Archaeal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of archaeon.RNA, Archaeal: Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)DNA, Archaeal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Genes, Archaeal: The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.Genome, Archaeal: The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Archaeal Viruses: Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Gene Expression Regulation, Archaeal: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Archaeal: Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Sulfolobus: A genus of aerobic, chemolithotrophic, coccoid ARCHAEA whose organisms are thermoacidophilic. Its cells are highly irregular in shape, often lobed, but occasionally spherical. It has worldwide distribution with organisms isolated from hot acidic soils and water. Sulfur is used as an energy source.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, 1-3: The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Painting: A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Methanobacteriaceae: A family of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIALES. Cell membranes are composed mainly of polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons ether-linked to glycerol. Its organisms are found in anaerobic habitats throughout nature.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Methanococcales: An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are pseudosarcina, coccoid or sheathed rod-shaped and catabolize methyl groups. The cell wall is composed of protein. The order includes one family, METHANOCOCCACEAE. (From Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology, 1989)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, 16-18: The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Crenarchaeota: A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA comprised of thermoacidophilic, sulfur-dependent organisms. The two orders are SULFOLOBALES and THERMOPROTEALES.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y: The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.Methanococcus: A genus of anaerobic coccoid METHANOCOCCACEAE whose organisms are motile by means of polar tufts of flagella. These methanogens are found in salt marshes, marine and estuarine sediments, and the intestinal tract of animals.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Ring Chromosomes: Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.Sulfolobus solfataricus: A species of thermoacidophilic ARCHAEA in the family Sulfolobaceae, found in volcanic areas where the temperature is about 80 degrees C and SULFUR is present.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Haloferax volcanii: A species of halophilic archaea found in the Dead Sea.Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.Pyrococcus furiosus: A species of strictly anaerobic, hyperthermophilic archaea which lives in geothermally-heated marine sediments. It exhibits heterotropic growth by fermentation or sulfur respiration.Chromosomes, Human, 4-5: The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Ribosome Subunits, Large, Archaeal: The large subunit of the archaeal 70s ribosome. It is composed of the 23S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 40 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Pyrococcus abyssi: A species of gram-negative hyperthermophilic ARCHAEA found in deep ocean hydrothermal vents. It is an obligate anaerobe and obligate chemoorganotroph.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Chromosome Structures: Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.Chromosomes, Human, 19-20: The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Archaeoglobus fulgidus: A species of extremely thermophilic, sulfur-reducing archaea. It grows at a maximum temperature of 95 degrees C. in marine or deep-sea geothermal areas.Methanosarcina: A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.Sulfolobus acidocaldarius: A species of aerobic, chemolithotrophic ARCHAEA consisting of coccoid cells that utilize sulfur as an energy source. The optimum temperature for growth is 70-75 degrees C. They are isolated from acidic fields.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Pyrococcus horikoshii: Anaerobic hyperthermophilic species of ARCHAEA, isolated from hydrothermal fluid samples. It is obligately heterotrophic with coccoid cells that require TRYPTOPHAN for growth.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Acidianus: A genus of facultatively anaerobic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family SULFOLOBACEAE. Cells are highly irregular in shape and thermoacidophilic. Lithotrophic growth occurs aerobically via sulfur oxidation in some species. Distribution includes solfataric springs and fields, mudholes, and geothermically heated acidic marine environments.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Nanoarchaeota: A kingdom of hyperthermophilic ARCHAEA found in diverse environments.Euryarchaeota: A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Pyrococcus: A genus of strictly anaerobic ultrathermophilic archaea, in the family THERMOCOCCACEAE, occurring in heated seawaters. They exhibit heterotrophic growth at an optimum temperature of 100 degrees C.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Chromosomes, Artificial, Human: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Thermoplasma: A genus of facultatively anaerobic heterotrophic archaea, in the order THERMOPLASMALES, isolated from self-heating coal refuse piles and acid hot springs. They are thermophilic and can grow both with and without sulfur.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Glyceryl Ethers: Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Chromosome Fragility: Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Thermoproteaceae: A family of THERMOPROTEALES consisting of variable length rigid rods without septa. They grow either chemolithoautotrophically or by sulfur respiration. The four genera are: PYROBACULUM; THERMOPROTEUS; Caldivirga; and Thermocladium. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2d ed)Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Methanobacterium: A genus of anaerobic, rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIACEAE. Its organisms are nonmotile and use ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. These methanogens are found in aquatic sediments, soil, sewage, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Chromosome Duplication: An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Eukaryotic Cells: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Methanosarcinales: An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. There are two families: METHANOSARCINACEAE and Methanosaetaceae.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Methanobacteriales: An order of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped methanogens, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are nonmotile, do not catabolize carbohydrates, proteinaceous material, or organic compounds other than formate or carbon monoxide, and are widely distributed in nature.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Ribosome Subunits, Small, Archaeal: The small subunit of archaeal RIBOSOMES. It is composed of the 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and about 28 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Abnormalities, MultipleCell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Desulfurococcaceae: A family of archaea, in the order DESULFUROCOCCALES, consisting of anaerobic cocci which utilize peptides, proteins or carbohydrates facultatively by sulfur respiration or fermentation. There are eight genera: AEROPYRUM, Desulfurococcus, Ignicoccus, Staphylothermus, Stetteria, Sulfophoboccus, Thermodiscus, and Thermosphaera. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2d ed)Polytene Chromosomes: Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nitrification: A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Methanococcaceae: A family of anaerobic METHANOCOCCALES whose organisms are motile by means of flagella. These methanogens use carbon dioxide as an electron acceptor.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Cytogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.Sulfolobales: An order of CRENARCHAEOTA consisting of aerobic or facultatively aerobic, chemolithotrophic cocci which are extreme thermoacidophiles. They lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls.Karyotype: The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Korarchaeota: A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA, comprising thermophilic organisms from terrestrial hot springs that are among the most primitive of all life forms. They have undergone comparatively little evolutionary change since the last common ancestor of all extant life.Chromosome Fragile Sites: Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Sex Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.

Nucleoid structure and partition in Methanococcus jannaschii: an archaeon with multiple copies of the chromosome. (1/63)

We measured different cellular parameters in the methanogenic archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii. In exponential growth phase, the cells contained multiple chromosomes and displayed a broad variation in size and DNA content. In most cells, the nucleoids were organized into a thread-like network, although less complex structures also were observed. During entry into stationary phase, chromosome replication continued to termination while no new rounds were initiated: the cells ended up with one to five chromosomes per cell with no apparent preference for any given DNA content. Most cells in stationary phase contained more than one genome equivalent. Asymmetric divisions were detected in stationary phase, and the nucleoids were found to be significantly more compact than in exponential phase.  (+info)

Changes in cell size and DNA content in Sulfolobus cultures during dilution and temperature shift experiments. (2/63)

Stationary-phase cultures of different hyperthermophilic species of the archaeal genus Sulfolobus were diluted into fresh growth medium and analyzed by flow cytometry and phase-fluorescence microscopy. After dilution, cellular growth started rapidly but no nucleoid partition, cell division, or chromosome replication took place until the cells had been increasing in size for several hours. Initiation of chromosome replication required that the cells first go through partition and cell division, revealing a strong interdependence between these key cell cycle events. The time points at which nucleoid partition, division, and replication occurred after the dilution were used to estimate the relative lengths of the cell cycle periods. When exponentially growing cultures were diluted into fresh growth medium, there was an unexpected transient inhibition of growth and cell division, showing that the cultures did not maintain balanced growth. Furthermore, when cultures growing at 79 degrees C were shifted to room temperature or to ice-water baths, the cells were found to "freeze" in mid-growth. After a shift back to 79 degrees C, growth, replication, and division rapidly resumed and the mode and kinetics of the resumption differed depending upon the nature and length of the shifts. Dilution of stationary-phase cultures provides a simple protocol for the generation of partially synchronized populations that may be used to study cell cycle-specific events.  (+info)

Halophilic 20S proteasomes of the archaeon Haloferax volcanii: purification, characterization, and gene sequence analysis. (3/63)

A 20S proteasome, composed of alpha(1) and beta subunits arranged in a barrel-shaped structure of four stacked rings, was purified from a halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii. The predominant peptide-hydrolyzing activity of the 600-kDa alpha(1)beta-proteasome on synthetic substrates was cleavage carboxyl to hydrophobic residues (chymotrypsin-like [CL] activity) and was optimal at 2 M NaCl, pH 7.7 to 9.5, and 75 degrees C. The alpha(1)beta-proteasome also hydrolyzed insulin B-chain protein. Removal of NaCl inactivated the CL activity of the alpha(1)beta-proteasome and dissociated the complex into monomers. Rapid equilibration of the monomers into buffer containing 2 M NaCl facilitated their reassociation into fully active alpha(1)beta-proteasomes of 600 kDa. However, long-term incubation of the halophilic proteasome in the absence of salt resulted in hydrolysis and irreversible inactivation of the enzyme. Thus, the isolated proteasome has unusual salt requirements which distinguish it from any proteasome which has been described. Comparison of the beta-subunit protein sequence with the sequence deduced from the gene revealed that a 49-residue propeptide is removed to expose a highly conserved N-terminal threonine which is proposed to serve as the catalytic nucleophile and primary proton acceptor during peptide bond hydrolysis. Consistent with this mechanism, the known proteasome inhibitors carbobenzoxyl-leucinyl-leucinyl-leucinal-H (MG132) and N-acetyl-leucinyl-leucinyl-norleucinal (calpain inhibitor I) were found to inhibit the CL activity of the H. volcanii proteasome (K(i) = 0.2 and 8 microM, respectively). In addition to the genes encoding the alpha(1) and beta subunits, a gene encoding a second alpha-type proteasome protein (alpha(2)) was identified. All three genes coding for the proteasome subunits were mapped in the chromosome and found to be unlinked. Modification of the methods used to purify the alpha(1)beta-proteasome resulted in the copurification of the alpha(2) protein with the alpha(1) and beta subunits in nonstoichometric ratios as cylindrical particles of four stacked rings of 600 kDa with CL activity rates similar to the alpha(1)beta-proteasome, suggesting that at least two separate 20S proteasomes are synthesized. This study is the first description of a prokaryote which produces two separate 20S proteasomes and suggests that there may be distinct physiological roles for the two different alpha subunits in this halophilic archaeon.  (+info)

The single minichromosome maintenance protein of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum DeltaH contains DNA helicase activity. (4/63)

Previous studies have identified an ATP-dependent DNA helicase activity intrinsic to the human minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex, composed of MCM subunits 4, 6, and 7 [Ishimi, Y. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 24508-24513]. In contrast to the presence of multiple MCM genes (at least six) in eukaryotes, the archaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum DeltaH (mth) genome contains a single open reading frame coding for an MCM protein. In this study we report the isolation of the mthMCM protein overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant protein was found to exist in both multimeric ( approximately 10(3) kDa) and monomeric (76 kDa) forms. Both forms of the protein bind to single-stranded DNA, hydrolyze ATP in the presence of DNA, and possess 3'-to-5' ATP-dependent DNA helicase activities. Thus, a single mthMCM protein contains biochemical properties identical to those associated with the eukaryotic MCM4, -6, and -7 complex. These results suggest that the characterization of the mthMCM protein and its multiple forms may contribute to our understanding of the role of MCM helicase activity in eukaryotic chromosomal DNA replication.  (+info)

Generation of dominant selectable markers for resistance to pseudomonic acid by cloning and mutagenesis of the ileS gene from the archaeon Methanosarcina barkeri fusaro. (5/63)

Currently, only one selectable marker is available for genetic studies in the archaeal genus Methanosarcina. Here we report the generation of selectable markers that encode resistance to pseudomonic acid (PA(r)) in Methanosarcina species by mutagenesis of the isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase gene (ileS) from Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro. The M. barkeri ileS gene was obtained by screening of a genomic library for hybridization to a PCR fragment. The complete 3,787-bp DNA sequence surrounding and including the ileS gene was determined. As expected, M. barkeri IleS is phylogenetically related to other archaeal IleS proteins. The ileS gene was cloned into a Methanosarcina-Escherichia coli shuttle vector and mutagenized with hydroxylamine. Nine independent PA(r) clones were isolated after transformation of Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A with the mutagenized plasmids. Seven of these clones carry multiple changes from the wild-type sequence. Most mutations that confer PA(r) were shown to alter amino acid residues near the KMSKS consensus sequence of class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. One particular mutation (G594E) was present in all but one of the PA(r) clones. The MIC of pseudomonic acid for M. acetivorans transformed with a plasmid carrying this single mutation is 70 microgram/ml of medium (for the wild type, the MIC is 12 microgram/ml). The highest MICs (560 microgram/ml) were observed with two triple mutants, A440V/A482T/G594E and A440V/G593D/G594E. Plasmid shuttle vectors and insertion cassettes that encode PA(r) based on the mutant ileS alleles are described. Finally, the implications of the specific mutations we isolated with respect to binding of pseudomonic acid by IleS are discussed.  (+info)

Bacterial mode of replication with eukaryotic-like machinery in a hyperthermophilic archaeon. (6/63)

Despite a rapid increase in the amount of available archaeal sequence information, little is known about the duplication of genetic material in the third domain of life. We identified a single origin of bidirectional replication in Pyrococcus abyssi by means of in silico analyses of cumulative oligomer skew and the identification of an early replicating chromosomal segment. The replication origin in three Pyrococcus species was found to be highly conserved, and several eukaryotic-like DNA replication genes were clustered around it. As in Bacteria, the chromosomal region containing the replication terminus was a hot spot of genome shuffling. Thus, although bacterial and archaeal replication proteins differ profoundly, they are used to replicate chromosomes in a similar manner in both prokaryotic domains.  (+info)

Genome evolution at the genus level: comparison of three complete genomes of hyperthermophilic archaea. (7/63)

We have compared three complete genomes of closely related hyperthermophilic species of Archaea belonging to the Pyrococcus genus: Pyrococcus abyssi, Pyrococcus horikoshii, and Pyrococcus furiosus. At the genomic level, the comparison reveals a differential conservation among four regions of the Pyrococcus chromosomes correlated with the location of genetic elements mediating DNA reorganization. This discloses the relative contribution of the major mechanisms that promote genomic plasticity in these Archaea, namely rearrangements linked to the replication terminus, insertion sequence-mediated recombinations, and DNA integration within tRNA genes. The combination of these mechanisms leads to a high level of genomic plasticity in these hyperthermophilic Archaea, at least comparable to the plasticity observed between closely related bacteria. At the proteomic level, the comparison of the three Pyrococcus species sheds light on specific selection pressures acting both on their coding capacities and evolutionary rates. Indeed, thanks to two independent methods, the "reciprocal best hits" approach and a new distance ratio analysis, we detect the false orthology relationships within the Pyrococcus lineage. This reveals a high amount of differential gains and losses of genes since the divergence of the three closely related species. The resulting polymorphism is probably linked to an adaptation of these free-living organisms to differential environmental constraints. As a corollary, we delineate the set of orthologous genes shared by the three species, that is, the genes that may characterize the Pyrococcus genus. In this conserved core, the amino acid substitution rate is equal between P. abyssi and P. horikoshii for most of their shared proteins, even for fast-evolving ones. In contrast, strong discrepancies exist among the substitution rates observed in P. furiosus relative to the two other species, which is in disagreement with the molecular clock hypothesis.  (+info)

In vivo interactions of archaeal Cdc6/Orc1 and minichromosome maintenance proteins with the replication origin. (8/63)

Although genome analyses have suggested parallels between archaeal and eukaryotic replication systems, little is known about the DNA replication mechanism in Archaea. By two-dimensional gel electrophoreses we positioned a replication origin (oriC) within 1 kb in the chromosomal DNA of Pyrococcus abyssi, an anaerobic hyperthermophile, and demonstrated that the oriC is physically linked to the cdc6 gene. Our chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that P. abyssi Cdc6 and minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins bind preferentially to the oriC region in the exponentially growing cells. Whereas the oriC association of MCM was specifically inhibited by stopping DNA replication with puromycin treatment, Cdc6 protein stayed bound to the replication origin after de novo protein synthesis was inhibited. Our data suggest that archaeal and eukaryotic Cdc6 and MCM proteins function similarly in replication initiation and imply that an oriC association of MCM could be regulated by an unknown mechanism in Archaea.  (+info)

PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To examine CA-IX, p16, Ki-67, and mini-chromosome maintenance complex component 2 (MCM2) expression in liquid-based cytology (LBC) specimens to see which subset of markers can provide the optimal diagnosis of significant cervical lesions in women in North America with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells (AGC) and a positive test for high risk human papillomavirus (HPV).. II. To examine high risk HPV, CA-IX, p16, Ki-67, and MCM2 expression in LBC specimens to see which subset of markers can provide the optimal diagnosis of significant cervical lesions in women in Japan and Korea (with each country?s cohort analyzed separately) with a cytologic diagnosis of AGC.. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To determine whether the accuracy of diagnosis based on high risk HPV and expression of CA-IX, p16, Ki-67, and/or MCM2 varies with patient age at enrollment and country of enrollment.. TERTIARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To assess biomarker expression, loss of heterozygosity, and ...
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To examine CA-IX, p16, Ki-67, and mini-chromosome maintenance complex component 2 (MCM2) expression in liquid-based cytology (LBC) specimens to see which subset of markers can provide the optimal diagnosis of significant cervical lesions in women in North America with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells (AGC) and a positive test for high risk human papillomavirus (HPV).. II. To examine high risk HPV, CA-IX, p16, Ki-67, and MCM2 expression in LBC specimens to see which subset of markers can provide the optimal diagnosis of significant cervical lesions in women in Japan and Korea (with each country?s cohort analyzed separately) with a cytologic diagnosis of AGC.. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To determine whether the accuracy of diagnosis based on high risk HPV and expression of CA-IX, p16, Ki-67, and/or MCM2 varies with patient age at enrollment and country of enrollment.. TERTIARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To assess biomarker expression, loss of heterozygosity, and ...
Archaeal integrases facilitate the formation of two distinctive types of integrated element within archaeal chromosomes: the SSV type and pNOB8 type. The former carries a smaller N-terminal and a larger C-terminal integrase gene fragment, and the latter an intact integrase gene. All integrated elements overlap tRNA genes that were target sites for integration. It has been demonstrated that SSV (Sulfolobus spindle virus) viruses, carrying an SSV-type integrase gene, and conjugative plasmids, carrying a pNOB8-type integrase, are integrative elements. Two mechanisms have been proposed for stably maintaining an integrated element within archaeal chromosomes. There is also evidence for changes having occurred in the captured integrated elements present in archaeal genomes. Thus we infer that site-specific integration constitutes an important mechanism for horizontal gene transfer and genome evolution.. ...
Accurate control of genome replication initation is essential for genome stability. In particular, organisms with multiple replication origins per chromosome mu...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
MCM3 is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are involved in the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication.…
In eukaryotes, ORC (origin recognition complex), a six-protein complex, is the most likely initiator of chromosomal DNA replication. ORC belongs to the AAA+ (ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities) family of proteins and has intrinsic ATPase activity derived from Orc1p, one of its subunits. To reveal the role of this ATPase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (bakers yeast) ORC, we mutated the Orc1p sensor 1 and sensor 2 regions, which are important for ATPase activity in AAA+ proteins. Plasmid-shuffling analysis revealed that Asn600, Arg694 and Arg704 are essential for the function of Orc1p. In yeast cells, overexpression of Orc1R694Ep inhibited growth, caused inefficient loading of MCM (mini-chromosome maintenance complex of proteins) and slowed the progression of S phase. In vitro, purified ORC-1R [ORC with Orc1R694Ep (Orc1p Arg694→Glu mutant)] has decreased ATPase activity in the presence or absence of origin DNA. However, other activities (ATP binding and origin DNA ...
Shop Replication termination protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Replication termination protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
A so-called licensing protein (Cdc10-dependent transcript 1, 546 aa) that binds to the origin of DNA replication and facilitates the binding of cell division cycle 6 (Cdc6) and mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (Mcms). The Drosophila homologue is Double-parked (Dup). Once replication has been initiated at the end of G1, Cdt1 is exported out of the nucleus and degraded. See geminin. ...
Genetic information processingMobile and extrachromosomal element functionsProphage functionsputative phage terminase, small subunit, P27 family (TIGR01558; HMM-score: 13.5) ...
Genetic information processingMobile and extrachromosomal element functionsPlasmid functionsentry exclusion protein TrbK (TIGR04361; HMM-score: 9.9) ...
The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are essential for the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication. The hexameric protein complex formed by the MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre_RC) and may be involved in the formation of replication forks and in the recruitment of other DNA replication related proteins. The MCM complex consisting of this protein and MCM2, 4 and 6 proteins possesses DNA helicase activity, and may act as a DNA unwinding enzyme. Cyclin D1-dependent kinase, CDK4, is found to associate with this protein, and may regulate the binding of this protein with the tumorsuppressor protein RB1/RB. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported ...
RN [1] RM PMID:12562787 RT CDP-2,3-Di-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycerol:L-serine O-archaetidyltransferase (archaetidylserine synthase) in the methanogenic archaeon Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus. RA Morii H, Koga Y RL J Bacteriol. 2003 Feb;185(4):1181-9 ...
... definition, a giant, cross-banded chromosome that results from multiple replication of its genetic material with the duplicated chromatin strands remaining closely associated. See more.
DNA replication is a tightly regulated process that initiates from multiple replication origins and leads to the faithful transmission of the genet...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structure and activity of a novel archaeal β-CASP protein with N-terminal KH domains. AU - Silva, Ana P G. AU - Chechik, Maria. AU - Byrne, Robert T.. AU - Waterman, David G.. AU - Ng, Chyan Leong. AU - Dodson, Eleanor J.. AU - Koonin, Eugene V.. AU - Antson, Alfred A.. AU - Smits, Callum. PY - 2011/5/11. Y1 - 2011/5/11. N2 - MTH1203, a β-CASP metallo-β-lactamase family nuclease from the archaeon Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, was identified as a putative nuclease that might contribute to RNA processing. The crystal structure of MTH1203 reveals that, in addition to the metallo-β-lactamase nuclease and the β-CASP domains, it contains two contiguous KH domains that are unique to MTH1203 and its orthologs. RNA-binding experiments indicate that MTH1203 preferentially binds U-rich sequences with a dissociation constant in the micromolar range. In vitro nuclease activity assays demonstrated that MTH1203 is a zinc-dependent nuclease. MTH1203 is also shown to be a dimer ...
Two distinct proteins, ThiE and ThiN, are known to join HMP-PP and HET-P to generate thiamine phosphate. Nab. magadii and other halophilic archaea contain both enzymes. Whereas ThiE (Nmag_1811) is a monofunctional protein, ThiN (Nmag_1282) exists as a C-terminal domain in a ThiDN fusion protein. At the last step, thiamine phosphate is predicted to be further phosphorylated to thiamine pyrophosphate by ThiL (Nmag_1515). Therefore, the conversion of AIR to HMP-PP in Nab. magadii appears to be similar to the bacterial pathway and may involve ThiC and ThiD, whereas HET-P biosynthesis in this haloarchaeon appears to be similar to the eukaryotic pathway and may involve Nmag_2419. In addition, Nab. magadii contained genes encoding a HET kinase (ThiM, Nmag_1810, predicted to be involved in thiamine salvage) and a thiamine transporter (ThiBPQ, Nmag_460-462; ThiB2, Nmag_1940).. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is the precursor of coenzymes flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which ...
We have developed a novel method that enables global subtelomere and haplotype-resolved analysis of telomere lengths at the single-molecule level. An in vitro CRISPR/Cas9 RNA-directed nickase system directs the specific labeling of human (TTAGGG)n DNA tracts in genomes that have also been barcoded using a separate nickase enzyme that recognizes a 7-bp motif genome-wide. High-throughput imaging and analysis of large DNA single molecules from genomes labeled in this fashion using a nanochannel array system permits mapping through subtelomere repeat element (SRE) regions to unique chromosomal DNA while simultaneously measuring the (TTAGGG)n tract length at the end of each large telomere-terminal DNA segment ...
WT cells under nutrient limitation exhibit two distinct regimes according to the Helmstetter-Cooper (HC) model of bacterial chromosome replication (Appendix Fig S9): In the fast growth regime (doubling time DT , single‐chromosome replication time, the "C‐period"), the C‐period is constant (at its minimal value) and the total DNA synthesis rate is determined by the replication initiation rate. In the slow growth regime (DT , C‐period), chromosome replication is limited by the replication fork elongation rate, which is in turn limited by the synthesis of nucleotides (DNA monomers) (Neidhart, 1996). Under LacZ OE, the DNA content increases (Figs 1F and EV3A and B). Since multiple chromosome equivalents per cell are observed in a single nucleoid complex (Fig EV3), the HC model of DNA replication may still be applicable with multiple replication forks per cell, provided that the C‐period , DT. The increase in DT under LacZ OE then implies that the C‐period would have to increase at least ...
Shop Minichromosome maintenance protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Minichromosome maintenance protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Professor Emeritus Department of Biochemistry Rosalind and Morris Goodman Cancer Centre [email protected] 1979 - PhD, McGill University Research Interests Isolation and characterization of mammalian origins of DNA replication Our primary research interest is in the molecular basis of the mechanisms regulating mammalian DNA replication. Eukaryotic chromosomes are organized into multiple replication units that initiate replication only one per cell cycle. The mechanism that prevents the reinitiation of replication of DNA that has been previously replicated is unknown. Among the major questions about mammalian DNA replication are: 1) whether initiation occurs at specific DNA sequences (replication origins), and 2) what are the molecular features of these sequences. Using the instability of replication loops as a method for the isolation of active replication origins, we have purified and cloned DNA sequences that contain origins of replication. In this manner we have generated libraries of monkey and
Biohazard level, growth media and temperature, gram stain, industrial applications and more information for Methanothermobacter wolfeii.
Top performende anti-Hund Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7 Antikörper für Immunohistochemistry (IHC) vergleichen & kaufen.
The protective caps on chromosome ends - known as telomeres - consist of DNA and associated proteins that are essential for chromosome integrity. A fundamental part of ensuring proper telomere function is maintaining adequate length of the telomeric DNA tract. Telomeric repeat sequences are synthesized by the telomerase reverse transcriptase, and, as such, telomerase is a central player in the maintenance of steady-state telomere length. Evidence from both yeast and mammals suggests that telomere-associated proteins positively or negatively control access of telomerase to the chromosome terminus. In yeast, positive regulation of telomerase access appears to be achieved through recruitment of the enzyme by the end-binding protein Cdc13p. In contrast, duplex-DNA-binding proteins assembled along the telomeric tract exert a feedback system that negatively modulates telomere length by limiting the action of telomerase. In mammalian cells, and perhaps also in yeast, binding of these proteins probably ...
The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are involved in the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication. The hexameric protein complex formed by MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) and it may be involved in the formation of replication forks and in the recruitment of other DNA replication related proteins. This protein can interact with MCM2 and MCM6, as well as with the origin recognition protein ORC2. It is regulated by proteolysis and phosphorylation in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Studies of a similar protein in Xenopus suggest that the chromatin binding of this protein at the onset of DNA replication is after pre-RC assembly and before origin unwinding. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Abstract: The genomic changes underlying both early and late stages of horse domestication remain largely unknown. We examined the genomes of 14 early domestic horses from the Bronze and Iron Ages, dating to between ~4.1 and 2.3 thousand years before present. We find early domestication selection patterns supporting the neural crest hypothesis, which provides a unified developmental origin for common domestic traits. Within the past 2.3 thousand years, horses lost genetic diversity and archaic DNA tracts introgressed from a now-extinct lineage. They accumulated deleterious mutations later than expected under the cost-of-domestication hypothesis, probably because of breeding from limited numbers of stallions. We also reveal that Iron Age Scythian steppe nomads implemented breeding strategies involving no detectable inbreeding and selection for coat-color variation and robust forelimbs ...
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The origins are generally AT-rich tracts that vary based on the archaeal species. The singular archaeal ORC protein recognizes ... It is composed of a single origin recognition complex (ORC) protein, Cdc6, and a homohexamer of the mini chromosome maintenance ... Eukaryotes typically have multiple origins of replication; at least one per chromosome. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae ... The archaeal pre-RC is very different from the bacterial pre-RC and can serve as a simplified model of the eukaryotic pre-RC. ...
This strain displays a G+C content of 46.1% in a circular chromosome of 3.68 Mbp. 3,928 protein-coding sequences were ... RAST, Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology, is a server that generates bacterial and archaeal genome annotations. The ...
They are encoded by genes within histone cluster 1 located in human cells on chromosome 6. The five further variants are ... Rather than originating from archaeal histones, it probably evolved from a bacterial protein. Unlike core histones featuring a ... inactive chromatin: distribution in human fetal fibroblasts". Chromosome Research: An International Journal on the Molecular, ... Supramolecular and Evolutionary Aspects of Chromosome Biology. 8 (5): 405-424. doi:10.1023/A:1009262819961. ISSN 0967-3849. ...
The Archaeoglobus fulgidus genome is a circular chromosome roughly half the size of E. coli at 2,178,000 base pairs. A quarter ... Another quarter encodes proteins unique to the archaeal domain. One observation about the genome is that there are many gene ... However, the possibility that the shared presence of these signature proteins in these archaeal lineages is due to lateral gene ... Comparative genomic studies on archaeal genomes provide evidence that members of the genus Archaeoglobus are the closest ...
... the bacterial chromosomes, the double stranded DNA viral genomes, and the archaeal chromosomes. It does not apply to organellar ... specifically it applies to the eukaryotic chromosomes, ...
In Drosophila, condensin II subunits contribute to the dissolution of polytene chromosomes and the formation of chromosome ... Many eubacterial and archaeal species have SMC-ScpAB, whereas a subgroup of eubacteria (known as gamma-proteobacteria) has ... "Condensin II promotes the formation of chromosome territories by inducing axial compaction of polyploid interphase chromosomes ... On the other hand, condensin I is present in the cytoplasm during interphase, and gains access to chromosomes only after the ...
Genetic material brought to the host chromosome by bacteriophages and other mobile elements can be subject to exaptation. The ... GTAs originated from different viruses have been found in several bacterial and archaeal lineages, such as Alphaproteobacteria ... Moreover, groups of genes with homology to the RcGTA are present in the chromosomes of various types of alphaproteobacteria. ... The run-off replication causes the amplification of a chromosome region containing genes such as secretion systems or adhesins ...
Not only eukaryotic viruses integrate into the genomes of their hosts; many bacterial and archaeal viruses also employ this ... not only refers to a retrovirus but is also used to describe other viruses that can integrate into the host chromosomes, ... Krupovic M, Prangishvili D, Hendrix RW, Bamford DH (2011). "Genomics of bacterial and archaeal viruses: dynamics within the ...
Although chromosomes are initially shattered into many fragments, complete chromosomes are regenerated by making use of over- ... Whole proteome comparisons show the definite archaeal nature of this halophile with additional similarities to the Gram- ... NRC-1 genome consists of 2,571,010 base pairs on one large chromosome and two mini-chromosomes. The genome encodes 2,360 ... The large chromosome is very G-C rich (68%). High GC-content of the genome increases stability in extreme environments. ...
Guo FB, Ou HY, Zhang CT (2003). "ZCURVE: a new system for recognizing protein-coding genes in bacterial and archaeal genomes". ... "Origin of replication in circular prokaryotic chromosomes". Environ. Microbiol. 8 (2): 353-61. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2005. ... Zhang R, Zhang CT (2005). "Identification of replication origins in archaeal genomes based on the Z-curve method". Archaea. 1 ( ... such as in locating replication origins of bacterial and archaeal genomes. Similar methods of visually representing genomic ...
Connections between archaeal cells can also be found between the Archaeal Richmond Mine Acidophilic Nanoorganisms (ARMAN) and ... Cell division is controlled in a cell cycle; after the cell's chromosome is replicated and the two daughter chromosomes ... archaeal flagella are synthesized by adding subunits at the base. Archaeal membranes are made of molecules that are distinctly ... discovery of the ARMAN group of archaea Genomics Browse any completed archaeal genome at UCSC Comparative Analysis of Archaeal ...
On a single chromosome, there are 2,992,245 base pairs which encode for 2,977 proteins and copious RNAs. One-third of S. ... All the data points to the organism having a large percent of archaeal-specific genes, which showcases the differences between ... S. solfataricus has strong eukaryotic features coupled with many uniquely archaeal-specific abilities. The results of the ... DNA transfer process and subsequent homologous recombinational repair represents an important mechanism to maintain chromosome ...
Chromosome condensation[edit]. Phosphorylation of H3 at serine 10 (phospho-H3S10). The mitotic kinase aurora B phosphorylates ... Archaeal histone only contains a H3-H4 like dimeric structure made out of the same protein. Such dimeric structures can stack ... Rizzo PJ (Aug 2003). "Those amazing dinoflagellate chromosomes". Cell Research. 13 (4): 215-7. doi:10.1038/sj.cr.7290166. PMID ... Archaeal histones may well resemble the evolutionary precursors to eukaryotic histones.[12] Histone proteins are among the most ...
... chromosomes, archaeal MeSH A11.284.187.178 - chromosomes, artificial MeSH A11.284.187.178.170 - chromosomes, artificial, ... x chromosome MeSH A11.284.187.865.982.500 - chromosomes, human, x MeSH A11.284.187.865.983 - y chromosome MeSH A11.284.187.865. ... chromosomes, human, pair 12 MeSH A11.284.187.520.300.325.680 - chromosomes, human, x MeSH A11.284.187.520.300.370 - chromosomes ... philadelphia chromosome MeSH A11.284.187.520.300.505.757 - chromosomes, human, y MeSH A11.284.187.560 - chromosomes, plant MeSH ...
The genome consists of 2.79 Mega-bases on a circular chromosome with four circular plasmids. The genome includes 4,246 genes of ... larsenii was sequenced using Illumina dye sequencing HiSeq 2000 by Iain Anderson as part of the Archaeal Tree of Life Project ...
... chromosome pairing MeSH G05.105.220.687.500.299.500 --- synaptonemal complex MeSH G05.105.220.687.500.600 --- pachytene stage ... archaeal MeSH G05.315.300 --- gene expression regulation, bacterial MeSH G05.315.310 --- gene expression regulation, ... chromosome pairing MeSH G05.105.220.875.500.299.500 --- synaptonemal complex MeSH G05.105.220.875.500.600 --- pachytene stage ... x chromosome inactivation MeSH G05.315.200 --- down-regulation MeSH G05.315.203 --- epigenesis, genetic MeSH G05.315.207 --- ...
As in all cellular organisms, length of the DNA molecules of bacterial and archaeal chromosomes is very large compared to the ... Wang, W.; Li, G.; Chen, C.; Xie, X. S.; Zhuang, X. (2011). "Chromosome organization by a nucleoid-associated protein in live ... Qian, Z; Macvanin, M; Dimitriadis, EK; He, X; Zhurkin, V; Adhya, S (2015). "A New Noncoding RNA Arranges Bacterial Chromosome ... Smith, BT; Grossman, AD; Walker, GC (2002). "Localization of UvrA and effect of DNA damage on the chromosome of Bacillus ...
2005). "A Human Orthologue of Archaeal DNA Repair Protein Hef is Defective in Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group M". Nat. ... 2005). "Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4". Nature. 434 (7034): 724-31. doi:10.1038/ ... at ionizing radiation-induced foci and in synaptonemal complexes of meiotic chromosomes (see Figure: Recombinational repair of ...
In 1993 repeats were observed in the archaeal organisms Haloferax and Haloarcula species, and their function was studied by ... had a role in correctly segregating replicated DNA into daughter cells during cell division because plasmids and chromosomes ...
Further, the viral origins of the modern eukaryotic nucleus may have relied on multiple infections of archaeal cells carrying ... Like viruses,[which?] a eukaryotic nucleus contains linear chromosomes with specialized end sequences (in contrast to bacterial ... However, this theory is controversial, and additional experimentation involving archaeal viruses is necessary, as they are ... a DNA chromosome encapsulated within a lipid membrane). In theory, a large DNA virus could take control of a bacterial or ...
At the same time, repeats were observed in the archaeal organisms of Haloferax and Haloarcula species, and their function was ... It is the partial repeat sequence that prevents the CRISPR-Cas system from targeting the chromosome as base pairing beyond the ... A subtype of chromosomal islands called phage-inducible chromosomal island (PICI) is excised from a bacterial chromosome upon ... "Biogenesis pathways of RNA guides in archaeal and bacterial CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity". FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 39 (3): ...
This creates quite dynamic genomes, in which DNA can be introduced into and removed from the chromosome. Bacteria have more ... 24% of Thermotoga's 1,877 ORFs and 16% of Aquifex's 1,512 ORFs show high matches to an Archaeal protein, while mesophiles such ... Right now, we have genome sequences from 50 different bacterial phyla and 11 different archaeal phyla. Second-generation ... Conjugation may mediate the transfer of chromosomal sequences by plasmids that integrate into the chromosome. Despite the ...
... and the same number of chromosomes as both parents. For instance, in human reproduction each human cell contains 46 chromosomes ... Exposure of hyperthermophilic archaeal Sulfolobus species to DNA damaging conditions induces cellular aggregation accompanied ... the resulting child will have 23 chromosomes from each parent genetically recombined into 23 chromosome pairs or 46 total. ... Sexual reproduction is a kind of life cycle where generations alternate between cells with a single set of chromosomes (haploid ...
... for chromosome condensation; and to disentangle intertwined DNA during mitosis. This domain assumes a beta(2)-alpha-beta-alpha- ... bacterial and archaeal topoisomerase I, topoisomerase III and reverse gyrase) and type IB (eukaryotic topoisomerase I and ... separating the DNA of daughter chromosomes after DNA replication, and relax DNA. These enzymes have several functions: to ...
Pereira SL; Grayling RA; Lurz R; Reeve JN (1997). "Archaeal nucleosomes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 (23): 12633-7. ... Chromosomes in humans can be divided into two types: autosomes (body chromosome(s)) and allosome (sex chromosome(s)). Certain ... Aneuploidy Chromosome segregation DNA Genetic deletion For information about chromosomes in genetic algorithms, see chromosome ... and two sex chromosomes. This gives 46 chromosomes in total. Other organisms have more than two copies of their chromosome ...
These findings suggest that eukaryotic Rad50 may be descended from an ancestral archaeal Rad50 protein that served a role in ... Rad50 is a member of the structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family of proteins. Like other SMC proteins, Rad50 ... Stracker TH, Theunissen JW, Morales M, Petrini JH (2005). "The Mre11 complex and the metabolism of chromosome breaks: the ... Chromosome Res. 17 (2): 277-88. doi:10.1007/s10577-008-9018-6. PMID 19308707. Hopfner KP, Craig L, Moncalian G, Zinkel RA, Usui ...
condensed chromosome. • nuclear chromosome, telomeric region. • nucleus. • nuclear chromatin. • lateral element. • cytosol. • ... RAD51 family members are homologous to the bacterial RecA, Archaeal RadA and yeast Rad51.[5][6] The protein is highly conserved ... nuclear chromosome. • mitochondrial matrix. • nucleolus. • mitochondrion. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • chromatin. • ... condensed nuclear chromosome. • macromolecular complex. Biological process. • regulation of protein phosphorylation. • strand ...
The archaeal proteins used in these processes are extremely similar to Eukaryotic proteins and so are studied primarily as a ... The genome of H. volcanii consists of a large (4 Mb), multicopy chromosome and several megaplasmids. The complete genome, DS2, ... containing two different chromosomes in one cell). Cells of a related species, Haloferax mediterranei, can similarly undergo ...
... this is potentially due to structural differences between bacterial and archaeal signals, and does not discount a quorum ... this is potentially due to structural differences between bacterial and archaeal signals, and does not discount a quorum ... TABLE 1. Toxin-antitoxin loci identified on Haloferax volcanii DS2 chromosome and plasmids. ... Archaeal Persisters: Persister Cell Formation as a Stress Response in Haloferax volcanii. Julianne Megaw and Brendan F. Gilmore ...
Auchtung Thomas A. (2007) Ecology of the hydrothermal candidate archaeal division, Korarchaeota. PhD thesis, Harvard University ... C content of bacterial chromosomes by monitoring fluorescence intensity during DNA denaturation in a capillary tube". Int. J. ... "Remarkable archaeal diversity detected in a Yellowstone National Park hot spring environment". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91 ... "Perspectives on archaeal diversity, thermophily and monophyly from environmental rRNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA ...
Archaeal" by people in this website by year, and whether "Chromosomes, Archaeal" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Chromosomes, Archaeal" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Chromosomes, Archaeal" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Chromosomes, Archaeal". ...
Archaeal chromosome biology.. Samson RY, Bell SD.. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014;24(5-6):420-7. doi: 10.1159/000368854. Epub ... Specificity and function of archaeal DNA replication initiator proteins.. Samson RY, Xu Y, Gadelha C, Stone TA, Faqiri JN, Li D ... Archaeal chromatin proteins histone HMtB and Alba have lost DNA-binding ability in laboratory strains of Methanothermobacter ... Molecular and structural basis of ESCRT-III recruitment to membranes during archaeal cell division. ...
Archaea, like bacteria, contain proteins that compact their chromosomes. The methanogenic euryarchaea, which include M. ... The core components of archaeal transcription closely resemble those of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II (1). Archaeal promoters ... Activation of archaeal transcription by recruitment of the TATA-binding protein. Mohamed Ouhammouch, Robert E. Dewhurst, ... Activation of archaeal transcription by recruitment of the TATA-binding protein. Mohamed Ouhammouch, Robert E. Dewhurst, ...
SMC_prok_A; chromosome segregation protein SMC, primarily archaeal type. pfam03800. Location:3 → 144. Nuf2; Nuf2 family. ... SMC_prok_A; chromosome segregation protein SMC, primarily archaeal type. pfam03800. Location:3 → 144. Nuf2; Nuf2 family. ... SMC_prok_A; chromosome segregation protein SMC, primarily archaeal type. pfam03800. Location:3 → 144. Nuf2; Nuf2 family. ... SMC_prok_A; chromosome segregation protein SMC, primarily archaeal type. pfam03800. Location:3 → 144. Nuf2; Nuf2 family. ...
Protein-protein interactions in the archaeal core replisome Biochem Soc Trans (January, 2011) ... non-partitioned or rarely partitioned chromosomes. Such a phenotype suggests impairment of the mechanism of chromosome ... Impaired chromosome partitioning and synchronization of DNA replication initiation in an insertional mutant in the Vibrio ... Moreover, in contrast to wild-type V. harveyi, inhibition of chromosome replication and/or of cell division in the mutant ...
Comparison of archaeal and bacterial genomes: computer analysis of protein sequences predicts novel functions and suggests a ... Mosaic bacterial chromosomes: a challenge on route to a tree of genomes. BioEssays 21:99-104. ... Archaeal-eubacterial mergers in the origin of Eukarya: phylogenetic classification of life. Proceedings of the Natural Academy ... At present, STSV1 is the largest archaeal virus that has been isolated and studied. Its genome sequence has been sequenced. ...
Sandman K, Reeve JN (2000). "Structure and functional relationships of archaeal and eukaryal histones and nucleosomes". Arch. ... Human chromosomes. .Chromosomes can be divided into two types--autosomes, and sex chromosomes.^ Autosome A chromosome not ... There are 23 chromosomes from the mother and a "Y" chromosome from a father.. * Chromosomes, Somatids, and the Blood of Christ ... Chromosome numbers in other organisms. Species. Large. Chromosomes. Intermediate. Chromosomes. Microchromosomes. Trypanosoma ...
Unfortunately, the manuscript fails to resolve impactful questions of archaeal biology, chromosome organization, or the ... Transcription by an archaeal RNA polymerase is slowed but not blocked by an archaeal nucleosome * Y Xie ... Unfortunately, the manuscript fails to resolve impactful questions of archaeal biology, chromosome organization, or the ... Chromosomes and Gene Expression Translational initiation in E. coli occurs at the correct sites genome-wide in the absence of ...
Chromosomes and Gene Expression * Evolutionary Biology Chromatinization of Escherichia coli with archaeal histones ...
She Q, Peng X, Zillig W, Garrett RA (2001) Gene capture in archaeal chromosomes. Nature 409(6819): 478. ... 2012) An archaeal immune system can detect multiple protospacer adjacent motifs (PAMs) to target invader DNA. J Biol Chem. 287 ... Lillestøl RK, Redder P, Garrett RA, Brugger K (2006) A putative viral defence mechanism in archaeal cells. Archaea 2(1): 59-72 ... An archaeal CRISPR type III-B system exhibiting distinctive RNA targeting features and mediating dual RNA and DNA interference ...
A study led by Indiana University is the first to reveal key similarities between chromosomes in humans and archaea. The work ... The IU study is the first to visualize the organization of DNA in archaeal chromosomes. The key similarity is the way in which ... The similar clustering of DNA in humans and archaeal chromosomes is significant because certain genes activate or deactivate ... Key similarities discovered between human and archaea chromosomes Discovery from Indiana University could advance use of single ...
Moreover, comparative genomic analyses have revealed that the mosaics of replicator-initiator pairings in archaeal chromosomes ... Moreover, comparative genomic analyses have revealed that the mosaics of replicator-initiator pairings in archaeal chromosomes ... Archaea, the third domain of life, use a single or multiple origin(s) to initiate replication of their circular chromosomes. ... Archaea, the third domain of life, use a single or multiple origin(s) to initiate replication of their circular chromosomes. ...
Xie Y, Reeve JN (2004) Transcription by an Archaeal RNA polymerase is slowed but not blocked by an Archaeal nucleosome. J ... Lodé T (2012) For quite a few chromosomes more: the origin of eukaryotes…. J Mol Biol 423(2):135-142. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb. ... Weinzierl ROJ (2013) The RNA polymerase factory and archaeal transcription. Chem Rev 113:8350-8376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Roeben A, Kofler C, Nagy I, Nickell S, Ulrich Hartl F, Bracher A (2006) Crystal structure of an archaeal actin homolog. J Mol ...
The genome of M. kandleri is a single circular chromosome that consists of 1,694,969 bp. Using a combination of sequence ... Identification and Functional Verification of Archaeal-Type Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase, a Missing Link in Archaeal Central ... All archaeal genomes sequenced so far encode a substantial number of predicted DNA-binding proteins of the helix-turn-helix and ... Gene orders in archaeal and bacterial genomes were compared by using the lamarck program (33). For phylogenetic analysis, ...
Bacterial chromosomes are immense polymers whose faithful replication and segregation are crucial to cell survival. The ability ... Zhang R, Zhang CT (2005) Identification of replication origins in archaeal genomes based on the Z-curve method. Archaea 1:335- ... Lobry JR, Louarn JM (2003) Polarisation of prokaryotic chromosomes. Curr Opin Microbiol 6:101-108CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Liu SL, Sanderson KE (1995a) The chromosome of Salmonella paratyphi A is inverted by recombination between rrnH and rrnG. J ...
... see chromosome (genetic algorithm). Chromosomes are organized structures of DNA and ... Chromosome For information about chromosomes in genetic algorithms, ... Pereira SL, Grayling RA, Lurz R, Reeve JN (1997). "Archaeal nucleosomes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 (23): 12633-7. PMID ... Chromosome numbers in other organisms Species Large. Chromosomes Intermediate. Chromosomes Small. Chromosomes ...
... and by the variable location of the grpE gene in the chromosome. In the archaea investigated, grpE is part of the hsp70(dnaK) ... The archaeal Hsp70(DnaK) is a bacterial protein: All the archaeal Hsp70(DnaK) molecules sequenced and studied thus far resemble ... Does the archaeal chaperone machine interact with the TRiC-like thermosome? Does the archaeal machine interact with another ... 1995 The archaeal dnaK-dnaJ gene cluster: organization and expression in the methanogen Methanosarcina mazei. J. Mol. Biol. 250 ...
The variations in bacterial and archaeal genome DNA sequences are not only explained by neutral mutations. The restriction- ... The plasmid DNA has lower GC content than its host chromosome DNA does. Most of the differences in GC content between plasmids ... I am interested in the relation between bacterial (or archaeal) genome sequence and their functions. I welcome investigators to ... Therefore, virus resistance systems have resulted in changes in bacterial and archaeal genome DNA sequences during evolution. ...
2007 The origin of mitochondria in light of a fluid prokaryotic chromosome model. Biol. Lett. 3, 180-184. (doi:10.1098/rsbl. ... 4. The scattered archaeal eukaryome. *5. The archaeal ancestor of eukaryotes: a complex, ancient group within the TACK ... 2. Burgeoning archaeal diversity, complex archaeal ancestor and origin of eukaryotes from within the archaea. As pointed out ... 2014 The dispersed archaeal eukaryome and the complex archaeal ancestor of eukaryotes. Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Biol. 6, ...
Ribosome biogenesis and chromosome segregation. *Discovering protein functions using a simple model system: Dictyostelium ... Genetic analysis of an archaeal-like C1 transfer module in the deeply branching bacterium Planctomyces limnophilus ...
Archaeal integrases facilitate the formation of two distinctive types of integrated element within archaeal chromosomes: the ... Two mechanisms have been proposed for stably maintaining an integrated element within archaeal chromosomes. There is also ... Archaeal integrases and mechanisms of gene capture. Q. She, B. Shen, L. Chen ... Archaeal integrases and mechanisms of gene capture Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Biochemical ...
These proteins, ScpA and ScpB are conserved among bacterial and archaeal species possessing SMC. The scpA or scpB deletions ... Chromosome dynamics in Bacillus subtilis -Characterization of the Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes (SMC) complex. ... SMC (Structural Maintenance of Chromosome) protein belongs to a ubiquitous protein family that play crucial roles in chromosome ... In bacteria, the chromosome has to be organized and compacted whilst, at the same time, it needs to be dynamic to allow other ...
... the EasyGene web server has provided predictions for hundreds of chromosomes. Therefore, for comparison purpose, EasyGene ... Furthermore, MED 2.0 adapts to a broad range of archaeal genome as well as to bacterial genomes. For archaeal genomes with more ... The bacterial and archaeal genomes and their annotations used in this paper were downloaded from the GenBank Release 149.0 in ... We present the logos of three representative archaeal genomes: M. jannaschii, P. abyssi, and N. equitans in Fig. 2. The logos ...
  • Most of the differences in GC content between plasmids and their host chromosomes are of less than 10%, suggesting that host organisms cannot maintain and regulate plasmids with very different GC content from their own. (frontiersin.org)
  • A provirus not only refers to a retrovirus but is also used to describe other viruses that can integrate into the host chromosomes, another example being adeno-associated virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • We argue that relative entropy differences reflect how plasmids, phages and GIs interact with microbial host chromosomes and that all these biological entities are, or have been, subjected to different selective pressures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Walter Sutton (left) and Theodor Boveri (right) independently developed the chromosome theory of inheritance in 1902. (th.ai)
  • 2005-2007: Associate Professor of Archaeal Genetics and Genomics at the Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark 2. (hindawi.com)
  • Charting HTa-based chromatin architecture in vitro, in vivo and in an HTa-expressing E. coli strain, we present evidence that HTa is an archaeal histone analog. (elifesciences.org)
  • 450 bp) consistent with formation from dynamic polymers of the archaeal histone dimer. (embopress.org)
  • In the first stage of sexual reproduction, "meiosis", the number of chromosomes is reduced from a diploid number (2n) to a haploid number (n). (wikipedia.org)
  • Between fertilisation and meiosis there can be a large number of cell divisions without change of the number of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meiosis in the parents' gonads produce gamete cells which only contain 23 chromosomes each. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that the mutant cells often form long filaments with expanded, non-partitioned or rarely partitioned chromosomes. (portlandpress.com)
  • Thus, two chaperoning systems that are designed to interact with a compatible partner, e.g. , the bacterial chaperone machine physiologically interacts with the bacterial but not with the eucaryal chaperonins, coexist in archaeal cells in spite of their apparent functional incompatibility. (genetics.org)
  • Textbooks have often said that chromosomes were first observed in plant cells by a Swiss botanist named Karl Wilhelm von Nägeli in 1842. (bionity.com)
  • Sexual reproduction is a kind of life cycle where generations alternate between cells with a single set of chromosomes ( haploid ) and cells with a double set of chromosomes ( diploid ). (wikipedia.org)
  • VAPs (virus-associated pyramids) formed by the Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2 (SIRV2) in cells of its hyperthermophilic archaeal host. (pasteur.fr)
  • A eukaryotic cell is a strikingly complex macromolecular aggregate by any account, but specifically when compared with archaeal and bacterial cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some use the term chromosome in a wider sense, to refer to the individualized portions of chromatin in cells, either visible or not under light microscopy. (th.ai)
  • Primase and GINS are essential factors for chromosomal DNA replication in eukaryotic and archaeal cells. (ebscohost.com)
  • a modest stimulatory effect of TFE, the archaeal homologue of the α subunit of the RNA polymerase II transcription factor TFIIE, is discerned under conditions of suboptimal TBP-TATA box interaction ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here we describe a previously undetected relationship between the C-terminal domain of the catalytic subunit (PriS) of archaeal primase and the B-domains of the archaeo-eukaryotic GINS. (ebscohost.com)
  • In Escherichia coli, topoisomerase III functions as the principal cellular decatenase, capable of unlinking replicating daughter chromosomes [ PMID: 12509418 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Sir2 functions in transcriptional silencing, cell cycle progression, and chromosome stability [ PMID: 7498786 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The German scientists Schleiden , Virchow and Bütschli were among the first scientists who recognized the structures now familiar as chromosomes. (th.ai)
  • Methodology/Principal Findings: While the structures of each of the complexes do not differ significantly between the archaeal and eukaryotic versions thereof, the evolutionary dynamic in the two cases does. (ebscohost.com)
  • The author has been particularly disappointed by the illogicality of the present chromosomal (chromatin-chromosome) terminology based on, or inferred by, two terms, Chromatin (Flemming 1880) and Chromosom (Waldeyer 1888), both inappropriately ascribed to a basically non coloured state. (th.ai)
  • Bacterial and archaeal cell nucleoids might also be viewed as chromatin [ 4 , 5 ]. (embopress.org)
  • The core components of archaeal transcription closely resemble those of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • In addition to this conserved unit, archaeal and eukaryotic polymerases also include a number of smaller polypeptides, most of which are absolutely required for transcription. (trieste.it)
  • Electron micrographs of (a) a Methanococcus maripaludis cell (approximately 1 μm in diameter) displaying numerous flagellar filaments and (b) purified archaeal flagella from Methanococcus maripaludis (flagella approximately 12 nm in diameter). (els.net)
  • During "fertilization", haploid gametes come together to form a diploid zygote and the original number of chromosomes is restored. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gaining a detailed understanding of the non-core PCNA interactome will provide significant insights into key aspects of chromosome biology in divergent archaeal lineages. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Such a phenotype suggests impairment of the mechanism of chromosome partition. (portlandpress.com)
  • the mechanism of cell division to a precise delineation of chromosomes and what they do during the division of the cell. (bionity.com)
  • We refined the "Nucleation & caging" model and successfully applied it to the chromosomally encoded Par system of Vibrio cholerae , indicating that this stochastic self‐assembly mechanism is widely conserved from plasmids to chromosomes. (embopress.org)
  • Selective pressure for efficient repair of ROS/UV-damaged DNA drove the evolution of sex, which required cell-cell fusions, cytoskeleton-mediated chromosome movement, and emergence of the nuclear envelope. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For instance, in human reproduction each human cell contains 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The current state of knowledge of the machineries that drive the archaeal cell cycle is discussed. (asmscience.org)
  • While an ever-growing body of data has yielded considerable insight into the form and function of the archaeal DNA replication machinery, much less is known about the details of the archaeal cell cycle and its control. (asmscience.org)
  • Indeed, what little is known appears to be suggesting that diverse mechanisms may be employed to regulate chromosome copy number, to coordinate DNA replication and cell division, and even to mediate the process of cell division itself. (asmscience.org)
  • Chromosomes are normally visible under a light microscope only when the cell is undergoing the metaphase of cell division (where all chromosomes are aligned in the center of the cell in their condensed form). (th.ai)
  • In his famous textbook The Cell in Development and Heredity , Wilson linked together the independent work of Boveri and Sutton (both around 1902) by naming the chromosome theory of inheritance the Boveri-Sutton chromosome theory (the names are sometimes reversed). (explained.today)
  • The word chromosome comes from the Greek χρῶμα ( chroma , color) and σῶμα ( soma , body) due to their property of being very strongly stained by particular dyes . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Several analyses, based on phylogenetic trees for 16S rRNA and the presence/absence of an 11-aa insertion in EF-1α, placed M. kandleri close to the root of the Euryarchaeota and did not suggest any specific affinity with other archaeal methanogens ( 13 - 15 ). (pnas.org)