In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.
The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, elements such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, that are required for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance in progeny cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
A characteristic symptom complex.
The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.
Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Congenital conditions of atypical sexual development associated with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions including MONOSOMY; TRISOMY; and MOSAICISM.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.

A functional relationship between NuMA and kid is involved in both spindle organization and chromosome alignment in vertebrate cells. (1/79)

We examined spindle morphology and chromosome alignment in vertebrate cells after simultaneous perturbation of the chromokinesin Kid and either NuMA, CENP-E, or HSET. Spindle morphology and chromosome alignment after simultaneous perturbation of Kid and either HSET or CENP-E were no different from when either HSET or CENP-E was perturbed alone. However, short bipolar spindles with organized poles formed after perturbation of both Kid and NuMA in stark contrast to splayed spindle poles observed after perturbation of NuMA alone. Spindles were disorganized if Kid, NuMA, and HSET were perturbed, indicating that HSET is sufficient for spindle organization in the absence of Kid and NuMA function. In addition, chromosomes failed to align efficiently at the spindle equator after simultaneous perturbation of Kid and NuMA despite appropriate kinetochore-microtubule interactions that generated chromosome movement at normal velocities. These data indicate that a functional relationship between the chromokinesin Kid and the spindle pole organizing protein NuMA influences spindle morphology, and we propose that this occurs because NuMA forms functional linkages between kinetochore and nonkinetochore microtubules at spindle poles. In addition, these data show that both Kid and NuMA contribute to chromosome alignment in mammalian cells.  (+info)

The chromokinesin, KLP3A, dives mitotic spindle pole separation during prometaphase and anaphase and facilitates chromatid motility. (2/79)

Mitosis requires the concerted activities of multiple microtubule (MT)-based motor proteins. Here we examined the contribution of the chromokinesin, KLP3A, to mitotic spindle morphogenesis and chromosome movements in Drosophila embryos and cultured S2 cells. By immunofluorescence, KLP3A associates with nonfibrous punctae that concentrate in nuclei and display MT-dependent associations with spindles. These punctae concentrate in indistinct domains associated with chromosomes and central spindles and form distinct bands associated with telophase midbodies. The functional disruption of KLP3A by antibodies or dominant negative proteins in embryos, or by RNA interference (RNAi) in S2 cells, does not block mitosis but produces defects in mitotic spindles. Time-lapse confocal observations of mitosis in living embryos reveal that KLP3A inhibition disrupts the organization of interpolar (ip) MTs and produces short spindles. Kinetic analysis suggests that KLP3A contributes to spindle pole separation during the prometaphase-to-metaphase transition (when it antagonizes Ncd) and anaphase B, to normal rates of chromatid motility during anaphase A, and to the proper spacing of daughter nuclei during telophase. We propose that KLP3A acts on MTs associated with chromosome arms and the central spindle to organize ipMT bundles, to drive spindle pole separation and to facilitate chromatid motility.  (+info)

Assembly of the SpoIIIE DNA translocase depends on chromosome trapping in Bacillus subtilis. (3/79)

Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is an attractive system in which to study the translocation of a chromosome across a membrane. Sporulating cells contain two sister chromosomes that are condensed in an elongated axial filament with the origins of replication anchored at opposite poles of the sporangium. The subsequent formation of a septum near one pole divides the sporangium unequally into a forespore (the smaller compartment) and a mother cell. The septum forms around the filament, trapping the origin-proximal region of one chromosome in the forespore. As a consequence, the trapped chromosome transverses the septum with the remainder being left in the mother cell. Next, SpoIIIE assembles at the middle of the septum to create a translocase that pumps the origin-distal, two-thirds of the chromosome into the forespore. Here, we address the question of how the DNA translocase assembles and how it localizes to the septal midpoint. We present evidence that DNA transversing the septum is an anchor that nucleates the formation of the DNA translocase. We propose that DNA anchoring is responsible for the assembly of other SpoIIIE-like DNA translocases, such as those that remove trapped chromosomes from the division septum of cells undergoing binary fission.  (+info)

migS, a cis-acting site that affects bipolar positioning of oriC on the Escherichia coli chromosome. (4/79)

During replication of the Escherichia coli chromosome, the replicated Ori domains migrate towards opposite cell poles, suggesting that a cis-acting site for bipolar migration is located in this region. To identify this cis-acting site, a series of mutants was constructed by splitting subchromosomes from the original chromosome. One mutant, containing a 720 kb subchromosome, was found to be defective in the bipolar positioning of oriC. The creation of deletion mutants allowed the identification of migS, a 25 bp sequence, as the cis-acting site for the bipolar positioning of oriC. When migS was located at the replication terminus, the chromosomal segment showed bipolar positioning. migS was able to rescue bipolar migration of plasmid DNA containing a mutation in the SopABC partitioning system. Interestingly, multiple copies of the migS sequence on a plasmid in trans inhibited the bipolar positioning of oriC. Taken together, these findings indicate that migS plays a crucial role in the bipolar positioning of oriC. In addition, real-time analysis of the dynamic morphological changes of nucleoids in wild-type and migS mutants suggests that bipolar positioning of the replicated oriC contributes to nucleoid organization.  (+info)

Spatial positioning; a new dimension in genome function. (5/79)

The eukaryotic cell nucleus is a heterogeneous organelle. Chromosomes are nonrandomly positioned within the nuclear space, and individual gene loci experience distinct local environments due to the presence of chromatin domains and subnuclear compartments. Recent observations have highlighted the important yet still largely mysterious role of spatial positioning in genome activity and stability.  (+info)

Alteration of chromosome positioning during adipocyte differentiation. (6/79)

Chromosomes are highly restricted to specific chromosome territories within the interphase nucleus. The arrangement of chromosome territories is non-random, exhibiting a defined radial distribution as well as a preferential association with specific nuclear compartments, which indicates a functional role for chromosome-territory organization in the regulation of gene expression. In this report, we focus on changes in adipocyte differentiation that are related to a specific chromosomal translocation associated with liposarcoma tumorigenesis, t(12;16). We have examined the relative and radial positioning of the chromosome territories of human chromosomes 12 and 16 during adipocyte differentiation, and detected a close association between the territories of chromosomes 12 and 16 in differentiated adipocytes, an association not observed in preadipocytes. Although further studies are required to elucidate the underlying reasons for the adipocyte-specific translocation of chromosomes 12 and 16, our observations indicate that alteration of relative chromosome positioning might play a key role in the tumorigenesis of human liposarcomas. In addition, these results demonstrate the potential impact of higher order chromatin organization on the epigenetic mechanisms that control gene expression and gene silencing during cell differentiation.  (+info)

A non-random walk through the genome. (7/79)

Recent publications on a wide range of eukaryotes indicate that genes showing particular expression patterns are not randomly distributed in the genome but are clustered into contiguous regions that we call neighborhoods. It seems probable that this organization is related to chromatin and the structure of the nucleus.  (+info)

Interchromosomal associations between alternatively expressed loci. (8/79)

The T-helper-cell 1 and 2 (T(H)1 and T(H)2) pathways, defined by cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4), respectively, comprise two alternative CD4+ T-cell fates, with functional consequences for the host immune system. These cytokine genes are encoded on different chromosomes. The recently described T(H)2 locus control region (LCR) coordinately regulates the T(H)2 cytokine genes by participating in a complex between the LCR and promoters of the cytokine genes Il4, Il5 and Il13. Although they are spread over 120 kilobases, these elements are closely juxtaposed in the nucleus in a poised chromatin conformation. In addition to these intrachromosomal interactions, we now describe interchromosomal interactions between the promoter region of the IFN-gamma gene on chromosome 10 and the regulatory regions of the T(H)2 cytokine locus on chromosome 11. DNase I hypersensitive sites that comprise the T(H)2 LCR developmentally regulate these interchromosomal interactions. Furthermore, there seems to be a cell-type-specific dynamic interaction between interacting chromatin partners whereby interchromosomal interactions are apparently lost in favour of intrachromosomal ones upon gene activation. Thus, we provide an example of eukaryotic genes located on separate chromosomes associating physically in the nucleus via interactions that may have a function in coordinating gene expression.  (+info)

Oracle Health Sciences Omics Data Bank - Version 3.0.1 and laterUnable to Extract Variant into VCF File for a Specific Chromosome Position
Standard glaucoma surgeries, trabeculectomy and external tube-shunts are major and sometimes necessary surgeries. While they are very often effective at lowering eye pressure and preventing progression of glaucoma, they have a long list of potential complications. Many patients require these procedures and they have been utilized successfully for many years for preventing further vision loss and progression of glaucoma. More recently, the MIGS group of operations have been developed to reduce some of the risk associated with traditional glaucoma surgeries. MIGS procedures work by using microscopic-sized equipment or implants, lasers and tiny incisions. While they reduce the incidence of complications, some degree of effectiveness is also traded for the increased safety.. Many of the MIGS group of operations are new innovations and some have been mainstays of treatment for some time like ECP. At Glaucoma Center of Michigan, we are constantly striving to learn the latest developments and most ...
Because of the difficulty of managing the postoperative complications of conventional trabeculectomy, microinvasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) is getting more popular in glaucoma care. Today, there are many MIGS devices available worldwide.. This MasterClass will focus on how to achieve satisfactory surgical outcomes, how to incorporate MIGS in your glaucoma management ladder, case selection, complication prevention, and tips and tricks for success.. Course of Faculty:. ...
Microinvasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) procedures represent less-invasive alternatives to traditional surgery for those who suffer from glaucoma. Drs. Walt Whitley and Andy Morgenstern discuss the role of the optometrist in the shared care of MIGS patients. Andy explains why ODs are an integral part of these procedures. Walt agrees that shared care is essential but highlights some potential coding and billing issues that ODs should first understand.
No significant learning curve effects were observed for a trained surgeon with respect to MIGS microstent insertion performed at the time of cataract surgery. Adjunctive MIGS surgery was successful in lowering IOP to |18 mm Hg and reducing/abolishing the requirement for antiglaucoma medication in …
Third, improving AHO in regions initially devoid of AHO expands on initial surgical approaches to MIGS. Trabecular MIGS are typically placed in the nasal angle through a temporal clear cornea direction2,3 for several reasons. Ophthalmologists are accustomed to this approach because of phacoemulsification. Second, reports, including results here, suggest that AHO is normally best nasal.28 Therefore, nasal MIGS placement was conducted to attempt access of these AHO pathways. However, if AHO is already adequate in a particular region, it is possible that trabecular bypass to enhance AHO in that region may limit further improvement due to a ceiling effect. Alternatively, another approach is to place trabecular MIGS where AHO is initially poor in an attempt to recruit these regions from a worse starting point. However, a counterargument to conducting MIGS in this way is that maybe the reason why AHO was diminished in the first place was that the local region never had adequate outflow channels to ...
In this webinar, Drs. Hady Saheb, Arsham Sheybani, Davinder Grover review the different MIGS categories, discuss an algorithm that guides decision making for co
Traditional operations, while effective at lowering eye pressure, have a long list of potential complications. MIGS procedures have been designed to provide a greater degree of safety, enabling them to be used earlier in glaucoma. These procedures may be combined with cataract surgery to reduce or eliminate the need for glaucoma eye drops ...
While articles and discussions on minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) seem to be everywhere (for better or worse), trabeculectomy will survive, said Kuldev Singh, MD, because of the aging population, the ease of postoperative tit. ...
Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the novel ab-interno MIGS fistula-XEN45 in reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucoma...
Square mode provides a traditional Hi-C display in which chromosome positions are mapped along the top-left-to-bottom-right diagonal, and interaction values are plotted on both sides of that diagonal to form a square. The upper-left corner of the square corresponds to the left-most position of the window in view, while the bottom-right corner corresponds to the right-most position of the window. The color shade at any point within the square shows the proximity score for two genomic regions: the region where a vertical line drawn from that point intersects with the diagonal, and the region where a horizontal line from that point intersects with the diagonal. A point directly on the diagonal shows the score for how proximal a region is to itself (scores on the diagonal are usually quite high unless no data are available). A point at the extreme bottom left of the square shows the score for how proximal the left-most position within the window is to the right-most position within the window. In ...
I also agree that bedgraph is the format that would be more helpful for your interests. you can define start and end chromosome positions, plus a value that usually represents coverage, but that you can use it to represent the methylation b values instead. you can still gzip the file, and IGV will still be able to deal with it. a similar approach (reducing file size to improve data storage and make data access faster) would be to transform that bedgraph file to bigwig format using UCSCs bedGraphToBigWig (find it here), which is an indexed binary format that works great on IGV. plus you can apply colors to this track on IGV depending on thresholds, which is useful to detect high and low peaks for instance.. ...
Devesh Varma, MD, explains how microinvasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) procedures play a role in his practice. He outlines how the Kahook Dual Blade (New World Medical) is used to help patients with different types of glaucoma and provides advice to su…
Over the last decade several novel surgical treatment options and devices for glaucoma have been developed. All these developments aim to cause as little trauma as possible to the eye, to safely, effectively, and sustainably reduce intraocular pressure (IOP), to produce reproducible results, and to be easy to adopt. The term micro-invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) was used for summarizing all these procedures. Currently MIGS is gaining more and more interest and popularity. The possible reduction of the number of glaucoma medications, the ab interno approach without damaging the conjunctival tissue, and the probably safer procedures compared to incisional surgical methods may explain the increased interest in MIGS. The use of glaucoma drainage implants for lowering IOP in difficult-to-treat patients has been established for a long time, however, a variety of new glaucoma micro-stents are being manufactured by using various materials and are available to increase aqueous outflow via different ...
Minimally Invasive Gastrointestinal Surgery (MIGS) Nursing Assignment Help, Online Nursing Writing Service and Homework Help - Minimally Invasive Gastrointestinal Surgery (MIGS) Assignment Help Minimally Invasive Gastrointestinal Surgery (MIGS) treatments are connected with
Steven L Mansberger, MD, MPH, discusses the criteria for when to add MIGS to cataract surgery to treat glaucoma: efficacy, cost, and risk of complications. While MIGS 20% success rates seem small, its important to identify those patients who benefi…
Chromosomes must establish stable biorientation prior to anaphase to achieve faithful segregation during cell division. The detailed process by which chromosomes are bioriented and how biorientation is coordinated with spindle assembly and chromosome congression remain unclear. Here, we provide comp …
While the Government is responsible for setting MBS fees and associated rebates, it cannot compel doctors to observe the MBS fee for a particular service. Medical practitioners are free to set their own value on their services, which may exceed the Medicare rebate and the actual fee is a matter between the patient and their doctor. Practitioners are encouraged to consider the personal circumstances of their patients when determining the fees they charge, and many do so. If a patient is not satisfied with the proposed fee, they can exercise their consumer rights and seek a second opinion if they feel they can secure a better price for a medical service ...
Glaucoma is a disease where the optic nerve gets damaged and the main risk factor is elevated eye pressure (also called intraocular pressure, IOP). The only tre
A single event stood out in everyones mind when Ophthalmology Times asked experts to think back on the year in glaucoma surgery: the July 29 approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the CyPass Micro-Stent.
Complete a 3-minute survey to help CRST understand your practice patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic and be entered for the chance to win one of 10 $50 Amazon gift cards ...
First line treatment for glaucoma is usually in the form of eye drops or laser therapy. When these two options are no longer sufficient or are not suitable,...
The beginning of interphase cytogenetics can be attributed to significant advances in human molecular genetics and cytogenetics. Owing to experimental and theoretical research at the interface between
This is the first-ever integrated analysis of the molecular processes that control genome function in an animal, which has the potential to speed understanding of the molecular processes in human cells.
Dr. Stepanian is an Atlanta-based board-certified gynecologist and award-winning researcher, educator, and specialist in Minimally Invasive Gynecological Surgery (MIGS).
Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) has been a buzzword in glaucoma management for years, offering patients with mild to moderate glaucoma a middle ground between topical drops and filtration surgery. Today, more than 15 different options grace surgical suites across the globe.1 Yet another device, the Miniject (iStar Medical), has hit the clinical trial scene in Europe. The Miniject is a 5mm long device made of porous silicone that improves aqueous outflow to the suprachoroidal space, according to the study.. Researchers in India and Panama recently implanted the device, as a stand-alone procedure, in 25 primary open-angle glaucoma eyes. The average baseline status was IOP of 23.2mm Hg and an average of 2.0±1.1 IOP-lowering medications. During follow-up, the researchers found the device led to a mean drop in IOP of 39.1% six months post-op. Medication use was down as well, to a mean of 0.3±0.7 medications at the six-month follow-up. Of the 24 eyes seen at that visit, 87.5% were ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] Centrosome-associated protein E (CENPE) is a kinesin-like motor protein that accumulates in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Unlike other centrosome-associated proteins, it is not present during interphase and first appears at the centromere region of chromosomes during prometaphase. This protein is required for stable spindle microtubule capture at kinetochores which is a necessary step in chromosome alignment during prometaphase. This protein also couples chromosome position to microtubule depolymerizing activity. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014 ...
Commenting on the milestone, Joe Bankovich, President of Nova Eye Medical, Inc, said: As our new name suggests, we are committed to developing a suite of novel ophthalmic treatment technologies. These technologies will advance clinical outcomes and improve patient quality of life.. At the heart of the Nova Eye Medical business is the Companys proprietary iTrack MIGS procedure for the treatment of mild to moderate glaucoma.. iTrack is a truly atraumatic MIGS. It is able to effectively reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) and medication burden without removing or damaging tissue, both in phakic and pseudophakic patients, said Mr Bankovich.. Victor Previn, Chair of Nova Eye Medical said iTrack is ideal for early glaucoma intervention.. Not only does the iTrack procedure effectively reduce IOP and medication burden, but it does so without precluding future treatment options. MIGS procedures that remove or damage tissue limit future intervention to those treatments which are invasive, such as ...
The nucleus in plants and animals is a highly structured organelle containing several well-defined subregions or suborganelles. These include the nucleolus, interphase chromosome territories and coiled bodies. We have visualized transcription sites in plants at both light- and electron-microscopy level by the incorporation of BrUTP. In the nucleolus many dispersed foci are revealed within the dense fibrillar component, each of which probably corresponds to a single gene copy. In the nucleoplasm there are also many dispersed foci of transcription, but not enough to correspond to one site per transcribed gene. We have shown that in wheat, and probably many other plant species, interphase chromosome territories are organized in a very regular way, with all the chromosomes in the Rabl configuration, all the centromeres clustered at the nuclear membrane and all the telomeres located at the nuclear membrane on the opposite side of the nucleus. However, despite this regular, polarized structure, there is no
Title: Significance of P2X7 Receptor Variants to Human Health and Disease. VOLUME: 5 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Ronald Sluyter and Leanne Stokes. Affiliation:Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia.. Keywords:P2RX7, purinergic receptor, splice isoform, single nucleotide polymorphism, extracellular ATP, patent, ectoenzymes, pro-inflammatory mediators, oligodendrocytes, NALP3 inflammasome, transmembrane domain, macrophages, tuberculosis, mutant receptor displays, T-lymphocytes, dendritic cells, Langerhans cells. Abstract:The human P2X7 receptor is a trimeric ligand-gated cation channel coded by the P2XR7 gene located at chromosome position 12q24. P2X7 is expressed in a wide variety of normal and disease-associated cell types. Activation of this receptor by extracellular adenosine 5-triphosphate results in numerous downstream events including the release of pro-inflammatory mediators, cell proliferation or death, and killing of ...
The spatial arrangement of some genetic elements relative to chromosome territories and in parallel with the cell nucleus was investigated in human lymphocytes. The structure of the chromosome territories was studied in chromosomes containing regions ( clusters) of highly expressed genes (HSA 9, 17) and those without such clusters ( HSA 8, 13). In chromosomes containing highly expressed regions, the elements pertaining to these regions were found close to the centre of the nucleus on the inner sides of chromosome territories; those pertaining to regions with low expression were localized close to the nuclear membrane on the opposite sides of the territories. In chromosomes with generally low expression ( HSA 8, 13), the elements investigated were found symmetrically distributed over the territories. Based on the investigations of the chromosome structure, the following conclusions are suggested: (1) Chromosome territories have a non-random internal 3D structure with defined average mutual ...
MIGS and the ebook( proposed to store backward the approximation energy of the MIGS). differential ebook Perfect Phrases for Medical School Acceptance (Perfect Phrases Series) 2008 spectrum to a same radiation. fluctuations discuss near the ebook Perfect Phrases for Medical School of the meaning relationship.
How is glaucoma treated? Glaucoma eye drops, glaucoma medication, laser treatment, MIGS, shunts & drainage surgery treatment options available in Brisbane.
The NSMC Minimally Invasive Gynecological Surgery (MIGS) program provides screenings and treatment for endometriosis other gynecological conditions.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Interphase chromosome profiling a method for conventional banded chromosome analysis using interphase nuclei. AU - Babu, Ramesh. AU - Van Dyke, Daniel L.. AU - Dev, Vaithilingam G.. AU - Koduru, Prasad. AU - Rao, Nagesh. AU - Mitter, Navnit S.. AU - Liu, Mingya. AU - Fuentes, Ernesto. AU - Fuentes, Sarah. AU - Papa, Stephen. PY - 2018/2/1. Y1 - 2018/2/1. N2 - Context.-Chromosome analysis on bone marrow or peripheral blood samples fails in a small proportion of attempts. A method that is more reliable, with similar or better resolution, would be a welcome addition to the armamentarium of the cytogenetics laboratory. Objective.-To develop a method similar to banded metaphase chromosome analysis that relies only on interphase nuclei. Design.-To label multiple targets in an equidistant fashion along the entire length of each chromosome, including landmark subtelomere and centromere regions. Each label so generated by using cloned bacterial artificial chromosome probes is molecularly ...
GLAUCOMA Should you be targeting collector channels with MIGS? by Liz Hillman Editorial Co-Director Targeting an area with increased pigmentation and blood reflux into Schlemms canal (red line) adjacent to a blue mark on the cornea (black line) that identified a collector channel Source: Paul Harasymowycz, MD With newer stenting devices bypassing the trabecular meshwork or
A report is presented on the advantages of the rapid interphase chromosome assay (RICA) and the difficulties that may be met while implementing this method for application in biological dosimetry. The RICA test can be applied on unstimulated human lymphocytes; this is an advantage in comparison with the dicentric chromosomes or micronucleus tests. In the former two tests, stimulated lymphocytes are examined and hence, 48 h more are needed to obtain cells traversing the cell cycle. Due to the use of unstimulated nondividing cells, higher numbers of cells are available for RICA analysis than for dicentric chromosomes or micronuclei tests. Moreover, the method can be applied after exposure to ionizing radiation doses in excess of 5 Gy. Such doses cause a significant cell cycle delay or result in the loss of G2 phase and mitotic cells because of apoptosis. Therefore, the traditional biodosimetry based on the evaluation of the incidence of damage to chromosomes is very difficult to carry out. This is ...
The three-dimensional (3D) organization of the genome (chromatin) plays an important role in key cellular processes such as DNA replication, repair, transcription [1], and epigenetic inheritance [2]. Links between chromatin architecture and diseases such as cancer are being established [3]. Unlike most proteins that adopt the same unique 3D shapes in all cells, the conformational states of the chromatin fiber are not nearly as compact or ordered and are stochastic to some degree. Remarkably, several features of chromatin folding appear to be universal. Chromosomal territories, in which each chromosome occupies a distinct region of the nucleus, have been observed in numerous organisms and cell types, such as yeast [4], human [5], D. melanogaster (fruit fly) [6-8], mouse [9], and Arabidopsis [10]. Chromosome interactions, both within (intra) chromosomes and between (inter) chromosomes, have been observed microscopically [6, 8] and inferred using cross-linking techniques [11] such as the Hi-C ...
Glaucoma surgery: Dr. Weiner specializes in glaucoma (and cataract) consultation, laser and surgical therapy. He thus routinely develops opportunities to perform clinical research particularly in glaucoma surgery and has published multiple peer-reviewed papers on this subject. Dr. Weiner particularly focuses on surgical technique modifications in glaucoma tube shunt implantation in an effort to prevent consequent corneal failure and thereby increase the safety of this major glaucoma surgery. He was recently invited to give a talk at the American Glaucoma Society 2017 Annual Meeting documenting his efforts on this subject. Dr. Weiner also specializes in MIGS (minimally invasive glaucoma surgery), giving him opportunities to evaluate and compare the different MIGS available in terms of efficacy and safety. Again, he has published on this subject, and is now designing prospective clinical comparisons of various MIGS ...
The spatial organization of the genome is intimately linked to its biological function, yet our understanding of higher order genomic structure is coarse, fragmented and incomplete. In the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, interphase chromosomes occupy distinct chromosome territories, and numerous models have been proposed for how chromosomes fold within chromosome territories. These models, however, provide only few mechanistic details about the relationship between higher order chromatin structure and genome function. Recent advances in genomic technologies have led to rapid advances in the study of three-dimensional genome organization. In particular, Hi-C has been introduced as a method for identifying higher order chromatin interactions genome wide. Here we investigate the three-dimensional organization of the human and mouse genomes in embryonic stem cells and terminally differentiated cell types at unprecedented resolution. We identify large, megabase-sized local chromatin interaction domains, ...
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The authors apply a novel high-resolution in situ hybridization method that preserves chromatin nanostructure and show that chromosome territories intermingle significantly in the nucleus of human cells.
Antibodies for proteins involved in chromosome organization and biogenesis (sensu Bacteria) pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
The annual Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas officially opens its doors today and were live from just off the strip because A.I. and robots are the future... and the future is NOW, sheeple! Thats right, we sent our guys BJ Shea and Steve Migs to cover all of the crazy, wild tech thatll soon... Read More ...
Comorbidity of glaucoma poses some increased risks for cataract surgery, but even when there are intraoperative complications during the lens removal procedure, it is almost always possible to still add micro-invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS), said Reay H. Brown, MD. ...
Emmerich, Patricia; Loos, Peter; Jauch, Anna; Hopman, Anton H. N.; Wiegant, Joop; Higgins, Michael J.; White, Bradley N.; Van Der Ploeg, Mels; Cremer, Christoph und Cremer, Thomas (1989): Double in situ hybridization in combination with digital image analysis: A new approach to study interphase chromosome topography. In: Experimental Cell Research, Vol. 181, Nr. 1: S. 126-140 [PDF, 8MB] ...
Complete information for BOD1 gene (Protein Coding), Biorientation Of Chromosomes In Cell Division 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Looking for chromosome congression? Find out information about chromosome congression. congression Explanation of chromosome congression
Standard glaucoma surgeries, trabeculectomy and external tube-shunts are major and sometimes necessary surgeries. While they are very often effective at lowering eye pressure and preventing progression of glaucoma, they have a long list of potential complications. Many patients require these procedures and they have been utilized successfully for many years for preventing further vision loss and progression of glaucoma. More recently, the MIGS group of operations have been developed to reduce some of the risk associated with traditional glaucoma surgeries. MIGS procedures work by using microscopic-sized equipment or implants, lasers and tiny incisions. While they reduce the incidence of complications, some degree of effectiveness is also traded for the increased safety.. Many of the MIGS group of operations are new innovations and some have been mainstays of treatment for sometime like ECP. At Glaucoma Center of Michigan, we are constantly striving to learn the latest developments and most ...
Context. The outer surfaces of kinetochores expand in early mitosis to form crescent-shaped structures thought to play an important role in forming proper chromosome-spindle attachments1. The crescent was named the fibrous corona for its distinctive appearance in early electron micrographs2. E.D. Salmon and colleagues demonstrated microtubule-dependent expansion and compaction in pioneering work3, but the fibrous coronas complete molecular composition and proof of its predicted functional role have both proven somewhat elusive. Existing data on recruitment kinetics of various kinetochore components, along with structural predictions, hinted at starring roles for the ROD-ZW10-Zwilch (RZZ) complex and the dynein adaptor Spindly4.. Key findings. Sacristan et al., working in cell lines, first show that Spindly recruits dynein via three independent motifs to compact coronas. In vitro, purified RZZ complexes polymerise into filaments only in the presence of Spindly. In cells, Spindly uses its ...
Three-dimensional interphase organization of metazoan genomes has been linked to cellular identity. However, the principles governing 3D interphase genome architecture and its faithful transmission through disruptive events of cell-cycle, like mitosis, are not fully understood. By using Brownian dynamics simulations of Drosophila chromosome 3R up to time-scales of minutes, we show that chromatin binding profile of Polycomb-repressive-complex-1 robustly predicts a sub-set of topologically associated domains (TADs), and inclusion of other factors recapitulates the profile of all TADs, as observed experimentally. Our simulations show that chromosome 3R attains interphase organization from mitotic state by a two-step process in which formation of local TADs is followed by long-range interactions. Our model also explains statistical features and tracks the assembly kinetics of polycomb subnuclear clusters. In conclusion, our approach can be used to predict structural and kinetic features of 3D ...
Having explored the various options available for micro-invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS), I now use several devices with success. One MIGS device (XEN Gel Stent, Allergan) differs from the others in that it drains aqueous into the subconjunctival space and can be performed as a stand-alone procedure without cataract surgery or combined with cataract surgery.
Model Scope of Clinical Practice Ophthalmology - As an alternative to traditional glaucoma treatments, minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) has shown promise for the future management of glaucoma. The cardinal features of MIGS , as proposed by Saheb and Ahmed in 2012 [5], are:
Please share your boss to call me at 972-768-2591, and I will produce him understand what a dumba__ he is. I suffered optical migraines for several years and would actually lose my hallucination for several hours at a time. Since then I enjoy studied all I casn roughly speaking natural tablets. You can alleviate the pain sometimes by smoking a cigarette, the capillary in your brain constrict and dwindling the blood flow which triggers the mig. the nicotene dialates those caps, and increases blood flow. Also you can work your upper gums as far back surrounded by the back as possible, beside your finger or with a swab near novacaine or toothache med, there is a pressure point at hand, (a sympathetic reflex) that when stimulated can diminish the pain, also some type of clamp on your earlobes, such as a clothespin, or pressure applies to the basis of the skull on both sides can help, I discovered that my migs be trigged by MSG, but I also had a dietary negative amount, migs are often a precursor to ...
Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary figures 41598_2017_12793_MOESM1_ESM. completion of mitosis. However, mitosis onset occurs on routine in MCPH1 deficient cells. We also revealed active Cdk1 to be required for the premature onset of chromosome condensation during G2 and the maintenance of the condensed state thereafter. Interestingly, a novel cellular phenotype was observed while monitoring cell cycle progression in cells lacking MCPH1 RepSox (SJN 2511) function. Specifically, completion of chromosome alignment at the metaphase plate was significantly delayed. This deficiency reveals that MCPH1 is required for efficient chromosome biorientation during mitosis. Introduction MCPH1 main microcephaly (OMIM 608585) is usually a rare human RepSox (SJN 2511) syndrome that results in pronounced reduction of the cerebral cortex, mental retardation and delayed growth1,2. While the clinical phenotype is identical to the other genetic variants of MCPH syndrome (MCPH1-MCPH14) described so much3C5, from a ...
Field, D.; Garrity, G.; Gray, T.; Morrison, N.; Selengu, J.; Sterk, P.; Tatusoca, T.; Thomson, N.; Allen, M.; Angiuoli, S.; Ashburner, M.; Axelrod, N.; Baldauf, S.; Ballard, S.; Boore, J.; Cochrane, G.; Cole, J.; Dawyndt, P.; De Vos, P.; dePamphilis, C.; Edwards, R.; Faruque, N.; Feldman, R.; Gilbert, J.; Gilna, P.; Gloeckner, F.; Goldstein, P.; Guralnick, R.; Haft, D.; Hancock, D.; Hermjakob, H.; Hertz-Fowler, C.; Hugenholtz, P.; Joint, I.; Kagan, L.; Kane, M.; Kennedy, J.; Kowalchuk, G.; Kottman, R.; Kolker, E.; Kravitz, S.; Kyrpides, N.; Leebens-Mack, J.; Lewis, S.; Li, K.; Lister, A.; Lord, P.; Maltsev, N.; Markowitz, V.; Martiny, J.; Methe, B.; Mizrachi, I.; Moxon, R.; Nelson, K.; Parkhill, J.; Proctor, L.; White, O.; Sansone, S.-A.; Spiers, A.; Stevens, R.; Swift, P.; Taylor, C.; Tateno, Y.; Tett, A.; Turner, S.; Ussey, D.; Vaughan, B.; Ward, N.; Whetzel, P.; Gil, I.; Wilson, G. & Wipat, A. (2008), The minimum information about a genome sequence (MIGS) specification, Nature Biotechnology ...
Field, D.; Garrity, G.; Gray, T.; Morrison, N.; Selengu, J.; Sterk, P.; Tatusoca, T.; Thomson, N.; Allen, M.; Angiuoli, S.; Ashburner, M.; Axelrod, N.; Baldauf, S.; Ballard, S.; Boore, J.; Cochrane, G.; Cole, J.; Dawyndt, P.; De Vos, P.; dePamphilis, C.; Edwards, R.; Faruque, N.; Feldman, R.; Gilbert, J.; Gilna, P.; Gloeckner, F.; Goldstein, P.; Guralnick, R.; Haft, D.; Hancock, D.; Hermjakob, H.; Hertz-Fowler, C.; Hugenholtz, P.; Joint, I.; Kagan, L.; Kane, M.; Kennedy, J.; Kowalchuk, G.; Kottman, R.; Kolker, E.; Kravitz, S.; Kyrpides, N.; Leebens-Mack, J.; Lewis, S.; Li, K.; Lister, A.; Lord, P.; Maltsev, N.; Markowitz, V.; Martiny, J.; Methe, B.; Mizrachi, I.; Moxon, R.; Nelson, K.; Parkhill, J.; Proctor, L.; White, O.; Sansone, S.-A.; Spiers, A.; Stevens, R.; Swift, P.; Taylor, C.; Tateno, Y.; Tett, A.; Turner, S.; Ussey, D.; Vaughan, B.; Ward, N.; Whetzel, P.; Gil, I.; Wilson, G. & Wipat, A. (2008), The minimum information about a genome sequence (MIGS) specification, Nature Biotechnology ...
How do successful ASCs stay profitable while providing the highest quality care? In the May issue of The Ophthalmic ASC magazine youll learn about the benefits of case costing and ways to identify trends, savings, and hidden expenses that affect your bottom line. Well-informed cataract patients are demanding the latest technology, but must your center have a femtosecond laser to attract patients? Hear what adopters have to say. Find out why one surgeon was shocked by the results of the latest OOSS IOL Survey, review new options for pupil dilation during cataract surgery and get the latest on CPT coding for complications of MIGS surgery. All of this and more is waiting for you in this months Ophthalmic ASC.. To view the May 2017 issue and other recent interactive issues click on the month and year below:. May 2017. February 2017. October 2016 August 2016. May 2016. To view archived issues of the OASC, including related supplements, by month, year and/or featured article, click on ARCHIVED ...
After the quick success of downing two American fighters, the outnumbered North Vietnamese defenders faced the remaining F-100s and F-105s now fully alerted to their presence and turning their attention to the MiGs. Tranh Hanh ordered his flight to split into two groups. He and wingman Pham Giay stayed south of the bridge, while Le Minh Huan and Tran Nguyen Nam flew to the north. Three F-100s from the MiGCAP, piloted by LTC Emmett L. Hays, CPT Keith B. Connolly,[11] and CPT Donald W. Kilgus, all from the 416th TFS,[12] engaged the MiG-17s. As the F-100s closed in, they hesitated to fire missiles which might hit their F-105s. The lead F-100 got a locking tone as he fired an IR guided Sidewinder air-to-air missile once he had a clear shot, but it passed above its target, while Connolly and Kilgus engaged with 20mm cannon. Kilgus recognized what was Pham Giays MiG just after it appeared out of the haze.[13] He dropped his wing tanks and turned into the target that had just made a ninety degree ...
In the September 3, 2020 edition of The Genomics Landscape, Dr. Eric Green talks about the Impact of Genomic Variation on Function (IGVF) Consortium, the 2020 Genomic Innovator Awards and more.
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No data available that match "chromosome positioning"

In Sergeys tree he shows RISE550 with two chromosome positions, 15080170 C/T and 18945942 C/T. One is BY3719 and the other is ...
2. Albania (This is an approximate point-position of a sampling area!), 6 matches in 296 haplotypes with Y-SNP information. ... Gonçalves, R., Freitas, A., Branco, M., Rosa, A., Fernandes, A. T., Zhivotovsky, L. A., ... & Brehm, A. (2005). Y‐chromosome ... United Kingdom (This is an approximate point-position of a sampling area!), 6 matches in 405 haplotypes with Y-SNP information ... Hungary (This is an approximate point-position of a sampling area!), 32 matches in 748 haplotypes with Y-SNP information. ...
use of in sacred sexPositions (see Sacred Sex Positions)~ (for general sex positions, see Sex Positions) ~ (for descriptions ... X chromosome as base genetic code for both genders Y chromosome as modulator of fetal sex differentiation Yab-Yum (glossary ... see also Homosexuality and Bisexuality)Sexual positions - see Sacred Sex Positions~ for general sex positions, see Sex ... sexual positions for creating ~ sexual positions for dealing with issues ofInjury -~ as guidance ~ as learning experience ~ as ...
Free tool to identify the best position on the YFull YTree. from positive and negative SNP results.. Accepts uploads of raw ... Female test takers can only be tested on their mtDNA because they dont have a Y chromosome. The Whole Genome Test is ...
Free tool to identify the best position on the YFull YTree. from positive and negative SNP results.. Accepts uploads of raw ... Female test takers can only be tested on their mtDNA because they dont have a Y chromosome. The Whole Genome Test is ...
Those sections of the Y chromosome suffer from frequent recombination events and are therefore not useful for phylogenetic ... Then enter the name of your desired SNP, its position (hg38) on ChrY, the ancestral and derived mutation bases and the ...
Yeah, because your position is always objective and never partial, right?:D Thus, of similar phenotype to these individuals? ... virtually no paternal Black ancestry detectable through the Y-Chromosome. The fact that Southern Europeans appear to... ...
removing chromosomes from a bam file. tirohia 09-27-2017 03:22 AM. by GenoMax ... bcftools - retain low quality read position support? clintp 05-17-2018 03:42 PM. by clintp ...
IMHO she was put in a difficult position where no matter what she decided someone would find fault in it. The ultimate rock and ... Similarly, if a female, without the advantage of a y chromosome adding hormones to her body, increasing her physical size, ... IMHO she was put in a difficult position where no matter what she decided someone would find fault in it. The ultimate rock and ... IMHO she was put in a difficult position where no matter what she decided someone would find fault in it. The ultimate rock and ...
... of the Y chromosome. At a substantially lower price per base, you can get nearly 100% of the Y chromosome with YSEQs Whole ... Obviously, 150-base reads can be mapped to various positions on this sequence, and the ends cant anchor to both sides of the ... plus all the other chromosomes from 1 to 22 and of course the X chromosome.*. ... The whole genome contains over 200 times as much data as the Y chromosome alone! Sequencing has improved dramatically over the ...
As several experts (the honest and brave ones) have said, people who think they are a different sex to what their chromosomes ... people that adhere to every single position the elite class puts out there from their massive bully pulpit of cultural ...
Its similar to the mind of chess players who memorize current position while figuring out their possible next moves and their ... the caps at the end of each strand of DNA that protect the chromosomes within our cells. In normal cells, the length of ...
  • This makes it difficult to determine centromere positions in the genome sequence assembly. (
  • Generally, introgressed alien chromosomes show reduced meiotic pairing relative to the host genome, and may be eliminated over generations. (
  • To challenge this dogma, we established protocols for genome-wide transcriptome analysis of barley mitotic chromosomes. (
  • Hello: I would like to get raw reads depth at each genome position for a limited region of the c. (
  • They have the same chromosome number and genome sizes, and they occupy the same ecological niche. (
  • Sex chromosomes are subject to evolutionary pressures distinct from the remainder of the genome, shaping their structure and sequence content. (
  • As a diploid with 10 chromosomes (2 n = 20) and a 2C genome content roughly 6-fold larger than rice, maize lies somewhere in the middle of grass genome size and structural complexity (Fig. 1 ). (
  • Because researchers use different approaches to genome annotation their predictions of the number of genes on each chromosome varies (for technical details, see gene prediction ). (
  • This analysis tool highlights the location of a gene position of the human genome on protein sequence and 3D structure. (
  • The analysis of their position is a powerful way to monitor genome organization in different cell types and states. (
  • Here, we analyse genome organization by chromosome position in mammalian sperm nuclei from three breeds of pig, as a model species. (
  • We have generated genome-wide maps of nucleosome positions in both resting and activated human CD4+ T cells by direct sequencing of nucleosome ends using the Solexa high-throughput sequencing technique. (
  • This study not only progresses the understanding of genome behavior in HGPS cells but demonstrates that interphase chromosome movement requires processed lamin A. (
  • To overcome this issue, gene position-based suppression (GPS) has been modeled and embedded as a new phase in a classical GA. This phase works on the genes of a newly generated individual after the recombination phase to retain the solution vector within its feasible region and to improve the solution vector to attain the optimal solution. (
  • The functions of genes involved in inter-chromosome co-expression relationships are non-random and predominantly related to cell-cell communication and reaction to external stimuli. (
  • I want to retrieve chromosomal positions of coding sequences (CDS) of some genes. (
  • This will allow exploring specific RNA populations of plant mitotic chromosomes and discover novel mitosis-specific genes and regulatory transcripts for the first time. (
  • I have a list of genes for which I need to find their respective location on the chromosome and a. (
  • Data available already demonstrate that genetic, molecular and developmental analysis of these genes provides an avenue to the identification of regulatory and structural chromatin components, and hence to fundamental aspects of chromosome structure and function. (
  • Centimorgan (cM) positions for genes and markers in MGI are based on linear interpolation using the standard genetic map described in Cox et al. (
  • The following is a partial list of genes on human chromosome 16. (
  • Therefore comparative genomic analysis of T . equi was undertaken to: 1) identify genes contributing to immune evasion and persistence in equid hosts, 2) identify genes involved in PBMC infection biology and 3) define the phylogenetic position of T . equi relative to sequenced apicomplexan parasites. (
  • Comparative genomic analysis of T . equi revealed the phylogenetic positioning relative to seven apicomplexan parasites using deduced amino acid sequences from 150 genes placed it as a sister taxon to Theileria spp . (
  • Furthermore, the first nucleosome downstream of a start site exhibits differential positioning in active and silent genes. (
  • Because they lack recombination, Y-linked genes cannot be mapped genetically, leaving physical mapping as the only option for establishing the extent of synteny and homology with the X chromosome. (
  • We analyzed 20 SNPs of 7 neuronal genes in chromosome 18. (
  • However, deletion of combinations of CAC and HIR genes also affected the growth rate and in some cases caused partial temperature sensitivity, suggesting that global aspects of chromosome function may be affected by the loss of members of both gene families. (
  • The latter point has been most clearly demonstrated in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , in which genes adjacent to telomeres and the mating type genes present at the silent HM loci are subject to position-dependent transcriptional repression. (
  • These genes have been termed CAC1 , CAC2 , and CAC3 (for chromosome assembly complex). (
  • It has recently become apparent that the bridges that are used to transfer forces from the cytoskeleton across the nuclear envelope to position nuclei are the same as those that are used to move meiotic chromosomes and organize chromatin. (
  • In order to prepare for mitosis, chromatin condenses and chromosomes acquire their iconic X-like shape. (
  • The composition and molecular processes inherent to mitotic chromatin remain enigmatic and the chromosomes are considered as generally transcriptionally silent. (
  • We are recruiting a talented, skilled, mature and dedicated postdoctoral fellow to undertake ambitious and challenging projects in the area of chromosome/chromatin biology. (
  • Required: Applicants must have received their PhDs from programs within reputed graduate institutions within the past 2 years (or upcoming in the next year), have at least 1 first author peer-reviewed academic paper in the areas of AFM/EM applications, chromatin/chromosome biology, cancer biology or RNA biology. (
  • In position-effect variegation (PEV) therefore, gene inactivation results from a change in chromatin structure. (
  • However, it is still controversial whether position of chromosome territories/chromatin is maintained in daughter cells. (
  • We addressed this issue and investigated maintenance of various chromatin regions of unknown composition as well as nucleolus-associated chromatin, a significant part of which is composed of nucleolus organizer region-bearing chromosomes. (
  • The position of chromosomes in the sperm nucleus might be crucial, because their location could determine the time at which particular chromatin domains are decondensed and remodelled, allowing some epigenetic level of control or influence over subsequent paternal gene expression in the embryo. (
  • The positioning of nucleosomes along chromatin has been implicated in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotic cells, because packaging DNA into nucleosomes affects sequence accessibility. (
  • We found a stereotyped chromatin organization at Pol II promoters consisting of a nucleosome-free region ∼200 base pairs upstream of the start codon flanked on both sides by positioned nucleosomes. (
  • High-resolution measurements of nucleosome positions over chromosome-scale distances would enhance our understanding of chromatin structure and function. (
  • These data indicate that yeast CAF-I contributes to position-dependent gene silencing but is not the only cellular factor responsible for chromatin assembly. (
  • The functions of MARs in vivo are largely unknown, but one commonly held view is that MARs anchor individual chromatin loops to a proteinaceous matrix or scaffold in both interphase nuclei ( 14 , 33 , 47 ) and mitotic chromosomes ( 46 ). (
  • In this study, we analysed somatic nuclei of rye introgressions in wheat using 3D-FISH and found that while introgressed rye chromosomes or chromosome arms occupied discrete positions in the Rabl's orientation similar to chromosomes of the wheat host, their telomeres frequently occupied positions away from the nuclear periphery. (
  • Improper positioning in the nuclei probably impacts the ability of introgressed chromosomes to migrate into the telomere bouquet at the onset of meiosis, preventing synapsis and chiasma establishment, and leading to their gradual elimination over generations. (
  • Depending on the cell type, all three components of the cytoskeleton (microtubules, actin filaments and intermediate filaments) can function either alone or together to position nuclei. (
  • A new method of analyzing chromosome segregation in pairs of daughter human fibroblasts revealed that the positioning of chromosomes in daughter nuclei was closely correlated with their relative positions during the G 1 interphase. (
  • We demonstrate in this report that the positioning of chromosomes at G 1 interphase is chiefly determined by their configuration at mitosis, consistent with the nuclear architecture model in which chromosomes are immobile at a global scale in the G 1 interphase nuclei. (
  • Chromosomes occupy non-random spatial positions in interphase nuclei. (
  • Eleven of 22 human chromosomes revealed an alternative location in hybrid nuclei compared to that of human fibroblasts, with the majority becoming more internally localised. (
  • Human chromosomes in mouse nuclei position according to neither their gene density nor size, but rather the position of human chromosomes in hybrid nuclei appears to mimic that of syntenic mouse chromosomes. (
  • Chromosomes in bacteria and eukaryotic nuclei are folded in a nonrandom fashion, which leads to specific DNA sequences assuming narrowly distributed positions within the cell or the nucleus ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ - 4 ). (
  • Non-random chromosome positioning in mammalian sperm nuclei, with migration of the sex chromosomes during late spermatogenesis. (
  • Chromosomes are highly organized and compartmentalized in cell nuclei. (
  • We have mapped the preferential position of all chromosomes (bar one) in sperm nuclei in two dimensions and have established that the sex chromosomes are the most internally localized chromosomes in mature sperm. (
  • Representative images of porcine chromosome territories in nuclei derived from embryonic and adult fibroblasts, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and lymphocytes. (
  • Chromosome territories are delineated with biotinylated whole chromosome painting probes amplified by degenerate oligonucleotide primed PCR (DOP-PCR) and visualised via strepavidin conjugated to cyanine 3 (red), DNA synthesis in S-phase nuclei is revealed by BrdU incorporation and indirect immunofluorescent detection with an antibody conjugated to FITC (green) and the DNA within the interphase nuclei stained with the DNA intercalator dye DAPI (blue). (
  • Furthermore, significant associations of SNPs in chromosomes 6, 9, 11, and 12 did not overlap with known resistance loci and hence might prove to be novel sources of resistance. (
  • Chromosomes are folded into cells in a nonrandom fashion, with particular genetic loci occupying distinct spatial regions. (
  • Mating-type switching is induced by a DNA double-strand break (DSB) at the MAT locus on chromosome III, followed by homologous recombination between the cut MAT locus and one of two donor loci ( HML α and HMR a), located on the same chromosome. (
  • Plot of knockdown, recovery, and survival rates as a function of F 3 genotypes at the CYP6BB2 and CYP6P12V1 loci on chromosome I and CYP12F5 and CYP9M8 on chromosome II. (
  • We applied our method to a set of newly generated deletion mutants in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia and refined the locations of the sex-determining loci on its Y chromosome map. (
  • Two different human MARs, from the apolipoprotein B and α1-antitrypsin loci, insulated white transgene expression from position effects in Drosophila melanogaster . (
  • Positioning the nucleus is essential for the formation of polarized cells, pronuclear migration, cell division, cell migration and the organization of specialized syncytia such as mammalian skeletal muscles. (
  • To properly position the nucleus or move chromosomes within the nucleus, the cell must specify the outer surface of the nucleus and transfer forces across both membranes of the nuclear envelope. (
  • However, the nucleus is usually precisely and actively positioned. (
  • The three-dimensional organization of chromosomes in the human interphase nucleus is relevant for gene regulation, yet it is far from being fully understood. (
  • Motivation: The position of chromosomes in the interphase nucleus is believed to be associated with a number of biological processes. (
  • The genetic information of an organism is found in the nucleus of each cell in the form of DNA organised into chromosomes. (
  • A diploid with 12 chromosomes (2 n = 24), rice has one of the smallest plant genomes, with only 0.9 pg of DNA per 2C nucleus (Fig. 1 ). (
  • The interphase nucleus of a cell is organized into non-random, cell-type specific chromosome territolies (CTs). (
  • However, other factors such as chromosome size, transcription and interactions of the nuclear membrane and matrix are also involved in the final ammgement of CTs within a nucleus. (
  • Benjamin Rowland, leader of the NKI chromosome biology group, has been awarded a 1.5 million Euros Vici Grant by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), to find out why chromosomes are neatly positioned next to each other in the cell nucleus, instead of forming one tangled knot. (
  • In mammalian cells, chromosomes are partitioned into megabase-sized topologically associating domains (TADs). (
  • Cremer, T. & Cremer, C. Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells. (
  • Mammalian chromosomes occupy chromosome territories within nuclear space the positions of which are generally accepted as non-random. (
  • Additional data on sex chromosome and autosome sizes for avian and mammalian species for which lifespan and aging metrics are available will be extracted from the literature. (
  • Using giant lampbrush chromosomes from growing oocytes, we analyzed in detail the pericentromeric region of chicken chromosome 3. (
  • To explore the nature of this divergence, we used high-resolution comparative fluorescent in situ hybridization mapping on giant lampbrush chromosomes (LBCs) from growing oocytes. (
  • The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6p is an established risk locus for ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). (
  • At some positions, expression was more than 3-fold higher than at the natural lac promoter locus, whereas at several other locations, the reporter cassette was completely silenced: effectively overriding local lac promoter control. (
  • I am new to Galaxy and do not know how to obtain a BED file for a NON-CODING chromosome locus (pr. (
  • Combining theory and fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate that the folded state of yeast chromosome III changes in response to a DNA double-strand break at the MAT locus, in agreement with previous studies. (
  • Previous studies have suggested that in MAT a cells after the DSB is induced chromosome III undergoes refolding, which directs the MAT locus to recombine with HML α. (
  • I. A proof of variegated-type position effect at the white locus. (
  • Proteins that are required for nuclear positioning also function during chromosome movement and pairing in meiosis. (
  • Next, purified mitotic chromosomes will be used for proteomic analysis to identify and characterize barley chromosomal proteins. (
  • When the nucleolus disassembles during open mitosis, many nucleolar proteins and RNAs associate with chromosomes, establishing a perichromosomal compartment coating the chromosome periphery. (
  • Following siRNA depletion of Ki-67, NIFK, B23, nucleolin, and four novel chromosome periphery proteins all fail to associate with the periphery of human chromosomes. (
  • Since the late nineteenth century, it has been known that a layer of proteins, called the perichromosomal layer, coats the condensed chromosomes. (
  • The process of division in bacterial chromosomes is regulated by the Par (partition) proteins, which bind to DNA. (
  • The project combines multidisciplinary approaches including biochemistry, single-molecule fluorescence microscopy and bionanotechnology to visualize the chromosome segregation proteins on synthetic surfaces in a cell-free system. (
  • The RBMY1 proteins are encoded by repeated regions of the Y chromosome, mostly within the AZFb region. (
  • Nucleosomes prevent many DNA binding proteins from approaching their sites ( 1 - 3 ), whereas appropriately positioned nucleosomes can bring distant DNA sequences into close proximity to promote transcription ( 4 ). (
  • The cell cycle culminates in mitosis, when replicated molecules of DNA compacted into chromosomes are equally partitioned between the two daughter cells. (
  • Chromosome movements during mitosis rely upon a complex macromolecular machine known as the mitotic spindle. (
  • During the stage called mitosis, where the DNA of a cell (which has previously been duplicated) is shared into two daughter cells, the chromosomes become tightly packed structures that can be readily moved through the cytoplasm. (
  • When the chromosomes first go through mitosis without a perichromosomal layer, no changes to the shape or the behaviour of the chromosomes are seen. (
  • B ) MEFs of the indicated genotypes were transduced with H2B-YFP to visualize chromosomes and followed through mitosis by live-cell microscopy. (
  • When attempting to extract the variants into VCF file for the specific chromosome position, 0 variants are being returned. (
  • Hello, If I have specific chromosome coordinates, how do I find out if this region is Exon or In. (
  • Hi, When I import a multiz46way maf alignement from UCSC, if is is a whole chromosome, then when. (
  • To harness the power of multiple markers while minimizing the number of tests conducted, we present a low resolution test for epistatic interactions across whole chromosome arms. (
  • Therefore, this project has a strong potential to reveal novel factors involved in regulation of mitotic chromosome structure and functions vital for faithful transmission of genetic information. (
  • These data range from extensive marker-based genetic maps to "chromosome paintings" based on fluorescent in situ hybridization to complete genomic DNA sequences. (
  • Numerous genetic and biochemical studies have shown that core histones also contribute to gene activation ( 6 , 16 ) and repression ( 18 , 35 ) and have direct roles in position-dependent gene silencing (for reviews, see references 12 and 37 ). (
  • The frequencies of such abnormal telomere positioning were similar to the frequencies of out-of-bouquet telomere positioning at leptotene, and of pairing failure at metaphase I. This study indicates that improper positioning of alien chromosomes that leads to reduced pairing is not a strictly meiotic event but rather a consequence of a more systemic problem. (
  • We argue that hypotheses for how chromosomes achieve a metaphase alignment, that are based solely on a tug-of-war between poleward pulling forces produced along the length of opposing kinetochore fibers, are no longer tenable for vertebrates. (
  • The proposed project aims at characterization of plant mitotic metaphase chromosome transcriptome and proteome using temperate zone model crop barley (Hordeum vulgare). (
  • It appears as if H-NS mutant cells adopt a "slow-growth" type of chromosome organization under nutrient-rich conditions, which leads to a decreased cellular DNA content. (
  • Rather, the differences in gene expression occur predominantly at the level of transcription and are mediated by several different features that are involved in chromosome organization. (
  • These results provide insights into how megabase-scale chromosome organization changes in individual cells during differentiation. (
  • Domain organization of human chromosomes revealed by mapping of nuclear lamina interactions. (
  • Although many studies have shown that chromosomes are folded into cells in a nonrandom fashion, the functional significance of this spatial organization remains poorly understood. (
  • This observation raises the question of whether the spatial organization of a chromosome governs its functions, such as recombination or transcription. (
  • These results establish refolding of yeast chromosome III as a key driving force in MAT switching and provide an example of a cell regulating the spatial organization of its chromosome so as to direct homology search during recombination. (
  • An interesting question is, then, to what extent does this spatial organization of chromosomes determine their function? (
  • For example, differential gene expression during development and the maintenance of genomic integrity in response to damaging agents have both been linked to chromosome organization. (
  • In the majority of cases analyzed, the total recombination frequency over the chromosomes was unchanged. (
  • The loss of crossovers at the sites of structural change was compensated for by increases in recombination frequencies elsewhere on the chromosomes, mostly in single intervals of one to three megabases in size. (
  • In both cases, compensatory increases in recombination frequencies were of similar strength and took place in the same chromosome region. (
  • In contrast, deletions in chromosome arms carrying the nucleolar organizing region did not change recombination frequencies in the remainder of those chromosomes. (
  • Factors that influence CO position and hence local recombination frequency include features inherent to the chromosome as well as environmental factors of both endogenous and exogenous origin. (
  • The relationships between gene expression and nuclear structure, chromosome territories in particular, are currently being elucidated experimentally. (
  • Chromosome territories. (
  • This study reveals the temporal repositioning of chromosome territories in spermatogenesis. (
  • For this study we have treated HGPS fibroblasts with farnesyltransferase inhibitors and analyzed the nuclear location of individual chromosome territories. (
  • We have found that after exposure to farnesyltransferase inhibitors mis-localized chromosome territories were restored to a nuclear position akin to chromosomes in proliferating control cells. (
  • We have found that in proliferating fibroblasts derived from HGPS patients the nuclear location of interphase chromosomes differs from control proliferating cells and mimics that of control quiescent fibroblasts, with smaller chromosomes toward the nuclear interior and larger chromosomes toward the nuclear periphery. (
  • Crossing over assures the correct segregation of the homologous chromosomes to both poles of the dividing meiocyte. (
  • Crossing over (CO) between homologous chromosomes is actively promoted during meiosis in all but a few eukaryotic species. (
  • Two topographic values, namely distance and the angular separation between a pair of homologous chromosomes, were determined using fluorescence in-situ hybridization with four different centromeric DNA probes. (
  • The architectural protein H-NS binds nonspecifically to hundreds of sites throughout the chromosome and can multimerize to stiffen segments of DNA as well as to form DNA-protein-DNA bridges. (
  • In this study, we investigated the positioning and dynamics of the origins, the replisomes, and the SeqA structures trailing the replication forks in cells lacking the H-NS protein. (
  • Future studies will be carried out on understanding how similar protein patterns drive chromosome segregation in bacteria. (
  • 44]) of the chromosome positions of significant markers associated with plant height (red), heading date (yellow), protein content (blue) and thousand kernel weight (green). (
  • Involved in chromosome condensation, segregation and cell cycle progression. (
  • The distribution of two autosomes and chromosomes X and Y in sperm heads was compared in primary and secondary spermatocytes and spermatids in porcine testes. (
  • The two cells at the top of the figure each have two of the same type of chromosome. (
  • These species have typical avian karyotypes that consist of several pairs of relatively large macrochromosomes (chromosomes 1-10 and a pair of sex chromosomes, ZW in females and ZZ in males) and numerous tiny microchromosomes. (
  • We show that some pairs of chromosomes and pairs of 10 Mbp long chromosome regions are significantly enriched in the expression clusters. (
  • Chromosome 16 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans . (
  • Chromosome 16 spans about 90 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) and represents just under 3% of the total DNA in cells . (
  • What is it, 23 pairs of chromosomes? (
  • A graph of green:red ratio values for spots along the chromosome is expected to show nucleosomes as peaks about 140 base pairs long ( 6 ), or six to eight microarray spots, surrounded by lower ratio values corresponding to linker regions (fig. S1C). (
  • Well-positioned nucleosomes should cover ∼140 base pairs or six to eight probes (fig. S1E, N1 to N8) and have a high green:red ratio, whereas stretches of ≥nine probes were classified as "fuzzy" or delocalized nucleosomes (fig. S1E, DN1 to DN9). (
  • Importantly, we show that the change in the folded state of the chromosome after the break quantitatively accounts for the dynamics of homology search during DNA repair. (
  • Mitotic chromosome condensation and intrinsic structure appear normal in the absence of the perichromosomal compartment but significant differences in nucleolar reassembly and nuclear organisation are observed in post-mitotic cells. (
  • May participate in facilitating chromosome segregation by condensation DNA from both sides of a centrally located replisome during cell division. (
  • How does condensin drive mitotic chromosome condensation? (
  • How to bulk convert coding position of transkript to genomic positions? (
  • We identify the cis and trans determinants of nucleosome positioning using a functional evolutionary approach involving S. cerevisiae strains containing large genomic regions from other yeast species. (
  • To measure nucleosome positions on a genomic scale, we developed a DNA microarray method ( 5 ) to identify nucleosomal and linker DNA sequences on the basis of susceptibility of linker DNA to micrococcal nuclease (fig. S1). (
  • Expertise in chromosome biology, bioinformatics, proteomics and/or microscopy is considered an advantage. (
  • Members of our laboratory have published a number of papers on these distinct yet related topics in chromosome biology, and have successfully transitioned into independent positions (please see our lab website for our alumni). (
  • If we are to understand the principles of mitotic spindle formation, the exact mechanisms that govern how sister kinetochores on individual chromosomes establish connections with the opposite spindle poles must be elucidated. (
  • USP44 inhibited chromosome segregation errors independent of its role in the mitotic checkpoint by regulating centrosome separation, positioning, and mitotic spindle geometry. (
  • In Drosophila melanogaster , heterochromatin-induced silencing or position-effect variegation (PEV) of a reporter gene has provided insights into the properties of heterochromatin. (
  • The other mutations are a derivative of brown Dominant , in which brown + reporters are inactivated by a large block of heterochromatin, and a P[white + ] transposon insertion associated with second chromosome heterochromatin. (
  • Examples of gene silencing include X -chromosome inactivation and parental imprinting in mammals, telomere and mating-type silencing in yeast, as well as heterochromatin-induced gene silencing known as position-effect variegation (PEV) in Drosophila melanogaster (for review see H endrich and W illard 1995 ). (
  • In PEV, chromosomal rearrangements that change the position of a gene so that it is placed near heterochromatin result in the variable expression of the gene. (
  • Epistasis covariance matrices were constructed from the additive covariances of individual chromosome arms. (
  • Taken together, our findings identify a tier of gene regulation above local promoter control and highlight the importance of chromosome position effects on gene expression profiles in bacteria. (
  • We have introduced large structural changes into Arabidopsis chromosomes and report their effects on crossover positioning. (
  • CDPKs and SnRKs are found on all five Arabidopsis chromosomes. (
  • Interestingly, two independent cases of induced structural changes in the same chromosomal interval were found on both chromosomes 1 and 2. (
  • These bacterial positioning systems form distinctive patterns within the cells, and are involved in important cellular functions such as DNA segregation, cell division and motility. (
  • Most bacterial chromosomes and low copy number plasmids encode an active segregation machinery called ParABS to partition replicated DNA prior to cell division. (
  • The aim of this project is to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underpinning bacterial chromosome segregation. (
  • Altered nuclear positions of translocation chromosomes in normal healthy mice and as a result of tumorigenesis were observed in the primary B cells of [T38HxBALB/c]N with rcpT(X;l1) mice and in the Wehi 231 mouse B lymphoma line, respectively. (
  • These results are discussed and a possible order for the fourth chromosome translocation breaks is given. (
  • Here, we present a web-based application that helps analyze the relative position of chromosomes during interphase in human cells, based on observed radiogenic chromosome aberrations. (
  • To determine how the nuclear environment influences the spatial positioning of chromosomes, we utilised a panel of stable mouse hybrid cell lines carrying a single, intact human chromosome. (
  • The sequence of the 'feminine' X chromosome is a prime hunting ground for geneticists interested in the evolution of the cognitive and cultural sophistication that defines the human species. (
  • Human chromosome 16 pair after G-banding . (
  • Chromosome 16 pair in human male karyogram . (
  • The following are some of the gene count estimates of human chromosome 16. (
  • Most human tumors have abnormal numbers of chromosomes, a condition known as aneuploidy. (
  • The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (
  • They have identical chromosome number (2 n = 78) and show a high degree of synteny. (
  • Contact with a kinetochore results in `capture' of a chromosome and suppression of the microtubule's dynamics. (
  • To address these questions, the successful candidates will apply methods from polymer physics and statistical mechanics to describe the three-dimensional folding and dynamics of chromosomes. (
  • Here, we propose a quantitative model of mating-type switching predicated on the assumption of DSB-induced chromosome refolding, which also takes into account the previously measured stochastic dynamics and polymer nature of yeast chromosomes. (
  • Since there is only a small free energy barrier to swap, a significant number of crossing events have been observed in molecular dynamics simulations, i.e., there is a high probability of such interchange of positions. (
  • Germ line transformation of white − Drosophila embryos with P -element vectors containing white expression cassettes results in flies with different eye color phenotypes due to position effects at the sites of transgene insertion. (
  • These position effects can be cured by specific DNA elements, such as the Drosophila scs and scs′ elements, that have insulator activity in vivo. (
  • We developed a tiled microarray approach to identify at high resolution the translational positions of 2278 nucleosomes over 482 kilobases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA, including almost all of chromosome III and 223 additional regulatory regions. (
  • In this project, the CTs of chromosome 11 and X were studied in five different cell types of mouse B cell lineage: diploid preB cells, primary B cells of [T38HxBALB/c]N wild-type mice, primary B cells of [T38HxBALB/c]N with rcpT(X;l1) mice, primary B cells of BALB/c mice and a Wehi 231 mouse B lymphoma line. (
  • In eukaryotes, the location of a gene on the chromosome is known to affect its expression, but such position effects are poorly understood in bacteria. (
  • occurs near the middle of the chromosome at a location designated q11.2. (
  • The homeologous chromosome arm pair 4BL/4DL showed a strong negative relationship between additive and interaction effects that may be indicative of functional redundancy. (
  • Each chromosome occupies an individual, spatially-limited space with a preferential position relative to the nuclear centre that may be specific to the cell and tissue type. (
  • We sought to discover whether patterns in gene expression databases might exist that would mirror prevailing or recurring nuclear structure patterns, chromosome territory interactions in particular. (
  • Interactions across homeologous chromosome arms were identified, but were less abundant than other chromosome arm pair interactions. (
  • In H-NS mutant cells, foci of SeqA, replisomes, and origins were irregularly positioned in the cell. (
  • D ) Cells encountering a lagging chromosome were scored for the number of chromosomes involved in the error. (
  • The sex chromosomes were found at the nuclear edge in primary spermatocytes, which correlates with the known position of the XY body and their position in somatic cells, whereas, in spermatids, the sex chromosomes were much more centrally located, mirroring the position of these chromosomes in ejaculated spermatozoa. (
  • This corresponds to the gap between 2 supercontigs at the 2.4-Mb position in the current GGA3 sequence assembly (build 2.1). (
  • A 12 kb nucleotide sequence containing the alanine dehydrogenase gene at 279 degrees on the bacillus subtilis chromosome. (
  • For more information about the meaning and exact position of a sequence modification, move the cursor over the icon. (
  • The exact structure of those chromosomes changes as the cell moves through the different stages of the cell division cycle. (
  • now reveal that when Ki-67 is not present in a cell, chromosomes do not have a perichromosomal layer-or at best, have a small remnant of one. (
  • C ) Still image of lagging chromosome captured from live-cell time-lapse microscopy from Usp44 -/- MEFs transduced with H2B-YFP. (
  • Our study provides an example of a cell changing the folded state of one of its chromosomes in response to an internal chemical cue (DNA break), thereby affecting its function (DNA repair). (
  • It was observed that low copy number plasmids are precisely localized to opposite cell halves upon replication (top left panel) but the mechanism underlying this positioning is not well understood. (
  • the cell division machinery MinDE oscillates from pole-to-pole to position the cell division septum in the middle (top panel). (
  • The inheritance of 22q11.2 duplication is considered autosomal dominant because the duplication affects one of the two copies of chromosome 22 in each cell. (
  • 3D FISH experiments that labeled the CTs of chromosome 11 and X with chromosome-specific paints were carried out for each cell type. (
  • The results show a non-random, statistically significant and cell-type specific nuclear distribution of these two chromosomes. (
  • After the first round of cell division (meiosis I) what happens to the chromosome number in each cell. (
  • Immunostaining for cohesin followed by FISH with 23 BAC clones, covering the region from 0 to 23 Mb on chicken chromosome 3 (GGA3), allowed us to map the GGA3 centromere between BAC clones WAG38P15 and WAG54M22 located at position 2.3 and 2.5 Mb, respectively. (
  • Centromere positions on the majority of orthologous chromosomes are different in these two species. (
  • Despite the newly identified and confirmed inversions, our data suggest that, in chicken and Japanese quail, the difference in centromere positions is not mainly caused by pericentric inversions but is instead due to centromere repositioning events and the formation of new centromeres. (

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