Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The three-part structure of ribbon-like proteinaceous material that serves to align and join the paired homologous CHROMOSOMES. It is formed during the ZYGOTENE STAGE of the first meiotic division. It is a prerequisite for CROSSING OVER.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous CHROMOSOMES by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining forming cross-over sites (HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS) that are resolved during CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, elements such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, that are required for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance in progeny cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
A characteristic symptom complex.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.

Interactions of Isw2 chromatin remodeling complex with nucleosomal arrays: analyses using recombinant yeast histones and immobilized templates. (1/51)

To facilitate the biochemical characterization of chromatin-associated proteins in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have developed a system to assemble nucleosomal arrays on immobilized templates using recombinant yeast core histones. This system enabled us to analyze the interaction of Isw2 ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex with nucleosomal arrays. We found that Isw2 complex interacts efficiently with both naked DNA and nucleosomal arrays in an ATP-independent manner, suggesting that ATP is required at steps subsequent to this physical interaction. We identified the second subunit of Isw2 complex, encoded by open reading frame YGL 133w (herein named ITC1), and found that both subunits of the complex, Isw2p and Itc1p, are essential for efficient interaction with DNA and nucleosomal arrays. Both subunits are also required for nucleosome-stimulated ATPase activity and chromatin remodeling activity of the complex. Finally, we found that ITC1 is essential for function of Isw2 complex in vivo, since isw2 and itc1 deletion mutants exhibit virtually identical phenotypes. These results demonstrate the utility of our in vitro system in studying interactions between chromatin-associated proteins and nucleosomal arrays.  (+info)

The Drosophila Su(var)2-10 locus regulates chromosome structure and function and encodes a member of the PIAS protein family. (2/51)

The conserved heterochromatic location of centromeres in higher eukaryotes suggests that intrinsic properties of heterochromatin are important for chromosome inheritance. Based on this hypothesis, mutations in Drosophila melanogaster that alter heterochromatin-induced gene silencing were tested for effects on chromosome inheritance. Here we describe the characterization of the Su(var)2-10 locus, initially identified as a Suppressor of Position-Effect Variegation. Su(var)2-10 is required for viability, and mutations cause both minichromosome and endogenous chromosome inheritance defects. Mitotic chromosomes are improperly condensed in mutants, and polytene chromosomes are structurally abnormal and disorganized in the nucleus. Su(var)2-10 encodes a member of the PIAS protein family, a group of highly conserved proteins that control diverse functions. SU(VAR)2-10 proteins colocalize with nuclear lamin in interphase, and little to no SU(VAR)2-10 is found on condensed mitotic chromosomes. SU(VAR)2-10 is present at some polytene chromosome telomeres, and FISH analyses in mutant polytene nuclei revealed defects in telomere clustering and telomere-nuclear-lamina associations. We propose that Su(var2-10 controls multiple aspects of chromosome structure and function by establishing/maintaining chromosome organization in interphase nuclei.  (+info)

Genome sequence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. (3/51)

The parasite Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for hundreds of millions of cases of malaria, and kills more than one million African children annually. Here we report an analysis of the genome sequence of P. falciparum clone 3D7. The 23-megabase nuclear genome consists of 14 chromosomes, encodes about 5,300 genes, and is the most (A + T)-rich genome sequenced to date. Genes involved in antigenic variation are concentrated in the subtelomeric regions of the chromosomes. Compared to the genomes of free-living eukaryotic microbes, the genome of this intracellular parasite encodes fewer enzymes and transporters, but a large proportion of genes are devoted to immune evasion and host-parasite interactions. Many nuclear-encoded proteins are targeted to the apicoplast, an organelle involved in fatty-acid and isoprenoid metabolism. The genome sequence provides the foundation for future studies of this organism, and is being exploited in the search for new drugs and vaccines to fight malaria.  (+info)

A role of topoisomerase II in linking DNA replication to chromosome condensation. (4/51)

The condensin complex and topoisomerase II (topo II) have different biochemical activities in vitro, and both are required for mitotic chromosome condensation. We have used Xenopus egg extracts to investigate the functional interplay between condensin and topo II in chromosome condensation. When unreplicated chromatin is directly converted into chromosomes with single chromatids, the two proteins must function together, although they are independently targeted to chromosomes. In contrast, the requirement for topo II is temporarily separable from that of condensin when chromosome assembly is induced after DNA replication. This experimental setting allows us to find that, in the absence of condensin, topo II becomes enriched in an axial structure within uncondensed chromatin. Subsequent addition of condensin converts this structure into mitotic chromosomes in an ATP hydrolysis-dependent manner. Strikingly, preventing DNA replication by the addition of geminin or aphidicolin disturbs the formation of topo II-containing axes and alters the binding property of topo II with chromatin. Our results suggest that topo II plays an important role in an early stage of chromosome condensation, and that this function of topo II is tightly coupled with prior DNA replication.  (+info)

Microtubule distribution during meiosis I in flea-beetle [Alagoasa (Oedionychus)] spermatocytes: evidence for direct connections between unpaired sex chromosomes. (5/51)

The meiosis-I spindle in flea-beetle spermatocytes is unusual in that the autosomes and univalent sex chromosomes are separated by a mitochondrial sheath and move polewards at different times. To help understand the basis for this interesting chromosome behaviour, and to gather more detailed information about it, we studied microtubule distributions throughout meiosis I using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, and took careful measurements of pole and kinetochore positions at all stages of division. Our results show that, by late prophase, there is a spindle-shaped cytoplasmic array of microtubules in the central part of the cell, with the nucleus at the periphery. Following nuclear envelope breakdown, both autosomes and sex chromosomes become associated with cytoplasmic microtubules, although only the autosomes move centrally to the 'cytoplasmic spindle'. The two unpaired sex chromosomes remain at the cell periphery and appear to be connected to each other by a microtubule bundle extending between their kinetochores. These bundles often persist into anaphase. Analysis of measurements taken from fixed/stained cells supports previous observations that sex chromosomes move part way to the pole in early prometaphase and then stop. The measurements also suggest that during autosomal anaphase, spindle elongation precedes autosome movement to the poles and polewards movement of sex chromosomes is limited or absent when autosomes are moving polewards.  (+info)

Engineered chromosome regions with altered sequence composition demonstrate hierarchical large-scale folding within metaphase chromosomes. (6/51)

Mitotic chromosome structure and DNA sequence requirements for normal chromosomal condensation remain unknown. We engineered labeled chromosome regions with altered scaffold-associated region (SAR) sequence composition as a formal test of the radial loop and other chromosome models. Chinese hamster ovary cells were isolated containing high density insertions of a transgene containing lac operator repeats and a dihydrofolate reductase gene, with or without flanking SAR sequences. Lac repressor staining provided high resolution labeling with good preservation of chromosome ultrastructure. No evidence emerged for differential targeting of SAR sequences to a chromosome axis within native chromosomes. SAR sequences distributed uniformly throughout the native chromosome cross section and chromosome regions containing a high density of SAR transgene insertions showed normal diameter and folding. Ultrastructural analysis of two different transgene insertion sites, both spanning less than the full chromatin width, clearly contradicted predictions of simple radial loop models while providing strong support for hierarchical models of chromosome architecture. Specifically, an approximately 250-nm-diam folding subunit was visualized directly within fully condensed metaphase chromosomes. Our results contradict predictions of simple radial loop models and provide the first unambiguous demonstration of a hierarchical folding subunit above the level of the 30-nm fiber within normally condensed metaphase chromosomes.  (+info)

Histone hyperacetylation in mitosis prevents sister chromatid separation and produces chromosome segregation defects. (7/51)

Posttranslational modifications of core histones contribute to driving changes in chromatin conformation and compaction. Herein, we investigated the role of histone deacetylation on the mitotic process by inhibiting histone deacetylases shortly before mitosis in human primary fibroblasts. Cells entering mitosis with hyperacetylated histones displayed altered chromatin conformation associated with decreased reactivity to the anti-Ser 10 phospho H3 antibody, increased recruitment of protein phosphatase 1-delta on mitotic chromosomes, and depletion of heterochromatin protein 1 from the centromeric heterochromatin. Inhibition of histone deacetylation before mitosis produced defective chromosome condensation and impaired mitotic progression in living cells, suggesting that improper chromosome condensation may induce mitotic checkpoint activation. In situ hybridization analysis on anaphase cells demonstrated the presence of chromatin bridges, which were caused by persisting cohesion along sister chromatid arms after centromere separation. Thus, the presence of hyperacetylated chromatin during mitosis impairs proper chromosome condensation during the pre-anaphase stages, resulting in poor sister chromatid resolution. Lagging chromosomes consisting of single or paired sisters were also induced by the presence of hyperacetylated histones, indicating that the less constrained centromeric organization associated with heterochromatin protein 1 depletion may promote the attachment of kinetochores to microtubules coming from both poles.  (+info)

Clustering of multiple specific genes and gene-rich R-bands around SC-35 domains: evidence for local euchromatic neighborhoods. (8/51)

Typically, eukaryotic nuclei contain 10-30 prominent domains (referred to here as SC-35 domains) that are concentrated in mRNA metabolic factors. Here, we show that multiple specific genes cluster around a common SC-35 domain, which contains multiple mRNAs. Nonsyntenic genes are capable of associating with a common domain, but domain "choice" appears random, even for two coordinately expressed genes. Active genes widely separated on different chromosome arms associate with the same domain frequently, assorting randomly into the 3-4 subregions of the chromosome periphery that contact a domain. Most importantly, visualization of six individual chromosome bands showed that large genomic segments ( approximately 5 Mb) have striking differences in organization relative to domains. Certain bands showed extensive contact, often aligning with or encircling an SC-35 domain, whereas others did not. All three gene-rich reverse bands showed this more than the gene-poor Giemsa dark bands, and morphometric analyses demonstrated statistically significant differences. Similarly, late-replicating DNA generally avoids SC-35 domains. These findings suggest a functional rationale for gene clustering in chromosomal bands, which relates to nuclear clustering of genes with SC-35 domains. Rather than random reservoirs of splicing factors, or factors accumulated on an individual highly active gene, we propose a model of SC-35 domains as functional centers for a multitude of clustered genes, forming local euchromatic "neighborhoods."  (+info)

Chromosome Structure | Scientific research info incl meetings, conferences, seminars, symposia,tradeshows,jobs,jobfairs, professional tips and more.
DNA molecules must be tightly packaged to fit inside cells;simultaneously, DNA must be accessible to protein complexes in order to be replicated, transcribed or...
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In this episode of the Epigenetics Podcast, we caught up with Professor Bill Earnshaw, Wellcome Trust Principal Research Fellow at the University of Edinburgh, to talk about his work on the role of non-histone proteins in chromosome structure and funct
This track shows alignments of alternate locus (also known as alternate haplotype) reference sequences to main chromosome sequences in the reference genome assembly. Some loci in the genome are highly variable, with sets of variants that tend to segregate into distinct haplotypes. Only one haplotype can be included in a reference assembly chromosome sequence. Instead of providing a separate complete chromosome sequence for each haplotype, which could cause confusion with divergent chromosome coordinates and ambiguity about which sequence is the official reference, the Genome Reference Consortium (GRC) adds alternate locus sequences, ranging from tens of thousands of bases up to low millions of bases in size, to represent the distinct haplotypes. ...
This track shows alignments of alternate locus (also known as alternate haplotype) reference sequences to main chromosome sequences in the reference genome assembly. Some loci in the genome are highly variable, with sets of variants that tend to segregate into distinct haplotypes. Only one haplotype can be included in a reference assembly chromosome sequence. Instead of providing a separate complete chromosome sequence for each haplotype, which could cause confusion with divergent chromosome coordinates and ambiguity about which sequence is the official reference, the Genome Reference Consortium (GRC) adds alternate locus sequences, ranging from tens of thousands of bases up to low millions of bases in size, to represent the distinct haplotypes. ...
This track shows alignments of alternate locus (also known as alternate haplotype) reference sequences to main chromosome sequences in the reference genome assembly. Some loci in the genome are highly variable, with sets of variants that tend to segregate into distinct haplotypes. Only one haplotype can be included in a reference assembly chromosome sequence. Instead of providing a separate complete chromosome sequence for each haplotype, which could cause confusion with divergent chromosome coordinates and ambiguity about which sequence is the official reference, the Genome Reference Consortium (GRC) adds alternate locus sequences, ranging from tens of thousands of bases up to low millions of bases in size, to represent the distinct haplotypes. ...
This track shows alignments of alternate locus (also known as alternate haplotype) reference sequences to main chromosome sequences in the reference genome assembly. Some loci in the genome are highly variable, with sets of variants that tend to segregate into distinct haplotypes. Only one haplotype can be included in a reference assembly chromosome sequence. Instead of providing a separate complete chromosome sequence for each haplotype, which could cause confusion with divergent chromosome coordinates and ambiguity about which sequence is the official reference, the Genome Reference Consortium (GRC) adds alternate locus sequences, ranging from tens of thousands of bases up to low millions of bases in size, to represent the distinct haplotypes. ...
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Genomic sequence contigs for unfinished chromosomes are assembled and laid out based largely on the clone tiling path. However, the tiling paths do not specify the orientation of the clone sequences or how they should be joined; therefore, data on the alignment of the input genomic sequences to each other and to other sequences are also used to guide the assembly. Genomic sequences that augment the initial set of genomic contigs based on the tiling path clones are also incorporated ...
This posting serves three functions: 1) to remind flyfolk to send abstracts for the 1996 San Diego Drosophila Meeting to arrive at GSA by December 11. 2) to remind workshop organizers to contact us soon. 3) to clarify confusion brought on by our reorganization of the Areas of Research Interest. Some have indicated that we left their area of interest out. Our motivation was to reorganize the areas according to more modern divisions of biological problems. The areas cover all previous areas, even if it may not be obvious. The bottom line is, use your own judgement, and focus on the area you think you are studying! Here are some examples: Oogenesis and Spermatogenesis were combined into 6.Gametogenesis Hormones and Receptors can be submitted to 15.Transcriptional and Post-transcriptional Regulation Genomics is now part of 4.Chromosome Structure and Function, or 14.Techniques Transposable elements are in 4.Chromosome Structure and Function, or 18.Populations and Evolution Visual System to ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in chromosome organization and biogenesis (sensu Bacteria) pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
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The chromosome karyotyping of insects included Lepidoptera is very difficult because of the large number of chromosomes, small size, and lack of major constriction structure. This has been a great hindrance to the karyological analysis. In this study, using banding analysis on the pachytene chromosomes, all chromosomes were characterized, and idiograms of Bombyx mori and R mandarina were established. From the testes during meiosis, 81 and 56 cells were examined for the analysis of B. mori and R mandarina, respectively. The best preparation of pachytene chromosomes was obtained on the 3(rd) day of the 3(rd) larva and 2(nd) or 3(rd) day of the 4(th) larva of the B. mori male, and it revealed that there was a characteristic nucleolus structure in the 2(nd) chromosomes, which was supposed to be the Z sex chromosome. The length of the pachytene chromosome was variable during the developmental stage of the cell, so the physical length of each chromosome was relatively converted in comparison to the ...
Contents D1 Prokaryotic chromosome structure D2 Chromatin Structure The Escherichia. coli chromosome, DNA domains, Supercoling of the genome, DNA-binding proteins D2 Chromatin Structure Chromatin, Histones, Nucleosomes, The role of H1, Linker DNA, The 30 nm fiber, Highter order structure D3 Eukaryotic Chromosomal Structure The mitotic chromosome, The centromere, Telomeres, Interphase chromosome, Heterochromatin, Euchromatin, DNase Ⅰ hypersensitivity, CpG methylation, Histone variants and modification D4 Genome complexity Noncoding DNA, Reasociation Kinetics, Unique sequence DNA, Tandem gene clusters, Dispersed repetitive DNA, Satellite DNA, Genetic polymorphism D5 The flow of genetic information The central dogma, Prokaryotic gene expression, Eukaryotic gene expression
The male sex refers to that division of a species which produces sperm. In most mammals, sperm develops inside the testes. Sperm allows the propagation of the species to continue through the creation of offspring. In humans, an XY sex chromosome structure is a male and a XX sex chromosome structure is a female. The process of going from a child to developing the secondary sex characteristics that cause full maturation takes place mostly in puberty. ...
Blue horizontal bar: chromosome sequence. Blue/green fragments: individual clone and WGS components in the assembly tiling path. Purple bars: assembly-assembly alignments. The p- and q- arms, as well as the location of the centromere and adjacent heterochromatin gaps are marked. Note: in GRCh38, the centromere gap was replaced with sequence. The vertical bars through the alignments highlight sequence from the q-arm of GRCh37 chr. 9 that is now found on the p-arm of GRCh38 ...
my zoology teacher asked that how many dna molecules does a chromatin fibre have and how many chromatin fibres make the chromosome structure with 4 chromatids ...
This unit covers instructional content including Chromosome Structure, Limits to Cell Growth, Cell Cycle, Mitosis and Cytokinesis, Regulation of the Cell Cycle, and Cell Differentiation.
University of Sussex web profile of Dr Matt Neale whose research expertise includes Chromosome structure, Chromosomes, Meiosis and Recombination
We study proteins that regulate chromosome structure and function. We recently discovered that Chromatin Assembly Factor-1 (CAF-1) regulates protein accumulation and long-range DNA interactions at the nucleolus. (Smith et al., Mol. Biol. Cell 25: 2866-2881 (2014)). We are currently performing genome-scale analyses of the contributions of CAF-1 to human chromosome interactions and functions.
The objectives of this work include automatic recovery and visualization of a 3D chromosome structure from a sequence of 2D tomographic reconstruction images taken through the nucleus of a cell. Structure is v... Authors: Sabarish Babu, Pao-Chuan Liao, Min C. Shin and Leonid V. Tsap. ...
Kireeva, N., Lakonishok, M., Kireev, I., Hirano, T., Belmont, A. S. (2004) Visualization of early chromosome condensation: a hierarchical folding, axial glue model of chromosome structure. Journal of Cell Biology, 166 (6). pp. 775-785. ISSN 0021-9525 ...
HCAP-G antibody (non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit G) for WB. Anti-HCAP-G pAb (GTX131128) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis requires that homologous chromosomes pair and become physically connected so that they can orient properly on the meiosis I spindle. These connections are formed by homologous recombination closely integrated with the development of meiosis-specific, higher-order chromosome structures. The yeast Pch2 protein has emerged as an important factor with roles in both recombination and chromosome structure formation, but recent analysis suggested that TRIP13, the mouse Pch2 ortholog, is not required for the same processes. Using distinct Trip13 alleles with moderate and severe impairment of TRIP13 function, we report here that TRIP13 is required for proper synaptonemal complex formation, such that autosomal bivalents in Trip13-deficient meiocytes frequently displayed pericentric synaptic forks and other defects. In males, TRIP13 is required for efficient synapsis of the sex chromosomes and for sex body formation. Furthermore, the numbers of crossovers and ...
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council. A new method for visualizing chromosomes is painting a truer picture of their shape, which is rarely like the X-shaped blob of DNA most of us are familiar with.. Scientists at the BBSRC-funded Babraham Institute, working with the University of Cambridge and the Weizmann Institute, have produced beautiful 3D models that more accurately show their complex shape and the way DNA within them folds up.. The X-shape, often used to describe chromosomes, is only a snapshot of their complexity.. Dr Peter Fraser of the Babraham Institute explains: The image of a chromosome, an X-shaped blob of DNA, is familiar to many but this microscopic portrait of a chromosome actually shows a structure that occurs only transiently in cells - at a point when they are just about to divide.. The vast majority of cells in an organism have finished dividing and their chromosomes dont look anything like the X-shape. Chromosomes in these cells exist in a very ...
Have you seen our First Person interviews with the early-career first authors of our papers? The authors talk about their work in and out of the lab, the journeys that led them to where they are now and the scientists who inspired them along the way. Recently, we caught up with first authors Ana Romarowski, Shouying Xu, Gillian Johnson, Varisa Pongrakhananon and Lorna Young.. ...
Dana Branzeis is a PI at the Institute of Molecular Oncology Foundation (IFOM) in Milan, Italy, where her lab investigate mechanistic interplay of DNA damage response and regulatory pathways of chromosome structure during replication. In an interview, she shares why hard work and humility are key to a successful career.. Look out for First Person, our new interview series with early-career researchers. In this issue, we hear from Brandy Hyndman and Mathieu Crupi, Jinhang Hu and Yi-Wen Xu.. ...
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Chromosomes can undergo several types of changes which fall into two classes. The first type of change involves changes in chromosome number and is referred to as aneuploidy and euploidy. How these type of changes can occur and their subsequent effect on phenotype will be discussed in the next section. The chromosomal changes that we will discuss now alter the linear order of the chromosome and occur because of deletions, duplications, inversions, translocations and insertions of chromosomal DNA.. The analysis of these types of changes to a large part has been performed in genetic stocks of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. The chromosomes of this species that are of particular interest, are those found in the salivary glands of larvae. These tissues grow not by cell division but by enlargement. During this enlargement the chromosomes also undergo replication. But this replication is different than in other tissues because:. ...
This EMBO Conference will cover chromosome structure and organization, epigenetic modifications, chromatin remodelling and reprogramming, silent chromatin, genome stability and telomere biology, replication and repair, nuclear RNA, systems biology of genome functions and nuclear compartments. ...
I moved from a Subaru STI to the SLK55, and while the SLK is a hair faster/quicker, I find that its less stable at speeds above about 130mph. The car feels...
The Y chromosome data seems particularly exciting (there is a spreadsheet of populations in the download directory). One of the weaknesses of the 1000 Genomes data was that it didnt have any populations between Tuscany and East/South Asia, and the new dataset seems to rectify that ...
Mulvey, Robert and Andrews, P.C. and Clegg, W. and ONeil, P.A. (1992) Structural variations in alkali-metal amide chemistry and their influence on reactivity. [Review] Full text not available in this repository.Request a copy from the Strathclyde author ...
... and chromosome structure[edit]. Figure 5. Nucleus of a female amniotic fluid cell. Top: Both X-chromosome ... Chromosome Res 18: 115-125. *^ Taylor JH (1960) Asynchronous duplication of chromosomes in cultured cells of Chinese hamster. J ... For many decades now, it has been known that replication timing is correlated with the structure of chromosomes. For example, ... Chromosome Res 18: 127-136. *^ Schwaiger M, Stadler MB, Bell O, Kohler H, Oakeley EJ, et al. (2009) Chromatin state marks cell- ...
Chromosome. genome: 0.24 - 0.24 Mb. Search for. Structures. Swiss-model. Domains. InterPro. ...
Taanman, Jan-Willem (1999). "The mitochondrial genome: structure, transcription, translation and replication". Biochimica et ... organelle genomes forge eukaryotic chromosomes". Nature Reviews Genetics. 5 (2): 123-135. doi:10.1038/nrg1271. PMID 14735123. ...
Anton Goloborodko: Theoretical models of chromosome structure. Sofia Grade: Mechanisms of plasticity after brain injury. Jürgen ... "Blastocyst-like structures generated solely from stem cells". Nature. 557 (7703): 106-111. doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0051-0. ISSN ...
"Eukaryotic Chromosome Structure , Science Primer". scienceprimer.com. Retrieved 2015-11-22.. *^ a b Smith, Dwight G (2015). ... circular chromosome, which is in contrast to eukaryotes, which typically have linear chromosomes.[7] Nutritionally, prokaryotes ... structures made up of layers of calcium carbonate and trapped sediment left over from cyanobacteria and associated community ... but have significant molecular differences most notably in their membrane structure and ribosomal RNA.[18][19] By sequencing ...
Structural variation is the variation in structure of an organism's chromosome. Structural variations, such as copy-number ... Chromosome abnormalities are detected in 1 of 160 live human births. Apart from sex chromosome disorders, most cases of ... According to a 2000 study of Y-chromosome sequence variation, human Y-chromosomes trace ancestry to Africa, and the descendants ... consistent with their distinctive genetic structure identified by PCA and STRUCTURE. Schlebusch CM, Jakobsson M (August 2018 ...
Douglas RN, Birchler JA (2017). "B Chromosomes". In Bhat T, Wani A (eds.). Chromosome Structure and Aberrations. New Delhi: ... B chromosomes[edit]. B chromosomes refer to chromosomes that are not required for the viability or fertility of the organism, ... B chromosomes were first detected over a century ago.[63] Though typically smaller than normal chromosomes, their gene poor, ... Two classic examples of segregation distortion involving sex chromosomes include the "Sex Ratio" X chromosomes of Drosophila ...
Though it is predicted that there are 26,458 genes in 29 chromosomes; the gene structure annotation of only 12,589 genes are ... The Black Bengal goat is small in size but its body structure is tight. Its horns are small and legs are short. An adult male ...
"Chromosome Mutation I: Changes in Chromosome Structure: Introduction". An Introduction to Genetic Analysis (7th ed.). New York ... while the X chromosome is similar to the other chromosomes and contains many genes. The X and Y chromosomes form a strongly ... During crossover, chromosomes exchange stretches of DNA, effectively shuffling the gene alleles between the chromosomes.[55] ... Chromosomes are copied, condensed, and organized. Then, as the cell divides, chromosome copies separate into the daughter cells ...
Section structure of Homologous chromosome: Homologous chromosomes are chromosomes which contain the same genes in the same ... For example, Emmer wheat has the AABB chromosome sets (28 total chromosomes) from Triticum monococcum (AA, 14 chromosomes) and ... As this karyotype displays, a diploid human cell contains 22 pairs of homologous chromosomes and 2 sex chromosomes.. ... It is also an amphidiploid, with one set having 20 chromosomes (from B. campestris) and the other having 18 chromosomes (from B ...
Underhill PA, Kivisild T (2007). "Use of y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA population structure in tracing human migrations". ... Hence, all Y chromosomes belonging to DE, D, E and their subclades are YAP-positive (YAP+). All Y chromosomes that belong to ... "Scientists reshape Y chromosome haplogroup tree". genome.cshlp.org. Cabrera VM, Marrero P, Abu-Amero KK, Larruga JM (June 2018 ... Origin of YAP+ lineages of the human Y‐chromosome - M. Bravi et al.[full citation needed] Underhill PA, Passarino G, Lin AA, ...
The formation of an abnormal nuclear structure called chromosome bridge also predisposes to micronucleation. Bridges arise from ... If the cell senses extra chromosomes, the cell can attempt to remove the extra chromosome in another cell membrane, separate ... Based on the structure of a Micronucleus, or the function of a cell, it seems to provide support in the central apparatus ... This results in parts of the chromatids or chromosomes being broken off and enveloped as an extra nucleus in one of the ...
Birds have heterogametic females (ZW) and homogametic males (ZZ). The avian Z chromosome is conserved synteny with chromosome 9 ... Genes driving the differentiation into male or female structures are SF1, WT1, and WNT4. SRY is the only gene expressed solely ... This gene is located on chromosome 9. Its location suggests that it is required for the development of testis. XY humans ... By E12.5 and E13.5, DMRT1 is expressed deferentially as sex specific structures start to form. By E14.5 and E15.5, DMRT1 ...
Chromosomes[edit]. The initial karyotype includes a set of chromosomes from 2n = 44. They have four pairs of telocentric ... The structure of the respiratory and circulatory systems is of particular importance for the life of marine mammals. The oxygen ... two to four pairs of subtelocentric and one or two large pairs of submetacentric chromosomes. The remaining chromosomes are ... Ulfur Anarson (1974). "Comparative chromosome studies in Cetacea". Institute of Genetics. 77 (1): 1-36. doi:10.1111/j.1601- ...
Structure of Fluid Lipid Bilayers Simulations and publication links related to the cross sectional structure of lipid bilayers. ... Structure of Fluid Lipid Bilayers, from the Stephen White laboratory at دانشگاه کالیفرنیا، ارواین ...
The human protein structure consists of a globular domain with three α-helices and a two-strand antiparallel β-sheet, an NH2- ... The human PRNP gene is located on the short (p) arm of chromosome 20 between the end (terminus) of the arm and position 12, ... StructureEdit. PrP is highly conserved through mammals, lending credence to application of conclusions from test animals such ... PrP messenger RNA contains a pseudoknot structure (prion pseudoknot), which is thought to be involved in regulation of PrP ...
Large scale changes to the structure of chromosomes called chromosomal rearrangement that can lead to a decrease of fitness but ... Changes in chromosome number may involve even larger mutations, where segments of the DNA within chromosomes break and then ... For example, in the Homininae, two chromosomes fused to produce human chromosome 2; this fusion did not occur in the lineage of ... A change in the genetic structure that is not inherited from a parent, and also not passed to offspring, is called a somatic ...
DNA is organized into storage structures called chromosomes. For the most part, chromosomes come in matched sets, one ... The location of a gene on a chromosome is called its locus. Alternate forms of a gene are called alleles.[3] The terms Alleles ... While the Dun locus is known to be on equine chromosome 8, its precise location, the gene and protein involved, and exact ... Because sex cells (sperm and ova) contain only half the usual number of chromosomes, each parent contributes one allele in each ...
The new cpDNA structures separate, creating daughter cpDNA chromosomes. In addition to the early microscopy experiments, this ... Granum structure The prevailing model for granal structure is a stack of granal thylakoids linked by helical stromal thylakoids ... Granal structure. Using a light microscope, it is just barely possible to see tiny green granules-which were named grana.[108] ... Wise, R.R.; Hoober, J.K. (2007). The Structure and Function of Plastids. Springer. pp. 32-33. ISBN 978-1-4020-6570-5.. ...
He performed his PhD thesis under David Botstein at MIT, studying the structure of phage P22 chromosome. As a postdoctoral ... "The finished DNA sequence of human chromosome 12." Nature. 31 December 2005. "The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome." ... The HGSC produced sequences of human chromosomes 3, 12 and X. Dr. Weinstock was a principal investigator in projects producing ... 15 February 2010; 409, 860-921 "The DNA sequence, annotation and analysis of human chromosome 3." Nature. 17 March 2006. " ...
2009). "Genetic Sub-structure in Western Mediterranean Populations Revealed by 12-Chromosome STR Loci". International Journal ... The chromosome locations are given as 15932714 and rs35141399, and the mutation is from C to T. The forward primer is ... L660 is found at position 12511525 on the Y chromosome and is a change from C to A. L662 is found at position 16446702 and is a ... It represents a mutation from A to G and is found at position 16903082 on the Y chromosome. Most, if not all, these L640+ men ...
"Armenian Y chromosome haplotypes reveal strong regional structure within a single ethno-national group". Hum. Genet. 109 (6): ... Yunusbayev, B; Kutuev, I; Khusainova, R; Guseinov, G; Khusnutdinova, ĖK (2006). "Genetic Structure of Dagestan Populations: A ... Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out Of Africa". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 74 (5): 1014-1022. doi:10.1086/ ... "Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I Reveals Distinct Domains of Prehistoric Gene Flow in Europe" (PDF). Am. J. Hum. ...
The viral DNA forms supercoiled mini-chromosome structures upon entering the host nucleus. The viral DNA is transcribed into ... The type of nucleocapsid incorporated into the virus structure determines the size of the virus. Bacilliform nucleocapsid ... double-stranded DNA in either an open circular or linear structure. The size of the genome is usually between 6000-8000 base ...
Capelli, C (13 September 2005). "Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin: A Y Chromosome Perspective". Annals of Human ... inferred by Y-chromosome biallelic variability". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 121 (3): 270-279. doi:10.1002/ajpa. ... "Differential Greek and northern African migrations to Sicily are supported by genetic evidence from the Y chromosome" ... "An Ancient Mediterranean Melting Pot: Investigating the Uniparental Genetic Structure and Population History of Sicily and ...
File:Structure of alpha-KGDHC.jpg Figure 7: Structure of the alpha-KGDHC subunits (A) Ribbon diagram of the homo-dimer ... This subunit is 464 amino acids long and is encoded on the DLD gene, located on chromosome 7q31.1-7q32 [26]. It is an 8 monomer ... a b Frank, R.A.W., Price, A.J., Northrop, F.D., Perham, R.N. and Luisi, B.F. (2007). Crystal structure of the E1k component of ... a b Knapp, J.E., Mitchell,D.T., Yazdi, M.A. Ernst, S.R., Reed, L.J. and Hackert, M.L. (1996). Crystal structure of the ...
"Fine-structure genetic mapping of human chromosomes using the polymerase chain reaction on single sperm." Am J Hum Genet vol. ... "a radically different structure" for DNA, thereby founding the field of molecular genetics. Their structural model featured two ... "A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid", Nature vol. 171, pp. 737-738 (1953). [1] (Arthur Kornberg's Discovery of DNA ... "one would hope to obtain two structures, each containing the full length of the template strand appropriately complexed with ...
Structure[edit]. The HADHB gene is located on chromosome 2, with its specific location being 2p23.[5] The gene contains 17 ... Sonta, SI; Sandberg, AA (1977). "Chromosomes and causation of human cancer and leukemia: XXVIII. Value of detailed chromosome ... Bogenhagen DF, Rousseau D, Burke S (2008). "The layered structure of human mitochondrial DNA nucleoids". J. Biol. Chem. 283 (6 ... 2005). "Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4". Nature. 434 (7034): 724-31. doi:10.1038/ ...
March 2006). "Population structure in the Mediterranean basin: a Y chromosome perspective". Ann. Hum. Genet. 70 (Pt 2): 207-25 ... Haplogroup A is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, which includes all living human Y chromosomes which do not belong to ... Initial sequencing of the human Y-chromosome had suggested that first split in the Y-Chromosome family tree occurred with the ... we identified 11 Y chromosomes that were invariant and identical to the A00 chromosome at five of the six Y-STRs (2 of the 11 ...
... is organized into long structures called chromosomes. Before typical cell division, these chromosomes are duplicated in the ... The structure of the DNA double helix. The atoms in the structure are colour-coded by element and the detailed structures of ... Alternative DNA structures. Further information: Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid ... DNA usually occurs as linear chromosomes in eukaryotes, and circular chromosomes in prokaryotes. The set of chromosomes in a ...
A chromosome is an organized structure consisting of DNA and histones. The set of chromosomes in a cell and any other ... DNA is found as linear chromosomes in eukaryotes, and circular chromosomes in prokaryotes. ... The Structure of Evolutionary Theory. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press: Cambridge, 2002. ISBN 0-674-00613-5. p. ... Biology is the natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms, including their physical structure, ...
大多數人類基因擁有許多的外顯子,且人類的內含子比位在其兩端的外顯子更長。這些基因參差不齊地分佈在染色體中,每一個染色體皆含有一些基因較多的區段與基因較少的區段。這些區段的差異,則與染色體帶(chromosome bands)及GC含量相關。基因密度所顯現 ... Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog.. Nature. 2005, 438 (7069):
In search of the genetic footprints of Sumerians: a survey of Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation in the Marsh Arabs of Iraq - - ... a long reed structure) was used to shelter animals in bad weather. A raba was a higher-status dwelling, distinguished by a ...
Fox KM، Dias JA، Van Roey P (2001). "Three-dimensional structure of human follicle-stimulating hormone". Mol. Endocrinol. 15 (3 ... and regional assignment of the human follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit gene to the short arm of human chromosome 11". ...
The genome of S. pneumoniae is a closed, circular DNA structure that contains between 2.0 and 2.1 million base pairs depending ... For a bacterium to bind, take up, and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome, it must enter a special physiological state ...
MN1 is a gene found on human chromosome 22, with gene map locus 22q12.3-qter.[5] Its official full name is meningioma ( ... a gene from chromosome 22q11, which is disrupted by a balanced translocation in a meningioma". Oncogene. 10 (8): 1521-8. PMID ...
Swaminathan (2003). „Crystal structures of oligomeric forms of the IP-10/CXCL10 chemokine.". Structure. 11: 521-32. PMID ... O'Donovan (1999). „Physical mapping of the CXC chemokine locus on human chromosome 4.". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 84: 39-42. PMID ... Booth (2002). „The CXCR3 binding chemokine IP-10/CXCL10: structure and receptor interactions.". Biochemistry. 41. PMID 12173928 ...
The new cpDNA structures separate, creating daughter cpDNA chromosomes. In addition to the early microscopy experiments, this ... Linear structureEdit. Chloroplast DNA has long been thought to have a circular structure, but some evidence suggests that ... Molecular structureEdit. The 154 kb chloroplast DNA map of a model flowering plant (Arabidopsis thaliana: Brassicaceae) showing ... Wise RR, Hoober JK (2007). Structure and function of plastids. Berlin: Springer. pp. 53-74. ISBN 978-1-4020-6570-5. .. ...
In recognition of his distinguished work on selection in age-structured populations, extending the theory to the evolution of ... separate sexes and sex chromosomes, segregation distortion and repetitive DNA. ...
... chromosome localization, and functional expression of cDNA clones". Biochemistry. 30 (44): 10640-6. doi:10.1021/bi00108a006. ... given that NK1Rs are unprotected by a blood brain barrier in the area postrema just adjacent to neuronal structures in the ... The eleven-amino-acid structure of the peptide was determined by Susan Leeman in 1971.[6] ... "Substance P: structure, function, and therapeutics". Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. 4 (1): 75-103. doi:10.2174/ ...
This article on a gene on human chromosome 19 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. *v ... It is expressed in the liver and has a predicted protein structure characteristic of the other genes in this family. Apo C4 is ...
For example, Down syndrome happens when there are three copies of chromosome #21. (Usually people have 2 of every chromosome.) ... Abortion would interrupt this process, leaving in the gland undifferentiated structures like those observed in the rat mammary ... When a human is conceived, it gets 23 chromosomes from its mother and 23 from its father. If it does not get the right number ... Most embryos and fetuses with chromosome problems will not live for a long time. They die very early. There are a few ...
... replication of the chromosome involves about 2 million DNA synthesis reactions for each arm of the chromosome over 40 to 80 min ... Caulobacter crescentus is a member of a group of bacteria that possess the stalk structure, a tubular extension from the cell ... Chromosome replication and cell division only occurs in the stalked cell stage. Its name derives from its crescent shape caused ... The Caulobacter CB15 genome has 4,016,942 base pairs in a single circular chromosome encoding 3,767 genes.[7] The genome ...
anatomical structure morphogenesis. • metanephric epithelium development. • mesenchymal to epithelial transition involved in ... Maruyama K, Sugano S (January 1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with ...
They retained only three chromosomes and many genes were transferred to the nucleus of the host cell, while others were lost ... Archibald, John M (2007). "Nucleomorph Genomes: Structure, Function, Origin and Evolution". BioEssays. 29 (4): 392-402. doi: ... "Nucleomorph genome of Hemiselmis andersenii reveals complete intron loss and compaction as a driver of protein structure and ...
Numerous reports have shown androgens alone are capable of altering the structure of the brain,[11] but identification of which ... In males, certain Y chromosome genes, particularly SRY, control development of the male phenotype, including conversion of the ... Indeed, androgens are capable of altering the structure of the brain in several species, including mice, rats, and primates, ... While androstenediones are converted metabolically to testosterone and other androgens, they are also the parent structure of ...
... because the red fox has 34 metacentric chromosomes and from 0 to 8 small B chromosomes,[10] the raccoon dog has 42 chromosomes ... Wayne, R. & Ostrander, Elaine A. (1999). "Origin, genetic diversity, and genome structure of the domestic dog". BioEssays. 21 ( ... The wolf, dingo, dog, coyote, and golden jackal all have 78 chromosomes arranged in 39 pairs.[6] This allows them to hybridize ... The wolf-like canids are a group of large carnivores that are genetically closely related because their chromosomes number 78. ...
These unique chromosomes are produced by recombination of each unique chromosome passed by each grandparent to each parent. ... Structure[edit]. A1::DQ2 is 4,731,878 nucleotides in length.[1] The haplotype begins before the TRIM27 locus approximately 28.8 ... These chromosome chimerize within the reproductive cells of each parent which are then passed to the developing person during ... The evolution of A1::DQ2 appears to be key to its structure. The haplotype, at 4.7 million nucleotide, exists in a population ...
These tumors show a high frequency of co-deletions of the p and q arms of chromosome 1 and chromosome 19 respectively (1p19q co ... The skull bone structure can also be subject to a neoplasm that by its very nature reduces the volume of the intracranial ... Anaplastic cells have lost total control of their normal functions and many have deteriorated cell structures. Anaplastic cells ... the dedifferentiation causes the cells to lose all of their normal structure/function), or cancer stem cells can increase their ...
The number of homologous chromosome sets varies from four (n=4) in some Physaria and Stenopetalum species, five (n=5) in other ... "Secondary Structure Analyses of the Nuclear rRNA Internal Transcribed Spacers and Assessment of Its Phylogenetic Utility ... of the species in which chromosomes have been counted have eight sets (n=8). Due to polyploidy, some species may have up to 256 ... individual chromosomes, with some very high counts in the North American species of Cardamine, such as C. diphylla. ...
In humans, PR is encoded by a single PGR gene residing on chromosome 11q22,[5][6][7] it has two isoforms, PR-A and PR-B, that ... Williams SP, Sigler PB (May 1998). "Atomic structure of progesterone complexed with its receptor". Nature. 393 (6683): 392-6. ... "The progesterone receptor gene maps to human chromosome band 11q13, the site of the mammary oncogene int-2". Proceedings of ...
Another name used is alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI). The gene is located on the long arm of the fourteenth chromosome ( ... Carrell RW, Jeppsson JO, Laurell CB, Brennan SO, Owen MC, Vaughan L, Boswell DR (July 1982). "Structure and variation of human ... Like all serine protease inhibitors, A1AT has a characteristic secondary structure of beta sheets and alpha helices. Mutations ... A recent study analyzed and compared the three FDA-approved products regarding their primary structure and glycosylation. All ...
"Genetic diversity and population genetic structure in the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens)" (PDF). Department of ... By pairing chromosomes of similar genomes, the chance for these recessive alleles to pair and become homozygous greatly ... The advantages of inbreeding may be the result of a tendency to preserve the structures of alleles interacting at different ...
Deletion in the 22q11.2 region of chromosome 22 has been associated with schizophrenia and autism.[22][23] Schizophrenia and ... effects between comb mass and physiological structures related to reproductive abilities. Both males and females with larger ... The disease is caused by a defect in a single gene on chromosome 12 that codes for enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase , that ... and can be caused by any of a large number of mutations in the single gene on chromosome 12 that codes for the enzyme ...
Annual Review of Biophysics and Biomolecular Structure 29. Páxs. 291-325.. *↑ Berg, J. M.; et al. (2002). "7 - Exploring ... describen o uso de cromosomas artificiais de lévedo (YAC, Yeast Artificial Chromosome),[41] e Kulesh et al. sentan as bases dos ... A Computer-Based Archival File for Macromolecular Structures". European Journal of Biochemistry (en inglés) 80 (2): 319-324. ... "A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid" (PDF). Nature 171: 737-738. PMID 13054692. doi:10.1038/171737a0. Consultado o 5 de ...
... map to mouse chromosome 5 within a region of conserved synteny with human chromosome 4p16.3". Genomics. 22 (1): 198-201. doi: ... Matsuoka Y, Li X, Bennett V (2000). "Adducin: structure, function and regulation". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 57 (6): 884-95. doi: ... 1997). "Transcript map of the human chromosome 4p16.3 consisting of 627 cDNA clones derived from 1 Mb of the Huntington's ... 1994). "Cloning of the alpha-adducin gene from the Huntington's disease candidate region of chromosome 4 by exon amplification ...
Structure[edit]. Presenilin possesses a 9 transmembrane domain topology, with an extracellular C-terminus and a cytosolic N- ... "Genetic linkage evidence for a familial Alzheimer's seasesease locus on chromosome 14". Science. 258 (5082): 668-71. Bibcode: ... "Interaction with telencephalin and the amyloid precursor protein predicts a ring structure for presenilins". Neuron. 32 (4): ...
condensed chromosome. • nuclear chromosome, telomeric region. • nucleus. • nuclear chromatin. • lateral element. • cytosol. • ... "Insights into DNA recombination from the structure of a RAD51-BRCA2 complex". Nature. 420 (6913): 287-93. doi:10.1038/ ... nuclear chromosome. • mitochondrial matrix. • nucleolus. • mitochondrion. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • chromatin. • ... condensed nuclear chromosome. • macromolecular complex. Biological process. • regulation of protein phosphorylation. • strand ...
"The World Atlas of Language Structures Online. Max Planck Digital Library. Retrieved 4 June 2008.. ... In recent investigations, it has also been made clear that both varieties have the same chromosome number (n=15) and can be ...
Structure and function[edit]. This gene encodes an alpha-1 subunit of a voltage-dependent calcium channel. Calcium channels ... to chromosome 12p13.2-pter using a dinucleotide repeat". Genomics. 14 (1): 206-7. doi:10.1016/S0888-7543(05)80312-X. PMID ... Soldatov NM (Jul 1994). "Genomic structure of human L-type Ca2+ channel". Genomics. 22 (1): 77-87. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1347. ... Nomenclature and structure-function relationships of voltage-gated calcium channels". Pharmacological Reviews. 57 (4): 411-25. ...
Lin HH, Stacey M, Hamann J, Gordon S, McKnight AJ (2000). „Human EMR2, a novel EGF-TM7 molecule on chromosome 19p13.1, is ... Gene structure and transcript analysis of the human and mouse EGF-TM7 molecule, FIRE". DNA Seq. 17 (1): 8-14. PMID 16753812. ...
Chromosome Structure , Scientific research info incl meetings, conferences, seminars, symposia,tradeshows,jobs,jobfairs, ... 82nd Symposium on Chromosome Segregation and Structure ... Chromosome Segregation, Chromosome Structure ...
A micromechanical approach to chromosome structure Saleh, Omar A. University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, ... The details of the structure of specific fragments of native chromosomes are not well known in any organism, mainly because of ... However, we do not know details of the link between the structure of a particular chromosome fragment and the information ... A micromechanical approach to chromosome structure. Saleh, Omar A. / University of California Santa Barbara. $133,484. ...
Dr Fraser added: "These unique images not only show us the structure of the chromosome, but also the path of the DNA in it, ... In doing so it shows that the structure of these chromosomes, and the way the DNA within them folds up, are intimately linked ... Using these 3D models, we have begun to unravel the basic principles of chromosome structure and its role in how our genome ... Douglas Kell, BBSRC Chief Executive, said: "Until now, our understanding of chromosome structure has been limited to rather ...
Higher-order structure of chromatin and chromosomes.. Woodcock CL1, Dimitrov S. ... that comprises the primary structure of chromatin is folded and condensed to varying degrees in nuclei and chromosomes forming ... higher order structures. We discuss the recent findings from novel experimental approaches that have yielded significant new ...
The number of chromosomes in each cell of an organism is generally fixed and ranges from one in bacteria to hundreds in some ... Kowles R. (2001) Variations in Chromosome Number and Structure. In: Solving Problems in Genetics. Springer, New York, NY. * DOI ... Deviations from haploidy in sex cells, diploidy in somatic cells, and normal chromosome structure are not rare. ... The number of chromosomes in each cell of an organism is generally fixed and ranges from one in bacteria to hundreds in some ...
Telomeric structure in cells with chromosome end associations.. Saltman D1, Morgan R, Cleary ML, de Lange T. ... We report the molecular structure of telomeres of two human tumor cell lines with frequent end-to-end associations of metaphase ... End-to-end associations of metaphase chromosomes have been observed in a variety of human tumors, ageing cells, and several ... Since telomeres of tumor cells and ageing tissues are often reduced in length, it has been suggested that chromosome end ...
Analysis of Genomic Structures Involved in Chromosome 22q Deletion Syndrome. Speaker:. Steven Pastor, PhD Candidate. School of ... Analysis of Genomic Structures Involved in Chromosome 22q Deletion Syndrome. Monday, December 3, 2018 ... this thesis reveals the previously unmapped structure and variation of the chromosome 22 LCRs and surrounding regions. These ... Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) is the most common microdeletion disorder in humans. The disease demonstrates ...
Changes in the structure of chromosomes can cause problems with growth, development, and function of the bodys systems. Learn ... Ring chromosomes. Ring chromosomes. usually occur when a chromosome breaks in two places and the ends of the chromosome arms ... Changes in chromosome structure include:. Translocations. A translocation occurs when a piece of one chromosome breaks off and ... Can changes in the number of chromosomes affect health and development?. *Can changes in the structure of chromosomes affect ...
... has been used to analyse the structure of the rye B chromosome. Genomic in situhybridization (GISH) demonstrates the high level ... Fluorescencein situ hybridization (FISH) has been used to analyse the structure of the rye B chromosome. Genomicin situ ... Murata M, Nakata N, Yasamuro Y (1992) Origin and molecular structure of a midget chromosome in a common wheat carrying rye ... Tsujimoto H, Niwa K (1992) DNA structure of the B-chromosome of rye revealed byin situ hybridization using repetitive sequences ...
... with more recent mapping using pachytene chromosomes (e.g., rice chromosome 10, Chenget al. 2001; maize chromosome 9, Sadder ... 1999 Meiotic chromosomes: integrating structure and function. Annu. Rev. Genet. 33: 603-754. ... Integrating Genetic Linkage Maps With Pachytene Chromosome Structure in Maize. Lorinda K. Anderson, Naser Salameh, Hank W. Bass ... Integrating Genetic Linkage Maps With Pachytene Chromosome Structure in Maize Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ...
Structure and Epigenetic Regulation of Chromatin Fibers. Ping Chen and Guohong Li. Chromosome Biology and Genome Architecture. ... Polytene Chromosome Structure and Somatic Genome Instability. Allan C. Spradling. Heterochromatin, Errors, And Damage. Symmetry ... Chromosome Segregation Errors, and Disease; Asymmetric Cell Division; Nuclear Architecture; Chromosome Structure and ... Molecular Structures of Yeast Kinetochore Subcomplexes and Their Roles in Chromosome Segregation. Simon Jenni, Yoana N. ...
... WWW Links Genetic Topics Drosophila Polytene Chromosomes. Chromosomes can undergo several ... The term used to describe these chromosomes and similar chromosomes in other diptera species is polytene chromosomes and these ... the homologous chromosomes remain synapsed, that is paired throughout the duplication; and *the chromosomes undergo about nine ... The banding patterns of these chromosomes are distinct from metaphase chromosomes and have been associated with specific genes ...
Here we report the essentially complete sequence of chromosome 1, the longest chromosome in the rice genome. W … ... the longest chromosome in the rice genome. We summarize characteristics of the chromosome structure and the biological insight ... The genome sequence and structure of rice chromosome 1 Nature. 2002 Nov 21;420(6913):312-6. doi: 10.1038/nature01184. ... Rice chromosome 1 is (G + C)-rich, especially in its coding regions, and is characterized by several gene families that are ...
... This project, a Wellcome Trust Senior ... The relationship between Y chromosome DNA haplotypes and Y chromosome deletions leading to male infertility. Hum. Genet., 108, ... Hill, E.W., Jobling, M.A. and Bradley, D.G. (2000) Y-chromosome variation and Irish origins. Nature 404, 351-352. 12. Quintana- ... Jobling, M.A. and Tyler-Smith, C. (1995) Fathers and sons: the Y chromosome and human evolution. Trends Genet. 11, 449-456. ...
Although the B1 chromosome structure is consistent with an isochromosome, we are unsure what the structure of the B2 chromosome ... melanogaster B chromosome may have arisen from chromosome 4. We considered the reported structures of B chromosome in other ... A) Metaphase chromosome spread with three copies of the B1 chromosome, two copies of the B2 chromosome, and a single copy of ... The B chromosomes have twice as much AAGAT sequence as chromosome 4 as assayed by FISH. Chromosome spreads showing (A) ...
Start studying Chromosome Structure and Translocations. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other ... too many Chromosomes (too many genes). -Translocations (moving a bit of one chromosome to another) ... Genes not needed! They do not do anything that contributes to the mechanical properties of the chromosome ... Human chromosomes contain many sequences that dont serve known functions, such as......as well as many repeated sequences, non ...
Buy Some Aspects of Chromosome Structure and Functions by R.C. Sobti, G. Obe from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from ... Some Aspects of Chromosome Structure and Functions (Hardback). R.C. Sobti (editor), G. Obe (editor), R.S. Athwal (editor) Sign ... chromatin structure and gene activation, centromeric complexity in holocentric chromosomes, translocation frequencies in X and ... In twenty articles, scientists from around the world deal with various aspects of repetitive sequences in chromosomes, ...
Find out more about the number of human chromosomes and the basic parts of human chromosomes. ... They are highly condensed structures and each pair carries distinct genetic information. ... Packed inside the nucleus of nearly every cell are 23 pairs of chromosomes that contain most of our genetic material. ... The Basic Parts of Human Chromosomes: An Overview of the Structure of Human Chromosomes. Genetics / By Paul Arnold / Molecular ...
By analogy with protein structure one can potentially describe: (a) a one-dimensional representation... ... The structure of the bacterial chromosome can be considered at several different levels. ... The structure of the bacterial chromosome can be considered at several different levels. By analogy with protein structure one ... Worcel A, Burgi E (1972) On the structure of the folded chromosome of Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol 71: 127-147PubMedCrossRef ...
Molecular structure of human chromosomes. Credit: Wellcome Collection. Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC ...
2009) Genetic Sub-Structure in Western Mediterranean Populations Revealed by 12 Y-Chromosome STR Loci. International Journal of ... Genetic Structure of Cartagena de Indias Population Using Hypervariable Markers of Y Chromosome. Open Journal of Genetics, 5, ... Rojas, W., Parra, M.V., Campo, O., Caro, M.A., Lopera, J.G., Arias, W., et al.(2010) Genetic Make up and Structure of Colombian ... Schurr, T.G. and Sherry, S.T. (2004) Mitochondrial DNA and Y Chromosome Diversity and the Peopling of the Americas: ...
These approaches have led us to an unexpected result: for some organelles and taxa, the genome structure and HCE set, despite ... even for conceptually simple tasks such as the calculation of distance between two structures or the identification of UCEs. In ... Models of evolution of the genome structure and HCEs initially faced considerable algorithmic challenges, which gave rise to ( ... chromosome structure; evolution Ciliophora; mitochondria; highly conserved elements; proteins clustering; chromosome structure ...
Chromosome Number. Prokaryotic Cell Division. Eukaryotic Cell Division. Chromosome Structure. Cell Cycle. Cytokinesis. $100. $ ... Chromosome Number. Prokaryotic Cell Division. Eukaryotic Cell Division. Cell Cycle. Cytokinesis. ... Protein Structure -. september 4, 2008. basics of protein structure. primary structure: sequence secondary structure: α -helix ... Chromosome Number. Prokaryotic Cell Division. Eukaryotic Cell Division. Chromosome Structure. Cell Cycle. Cytokinesis. $100. $ ...
Tobias Zech established his research group at the University of Liverpool. His group studies processes of cell migration and cancer cell invasion, with an emphasis on actin dynamics and receptor trafficking. He spoke to us about what inspires him, the molecular mechanisms that drive invasive cell migration in a 3D matrix environment and how he recruits team members.. Catch up with early-career first authors in our First Person interviews. Recently, we spoke to Ahmed Elbediwy, Kaiyuan Wu, Yihua Wang and Sei Yoshida.. ...
Structure of Chromosomes. Discussion of all aspects of biological molecules, biochemical processes and laboratory procedures in ... one for each chromosome? Or does a single DNA molecule continue as an extended filament, running in and out of one chromosome, ... Does each chromosome in a human cell contain one complete DNA molecule, so that there are 46 separate DNA molecules, ... The joining by hydrogen bonds qualifies the structure as a single molecule. By that reasoning you would always be looking at ...
Ancient Y-chromosome studies. Ancient Scripts World Atlas of Language Structures. Ethnologue. Haplogroup predictor. PhyloTree. ... "Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of. Oman" didnt find any "I" in Qatar/UAE/Yemen; otherwise the estimates seem ... Local Population Structure in Arabian Peninsula Revealed by Y-STR Diversity. Farida Alshamali et al.. Abstract. Genetic studies ... "Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of. Oman" didnt find any "I" in Qatar/UAE/Yemen; otherwise the estimates seem ...
The paired chromosomes are then equally divided into daughter cells. Prokaryotic cells, including bacteria, do not have such ... The researchers show that the structure is similar to the condensed chromosomes in eukaryotic cells. The compacted DNA also ... Ultrastructure of a condensed chromosome-like structure in a cyanobacterium. by National Institutes of Natural Sciences ... Citation: Ultrastructure of a condensed chromosome-like structure in a cyanobacterium (2016, October 21) retrieved 28 February ...
Download this Chromosome Dna Structure Medicine Concept Low Poly Polygonal Triangle Gene Therapy Cure Genetic Disease Gmo ... iStockChromosome Dna Structure Medicine Concept Low Poly Polygonal Triangle Gene Therapy Cure Genetic Disease Gmo Engineering ... Download this Chromosome Dna Structure Medicine Concept Low Poly Polygonal Triangle Gene Therapy Cure Genetic Disease Gmo ... Chromosome DNA structure medicine concept. Low poly polygonal triangle gene therapy cure genetic disease. GMO engineering ...
1999) Meiotic chromosomes: Integrating structure and function. Annu Rev Genet 33:603-754.. ... Genetic Map of the Ph1 Gene Region and Its Alignment with the BAC Scaffolds of Rice Chromosome 9 and Wheat Chromosome 5B.. The ... Alignment of the Ph1 Gene Region to the BAC Scaffold of Rice Chromosome 9 and Wheat Chromosome 5B.. The detailed physical map ... 5L0.5 and the Ph1 Gene Region of Chromosome 5BL.. The extensive physical characterization of the 5L0.5 region of chromosome 5BL ...
Some of the noncoding DNA (DNA that does not code for proteins) is found in special structures at the ends of the chromosomes ... offspring inherits one X chromosome and one Y chromosome, he will be genetically male. If an offspring inherits X chromosomes ... Chromosomes from prokaryotic organisms have DNA strands that loop and form circles. The DNA in prokaryotic chromosomes forms ... Chromosomes consist of two kinds of molecules, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strands and proteins. Chromosomes from eukaryotic ...
"Meiotic prophase roles of Rec8 in crossover recombination and chromosome structure." Nucleic Acids Research 44 (19): 9296-9314 ... Rec8 is a prominent component of the meiotic prophase chromosome axis that mediates sister chromatid cohesion, homologous ... recombination and chromosome synapsis. Here, we explore the prophase roles of Rec8. (i) During the meiotic divisions, Rec8 ...
  • Dr Fraser added: "These unique images not only show us the structure of the chromosome, but also the path of the DNA in it, allowing us to map specific genes and other important features. (redorbit.com)
  • In doing so it shows that the structure of these chromosomes, and the way the DNA within them folds up, are intimately linked to when and how much genes are expressed, which has direct consequences for health, ageing and disease. (redorbit.com)
  • These changes can affect many genes along the chromosome and disrupt the proteins made from those genes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As a result, these abnormal chromosomes have an extra copy of some genes and are missing copies of other genes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Flavell RB, Rimpau J (1975) Ribosomal RNA genes and supernumerary B-chromosomes of rye. (springer.com)
  • Maluszynska J, Schweitzer D (1989) Ribosomal RNA genes in B-chromosomes of Crepis capillaris detected by non-radioactive in situ hybridization. (springer.com)
  • As a result, linkage maps cannot be simply overlaid on chromosomes to determine the physical position of genes. (genetics.org)
  • Even detailed information on the linear order of genes from a complete genome sequence cannot bridge the gap between linkage maps and chromosomes because DNA (as well as crossing over) is not evenly distributed along specially organized meiotic chromosomes. (genetics.org)
  • For these reasons, the position of individual genes along meiotic chromosomes and the relation of gene position to meiotic recombination are understood only in general terms for most organisms. (genetics.org)
  • The banding patterns of these chromosomes are distinct from metaphase chromosomes and have been associated with specific genes. (ndsu.edu)
  • These unique properties of the Y have important consequences for its mutation processes, its genes, and its population genetics: Y chromosomes pass down from father to son largely unchanged, except by the gradual accumulation of mutations. (le.ac.uk)
  • The chromosomes are all of different sizes and contain varying number of genes. (brighthub.com)
  • We know that the difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is in the DNA packaging and delivering system, where eukaryotes have developed a nuclear membrane to protect their genes and form condensed chromosomes to properly parcel the genome into the daughter cell, whereas prokaryotes do not have such a system," says corresponding author Kazuyoshi Murata. (phys.org)
  • The wheat gene-rich region (GRR) 5L0.5 contains many important genes, including Ph1 , the principal regulator of chromosome pairing. (pnas.org)
  • In addition to agronomically important genes, the 5L0.5 region contains Ph1 , a principal suppressor of crossing over between homoeologous chromosomes ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • A chromosome is a compactly folded complex of DNA and proteins containing many genes, found in the nuclei of eukaryotic organisms and in the nucleoids of prokaryotic organisms. (chemistryexplained.com)
  • Chromosomes from eukaryotic organisms have linear DNA strands containing approximately fifty genes per millimeter, compared to 2,500 genes per millimeter in bacteria. (chemistryexplained.com)
  • In non-recombining regions of the Y chromosome repetitive DNA sequences are accumulated, representing a dominant and early process forming the Y chromosome, probably before genes start to degenerate. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Revisit the key concepts like mitosis, chromosomes and genes using our Selina Solutions and revision notes. (topperlearning.com)
  • Co-amplification of Slx / Slxl1 on the X chromosome and Sly on the Y chromosome are involved in dose-dependent meiotic drive, however the role of other co-amplified genes remains poorly understood. (g3journal.org)
  • To identify a gene or genes regulating fracture risk at the femoral neck, we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for femoral neck density and structure phenotypes using a 595 F2 progeny derived from the inbred F344 and LEW strains of rats. (galileo-training.com)
  • Chromosome structure is a very limited model of the genome including the information about its chromosomes such as their linear or circular organization, the order of genes on them, and the DNA strand encoding a gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Eucaryotic Gene Regulation Genome Structure, Genes, DNA, and chromosomes Complete Genome DNA sequence know humans ,chimps ,flies ,worms, and plants… Each chromosome is a one DNA Molecule 22,000 Genes- Humans (14,000 in flies) Human Genome Genes are at set positions on the chromosomes-5000 expressed in each cell type-1000 " housekeeping" genes Clicker Question Which of the following can describe the way eukaryotic genes are distributed among the chromosomes? (coursehero.com)
  • Publications] Yasushi Saitoh: 'Identification and localization of two genes on the chicken Z chromosome:implication of evolutionary conservation of the Z chromosome among avian species' Chromosome Res.1. (nii.ac.jp)
  • A systematic approach for evaluating sequencing results of chromosome rearrangements can be undertaken in light of regulatory chromatin domains: in addition to genes directly located at the breakpoints, dysregulated protein coding genes and non-coding regions can be assessed in relation to TADs, given their role in pathologic rewiring of the human genome through structural rearrangements. (labroots.com)
  • During interphase, the genes carried on the chromosomes are transcribed , to form proteins needed by the cell. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Deletion or Deficiency: A deficiency means deletion of a small portion of a chromosome resulting in loss of one or more genes. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • Down syndrome (DS) is caused by trisomy of chromosome 21 (Hsa21) and presents a complex phenotype that arises from abnormal dosage of genes on this chromosome. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The Tc1 strain is trisomic for the majority of genes that cause phenotypes associated with DS, and this freely available mouse strain has become used widely to study DS, the effects of gene dosage abnormalities, and the effect on the basic biology of cells when a mouse carries a freely segregating human chromosome. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • For instance, genes with the same DNA sequence will behave differently depending on where they are located on a chromosome as well as the effect of the surrounding DNA sequence. (labmedicineblog.com)
  • Its complex form and structure dictate how often genes can be translated into proteins, and which genes are translated. (biologydictionary.net)
  • As seen in the image of chromosome structure shown below, less active genes will be more tightly packed than genes undergoing active transcription . (biologydictionary.net)
  • Cellular molecules that regulate genes and transcription often work by activing or deactivating these proteins, which can contract or expand the chromosome. (biologydictionary.net)
  • Chromosome 1 is the largest and contains around 8,000 genes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The smallest is chromosome 21 with around 3,000 genes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Read all about your inherited traits, DNA and genes as well as fascinating articles on mutations and mutated chromosomes. (brighthub.com)
  • As genetics became more refined in the early decades of the 20th century the genes-on-a- string model of chromosomes developed and greater emphasis was placed on the further dissection of these structures. (mpg.de)
  • A molecule of DNA is a very long, coiled structure that contains many identifiable subunits known as genes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • At one point in the cell's life, its chromosomes become untangled and open up to expose their genes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Multiple human diseases have been linked to abnormalities in this structure around specific genes;however, we lack a clear microscopic picture of chromatin structure. (grantome.com)
  • criteria are revealed to change genome structure and function from chromosomes characterization to genes technology on prescriptions of institutions of kinship. (calzaretta.com)
  • Please Sign the Guest Book It was cast from the efforts of 40 3D services( 10 per each genome structure and function from chromosomes characterization to genes). (calzaretta.com)
  • Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere which divides the chromosome into two sections or "arms" The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the "p arm", The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the "q arm", The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and it can be used to help describe the location of the specific genes. (online-sciences.com)
  • Each chromatid consists of protein and a nucleic acid called DNA which carries the genes that carry the genetic traits of the living organism, DNA is the nucleic acid that forms the chromosomes that present in the cell nucleus and it carries the genes. (online-sciences.com)
  • During a deletion, a part of the chromosome is lost, causing a loss of the genes on that portion of the chromosome. (wisegeek.com)
  • During an inversion, a portion of the chromosome breaks off and reattaches in the inverted position, causing the sequence of the genes on that portion to be reversed. (wisegeek.com)
  • Dicentric chromosomes result from the abnormal fusion of two chromosome pieces, each of which includes a centromere. (medlineplus.gov)
  • DNA from the centromere region of linkage group (LG) VII of Neurospora crassa was cloned previously from a yeast artificial chromosome library and was found to be atypical of Neurospora DNA in both composition (AT rich) and complexity (repetitive). (asm.org)
  • Terminus, telomere Centromere Chromatid DNA packaging A chromosome contains a single, uninterrupted DNA molecule. (coursehero.com)
  • The kinetochore is a complex and dynamic macromolecular structure that assembles at a region of each chromosome termed the centromere and moves chromosomes within the spindle. (rupress.org)
  • During M phase, each chromosome is duplicated, and each replica remains attached to its original at the centromere portion of the chromosome. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The centromere is the connection point of the duplicated chromosome, while telomeres are the endpoints. (labmedicineblog.com)
  • Robertsonian translocations are of importance because they involve translocating most of one entire chromosome to the centromere of another chromosome. (labmedicineblog.com)
  • The shape of chromosomes depends up to the position of the centromere, on the secondary constriction and on the localization of satellites. (golifescience.com)
  • As a proof of principle, we tracked homologous chromosomes during meiotic prophase in synchronized and pachytene-arrested cells and captured important features of their spatial reorganization, such as chromatin restructuration into arrays of Rec8-delimited loops, centromere declustering, individualization, and pairing. (pasteur.fr)
  • The chromosomes consist of two connected threads, each thread is called the chromatid, The two chromatides are connected at a point known as the centromere which is the point of connection of the two chromatides of chromosome during the cell division. (online-sciences.com)
  • Each chromosome has one centromere, with one or two arms projecting from the centromere, although under most circumstances these arms are not visible as such. (wikiversity.org)
  • This compact form makes the individual chromosomes visible, and they form the classic four arm structure, a pair of sister chromatids attach to each other at the centromere. (wikiversity.org)
  • Through the optical mapping of 154 healthy genomes, results indicate unprecedented variability in LCR structure. (drexel.edu)
  • Gershgorin RA, Gorbunov KY, Zverkov OA, Rubanov LI, Seliverstov AV, Lyubetsky VA. Highly Conserved Elements and Chromosome Structure Evolution in Mitochondrial Genomes in Ciliates. (mdpi.com)
  • Different organisms have different numbers of chromosomes in their genomes, ranging from a single chromosome in most bacteria to seventy-eight chromosomes in chickens. (chemistryexplained.com)
  • The authors hope it will inform and inspire students, researchers, and teachers to continue to employ plant cytogenetics to address fundamental questions about the cytology of plant chromosomes and genomes for years to come. (nhbs.com)
  • Notably, several recent studies have described the three-dimensional structure of several complete eukaryotic genomes at varying resolutions. (washington.edu)
  • We hope it will inform and inspire students, researchers, and teachers to continue to employ plant cytogenetics to address fundamental questions about the cytology of plant chromosomes and genomes for years to come.Hank W. Bass is a Professor in the Department of Biological Science at Florida State University.James A. Birchler is a Professor in the Division of Biological Sciences at the University of Missouri. (slugbooks.com)
  • This makes it much easier to study any string of DNA, even whole chromosomes or genomes. (biologydictionary.net)
  • In chromosome conformation capture experiments (Hi-C), the accuracy with which contacts are detected varies due to the uneven distribution of restriction sites along genomes. (pasteur.fr)
  • Raye Lynn Alford, PhD, explains the structures and functions of genomes, including the genomes of eukaryotes, prokaryotes and viruses, the human genome, and explains how changes in the structure or number of chromosomes in the human genome leads to certain genetic disorders. (bioedonline.org)
  • Jones JDG, Flavell RB (1982) The structure, amount and chromosomal localization of defined repeated sequences in species of the genus Secale . (springer.com)
  • This is possible because (1) all 10 maize chromosomes can be individually identified from spreads of synaptonemal complexes, (2) each RN corresponds to one crossover, and (3) the frequency of RNs on defined chromosomal segments can be converted to centimorgan values. (genetics.org)
  • The chromosomal changes that we will discuss now alter the linear order of the chromosome and occur because of deletions, duplications, inversions, translocations and insertions of chromosomal DNA. (ndsu.edu)
  • This article is a simple guide to some of the most important chromosomal structures. (brighthub.com)
  • c) a three-dimensional picture of, the chromosomal DNA that includes the writhing and supercoiling of the axis of the DNA double helix in the chromosome. (springer.com)
  • Some bacteria have extra chromosomal DNA-a mini-chromosome called a plasmid. (chemistryexplained.com)
  • These repetitive sequences often colonize specific chromosomal (Y or W chromosomes, B chromosomes) or subchromosomal (telomeres, centromeres) niches. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Structure and chromosomal mapping of a highly polymorphic repetitive DNA sequence from the pseudoautosomal region of the mouse sex chromosomes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • See how single molecule localization microscopy can be used to image chromosomal regions and visualize chromosomal structure. (bruker.com)
  • Understanding chromosomal structure in situ is critical to understanding nuclear function. (bruker.com)
  • Considerable progress has been made in recent years in our understanding of the structure of chromosomes inside the nucleus or the bacteria, the role of long range contacts in gene regulation, the role of sub-chromosomal domains in controlling gene activation and single cell analysis. (epigenie.com)
  • Miroshnichenko, L. 2005-03-15 00:00:00 Banding sequences of five chromosomal arms (A, C, D, E, and F), accounting for about 70% of the total genome size in 63 Chironomus species, were used as markers to analyze divergence patterns of the linear genome structure during the evolution. (deepdyve.com)
  • With the development and diverse adaptations of the chromosome conformation capture technique (3C), it has become possible to discover many organizational units of the chromatin fiber at the sub-chromosomal and chromosomal scale. (labroots.com)
  • To rectify this deficiency, we propose to develop a new technique that will allow isolation of specific chromosomal fragments and testing of their structure. (grantome.com)
  • These tiny structures are found inside the cell nucleus and consist of DNA and proteins. (brighthub.com)
  • However, the analogy with protein structure should not be carried too far, because the three-dimensional structure of the chromosome appears to be dynamic in its organization and its structural fluctuations may go beyond the kinds of statistical perturbations expected in proteins. (springer.com)
  • Chromosomes consist of two kinds of molecules, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strands and proteins. (chemistryexplained.com)
  • Some of the noncoding DNA (DNA that does not code for proteins) is found in special structures at the ends of the chromosomes called telomeres. (chemistryexplained.com)
  • Proteins help to compact DNA: this is important because the DNA in a chromosome could not fit inside its cell if it were not compacted. (chemistryexplained.com)
  • Nonhistone proteins within chromosomes are also important. (chemistryexplained.com)
  • The DNA in prokaryotic chromosomes forms complexes with histone like proteins that help to compact the DNA, link it to the cell membrane, and localize it in the nucleoid region of the cell. (chemistryexplained.com)
  • Combined, these results reveal the contributions of major evolutionarily conserved proteins in a bacterial chromosome organization. (pasteur.fr)
  • Proteins , however, are composed of twenty different amino acids in various combinations, and proteins vary significantly in their three-dimensional structure. (biologyreference.com)
  • SMC proteins represent a large family of ATPases that participate in many aspects of higher-order chromosome organization and dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dual problem of how to store this large amount of genetic information but also to keep it accessible for use and for faithful maintenance, copying, and distribution to daughter cells during cell division , is solved by using proteins to package the DNA into chromosomes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chromosome condensation is mediated by the condensin complex, among other proteins, and is necessary to prevent chromosomes from being entangled during chromosome segregation. (nature.com)
  • A chromosome is a string of DNA wrapped around associated proteins that give the connected nucleic acid bases a structure. (biologydictionary.net)
  • During interphase of the cell cycle , the chromosome exists in a loose structure, so proteins can be translated from the DNA and the DNA can be replicated. (biologydictionary.net)
  • The substance consisting of all the chromosomes in a cell and all their associated proteins is known as chromatin . (biologydictionary.net)
  • The chromosome holds not only the genetic code, but many of the proteins responsible for helping express it. (biologydictionary.net)
  • During cell division , all the proteins are activated and the chromatin becomes densely packed into distinct chromosomes. (biologydictionary.net)
  • Prokaryotic DNA is so simple that relatively few structural proteins are associated with the chromosome. (biologydictionary.net)
  • The next type of protein, scaffold proteins, start to wind the fiber into a loose structure. (biologydictionary.net)
  • When the chromosome must condense during cell division, more scaffold proteins are activated, and the structure becomes much denser. (biologydictionary.net)
  • Today we know that a chromosome contains a single molecule of DNA along with several kinds of proteins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The RBMY1 proteins are encoded by repeated regions of the Y chromosome, mostly within the AZFb region. (uniprot.org)
  • The DNA molecule is packaged into thread like structures called the chromosomes in the nucleus of each cell, Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around the proteins called the histones that support its structure. (online-sciences.com)
  • A broader definition of "chromosome" also includes the DNA-bound proteins which serve to package and manage the DNA. (wikiversity.org)
  • In eukaryotes nuclear chromosomes are packaged by proteins (particularly histones) into chromatin to fit the massive molecules into the nucleus. (wikiversity.org)
  • In the nuclear chromosomes of eukaryotes, the uncondensed DNA exists in a semi-ordered structure, where it is wrapped around histones (structural proteins), forming a composite material called chromatin. (wikiversity.org)
  • By leveraging the increased sensitivity afforded by long single DNA molecule optical mapping on nanochannel arrays, coupled with 10XGenomics whole-genome sequencing, and CRISPR-Cas9 labeling, this thesis reveals the previously unmapped structure and variation of the chromosome 22 LCRs and surrounding regions. (drexel.edu)
  • Does each chromosome in a human cell contain one complete DNA molecule, so that there are 46 separate DNA molecules, one for each chromosome? (biology-online.org)
  • Or does a single DNA molecule continue as an extended filament, running in and out of one chromosome, then proceeding to the next--eventually threading its way through all 46 chromosomes? (biology-online.org)
  • The joining by hydrogen bonds qualifies the structure as a single molecule. (biology-online.org)
  • This webinar shows how OligoSTORM and single molecule localization microscopy can be used to visualize in situ chromosome structure. (bruker.com)
  • DNA molecule of human chromosome 1 is therefore 8.5 cm long. (coursehero.com)
  • This molecule is packaged in chromosome that is about 10 μ m long. (coursehero.com)
  • [14] [15] To make such a unique structure, an SMC protomer is self-folded through anti-parallel coiled-coil interactions, forming a rod-shaped molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single molecule of DNA spools around histone protein cores forming bead like structures called nucleosomes. (labmedicineblog.com)
  • Each chromosome contains one DNA molecule. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A single molecule of DNA within a chromosome may be as long as 8.5 centimeters (3.3 inches). (encyclopedia.com)
  • To fit within a chromosome, the DNA molecule has to be twisted and folded into a very complex shape. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Once such methods have been developed, we will work to purify and isolate specific chromatin fragments from a model organism, and isolate them within a single-molecule device that measures biomolecular elasticity- elasticity is a direct and quantitative probe of structure. (grantome.com)
  • In prokaryotes, a small circular DNA molecule may be called either a plasmid or a small chromosome. (wikiversity.org)
  • RNs are proteinaceous, multicomponent, ellipsoids ∼100 nm in diameter that are found in the central region of synaptonemal complexes (SCs) between homologous chromosomes (bivalents) at pachytene ( Z ickler and K leckner 1999 ). (genetics.org)
  • Accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis requires that homologous chromosomes pair and become physically connected so that they can orient properly on the meiosis I spindle. (uva.nl)
  • When 3 or more pairs of non-homologous chromosomes are involved in translocation, it is called a complex translocation, complex interchange or multiple translocation. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) demonstrates the high level of overall similarity between A and B chromosomes of rye, as well as the presence of a number of specific sequences. (springer.com)
  • The B chromosomes analysed in our study lack detectable rDNA sequences. (springer.com)
  • 1993) Identification of the E3900 family, a second family of rye B-chromosome specific repeated sequences. (springer.com)
  • Cuadrado A, Jouve N (1994) Highly repetitive sequences in B-chromosomes of Secale cereale revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. (springer.com)
  • Kota RS, Gill BS, Hulbert SH (1994) Presence of rye-specific repeated DNA sequences on the midget chromosome of rye. (springer.com)
  • In twenty articles, scientists from around the world deal with various aspects of repetitive sequences in chromosomes, telomeric sequences and their maintenance by telomerase, chromatin structure and gene activation, centromeric complexity in holocentric chromosomes, translocation frequencies in X and Y chromosomes and evolution of DNA repair mechanism. (waterstones.com)
  • Two W-chromosome-specific repetitive DNA sequences, XhoI family and EcoRI family, are major constituents of the W heterochromatin, but nature of the Z-terminal heterochromatin is unknown. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 3) Except for the above two repetitive families, W chromosome-specific DNA sequences are unknown. (nii.ac.jp)
  • [1] One way simply measures the amount of the different DNA sequences along the length of the chromosome per cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In either case, we can measure the amount of the different DNA sequences along the length of the chromosome either directly using a machine that reads how much of each sequence is present or indirectly using a process called microarray hybridization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Centromeres are regions of chromosomes that direct formation of the kinetochore and its subsequent attachment to the spindle, enabling the faithful segregation of the genetic material during cell division. (asm.org)
  • The large size of regional centromeres may be important for the additional functions that have been attributed to centromeres of higher eukaryotes, including chromosome adhesion in achiasmate disjunction ( 32 ), as well as providing domains of specialized chromatin structure (heterochromatin) in which euchromatic gene transcription and recombination are both repressed. (asm.org)
  • Whether this is a 'free' sorting or is ordinated by the incident centromeres of the chromosome system is, of course, not known, but either way presents a far more reasonable means of working than the Maxwellian demon having to capture atoms of 'unknown' mass and velocity and effect their separation. (quantumlifescience.org)
  • It involves creating thousands of molecular measurements of chromosomes in single cells, using the latest DNA sequencing technology. (redorbit.com)
  • Blunden R (1994) Molecular analysis of the rye B-chromosome. (springer.com)
  • Francki MG, Langridge P (1994) The molecular identification of the midget chromosome from the rye genome. (springer.com)
  • Murata M, Nakata N, Yasamuro Y (1992) Origin and molecular structure of a midget chromosome in a common wheat carrying rye cytoplasm. (springer.com)
  • B chromosomes were recently identified in a laboratory stock of Drosophila melanogaster -an established model organism with a wealth of genetic and genomic resources-enabling us to subject them to extensive molecular analysis. (genetics.org)
  • Our molecular characterization of D. melanogaster B chromosomes is the first step toward understanding how supernumerary chromosomes arise from essential chromosomes and what may be necessary for their stable inheritance. (genetics.org)
  • Mitotic chromosome assembly, although poorly understood at the molecular level ( Piskadlo and Oliveira, 2016 ), fulfils three major tasks essential for faithful chromosome segregation: First, it ensures chromosome compaction making cell division feasible within the cell space. (elifesciences.org)
  • 2) Although about 20 phenotypes are mapped to the Z chromosome, molecular-level information has not been available. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Thus, the extended kinetochores characteristic of C . elegans holocentric chromosomes provide a guide to the structure, molecular architecture, and function of conventional kinetochores. (rupress.org)
  • This talk will discuss recent research understanding chromosome structure at the molecular scale, and its relation to cell function. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • I will show how coarse-grained molecular simulations informed by these experimental data can provide models of chromosome structure covering the whole genome. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • DNA in the nucleus of a living cell does not take on a random conformation but adopts canonical structures that have been ascertained with increasing precision and scale via fluoresence in situ hybridization, DamID, chromosome conformation capture and related assays. (washington.edu)
  • The introduction of the chromosome conformation capture (3C) based techniques has risen the development of construct the 3D structure of chromosome model. (umsystem.edu)
  • Rice chromosome 1 is (G + C)-rich, especially in its coding regions, and is characterized by several gene families that are dispersed or arranged in tandem repeats. (nih.gov)
  • We have coordinated a large collaborative study to test hypotheses for the origins of modern European populations from a Y chromosome perspective (9, 10), interpreting patterns of diversity in terms of both the impact of the arrival of agriculture in Europe, and of linguistic and geographical barriers to gene flow. (le.ac.uk)
  • We mapped the MmLATS2 gene to mouse chromosome 14 by interspecific backcross analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Gene for parathyroid hormone-like peptide is on mouse chromosome 6. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mouse sex chromosomes are enriched for co-amplified gene families, present in tens to hundreds of copies. (g3journal.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that the co-amplified gene family on the X chromosome, Srsx , along with two additional partial gene annotations, is actually part of a larger transcription unit, which we name Laidx . (g3journal.org)
  • Although highly incomplete, such structure can be used in many cases, e.g., to reconstruct phylogeny and evolutionary events, to identify gene synteny, regulatory elements and promoters (considering highly conserved elements), etc. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two structures have equal gene content if they have no paralogs and contain the same set of names. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biology 1201 - Eucaryotic Gene Regulation Genome Structure. (coursehero.com)
  • We demonstrated by cDNA cloning and FISH that ZOV3 (a gene belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily) and IREBP (chicken homolog of iron responsive element binding protein) were localized on different arms of the Z chromosome. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The mouse thymosin beta 4 gene: structure, promoter identification, and chromosome localization. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Our analyses highlight the important interplay between chromosome organization and disease, and further demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing topological information to predict pathogenic gene-dosage effects. (labroots.com)
  • In these study the course of meiosis in diploid wheat/rye AmAmRR amphiploids lacked of wheat Ph1 pairing suppressing gene and carrying the different dose of 5Rs chromosome arm were studied. (jbsdonline.com)
  • Admixture estimates suggested low levels of European Y-chromosome gene flow into Ashkenazi and Roman Jewish communities. (pnas.org)
  • Depending on how densely packed the chromosome is at certain point determines how often a gene gets expressed. (biologydictionary.net)
  • But what are the causes of gene and chromosome mutations? (brighthub.com)
  • A Historical Perspective on the Study of Chromosome Structure and Function R. Appels Division of Plant Industry CSIRO P.O. Box 1600 A.C.T. AUSTRALIA 'Modern physical science gives us no model to explain the re- duplication of the gene-string in each cell generation, or to ex- plain the producti. (mpg.de)
  • The terms chromosome and gene were used long before biologists really understood what these structures were. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Watson and Crick discovery made it possible to express biological concepts (such as the gene) and structures (such as the chromosome) in concrete chemical terms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Since telomeres of tumor cells and ageing tissues are often reduced in length, it has been suggested that chromosome end associations may be due to loss of telomeric repeats. (nih.gov)
  • Telomeres protect the ends of the chromosomes from damage and stop them from becoming attached to each other. (brighthub.com)
  • In eukaryotes, or cells with a distinct nucleus, chromosomes are much more complex in structure. (encyclopedia.com)
  • for example mitochondria in most eukaryotes and chloroplasts in plants have their own small chromosome in addition to the nuclear chromosomes. (wikiversity.org)
  • Eukaryotes (cells with nuclei such as plants, yeast, and animals) possess multiple large linear chromosomes contained in the cell's nucleus. (wikiversity.org)
  • In addition most eukaryotes have a small circular mitochondrial genome, and some eukaryotes may have additional small circular or linear cytoplasmic chromosomes. (wikiversity.org)
  • DNA Structure - How is DNA Packed into a Nucleus? (brighthub.com)
  • Understanding chromosome structure in situ is critical in understanding normal as well as pathological functioning of the nucleus. (bruker.com)
  • Recent research suggested that chromosomes have preferred spatial conformations to facilitate necessary long-range interactions and regulations within a nucleus. (umsystem.edu)
  • In eukaryotic cells (cells that package their DNA within a nucleus), chromosomes consist of very long linear double-stranded DNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it is an intriguing cellular mechanism with links to many poorly understood features of the folding of chromosomes inside the cell nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In prokaryotes, or cells without a nucleus, the chromosome is merely a circle of DNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chromatin is the complex of DNA and protein found in the eukaryotic nucleus which packages chromosomes. (wikiversity.org)
  • Individual chromosomes cannot be distinguished at this stage - they appear in the nucleus as a homogeneous tangled mix of DNA and protein. (wikiversity.org)
  • In spite of their appearance, chromosomes are structurally highly condensed which enables these giant DNA structures to be contained within a cell nucleus (Fig. 2). (wikiversity.org)
  • A chromosome disorder can be caused by an alteration in the number of chromosomes in a cell's nucleus or by an alteration in the structure of a chromosome. (wisegeek.com)
  • Gametes generated in diploid organisms by meiosis and gametogenesis also contain the haploid number of chromosomes. (springer.com)
  • These connections are formed by homologous recombination closely integrated with the development of meiosis-specific, higher-order chromosome structures. (uva.nl)
  • The yeast Pch2 protein has emerged as an important factor with roles in both recombination and chromosome structure formation, but recent analysis suggested that TRIP13, the mouse Pch2 ortholog, is not required for the same processes. (uva.nl)
  • We will also bring communities who do not mix frequently, those who study bacterial chromosomes, yeast and fungi with those who study invertebrates up to human and mouse cells and organisms. (epigenie.com)
  • show by Hi-C and modelling that mitotic chromosome compaction in budding yeast occurs by cis -looping of chromatin, and reveal distinct roles for cohesin and condensin depending on chromatin context. (nature.com)
  • In yeast, mitotic chromosome condensation is achieved by cis -chromatin looping, a process in which cohesin and condensin have distinct roles. (nature.com)
  • We addressed both limitations by designing and engineering 144 kb of a yeast chromosome with regularly spaced restriction sites (Syn-HiC design). (pasteur.fr)
  • Related observations indicate that differences in mitotic and meiotic chromosomes may affect the relative cytological distance between markers in plants as well ( S tack 1984 ). (genetics.org)
  • Using electron microscopy, we identified a structure on the holocentric mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of Caenorhabditis elegans that resembles the mammalian kinetochore. (rupress.org)
  • We constructed a W chromosome-specific genomic library by applying laser microdissection and random PCR amplification. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The vast majority of cells in an organism have finished dividing and their chromosomes don't look anything like the X-shape. (redorbit.com)
  • The number of chromosomes in each cell of an organism is generally fixed and ranges from one in bacteria to hundreds in some plants and animals. (springer.com)
  • Any organism with complete sets of chromosomes that exceed two is a polyploid. (springer.com)
  • THE growth, development, and reproduction of an organism relies on genetic material that is organized into chromosomes. (genetics.org)
  • Each chromosome carries part of the genetic code necessary to produce an organism . (biologydictionary.net)
  • The details of the structure of specific fragments of native chromosomes are not well known in any organism, mainly because of a lack of techniques available to study the structure of specific parts of the genome. (grantome.com)
  • Metaphase or early anaphase is the best condition to observe the shape of the chromosome in an organism cell. (golifescience.com)
  • In viruses, the DNA molecules present in mitochondria and chloroplasts are commonly referred to as chromosomes, despite being naked molecules, as they constitute the complete genome of the organism or organelle. (wikiversity.org)
  • A translocation occurs when a piece of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Changes in the structure of chromosomes - by either deletion, inversion, translocation or duplication - can cause chromosome disorders such as fragile X or a condition called cri du chat . (wisegeek.com)
  • Unfortunately, these same characteristics make the LCRs difficult to reliably sequence and identify rearrangement breakpoints within the homologous chromosome 22 LCRs in individuals with 22q11DS. (drexel.edu)
  • In this regard, Drosophila melanogaster has the best integration of cytological (chromosome), genetic (recombination), and physical (DNA sequence) aspects of the genome, but this integration is based on somatic polytene chromosomes ( http://fly base.bio.indiana.edu/ ), not on meiotic chromosomes where crossing over actually occurs. (genetics.org)
  • Here we report the essentially complete sequence of chromosome 1, the longest chromosome in the rice genome. (nih.gov)
  • We summarize characteristics of the chromosome structure and the biological insight gained from the sequence. (nih.gov)
  • Although these B chromosomes carry no known euchromatic sequence, they are rich in transposable elements and long arrays of short nucleotide repeats, the most abundant being the uncharacterized AAGAT satellite repeat. (genetics.org)
  • To name only a few applications, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) electrophoresis is used to map the order of restriction fragments within chromosomes , to analyze DNA variation within a population by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), and to determine the nucleotide sequence of a piece of DNA. (biologyreference.com)
  • There is so much more to learn (more than I could possibly put into one blog post), because the way chromosomes behave, depends on their structure and DNA sequence. (labmedicineblog.com)
  • Let's take a DNA sequence and see just how it makes up a chromosome. (labmedicineblog.com)
  • Grey data points each represent a different DNA sequence position along the length of chromosome 2 as indicated on the x axis, with more positive values on the y-axis indicating earlier replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metagenomic sequence data boosts the power of protein modeling software to yield hundreds of new protein structure predictions. (the-scientist.com)
  • Computational analysis revealed in total about 45% of V. faba mtDNA sequence being homologous to the Medicago truncatula nuclear genome (more than to any sequenced plant mitochondrial genome), and 35% of this homology ranging from a few dozen to 12,806 bp are located on chromosome 1. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chromosomes are thread-shaped structures that are found in cells of living organisms and that contain DNA , a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for those organisms. (wisegeek.com)
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been used to analyse the structure of the rye B chromosome. (springer.com)
  • We tested our predictions for chromosome 9 using seven genetically mapped, single-copy markers that were independently mapped on pachytene chromosomes using in situ hybridization. (genetics.org)
  • Fluorescent in situ hybridization on metaphase chromosome spreads revealed this repeat is located on chromosome 4 , strongly suggesting the origin of the B chromosomes is chromosome 4 . (genetics.org)
  • Localization of the murine methylmalonyl CoA mutase (Mut) locus on chromosome 17 by in situ hybridiz. (biomedsearch.com)
  • FISH, an acronym for Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization, is a method used to detect and visualize protein, RNA, and DNA structures in the cell. (labmedicineblog.com)
  • occur when a chromosome breaks and some genetic material is lost. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Genetic material may or may not be lost as a result of the chromosome breaks. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These structures are unstable and often involve a loss of some genetic material. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In many cases, genetic material near the ends of the chromosome is lost. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your Genome from the Wellcome Genome Campus discusses chromosome disorders , including types of structural abnormalities in chromosomes that are involved in genetic diseases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Here we use cytological maps of crossing over based on recombination nodules (RNs) to predict the physical position of genetic markers on each of the 10 chromosomes of maize. (genetics.org)
  • MSY1 has very many alleles (useful in population genetic, forensic [3 - 5], and genealogical studies), and the structures of these suggest the action of remarkable and novel mutation processes in the evolution of the locus (6). (le.ac.uk)
  • 2010) Genetic Make up and Structure of Colombian Populations by Means of Uniparental and Biparental DNA Markers. (scirp.org)
  • Our results demonstrate that geography played an important role in shaping the genetic structure of the region around the Near-East. (blogspot.com)
  • Comparisons of the physical map with consensus genetic linkage map revealed that ≈20% of chromosome 5B recombination occurs in this region. (pnas.org)
  • Genetic engineering techniques allow scientists to cut and paste DNA fragments from one source to another to produce recombinant chromosomes and transgenic organisms. (chemistryexplained.com)
  • Bacterial genetic information is generally carried on a circular chromosome with a single origin of replication from which two replication forks proceed bidirectionally toward the opposite terminus region. (pasteur.fr)
  • The genetic determination of the control of chromosome pairing in rye (Secale cereale L.) which tolerates with difficulty inbreeding and chromosome abnormalities is much more difficult to analyse than in common wheat. (jbsdonline.com)
  • Some approaches in the study of rye genetic factors controlling chromosome pairing focused on analysis of wheat - rye poliploid structures of various chromosome composition. (jbsdonline.com)
  • Having the entire genetic code divided into different chromosomes allows the possibility of variation through the different combinations of chromosomes with the different alleles , or genetic variations that they contain. (biologydictionary.net)
  • A chromosome is a structure that occurs within cells and that contains the cell's genetic material. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is the outer most covering of the chromosome, formed of non-genetic material. (golifescience.com)
  • By William Doyle Two hundred and twenty surveys probably this genome structure and function from chromosomes characterization to, 5 September 1793, consolidated the holistic contact of the Terror in the genetic diploid. (calzaretta.com)
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  • Date presented, up to 8 megabases of human chromosome 19, will show that in addition to regional compartments, there are suggestions that there may be differential organization of chromosomes in maternal and paternal homologues. (bruker.com)
  • Bacterial Genome Organization Single circular chromosome Naked DNA No Introns Located in the cytoplasm Plasmids Do the differences in organization lead to functional differences? (coursehero.com)
  • Bacterial chromosomes change organization and structure during the cell cycle, for reasons as yet unclear. (asmscience.org)
  • Mitotic chromosome assembly remains a big mystery in biology. (elifesciences.org)
  • Use our well-prepared online learning materials to revise ICSE Class 10 Biology - Structure of Chromosomes - Cell Cycle and Cell Division. (topperlearning.com)
  • The time is ripe for the organisation of a dedicated scientific meeting to bring scientists investigating various aspects of chromosome biology, imaging, evolution, development and diseases together with physico-chemists and physicists interested in macromolecules and their assembly. (epigenie.com)
  • One of the greatest breakthroughs in the history of biology occurred in 1953 when American biologist James Watson (1928 - ) and English chemist Francis Crick (1916 - ) discovered the chemical structure of a class of compounds known as deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Using acute inactivation approaches and live-cell imaging in Drosophila embryos, we dissect the role of condensin I in the maintenance of mitotic chromosome structure with unprecedented temporal resolution. (elifesciences.org)
  • We isolated the B chromosomes by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and determined their composition through next-generation sequencing. (genetics.org)
  • EuroGentest offers fact sheets about chromosome changes and chromosome translocations . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Now David Magnan and David Bates of Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, show in Escherichia coli that programmed changes in chromosome structure may regulate initiation of DNA replication. (asmscience.org)
  • More significantly, this research may lead to better understanding of bacterial cell cycle control, which is a black box, as well as eukaryotic replication initiation, which is also sensitive to changes in chromosome structure. (asmscience.org)
  • A few species, however, naturally have only one set of chromosomes, and they are called haploid or monoploid (1n). (springer.com)
  • It is an unusual segment of the human genome since, apart from two small regions in which pairing and exchange take place with the X chromosome, it is male-specific and haploid, and escapes from recombination. (le.ac.uk)
  • Sex chromosomes, especially non-recombining regions of the Y chromosome, are subject to different evolutionary forces compared with autosomes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Based on their previous observations, they posited that structural differences before and after initiation of replication changed chromosome supercoiling. (asmscience.org)
  • The following point highlight the five main types of structural variation in chromosomes. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • My Photography At what genome structure and function from participate the structural research licenses learning? (calzaretta.com)
  • These studies demonstrate that the diversity and complexity of supernumerary B chromosomes has been underestimated, and a better understanding of their origin and composition is necessary. (genetics.org)
  • Researchers working at the National Institute for Physiological Sciences (NIPS) and Saitama University have discovered that the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus shows eukaryotic condensed chromosome-like DNA compaction prior to cell division , and were able to reveal details of the transiently formed structure. (phys.org)
  • This wrapped structure, called 'beads on a string,' represents the first level of compaction. (chemistryexplained.com)
  • Removal of condensin I from pre-established chromosomes results in rapid disassembly of centromeric regions while most chromatin mass undergoes hyper-compaction. (elifesciences.org)
  • Eukaryotic cells, including human cells, form paired condensed chromosomes before cell division. (phys.org)
  • The researchers show that the structure is similar to the condensed chromosomes in eukaryotic cells . (phys.org)
  • Typically eukaryotic cells have large linear chromosomes and prokaryotic cells smaller circular chromosomes, although there are many exceptions to this rule. (wikiversity.org)
  • Anton Goloborodko: Theoretical models of chromosome structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Models of evolution of the genome structure and HCEs initially faced considerable algorithmic challenges, which gave rise to (often unnatural) constraints on these models, even for conceptually simple tasks such as the calculation of distance between two structures or the identification of UCEs. (mdpi.com)
  • These approaches have led us to an unexpected result: for some organelles and taxa, the genome structure and HCE set, despite themselves containing relatively little information, still adequately resolve the evolution of species. (mdpi.com)
  • 2. Genome Structure and Chromosome. (nhbs.com)
  • The session will include abstracts that describe methods for building computational models of physical phenomena as well as methods for relating genome structure and function. (washington.edu)
  • Firearms - Favorites, Collectibles, Rare examples plus information and for sale items A genome structure and function from chromosomes across to Merchant 1948 exists found to look you significant. (calzaretta.com)
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  • The chromosomes of this species that are of particular interest, are those found in the salivary glands of larvae. (ndsu.edu)
  • The number of chromosomes carried by an individual species is one of its defining characteristics. (genetics.org)
  • Some species, however, can also carry supernumerary chromosomes referred to as B chromosomes. (genetics.org)
  • The chromosome complement carried by all members of a species is composed of essential chromosomes referred to as the A chromosomes. (genetics.org)
  • A subset of individuals within a species may also possess extra chromosomes that are nonessential and not members of the standard A chromosome set. (genetics.org)
  • The number of chromosomes contributes to the determination of the taxonomic position of a plant or animal species. (golifescience.com)
  • The chromosome number differs from species and it may range from two to several hundred. (golifescience.com)
  • DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid makes the base of the structure, as seen on the far left. (biologydictionary.net)