Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, 1-3: The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Painting: A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, 16-18: The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y: The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.Ring Chromosomes: Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.Chromosomes, Human, 4-5: The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Chromosome Structures: Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.Chromosomes, Human, 19-20: The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Chromosomes, Artificial, Human: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Chromosome Fragility: Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Chromosome Duplication: An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Abnormalities, MultiplePolytene Chromosomes: Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Cytogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.Karyotype: The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Chromosome Fragile Sites: Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Sex Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).Monosomy: The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Genes, X-Linked: Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Philadelphia Chromosome: An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Azure Stains: PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chromosomes, Archaeal: Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Chromosome Breakpoints: The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sex Chromatin: In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Chromosomes, Artificial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, elements such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, that are required for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance in progeny cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Sister Chromatid Exchange: An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Pachytene Stage: The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Genes, Y-Linked: Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.Euchromatin: Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Meiotic Prophase I: The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Radiation Hybrid Mapping: A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Genetic Heterogeneity: The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Sex Chromosome Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions of atypical sexual development associated with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions including MONOSOMY; TRISOMY; and MOSAICISM.
An assessment of gene prediction accuracy in large DNA sequences. (1/28)One of the first useful products from the human genome will be a set of predicted genes. Besides its intrinsic scientific interest, the accuracy and completeness of this data set is of considerable importance for human health and medicine. Though progress has been made on computational gene identification in terms of both methods and accuracy evaluation measures, most of the sequence sets in which the programs are tested are short genomic sequences, and there is concern that these accuracy measures may not extrapolate well to larger, more challenging data sets. Given the absence of experimentally verified large genomic data sets, we constructed a semiartificial test set comprising a number of short single-gene genomic sequences with randomly generated intergenic regions. This test set, which should still present an easier problem than real human genomic sequence, mimics the approximately 200kb long BACs being sequenced. In our experiments with these longer genomic sequences, the accuracy of GENSCAN, one of the most accurate ab initio gene prediction programs, dropped significantly, although its sensitivity remained high. Conversely, the accuracy of similarity-based programs, such as GENEWISE, PROCRUSTES, and BLASTX was not affected significantly by the presence of random intergenic sequence, but depended on the strength of the similarity to the protein homolog. As expected, the accuracy dropped if the models were built using more distant homologs, and we were able to quantitatively estimate this decline. However, the specificities of these techniques are still rather good even when the similarity is weak, which is a desirable characteristic for driving expensive follow-up experiments. Our experiments suggest that though gene prediction will improve with every new protein that is discovered and through improvements in the current set of tools, we still have a long way to go before we can decipher the precise exonic structure of every gene in the human genome using purely computational methodology. (+info)
Efficient male and female germline transmission of a human chromosomal vector in mice. (2/28)A small accessory chromosome that was mitotically stable in human fibroblasts was transferred into the hprt(-) hamster cell line CH and developed as a human chromosomal vector (HCV) by the introduction of a selectable marker and the 3' end of an HPRT minigene preceded by a loxP sequence. This HCV is stably maintained in the hamster cell line. It consists mainly of alphoid sequences of human chromosome 20 and a fragment of human chromosome region 1p22, containing the tissue factor gene F3. The vector has an active centromere, and telomere sequences are lacking. By transfecting a plasmid containing the 5' end of HPRT and a Cre-encoding plasmid into the HCV(+) hamster cell line, the HPRT minigene was reconstituted by Cre-mediated recombination and expressed by the cells. The HCV was then transferred to male mouse R1-ES cells and it did segregate properly. Chimeras were generated containing the HCV as an independent chromosome in a proportion of the cells. Part of the male and female offspring of the chimeras did contain the HCV. The HCV(+) F1 animals harbored the extra chromosome in >80% of the cells. The HCV was present as an independent chromosome with an active centromere and the human F3 gene was expressed from the HCV in a human-tissue-specific manner. Both male and female F1 mice did transmit the HCV to F2 offspring as an independent chromosome with properties similar to the original vector. This modified small accessory chromosome, thus, shows the properties of a useful chromosomal vector: It segregates stably as an independent chromosome, sequences can be inserted in a controlled way and are expressed from the vector, and the HCV is transmitted through the male and female germline in mice. (+info)
An efficient method for high-fidelity BAC/PAC retrofitting with a selectable marker for mammalian cell transfection. (3/28)Large-scale genomic sequencing projects have provided DNA sequence information for many genes, but the biological functions for most of them will only be known through functional studies. Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and P1-derived artificial chromosomes (PACs) are large genomic clones stably maintained in bacteria and are very important in functional studies through transfection because of their large size and stability. Because most BAC or PAC vectors do not have a mammalian selection marker, transfecting mammalian cells with genes cloned in BACs or PACs requires the insertion into the BAC/PAC of a mammalian selectable marker. However, currently available procedures are not satisfactory in efficiency and fidelity. We describe a very simple and efficient procedure that allows one to retrofit dozens of BACs in a day with no detectable deletions or unwanted recombination. We use a BAC/PAC retrofitting vector that, on transformation into competent BAC or PAC strains, will catalyze the specific insertion of itself into BAC/PAC vectors through in vivo cre/loxP site-specific recombination. (+info)
The Y chromosome in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha has accumulated unique repeat sequences harboring a male-specific gene. (4/28)The haploid liverwort Marchantia polymorpha has heteromorphic sex chromosomes, an X chromosome in the female and a Y chromosome in the male. We here report on the repetitive structure of the liverwort Y chromosome through the analysis of male-specific P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) clones, pMM4G7 and pMM23-130F12. Several chromosome-specific sequence elements of approximately 70 to 400 nt are combined into larger arrangements, which in turn are assembled into extensive Y chromosome-specific stretches. These repeat sequences contribute 2-3 Mb to the Y chromosome based on the observations of three different approaches: fluorescence in situ hybridization, dot blot hybridization, and the frequency of clones containing the repeat sequences in the genomic library. A novel Y chromosome-specific gene family was found embedded among these repeat sequences. This gene family encodes a putative protein with a RING finger motif and is expressed specifically in male sexual organs. To our knowledge, there have been no other reports for an active Y chromosome-specific gene in plants. The chromosome-specific repeat sequences possibly contribute to determining the identity of the Y chromosome in M. polymorpha as well as to maintaining genes required for male functions, as in mammals such as human. (+info)
Stable gene expression from a mammalian artificial chromosome. (5/28)We have investigated the potential of PAC-based vectors as a route to the incorporation of a gene in a mammalian artificial chromosome (MAC). Previously we demonstrated that a PAC (PAC7c5) containing alpha-satellite DNA generated mitotically stable MACs in human cells. To determine whether a functional HPRT gene could be assembled in a MAC, PAC7c5 was co-transfected with a second PAC containing a 140 kb human HPRT gene into HPRT-deficient HT1080 cells. Lines were isolated containing a MAC hybridizing with both alpha-satellite and HPRT probes. The MACs segregated efficiently, associated with kinetochore proteins and stably expressed HPRT message after 60 days without selection. Complementation of the parental HPRT deficiency was confirmed phenotypically by growth on HAT selection. These results suggest that MACs could be further developed for delivering a range of genomic copies of genes into cells and that stable transgene expression can be achieved. (+info)
Transcript map and complete genomic sequence for the 310 kb region of minimal allele loss on chromosome segment 11p15.5 in non-small-cell lung cancer. (6/28)Molecular, functional, and clinical analyses strongly suggest that chromosome segment 11p15.5 contains a gene involved in lung cancer pathogenesis. The critical region of allele loss is 310 kb in size. We used our contig of P1-phage artificial chromosome (PAC) clones together with newly identified bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones and the draft human genome sequence to complete a contiguous string of 380 407 bp. Three PAC clones that span the region were used to identify transcripts by exon trapping. Computational gene prediction algorithms were used to query the sequence for potential genes and exons. Screening for expression was performed with tissue-specific and cell line derived mRNA arrays. The region contains the complete SSA/Ro52 and RRM1 genes, exons 7-12 of the GOK gene, and the psirad pseudo-gene. A cluster of six nearly identical genes with an intact open reading frame (ORF) of 585 bp that share 75% identity with the HSPC182 gene was found. In addition, five putative novel genes were identified. Sequence tagged sites (STS) and polymorphic markers were used to screen 117 lung cancer cell lines for homozygous deletions and none were identified. These data provide the basis for the identification of a lung cancer suppressor gene on 11p15.5. (+info)
Disruption of a novel MFS transporter gene, DIRC2, by a familial renal cell carcinoma-associated t(2;3)(q35;q21). (7/28)Previously, we described a family with a significantly increased predisposition for renal cell cancer co-segregating with a t(2;3)(q35;q21) chromosomal translocation. Several primary tumors of the clear cell type from different family members were analyzed at a molecular level. Loss of the derivative chromosome 3 was consistently found. In addition, different somatic Von Hippel Lindau (VHL) gene mutations were observed in most of the tumors analyzed, even within the same patient. Based on these results a multistep tumorigenesis model was proposed in which (non-disjunctional) loss of the derivative chromosome 3 represents an early event and somatic mutation of the VHL gene represents a late event related to tumor progression. More recently, however, we noted that these two anomalies were absent in at least one early-stage tumor sample that we tested. Similar results were obtained in another family with renal cell cancer and t(3;6)(q12;q15), thus suggesting that another genetic event may precede these two oncogenetic steps. We speculate that deregulation of a gene(s) located at or near the translocation breakpoint may act as such. In order to identify such genes, a detailed physical map encompassing the 3q21 breakpoint region was constructed. Through a subsequent positional cloning effort we found that this breakpoint targets a hitherto unidentified gene, designated DIRC2 (disrupted in renal cancer 2). Computer predictions of the putative DIRC2 protein showed significant homology to different members of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of transporters. Based on additional DIRC2 expression and mutation analyses, we propose that the observed gene disruption may result in haplo-insufficiency and, through this mechanism, in the onset of tumor growth. (+info)
The use of chromosome-based vectors for animal transgenesis. (8/28)This article summarizes our efforts to use chromosome-based vectors for animal transgenesis, which may have a benefit for overcoming the size constraints of cloned transgenes in conventional techniques. Since the initial trial for introducing naturally occurring human chromosome fragments (hCFs) with large and complex immunogulobulin (Ig) loci into mice we have obtained several lines of trans-chromosomic (Tc) mice with transmittable hCFs. As expected the normal tissue-specific expression of introduced human genes was reproduced in them by inclusion of essential remote regulatory elements. Recent development of 'chromosome cloning' technique that enable construction of human artificial chromosomes (HACs) containing a defined chromosomal region should prevent the introduction of additional genes other than genes of interest and thus enhance the utility of chromosome vector system. Using this technique a panel of HACs harboring inserts ranging in size from 1.5 to 10 Mb from three human chromosomes (hChr2, 7, 22) has been constructed. Tc animals containing the HACs may be valuable not only as a powerful tool for functional genomics but also as an in vivo model to study therapeutic gene delivery by HACs. (+info)
... may refer to: Yeast artificial chromosome Bacterial artificial chromosome Human artificial chromosome P1- ... derived artificial chromosome Synthetic DNA of a base pair size comparable to a chromosome. ...
Human artificial chromosome
Yeast artificial chromosomes and bacterial artificial chromosomes were created before human artificial chromosomes, which first ... Alternative methods of creating transgenes, such as utilizing yeast artificial chromosomes and bacterial artificial chromosomes ... producing a chromosome 5 Mb in length. Truncation of chromosome 21 resulted in a human artificial chromosome that is ... A human artificial chromosome (HAC) is a microchromosome that can act as a new chromosome in a population of human cells. That ...
Yeast artificial chromosome
Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) Cosmid Fosmid Genetic engineering Human artificial chromosome Autonomously replicating ... Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are genetically engineered chromosomes derived from the DNA of the yeast, Saccharomyces ... "Mapping human chromosomes by walking with sequence-tagged sites from end fragments of yeast artificial chromosome inserts". ... Yeast Artificial Chromosomes at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) North Dakota State ...
Bacterial artificial chromosome
Cosmid End-sequence profiling Fosmid Human artificial chromosome Yeast artificial chromosome O'Connor M, Peifer M, Bender W ( ... A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is a DNA construct, based on a functional fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid), used for ... The bacterial artificial chromosome's usual insert size is 150-350 kbp. A similar cloning vector called a PAC has also been ... Domi A, Moss B (2002). "Cloning the vaccinia virus genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli and recovery ...
P1-derived artificial chromosome
Bacterial artificial chromosome Human artificial chromosome Yeast artificial chromosome Michael Yarmolinsky, Ronald Hoess (2015 ... Online Medical Dictionary P1-derived artificial chromosome P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) definition. ... The P1-derived artificial chromosome are DNA constructs that are derived from the DNA of P1 bacteriophage. They can carry large ...
In Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. Ed P. Chatterjee, In Tech Open Access Publisher, Croatia, p1-22. http://www.canberratimes. ... Deakin, J, Koina, E, Waters, P et al 2008, 'Physical map of two tammar wallaby chromosomes: a strategy for mapping in non-model ... Deakin, J.E. and Graves, J.A.M. (2010). Mapping genes on tammar wallaby target chromosomes. Macropods: The biology of kangaroos ... The status of dosage compensation in the multiple X chromosomes of the platypus', PLoS Genetics, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 1-13. ...
Glossary of biology
yeast artificial chromosome . yolk . Z lines . zoology . zygote . Contents: 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X ... chromosome A threadlike strand of DNA in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order. clonal selection . cloning ... artificial selection Professionals study the genotype and phenotype of parent organisms in the hope of producing a hybrid that ... aneuploidy The presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell. antibiotic A type of antimicrobial drug used in the ...
Fertility factor (bacteria)
Bioengineers have created F plasmids that can contain inserted foreign DNA; this is called a bacterial artificial chromosome. ... F' (F-prime) bacteria are formed by incorrect excision from the chromosome, resulting in F plasmid carrying bacterial sequences ...
The classic strategy to construct an artificial chromosome is bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). Basically, the target ... the fragments is cloned into plasmids to construct artificial chromosome such as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) which ... Another commonly used artificial chromosome is fosmid. The difference between BAC and fosmids is the size of the DNA inserted. ... ESP can be applied for either with or without constructed artificial chromosome. With BAC, precious samples can be immortalized ...
Insert of up to 3,000 kb may be carried by yeast artificial chromosome. Human artificial chromosome may be potentially useful ... Insert size of up to 350 kb can be cloned in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). BACs are maintained in E. coli with a copy ... BACs are based on F plasmid, another artificial chromosome called the PAC is based on the P1 phage. ... Kouprina N, Earnshaw WC, Masumoto H, Larionov V (2013). "A new generation of human artificial chromosomes for functional ...
In engineering large constructs of >100 kb, such as the Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs), or chromosomes, recombineering ... and for modifying DNA of any source often contained on a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), among other applications. ... "Rapid modification of bacterial artificial chromosomes by ET- recombination". Nucleic Acids Res. 27: 1555-1557. doi:10.1093/nar ... 2000). "An efficient recombination system for chromosome engineering in Escherichia coli". Proceedings of the National Academy ...
P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs) have features of both P1 vectors and Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs). Similar to P1 ... Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are linear DNA molecules containing the necessary features of an authentic yeast chromosome ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are circular DNA molecules, usually about 7kb in length, that are capable of holding ... Yoo EY, Kim S, Kim JY, Kim BD (August 2001). "Construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome library ...
Yu, Weichang; Yau, Yuan-Yeu; Birchler, James A. (2016). "Plant artificial chromosome technology and its potential application ... The top-down approach is generally considered as the more plausible means of generating extra-numary chromosomes for the use of ... Minichromosome technology allows for the stacking of genes side-by-side on the same chromosome thus reducing likelihood of ... By minimizing the amount of unnecessary genetic information on the chromosome and including the basic components necessary for ...
Chromogenic in situ hybridization
Shizuya, H; Kouros-Mehr, H (2001). "The development and applications of the bacterial artificial chromosome cloning system". ... "Using bacterial artificial chromosomes in leukemia research: The experience at the university cytogenetics laboratory in Brest ... labelled and mapped from bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). BACs were developed during the Human Genome Project as it was ... For CISH to work optimally, chromosomes must be in either interphase or metaphase. Tissue samples are securely attached to a ...
Human Genome Project
... "bacterial artificial chromosomes", or BACs, which are derived from bacterial chromosomes which have been genetically engineered ... one X chromosome and one Y chromosome) compared to female samples (which contain two X chromosomes). The other 22 chromosomes ( ... "A Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library for Sequencing the Complete Human Genome". Genome Research. 11 (3): 483-96. doi: ... In May 2006, another milestone was passed on the way to completion of the project, when the sequence of the last chromosome was ...
April 2000). "Construction and characterization of a Schistosoma mansoni bacterial artificial chromosome library". Genomics. 65 ... Chromosomes range in size from 18 to 73 MB and can be distinguished by size, shape, and C banding. In 2000, the first BAC ... Schistosoma mansoni has 8 pairs of chromosomes (2n = 16)-7 autosomal pairs and 1 sex pair. The female schistosome is ... of the bases organised into chromosomes. Schistosome eggs, which may become lodged within the hosts tissues, are the major ...
Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine
1997 - Team led by Professor Huntington Willard (Chair of Genetics) create world's first artificial human chromosome. M. Scott ... of the world's first human artificial chromosome. Integrated MD-PhD Training: In 1956, CWRU School of Medicine began an ... Shuvo Roy, Professor, Inventor of Artificial Kidney Nancy Talbot Clarke (1852 MD alumna) & Emily Blackwell (1854 MD alumna) - ...
Vector (molecular biology)
The four major types of vectors are plasmids, viral vectors, cosmids, and artificial chromosomes. Of these, the most commonly ...
Anthony A. Hyman
"Self-organization of microtubules into bipolar spindles around artificial chromosomes in Xenopus egg extracts". Nature. 382 ( ... At the University of California, San Francisco, Hyman investigated the interaction between chromosomes and microtubules that ... Elegans using RNAi of genes on chromosome III". Nature. 408 (6810): 331-6. doi:10.1038/35042526. PMID 11099034. Hyman, A. A.; ... create the mitotic forces that separate chromosomes in the lab of Tim Mitchison. He also created a number of tools that are ...
Trifunctional purine biosynthetic protein adenosine-3
"Cloning and in vivo expression of the human GART gene using yeast artificial chromosomes". EMBO J. 10 (7): 1629-34. PMC 452831 ... 2000). "The DNA sequence of human chromosome 21". Nature. 405 (6784): 311-9. doi:10.1038/35012518. PMID 10830953. Banerjee D, ...
"Construction of an infectious clone of canine herpesvirus genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome". Microbes Infect. 8 (4 ...
One popular way of studying EBV in vitro is to use bacterial artificial chromosomes. Epstein-Barr virus can be maintained and ...
"Construction and analysis of bacterial artificial chromosome libraries from a marine microbial assemblage". Environmental ... recent advances in molecular biological techniques allowed the construction of libraries in bacterial artificial chromosomes ( ...
RNA interference rescue by bacterial artificial chromosome transgenesis in mammalian tissue culture cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U ...
Jack W. Szostak
He is credited with the construction of the world's first yeast artificial chromosome. That achievement helped scientists to ... for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres. Szostak grew up in Montreal and Ottawa. Although Szostak does ... the specialized DNA sequences at the tips of chromosomes. In the early 90s his laboratory shifted its research direction and ... and the construction of artificial cellular life in the laboratory. Beyond his research, he has delivered talks about the ...
In P2's genome, the genes related to chromosome replication were likewise found to be more related to those in eukaryotes. ... One application is the creation of artificial derivatives from S. acidocaldarius proteins, named affitins. Intracellular ... Another sequenced species, S. tokodaii has a circular chromosome as well but is slightly smaller with 2,694,756 bp. Both ... 7 (2,694,756 nucleotides). The archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus has a circular chromosome that consists of 2,992,245 bp. ...
The chromosome-based HPP aims to expand our understanding of the human proteome with a focus on expanding the understanding of each and every gene on each chromosome. For the most complete and up-to-date information available, visit the C-HPP portal.. ...
A Genetic Variant in the Distal Enhancer Region of the Human Renin Gene Affects Renin Expression - pdf descargar
A Genetic Variant in the Distal Enhancer Region of the Human Renin Gene Affects Renin Expression. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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Here, Mahler shows the acuteness of her observation and the creativity of her formulation. In seeing the various grades of space, we will appreciate how accurate this formulation is. She is stating here that there are two kinds of body-image, or in her words, the body ego contains two kinds of self-representations. One body-image is related to the outside, in ...
Dr. William F. Gadbois has a 3.0/5 rating from patients. Visit RateMDs for Dr. William F. Gadbois reviews, contact info, practice history, affiliated hospitals & more.
DNA-binding proteins in cells and membrane blebs of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. | Journal of Bacteriology
Naturally elaborated membrane bleb fractions BI and BII of Neisseria gonorrhoeae contain both linear and circular DNAs. Because little is known about the interactions between DNA and blebs, studies were initiated to identify specific proteins that bind DNA in elaborated membrane blebs. Western immunoblots of whole-cell and bleb proteins from transformation-competent and DNA-uptake-deficient (dud) mutants were probed with single- or double-stranded gonococcal DNA, pBR322, or synthetic DNA oligomers containing intact or altered gonococcal transformation uptake sequences. The specificity and sensitivity of a nonradioactive DNA-binding protein assay was evaluated, and the assay was used to visualize DNA-protein complexes on the blots. The complexes were then characterized by molecular mass, DNA-binding specificity, and expression in bleb fractions. The assay effectively detected blotted DNA-binding proteins. At least 17 gonococcal DNA-binding proteins were identified; unique subsets occurred in BI ...
Abstract 191: Transcriptional Regulation of Renin by Nuclear Receptors Co-regulated With Renin | Hypertension
Expression of the renin gene is required to maintain normal morphological and physiological identity of renal juxtaglomerular (JG) cells, yet the mechanisms regulating renin gene transcription remain elusive. We re-examined data from Brunskill et. al (JASN 22:2213, 2011), investigating genome-wide gene expression in JG and other renal cell types. Based on our previous data implicating nuclear receptors (RAR, RXR, VDR, PPARG, Nr2f2 and Nr2f6) in the regulation of mouse and human renin gene expression, we focused our analysis on the expression of genes encoding the 48 nuclear hormone receptors and their co-regulation with renin. Several nuclear receptors have an expression pattern emulating that of renin, that is, they were similarly enriched in JG cells but not in other cell types. These include Esr1, Nr1h4, Ppara, VDR, Nr1i2, Ppard, Hnf4g, Nr1h3, Thrb, Hnf4a, Esrrg, Nr4a3, Nr3c2, and Ar. We tested the hypothesis that a nuclear receptor that is co-regulated with renin may participate in renin ...
Following manuscript should be referred in the publication on a scientific journal.1. Liu YG, Shirano Y, Fukaki H, Yanai Y, Tasaka M, Tabata S, Shibata D. Complementation of plant mutants with large genomic DNA fragments by atransformation-competent artificial chromosome vector accelerates positionalcloning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 May 25;96(11):6535-40. PubMed PMID:10339623 ...
GenomePlex® Single Cell WGA Kit CGH Data. The GenomePlex Single Cell WGA (WGA-4) provides accurate and unbiased amplification that preserves the original genome representation.
Myers,G.S., Rasko,D.A., Cheung,J.K., Ravel,J., Seshadri,R., DeBoy,R.T., Ren,Q., Varga,J., Awad,M.M., Brinkac,L.M., Daugherty,S.C., Haft,D.H., Dodson,R.J., Madupu,R., Nelson,W.C., Rosovitz,M.J., Sullivan,S.A., Khouri,H., Dimitrov,G.I., Watkins,K.L., Mullig, "Skewed genomic variability in strains of the toxigenic bacterial pathogen, Clostridium perfringens", Genome Res. 16 (8), 1031-1040 (2006) PUBMED 16825665 ...
QTL mapping is an important step in gene fine mapping, map-based cloning, and the efficient use of gene information in molecular breeding. Questions are frequently met and asked in the application of QTL mapping in practical ...
Figure D is a screen shot of the web interface of the Genomic similarity search tool constructed with the Ferret toolkit. Each row shows one similar gene, its gene/ORF names, link to the genes information, its distance to the query gene, and its colored expression visualization. The figure shows the results of searching gene YHL011C. ...
Gene Information This gene encodes a protein kinase activated by double-stranded RNA which mediates the effects of interferon in response to viral infection. Mutations in this gene have been associated with dystonia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq Nov 2008]. ...
A M Snijders, N Nowak, R Segraves, S Blackwood, N Brown, J Conroy, G Hamilton, A K Hindle, B Huey, K Kimura, S Law, K Myambo, J Palmer, B Ylstra, J P Yue, J W Gray, A N Jain, D Pinkel & D G Albertson , Assembly of microarrays for genome-wide measurement of DNA copy number, Nature Genetics 29, pp 263 - 264 (2001) Brief ...
The primary structure of human renin precursor has been deduced from its cDNA sequence. A library of cDNA clones was constructed from human kidney poly(A)+ RNA by applying the vector/primer method of Okayama and Berg. The library was screened for human renin sequences by hybridization with the previously cloned mouse renin cDNA. Of the 240,000 colonies screened, 35 colonies that were positive for hybridization were isolated. Two recombinant plasmids containing long inserts of about 1,300 and 1,600 base pairs were selected for sequence analysis. The amino acid sequence predicted from the cDNA sequence shows that the human renin precursor consists of 406 amino acids with a pre and a pro segment carrying 20 and 46 amino acids, respectively. A high degree of sequence homology was found upon comparison of the mouse and human renins. Close similarities were also observed in the primary structures of renin and aspartyl proteinases that have known three-dimensional structures, suggesting a similar ...
Trost,E., Blom,J., de Castro Soares,S., Huang,I.H., Al-Dilaimi,A., Schroder,J., Jaenicke,S., Dorella,F.A., Rocha,F.S., Miyoshi,A., Azevedo,V., Schneider,M.P., Silva,A., Camello,T.C., Sabbadini,P.S., Santos,C.S., Santos,L.S., Hirata,R. Jr., Mattos-Guaraldi, "Pangenomic Study of Corynebacterium diphtheriae That Provides Insights into the Genomic Diversity of Pathogenic Isolates from Cases of Classical Diphtheria, Endocarditis, and Pneumonia", J. Bacteriol. 194 (12), 3199-3215 (2012) PUBMED 22505676 ...
MICER is a method developed by Allan Bradley. It consists of four sets of genomic clones that contain a loxP site in either orientation site and either the proximal or the distal half of a HPRT mini gene. After Cre mediated recombination between the loxP sites of two different MICER clones a complete HPRT mini gene is reconstituted and one can select for the Cre induced alteration of the genome. If the two loxP sites are located within the same chromosome and have the same orientation one will end up with a deletion of the sequences located between the loxP sites. If the loxP sites are inversely orientated Cre mediated recombination will induce an inversion of the sequences between the two loxP sites (it should be noticed though, that without selection prolonged presence of Cre can lead to a reversion of the fragment). If the loxP sites are situated on different chromosomes Cre mediated recombination will lead to reciprocal translocation between the two chromosomes, which is indeed the situation ...
chapter 7 - www.sumanasinc.com Chapter 7 Genomes and Chromosomes*Read this chapter Genetics Molecule of heredity...
View Notes - chapter 7 from BIOL 2051 at LSU. www.sumanasinc.com Chapter 7- Genomes and Chromosomes *Read this chapter* Genetics Molecule of heredity Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Gene Information in
Gene Information This gene encodes a protein belonging to ubiE/COQ5 methyltransferase family. The gene is deleted in Williams syndrome a multisystem developmental disorder caused by the deletion of contiguous genes at 7q11.22-q11.23. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008]. ...
The Office of Research at Wichita State University in Wichita , Kansas serves as an axis of research collaboration for Wichita State University. Research, public service and sponsored programs help fulfill WSUs diverse mission. Sponsored programs are scholarly, professional and creative activities that university personnel conduct with support from external funding such as grants, contracts and cooperative agreements.
Medical definition of bacterial artificial chromosome: a genetically engineered bacterial chromosome that is used as a vector to clone DNA segments, …
FRT flanked, Pro and Euk. Neomycin Selection Cassette plus loxP site(FRT-PGK-gb2-neo-FRT-loxP) from Gene Bridges GmbH
... ,The with a eukaryotic promoter (PGK) for expression of n,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
The LIS team continue to introduce a new look to the site and a bit of new functionality in the next few months, hopefully making the Legume Information System more useful in your work and more comfortable to use. In the works is a gene information resource that encourages you to provide annotation and comments.. Ideas and feedback?. « Recent News. ...
Anolis</em> Sex Chromosomes Are Derived from A Single Ancestral Pa" by Tony Gamble, Anthony J. Geneva...
We confirmed homology of sex chromosomes in the genus by performing FISH of an X‐linked bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) ... Taken together, these results are consistent with long‐term conservation of sex chromosomes in the group. Our results pave the ... We found that heteromorphic sex chromosomes evolved multiple times in the genus. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of ... We used model‐based comparative methods to reconstruct karyotype evolution and the presence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes ...https://epublications.marquette.edu/bio_fac/755/
Men with Klinefelter Syndrome Can Still Be Fathers Using Own Sperm Through MicroTESE
One in every 500 men is born with an extra X chromosome, with a karyotype of 47, XXY rather than the typical 46, XY male ... Artificial Fertilization (1) *Austin Fertility & Reproductive Medicine Blog (31) *Austin Fertility in the News (26) ...https://www.austinfertility.com/men-with-klinefelter-syndrome-can-still-be-fathers-using-own-sperm-through-microtese/
Bacterial artificial chromosome - Wikipedia
Yeast artificial chromosome. References. *^ OConnor M, Peifer M, Bender W (2018). "Construction of large DNA segments in ... A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is a DNA construct, based on a functional fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid), used for ... The bacterial artificial chromosomes usual insert size is 150-350 kbp. A similar cloning vector called a PAC has also been ... The Big Bad BAC: Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes - a review from the Science Creative Quarterly ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacterial_artificial_chromosome
P1-derived artificial chromosome - Wikipedia
Yeast artificial chromosome. References. *^ Yarmolinsky M, Hoess R (November 2015). "The Legacy of Nat Sternberg: The ... A P1-derived artificial chromosome is a DNA construct that was derived from the DNA of P1 bacteriophage. It can carry large ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=P1-derived_artificial_chromosome&oldid=903800665" ... Online Medical Dictionary P1-derived artificial chromosome. *P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) definition ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P1-derived_artificial_chromosome
Bacterial artificial chromosome
... everything you need for studying or teaching Bacterial artificial chromosome. ... Immediately download the Bacterial artificial chromosome summary, chapter-by-chapter analysis, book notes, essays, quotes, ... Bacterial artificial chromosome Summary. Everything you need to understand or teach Bacterial artificial chromosome. ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (Bac) Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) involve a cloning system that is derived from a ...http://www.bookrags.com/Bacterial_artificial_chromosome/
yeast artificial chromosome - Everything2.com
A vector (abbreviated YAC) used to clone DNA fragments (up to 400 kilobase|kb); it is constructed from the telomere|telomeric, centromere|centromeric, a...https://everything2.com/title/yeast+artificial+chromosome
Genome linking with yeast artificial chromosomes. - PubMed - NCBI
Genome linking with yeast artificial chromosomes.. Coulson A1, Waterston R, Kiff J, Sulston J, Kohara Y. ... However, with the availability of a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) vector, we decided to use this alternative source of ... The haploid genome of Caenorhabditis elegans consists of some 80 x 10(6) base pairs of DNA contained in six chromosomes. The ... and replicate in the same manner as the host chromosomes. ...https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3045566?dopt=Abstract
Arabidopsis Transformation with Large Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes | SpringerLink
Alonso J.M., Stepanova A.N. (2014) Arabidopsis Transformation with Large Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. In: Sanchez-Serrano ... Complementation of plant mutants with large genomic DNA fragments by a transformation-competent artificial chromosome vector ... Generation of a high-quality P1 library of Arabidopsis suitable for chromosome walking. Plant J 7:351-358CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...https://link.springer.com/protocol/10.1007%2F978-1-62703-580-4_15
Artificial Chromosomes Coming to Life | Science
In his Perspective, Willard looks at the potential advantages of using a human artificial chromosome to maintain expression of ...http://science.sciencemag.org/content/290/5495/1308
Construction of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library | SpringerLink
Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) represent a very useful cloning system for large DNA fragments and utilize the ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Isolation Buffer Average Insert Size Partial Digestion Haploid Genomic Size These keywords were ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) represent a very useful cloning system for large DNA fragments and utilize the ... Choi, S. and Wing, R. A. (2000) The construction of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries from plants, in Plant ...https://link.springer.com/protocol/10.1385/1-59259-235-X:057
Artificial chromosome vector - The General Hospital Corporation
In addition, development of artificial plant chromosome vectors will facilitate the construction of artificial chromosomes that ... artificial chromosomes. The ability to construct artificial chromosomes that function in yeast, however, does not teach one ... Artificial chromosomes participate in homologous recombination preferentially. Since the artificial chromosomes remain intact ... where they are maintained as artificial chromosomes. These artificial yeast chromosomes contain cloned genes, replicators, ...http://www.freepatentsonline.com/5270201.html
Mapping the Drosophila genome with yeast artificial chromosomes | Science
Mapping the Drosophila genome with yeast artificial chromosomes Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... The ability to clone large fragments of DNA in yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) has created the possibility of obtaining ...http://science.sciencemag.org/content/246/4930/641
Yeast artificial chromosomes - OpenWetWare
Isolation of yeast artificial chromosomes free of endogenous yeast chromosomes: construction of alternate hosts with defined ... Amplification of large artificial chromosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Nov;87(21):8242-6. PubMed ID:2236036 , HubMed [ ... Copy number amplification of yeast artificial chromosomes. Methods Enzymol. 1992;216:603-14. PubMed ID:1336106 , HubMed [ ... Complete sequence of the yeast artificial chromosome cloning vector pYAC4. Gene. 1994 Apr 8;141(1):125-7. PubMed ID:8163163 , ...https://openwetware.org/wiki/Yeast_artificial_chromosomes
Artificial chromosome - Patent # 6716608 - PatentGenius
... preparing a CEPH artificial yeast chromosome library containing a human genome, identifying clones having a repetitive human ... telomere sequences are added to the ends of its chromosome. ... An artificial mammalian chromosome, more specifically, a clone ... An "artificial chromosome" that is a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) vector has been developed. A long-chain DNA molecule ... Any cell into which the artificial chromosome is to be introduced can be used as long as the artificial chromosome can function ...http://www.patentgenius.com/patent/6716608.html
Human artificial chromosome - wikidoc
Yeast artificial chromosomes and bacterial artificial chromosomes were invented before human artificial chromosomes, which ... A human artificial chromosome (short HAC) is a microchromosome that can act as a new chromosome in a population of human cells ... That is, instead of 46 chromosomes, the cell could have 47 with the 47th being very small, roughly 6-10 megabases in size, and ... They are useful in expression studies as gene transfer vectors and are a tool for elucidating human chromosome function. Grown ...https://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/Human_artificial_chromosome
Yeast artificial chromosomes - OpenWetWare
Isolation of yeast artificial chromosomes free of endogenous yeast chromosomes: construction of alternate hosts with defined ... Amplification of large artificial chromosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Nov;87(21):8242-6. PubMed ID:2236036 , HubMed [ ... Copy number amplification of yeast artificial chromosomes. Methods Enzymol. 1992;216:603-14. PubMed ID:1336106 , HubMed [ ... Complete sequence of the yeast artificial chromosome cloning vector pYAC4. Gene. 1994 Apr 8;141(1):125-7. PubMed ID:8163163 , ...https://openwetware.org/wiki/?title=Yeast_artificial_chromosomes&oldid=92696
Electroporation of Yeast Artificial Chromosomes ( Maren Bell and Robert Mo...)
Artificial,Chromosomes,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest ... Electroporation of Yeast Artificial Chromosomes. ...Maren Bell and Robert Mortimer Human Genome Center Divisionof Cel... ... Transformation of yeast with yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) has traditionally been performed by a PEG-spheroplast ...http://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-technology/Electroporation-of-Yeast-Artificial-Chromosomes-1207-1/
THE BIG BAD BAC: BACTERIAL ARTIFICIAL CHROMOSOMES | SCQ
Super-Sized Inserts Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC) have been developed to hold much larger pieces of DNA than a plasmid ... breed healthier farm animals or even process radioactive waste are just a few examples of what Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC) have been developed to hold much larger pieces of DNA than a plasmid can. BAC vectors ... breed healthier farm animals or even process radioactive waste are just a few examples of what Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes ...https://www.scq.ubc.ca/the-big-bad-bac-bacterial-artificial-chromosomes/
YAC (Yeast Artificial Chromosome) | VectorBase
YAC (Yeast Artificial Chromosome). Originated from a bacterial plasmid, a YAC contains a yeast centromeric region (CEN), a ... where the DNA is propagated along with the other chromosomes of the yeast cell. ...https://www.vectorbase.org/glossary/yac-yeast-artificial-chromosome
Viral Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: Generation, Mutagenesis, and Removal of Mini-F Sequences
... B. Karsten Tischer and ...https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2012/472537/abs/
Viral Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: Generation, Mutagenesis, and Removal of Mini-F Sequences
A. Domi and B. Moss, "Engineering of a vaccinia virus bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli by bacteriophage λ- ... Viral Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: Generation, Mutagenesis, and Removal of Mini-F Sequences. B. Karsten Tischer and ... A. Domi and B. Moss, "Cloning the vaccinia virus genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli and recovery ... Y. Saeki, T. Ichikawa, A. Saeki et al., "Herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA amplified as bacterial artificial chromosome in ...https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2012/472537/
Commissione europea : CORDIS : Progetti e risultati : Making better artificial chromosomes for mammalian cells
Making better artificial chromosomes for mammalian cells. Project ID: HPRN-CT-2000-00089. Finanziato nellambito di: FP5-HUMAN ... Making better artificial chromosomes for mammalian cells. Dal 2000-09-01 al 2004-08-31 ...http://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/53946_it.html
Penn biochemists streamline construction method for human artificial chromosomes
Researchers describe a new way to form an essential part of the artificial chromosome, called the centromere, by bypassing the ... In a paper published today in Cell, Penn researchers describe a new way to form an essential part of the artificial chromosome ... Penn biochemists streamline construction method for human artificial chromosomes. July 25, 2019. (PHILADELPHIA) - For the past ... Genes versus chromosomes: A battle for expression in fly testes. Unique sex chromosomes occur in many species. An unequal pair ...https://www.brightsurf.com/news/article/072519488582/penn-biochemists-streamline-construction-method-for-human-artificial-chromosomes.html
Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Mutagenesis Using Recombineering
... Kumaran Narayanan 1, 2 * and Qingwen Chen 2 ... Construction of human artificial chromosome vectors by recombineering. Gene. 2005;351:29-38. [PubMed] ... Modification of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and preparation of intact BAC DNA for generation of transgenic mice. [ ... Bacterial artificial chromosomes, or BACs, are fertility- (F-) factor-based plasmid vectors that replicate stably in low copy ...http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3005948/
Yeast Artificial Chromosome
Selected yeast artificial chromosome links: © 1997-2006 Healthboard.com. Healthboard.com is a purely informational website, and ... yeast artificial chromosome. A vector used to clone DNA fragments (up to 400 kb); it is constructed from the telomeric, ...http://healthboard.com/Encyclopedia/Biotech/term/yeast_artificial_chromosome.html
- Distribution of CENP-B Boxes Reflected In CREST Centromere Antigenic Sites On Long-Range Alpha-Satellite DNA Arrays Of Human Chromosome 21," Hum. (patentgenius.com)
- In a paper published today in Cell , Penn researchers describe a new way to form an essential part of the artificial chromosome, called the centromere, by bypassing the biological requirements needed to form a natural one. (brightsurf.com)
- By being able to build a centromere on a HAC in a more straightforward way, we are closer to scaling up to full-size chromosomes. (brightsurf.com)
- Inheritance of HACs from mother to daughter cells during division is key, and this speaks to the importance of the centromere--the cinched area of duplicated chromosomes responsible for holding together pairs of "sister" chromosomes created when cells divide. (brightsurf.com)
- For example, mammals depend on the CENP-A protein to specify centromere location on chromosomes for precise cell division. (brightsurf.com)
- We've taken our centromere bypass method to make a fully functional HAC without the cloning nightmares that repetitive centromere DNA has presented to mammalian chromosome engineers through the last two decades," Black said. (brightsurf.com)
- To engineer a less disruptive, higher capacity gene stacker, Preuss and her co-workers assembled from scratch their own centromere, the spot on the chromosome that the cell latches onto when its DNA gets copied and divvied up during cell division, and loaded it with DNA encoding a red fluorescent protein, along with a second marker, for easy spotting. (scientificamerican.com)
- Each human chromosome contains a centromere consisting of identical (high-order repeats or HOR) and diverged alphoid DNA repeats that form an array of 0.5-5 Mb in size. (nih.gov)
- Each chromosome consists of two arms of DNA that are linked by a region known as the centromere. (encyclopedia.com)
- The target DNA is flanked by the telomere regions that mark the ends of the chromosome, and is interspersed with the centromere region that is vital for replication. (encyclopedia.com)
- Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are synthetic double stranded linear constructs containing the elements necessary for replication as independent chromosomes in yeast. (openwetware.org)
- Use Of Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs) For Studying Control Of Gene Expression: Correct Regulation Of The Genes Of a Human .beta. (patentgenius.com)
- Targeted Integration Of Neomycin Into Yeast Artifical Chromosomes (YACs) For Transfection Into Mammalian Cells," Nucleic Acids Research 20(12):2971-2976 (1992). (patentgenius.com)
- Transformation of yeast with yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) has traditionally been performed by a PEG-spheroplast procedure. (bio-medicine.org)
- YACs are capable of cloning extremely large segments of DNA (over 1 megabase long) into a host cell, where the DNA is propagated along with the other chromosomes of the yeast cell. (vectorbase.org)
- Transfer Of Yeast Artificial Chromosomes Into Mammalian Cells And Comparative Study Of Their Integrity," Gene 163:27-33 (1995). (patentgenius.com)
- Huxley, "Mammalian Artificial Chromosomes: A New Tool For Gene Therapy," Gene Therapy 1:7-12 (1994). (patentgenius.com)
- Huxley, "Mammalian Artificial Chromosomes and Chromosome Transgenics," Trends Genet. (patentgenius.com)
- In this review, we summarize recent progress made in HAC technology and concentrate on details of two of the most advanced HACs, 21HAC generated by truncation of human chromosome 21 and alphoid(tetO)-HAC generated de novo using a synthetic tetO-alphoid DNA array. (nih.gov)
- The TEL/Δq-hisD and TEL/Δp-PGK-Puro constructs were used for chromosome 21 truncation. (nih.gov)
- Truncation of chromosome 21 resulted in a human artificial chromosome that is mitotically stable. (wikipedia.org)
- Mapping Human Telomere Regions With YAC and P1 Clones: Chromosome-Specific Markers For 27 Telomeres Including 149 STSs and 24 Polymorphisms For 14 Proterminal Regions," Genomics 36:492-506 (1996). (patentgenius.com)
- The end of each chromosome arm contains a region of DNA called the telomere. (encyclopedia.com)
- The telomere DNA does not code for any product, but serves as a border to define the size of the chromosome. (encyclopedia.com)
- PHILADELPHIA) - For the past 20 years, researchers have been trying to perfect the construction of human artificial chromosomes, or HACs for short. (brightsurf.com)
- Our developments streamline the construction and characterization of HACs to aid in efforts to make synthetic whole human chromosomes," said Ben Black, PhD, a professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, who has dedicated decades to understanding the process. (brightsurf.com)
- HACs essentially function as new mini-chromosomes carrying engineered sets of genes that are inherited alongside a cell's natural set of chromosomes. (brightsurf.com)
- Think of the HACs we build now as model-sized chromosomes," said first author Glennis Logsdon, PhD, a doctoral student in Black's lab at the time of the study and now a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Washington. (brightsurf.com)
- Since their description in the late 1990s, human artificial chromosomes (HACs) carrying a functional kinetochore were considered as a promising system for gene delivery and expression with a potential to overcome many problems caused by the use of viral-based gene transfer systems. (nih.gov)
- HACs differ in this regard, as they are entirely separate chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
- A team of researchers engineered a "maize mini-chromosome" (MMC) by stitching together a circular loop of DNA designed to fool a corn cell into treating it like one of its own chromosomes. (scientificamerican.com)
- In 2011, researchers formed a human artificial chromosome by truncating chromosome 14. (wikipedia.org)
- The Human HPRT Gene On a Yeast Artificial Chromosome Is Functional When Transferred To Mouse Cells By Cell Fusion," Genomics 9:742-750 (1991). (patentgenius.com)
- A human artificial chromosome (short HAC ) is a microchromosome that can act as a new chromosome in a population of human cells. (wikidoc.org)
- Building on our success, we and others in the synthetic chromosome field will now have a real chance to attain what has only been achieved so far in yeast cells. (brightsurf.com)
- When injected into single cells that grew into plants, the mini-chromosome was passed down to up to 93 percent of the plants' offspring for three generations. (scientificamerican.com)
- a The human chromosome 21 was transferred from human cells to recombination-proficient chicken DT40 cells. (nih.gov)
- The use of human artificial chromosomes overcomes both of these problems by providing a new chromosome in addition to the ones that already exist in the cells of the subject. (thefreedictionary.com)
- She said that the point of creating the human artificial chromosome project is to develop a shuttle vector for gene delivery into human cells to study gene function in human cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
- However, with the availability of a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) vector, we decided to use this alternative source of large DNA fragments to obtain linkage. (nih.gov)
- The ability to clone large fragments of DNA in yeast artificial chromosomes (YAC's) has created the possibility of obtaining global physical maps of complex genomes. (sciencemag.org)