Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.
The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
A genus of aerobic, chemolithotrophic, coccoid ARCHAEA whose organisms are thermoacidophilic. Its cells are highly irregular in shape, often lobed, but occasionally spherical. It has worldwide distribution with organisms isolated from hot acidic soils and water. Sulfur is used as an energy source.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A family of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIALES. Cell membranes are composed mainly of polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons ether-linked to glycerol. Its organisms are found in anaerobic habitats throughout nature.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are pseudosarcina, coccoid or sheathed rod-shaped and catabolize methyl groups. The cell wall is composed of protein. The order includes one family, METHANOCOCCACEAE. (From Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology, 1989)
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA comprised of thermoacidophilic, sulfur-dependent organisms. The two orders are SULFOLOBALES and THERMOPROTEALES.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
A genus of anaerobic coccoid METHANOCOCCACEAE whose organisms are motile by means of polar tufts of flagella. These methanogens are found in salt marshes, marine and estuarine sediments, and the intestinal tract of animals.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.
A species of thermoacidophilic ARCHAEA in the family Sulfolobaceae, found in volcanic areas where the temperature is about 80 degrees C and SULFUR is present.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
A species of halophilic archaea found in the Dead Sea.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
A species of strictly anaerobic, hyperthermophilic archaea which lives in geothermally-heated marine sediments. It exhibits heterotropic growth by fermentation or sulfur respiration.
The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The large subunit of the archaeal 70s ribosome. It is composed of the 23S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 40 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species of gram-negative hyperthermophilic ARCHAEA found in deep ocean hydrothermal vents. It is an obligate anaerobe and obligate chemoorganotroph.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.
The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A species of extremely thermophilic, sulfur-reducing archaea. It grows at a maximum temperature of 95 degrees C. in marine or deep-sea geothermal areas.
A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.
A species of aerobic, chemolithotrophic ARCHAEA consisting of coccoid cells that utilize sulfur as an energy source. The optimum temperature for growth is 70-75 degrees C. They are isolated from acidic fields.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
Anaerobic hyperthermophilic species of ARCHAEA, isolated from hydrothermal fluid samples. It is obligately heterotrophic with coccoid cells that require TRYPTOPHAN for growth.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A genus of facultatively anaerobic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family SULFOLOBACEAE. Cells are highly irregular in shape and thermoacidophilic. Lithotrophic growth occurs aerobically via sulfur oxidation in some species. Distribution includes solfataric springs and fields, mudholes, and geothermically heated acidic marine environments.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
A kingdom of hyperthermophilic ARCHAEA found in diverse environments.
A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A genus of strictly anaerobic ultrathermophilic archaea, in the family THERMOCOCCACEAE, occurring in heated seawaters. They exhibit heterotrophic growth at an optimum temperature of 100 degrees C.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A genus of facultatively anaerobic heterotrophic archaea, in the order THERMOPLASMALES, isolated from self-heating coal refuse piles and acid hot springs. They are thermophilic and can grow both with and without sulfur.
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A family of THERMOPROTEALES consisting of variable length rigid rods without septa. They grow either chemolithoautotrophically or by sulfur respiration. The four genera are: PYROBACULUM; THERMOPROTEUS; Caldivirga; and Thermocladium. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2d ed)
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A genus of anaerobic, rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIACEAE. Its organisms are nonmotile and use ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. These methanogens are found in aquatic sediments, soil, sewage, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. There are two families: METHANOSARCINACEAE and Methanosaetaceae.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
An order of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped methanogens, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are nonmotile, do not catabolize carbohydrates, proteinaceous material, or organic compounds other than formate or carbon monoxide, and are widely distributed in nature.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
The small subunit of archaeal RIBOSOMES. It is composed of the 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and about 28 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A family of archaea, in the order DESULFUROCOCCALES, consisting of anaerobic cocci which utilize peptides, proteins or carbohydrates facultatively by sulfur respiration or fermentation. There are eight genera: AEROPYRUM, Desulfurococcus, Ignicoccus, Staphylothermus, Stetteria, Sulfophoboccus, Thermodiscus, and Thermosphaera. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2d ed)
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
A family of anaerobic METHANOCOCCALES whose organisms are motile by means of flagella. These methanogens use carbon dioxide as an electron acceptor.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
An order of CRENARCHAEOTA consisting of aerobic or facultatively aerobic, chemolithotrophic cocci which are extreme thermoacidophiles. They lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA, comprising thermophilic organisms from terrestrial hot springs that are among the most primitive of all life forms. They have undergone comparatively little evolutionary change since the last common ancestor of all extant life.
Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.

Nucleoid structure and partition in Methanococcus jannaschii: an archaeon with multiple copies of the chromosome. (1/63)

We measured different cellular parameters in the methanogenic archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii. In exponential growth phase, the cells contained multiple chromosomes and displayed a broad variation in size and DNA content. In most cells, the nucleoids were organized into a thread-like network, although less complex structures also were observed. During entry into stationary phase, chromosome replication continued to termination while no new rounds were initiated: the cells ended up with one to five chromosomes per cell with no apparent preference for any given DNA content. Most cells in stationary phase contained more than one genome equivalent. Asymmetric divisions were detected in stationary phase, and the nucleoids were found to be significantly more compact than in exponential phase.  (+info)

Changes in cell size and DNA content in Sulfolobus cultures during dilution and temperature shift experiments. (2/63)

Stationary-phase cultures of different hyperthermophilic species of the archaeal genus Sulfolobus were diluted into fresh growth medium and analyzed by flow cytometry and phase-fluorescence microscopy. After dilution, cellular growth started rapidly but no nucleoid partition, cell division, or chromosome replication took place until the cells had been increasing in size for several hours. Initiation of chromosome replication required that the cells first go through partition and cell division, revealing a strong interdependence between these key cell cycle events. The time points at which nucleoid partition, division, and replication occurred after the dilution were used to estimate the relative lengths of the cell cycle periods. When exponentially growing cultures were diluted into fresh growth medium, there was an unexpected transient inhibition of growth and cell division, showing that the cultures did not maintain balanced growth. Furthermore, when cultures growing at 79 degrees C were shifted to room temperature or to ice-water baths, the cells were found to "freeze" in mid-growth. After a shift back to 79 degrees C, growth, replication, and division rapidly resumed and the mode and kinetics of the resumption differed depending upon the nature and length of the shifts. Dilution of stationary-phase cultures provides a simple protocol for the generation of partially synchronized populations that may be used to study cell cycle-specific events.  (+info)

Halophilic 20S proteasomes of the archaeon Haloferax volcanii: purification, characterization, and gene sequence analysis. (3/63)

A 20S proteasome, composed of alpha(1) and beta subunits arranged in a barrel-shaped structure of four stacked rings, was purified from a halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii. The predominant peptide-hydrolyzing activity of the 600-kDa alpha(1)beta-proteasome on synthetic substrates was cleavage carboxyl to hydrophobic residues (chymotrypsin-like [CL] activity) and was optimal at 2 M NaCl, pH 7.7 to 9.5, and 75 degrees C. The alpha(1)beta-proteasome also hydrolyzed insulin B-chain protein. Removal of NaCl inactivated the CL activity of the alpha(1)beta-proteasome and dissociated the complex into monomers. Rapid equilibration of the monomers into buffer containing 2 M NaCl facilitated their reassociation into fully active alpha(1)beta-proteasomes of 600 kDa. However, long-term incubation of the halophilic proteasome in the absence of salt resulted in hydrolysis and irreversible inactivation of the enzyme. Thus, the isolated proteasome has unusual salt requirements which distinguish it from any proteasome which has been described. Comparison of the beta-subunit protein sequence with the sequence deduced from the gene revealed that a 49-residue propeptide is removed to expose a highly conserved N-terminal threonine which is proposed to serve as the catalytic nucleophile and primary proton acceptor during peptide bond hydrolysis. Consistent with this mechanism, the known proteasome inhibitors carbobenzoxyl-leucinyl-leucinyl-leucinal-H (MG132) and N-acetyl-leucinyl-leucinyl-norleucinal (calpain inhibitor I) were found to inhibit the CL activity of the H. volcanii proteasome (K(i) = 0.2 and 8 microM, respectively). In addition to the genes encoding the alpha(1) and beta subunits, a gene encoding a second alpha-type proteasome protein (alpha(2)) was identified. All three genes coding for the proteasome subunits were mapped in the chromosome and found to be unlinked. Modification of the methods used to purify the alpha(1)beta-proteasome resulted in the copurification of the alpha(2) protein with the alpha(1) and beta subunits in nonstoichometric ratios as cylindrical particles of four stacked rings of 600 kDa with CL activity rates similar to the alpha(1)beta-proteasome, suggesting that at least two separate 20S proteasomes are synthesized. This study is the first description of a prokaryote which produces two separate 20S proteasomes and suggests that there may be distinct physiological roles for the two different alpha subunits in this halophilic archaeon.  (+info)

The single minichromosome maintenance protein of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum DeltaH contains DNA helicase activity. (4/63)

Previous studies have identified an ATP-dependent DNA helicase activity intrinsic to the human minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex, composed of MCM subunits 4, 6, and 7 [Ishimi, Y. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 24508-24513]. In contrast to the presence of multiple MCM genes (at least six) in eukaryotes, the archaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum DeltaH (mth) genome contains a single open reading frame coding for an MCM protein. In this study we report the isolation of the mthMCM protein overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant protein was found to exist in both multimeric ( approximately 10(3) kDa) and monomeric (76 kDa) forms. Both forms of the protein bind to single-stranded DNA, hydrolyze ATP in the presence of DNA, and possess 3'-to-5' ATP-dependent DNA helicase activities. Thus, a single mthMCM protein contains biochemical properties identical to those associated with the eukaryotic MCM4, -6, and -7 complex. These results suggest that the characterization of the mthMCM protein and its multiple forms may contribute to our understanding of the role of MCM helicase activity in eukaryotic chromosomal DNA replication.  (+info)

Generation of dominant selectable markers for resistance to pseudomonic acid by cloning and mutagenesis of the ileS gene from the archaeon Methanosarcina barkeri fusaro. (5/63)

Currently, only one selectable marker is available for genetic studies in the archaeal genus Methanosarcina. Here we report the generation of selectable markers that encode resistance to pseudomonic acid (PA(r)) in Methanosarcina species by mutagenesis of the isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase gene (ileS) from Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro. The M. barkeri ileS gene was obtained by screening of a genomic library for hybridization to a PCR fragment. The complete 3,787-bp DNA sequence surrounding and including the ileS gene was determined. As expected, M. barkeri IleS is phylogenetically related to other archaeal IleS proteins. The ileS gene was cloned into a Methanosarcina-Escherichia coli shuttle vector and mutagenized with hydroxylamine. Nine independent PA(r) clones were isolated after transformation of Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A with the mutagenized plasmids. Seven of these clones carry multiple changes from the wild-type sequence. Most mutations that confer PA(r) were shown to alter amino acid residues near the KMSKS consensus sequence of class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. One particular mutation (G594E) was present in all but one of the PA(r) clones. The MIC of pseudomonic acid for M. acetivorans transformed with a plasmid carrying this single mutation is 70 microgram/ml of medium (for the wild type, the MIC is 12 microgram/ml). The highest MICs (560 microgram/ml) were observed with two triple mutants, A440V/A482T/G594E and A440V/G593D/G594E. Plasmid shuttle vectors and insertion cassettes that encode PA(r) based on the mutant ileS alleles are described. Finally, the implications of the specific mutations we isolated with respect to binding of pseudomonic acid by IleS are discussed.  (+info)

Bacterial mode of replication with eukaryotic-like machinery in a hyperthermophilic archaeon. (6/63)

Despite a rapid increase in the amount of available archaeal sequence information, little is known about the duplication of genetic material in the third domain of life. We identified a single origin of bidirectional replication in Pyrococcus abyssi by means of in silico analyses of cumulative oligomer skew and the identification of an early replicating chromosomal segment. The replication origin in three Pyrococcus species was found to be highly conserved, and several eukaryotic-like DNA replication genes were clustered around it. As in Bacteria, the chromosomal region containing the replication terminus was a hot spot of genome shuffling. Thus, although bacterial and archaeal replication proteins differ profoundly, they are used to replicate chromosomes in a similar manner in both prokaryotic domains.  (+info)

Genome evolution at the genus level: comparison of three complete genomes of hyperthermophilic archaea. (7/63)

We have compared three complete genomes of closely related hyperthermophilic species of Archaea belonging to the Pyrococcus genus: Pyrococcus abyssi, Pyrococcus horikoshii, and Pyrococcus furiosus. At the genomic level, the comparison reveals a differential conservation among four regions of the Pyrococcus chromosomes correlated with the location of genetic elements mediating DNA reorganization. This discloses the relative contribution of the major mechanisms that promote genomic plasticity in these Archaea, namely rearrangements linked to the replication terminus, insertion sequence-mediated recombinations, and DNA integration within tRNA genes. The combination of these mechanisms leads to a high level of genomic plasticity in these hyperthermophilic Archaea, at least comparable to the plasticity observed between closely related bacteria. At the proteomic level, the comparison of the three Pyrococcus species sheds light on specific selection pressures acting both on their coding capacities and evolutionary rates. Indeed, thanks to two independent methods, the "reciprocal best hits" approach and a new distance ratio analysis, we detect the false orthology relationships within the Pyrococcus lineage. This reveals a high amount of differential gains and losses of genes since the divergence of the three closely related species. The resulting polymorphism is probably linked to an adaptation of these free-living organisms to differential environmental constraints. As a corollary, we delineate the set of orthologous genes shared by the three species, that is, the genes that may characterize the Pyrococcus genus. In this conserved core, the amino acid substitution rate is equal between P. abyssi and P. horikoshii for most of their shared proteins, even for fast-evolving ones. In contrast, strong discrepancies exist among the substitution rates observed in P. furiosus relative to the two other species, which is in disagreement with the molecular clock hypothesis.  (+info)

In vivo interactions of archaeal Cdc6/Orc1 and minichromosome maintenance proteins with the replication origin. (8/63)

Although genome analyses have suggested parallels between archaeal and eukaryotic replication systems, little is known about the DNA replication mechanism in Archaea. By two-dimensional gel electrophoreses we positioned a replication origin (oriC) within 1 kb in the chromosomal DNA of Pyrococcus abyssi, an anaerobic hyperthermophile, and demonstrated that the oriC is physically linked to the cdc6 gene. Our chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that P. abyssi Cdc6 and minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins bind preferentially to the oriC region in the exponentially growing cells. Whereas the oriC association of MCM was specifically inhibited by stopping DNA replication with puromycin treatment, Cdc6 protein stayed bound to the replication origin after de novo protein synthesis was inhibited. Our data suggest that archaeal and eukaryotic Cdc6 and MCM proteins function similarly in replication initiation and imply that an oriC association of MCM could be regulated by an unknown mechanism in Archaea.  (+info)

PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To examine CA-IX, p16, Ki-67, and mini-chromosome maintenance complex component 2 (MCM2) expression in liquid-based cytology (LBC) specimens to see which subset of markers can provide the optimal diagnosis of significant cervical lesions in women in North America with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells (AGC) and a positive test for high risk human papillomavirus (HPV).. II. To examine high risk HPV, CA-IX, p16, Ki-67, and MCM2 expression in LBC specimens to see which subset of markers can provide the optimal diagnosis of significant cervical lesions in women in Japan and Korea (with each country?s cohort analyzed separately) with a cytologic diagnosis of AGC.. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To determine whether the accuracy of diagnosis based on high risk HPV and expression of CA-IX, p16, Ki-67, and/or MCM2 varies with patient age at enrollment and country of enrollment.. TERTIARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To assess biomarker expression, loss of heterozygosity, and ...
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To examine CA-IX, p16, Ki-67, and mini-chromosome maintenance complex component 2 (MCM2) expression in liquid-based cytology (LBC) specimens to see which subset of markers can provide the optimal diagnosis of significant cervical lesions in women in North America with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells (AGC) and a positive test for high risk human papillomavirus (HPV).. II. To examine high risk HPV, CA-IX, p16, Ki-67, and MCM2 expression in LBC specimens to see which subset of markers can provide the optimal diagnosis of significant cervical lesions in women in Japan and Korea (with each country?s cohort analyzed separately) with a cytologic diagnosis of AGC.. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To determine whether the accuracy of diagnosis based on high risk HPV and expression of CA-IX, p16, Ki-67, and/or MCM2 varies with patient age at enrollment and country of enrollment.. TERTIARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To assess biomarker expression, loss of heterozygosity, and ...
Archaeal integrases facilitate the formation of two distinctive types of integrated element within archaeal chromosomes: the SSV type and pNOB8 type. The former carries a smaller N-terminal and a larger C-terminal integrase gene fragment, and the latter an intact integrase gene. All integrated elements overlap tRNA genes that were target sites for integration. It has been demonstrated that SSV (Sulfolobus spindle virus) viruses, carrying an SSV-type integrase gene, and conjugative plasmids, carrying a pNOB8-type integrase, are integrative elements. Two mechanisms have been proposed for stably maintaining an integrated element within archaeal chromosomes. There is also evidence for changes having occurred in the captured integrated elements present in archaeal genomes. Thus we infer that site-specific integration constitutes an important mechanism for horizontal gene transfer and genome evolution.. ...
Accurate control of genome replication initation is essential for genome stability. In particular, organisms with multiple replication origins per chromosome mu...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
MCM3 is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are involved in the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication.…
In eukaryotes, ORC (origin recognition complex), a six-protein complex, is the most likely initiator of chromosomal DNA replication. ORC belongs to the AAA+ (ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities) family of proteins and has intrinsic ATPase activity derived from Orc1p, one of its subunits. To reveal the role of this ATPase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (bakers yeast) ORC, we mutated the Orc1p sensor 1 and sensor 2 regions, which are important for ATPase activity in AAA+ proteins. Plasmid-shuffling analysis revealed that Asn600, Arg694 and Arg704 are essential for the function of Orc1p. In yeast cells, overexpression of Orc1R694Ep inhibited growth, caused inefficient loading of MCM (mini-chromosome maintenance complex of proteins) and slowed the progression of S phase. In vitro, purified ORC-1R [ORC with Orc1R694Ep (Orc1p Arg694→Glu mutant)] has decreased ATPase activity in the presence or absence of origin DNA. However, other activities (ATP binding and origin DNA ...
Shop Replication termination protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Replication termination protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
A so-called licensing protein (Cdc10-dependent transcript 1, 546 aa) that binds to the origin of DNA replication and facilitates the binding of cell division cycle 6 (Cdc6) and mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (Mcms). The Drosophila homologue is Double-parked (Dup). Once replication has been initiated at the end of G1, Cdt1 is exported out of the nucleus and degraded. See geminin. ...
While multiple replication origins have been observed in archaea, considerably less is known about their evolutionary processes. Here, we performed a comparative analysis of the predicted (proved in part) orc/cdc6-associated replication origins in 15 completely sequenced haloarchaeal genomes to investigate the diversity and evolution of replication origins in halophilic Archaea. Multiple orc/cdc6-associated replication origins were predicted in all of the analyzed haloarchaeal genomes following the identification of putative ORBs (origin recognition boxes) that are associated with orc/cdc6 genes. Five of these predicted replication origins in Haloarcula hispanica were experimentally confirmed via autonomous replication activities. Strikingly, several predicted replication origins in H. hispanica and Haloarcula marismortui are located in the distinct regions of their highly homologous chromosomes, suggesting that these replication origins might have been introduced as parts of new genomic content. A
The gauge of therapy effectiveness is usually a meta-analysis. These studies follow rules now described in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines which require authors to specify their inclusion criteria (therapy description, participants and target outcomes), data extraction, data quality checks, etc. Although following these rules allows for robust replication, it is still important that the research team has access to therapeutic expertise in order to detect true trials of the therapy under investigation. All meta-analyses also depend on the level of development of the therapy so that early in development there will be more pilot or exploratory trials that may be open to bias. However, after multiple replications by different groups, we may be more certain that the results are true effects.. One meta-analysis carried out a strict investigation of CBTp with 25 trials of the effects on one outcome-positive symptoms-which was the target ...
Genetic information processingMobile and extrachromosomal element functionsProphage functionsputative phage terminase, small subunit, P27 family (TIGR01558; HMM-score: 13.5) ...
Genetic information processingMobile and extrachromosomal element functionsPlasmid functionsentry exclusion protein TrbK (TIGR04361; HMM-score: 9.9) ...
The minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicase is the presumptive replicative helicase in archaea and eukaryotes. The archaeal homomultimeric MCM has a two-tier structure. One tier contains the AAA+ motor domains of the proteins, and these are the minimal functional helicase domains. The second tier is formed by the N-terminal domains. These domains are not essential for MCM helicase activity but act to enhance the processivity of the helicase. We reveal that a conserved loop facilitates communication between processivity and motor tiers. Interestingly, this allostery seems to be mediated by interactions between, rather than within, individual protomers in the MCM ring.
The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are essential for the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication. The hexameric protein complex formed by the MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre_RC) and may be involved in the formation of replication forks and in the recruitment of other DNA replication related proteins. The MCM complex consisting of this protein and MCM2, 4 and 6 proteins possesses DNA helicase activity, and may act as a DNA unwinding enzyme. Cyclin D1-dependent kinase, CDK4, is found to associate with this protein, and may regulate the binding of this protein with the tumorsuppressor protein RB1/RB. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported ...
RN [1] RM PMID:12562787 RT CDP-2,3-Di-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycerol:L-serine O-archaetidyltransferase (archaetidylserine synthase) in the methanogenic archaeon Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus. RA Morii H, Koga Y RL J Bacteriol. 2003 Feb;185(4):1181-9 ...
Polytene chromosome definition, a giant, cross-banded chromosome that results from multiple replication of its genetic material with the duplicated chromatin strands remaining closely associated. See more.
DNA replication is a tightly regulated process that initiates from multiple replication origins and leads to the faithful transmission of the genet...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structure and activity of a novel archaeal β-CASP protein with N-terminal KH domains. AU - Silva, Ana P G. AU - Chechik, Maria. AU - Byrne, Robert T.. AU - Waterman, David G.. AU - Ng, Chyan Leong. AU - Dodson, Eleanor J.. AU - Koonin, Eugene V.. AU - Antson, Alfred A.. AU - Smits, Callum. PY - 2011/5/11. Y1 - 2011/5/11. N2 - MTH1203, a β-CASP metallo-β-lactamase family nuclease from the archaeon Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, was identified as a putative nuclease that might contribute to RNA processing. The crystal structure of MTH1203 reveals that, in addition to the metallo-β-lactamase nuclease and the β-CASP domains, it contains two contiguous KH domains that are unique to MTH1203 and its orthologs. RNA-binding experiments indicate that MTH1203 preferentially binds U-rich sequences with a dissociation constant in the micromolar range. In vitro nuclease activity assays demonstrated that MTH1203 is a zinc-dependent nuclease. MTH1203 is also shown to be a dimer ...
Two distinct proteins, ThiE and ThiN, are known to join HMP-PP and HET-P to generate thiamine phosphate. Nab. magadii and other halophilic archaea contain both enzymes. Whereas ThiE (Nmag_1811) is a monofunctional protein, ThiN (Nmag_1282) exists as a C-terminal domain in a ThiDN fusion protein. At the last step, thiamine phosphate is predicted to be further phosphorylated to thiamine pyrophosphate by ThiL (Nmag_1515). Therefore, the conversion of AIR to HMP-PP in Nab. magadii appears to be similar to the bacterial pathway and may involve ThiC and ThiD, whereas HET-P biosynthesis in this haloarchaeon appears to be similar to the eukaryotic pathway and may involve Nmag_2419. In addition, Nab. magadii contained genes encoding a HET kinase (ThiM, Nmag_1810, predicted to be involved in thiamine salvage) and a thiamine transporter (ThiBPQ, Nmag_460-462; ThiB2, Nmag_1940).. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is the precursor of coenzymes flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which ...
We have developed a novel method that enables global subtelomere and haplotype-resolved analysis of telomere lengths at the single-molecule level. An in vitro CRISPR/Cas9 RNA-directed nickase system directs the specific labeling of human (TTAGGG)n DNA tracts in genomes that have also been barcoded using a separate nickase enzyme that recognizes a 7-bp motif genome-wide. High-throughput imaging and analysis of large DNA single molecules from genomes labeled in this fashion using a nanochannel array system permits mapping through subtelomere repeat element (SRE) regions to unique chromosomal DNA while simultaneously measuring the (TTAGGG)n tract length at the end of each large telomere-terminal DNA segment ...
WT cells under nutrient limitation exhibit two distinct regimes according to the Helmstetter-Cooper (HC) model of bacterial chromosome replication (Appendix Fig S9): In the fast growth regime (doubling time DT , single‐chromosome replication time, the C‐period), the C‐period is constant (at its minimal value) and the total DNA synthesis rate is determined by the replication initiation rate. In the slow growth regime (DT , C‐period), chromosome replication is limited by the replication fork elongation rate, which is in turn limited by the synthesis of nucleotides (DNA monomers) (Neidhart, 1996). Under LacZ OE, the DNA content increases (Figs 1F and EV3A and B). Since multiple chromosome equivalents per cell are observed in a single nucleoid complex (Fig EV3), the HC model of DNA replication may still be applicable with multiple replication forks per cell, provided that the C‐period , DT. The increase in DT under LacZ OE then implies that the C‐period would have to increase at least ...
Shop Minichromosome maintenance protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Minichromosome maintenance protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Professor Emeritus Department of Biochemistry Rosalind and Morris Goodman Cancer Centre [email protected] 1979 - PhD, McGill University Research Interests Isolation and characterization of mammalian origins of DNA replication Our primary research interest is in the molecular basis of the mechanisms regulating mammalian DNA replication. Eukaryotic chromosomes are organized into multiple replication units that initiate replication only one per cell cycle. The mechanism that prevents the reinitiation of replication of DNA that has been previously replicated is unknown. Among the major questions about mammalian DNA replication are: 1) whether initiation occurs at specific DNA sequences (replication origins), and 2) what are the molecular features of these sequences. Using the instability of replication loops as a method for the isolation of active replication origins, we have purified and cloned DNA sequences that contain origins of replication. In this manner we have generated libraries of monkey and
Professor Emeritus Department of Biochemistry Rosalind and Morris Goodman Cancer Centre [email protected] 1979 - PhD, McGill University Research Interests Isolation and characterization of mammalian origins of DNA replication Our primary research interest is in the molecular basis of the mechanisms regulating mammalian DNA replication. Eukaryotic chromosomes are organized into multiple replication units that initiate replication only one per cell cycle. The mechanism that prevents the reinitiation of replication of DNA that has been previously replicated is unknown. Among the major questions about mammalian DNA replication are: 1) whether initiation occurs at specific DNA sequences (replication origins), and 2) what are the molecular features of these sequences. Using the instability of replication loops as a method for the isolation of active replication origins, we have purified and cloned DNA sequences that contain origins of replication. In this manner we have generated libraries of monkey and
Biohazard level, growth media and temperature, gram stain, industrial applications and more information for Methanothermobacter wolfeii.
Lenti ORF particles, MCM3 (mGFP-tagged) - Human minichromosome maintenance complex component 3 (MCM3), 200 uL, |10^7 TU/mL, 200 µl.
Top performende anti-Hund Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7 Antikörper für Immunohistochemistry (IHC) vergleichen & kaufen.
The protective caps on chromosome ends - known as telomeres - consist of DNA and associated proteins that are essential for chromosome integrity. A fundamental part of ensuring proper telomere function is maintaining adequate length of the telomeric DNA tract. Telomeric repeat sequences are synthesized by the telomerase reverse transcriptase, and, as such, telomerase is a central player in the maintenance of steady-state telomere length. Evidence from both yeast and mammals suggests that telomere-associated proteins positively or negatively control access of telomerase to the chromosome terminus. In yeast, positive regulation of telomerase access appears to be achieved through recruitment of the enzyme by the end-binding protein Cdc13p. In contrast, duplex-DNA-binding proteins assembled along the telomeric tract exert a feedback system that negatively modulates telomere length by limiting the action of telomerase. In mammalian cells, and perhaps also in yeast, binding of these proteins probably ...
The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are involved in the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication. The hexameric protein complex formed by MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) and it may be involved in the formation of replication forks and in the recruitment of other DNA replication related proteins. This protein can interact with MCM2 and MCM6, as well as with the origin recognition protein ORC2. It is regulated by proteolysis and phosphorylation in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Studies of a similar protein in Xenopus suggest that the chromatin binding of this protein at the onset of DNA replication is after pre-RC assembly and before origin unwinding. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Abstract: The genomic changes underlying both early and late stages of horse domestication remain largely unknown. We examined the genomes of 14 early domestic horses from the Bronze and Iron Ages, dating to between ~4.1 and 2.3 thousand years before present. We find early domestication selection patterns supporting the neural crest hypothesis, which provides a unified developmental origin for common domestic traits. Within the past 2.3 thousand years, horses lost genetic diversity and archaic DNA tracts introgressed from a now-extinct lineage. They accumulated deleterious mutations later than expected under the cost-of-domestication hypothesis, probably because of breeding from limited numbers of stallions. We also reveal that Iron Age Scythian steppe nomads implemented breeding strategies involving no detectable inbreeding and selection for coat-color variation and robust forelimbs ...
Reaktivität: Fledermaus, Huhn, Rind (Kuh) and more. 362 verschiedene MCM5 Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar!
Additionally to analyzing quality of samples, you can also use coverage to predict copy number of extrachromosomal elements. If chromosomal templates and extrachromosomal templates are in a 1:1 relationship, you expect equal distribution of coverage. ...
FIG. 5. Strains deficient in 20S proteasomal α1 are sensitive to heat stress, whereas strains deficient in PanA are superthermotolerant. Parent (H26) and proteasomal mutant strains were grown to log phase at 42°C in GMM-Ala. Cells were diluted to an OD600 of 0.04 units and the effects of heat on cell viability were measured by a shift to 65°C (see Materials and Methods for details). Aliquots of cells were removed at 0-, 2-, 4-, 6-, and 8-h intervals. Cells were diluted, plated on GMM-Ala, and incubated at 42°C for 5 days. Experiments were performed in triplicate and the mean ± SD was calculated. ...
MCM6 antibody (minichromosome maintenance complex component 6) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-MCM6 pAb (GTX54353) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Archaeal Genetics is the study of genes that consist of single nucleus-free cells. Archaea have a single, circular chromosomes ... Archaeal chromosomes replicate from different origins of replication, producing two haploid daughter cells. " They share a ... "Archaeal genetics - Latest research and news , Nature". www.nature.com. "Archaeal Genetics , Boundless Microbiology". courses. ... Even though archaeal cells have cells walls, they do not contain peptidoglycan, which means archaea do not produce cellulose or ...
"Extrachromosomal element capture and the evolution of multiple replication origins in archaeal chromosomes". Proceedings of the ... Although the evolutionary kinship of archaeal and eukaryotic initiators and replicative helicases indicates that archaeal MCM ... Like the archaeal replicative helicase core, Mcm2-7 is loaded as a head-to-head double hexamer onto DNA to license origins. In ... Archaeal replication origins share some but not all of the organizational features of bacterial oriC. Unlike bacteria, Archaea ...
The origins are generally AT-rich tracts that vary based on the archaeal species. The singular archaeal ORC protein recognizes ... Eukaryotes typically have multiple origins of replication; at least one per chromosome. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae ... The archaeal pre-RC is very different from the bacterial pre-RC and can serve as a simplified model of the eukaryotic pre-RC. ...
They are encoded by genes within histone cluster 1 located in human cells on chromosome 6. The five further variants are ... Rather than originating from archaeal histones, it probably evolved from a bacterial protein. Unlike core histones featuring a ... inactive chromatin: distribution in human fetal fibroblasts". Chromosome Research. 8 (5): 405-424. doi:10.1023/A:1009262819961 ...
This strain displays a GC-content of 46.1% in a circular chromosome of 3.68 Mbp. 3,928 protein-coding sequences were identified ... RAST, Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology, is a server that generates bacterial and archaeal genome annotations. The ...
Guo FB, Ou HY, Zhang CT (2003). "ZCURVE: a new system for recognizing protein-coding genes in bacterial and archaeal genomes". ... "Origin of replication in circular prokaryotic chromosomes". Environ. Microbiol. 8 (2): 353-61. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2005. ... Zhang R, Zhang CT (2005). "Identification of replication origins in archaeal genomes based on the Z-curve method". Archaea. 1 ( ... "Origin of replication in circular prokaryotic chromosomes". Environmental Microbiology. 8 (2): 353-361. doi:10.1111/j.1462- ...
Although chromosomes are initially shattered into many fragments, complete chromosomes are regenerated by making use of over- ... Whole proteome comparisons show the definite archaeal nature of this halophile with additional similarities to the Gram- ... NRC-1 genome consists of 2,571,010 base pairs on one large chromosome and two mini-chromosomes. The genome encodes 2,360 ... The large chromosome is very G-C rich (68%). High GC-content of the genome increases stability in extreme environments. ...
The conserved neighborhood method is based on the hypothesis that if genes encoding two proteins are neighbors on a chromosome ... of gene pair conservation across nine bacterial and archaeal genomes. The method is most effective in prokaryotes with operons ... The adjacency of these two genes was shown to be conserved across nine different bacterial and archaeal genomes. Classification ...
... chromosomes, archaeal MeSH A11.284.187.178 - chromosomes, artificial MeSH A11.284.187.178.170 - chromosomes, artificial, ... x chromosome MeSH A11.284.187.865.982.500 - chromosomes, human, x MeSH A11.284.187.865.983 - y chromosome MeSH A11.284.187.865. ... chromosomes, human, pair 12 MeSH A11.284.187.520.300.325.680 - chromosomes, human, x MeSH A11.284.187.520.300.370 - chromosomes ... philadelphia chromosome MeSH A11.284.187.520.300.505.757 - chromosomes, human, y MeSH A11.284.187.560 - chromosomes, plant MeSH ...
This creates quite dynamic genomes, in which DNA can be introduced into and removed from the chromosome. Bacteria have more ... 24% of Thermotoga's 1,877 ORFs and 16% of Aquifex's 1,512 ORFs show high matches to an Archaeal protein, while mesophiles such ... Right now, we have genome sequences from 50 different bacterial phyla and 11 different archaeal phyla. Second-generation ... Conjugation may mediate the transfer of chromosomal sequences by plasmids that integrate into the chromosome. Despite the ...
... chromosome pairing MeSH G05.105.220.687.500.299.500 - synaptonemal complex MeSH G05.105.220.687.500.600 - pachytene stage MeSH ... archaeal MeSH G05.315.300 - gene expression regulation, bacterial MeSH G05.315.310 - gene expression regulation, developmental ... chromosome pairing MeSH G05.105.220.875.500.299.500 - synaptonemal complex MeSH G05.105.220.875.500.600 - pachytene stage MeSH ... chromosome segregation MeSH G05.105.220.625.620 - nondisjunction, genetic MeSH G05.105.220.687 - meiosis MeSH G05.105.220.687. ...
The homologous chromosomes pair up so that their DNA sequences are aligned with each other, and this is followed by exchange of ... Exposure of hyperthermophilic archaeal Sulfolobus species to DNA damaging conditions induces cellular aggregation accompanied ... Two rounds of cell division then produce four haploid gametes, each with half the number of chromosomes from each parent cell, ... For a bacterium to bind, take up, and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome, it must enter a special physiological state ...
Not only eukaryotic viruses integrate into the genomes of their hosts; many bacterial and archaeal viruses also employ this ... not only refers to a retrovirus but is also used to describe other viruses that can integrate into the host chromosomes, ... Krupovic M, Prangishvili D, Hendrix RW, Bamford DH (2011). "Genomics of bacterial and archaeal viruses: dynamics within the ...
In P2's genome, the genes related to chromosome replication were likewise found to be more related to those in eukaryotes. ... Sediments from ~90m below the seafloor on the Peruvian continental margin are dominated by intact archaeal tetraethers, and a ... Another sequenced species, S. tokodaii has a circular chromosome as well but is slightly smaller with 2,694,756 bp. Both ... 7 (2,694,756 nucleotides). The archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus has a circular chromosome that consists of 2,992,245 bp. ...
... cytoskeleton-mediated chromosome movements and emergence of the nuclear membrane. Thus the evolution of meiotic sex and ... the selective pressure of oxidative stress is thought to have driven the evolutionary transformation of an archaeal lineage ...
... are promising candidates to become a general model for detailed studies of archaeal virus biology. These are indeed ... Massive degradation of the host chromosomes occurs because of virus infection and virion assembly occurs in the cytoplasm. ... Prangishvili, David; Garrett, Roger A.; Koonin, Eugene V. (2006). "Evolutionary genomics of archaeal viruses: Unique viral ... of the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Acidianus". Virology. 336 (1): 83-92. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2005.02.025. PMID 15866073. ...
Chromosome condensation[edit]. Phosphorylation of H3 at serine 10 (phospho-H3S10). The mitotic kinase aurora B phosphorylates ... Archaeal histone only contains a H3-H4 like dimeric structure made out of the same protein. Such dimeric structures can stack ... Rizzo PJ (Aug 2003). "Those amazing dinoflagellate chromosomes". Cell Research. 13 (4): 215-7. doi:10.1038/sj.cr.7290166. PMID ... Archaeal histones may well resemble the evolutionary precursors to eukaryotic histones.[12] Histone proteins are among the most ...
... and the same number of chromosomes as both parents. For instance, in human reproduction each human cell contains 46 chromosomes ... Exposure of hyperthermophilic archaeal Sulfolobus species to DNA damaging conditions induces cellular aggregation accompanied ... the resulting child will have 23 chromosomes from each parent genetically recombined into 23 chromosome pairs or 46 total. ... Sexual reproduction is a kind of life cycle where generations alternate between cells with a single set of chromosomes (haploid ...
RcGTA particles contain 4.5 kb DNA fragments, with even representation of the whole chromosome except for a 2-fold dip at the ... Different GTA types have originated independently from viruses in several bacterial and archaeal lineages. These cells produce ... Most of the RcGTA structural genes are encoded in a ~ 15 kb genetic cluster on the bacterial chromosome. However, other genes ... Groups of genes with homology to the RcGTA are present in the chromosomes of various types of alphaproteobacteria. D. shibae, ...
These genes are found on all chromosomes, except the 22 and Y chromosome. High clustering on 6p is observed (140 tRNA genes), ... However, the existence of the P/I site in eukaryotic or archaeal ribosomes has not yet been confirmed. The P-site protein L27 ... Telonis AG, Kirino Y, Rigoutsos I (2015). "Mitochondrial tRNA-lookalikes in nuclear chromosomes: Could they be functional?". ... or archaeal counterpart. This initial tRNA binding site is called the A/T site. In the A/T site, the A-site half resides in the ...
At the same time, repeats were observed in the archaeal organisms of Haloferax and Haloarcula species, and their function was ... It is the partial repeat sequence that prevents the CRISPR-Cas system from targeting the chromosome as base pairing beyond the ... A subtype of chromosomal islands called phage-inducible chromosomal island (PICI) is excised from a bacterial chromosome upon ... "Biogenesis pathways of RNA guides in archaeal and bacterial CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity". FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 39 (3): ...
The archaeal host transferred much of its functional genome to the virus during the evolution of cytoplasm, but retained the ... If, in a sexual population, two different advantageous alleles arise at different loci on a chromosome in different members of ... However, should the same two alleles arise in different members of an asexual population, the only way that one chromosome can ... These include a double stranded DNA genome, a linear chromosome with short telomeric repeats, a complex membrane bound capsid, ...
Margulis, L (1996). "Archaeal-eubacterial mergers in the origin of Eukarya: phylogenetic classification of life". Proceedings ... Margulis, L (2005). "Hans Ris (1914-2004). Genophore, chromosomes and the bacterial origin of chloroplasts". International ...
The gene that is mutated in this syndrome, SBDS,[2][3][4] lies on the long arm of chromosome 7 at cytogenetic position 7q11.[5] ... The atomic structure of an archaeal ortholog of the human protein has been determined by x-ray crystallography and indicates a ... The SBDS gene resides in a block of genomic sequence that is locally duplicated on the chromosome. The second copy contains a ... this interval was refined to a region on the long arm of the chromosome next to the centromere.[12] ...
Noll, K M (1989). "Chromosome Map of the Thermophilic Archaebacterium Thermococcus celer". Journal of Bacteriology. 171 (12): ... "Protein Adaptations in Archaeal Extremophiles". Archaea. 2013: 14. doi:10.1155/2013/373275. PMC 3787623. PMID 24151449. Wong, ...
In archaeal biofilms, the only proposed function is thus far during the dispersal phase of biofilm when archaeal cells escape ... is essential for the maturation of the archaellins and is generally encoded elsewhere on the chromosome. Functional ... "Identification of diverse archaeal proteins with class III signal peptides cleaved by distinct archaeal prepilin peptidases". ... May 2015). "FlaF Is a β-Sandwich Protein that Anchors the Archaellum in the Archaeal Cell Envelope by Binding the S-Layer ...
Eukaryotic and archaeal 7S RNAs have very similar secondary structures. In most bacteria, the SRP consists of an RNA molecule ( ... followed by reverse transcription and integration into multiple sites of the human chromosomes. SRP RNAs have been identified ... Most bacterial SRPs are composed of SRP RNA and SRP54 (also named Ffh for "Fifty-four homolog"). The Archaeal SRP contains ... The eukaryotic SRP consists of a 300-nucleotide 7S RNA and six proteins: SRPs 72, 68, 54, 19, 14, and 9. Archaeal SRP consists ...
Circular chromosomes, similar translation and transcription to Eukarya. Circular chromosomes, unique translation and ... Archaeal Richmond Mine Acidophilic Nanoorganisms (ARMAN) occasionally connect with other archaeal cells in acid mine drainage ... after the cell's chromosome is replicated and the two daughter chromosomes separate, the cell divides.[152] In the genus ... Top, an archaeal phospholipid: 1, isoprene chains; 2, ether linkages; 3, L-glycerol moiety; 4, phosphate group. Middle, a ...
Circular chromosomes, similar translation and transcription to Eukarya. Circular chromosomes, unique translation and ... Connections between archaeal cells can also be found between the Archaeal Richmond Mine Acidophilic Nanoorganisms (ARMAN) and ... after the cell's chromosome is replicated and the two daughter chromosomes separate, the cell divides.[154] In the genus ... Top, an archaeal phospholipid: 1, isoprene chains; 2, ether linkages; 3, L-glycerol moiety; 4, phosphate group. Middle, a ...
condensed chromosome. • nuclear chromosome, telomeric region. • nucleus. • nuclear chromatin. • lateral element. • cytosol. • ... RAD51 family members are homologous to the bacterial RecA, Archaeal RadA and yeast Rad51.[5][6] The protein is highly conserved ... nuclear chromosome. • mitochondrial matrix. • nucleolus. • mitochondrion. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • chromatin. • ... condensed nuclear chromosome. • macromolecular complex. Biological process. • regulation of protein phosphorylation. • strand ...
23, www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0801980105 Guy L, Ettema TJ (2011). "The archaeal 'TACK' superphylum and the origin of ... C content of bacterial chromosomes by monitoring fluorescence intensity during DNA denaturation in a capillary tube". Int. J. ... Barns, SM; Fundyga RE; Jeffries MW; Pace NR (1994). "Remarkable archaeal diversity detected in a Yellowstone National Park hot ... Korarchaeota is regarded as a phylum, which itself is part of the archaeal TACK superphylum which encompasses Thaumarchaeota, ...
This causes chromosome looping, allowing the promoter region and the silencer region to come to close proximity. ... Archaeal transcription factor B. Elongation. *bacterial RNA polymerase: rpoB. *eukaryotic RNA polymerase: RNA polymerase II ...
This article on a gene on human chromosome 10 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... to human chromosome band 10q26 by in situ hybridisation". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 83 (1-2): 74-5. doi:10.1159/000015130. PMID ...
This article on a gene on human chromosome 8 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... This article on a gene on human chromosome 3 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ...
All of subgroup 2 is organized into a head to tail cluster of chromosomes on chromosome 17q24. Genes in this second subgroup ... ISBN 981-4280-06-2. Classification of ABC transporters in TCDB ABCdb Archaeal and Bacterial ABC Systems database, ABCdb ATP- ... Also, the ABCA4 maps to a region of chromosome 1p21 that contains the gene for Stargardt's disease. This gene is found to be ... The first subgroup consists of seven genes that map to six different chromosomes. These are ABCA1, ABCA2, ABCA3, and ABCA4, ...
Margulis, L (2005). "Hans Ris (1914-2004). Genophore, chromosomes and the bacterial origin of chloroplasts". International ... "Archaeal-eubacterial mergers in the origin of Eukarya: phylogenetic classification of life". Proceedings of the National ...
The sex assay utilizes AluSTXa for the X chromosome, AluSTYa for the Y chromosome, or both AluSTXa and AluSTYa, to reduce the ... which is part of every bacterial and archaeal genome and is highly conserved, bacteria can be taxonomically classified by ... The inserted chromosome yields a large fragment when the homologous region is amplified. The males are distinguished as having ...
The archaeal host transferred much of its functional genome to the virus during the evolution of cytoplasm, but retained the ... If, in a sexual population, two different advantageous alleles arise at different loci on a chromosome in different members of ... However, should the same two alleles arise in different members of an asexual population, the only way that one chromosome can ... These include a double stranded DNA genome, a linear chromosome with short telomeric repeats, a complex membrane bound capsid, ...
... and examination of chromosomes in maize allowed Barbara McClintock to demonstrate their connection to inherited traits.[102] ...
Karner, M.B.; DeLong, E.F.; Karl, D.M. (2001). "Archaeal dominance in the mesopelagic zone of the Pacific Ocean". Nature. 409 ( ... Their genome is usually a circular bacterial chromosome - a single loop of DNA, although they can also harbor small pieces of ... DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) itself is arranged in complex chromosomes.[58] Mitochondria are organelles vital in metabolism as ... "The archaeal Ced system imports DNA". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 113 (9): 2496-501. Bibcode:2016PNAS..113.2496V. doi:10.1073/ ...
These genes are found on all chromosomes, except the 22 and Y chromosome. High clustering on 6p is observed (140 tRNA genes), ... or archaeal counterpart. This initial tRNA binding site is called the A/T site. In the A/T site, the A-site half resides in the ... as well on 1 chromosome.[25]. The HGNC, in collaboration with the Genomic tRNA Database (GtRNAdb) and experts in the field, has ... the existence of the P/I site in eukaryotic or archaeal ribosomes has not yet been confirmed. The P-site protein L27 has been ...
Auchtung Thomas A. (2007) Ecology of the hydrothermal candidate archaeal division, Korarchaeota. PhD thesis, Harvard University ... C content of bacterial chromosomes by monitoring fluorescence intensity during DNA denaturation in a capillary tube". Int. J. ... "Remarkable archaeal diversity detected in a Yellowstone National Park hot spring environment". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91 ... "Perspectives on archaeal diversity, thermophily and monophyly from environmental rRNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA ...
Consequently, the chromosomes of many eukaryotes contain genes that originated from the genomes of mitochondria and plastids.[ ... mitochondrion likely included protection of the archaeal host genome from the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS ... organelle genomes forge eukaryotic chromosomes". Nature Reviews. Genetics. 5 (2): 123-35. doi:10.1038/nrg1271. PMID 14735123. ... organelle genomes forge eukaryotic chromosomes". Nature Reviews. Genetics. 5 (2): 123-35. doi:10.1038/nrg1271. PMID 14735123. ...
Each Hox cluster (HoxA, HoxB, etc.) is on a different chromosome. For instance, the human HoxA cluster is on chromosome 7. The ... "OrthoDB v9.1: cataloging evolutionary and functional annotations for animal, fungal, plant, archaeal, bacterial and viral ... Homoeologous (also spelled homeologous) chromosomes or parts of chromosomes are those brought together following inter-species ... on human chromosome 6 has paralogy regions on chromosomes 1, 9 and 19.[35] Much of the human genome seems to be assignable to ...
Extracellular membrane vesicles (MVs) might be involved in DNA transfer between different hyperthermophilic archaeal species.[ ... to transfer DNA from one cell to another cell followed by integration of the donor DNA into the recipient cell's chromosome.[37 ... "Protein adaptations in archaeal extremophiles". Archaea. 2013: 373275. doi:10.1155/2013/373275. PMC 3787623. PMID 24151449 ...
A key event during meiosis in a diploid cell is the pairing of homologous chromosomes and homologous recombination (the ... exchange of genetic information) between homologous chromosomes. This process promotes the production of increased genetic ...
December 2015). "Insights into Sex Chromosome Evolution and Aging from the Genome of a Short-Lived Fish". Cell. 163 (6): 1527- ... List of sequenced archaeal genomes. *List of sequenced eukaryotic genomes. *List of sequenced fungi genomes ... "Deciphering neo-sex and B chromosome evolution by the draft genome of Drosophila albomicans". BMC Genomics. 13: 109. doi ...
The distinct chromosome territories of chromosome 2 (red) and chromosome 9 (green) are stained with fluorescent in situ ... The archaeal origin of the nucleus is supported by observations that archaea and eukarya have similar genes for certain ... The mitotic spindle can be seen, stained green, attached to the two sets of chromosomes, stained light blue. All chromosomes ... called chromosome territories.[22] Active genes, which are generally found in the euchromatic region of the chromosome, tend to ...
... as well as regions that bind to the transcription factors assembled at the promoter of the gene which would create a chromosome ... Archaeal transcription factor B. Elongation. *bacterial RNA polymerase: rpoB. *eukaryotic RNA polymerase: RNA polymerase II ...
In some viruses the viral genome is put by genetic recombination into a specific place in the host's chromosome. The viral ... "Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses". J. Biol. Chem. 284 (19): 12599-603. doi:10.1074/jbc.R800078200. PMC ...
Archaeal viruses. Some viruses replicate within archaea: these are double-stranded DNA viruses with unusual and sometimes ... lysogenic cycle where the viral genome is incorporated by genetic recombination into a specific place in the host's chromosome ... Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2009;284(19):12599-603. doi:10.1074 ... Other archaeal viruses resemble the tailed bacteriophages, and can have multiple tail structures.[89] ...
ವಿಕಿಮೀಡಿಯ ಕಣಜದಲ್ಲಿ Chromosomes ವಿಷಯಕ್ಕೆ ಸಂಬಂಧಿಸಿದ ಮಾಧ್ಯಮಗಳಿವೆ .. *ಎಚ್‌ಒಪಿಇ‌ಎಸ್ ನಿಂದ :ಡಿಎನ್‌ಎ ಮತ್ತು ವರ್ಣತಂತುಗಳ ಒಂದು ಪರಿಚಯ ... Sandman K, Reeve JN (2000). "Structure and functional relationships of archaeal and eukaryal histones and nucleosomes". Arch. ... Main article: List of number of chromosomes of various organisms. ಯುಕಾರೊಟ್ಸ್ಸಂಪಾದಿಸಿ. *ಈ ಕೋಷ್ಟಕ ನ್ಯೂಕ್ಲಿಯಸ್ ಜೀವಕೋಶದಲ್ಲಿರುವ ... Hinnebusch J, Tilly K (1993). "Linear plasmids and chromosomes in bacteria". Mol Microbiol. 10 (5): 917-22. doi:10.1111/j.1365- ...
One portion of chromosome that is an area of focus when conducting DNA methylation are tissue-specific differentially ... Computational models can facilitate the global profiling of DNA methylation across chromosomes, and often such models are ... X-chromosome inactivation, repression of transposable elements, aging, and carcinogenesis. ... Archaeal transcription factor B. Elongation. *bacterial RNA polymerase: rpoB. *eukaryotic RNA polymerase: RNA polymerase II ...
Archaeal" by people in this website by year, and whether "Chromosomes, Archaeal" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Chromosomes, Archaeal" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Chromosomes, Archaeal" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Chromosomes, Archaeal". ...
Samson RY, Bell SD (2014). "Archaeal chromosome biology". Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology. 24 (5-6): 420-27 ... Eukaryotic genomes are composed of one or more linear DNA chromosomes. The number of chromosomes varies widely from Jack jumper ... The Bacterial Chromosome: 525-540. doi:10.1128/9781555817640.ch29. ISBN 9781555812324. "Bacterial Chromosomes". Microbial ... A genome sequence is the complete list of the nucleotides (A, C, G, and T for DNA genomes) that make up all the chromosomes of ...
Chromosome ... Ensembl bacterial and archaeal genome annotation project. More ... Conserved hypothetical archaeal proteinImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic ... tr,Q6LZF4,Q6LZF4_METMP Conserved hypothetical archaeal protein OS=Methanococcus maripaludis (strain S2 / LL) OX=267377 GN= ...
Archaea, like bacteria, contain proteins that compact their chromosomes. The methanogenic euryarchaea, which include M. ... The core components of archaeal transcription closely resemble those of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II (1). Archaeal promoters ... Activation of archaeal transcription by recruitment of the TATA-binding protein. Mohamed Ouhammouch, Robert E. Dewhurst, ... Activation of archaeal transcription by recruitment of the TATA-binding protein. Mohamed Ouhammouch, Robert E. Dewhurst, ...
Archaeal chromosome biology.. Samson RY, Bell SD.. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014;24(5-6):420-7. doi: 10.1159/000368854. Epub ... Specificity and function of archaeal DNA replication initiator proteins.. Samson RY, Xu Y, Gadelha C, Stone TA, Faqiri JN, Li D ... Archaeal chromatin proteins histone HMtB and Alba have lost DNA-binding ability in laboratory strains of Methanothermobacter ... Molecular and structural basis of ESCRT-III recruitment to membranes during archaeal cell division. ...
... but it is generally assumed that most prokaryotes contain a single copy of a circular chromosome and are therefore monoploid. ... Chromosomes, Archaeal * DNA Primers / genetics * DNA, Archaeal / analysis * DNA, Archaeal / genetics * Escherichia coli / ... The chromosome copy number is identical in cultures with a twofold lower growth rate, in contrast to the results reported for ... Fast growing H. salinarum cells contain on average about 25 copies of the chromosome in exponential phase, and their ploidy is ...
SMC_prok_A; chromosome segregation protein SMC, primarily archaeal type. pfam03800. Location:3 → 146. Nuf2; Nuf2 family. ... SMC_prok_A; chromosome segregation protein SMC, primarily archaeal type. pfam03800. Location:3 → 146. Nuf2; Nuf2 family. ... SMC_prok_A; chromosome segregation protein SMC, primarily archaeal type. pfam03800. Location:1 → 100. Nuf2; Nuf2 family. ... SMC_prok_A; chromosome segregation protein SMC, primarily archaeal type. pfam03800. Location:3 → 146. Nuf2; Nuf2 family. ...
Archaeal Genetics is the study of genes that consist of single nucleus-free cells. Archaea have a single, circular chromosomes ... Archaeal chromosomes replicate from different origins of replication, producing two haploid daughter cells. " They share a ... "Archaeal genetics - Latest research and news , Nature". www.nature.com. "Archaeal Genetics , Boundless Microbiology". courses. ... Even though archaeal cells have cells walls, they do not contain peptidoglycan, which means archaea do not produce cellulose or ...
General vectors for archaeal hyperthermophiles: strategies based on a mobile intron and a plasmid. FEMS Microbiol. Rev.18:93- ... The chromosomes of the three mutant isolates were analyzed for the presence of mobile elements or deletion of the lacS gene by ... The recent availability of the Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 genome (36), as well as other archaeal genome sequences (8, 11, 14, ... A 1,250-bp EcoRI fragment from the mutant GθW chromosome, supposed to contain the 5′ joining end of the deletion, was isolated ...
Unfortunately, the manuscript fails to resolve impactful questions of archaeal biology, chromosome organization, or the ... Transcription by an archaeal RNA polymerase is slowed but not blocked by an archaeal nucleosome * Y Xie ... Unfortunately, the manuscript fails to resolve impactful questions of archaeal biology, chromosome organization, or the ... Chromosomes and Gene Expression Translational initiation in E. coli occurs at the correct sites genome-wide in the absence of ...
Archaeal histones compact DNA into nucleosome-like particles of varying sizes that contort sporadically and reorient DNA ... 2021) Multi-scale architecture of archaeal chromosomes Molecular Cell 81:473-487. ... 2004) Transcription by an archaeal RNA polymerase is slowed but not blocked by an archaeal nucleosome Journal of Bacteriology ... 2013) Archaeal nucleosome positioning in vivo and in vitro is directed by primary sequence motifs BMC Genomics 14:391. ...
Prokaryotic chromosomes code for toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci, often in multiple copies. In E.coli, experimental evidence ... Chromosome Mapping * Enterobacteriaceae / genetics * Genes, Archaeal* * Genes, Bacterial* * Integrons * Interspersed Repetitive ... Prokaryotic chromosomes code for toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci, often in multiple copies. In E.coli, experimental evidence ... These observations strongly suggest that TA loci are mobile cassettes that move frequently within and between chromosomes and ...
May participate in facilitating chromosome segregation by condensation DNA from both sides of a centrally located replisome ... Involved in chromosome condensation, segregation and cell cycle progression. ... Ensembl bacterial and archaeal genome annotation project. More...EnsemblBacteriai. AAC74008; AAC74008; b0922. BAA35668; ... Involved in chromosome condensation, segregation and cell cycle progression. May participate in facilitating chromosome ...
The genome of M. kandleri is a single circular chromosome that consists of 1,694,969 bp. Using a combination of sequence ... Identification and Functional Verification of Archaeal-Type Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase, a Missing Link in Archaeal Central ... All archaeal genomes sequenced so far encode a substantial number of predicted DNA-binding proteins of the helix-turn-helix and ... Gene orders in archaeal and bacterial genomes were compared by using the lamarck program (33). For phylogenetic analysis, ...
... this is potentially due to structural differences between bacterial and archaeal signals, and does not discount a quorum ... this is potentially due to structural differences between bacterial and archaeal signals, and does not discount a quorum ... TABLE 1. Toxin-antitoxin loci identified on Haloferax volcanii DS2 chromosome and plasmids. ... Archaeal Persisters: Persister Cell Formation as a Stress Response in Haloferax volcanii. Julianne Megaw and Brendan F. Gilmore ...
... and by the variable location of the grpE gene in the chromosome. In the archaea investigated, grpE is part of the hsp70(dnaK) ... The archaeal Hsp70(DnaK) is a bacterial protein: All the archaeal Hsp70(DnaK) molecules sequenced and studied thus far resemble ... Does the archaeal chaperone machine interact with the TRiC-like thermosome? Does the archaeal machine interact with another ... 1995 The archaeal dnaK-dnaJ gene cluster: organization and expression in the methanogen Methanosarcina mazei. J. Mol. Biol. 250 ...
The variations in bacterial and archaeal genome DNA sequences are not only explained by neutral mutations. The restriction- ... The plasmid DNA has lower GC content than its host chromosome DNA does. Most of the differences in GC content between plasmids ... I am interested in the relation between bacterial (or archaeal) genome sequence and their functions. I welcome investigators to ... Therefore, virus resistance systems have resulted in changes in bacterial and archaeal genome DNA sequences during evolution. ...
2007 The origin of mitochondria in light of a fluid prokaryotic chromosome model. Biol. Lett. 3, 180-184. (doi:10.1098/rsbl. ... 4. The scattered archaeal eukaryome. *5. The archaeal ancestor of eukaryotes: a complex, ancient group within the TACK ... 2. Burgeoning archaeal diversity, complex archaeal ancestor and origin of eukaryotes from within the archaea. As pointed out ... 2014 The dispersed archaeal eukaryome and the complex archaeal ancestor of eukaryotes. Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Biol. 6, ...
11.5 Chromatin Organizes Archaeal Chromosomes Case Study Fishing for Chromosome Abnormalities in Cancer Cells ... 13.4 Chromosome Breakage Leads to Inversion and Translocation of Chromosomes 13.5 Transposable Genetic Elements Move throughout ... 3.3 The Chromosome Theory of Heredity Proposes That Genes Are Carried on Chromosomes ... 13.3 Chromosome Breakage Causes Mutation by Loss, Gain, and Rearrangement of Chromosomes ...
Archaeal integrases facilitate the formation of two distinctive types of integrated element within archaeal chromosomes: the ... Two mechanisms have been proposed for stably maintaining an integrated element within archaeal chromosomes. There is also ... Archaeal integrases and mechanisms of gene capture. Q. She, B. Shen, L. Chen ... Archaeal integrases and mechanisms of gene capture Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Biochemical ...
Protein-protein interactions in the archaeal core replisome Biochem Soc Trans (January, 2011) ... non-partitioned or rarely partitioned chromosomes. Such a phenotype suggests impairment of the mechanism of chromosome ... Impaired chromosome partitioning and synchronization of DNA replication initiation in an insertional mutant in the Vibrio ... Moreover, in contrast to wild-type V. harveyi, inhibition of chromosome replication and/or of cell division in the mutant ...
She Q, Peng X, Zillig W, Garrett RA (2001) Gene capture in archaeal chromosomes. Nature 409(6819): 478. ... 2012) An archaeal immune system can detect multiple protospacer adjacent motifs (PAMs) to target invader DNA. J Biol Chem. 287 ... Lillestøl RK, Redder P, Garrett RA, Brugger K (2006) A putative viral defence mechanism in archaeal cells. Archaea 2(1): 59-72 ... An archaeal CRISPR type III-B system exhibiting distinctive RNA targeting features and mediating dual RNA and DNA interference ...
A study led by Indiana University is the first to reveal key similarities between chromosomes in humans and archaea. The work ... The IU study is the first to visualize the organization of DNA in archaeal chromosomes. The key similarity is the way in which ... The similar clustering of DNA in humans and archaeal chromosomes is significant because certain genes activate or deactivate ... Key similarities discovered between human and archaea chromosomes Discovery from Indiana University could advance use of single ...
Moreover, comparative genomic analyses have revealed that the mosaics of replicator-initiator pairings in archaeal chromosomes ... Moreover, comparative genomic analyses have revealed that the mosaics of replicator-initiator pairings in archaeal chromosomes ... Archaea, the third domain of life, use a single or multiple origin(s) to initiate replication of their circular chromosomes. ... Archaea, the third domain of life, use a single or multiple origin(s) to initiate replication of their circular chromosomes. ...
... the EasyGene web server has provided predictions for hundreds of chromosomes. Therefore, for comparison purpose, EasyGene ... Furthermore, MED 2.0 adapts to a broad range of archaeal genome as well as to bacterial genomes. For archaeal genomes with more ... The bacterial and archaeal genomes and their annotations used in this paper were downloaded from the GenBank Release 149.0 in ... We present the logos of three representative archaeal genomes: M. jannaschii, P. abyssi, and N. equitans in Fig. 2. The logos ...
Although chromosomes are initially shattered into many fragments, complete chromosomes are regenerated by making use of over- ... Whole proteome comparisons show the definite archaeal nature of this halophile with additional similarities to the Gram- ... NRC-1 genome consists of 2,571,010 base pairs on one large chromosome and two mini-chromosomes. The genome encodes 2,360 ... The large chromosome is very G-C rich (68%). High GC-content of the genome increases stability in extreme environments. ...
Bacterial chromosomes are immense polymers whose faithful replication and segregation are crucial to cell survival. The ability ... Zhang R, Zhang CT (2005) Identification of replication origins in archaeal genomes based on the Z-curve method. Archaea 1:335- ... Lobry JR, Louarn JM (2003) Polarisation of prokaryotic chromosomes. Curr Opin Microbiol 6:101-108CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Liu SL, Sanderson KE (1995a) The chromosome of Salmonella paratyphi A is inverted by recombination between rrnH and rrnG. J ...
This redundancy allowed loss of the archaeal chromosome, generating an organism with eukaryotic features. The evolution of ... The coevolution of phagocytosis and the nucleus rendered much of the host archaeal genome redundant since the protoeukaryote ... These include mRNA capping, linear chromosomes, and separation of transcription from translation. In the model, phagocytosis ...
Dps homologs are found throughout the bacteria and in at least one archaeal species. Dps has been shown to protect cells from ... During stationary phase, Dps organizes the chromosome into a highly ordered, stable nucleoprotein complex called the biocrystal ... roles of Dps are most likely achieved through a combination of functions associated with the protein-DNA binding and chromosome ...
genome consists of one circular chromosome that contains 1,767,403 basepairs but no plasmids. Also, of all sequenced archaeal ... Also, of all sequenced archaeal genomes, M. stadtmanae has the lowest Guanine+Cytosine (G+C) content at 28%. Also, within all ... It is important to isolate and sequence the genome of this archaeon as it is the first human archaeal commensal; therefore, it ... It is important to isolate and sequence the genome of this archaeon as it is the first human archaeal commensal; therefore, it ...
  • A genome sequence is the complete list of the nucleotides (A, C, G, and T for DNA genomes) that make up all the chromosomes of an individual or a species. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the DNA is replicated faster than the bacterial cells divide, multiple copies of the chromosome can be present in a single cell, and if the cells divide faster than the DNA can be replicated, multiple replication of the chromosome is initiated before the division occurs, allowing daughter cells to inherit complete genomes and already partially replicated chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, all archaeal genomes sequenced to date encode potential transcription regulators of bacterial type, underscoring the chimeric nature of the archaeal transcription apparatus ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • This flexibility allows the information in the genomes of Archaea to be easily accessed, so, unlike in eukaryotes, archaeal cells may not need other proteins to release the DNA from the histones. (elifesciences.org)
  • There is also evidence for changes having occurred in the captured integrated elements present in archaeal genomes. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The advantage of the MED 2.0 is particularly evident for GC-rich genomes and archaeal genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In particular, MED 2.0 is shown to reveal divergent translation initiation mechanisms in archaeal genomes while making a more accurate prediction of TISs compared to the existing gene finders and the current GenBank annotation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At the time of this writing nearly 400 complete prokaryotic genomes, including 28 archaeal ones, have been deposited in the GenBank database. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ability of proteins such as FtsK to move unidirectionally toward the replication terminus, and direct DNA translocation into the appropriate daughter cell during cell division, requires that bacterial genomes maintain an architecture for the orderly replication and segregation of chromosomes. (springer.com)
  • The Z-curve method has been used in the identification of replication origins in archaeal genomes successfully since 2002. (deepdyve.com)
  • Furthermore, the Web servers of Ori-Finder and Ori-Finder 2 have been developed to predict replication origins in both bacterial and archaeal genomes based on the Z-curve method, and the replication origins with manual curation have been collected into an online database, DoriC. (deepdyve.com)
  • In eukaryote, because of the huge size of genomes, the chromosomes use multiple dispersed replication origins to initiate the DNA replication, ranging from hundreds in yeast to tens of thousands in human [8-10]. (deepdyve.com)
  • These results led us to apply information theoretical methods to examine the extent to which information content differed between the genomes of bacterial chromosomes, plasmids, phages and GIs, and whether such differences could be related to distinct genomic properties of bacterial chromosomes and mobile genomic elements. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All sequenced archaeal genomes to date have at least two TA loci and the thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii has »40 TA loci. (springer.com)
  • Broad estimates for coverage depths needed to recover complete bacterial genomes are present in the literature, but required sequencing depths across bacterial and archaeal phylogenies needed for high-quality assembly are not known. (unl.edu)
  • We first preface our research by discussing the benefits and challenges surrounding assembly of single chromosome bacterial genomes. (unl.edu)
  • One of the obstacles clouding our view of these early cells from a comparative approach is the large number of conserved hypothetical genes present in Archaeal and Eukaryote genomes whose cellular functions are unknown. (nasa.gov)
  • Many archaeal genomes consist of multiple parts-the main chromosome plus several megaplasmids-and in polyploid species these parts are present in multiple copies. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • In search of systematic evidence of accelerated evolution after duplication, we used data from 26 bacterial, six archaeal, and seven eukaryotic genomes to compare the mode and strength of selection acting on recently duplicated genes (paralogs) and on similarly diverged, unduplicated orthologous genes in different species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We developed an automated computational pipeline for identification of r-protein genes and applied it to 995 completely sequenced bacterial and 87 archaeal genomes available in the RefSeq database. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Systematic analysis of gene neighborhoods shows that ribosomal superoperons are the largest partially conserved gene arrays in bacterial and archaeal genomes [10] , [11] . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Briefly, position-specific scoring matrices (PSSMs) for 56 bacterial and 71 archaeal r-proteins [6] , [7] ( Table S1 ) were used to screen completely sequenced prokaryotic genomes ( Table S2 ) translated in six frames. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We apply this approach to two synthetic metagenome samples, successfully clustering the genome content of fungal, bacterial, and archaeal species with more than 99% agreement with published reference genomes. (g3journal.org)
  • Proviral regions have been identified in the genomes of many haloarchaea, but only a few archaeal halophilic temperate viruses have been studied. (ovid.com)
  • The uptake of donor DNA and its recombinational incorporation into the recipient chromosome depends on the expression of numerous bacterial genes whose products direct this process. (wikipedia.org)
  • E. coli conjugation is mediated by expression of plasmid genes, whereas mycobacterial conjugation is mediated by genes on the bacterial chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, analysis of the methyl coenzyme M reductase operon of M. kandleri identified a group of genes unique to archaeal methanogens ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • Comparative genome analysis of M. kandleri , Methanococcus jannaschii , and Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicum resulted in the delineation of a distinct set of genes characteristic of archaeal methanogens. (pnas.org)
  • Another archaeal paradox is that the proteins coded by these genes are very similar to bacterial homologs, as if the genes had been received via lateral transfer from bacteria, whereas the upstream flanking regions have no bacterial markers, but instead have typical archaeal promoters, which are like those of eukaryotes. (genetics.org)
  • Third, phylogenomic analyses converge on the origin of most eukaryotic genes of archaeal descent from within the archaeal evolutionary tree, specifically, the TACK superphylum. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Fourth, evidence has been presented that the origin of the major archaeal phyla involved massive acquisition of bacterial genes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The similar clustering of DNA in humans and archaeal chromosomes is significant because certain genes activate or deactivate based upon how they're folded. (newswise.com)
  • The unique fraction of marine archaeal genes included, among others, those for a predicted RNA-binding protein of the bacterial cold shock family and a eukaryote-type Zn finger protein. (asm.org)
  • a researcher at the University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences discovered that the linear arrangement of genes on a chromosome corresponds to the development of body segments in fruit flies ? (thefullwiki.org)
  • In H. salinarum , the B flagellin genes are adjacent to the accessory genes, whereas the A flagellin genes are located elsewhere on the chromosome. (els.net)
  • Chromosomes contain a single continuous piece of DNA, which contains many genes , regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences . (bionity.com)
  • Homologous recombination is a fundamental cellular process that rearranges genes both within and between chromosomes, promotes repair of damaged DNA and underpins replication. (portlandpress.com)
  • Since then it has become evident that TA genes are highly abundant on both plasmids and chromosomes belonging to the bacterial and archaeal domains. (springer.com)
  • Genes encoding restriction-modification (R-M) systems are present on approximately 90% of currently available bacterial and archaeal genome sequences ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • These systems can be encoded by genes on plasmids or chromosomes, and their general role is to recognize and target invading foreign DNA with restriction enzymes, while simultaneously protecting the host's DNA by methyltransferase (MTase) activity. (asm.org)
  • For such reasons, when it comes to discussing the relationships among all living things, that is, including the microbes and all of their genes rather than just one or a select few, many biologists are now beginning to talk about networks rather than trees in the context of evolutionary relationships among microbial chromosomes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We also identified a novel staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec V subtype harboring clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated genes ( cas ). (cdc.gov)
  • In addition to its mtDNA formed of hundreds of circular chromosomes, genes are fragmented. (umontreal.ca)
  • Phyletic patterns of bacterial and archaeal r-protein genes were mapped to phylogenetic trees reconstructed from concatenated alignments of r-proteins to reveal the history of likely multiple independent gains and losses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The standard 'tree of life', based initially on the sequences of 16S rRNA and subsequently on the sequences of other universal genes, such as protein components of the translation and transcription systems, unequivocally identifies the ancestry of the information-processing systems of eukaryotes as archaeal. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The archaeal RNA polymerase III promoter consensus box A motif, the tRNA half genes (red) and intervening reverse complementary sequences are indicated. (panspermia.org)
  • Geneticists from Yale and Germany have shown that four genes thought to be lacking in an archaeal parasite are actually present there in widely separated fragments. (panspermia.org)
  • Now, the new analysis has found the four missing genes in the form of "nine tRNA halves spread throughout the chromosome. (panspermia.org)
  • In animals, genes encoding canonical histones are typically clustered along the chromosome, lack introns and use a stem loop structure at the 3' end instead of a polyA tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • The work published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute reports that the loss of function in certain genes of the sex-determining Y chromosome may play a role in this. (frontlinegenomics.com)
  • The strands of DNA on which the genes occur are organized into chromosomes chromosome , structural carrier of hereditary characteristics, found in the nucleus of every cell and so named for its readiness to absorb dyes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The nucleus of each eukaryotic (nucleated) cell has a complete set of chromosomes and therefore a complete set of genes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Each chromosome of each species has a definite number and arrangement of genes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The sum total of the genes contained in an organism's full set of chromosomes is termed the genome. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Scientists are working toward identifying the location and function of each gene in the human genome (see Human Genome Project Human Genome Project, international scientific effort to map all of the genes on the 23 pairs of human chromosomes and, to sequence the 3.1 billion DNA base pairs that make up the chromosomes (see nucleic acid). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Phylogenetic analyses of two 'archaeal' genes in thermotoga maritima reveal multiple transfers between archaea and bacteria. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • The genome sequence of Thermotoga maritima revealed that 24% of its open reading frames (ORFs) showed the highest similarity scores to archaeal genes in BLAST analyses. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • Here we screened 16 strains from the genus Thermotoga and other related Thermotogales for the occurrence of two of these 'archaeal' genes: the gene encoding the large subunit of glutamate synthase (gltB) and the myo-inositol 1P synthase gene (ino1). (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of the ino1 sequences revealed three highly supported prokaryotic clades, all containing a mixture of archaeal and bacterial sequences, and suggested that all bacterial ino1 genes had been recruited from archaeal donors. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • Archaea and most bacteria have a single circular chromosome, however, some bacterial species have linear or multiple chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important to remark, however, that becoming acquainted with what is known for archaea is extremely useful not only for deciding what to do- and how to do it-to increase our understanding of the archaeal chaperoning systems, but also for discovering new molecules and mechanisms that will enhance research with bacteria and eukaryotes. (genetics.org)
  • Origin of eukaryotes from within archaea, archaeal eukaryome and bursts of gene gain: eukaryogenesis just made easier? (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Newswise - A study led by researchers at Indiana University is the first to find similarities between the organization of chromosomes in humans and archaea. (newswise.com)
  • Archaea, the third domain of life, use a single or multiple origin(s) to initiate replication of their circular chromosomes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Analysis of the predicted gene products encoded by the 74A4 sequence and those derived from a temperate, deepwater planktonic crenarchaeote (fosmid 4B7) revealed many typical archaeal proteins but also several proteins that so far have not been detected in archaea. (asm.org)
  • While some archaea possess a bacterial-like mode of DNA replication with single origins of replication per chromosome, the majority of species characterized to date possess chromosomes with multiple replication origins. (springer.com)
  • The archaeal flagellum is a unique, 'tail‐like' structure used for motility by single‐celled organisms belonging to the domain Archaea. (els.net)
  • In some archaea, single chromosome could adopt more than one oriCs in initiation of DNA replication as eukaryotes. (deepdyve.com)
  • Since most archaeal species are extremophilic and difficult to cultivate, current knowledge of recombination in the Archaea is confined largely to comparative genomics and biochemistry. (portlandpress.com)
  • Research on the metabolism of extremophilic bacteria ( Thermotoga, Caldicellulosiruptor ) and archaea ( Pyrococcus, Thermococcus ) has been ongoing for many years, and focused on their sugar catabolism, central metabolic pathways, hydrogen production and archaeal lipid biosynthesis. (wur.nl)
  • Whilst archaea have eukaryal-type informational pathways such as DNA replication and transcription, archaeal DNA repair pathways are still poorly understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Unlike bacteria, archaea may have multiple origins per chromosome and multiple Orc1/Cdc6 initiator proteins. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Archaeal and bacterial ribosomes contain more than 50 proteins, including 34 that are universally conserved in the three domains of cellular life (bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The latest striking discovery made by deep metagenomic sequencing vindicates this hypothesis by showing that in phylogenetic trees eukaryotes fall within a newly identified archaeal group, the Lokiarchaeota, which combine several eukaryotic signatures previously identified in different archaea. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although it is well accepted that archaea are not only the extremists they were thought to be as they occupy nearly every habitat where also bacteria are found, it is surprising how little molecular details are known about archaeal biofilm formation. (scoop.it)
  • Comparisons ​Archaea have the same general appearance as bacteria, but upon further examination, archaeal cells have more in common with eukaryotic cells than bacteria cells. (scientistcindy.com)
  • We have previously shown that archaea of the genus Sulfolobus possess three replication origins per chromosomes and each fires once in every cell cycle. (grantome.com)
  • The chromosomes of archaea of the genus Sulfolobus contain three replication origins that are defined by distinct initiator proteins. (grantome.com)
  • Furthermore, SNJ2-like proviruses containing the conserved gene cluster were identified in the chromosomes of archaea belonging to 10 different genera. (ovid.com)
  • Database searches revealed that three other bacteria-Dehalococcoides ethenogenes, Sinorhizobium meliloti, and Clostridium difficile-possess archaeal-type gltBs, and the phylogenetic analyses confirmed at least two lateral gene transfer (LGT) events between Bacteria and Archaea. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • These LGT events were also strongly supported by gene structure data, as the three domains in bacterial-type gltB are homologous to three independent ORFs in Archaea and Bacteria with archaeal-type gltBs. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • Polyploidy is common in higher eukaryotes, especially in plants, but it is generally assumed that most prokaryotes contain a single copy of a circular chromosome and are therefore monoploid. (nih.gov)
  • Archaeal histones may reflect early versions of histones in eukaryotes, and can be used to understand how DNA packing has evolved. (elifesciences.org)
  • It is difficult to understand how these hybrid characteristics of the archaeal chaperoning system became established and work, if one bears in mind the classical ideas learned from studying bacteria and eukaryotes. (genetics.org)
  • The discovery of this 'dispersed eukaryome' implies that the archaeal ancestor of eukaryotes was a complex cell that might have been capable of a primitive form of phagocytosis and thus conducive to endosymbiont capture. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Guy L, Ettema TJ (2011) The archaeal 'TACK' superphylum and the origin of eukaryotes. (springer.com)
  • Chromosomes of higher organisms ( eukaryotes ) contain DNA and protein. (thefullwiki.org)
  • This selective pressure drove the transformation of an archaeal (archaebacterial) lineage into the first eukaryotes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • for example mitochondria in most eukaryotes and chloroplasts in plants have their own small chromosomes. (bionity.com)
  • In eukaryotes, nuclear chromosomes are packaged by proteins into a condensed structure called chromatin . (bionity.com)
  • Archaeal information processing pathways resemble those in eukaryotes, but archaeal damage response pathways remain poorly understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Crenarchaea are one of the major lineages with in the Archaeal domain with close ties in function to the cellular biology of Eukaryotes. (nasa.gov)
  • A difference at the ultrastructural level appears as formation of meiosis-specific synaptonemal complexes (SCs), the ultrastructures that join homologous chromosomes into bivalents during pachytene stage of meiotic prophase I in the vast majority of eukaryotes. (hindawi.com)
  • These findings inspired the hypothesis that the archaeal ancestor of eukaryotes was an unusually complex form with an elaborate intracellular organization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The findings of the closest Archaeal relative to eukaryotes cultures so far will allow further detailed cellular and metabolic investigation and find out more about the origins of complex life. (frontlinegenomics.com)
  • The Oxford Dictionary suggests the name is a blend of the words gene and chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis of its chromosome revealed the total absence of the β-glycosidase gene ( lacS ). (asm.org)
  • These mutants contained a transposable element in the lacS gene with features typical of bacterial and archaeal ISs, including terminal inverted repeats, a putative transposase gene, and short direct flanking repeats. (asm.org)
  • However, genome comparisons indicate that, in both trees constructed using concatenated alignments of ribosomal proteins and trees based on gene content, M. kandleri consistently groups with other archaeal methanogens. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, in contrast to wild-type V. harveyi , inhibition of chromosome replication and/or of cell division in the mutant bacteria caused significant increase in the number of large cells, suggesting that the cgtA gene product may be involved in the coupling of cell growth to chromosome replication and cell division. (portlandpress.com)
  • The stable gradient of AIMS abundance from replication origin to terminus suggests that the replicore acts as a target of selection, where selection for chromosome architecture results in the maintenance of gene order and in the lack of high-frequency DNA inversion within replicores. (springer.com)
  • The protective roles of Dps are most likely achieved through a combination of functions associated with the protein-DNA binding and chromosome compaction, metal chelation, ferroxidase activity, and regulation of gene expression. (asm.org)
  • Recent advances in genomic sequencing techniques and the development of methods for cloning large genome fragments into fosmid ( 35 , 41 , 42 , 45 ) or bacterial artificial chromosome ( 5 , 6 , 38 ) vectors now provide the means to characterize the gene content ( 41 ), metabolic potential ( 5 ), and population genetics ( 41 ) of uncultivated microorganisms, otherwise known solely by an rRNA sequence. (asm.org)
  • 1998. Evidence for massive gene exchange between archaeal and bacterial hyperthermophiles. (tolweb.org)
  • microchromosomes are very tiny gene -rich chromosomes which are a typical genetic component in birds , and some groups of non-mammalian animals? (thefullwiki.org)
  • Organization of flagella gene families in selected archaeal species. (els.net)
  • The essential gene profile has not been identified within any organism in this lineage and holds the key to understanding the origin of cellular features in central processing of genomic information through replication, recombination, repair and the shaping of the chromosome. (nasa.gov)
  • For example, the cox1 gene which encodes the subunit one of the cytochrome oxidase complex, comprises nine modules carried by nine chromosomes. (umontreal.ca)
  • Each gene provides a blueprint for the synthesis (via RNA) of enzymes and other proteins and specifies when these substances are to be made (see nucleic acid nucleic acid, any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The SIR2 gene family, conserved from bacteria to humans, functions in silencing, cell cycle progression, and chromosome stability. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The Thermotoga strains and A. aeolicus acquired this gene independently from different archaeal species. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • Specificity and function of archaeal DNA replication initiator proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Bell SD (2012) Archaeal orc1/cdc6 proteins. (springer.com)
  • Chromatin The network of chromosomes, histones, and other proteins found in the eukaryotic nucleus during interphase. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Chromosomes also contain DNA-bound proteins, which serve to package the DNA and control its functions. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Chromosomes are organized structures of DNA and proteins that are found in cells . (bionity.com)
  • The simplest chromosomes are found in viruses: these DNA or RNA molecules are short linear or circular chromosomes that often lack any structural proteins. (bionity.com)
  • There are no clear archaeal homologues of either bacterial LexA or of eukaryal proteins involved in the transcriptional response to DNA damage, such as p53. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Archaeal origins are sequence‐based, as in bacteria, but are bound by initiator proteins that share homology with the eukaryotic origin recognition complex subunit Orc1 and helicase loader Cdc6). (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • In order to derive comprehensive sets of bacterial and archaeal r-proteins, we developed a two-step procedure that is schematically shown in Figure 1 (see Methods for details). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • During mitosis and meiosis, the condensed chromosomes are assembled through interactions between nucleosomes and other regulatory proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resolution of multimeric forms of circular plasmids and chromosomes is mediated by site-specific recombination, and the enzymes that catalyze this type of reaction fall into two families of proteins: the serine and tyrosine recombinase families. (asmscience.org)
  • We use protein crystallography to determine the atomic structure of eukaryotic and archaeal proteins involved in these processes. (trieste.it)
  • Here I review three recently characterised non-core archaeal PCNA binding proteins NusS, NreA/NreB and TIP, highlighting what is known of their interactions with PCNA and their functions in vivo and in vitro. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • This mosaic nature of the Sulfolobus chromosome provides a unique tool with which to dissect the mode of action of the conserved Orc1 proteins in living cells. (grantome.com)
  • The chromosome copy number is identical in cultures with a twofold lower growth rate, in contrast to the results reported for several other prokaryotic species. (nih.gov)
  • To survive in extremely salty environments, this archaeon-as with other halophilic Archaeal species-utilizes compatible solutes (in particular potassium chloride) to reduce osmotic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dps homologs are found throughout the bacteria and in at least one archaeal species. (asm.org)
  • Population genetic theory is developed for computing the joint frequency spectra of alleles in two closely related species, including the special case of sampling one chromosome from one of the species. (genetics.org)
  • The joint-site frequency spectrum can be remarkably invariant over different demographic histories of the populations, providing that the chromosome from one of the descendant species carries the derived allele. (genetics.org)
  • In many archaeal species, however, division is orchestrated differently. (tudelft.nl)
  • Related to the challenge of determining which contigs belong to the same species are the problems of how to further define and assemble the one or multiple chromosomes that comprise each species' genome, and how to define and assign plasmid content to one or multiple species. (g3journal.org)
  • At the same time, repeats were observed in the archaeal organisms of Haloferax and Haloarcula species, and their function was studied by Francisco Mojica at the University of Alicante in Spain. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few months later, the first eukaryotic genome was completed, with sequences of the 16 chromosomes of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae published as the result of a European-led effort begun in the mid-1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • HTa preferentially binds to GC-rich sequences, exhibits invariant positioning throughout the growth cycle, and shows archaeal histone-like oligomerization behavior. (elifesciences.org)
  • The variations in bacterial and archaeal genome DNA sequences are not only explained by neutral mutations. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, virus resistance systems have resulted in changes in bacterial and archaeal genome DNA sequences during evolution. (frontiersin.org)
  • I welcome investigators to contribute any types of the tier 1 articles focusing on the evolution and function of bacterial (or archaeal) genome sequences to this Research Topic. (frontiersin.org)
  • 1992. Early evolutionary relationships among known life forms inferred from elongation factor EF-2/EF-G sequences: Phylogenetic coherence and structure of the Archaeal domain. (tolweb.org)
  • Find this article online O'Keefe RT, Henderson SC, Spector DL (1992) Dynamic organization of DNA replication in mammalian cell nuclei: Spatially and temporally defined replication of chromosome-specific alpha-satellite DNA sequences. (thefullwiki.org)
  • In a process called genetic recombination , genetic material ( DNA ) joins up so that homologous chromosome sequences are aligned with each other, and this is followed by exchange of genetic information. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the physiological importance and the high degree of conservation of this protein, its absence in archaeal organisms has raised intriguing questions pertaining to the evolution of the chaperone machine as a whole and that of its components in particular, namely, Hsp70(DnaK), Hsp40(DnaJ), and GrpE. (genetics.org)
  • The study is also the first to describe the protein used to assemble archaeal DNA during cellular growth. (newswise.com)
  • A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and protein that is found in cells . (thefullwiki.org)
  • DnaA boxes are the recognition sites for the DnaA protein, which is essential for the initiation of chromosome replication. (deepdyve.com)
  • Currently, extremophile research is more directed towards the fundamental aspects of chromosome segregation, involving state-of-the art protein imaging techniques. (wur.nl)
  • Here, we report the isolation of meiotic chromosome association 1 (MEICA1), a novel protein participating in meiotic recombination in rice ( Oryza sativa ). (plantcell.org)
  • There is no consensus on how these archaeal origins are recognised- some are bound by a single Orc1/Cdc6 protein while others require a multi‐ Orc1/Cdc6 complex. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Archaeal histone only contains a H3-H4 like dimeric structure made out of the same protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 3D-structure of an archaeal sirtuin in complex with NAD reveals that the protein consists of a large domain having a Rossmann fold and a small domain containing a three-stranded zinc ribbon motif. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This year marks the 20th anniversary of the first report on the archaeal replicative helicase, the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) protein. (asm.org)
  • Although his hypothesis turned out to be wrong, Mojica's supervisor surmised at the time that the clustered repeats had a role in correctly segregating replicated DNA into daughter cells during cell division because plasmids and chromosomes with identical repeat arrays could not coexist in Haloferax volcanii . (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the disadvantages of circular plasmids and chromosomes is their high sensitivity to rearrangements caused by homologous recombination. (asmscience.org)
  • Here we give an overview of the variety of site-specific resolution systems found on circular plasmids and chromosomes. (asmscience.org)
  • Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell. (rush.edu)
  • Genetic, structural, and biochemical studies have revealed the nature of archaeal origin specification. (springer.com)
  • in 1902, the Boveri-Sutton Chromosome Theory unified the genetic laws of Mendelian inheritance with the physical structures of chromosomes observed in cells? (thefullwiki.org)
  • Pallister-Killian syndrome is a rare congenital genetic disorder that cannot be detected through prenatal blood tests because it occurs only in the chromosomes of skin cells ? (thefullwiki.org)
  • The duplication of the genetic information in a cell begins at specific sites on the chromosomes, termed DNA replication origins. (deepdyve.com)
  • For information about chromosomes in genetic algorithms , see chromosome (genetic algorithm) . (bionity.com)
  • Genetic material is most readily exchanged between related genetic elements, [ 5 ] i.e . chromosomes exchange DNA with chromosomes, plasmids with plasmids, and phages with phages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Meiosis is a division of germ-line cells that involves recombination of genetic material and segregation of homologous chromosomes, leading to production of haploid gametes from a diploid cell, while mitosis preserves the initial chromosome number in both daughter cells. (hindawi.com)
  • A principal difference between the results of meiosis and mitosis is determined by their difference in genetic control, chromosome structure, and chromosome behavior. (hindawi.com)
  • Because H. volcanii has one of the most advanced genetic systems for any archaeon, the phenotypes reported here may promote the study of genetic and developmental processes in archaeal biofilms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Background: Homologous recombination is a crucial mechanism in determining genetic diversity and repairing damaged chromosomes. (elsevier.com)
  • Failure to control these processes causes chromosome instability, which can lead to the development of cellular abnormalities, genetic disease and the onset of cancer. (trieste.it)
  • Most of the differences in GC content between plasmids and their host chromosomes are of less than 10%, suggesting that host organisms cannot maintain and regulate plasmids with very different GC content from their own. (frontiersin.org)
  • A provirus not only refers to a retrovirus but is also used to describe other viruses that can integrate into the host chromosomes, another example being adeno-associated virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • We argue that relative entropy differences reflect how plasmids, phages and GIs interact with microbial host chromosomes and that all these biological entities are, or have been, subjected to different selective pressures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prokaryotic chromosomes code for toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci, often in multiple copies. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, because of the asymmetric nucleotide composition of prokaryotic chromosomes, the replication origins have been identified around the boundaries of GC or AT skew [7]. (deepdyve.com)
  • We analyzed the differences in information capacity between prokaryotic chromosomes, genomic islands (GI), phages, and plasmids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Organisms within the archaeal domain of life possess a simplified version of the eukaryotic DNA replication machinery. (springer.com)
  • Chromosomes vary extensively between different organisms. (bionity.com)
  • There are examples of archaeal organisms that can survive or even prefer extreme levels of salinity, pH, or pressure. (scientistcindy.com)
  • In particular, organisms with multiple replication origins per chromosome must ensure that initiation of DNA replication at each origin is highly regulated. (grantome.com)
  • 2005-2007: Associate Professor of Archaeal Genetics and Genomics at the Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark 2. (hindawi.com)
  • The M. stadtmanae genome consists of one circular chromosome that contains 1,767,403 basepairs but no plasmids. (kenyon.edu)
  • Typically eukaryotic cells (cells with nuclei) have large linear chromosomes and prokaryotic cells (cells without nuclei) smaller circular chromosomes, although there are many exceptions to this rule. (bionity.com)
  • In prokaryotes, a small circular DNA molecule may be called either a plasmid or a small chromosome. (bionity.com)
  • Conjugation requires stable and extended contact between a donor and a recipient strain, is DNase resistant, and the transferred DNA is incorporated into the recipient chromosome by homologous recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clerget M (1991) Site-specific recombination promoted by a short DNA segment of plasmid R1 and by a homologous segment in the terminus region of the Escherichia coli chromosome. (springer.com)
  • Studies of archaeal conjugation, prokaryotic DNA recombination, and the universality of nuclear-mediated meiotic activities might corroborate the hypothesis that sex and the nucleus evolved to support DNA repair. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Homologous recombination plays a central role in guaranteeing chromosome segregation during meiosis. (plantcell.org)
  • Although frequently considered as independent systems or events, in recent years it has become clear that three of the most fundamental processes that support chromosome integrity and cell proliferation - DNA replication, repair, and recombination - are highly interconnected. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • Although archaeal flagella are functionally similar to the flagella found on bacteria, they differ significantly in structure and presumed mode of assembly. (els.net)
  • In most bacteria, two replication forks assemble at the replication origin of chromosomes (oriCs) and move in opposite directions, and then leading to bidirectional growth of both daughter strands. (deepdyve.com)
  • Researchers examined nucleoid distribution during the cell cycle, and the results suggested that chromosome segregation was concomitant with DNA replication, as was proposed for M. thermautotrophicus , in a mode akin to that employed by bacteria. (asmscience.org)
  • This mechanism of archaeal viral inhibition of plasmid propagation is not observed in bacteria where relevant bacteriophages either are dependent on a conjugative plasmid for successful infection or are excluded by a resident plasmid. (pasteur.fr)
  • During mitosis, DNA is condensed into visible chromosomes (prophase) that arrange at the cell midplane (metaphase), separate (anaphase), and decondense into the interphase. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The structure of chromatin varies through the cell cycle , and is responsible for the organisation of chromosomes into the classic four-arm structure during mitosis and meiosis . (bionity.com)
  • It is not easy to identify who first discerned chromosomes during mitosis, but there is no doubt that those who first saw them had no idea of their significance. (bionity.com)
  • [9] This more or less concludes the first period, in which chromosomes were visually sighted, and the morphological stages of mitosis were described. (bionity.com)
  • When the diploid cells are duplicated and condensed during mitosis , the result is about 120 micrometers of chromosomes . (wikipedia.org)
  • The plasmid DNA has lower GC content than its host chromosome DNA does. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although nucleotide sequence comparisons revealed extensive intergenomic exchange during the evolution of archaeal conjugative plasmids, pAH1 was shown to be stably maintained suggesting that the host system is suitable for studying plasmid-virus interactions. (pasteur.fr)
  • This redundancy allowed loss of the archaeal chromosome, generating an organism with eukaryotic features. (springer.com)
  • Duggin IG, McCallum SA, Bell SD (2008) Chromosome replication dynamics in the archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. (springer.com)
  • VAPs (virus-associated pyramids) formed by the Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2 (SIRV2) in cells of its hyperthermophilic archaeal host. (pasteur.fr)
  • Uniparental disomy is the inheritance of two homologous chromosomes from one parent. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The segregation of chromosomes during meiosis I requires a bipolar spindle at metaphase. (genetics.org)
  • Yeast Nuf2 disappears from the centromere during meiotic prophase when centromeres lose their connection to the spindle pole body, and plays a regulatory role in chromosome segregation. (nih.gov)
  • In the first stage of sexual reproduction, "meiosis", the number of chromosomes is reduced from a diploid number (2n) to a haploid number (n). (wikipedia.org)
  • Between fertilisation and meiosis there can be a large number of cell divisions without change of the number of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meiosis in the parents' gonads produce gamete cells which only contain 23 chromosomes each. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the four eukaryotic histones wrap ~147 DNA base pairs into nucleosomes, archaeal histones form 'nucleosome-like' complexes that continuously wind between 60 and 500 base pairs of DNA ('archaeasomes'), suggested by crystal contacts and analysis of cellular chromatin. (elifesciences.org)
  • Without histones, the unwound DNA in chromosomes would be very long (a length to width ratio of more than 10 million to 1 in human DNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Electron micrographs of (a) a Methanococcus maripaludis cell (approximately 1 μm in diameter) displaying numerous flagellar filaments and (b) purified archaeal flagella from Methanococcus maripaludis (flagella approximately 12 nm in diameter). (els.net)
  • Fast growing H. salinarum cells contain on average about 25 copies of the chromosome in exponential phase, and their ploidy is downregulated to 15 copies in early stationary phase. (nih.gov)
  • The cell division cycle includes when chromosomes of daughter cells replicate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because archea have a singular structure chromosome, the two daughter cells separate and cell divides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, two chaperoning systems that are designed to interact with a compatible partner, e.g. , the bacterial chaperone machine physiologically interacts with the bacterial but not with the eucaryal chaperonins, coexist in archaeal cells in spite of their apparent functional incompatibility. (genetics.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that the mutant cells often form long filaments with expanded, non-partitioned or rarely partitioned chromosomes. (portlandpress.com)
  • Textbooks have often said that chromosomes were first observed in plant cells by a Swiss botanist named Karl Wilhelm von Nägeli in 1842. (bionity.com)
  • It may be prokaryotic cells which encoded a plasma membrane, simply produced additional membrane which surrounded the bacterial chromosome. (sunyorange.edu)
  • Sexual reproduction is a kind of life cycle where generations alternate between cells with a single set of chromosomes ( haploid ) and cells with a double set of chromosomes ( diploid ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Two rounds of cell division then produce four daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes from each original parent cell, and the same number of chromosomes as both parents. (wikipedia.org)
  • A eukaryotic cell is a strikingly complex macromolecular aggregate by any account, but specifically when compared with archaeal and bacterial cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Following the initial discovery of different ribosomal subunit found in archaeal cells, more differences were soon discovered as well. (scientistcindy.com)
  • Archaeal cells can only be seen using an electron microscope. (scientistcindy.com)
  • Round cells (cocci), rod-shaped cells (bacilli) are seen in bacterial and archaeal cells. (scientistcindy.com)
  • Some very strange, rather odd shapes are found in archaeal cells, like branched, square, lobed-coccus, short or elongated bacilli, or even coccus with a bunch of flagella coming out of one side! (scientistcindy.com)
  • During "fertilization", haploid gametes come together to form a diploid zygote and the original number of chromosomes is restored. (wikipedia.org)
  • An image of the 46 chromosomes making up the diploid genome of a human male. (readtiger.com)
  • Gaining a detailed understanding of the non-core PCNA interactome will provide significant insights into key aspects of chromosome biology in divergent archaeal lineages. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Charting HTa-based chromatin architecture in vitro, in vivo and in an HTa-expressing E. coli strain, we present evidence that HTa is an archaeal histone analog. (elifesciences.org)
  • The archaeal 'slinky-like' histone structures are more flexible than nucleosomes, and can open and close like clamshells. (elifesciences.org)
  • These include mRNA capping, linear chromosomes, and separation of transcription from translation. (springer.com)
  • In Escherichia coli, topoisomerase III functions as the principal cellular decatenase, capable of unlinking replicating daughter chromosomes [ PMID: 12509418 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • It appears that Topoisomerase III works by removing precatenanes, an alternative form that can be taken by the positive linkages that arise between the daughter chromosomes during replication. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Topological entanglement between daughter chromosomes has to be reduced to exactly zero every time an E. coli cell divides. (asm.org)
  • Bacterial chromosomes are typically replicated from a single origin, whereas the replication of eukaryotic chromosomes initiates from a number of discrete origins ( Leonard and Mechali, 2013 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Bacterial chromosomes are immense polymers whose faithful replication and segregation are crucial to cell survival. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, the capabilities of multiplexing (sequencing more than one sample simultaneously on one flow cell) with long-read sequencing platforms in order to recover complete bacterial chromosomes are poorly documented. (unl.edu)
  • In eukaryotic chromosomes, all replication start sites are defined by binding of the origin recognition complex, ORC that ultimately directs the position of loading of the MCM helicase. (grantome.com)
  • May participate in facilitating chromosome segregation by condensation DNA from both sides of a centrally located replisome during cell division. (uniprot.org)
  • Flow cytometric studies revealed that synchronization of chromosome replication initiation is also significantly disturbed in the cgtA mutant. (portlandpress.com)
  • DNA replication initiation, which starts at specific chromosomal site (known as replication origins), is the key regulatory stage of chromosome replication. (frontiersin.org)
  • Two mechanisms have been proposed for stably maintaining an integrated element within archaeal chromosomes. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Indeed, what little is known appears to be suggesting that diverse mechanisms may be employed to regulate chromosome copy number, to coordinate DNA replication and cell division, and even to mediate the process of cell division itself. (asmscience.org)
  • However, the environmental cues and the molecular mechanisms driving archaeal biofilm development are not characterized. (scoop.it)
  • a modest stimulatory effect of TFE, the archaeal homologue of the α subunit of the RNA polymerase II transcription factor TFIIE, is discerned under conditions of suboptimal TBP-TATA box interaction ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Previous phylogenetic analysis of 16S RNA suggested that M. kandleri belonged to a very deep branch, close to the root of the archaeal tree. (pnas.org)
  • Several analyses, based on phylogenetic trees for 16S rRNA and the presence/absence of an 11-aa insertion in EF-1α, placed M. kandleri close to the root of the Euryarchaeota and did not suggest any specific affinity with other archaeal methanogens ( 13 - 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • Bell SP, Labib K (2016) Chromosome duplication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (springer.com)
  • Sir2 functions in transcriptional silencing, cell cycle progression, and chromosome stability [ PMID: 7498786 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Molecular and structural basis of ESCRT-III recruitment to membranes during archaeal cell division. (nih.gov)
  • While synthetic bacterial AHLs did not induce persistence, this is potentially due to structural differences between bacterial and archaeal signals, and does not discount a quorum sensing component in haloarchaeal persister formation. (frontiersin.org)
  • SMC (Structural Maintenance of Chromosome) Proteine bilden eine ubiquitäre Proteinfamilie, die eine zentrale Rolle in verschiedenen Chromosomendynamiken spielt. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Dueber ELC, Corn JE, Bell SD, Berger JM (2007) Replication origin recognition and deformation by a heterodimeric archaeal Orc1 complex. (springer.com)
  • Orc1 is evolutionarily conserved in the archaeal domain of life. (grantome.com)
  • Involved in chromosome condensation, segregation and cell cycle progression. (uniprot.org)
  • Archaeal chromosome biology. (nih.gov)
  • 2. Adjunct Professor at the State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology (SKLAM), Huazhong Agricultural University (HZAU), Wuhan, China since 2005 and he is the PI of the Archaeal Molecular Biology Laboratory of SKLAM. (hindawi.com)
  • However, the biology of archaeal biofilms is only now being explored. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This research provides a series of criteria for why short-read sequencing and assembly often does not result in the generation of complete genome assemblies, and how multiplexed, long-read data can greatly reduce time and financial resources for many bacterial and archaeal sequencing projects. (unl.edu)
  • Archaeal DNA Replication Origins and Recruitment of the MCM Replicative Helicase. (nih.gov)
  • Mechanism of Archaeal MCM Helicase Recruitment to DNA Replication Origins. (nih.gov)
  • Such a phenotype suggests impairment of the mechanism of chromosome partition. (portlandpress.com)
  • the mechanism of cell division to a precise delineation of chromosomes and what they do during the division of the cell. (bionity.com)
  • Brochier-Armanet C, Boussau B, Gribaldo S, Forterre P (2008) Mesophilic crenarchaeota: proposal for a third archaeal phylum, the Thaumarchaeota. (springer.com)
  • I am interested in the relation between bacterial (or archaeal) genome sequence and their functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sequence conservation of ORM and mini-ORB (m-ORB) elements at archaeal origins of replication. (asmscience.org)
  • The rate at which amelioration of horizontally acquired DNA occurs within the chromosome is likely to account for the small differences between chromosomes and stably incorporated GIs compared to the transient or independent replicons such as phages and plasmids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This chapter describes the recent advances that have been made in understanding the biochemical players that facilitate the complex macromolecular process that mediates faithful replication of archaeal chromosomes. (asmscience.org)
  • The word chromosome comes from the Greek χρῶμα ( chroma , color) and σῶμα ( soma , body) due to their property of being very strongly stained by particular dyes . (thefullwiki.org)