of the BCR gene and the protooncogenes c-raf-1, c-fms, and c-erB-2. (
  • PHILADELPHIA) - For the past 20 years, researchers have been trying to perfect the construction of human artificial chromosomes, or HACs for short. (
  • Our developments streamline the construction and characterization of HACs to aid in efforts to make synthetic whole human chromosomes," said Ben Black, PhD, a professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, who has dedicated decades to understanding the process. (
  • Think of the HACs we build now as model-sized chromosomes," said first author Glennis Logsdon, PhD, a doctoral student in Black's lab at the time of the study and now a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Washington. (
  • Inheritance of HACs from mother to daughter cells during division is key, and this speaks to the importance of the centromere--the cinched area of duplicated chromosomes responsible for holding together pairs of "sister" chromosomes created when cells divide. (
  • HACs differ in this regard, as they are entirely separate chromosomes. (
  • Researchers therefore generally include α-satellite DNA with CENP-B binding sites in sequences they wish to convert to human artificial chromosomes (HACs), but even with these seemingly appropriate sequences, centromere formation is hit-and-miss. (
  • The researchers were even able to generate HACs using a region of chromosome 4 that entirely lacked α-satellite repeats. (
  • Since their description in the late 1990s, human artificial chromosomes (HACs) carrying a functional kinetochore were considered as a promising system for gene delivery and expression with a potential to overcome many problems caused by the use of viral-based gene transfer systems. (
  • In this review, we summarize recent progress made in HAC technology and concentrate on details of two of the most advanced HACs, 21HAC generated by truncation of human chromosome 21 and alphoid(tetO)-HAC generated de novo using a synthetic tetO-alphoid DNA array. (
  • My main interest during the last four years has been the study of the centromere by using human artificial chromosomes (HACs) ( Figure 3 ). (
  • HACs are tiny synthetic chromosomes generated in the laboratory, which have an autonomous replication in the cell and show a similar stability as the natural chromosomes during the cell division. (
  • Since their first description, HACs have been used in basic research in cell and molecular biology, usually for the study of chromosome structure and function, as these chromosomes are not essential for the cell viability. (
  • Yeast artificial chromosome libraries containing large inserts from mouse and human DNA. (
  • Construction of yeast artificial chromosome libraries from pathogens and nonmodel organisms. (
  • Each plasmid supplies one chromosome end. (
  • Originated from a bacterial plasmid, a YAC contains a yeast centromeric region (CEN), a yeast origin of DNA replication, a cluster of unique rectriction sites and a selectable marker and a telomere region at the en of each arm. (
  • Building on our success, we and others in the synthetic chromosome field will now have a real chance to attain what has only been achieved so far in yeast cells. (
  • A human artificial chromosome (HAC) is a microchromosome that can act as a new chromosome in a population of human cells. (
  • A rtificial chromosomes are essentially miniature versions of real chromosomes that can replicate alongside their natural counterparts in host cells. (
  • a The human chromosome 21 was transferred from human cells to recombination-proficient chicken DT40 cells. (
  • When injected into single cells that grew into plants, the mini-chromosome was passed down to up to 93 percent of the plants' offspring for three generations. (
  • Transfer Of Yeast Artificial Chromosomes Into Mammalian Cells And Comparative Study Of Their Integrity," Gene 163:27-33 (1995). (
  • The Human HPRT Gene On a Yeast Artificial Chromosome Is Functional When Transferred To Mouse Cells By Cell Fusion," Genomics 9:742-750 (1991). (
  • Despite such changes, Bader and colleagues report, once the altered chromosomes were chemically synthesized - a process that involved stringing together individual DNA building blocks and placing the resulting chromosomes in living yeast cells - the cells grew normally. (
  • The use of human artificial chromosomes overcomes both of these problems by providing a new chromosome in addition to the ones that already exist in the cells of the subject. (
  • As a result of this careful debugging, yeast cells with the new synthetic chromosomes grow just as quickly as normal, wild, yeast in laboratory cultures, despite the wholesale alterations. (
  • The fact that they were able to do this across five different chromosomes, and the fitness is still similar to wild-type cells, that's pretty impressive," says Dan Gibson at Synthetic Genomics , a biotech company in La Jolla, California, which is developing synthetic chromosomes in another yeast species. (
  • The DNA is in blue and the network of microtubules in green, the machinery that helps the chromosomes to be distributed equally into the two identical daughter cells. (
  • Eventual errors in the distribution of the genetic material between the two daughter cells, phenomena known as aneuploidy, give rise to alterations of the number of chromosomes, which are the cause of many types of cancer and different congenital diseases, such as Down's syndrome (caused by an error in the chromosome 21 distribution during cell division). (
  • It is an artificially constructed chromosome and contains the telomeric , centromeric , and replication origin sequences needed for replication and preservation in yeast cells. (
  • While it had a very strong DNA damage response, similar to cells missing TRF2, there was hardly any chromosome end fusion. (
  • Thus, testing for fetal chromosomal abnormalities in the cells of amniotic fluid using a combination of chromosome G karyotype analysis and the BoBs™ assay should provide more accurate results [ 21 ]. (
  • Yeast chromosome III was selected for synthesis because it is among the smallest of the 16 yeast chromosomes and controls how yeast cells mate and undergo genetic change. (
  • Мега-дрожжевая искусственная хромосома - * мега дражджавая штучная храмасома * mega yeast artificial chromosome or megaYAC YAC клон, содержащий вставку из более чем одного миллиона п. (
  • A new generation of human artificial chromosomes for functional genomics and gene therapy. (
  • Huxley, "Mammalian Artificial Chromosomes: A New Tool For Gene Therapy," Gene Therapy 1:7-12 (1994). (
  • Engineering a Mini-herpesvirus As a General Strategy To Transduce Up To 180 kb Of Functional Self-replicating Human Mini-chromosomes," Gene Therapy 3:1081-1088 (1996). (
  • For cell replication to occur, human centromeres are not simply coded by a DNA sequence, unlike baker's yeast long used synthetic chromosome research. (
  • The Penn team's contribution will help speed creating useful research and clinical tools based on synthetic chromosomes. (
  • The synthetic chromosomes, containing DNA, were entirely designed on a computer, in a very similar way to how we design cars and microchips. (
  • The results , published in the 10 March issue of Science , are major progress on the road to building the first fully synthetic eukaryotic - or nucleus-containing - organism, which the Sc2.0 consortium hopes to complete in the next two years by swapping all 16 yeast chromosomes for engineered ones. (
  • Once equipped with a full set of synthetic and changeable chromosomes, baker's yeast could produce better versions of the important commodities it already delivers, including new antibiotics or more environmentally friendly biofuels. (
  • In March 2014, researchers led by Bader built the first synthetic yeast eukaryotic chromosome, synIII. (
  • Now, he and colleagues have described the assembly of five more synthetic chromosomes: synII, synV, synVI, synX, and synXII, which correspond to the smaller yeast chromosomes. (
  • It now sets the stage for the ultimate, which is putting all 16 synthetic chromosomes into one cell," says Gibson. (
  • The researchers named the artificial chromosome, described in this week's edition of Science , synIII, derived from the word "synthetic. (
  • As a computer scientist, I designed and developed algorithms to recode and edit the DNA sequence of yeast chromosomes. (
  • A large DNA sequence constructed in the laboratory to function like a human chromosome. (
  • In order to define a functional human centromere sequence, an artificial chromosome was constructed as a reproducible DNA molecule. (
  • This conventional sequence specific control of gene expression offers the opportunity for genetic manipulation, especially as only a single gene is typically present on a chromosome. (
  • If these elements are spliced into DNA in the proper location and orientation, then a yeast cell will replicate the artificial chromosome along with the other, natural chromosomes. (
  • Chromosomes, Artificial Artificial chromosomes are laboratory constructs that contain DNA sequences and that perform the critical functions of natural chromosomes. (
  • BUILDING A CENTROMERE: To convert a piece of cloned DNA into a centromere-containing human artificial chromosome (HAC), an array of repeated LacO sequences is incorporated into the DNA. (
  • They then replaced one of a living yeast cell's natural chromosomes with it - the first time this had been done in a eukaryote. (
  • Researchers led by Dr Jef Boeke of NYU Langone Medical Center's Institute for Systems Genetics have synthesized the first functional chromosome in brewer's yeast known scientifically as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (
  • Yes, the Y chromosome separates the guys from the gals, but scientists didn't think it was good for much else. (
  • An artist's rendering of a new "designer chromosome" shows red and blue pins and white diamonds at the spots where scientists engineered changes to the original chromosome. (
  • Expression screening of a yeast artificial chromosome contig r. (
  • Expression screening of a yeast artificial chromosome contig refines the location of the mouse H3a minor histocompatibility antigen gene. (
  • A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig is described that spans the interval between D2Mit444 and D2Mit17, a region known to contain H3a. (
  • A yeast artificial chromosome contig containing the complete Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene. (
  • FISH analyzes of the transformed cell lines showed that transformants of alpha21-I YAC contained a stably maintained mammalian artificial chromosome but those of alpha21-II YAC was integrated at telomere or centromere. (
  • The yeast artificial chromosome, which is often shortened to YAC, is an artificially constructed system that can undergo replication. (
  • These kilobase sized chromosomes provide a potential avenue to artificially produce them and introduce them into the macronucleus. (
  • The ability to clone large fragments of DNA in yeast artificial chromosomes (YAC's) has created the possibility of obtaining global physical maps of complex genomes. (
  • Laser chromosome welding may sound like sci-fi, but researchers have demonstrated a new technique using pulsed violet lasers to cut and paste chromosome fragments. (
  • 50 kbp) from P1-derived artificial chromosomes (PACs) was found to be hindered by the presence of contaminating Escherichia coli chromosomal fragments which, because of their smaller median size, are recovered preferentially as unwanted subclones. (
  • A team of researchers engineered a "maize mini-chromosome" (MMC) by stitching together a circular loop of DNA designed to fool a corn cell into treating it like one of its own chromosomes. (
  • In a paper published today in Cell , Penn researchers describe a new way to form an essential part of the artificial chromosome, called the centromere, by bypassing the biological requirements needed to form a natural one. (
  • In 2011, researchers formed a human artificial chromosome by truncating chromosome 14. (
  • In certain cases, the researchers did move especially large swaths of DNA from one chromosome to another. (
  • That's quite a role change for the once-lowly Y. For years, researchers viewed the Y chromosome as a genetic wasteland, good for little else but serving up a male reproductive system. (
  • Birds have chromosomes that allow researchers to see what the X and Y chromosomes were like before they diverged. (
  • Researchers have chopped, spliced and manipulated DNA to craft the first "designer chromosome," a genetic structure carefully engineered to foster scientific discovery. (
  • To build the first artificial copy of an entire yeast chromosome, an international team of researchers produced a modified version of yeast chromosome III. (
  • In making the souped-up yeast chromosome, the researchers altered roughly 15% of the original. (
  • Liu Y, Mitsukawa N, Vazquez-Tello A, Whittier RF (1995) Generation of a high-quality P1 library of Arabidopsis suitable for chromosome walking. (
  • Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This is accomplished by truncating the natural chromosome, followed by the introduction of unique genetic material via the Cre-Lox system of recombination. (
  • The artificial chromosome expression system ( AC es) is a unique, nonintegrating, nonviral gene-expression system, which functions like a natural chromosome. (
  • The purpose of this work is to clone functional human centromere DNA using technology of the yeast artificial chromosome (YAC). (
  • The chromosome research study is also the first time a non-invasive technology has been able to identify a specific chromosomal abnormality - trisomy 21 - based on morphological assessment through AI. (
  • As the yeast cell undergoes rounds of growth and division, the artificial chromosome is replicated as if it were a natural chromosomal constituent of the cell. (
  • A study by Ovation Fertility and Life Whisperer used artificial intelligence to accurately detect aneuploidy of chromosome 21, which causes Down syndrome. (
  • A recent, international collaborative study by U.S.-based Ovation Fertility and Australia-based Life Whisperer suggests that artificial intelligence (AI) models, applied to 2D images of Day 5 blastocysts, can non-invasively detect aneuploidy, specifically related to chromosome 21 - the chromosome linked to Down syndrome - with a high degree of accuracy. (