Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, 1-3: The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Painting: A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, 16-18: The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y: The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.Ring Chromosomes: Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.Chromosomes, Human, 4-5: The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Chromosome Structures: Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.Chromosomes, Human, 19-20: The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Chromosomes, Artificial, Human: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Chromosome Fragility: Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Chromosome Duplication: An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Abnormalities, MultiplePolytene Chromosomes: Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Cytogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.Karyotype: The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Chromosome Fragile Sites: Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Sex Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).Monosomy: The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Genes, X-Linked: Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Philadelphia Chromosome: An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Azure Stains: PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chromosomes, Archaeal: Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Chromosome Breakpoints: The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sex Chromatin: In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Chromosomes, Artificial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, elements such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, that are required for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance in progeny cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Sister Chromatid Exchange: An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Pachytene Stage: The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Genes, Y-Linked: Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.Euchromatin: Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Meiotic Prophase I: The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Radiation Hybrid Mapping: A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Genetic Heterogeneity: The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Sex Chromosome Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions of atypical sexual development associated with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions including MONOSOMY; TRISOMY; and MOSAICISM.

A functional relationship between NuMA and kid is involved in both spindle organization and chromosome alignment in vertebrate cells. (1/79)

We examined spindle morphology and chromosome alignment in vertebrate cells after simultaneous perturbation of the chromokinesin Kid and either NuMA, CENP-E, or HSET. Spindle morphology and chromosome alignment after simultaneous perturbation of Kid and either HSET or CENP-E were no different from when either HSET or CENP-E was perturbed alone. However, short bipolar spindles with organized poles formed after perturbation of both Kid and NuMA in stark contrast to splayed spindle poles observed after perturbation of NuMA alone. Spindles were disorganized if Kid, NuMA, and HSET were perturbed, indicating that HSET is sufficient for spindle organization in the absence of Kid and NuMA function. In addition, chromosomes failed to align efficiently at the spindle equator after simultaneous perturbation of Kid and NuMA despite appropriate kinetochore-microtubule interactions that generated chromosome movement at normal velocities. These data indicate that a functional relationship between the chromokinesin Kid and the spindle pole organizing protein NuMA influences spindle morphology, and we propose that this occurs because NuMA forms functional linkages between kinetochore and nonkinetochore microtubules at spindle poles. In addition, these data show that both Kid and NuMA contribute to chromosome alignment in mammalian cells.  (+info)

The chromokinesin, KLP3A, dives mitotic spindle pole separation during prometaphase and anaphase and facilitates chromatid motility. (2/79)

Mitosis requires the concerted activities of multiple microtubule (MT)-based motor proteins. Here we examined the contribution of the chromokinesin, KLP3A, to mitotic spindle morphogenesis and chromosome movements in Drosophila embryos and cultured S2 cells. By immunofluorescence, KLP3A associates with nonfibrous punctae that concentrate in nuclei and display MT-dependent associations with spindles. These punctae concentrate in indistinct domains associated with chromosomes and central spindles and form distinct bands associated with telophase midbodies. The functional disruption of KLP3A by antibodies or dominant negative proteins in embryos, or by RNA interference (RNAi) in S2 cells, does not block mitosis but produces defects in mitotic spindles. Time-lapse confocal observations of mitosis in living embryos reveal that KLP3A inhibition disrupts the organization of interpolar (ip) MTs and produces short spindles. Kinetic analysis suggests that KLP3A contributes to spindle pole separation during the prometaphase-to-metaphase transition (when it antagonizes Ncd) and anaphase B, to normal rates of chromatid motility during anaphase A, and to the proper spacing of daughter nuclei during telophase. We propose that KLP3A acts on MTs associated with chromosome arms and the central spindle to organize ipMT bundles, to drive spindle pole separation and to facilitate chromatid motility.  (+info)

Assembly of the SpoIIIE DNA translocase depends on chromosome trapping in Bacillus subtilis. (3/79)

Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is an attractive system in which to study the translocation of a chromosome across a membrane. Sporulating cells contain two sister chromosomes that are condensed in an elongated axial filament with the origins of replication anchored at opposite poles of the sporangium. The subsequent formation of a septum near one pole divides the sporangium unequally into a forespore (the smaller compartment) and a mother cell. The septum forms around the filament, trapping the origin-proximal region of one chromosome in the forespore. As a consequence, the trapped chromosome transverses the septum with the remainder being left in the mother cell. Next, SpoIIIE assembles at the middle of the septum to create a translocase that pumps the origin-distal, two-thirds of the chromosome into the forespore. Here, we address the question of how the DNA translocase assembles and how it localizes to the septal midpoint. We present evidence that DNA transversing the septum is an anchor that nucleates the formation of the DNA translocase. We propose that DNA anchoring is responsible for the assembly of other SpoIIIE-like DNA translocases, such as those that remove trapped chromosomes from the division septum of cells undergoing binary fission.  (+info)

migS, a cis-acting site that affects bipolar positioning of oriC on the Escherichia coli chromosome. (4/79)

During replication of the Escherichia coli chromosome, the replicated Ori domains migrate towards opposite cell poles, suggesting that a cis-acting site for bipolar migration is located in this region. To identify this cis-acting site, a series of mutants was constructed by splitting subchromosomes from the original chromosome. One mutant, containing a 720 kb subchromosome, was found to be defective in the bipolar positioning of oriC. The creation of deletion mutants allowed the identification of migS, a 25 bp sequence, as the cis-acting site for the bipolar positioning of oriC. When migS was located at the replication terminus, the chromosomal segment showed bipolar positioning. migS was able to rescue bipolar migration of plasmid DNA containing a mutation in the SopABC partitioning system. Interestingly, multiple copies of the migS sequence on a plasmid in trans inhibited the bipolar positioning of oriC. Taken together, these findings indicate that migS plays a crucial role in the bipolar positioning of oriC. In addition, real-time analysis of the dynamic morphological changes of nucleoids in wild-type and migS mutants suggests that bipolar positioning of the replicated oriC contributes to nucleoid organization.  (+info)

Spatial positioning; a new dimension in genome function. (5/79)

The eukaryotic cell nucleus is a heterogeneous organelle. Chromosomes are nonrandomly positioned within the nuclear space, and individual gene loci experience distinct local environments due to the presence of chromatin domains and subnuclear compartments. Recent observations have highlighted the important yet still largely mysterious role of spatial positioning in genome activity and stability.  (+info)

Alteration of chromosome positioning during adipocyte differentiation. (6/79)

Chromosomes are highly restricted to specific chromosome territories within the interphase nucleus. The arrangement of chromosome territories is non-random, exhibiting a defined radial distribution as well as a preferential association with specific nuclear compartments, which indicates a functional role for chromosome-territory organization in the regulation of gene expression. In this report, we focus on changes in adipocyte differentiation that are related to a specific chromosomal translocation associated with liposarcoma tumorigenesis, t(12;16). We have examined the relative and radial positioning of the chromosome territories of human chromosomes 12 and 16 during adipocyte differentiation, and detected a close association between the territories of chromosomes 12 and 16 in differentiated adipocytes, an association not observed in preadipocytes. Although further studies are required to elucidate the underlying reasons for the adipocyte-specific translocation of chromosomes 12 and 16, our observations indicate that alteration of relative chromosome positioning might play a key role in the tumorigenesis of human liposarcomas. In addition, these results demonstrate the potential impact of higher order chromatin organization on the epigenetic mechanisms that control gene expression and gene silencing during cell differentiation.  (+info)

A non-random walk through the genome. (7/79)

Recent publications on a wide range of eukaryotes indicate that genes showing particular expression patterns are not randomly distributed in the genome but are clustered into contiguous regions that we call neighborhoods. It seems probable that this organization is related to chromatin and the structure of the nucleus.  (+info)

Interchromosomal associations between alternatively expressed loci. (8/79)

The T-helper-cell 1 and 2 (T(H)1 and T(H)2) pathways, defined by cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4), respectively, comprise two alternative CD4+ T-cell fates, with functional consequences for the host immune system. These cytokine genes are encoded on different chromosomes. The recently described T(H)2 locus control region (LCR) coordinately regulates the T(H)2 cytokine genes by participating in a complex between the LCR and promoters of the cytokine genes Il4, Il5 and Il13. Although they are spread over 120 kilobases, these elements are closely juxtaposed in the nucleus in a poised chromatin conformation. In addition to these intrachromosomal interactions, we now describe interchromosomal interactions between the promoter region of the IFN-gamma gene on chromosome 10 and the regulatory regions of the T(H)2 cytokine locus on chromosome 11. DNase I hypersensitive sites that comprise the T(H)2 LCR developmentally regulate these interchromosomal interactions. Furthermore, there seems to be a cell-type-specific dynamic interaction between interacting chromatin partners whereby interchromosomal interactions are apparently lost in favour of intrachromosomal ones upon gene activation. Thus, we provide an example of eukaryotic genes located on separate chromosomes associating physically in the nucleus via interactions that may have a function in coordinating gene expression.  (+info)

Oracle Health Sciences Omics Data Bank - Version 3.0.1 and laterUnable to Extract Variant into VCF File for a Specific Chromosome Position
Standard glaucoma surgeries, trabeculectomy and external tube-shunts are major and sometimes necessary surgeries. While they are very often effective at lowering eye pressure and preventing progression of glaucoma, they have a long list of potential complications. Many patients require these procedures and they have been utilized successfully for many years for preventing further vision loss and progression of glaucoma. More recently, the MIGS group of operations have been developed to reduce some of the risk associated with traditional glaucoma surgeries. MIGS procedures work by using microscopic-sized equipment or implants, lasers and tiny incisions. While they reduce the incidence of complications, some degree of effectiveness is also traded for the increased safety.. Many of the MIGS group of operations are new innovations and some have been mainstays of treatment for some time like ECP. At Glaucoma Center of Michigan, we are constantly striving to learn the latest developments and most ...
Because of the difficulty of managing the postoperative complications of conventional trabeculectomy, microinvasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) is getting more popular in glaucoma care. Today, there are many MIGS devices available worldwide.. This MasterClass will focus on how to achieve satisfactory surgical outcomes, how to incorporate MIGS in your glaucoma management ladder, case selection, complication prevention, and tips and tricks for success.. Course of Faculty:. ...
Microinvasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) procedures represent less-invasive alternatives to traditional surgery for those who suffer from glaucoma. Drs. Walt Whitley and Andy Morgenstern discuss the role of the optometrist in the shared care of MIGS patients. Andy explains why ODs are an integral part of these procedures. Walt agrees that shared care is essential but highlights some potential coding and billing issues that ODs should first understand.
Third, improving AHO in regions initially devoid of AHO expands on initial surgical approaches to MIGS. Trabecular MIGS are typically placed in the nasal angle through a temporal clear cornea direction2,3 for several reasons. Ophthalmologists are accustomed to this approach because of phacoemulsification. Second, reports, including results here, suggest that AHO is normally best nasal.28 Therefore, nasal MIGS placement was conducted to attempt access of these AHO pathways. However, if AHO is already adequate in a particular region, it is possible that trabecular bypass to enhance AHO in that region may limit further improvement due to a ceiling effect. Alternatively, another approach is to place trabecular MIGS where AHO is initially poor in an attempt to recruit these regions from a worse starting point. However, a counterargument to conducting MIGS in this way is that maybe the reason why AHO was diminished in the first place was that the local region never had adequate outflow channels to ...
While articles and discussions on minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) seem to be everywhere (for better or worse), "trabeculectomy will survive," said Kuldev Singh, MD, because of the aging population, the ease of postoperative tit. ...
Traditional operations, while effective at lowering eye pressure, have a long list of potential complications. MIGS procedures have been designed to provide a greater degree of safety, enabling them to be used earlier in glaucoma. These procedures may be combined with cataract surgery to reduce or eliminate the need for glaucoma eye drops ...
Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the novel ab-interno MIGS fistula-XEN45 in reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucoma...
Square mode provides a traditional Hi-C display in which chromosome positions are mapped along the top-left-to-bottom-right diagonal, and interaction values are plotted on both sides of that diagonal to form a square. The upper-left corner of the square corresponds to the left-most position of the window in view, while the bottom-right corner corresponds to the right-most position of the window. The color shade at any point within the square shows the proximity score for two genomic regions: the region where a vertical line drawn from that point intersects with the diagonal, and the region where a horizontal line from that point intersects with the diagonal. A point directly on the diagonal shows the score for how proximal a region is to itself (scores on the diagonal are usually quite high unless no data are available). A point at the extreme bottom left of the square shows the score for how proximal the left-most position within the window is to the right-most position within the window. In ...
I also agree that bedgraph is the format that would be more helpful for your interests. you can define start and end chromosome positions, plus a value that usually represents coverage, but that you can use it to represent the methylation b values instead. you can still gzip the file, and IGV will still be able to deal with it. a similar approach (reducing file size to improve data storage and make data access faster) would be to transform that bedgraph file to bigwig format using UCSCs bedGraphToBigWig (find it here), which is an indexed binary format that works great on IGV. plus you can apply colors to this track on IGV depending on thresholds, which is useful to detect high and low peaks for instance.. ...
Steven L Mansberger, MD, MPH, discusses the criteria for when to add MIGS to cataract surgery to treat glaucoma: efficacy, cost, and risk of complications. While MIGS 20% success rates seem small, its important to identify those patients who benefi…
While the Government is responsible for setting MBS fees and associated rebates, it cannot compel doctors to observe the MBS fee for a particular service. Medical practitioners are free to set their own value on their services, which may exceed the Medicare rebate and the actual fee is a matter between the patient and their doctor. Practitioners are encouraged to consider the personal circumstances of their patients when determining the fees they charge, and many do so. If a patient is not satisfied with the proposed fee, they can exercise their consumer rights and seek a second opinion if they feel they can secure a better price for a medical service ...
This is the first-ever integrated analysis of the molecular processes that control genome function in an animal, which has the potential to speed understanding of the molecular processes in human cells.
The nucleus in plants and animals is a highly structured organelle containing several well-defined subregions or suborganelles. These include the nucleolus, interphase chromosome territories and coiled bodies. We have visualized transcription sites in plants at both light- and electron-microscopy level by the incorporation of BrUTP. In the nucleolus many dispersed foci are revealed within the dense fibrillar component, each of which probably corresponds to a single gene copy. In the nucleoplasm there are also many dispersed foci of transcription, but not enough to correspond to one site per transcribed gene. We have shown that in wheat, and probably many other plant species, interphase chromosome territories are organized in a very regular way, with all the chromosomes in the Rabl configuration, all the centromeres clustered at the nuclear membrane and all the telomeres located at the nuclear membrane on the opposite side of the nucleus. However, despite this regular, polarized structure, there is no
The spatial arrangement of some genetic elements relative to chromosome territories and in parallel with the cell nucleus was investigated in human lymphocytes. The structure of the chromosome territories was studied in chromosomes containing regions ( clusters) of highly expressed genes (HSA 9, 17) and those without such clusters ( HSA 8, 13). In chromosomes containing highly expressed regions, the elements pertaining to these regions were found close to the centre of the nucleus on the inner sides of chromosome territories; those pertaining to regions with low expression were localized close to the nuclear membrane on the opposite sides of the territories. In chromosomes with generally low expression ( HSA 8, 13), the elements investigated were found symmetrically distributed over the territories. Based on the investigations of the chromosome structure, the following conclusions are suggested: (1) Chromosome territories have a non-random internal 3D structure with defined average mutual ...
Gary Wörtz, MD, asks Ike Ahmed, MD, to share his thoughts on technologies in the pipeline for microinvasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS). Dr. Ahmed provides an overview of surgical techniques and procedures to help alleviate potential uncertainty with these new devices. John Berdahl, MD, also shares his perspective on the exciting state of MIGS innovations.
The NSMC Minimally Invasive Gynecological Surgery (MIGS) program provides screenings and treatment for endometriosis other gynecological conditions.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interphase chromosome profiling a method for conventional banded chromosome analysis using interphase nuclei. AU - Babu, Ramesh. AU - Van Dyke, Daniel L.. AU - Dev, Vaithilingam G.. AU - Koduru, Prasad. AU - Rao, Nagesh. AU - Mitter, Navnit S.. AU - Liu, Mingya. AU - Fuentes, Ernesto. AU - Fuentes, Sarah. AU - Papa, Stephen. PY - 2018/2/1. Y1 - 2018/2/1. N2 - Context.-Chromosome analysis on bone marrow or peripheral blood samples fails in a small proportion of attempts. A method that is more reliable, with similar or better resolution, would be a welcome addition to the armamentarium of the cytogenetics laboratory. Objective.-To develop a method similar to banded metaphase chromosome analysis that relies only on interphase nuclei. Design.-To label multiple targets in an equidistant fashion along the entire length of each chromosome, including landmark subtelomere and centromere regions. Each label so generated by using cloned bacterial artificial chromosome probes is molecularly ...
A report is presented on the advantages of the rapid interphase chromosome assay (RICA) and the difficulties that may be met while implementing this method for application in biological dosimetry. The RICA test can be applied on unstimulated human lymphocytes; this is an advantage in comparison with the dicentric chromosomes or micronucleus tests. In the former two tests, stimulated lymphocytes are examined and hence, 48 h more are needed to obtain cells traversing the cell cycle. Due to the use of unstimulated nondividing cells, higher numbers of cells are available for RICA analysis than for dicentric chromosomes or micronuclei tests. Moreover, the method can be applied after exposure to ionizing radiation doses in excess of 5 Gy. Such doses cause a significant cell cycle delay or result in the loss of G2 phase and mitotic cells because of apoptosis. Therefore, the traditional biodosimetry based on the evaluation of the incidence of damage to chromosomes is very difficult to carry out. This is ...
The three-dimensional (3D) organization of the genome (chromatin) plays an important role in key cellular processes such as DNA replication, repair, transcription [1], and epigenetic inheritance [2]. Links between chromatin architecture and diseases such as cancer are being established [3]. Unlike most proteins that adopt the same unique 3D shapes in all cells, the conformational states of the chromatin fiber are not nearly as compact or ordered and are stochastic to some degree. Remarkably, several features of chromatin folding appear to be universal. Chromosomal territories, in which each chromosome occupies a distinct region of the nucleus, have been observed in numerous organisms and cell types, such as yeast [4], human [5], D. melanogaster (fruit fly) [6-8], mouse [9], and Arabidopsis [10]. Chromosome interactions, both within (intra) chromosomes and between (inter) chromosomes, have been observed microscopically [6, 8] and inferred using cross-linking techniques [11] such as the Hi-C ...
Glaucoma surgery: Dr. Weiner specializes in glaucoma (and cataract) consultation, laser and surgical therapy. He thus routinely develops opportunities to perform clinical research particularly in glaucoma surgery and has published multiple peer-reviewed papers on this subject. Dr. Weiner particularly focuses on surgical technique modifications in glaucoma tube shunt implantation in an effort to prevent consequent corneal failure and thereby increase the safety of this major glaucoma surgery. He was recently invited to give a talk at the American Glaucoma Society 2017 Annual Meeting documenting his efforts on this subject. Dr. Weiner also specializes in MIGS (minimally invasive glaucoma surgery), giving him opportunities to evaluate and compare the different MIGS available in terms of efficacy and safety. Again, he has published on this subject, and is now designing prospective clinical comparisons of various MIGS ...
The spatial organization of the genome is intimately linked to its biological function, yet our understanding of higher order genomic structure is coarse, fragmented and incomplete. In the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, interphase chromosomes occupy distinct chromosome territories, and numerous models have been proposed for how chromosomes fold within chromosome territories. These models, however, provide only few mechanistic details about the relationship between higher order chromatin structure and genome function. Recent advances in genomic technologies have led to rapid advances in the study of three-dimensional genome organization. In particular, Hi-C has been introduced as a method for identifying higher order chromatin interactions genome wide. Here we investigate the three-dimensional organization of the human and mouse genomes in embryonic stem cells and terminally differentiated cell types at unprecedented resolution. We identify large, megabase-sized local chromatin interaction domains, ...
This is BJ thanks goes into our shows podge yes if youre sick of all things Kiki you should check out my other podcasts. BJ Shays geek nation we have new episodes every day and you can check it out at DJD animation dot com. The drivers license is important city get back and forth to work did you kiss this girl and I can afford to daycare he delights as has been suspended because you cant get your tickets you can do any of those things lets talk about chapter thirteen bankruptcy and everything is going to be discharged but they can be dealt with the jumped thirteen case when I come in for free consultation. Jack do you choose to make all the difference youre getting directly going on the road and lets designer Planned Parenthood to restore your license and feeling. Im attorney terms anyway please contact me dead choose the right chapter dot com. Choose the right chapter dot com. Thats why IK ISW. Seattle. To this point she says that she was fired. Because she was complaining about a ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in chromosome organization and biogenesis (sensu Bacteria) pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
The annual Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas officially opens its doors today and were live from just off the strip because A.I. and robots are the future... and the future is NOW, sheeple! Thats right, we sent our guys BJ Shea and Steve Migs to cover all of the crazy, wild tech thatll soon... Read More ...
Comorbidity of glaucoma poses some increased risks for cataract surgery, but even when there are intraoperative complications during the lens removal procedure, it is almost always possible to still add micro-invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS), said Reay H. Brown, MD. ...
Emmerich, Patricia; Loos, Peter; Jauch, Anna; Hopman, Anton H. N.; Wiegant, Joop; Higgins, Michael J.; White, Bradley N.; Van Der Ploeg, Mels; Cremer, Christoph und Cremer, Thomas (1989): Double in situ hybridization in combination with digital image analysis: A new approach to study interphase chromosome topography. In: Experimental Cell Research, Vol. 181, Nr. 1: S. 126-140 [PDF, 8MB] ...
Complete information for BOD1 gene (Protein Coding), Biorientation Of Chromosomes In Cell Division 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Looking for chromosome congression? Find out information about chromosome congression. congression Explanation of chromosome congression
Standard glaucoma surgeries, trabeculectomy and external tube-shunts are major and sometimes necessary surgeries. While they are very often effective at lowering eye pressure and preventing progression of glaucoma, they have a long list of potential complications. Many patients require these procedures and they have been utilized successfully for many years for preventing further vision loss and progression of glaucoma. More recently, the MIGS group of operations have been developed to reduce some of the risk associated with traditional glaucoma surgeries. MIGS procedures work by using microscopic-sized equipment or implants, lasers and tiny incisions. While they reduce the incidence of complications, some degree of effectiveness is also traded for the increased safety.. Many of the MIGS group of operations are new innovations and some have been mainstays of treatment for sometime like ECP. At Glaucoma Center of Michigan, we are constantly striving to learn the latest developments and most ...
Context. The outer surfaces of kinetochores expand in early mitosis to form crescent-shaped structures thought to play an important role in forming proper chromosome-spindle attachments1. The crescent was named the "fibrous corona" for its distinctive appearance in early electron micrographs2. E.D. Salmon and colleagues demonstrated microtubule-dependent expansion and compaction in pioneering work3, but the fibrous coronas complete molecular composition and proof of its predicted functional role have both proven somewhat elusive. Existing data on recruitment kinetics of various kinetochore components, along with structural predictions, hinted at starring roles for the ROD-ZW10-Zwilch (RZZ) complex and the dynein adaptor Spindly4.. Key findings. Sacristan et al., working in cell lines, first show that Spindly recruits dynein via three independent motifs to compact coronas. In vitro, purified RZZ complexes polymerise into filaments only in the presence of Spindly. In cells, Spindly uses its ...
Three-dimensional interphase organization of metazoan genomes has been linked to cellular identity. However, the principles governing 3D interphase genome architecture and its faithful transmission through disruptive events of cell-cycle, like mitosis, are not fully understood. By using Brownian dynamics simulations of Drosophila chromosome 3R up to time-scales of minutes, we show that chromatin binding profile of Polycomb-repressive-complex-1 robustly predicts a sub-set of topologically associated domains (TADs), and inclusion of other factors recapitulates the profile of all TADs, as observed experimentally. Our simulations show that chromosome 3R attains interphase organization from mitotic state by a two-step process in which formation of local TADs is followed by long-range interactions. Our model also explains statistical features and tracks the assembly kinetics of polycomb subnuclear clusters. In conclusion, our approach can be used to predict structural and kinetic features of 3D ...
Having explored the various options available for micro-invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS), I now use several devices with success. One MIGS device (XEN Gel Stent, Allergan) differs from the others in that it drains aqueous into the subconjunctival space and can be performed as a stand-alone procedure without cataract surgery or combined with cataract surgery.
Please share your boss to call me at 972-768-2591, and I will produce him understand what a dumba__ he is. I suffered optical migraines for several years and would actually lose my hallucination for several hours at a time. Since then I enjoy studied all I casn roughly speaking natural tablets. You can alleviate the pain sometimes by smoking a cigarette, the capillary in your brain constrict and dwindling the blood flow which triggers the mig. the nicotene dialates those caps, and increases blood flow. Also you can work your upper gums as far back surrounded by the back as possible, beside your finger or with a swab near novacaine or toothache med, there is a pressure point at hand, (a sympathetic reflex) that when stimulated can diminish the pain, also some type of clamp on your earlobes, such as a clothespin, or pressure applies to the basis of the skull on both sides can help, I discovered that my migs be trigged by MSG, but I also had a dietary negative amount, migs are often a precursor to ...
Model Scope of Clinical Practice Ophthalmology - As an alternative to traditional glaucoma treatments, minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) has shown promise for the future management of glaucoma. The cardinal features of MIGS , as proposed by Saheb and Ahmed in 2012 [5], are:
How do successful ASCs stay profitable while providing the highest quality care? In the May issue of The Ophthalmic ASC magazine youll learn about the benefits of case costing and ways to identify trends, savings, and hidden expenses that affect your bottom line. Well-informed cataract patients are demanding the latest technology, but must your center have a femtosecond laser to attract patients? Hear what adopters have to say. Find out why one surgeon was "shocked" by the results of the latest OOSS IOL Survey, review new options for pupil dilation during cataract surgery and get the latest on CPT coding for complications of MIGS surgery. All of this and more is waiting for you in this months Ophthalmic ASC.. To view the May 2017 issue and other recent interactive issues click on the month and year below:. May 2017. February 2017. October 2016 August 2016. May 2016. To view archived issues of the OASC, including related supplements, by month, year and/or featured article, click on ARCHIVED ...
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It has been a puzzle how decondensed interphase chromosomes remain essentially unknotted. The natural expectation is that in the presence of type II DNA topoisomerases that permit passages of double-stranded DNA regions through each other, all chromosomes should reach the state of topological equilibrium. The topological equilibrium in highly crowded interphase chromosomes forming chromosome territories would result in formation of highly knotted chromatin fibres. However, Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C) methods revealed that the decay of contact probabilities with the genomic distance in interphase chromosomes is practically the same as in the crumpled globule state that is formed when long polymers condense without formation of any knots. To remove knots from highly crowded chromatin, one would need an active process that should not only provide the energy to move the system from the state of topological equilibrium but also guide topoisomerase-mediated passages in such a way th
Recombination events have important uses in experimental and medical genetics. They can be used to order and determine distances between loci (chromosome positions) by genetic mapping techniques. Loci that are on the same chromosome are all physically linked to one another, but they can be separated by crossing over. Examining the frequency with which two loci are separated allows a calculation of their distance: The closer they are, the more likely they are to remain together. Multiple comparisons of crossing over among multiple loci allows these loci to be mapped, or placed in relative position to one another.. Recombination frequency in one region of the genome will be influenced by other, nearby recombination events, and these differences can complicate genetic mapping. The term interference describes this phenomenon. In positive interference, the presence of one crossover in a region decreases the probability that another crossover will occur nearby. Negative interference, the opposite of ...
Background: The population-wise variation in proneness of Colorectal Cancer (CRC) has been studied in the manuscript. A population wise analysis of responsiveness towards colorectal cancer is carried out with genetic, epigenetic, metagenomic and environmental factors associated with APC mutation mainly responsible for CRC among eight different populations. Methods and Material: The APC mutation has been obtained using the human gene mutation database-HGMD and the international cancer genome consortium-ICGC Data Portal. The epigenetic factors affecting colon cancer have been identified through EpiGRAPH tool. The human oral microbiome database (HOMD) and comparative toxicogenomics database (CTD) are used to find the metagenomic factors affecting CRC. Results: Variants of APC gene from the selected ethnic classes chosen from Argentina, France, Germany, India, Poland, Romania, UK and USA were characterized, where the chromosome positions 112102966-112177228 are found to be affected. It has ...
Fibroids also known as uterine leiomyomas, are non-cancerous tumors coming from the myometrium (the muscle layer) of the uterus. Up to four out of five women have fibroids, although most have no symptoms and do not need any treatment. Fibroids usually shrink after menopause. The gynecologic surgeons at North Shore Medical Centers Minimally Invasive Gynecological Surgery (MIGS) program can provide patients with screenings and treatment for fibroids ...
Research staff Fredy Barneche CNRS Research Director - Tel. : +33 (0) 144 32 35 28 Anne-Flore Deton Research assistant - Tel. : +33 (0) 144 32
Mariëtte P. C. van de Corput, Ernie de Boer, Tobias A. Knoch, Wiggert A. van Cappellen, Adrian Quintanilla, Leanna Ferrand, Frank G. Grosveld ...
The Role of the Chromokinesin Kid in Chromosome Alignment and Spindle Assembly in Mammalian Mitosis A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Biochemistry by Aime Levesque DARTMOUTH COLLEGE Hanover, New Hampshire May 21, 2003 Examining Committee: D?ane Compton (chair) .-tI EliZabeth Smith Sharon Bickel Taron Kapoor Carol Folt, D~a~ 2,i Graduate Studies ...
Benign multiple sclerosis (BMS) occurs in about 15% of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) that over time do not develop significant neurological disability. The molecular events associated with BMS are not clearly understood. This study sought to underlie the biological mechanisms associated with BMS. Blood samples obtained from a cohort of 31 patients with BMS and 36 patients with RRMS were applied for gene expression microarray analysis using HG-U133A-2 array (Affymetrix). Data were analyzed by Partek and pathway reconstruction was performed by Ingenuity for the most informative genes (MIGs). We identified a differing gene expression signature of 406 MIGs between BMS patients, mean±SE age 44.5±1.5 years, 24 females, 7 males, EDSS 1.9±0.2, disease duration 17.0±1.3 years, and RRMS patients, age 40.3±1.8 years, 24 females, 12 males, EDSS 3.5±0.2, disease duration 10.9±1.4 years. The signature was enriched by genes related RNA polymerase I (POL-1) transcription, general
Xkid es una cromoquinesina del sistema de Xenopus, necesaria para el alineamiento de los cromosomas en la placa metafásica y para la transición entre la meiosis I y meiosis II en los oócitos. El objectivo de este trabajo era estudiar la regulación de Xkid por fosforilación en los oócitos y en el extracto de huevos de Xenopus. Para poder cumplirlo se estableció un método para la expresión de proteínas añadiendo al extracto de huevos ARN mensajeros sintetizados in vitro. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que Xkid es eficientemente fosforilada en el sitio cdk1 durante la meiosis y la mitosis. Aunque la forma de Xkid fosforilada se localiza eficientemente a nivel de los cromosomas mitóticos, esta fosforilación no parece tener ningún papel regulador sobre esta localización. En cambio, parece interferir con la localización de Xkid sobre los microtúbulos mitóticos. El efecto dominante negativo de la forma de Xkid que mimetiza la fosforilación durante la formación del huso mitótico, ...
Chromatin fiber in interphase nucleus represents effectively a very long polymer packed in a restricted volume. Although polymer models of chromatin organization were considered, most of them disregard the fact that DNA has to stay not too entangled in order to function properly. One polymer model with no entanglements is the melt of unknotted unconcatenated rings. Extensive simulations indicate that rings in the melt at large length (monomer numbers) $N$ approach the compact state, with gyration radius scaling as $N^{1/3}$, suggesting every ring being compact and segregated from the surrounding rings. The segregation is consistent with the known phenomenon of chromosome territories. Surface exponent $\beta$ (describing the number of contacts between neighboring rings scaling as $N^{\beta}$) appears only slightly below unity, $\beta \approx 0.95$. This suggests that the loop factor (probability to meet for two monomers linear distance $s$ apart) should decay as $s^{-\gamma}$, where $\gamma = 2 - ...
Dr. Kobor focuses his research on the environmental and biological factors that affect genome function and gene expression, with a particular emphasis on how DNA is packaged. Dr. Kobor is investigating how childhood experiences can "get under the skin" via epigenetic marks to affect health and behaviour across the life course. His multidisciplinary "society to cell" approach integrates gene-environment research with a focus on developmental origins of health and disease.. ...
Wednesday, December 22, 2010 - This is the first-ever integrated analysis of the molecular processes that control genome function in an animal, which has the potential to speed understanding of the molecular processes in human cells.
sundoc Migration; Titel: Chromosome painting and arrangement of interphase chromosome territories in Arabidopsis thaliana, Verfasser: Pecinka, Ales, 2005 ; Halle, Saale : Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek
Zhimulev IF, Zykova TYu, Goncharov FP, Khoroshko VA, Demakova OV, Semeshin VF, Pokholkova GV, Boldyreva LV, Demidova DS, Levitsky VG, Demakov SA, Belyaeva ES. Genetic organization of interphase chromosome bands and interbands in Drosophila melanogaster. (doi: 10.1007/s10577-014-9447-3) Chromosome Res 23: 409-410, 2015. ...
Hall 16 / Stand D02 / Booth 17). InteGen develops innovative, clinically useful, and cost-effective DNA FISH probes for the cytogenetics community. We offer multi-color metaphase and interphase chromosome profiling, including our Rapid FISH with 15-min hybridization.. Read more ...
The wounds took a couple of weeks to heal. Then, after deciding that you were finally healthy enough, I scheduled a round of vaccinations (including that for distemper)-your first. You must have hated me at the time, but to clear things up, I did it because I thought it would mean that you were soon going to be less prone to getting sick, that we were both finally going to enjoy more hours of sleep at night, that I was soon going to be able to take you again for a nice, pleasant Sunday walk in the park, and put your stuff in my backpack, and buy us a bottle of water from a concession stand in Luneta, and treat you, if you behaved, to a lick of ice cream. I was wrong. Before I could even plan a trip to the park, you began to lose your hair again. This time it was caused by sarcoptic mange, a kind of mite infestation, from which you have been trying to recover these last eight to ten weeks, including the days before I left. (Thank goodness for the shampoo that at least keeps the mange under control ...
DNA must allow for various processing events; it is transcribed into RNA to make the stored information available to the cell; it is replicated and identical copies of itself are equally distributed to its daughter cells; it is frequently repaired, when damaged by endogenous or exogenous sources. All these processes, whether concerning condensed or uncondensed, mitotic or meiotic chromosomes, make them highly flexible and dynamic structures, which change their nucleotide composition as well as their morphology and position.. Regions on chromosomes that undergo replication or repair are transported to the respective centers of activity, replication factories and repair centers. Likewise, interphase chromosomes or parts thereof shuttle between internal transcriptionally active nuclear domains and the nuclear periphery, depending on their transcriptional activity in certain developmental stages or tissues. The most dramatic chromosome movements occur during mitosis and meiosis when daughter ...
DNA must allow for various processing events; it is transcribed into RNA to make the stored information available to the cell; it is replicated and identical copies of itself are equally distributed to its daughter cells; it is frequently repaired, when damaged by endogenous or exogenous sources. All these processes, whether concerning condensed or uncondensed, mitotic or meiotic chromosomes, make them highly flexible and dynamic structures, which change their nucleotide composition as well as their morphology and position.. Regions on chromosomes that undergo replication or repair are transported to the respective centers of activity, replication factories and repair centers. Likewise, interphase chromosomes or parts thereof shuttle between internal transcriptionally active nuclear domains and the nuclear periphery, depending on their transcriptional activity in certain developmental stages or tissues. The most dramatic chromosome movements occur during mitosis and meiosis when daughter ...
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I have been taking the 5-HTP for several months now, and I wouldnt give it up for the world. I know that most if not all of the sites say that you can not take it with an anti-depresseant, but I was on one temporarily and the drugist said it was fine. When in doubt about taking a supplement, I find that the best thing to do is take a complete list of your meds and supplements to your drugist and ask questions. If they dont know the answer right off the top of their heads they are ususally willing to look it up in their database and answer all of your questions ...
Music evolves as composers, performers, and consumers favor some musical variants over others. To investigate the role of consumer selection, we constructed a Darwinian music engine consisting of a population of short audio loops that sexually reproduce and mutate. This population evolved for 2,513 generations under the selective influence of 6,931 consumers who rated the loops aesthetic qualities. We found that the loops quickly evolved into music attributable, in part, to the evolution of aesthetically pleasing chords and rhythms. Later, however, evolution slowed. Applying the Price equation, a general description of evolutionary processes, we found that this stasis was mostly attributable to a decrease in the fidelity of transmission. Our experiment shows how cultural dynamics can be explained in terms of competing evolutionary forces ...
For 20 years I have effectively employed endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation (ECP) as a primary or secondary line of glaucoma treatment. ECP is a minimally invasive glaucoma surgical (MIGS) option capable of reducing IOP in the majority of patients and can potentially eliminate the need for drainage surgery, including trabeculectomy (trab) and glaucoma drainage devices (GDDs). ...
MENLO PARK, CA--(Marketwired - October 22, 2015) - Transcend Medical, Inc., a pioneer of minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS), today announced the submission to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the final module of the companys Premarket Approval (PMA) application for the CyPass® Micro-Stent.The CyPass Micro-Stent is a...
Kids - MedHelps Kids Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Kids. Find Kids information, treatments for Kids and Kids symptoms.
Map position 3p14.1". Chromosome Res. 6 (8): 663. doi:10.1023/A:1009230216005. PMID 10099884. Lebeda RA, Haun RS (1999). " ... Conflicting Map positions at 3p14 or 3p21 have been reported for this gene. ARF4 has been shown to interact with Epidermal ... "Localization of human ARF2 and NCK genes and 13 other NotI-linking clones to chromosome 3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization ...
L660 is found at position 12511525 on the Y chromosome and is a change from C to A. L662 is found at position 16446702 and is a ... Z1903 is found at chromosome position 15106340 and represents a mutation from A to G. Z724 is found at position 6895545 and ... L1264 is at position 7704368, mutation A to G; L1265 at position 12741229, mutation A to G; and L1268 at position 20081319, T ... It represents a mutation from A to G and is found at position 16903082 on the Y chromosome. Most, if not all, these L640+ men ...
position of gene on chromosome *↑ Whitehouse H.L.K. 1965. Towards an understanding of the mechanism of heredity. Arnold, London ... in practice the gamete chromosomes are not all the same as the parents' chromosomes. This is because bits of chromosomes have ... The two chromosomes in a pair are not identical because at any particular locus[4] on the chromosomes there may be different ... The chromosomes are divided so that there are equal amounts on either side of the cell. As there are 46 chromosomes in a human ...
2000). "Human NRG3 gene Map position 10q22-q23". Chromosome Res. 8 (6): 560. doi:10.1023/A:1009232025144. PMID 11032326. ... 2004). "The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 10". Nature. 429 (6990): 375-81. doi:10.1038/nature02462 ... "Fine mapping on chromosome 10q22-q23 implicates Neuregulin 3 in schizophrenia". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 84 (1): 21-34. doi:10.1016/j ...
The gene's position is on chromosome 11q12-q13. The DDB1 gene encodes the large subunit of DNA damage-binding protein, a ...
... map position 6q21". Chromosome Res. 7 (1): 77. doi:10.1023/A:1009283530544. PMID 10219736. Skowronek MH, Rotter M, Haas IG (Nov ...
Differences in number and position of satellites. Satellites are small bodies attached to a chromosome by a thin thread. ... The karyotype of humans includes only 46 chromosomes.[15][16] The great apes have 48 chromosomes. Human chromosome 2 is now ... Chromosome abnormalitiesEdit. Main article: Chromosome abnormalities. Chromosome abnormalities can be numerical, as in the ... This would give rise to a chromosome abnormality such as an extra chromosome or one or more chromosomes lost. Abnormalities in ...
The human TMCO6 is found on chromosome 5 (position 5q31.3). The entire gene spans 5568 base pairs on the positive strand of ... chromosome 5 (140019113-140024689bp) but is alternately spliced into different variants. There are three known variants for ...
The TMEM106C gene is located on the long arm of the 12th chromosome. It is found at position 12q13.1. This gene spans from ... 48357225 to 48362667 on chromosome 12. This gene is in between COL2A1, the human type II collagen gene, and VDR, the human ... Hybrid Mapping of 18 Positional and Physiological Candidate Genes for Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita on Porcine Chromosome ...
It is located on chromosome 6 on position 22.3 (6q22.3). The mature mRNA sequence is 2498 base-pairs long with 5 exons and 4 ... Chromosome 6 open reading frame 62 (C6orf62), also known as X-trans-activated protein 12 (XTP12), is a gene that encodes a ... "C6orf62 chromosome 6 open reading frame 62 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2017-05-08. ... There is a domain of unknown function (DUF4566) present in all three variants and spans positions 1-226 on the main transcript ...
... is located on the short arm of Chromosome 4. It is found at position 4p14. It has four known transcripts, only two of ... Cytogenetic band: 4p14 The image above shows chromosome four and the various gene locations on it. TMEM156 can be seen at the ... C12orf55-chromosome 12 open reading frame 55 FAM92B-family with sequence similarity 92, member B NUGGC-nuclear GTPase, germinal ... B-cells may function in B-cell activation and differentiation MEI1-meiosis inhibitor 1 required for normal meiotic chromosome ...
"Human ALY/BEF gene Map position 17q25.3". Chromosome Res. 8 (6): 562. doi:10.1023/A:1009236126053. PMID 11032328. "Entrez Gene ...
The PTGDR2 gene is located on human chromosome 11 at position q12.2 (i.e. 11q12.2). It consists of two introns and three exons ...
2001). "Human COP9 subunit 8 homolog gene SGN8 Map position 2q37". Chromosome Res. 8 (6): 559. doi:10.1023/A:1009279908306. ...
Jeppsson K, Kanno T, Shirahige K, Sjögren C (2014). "The maintenance of chromosome structure: positioning and functioning of ... In Drosophila, condensin II subunits contribute to the dissolution of polytene chromosomes and the formation of chromosome ... "Condensin II promotes the formation of chromosome territories by inducing axial compaction of polyploid interphase chromosomes ... On the other hand, condensin I is present in the cytoplasm during interphase, and gains access to chromosomes only after the ...
GPR99 (OXGR1) is localized to human chromosome 13 at position 13q32.2; it codes for a cellular G protein coupled receptor ...
... and OPN1MW are on the X chromosome at position Xq28. They are in a tandem array, composed of a single OPN1LW gene which ... OPN1LW have tyrosine at position 277 and 309, and threonine at position 285. The identity of the amino acids at these positions ... OPN1LW is a gene on the X chromosome that encodes for long wave sensitive (LWS) opsin, or red cone photopigment. It is ... This would create colour vision deficiencies if either chromosome were passed onto a male offspring. The LWS type I opsin is a ...
"Telomere-associated chromosome breakage in fission yeast results in variegated expression of adjacent genes". EMBO J. 13: 3801 ... In 1989 he took a position as an independent visiting scientist at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratories for 18 months before joining ... "A fission yeast chromosome can replicate autonomously in mouse cells". Cell. 50: 391. 1987. PMID 3475186. "Introduction of ... "Live analysis of lagging chromosomes during anaphase and their effect on spindle elongation rate in fission yeast". J Cell Sci ...
The telomeres at the ends of the chromosomes, thought to be involved in ageing/senescence, consist of repetitive DNA, with the ... Microsatellite mutation rates vary with base position relative to the microsatellite, repeat type, and base identity.[17] ... This is likely due to homologous chromosomes with arms of unequal lengths causing instability during meiosis.[19] ... from the non-mutated sister chromosome), and the individual may then falsely appear to be homozygous. This can cause confusion ...
Ono A, Kono K, Ikebe D, Muto A, Sun J, Kobayashi M, Ueda K, Melo JV, Igarashi K, Tashiro S (Jan 2007). "Nuclear positioning of ... Chromosomes & Cancer. 32 (4): 353-63. doi:10.1002/gcc.1200. PMID 11746976. Muto A, Tashiro S, Tsuchiya H, Kume A, Kanno M, Ito ... "Integration of Epstein-Barr virus into chromosome 6q15 of Burkitt lymphoma cell line (Raji) induces loss of BACH2 expression". ... "Cloning and expression of human B cell-specific transcription factor BACH2 mapped to chromosome 6q15". Oncogene. 19 (33): 3739- ...
2014). "Chromosome position effects on gene expression in Escherichia coli K-12". Nucleic Acids Research. 42 (18): 11383-11392 ... The bacterial chromosome is present only in one copy per cell, but there can still be variation in gene dosage due to DNA ... slight gene dosage differences are responsible for variation in gene expression depending on the position on the chromosome. ... In Down syndrome, the gene expression on chromosome 21 has increased 50%, and this results in significant health and mental ...
Rs6258 also called Ser156Pro is at position 7631360 on the Chromosome 17. Rs727428 position 7634474 is in several percent of ... The gene for SHBG is called Shbg located on chromosome 17 on the short arm between the bands 17p12→p13. Overlapping on the ... The two different orientations change a loop over the entrance to the pocket and the position of trp84 (in humans). Thus the ... In humans common polymorphisms include the following: Rs6259, also called Asp327Asn location 7633209 on Chromosome 17, results ...
"Showing 9.782 kbp from Chr7, positions 129,233,084 to 129,242,865". The Chromosome 7 Annotation Project. June 2004. Landmark or ... Later assigned the official symbol SSMEM1, the gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 7 (7q32.2) on the sense strand in ... 2003). "Human Chromosome 7: DNA Sequence and Biology". Science. 300 (5620). doi:10.1126/science.1083423. PMC 2882961 . "SSMEM1 ... The gene and intron-exon structure were first predicted through analysis of the complete sequence of human chromosome 7, its ...
The chromosome number of guar seeds is 2n=14.[4] The seeds of guar beans have a very remarkable characteristic. Its kernel ... Its fine leaves have an elongated oval shape (5 to 10 cm length) and of alternate position. Clusters of flowers grow in the ...
The map shows the relative positions of allelic characteristics on the second Drosophila chromosome. The distance between the ... the trait was probably carried on one of the sex chromosomes, and (3) other genes were probably carried on specific chromosomes ... In his famous Fly Room at Columbia University, Morgan demonstrated that genes are carried on chromosomes and are the mechanical ... In Evolution and Adaptation (1903), he argued the anti-Darwinist position that selection could never produce wholly new species ...
The map shows the relative positions of allelic characteristics on the second Drosophila chromosome. The distance between the ... The essence of all genome mapping is to place a collection of molecular markers onto their respective positions on the genome. ... The closer two markers are on the chromosome, the more likely they are to be passed on to the next generation together. ... This was the first successful gene mapping work and provides important evidence for the Boveri-Sutton chromosome theory of ...
The institute is also the first develop a test to detect chromosome translocations in human embryos to increase the success ... and Otolaryngology/Facial Plastic Surgery with more than 150 positions. The Medical Center is affiliated with New Jersey ...
Rs6258 also called Ser156Pro is at position 7631360 on the Chromosome 17. ... The gene for SHBG is called Shbg located on chromosome 17[11] on the short arm between the bands 17p12→p13.[12] Overlapping on ... Rs727428 position 7634474 is in several percent of humans.[16]. (TAAAA)(n) is five base pairs that repeats a variable number of ... The two different orientations change a loop over the entrance to the pocket and the position of trp84 (in humans). Thus the ...
... indicated by the position of the circle). The range encompassing the two most likely map positions of the pAtT12 insert ... The extra telocentric chromosome has two telomeres: one identical to that present on the full length chromosomes, and a new ... This chromosome undergoes breakage, followed by rearrangement or chromosome loss; these events can be detected by karyotype ... Moreover, since the telocentric chromosome is free to recombine with the full length chromosomes, and the telotrisomic stocks ...
In most organisms the position of the centromere is not determined by the sequence of the DNA building blocks, i.e. the DNA ... The step from a DNA-identified centromere in bakers yeast, in which the position "is set in stone", to a protein-defined ... In most organisms the position of the centromere is not determined by the DNA sequence. Scientists from the Max Planck ... This discovery may help to further the development of artificial human chromosomes, which could be used for gene therapies in ...
... Author(s). Zlotina, A.; Galkina, S.A.; Krasikova, A.; Crooijmans, R.P.M ... This makes it difficult to determine centromere positions in the genome sequence assembly. Using giant lampbrush chromosomes ... avian lampbrush chromosomes - sequence - genome - identification - fish Abstract. Despite the progress of the chicken (Gallus ... This corresponds to the gap between 2 supercontigs at the 2.4-Mb position in the current GGA3 sequence assembly (build 2.1). ...
... introgressed rye chromosomes or chromosome arms occupied discrete positions in the Rabls orientation similar to chromosomes of ... Improper positioning in the nuclei probably impacts the ability of introgressed chromosomes to migrate into the telomere ... The frequencies of such abnormal telomere positioning were similar to the frequencies of out-of-bouquet telomere positioning at ... This study indicates that improper positioning of alien chromosomes that leads to reduced pairing is not a strictly meiotic ...
Positions within 4 Å of ponatinib were designated for structural alignment using only the Cα atoms. Native positions Y253 and ... BCR-ABL1 compound mutations combining key kinase domain positions confer clinical resistance to ponatinib in Ph chromosome- ... BCR-ABL1 Compound Mutations Combining Key Kinase Domain Positions Confer Clinical Resistance to Ponatinib in Ph Chromosome- ... BCR-ABL1 Compound Mutations Combining Key Kinase Domain Positions Confer Clinical Resistance to Ponatinib in Ph Chromosome- ...
Chromosome. Chromosome position. Protein classi. Protein class the gene product belongs to according to selected gene lists. ... Chromosome. External id. - DATA AVAILABILITY -. Has protein data. - DATA RELIABILITY -. Reliability score tissue (IHC). ... Chromosome. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. MT. Unmapped. X. Y. ...
Version 3.0.1 and laterUnable to Extract Variant into VCF File for a Specific Chromosome Position ... Unable to Extract Variant into VCF File for a Specific Chromosome Position (Doc ID 1999880.1). Last updated on MARCH 08, 2017 ... When attempting to extract the variants into VCF file for the specific chromosome position, 0 variants are being returned.. The ... Genotype Genomic Position is chr1:16948379. * Variant Genotypes Chormosome is 1. * Variant Genotypes Position is 16948379. * ...
They have identical chromosome number (2n = 78) and show a high degree of synt ... and chromosomes with centromeres shifted along chromosomes (chromosomes 1, 3, and 4). Surprisingly, these chromosomes have ... On the positions of centromeres in chicken lampbrush chromosomes. Chromosome Res 14:777-789PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... They have identical chromosome number (2n = 78) and show a high degree of synteny. Centromere positions on the majority of ...
We have introduced large structural changes into Arabidopsis chromosomes and report their effects on crossover positioning. The ... changes in the physical structure of the chromosome can have large effects on the positioning of COs within that chromosome. ... The positioning of crossovers is known to be influenced by both exogenous and endogenous factors as well as structural features ... In the majority of cases analyzed, the total recombination frequency over the chromosomes was unchanged. The loss of crossovers ...
Motile kinetochores and polar ejection forces dictate chromosome position on the vertebrate mitotic spindle. CL Rieder, ED ... Motile kinetochores and polar ejection forces dictate chromosome position on the vertebrate mitotic spindle ... Polar microtubule arrays have been shown to resist chromosome poleward motion and to push chromosomes away from the pole. These ... We argue that hypotheses for how chromosomes achieve a metaphase alignment, that are based solely on a tug-of-war between ...
Lack of the H-NS Protein Results in Extended and Aberrantly Positioned DNA during Chromosome Replication and Segregation in ... Lack of the H-NS protein results in extended and aberrantly positioned DNA during chromosome replication and segregation in ... Lack of the H-NS Protein Results in Extended and Aberrantly Positioned DNA during Chromosome Replication and Segregation in ... Lack of the H-NS Protein Results in Extended and Aberrantly Positioned DNA during Chromosome Replication and Segregation in ...
To properly position the nucleus or move chromosomes within the nucleus, the cell must specify the outer surface of the nucleus ... A nuclear-envelope bridge positions nuclei and moves chromosomes Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Proteins that are required for nuclear positioning also function during chromosome movement and pairing in meiosis. Defects in ... HIM-8 binds to the X chromosome pairing center and mediates chromosome-specific meiotic synapsis. Cell 123, 1051-1063. ...
... Genes and ... Amino Acid Position 11 of HLA-DRβ1 is a Major Determinant of Chromosome 6p Association with Ulcerative Colitis. ... This amino acid position was also the most significantly UC-associated amino acid in omnibus tests (P = 2.68×\(10^{-13}\)). ... The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6p is an established risk locus for ulcerative colitis (UC) and ...
"Breakpoint mapping positions the callipyge gene within a 450-kilobase chromosome segment containing the DLK1 and GTL2 genes, ... Breakpoint mapping positions the callipyge gene within a 450-kilobase chromosome segment containing the DLK1 and GTL2 genes. ... Breakpoint mapping positions the callipyge gene within a 450-kilobase chromosome segment containing the DLK1 and GTL2 genes. ... Breakpoint mapping positions the callipyge gene within a 450-kilobase chromosome segment... Berghmans, Stéphane ; Segers, Karin ...
x250) Chromosome Figure 1-3 Metaphase Darkly stained chromosomes positioned by microtubular framework to align at cell equator. ... x250) Chromosome Figure 1-3 Metaphase Darkly stained chromosomes positioned by microtubular framework to align at cell equator ... Chapter 14 Notes BIOB11 Prophase Lecture 17 Cell Cycle II Chromosome condensation and ...
GPS: a constraint-based gene position procurement in chromosome for solving large-scale multiobjective multiple knapsack ... GPS: a constraint-based gene position procurement in chromosome for solving large-scale multiobjective multiple knapsack ... To overcome this issue, gene position-based suppression (GPS) has been modeled and embedded as a new phase in a classical GA. ... Costantini F D, Roberts S, Evans E P, Burtenshaw M D, Lacy E. Position Effects and Gene Expression in the Transgenic Mouse, ...
Each chromosome occupies an individual, spatially-limited space with a preferential position relative to the nuclear centre ... We show that some pairs of chromosomes and pairs of 10 Mbp long chromosome regions are significantly enriched in the expression ... The functions of genes involved in inter-chromosome co-expression relationships are non-random and predominantly related to ... chromosome territory interactions in particular. We used human gene expression datasets, both from a tissue expression atlas ...
... but such position effects are poorly understood in bacteria. Here, us ... the location of a gene on the chromosome is known to affect its expression, ... 300-fold depending on its precise position on the chromosome. At some positions, expression was more than 3-fold higher than at ... Chromosome position effects on gene expression in Escherichia coli K-12.. Research paper by Jack A JA Bryant, Laura E LE ...
Define the following terms: a. chromosome b. chromatin. Human Heredity: Principles and Issues (MindTap Course List) ... The reason why the number and position of the multiple channels often change rapidly. ... Why do the number and position of the multiple channels sometimes change rapidly? ...
Chromosome names and position names in VCF file Dear All I have a vcf file generated through happlotype caller in gatk. The ... I wonder could I create a list contain Chromosome number and a column for position (in build 37) and then I can get a output ... Remove sequences with duplicate chromosome start position I used GALAXY to extract the 1000 bp upstream of all UCSC genes (i.e ... Chromosome Coordinates to Annotation Hello, If I have specific chromosome coordinates, how do I find out if this region is Exon ...
Comparative genomic analysis of T. equi revealed the phylogenetic positioning relative to seven apicomplexan parasites using ... define the phylogenetic position of T. equi relative to sequenced apicomplexan parasites. The known immunodominant proteins, ... chromosomes 1 and 2. The ancestral Theileria chromosome 2 has split to provide elements of T. equi chromosomes 1 and 2. ... S hades of red represent chromosomes 1, shades of yellow represent chromosomes 2, shades of green represent chromosomes 3, and ...
Post-doc position available - chromosome/chromatin biology. Posted by: lncRNA Administrator in Jobs March 26, 2018 0 1,541 ... Post-doc Position Available - Functional Validation of Long Noncoding RNA Associated with Autoimmunity. November 12, 2019 ... Post-doc Position Available - Functional Validation of Long Noncoding RNA Associated with Autoimmunity. November 12, 2019 ... Post-doc Position Available - Functional Validation of Long Noncoding RNA Associated with Autoimmunity. November 12, 2019 ...
Cooperativity in chromosome positioning. One of the more curious phenomena observed during mitotic spindle formation is the ` ... Congression becomes a mechanism to facilitate bi-orientation by positioning mono-oriented sister chromosomes closer to the ... Mono-oriented chromosomes can also use K-fibers of other, bi-oriented, chromosomes resulting in congression before bi- ... Nicklas, R. B. and Kubai, D. F. (1985). Microtubules, chromosome movement, and reorientation after chromosomes are detached ...
", "end_position"), filters = c("chromosome_name", "start", "end"), values = list(positions[,1], positions[,2], positions[,3 ... Read in tab-delimited file with three columns: chromosome number, start position and end position ... function using only chromosome number and chromosome position. I was interested in obtaining the gene names for a set of ... The first contained the chromosome number, followed by the start and end position (in this case they were the same). The ...
Position-Specific Variations in Caenorhabditis Chromosomes. When the distribution of synteny blocks, orthologs, low-stringency ... The relationship of the position of genes on the genetic map to their position on the sequence is superimposed on the y-axis. ... Figure 6. Evolutionary Divergence across C. elegans Chromosome V. Each panel corresponds to a C. elegans chromosome, and the ... elegans chromosome II and C. briggsae supercontig cb25.fpc0058. The next largest blocks are on C. elegans chromosome X, where ...
  • To overcome this issue, gene position-based suppression (GPS) has been modeled and embedded as a new phase in a classical GA. This phase works on the genes of a newly generated individual after the recombination phase to retain the solution vector within its feasible region and to improve the solution vector to attain the optimal solution. (hep.com.cn)
  • The functions of genes involved in inter-chromosome co-expression relationships are non-random and predominantly related to cell-cell communication and reaction to external stimuli. (biomedcentral.com)
  • I have a list of genes for which I need to find their respective location on the chromosome and a. (usegalaxy.org)
  • Therefore comparative genomic analysis of T . equi was undertaken to: 1) identify genes contributing to immune evasion and persistence in equid hosts, 2) identify genes involved in PBMC infection biology and 3) define the phylogenetic position of T . equi relative to sequenced apicomplexan parasites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Comparative genomic analysis of T . equi revealed the phylogenetic positioning relative to seven apicomplexan parasites using deduced amino acid sequences from 150 genes placed it as a sister taxon to Theileria spp . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Centimorgan (cM) positions for genes and markers in MGI are based on linear interpolation using the standard genetic map described in Cox et al. (jax.org)
  • Because researchers use different approaches to genome annotation their predictions of the number of genes on each chromosome varies (for technical details, see gene prediction ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The following is a partial list of genes on human chromosome 16. (wikipedia.org)
  • We analyzed 20 SNPs of 7 neuronal genes in chromosome 18. (psychiatryinvestigation.org)
  • However, deletion of combinations of CAC and HIR genes also affected the growth rate and in some cases caused partial temperature sensitivity, suggesting that global aspects of chromosome function may be affected by the loss of members of both gene families. (asm.org)
  • The latter point has been most clearly demonstrated in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , in which genes adjacent to telomeres and the mating type genes present at the silent HM loci are subject to position-dependent transcriptional repression. (asm.org)
  • These genes have been termed CAC1 , CAC2 , and CAC3 (for chromosome assembly complex). (asm.org)
  • These results indicate that genes in addition to minCD function to restrict the number and position of FtsZ rings. (asm.org)
  • There are an estimated 4220 genes on chromosome 1, as discovered during the Human Genome Project around twenty years ago. (news-medical.net)
  • The goal of the human genome project was to use DNA sequencing to reveal all three billion DNA letters in our chromosomes and find all our genes. (newscientist.com)
  • Locating genes on salivary chromosomes. (springer.com)
  • The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6p is an established risk locus for ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). (harvard.edu)
  • At some positions, expression was more than 3-fold higher than at the natural lac promoter locus, whereas at several other locations, the reporter cassette was completely silenced: effectively overriding local lac promoter control. (sparrho.com)
  • I am new to Galaxy and do not know how to obtain a BED file for a NON-CODING chromosome locus (pr. (usegalaxy.org)
  • Combining theory and fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate that the folded state of yeast chromosome III changes in response to a DNA double-strand break at the MAT locus, in agreement with previous studies. (pnas.org)
  • Mating-type switching is induced by a DNA double-strand break (DSB) at the MAT locus on chromosome III, followed by homologous recombination between the cut MAT locus and one of two donor loci ( HML α and HMR a), located on the same chromosome. (pnas.org)
  • Previous studies have suggested that in MAT a cells after the DSB is induced chromosome III undergoes refolding, which directs the MAT locus to recombine with HML α. (pnas.org)
  • I. A proof of variegated-type position effect at the white locus. (caltech.edu)
  • Immunostaining for cohesin followed by FISH with 23 BAC clones, covering the region from 0 to 23 Mb on chicken chromosome 3 (GGA3), allowed us to map the GGA3 centromere between BAC clones WAG38P15 and WAG54M22 located at position 2.3 and 2.5 Mb, respectively. (wur.nl)
  • Centromere positions on the majority of orthologous chromosomes are different in these two species. (springer.com)
  • Despite the newly identified and confirmed inversions, our data suggest that, in chicken and Japanese quail, the difference in centromere positions is not mainly caused by pericentric inversions but is instead due to centromere repositioning events and the formation of new centromeres. (springer.com)
  • Each chromosome has a centromere midway down its shaft that plays a crucial role in cell division. (washingtonpost.com)
  • These data range from extensive marker-based genetic maps to "chromosome paintings" based on fluorescent in situ hybridization to complete genomic DNA sequences. (pnas.org)
  • The architectural protein H-NS binds nonspecifically to hundreds of sites throughout the chromosome and can multimerize to stiffen segments of DNA as well as to form DNA-protein-DNA bridges. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the positioning and dynamics of the origins, the replisomes, and the SeqA structures trailing the replication forks in cells lacking the H-NS protein. (asm.org)
  • of the chromosome positions of significant markers associated with plant height (red), heading date (yellow), protein content (blue) and thousand kernel weight (green). (figshare.com)
  • The switch in the position of the division site is preceded by a shift in the localization of FtsZ from a medial pattern to one in which the protein forms two rings, one at each potential polar division site ( 19 ). (asm.org)
  • Many bacteria divide by binary fission, forming medially positioned septa and identical daughter cells. (asm.org)
  • His recent work in V. cholerae , a bacterium with two chromosomes, focuses on how multiple chromosomes are maintained in bacteria. (cancer.gov)
  • Chromosome movements during mitosis rely upon a complex macromolecular machine known as the mitotic spindle. (biologists.org)
  • If we are to understand the principles of mitotic spindle formation, the exact mechanisms that govern how sister kinetochores on individual chromosomes establish connections with the opposite spindle poles must be elucidated. (biologists.org)
  • This corresponds to the gap between 2 supercontigs at the 2.4-Mb position in the current GGA3 sequence assembly (build 2.1). (wur.nl)
  • The sequence of the 'feminine' X chromosome is a prime hunting ground for geneticists interested in the evolution of the cognitive and cultural sophistication that defines the human species. (nature.com)
  • Sequence features associated with well-positioned and loosely positioned nucleosomes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • For more information about the meaning and exact position of a sequence modification, move the cursor over the icon. (rcsb.org)
  • To determine whether mismatch repair acts on the template chromosome in a directed fashion to restore mismatches to the initial sequence, these experiments were repeated in mismatch repair-defective ( pms1, mlh1 , and msh2 ) backgrounds. (genetics.org)
  • e) The amino acid sequence at position 443 (red) of NLRC4 in five species. (rupress.org)
  • To harness the power of multiple markers while minimizing the number of tests conducted, we present a low resolution test for epistatic interactions across whole chromosome arms. (g3journal.org)
  • Epistasis covariance matrices were constructed from the additive covariances of individual chromosome arms. (g3journal.org)
  • For this study we have treated HGPS fibroblasts with farnesyltransferase inhibitors and analyzed the nuclear location of individual chromosome territories. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Contact with a kinetochore results in `capture' of a chromosome and suppression of the microtubule's dynamics. (biologists.org)
  • To address these questions, the successful candidates will apply methods from polymer physics and statistical mechanics to describe the three-dimensional folding and dynamics of chromosomes. (eu-life.eu)
  • Importantly, we show that the change in the folded state of the chromosome after the break quantitatively accounts for the dynamics of homology search during DNA repair. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we propose a quantitative model of mating-type switching predicated on the assumption of DSB-induced chromosome refolding, which also takes into account the previously measured stochastic dynamics and polymer nature of yeast chromosomes. (pnas.org)
  • Since there is only a small free energy barrier to swap, a significant number of crossing events have been observed in molecular dynamics simulations, i.e., there is a high probability of such interchange of positions. (uni-mainz.de)
  • We assume that this swapping of positions on a DNA strand may also happen in living organisms,' explained Dr. Peter Virnau of the JGU Institute of Physics, who performed the computer simulation together with his colleagues Benjamin Trefz and Jonathan Siebert. (uni-mainz.de)
  • Members of our laboratory have published a number of papers on these distinct yet related topics in chromosome biology, and have successfully transitioned into independent positions (please see our lab website for our alumni). (lncrnablog.com)
  • It forms as chromosomes become connected to the two centrosomes (spindle poles) by microtubule bundles that link each pole to a specialized macromolecular assembly on the chromosome body termed the kinetochore. (biologists.org)
  • BCR-ABL1 compound mutations combining key kinase domain positions confer clinical resistance to ponatinib in Ph chromosome-positive leukemia. (nih.gov)
  • Molecular phylogenetic analyses indicate an intermediate position for T . equi between B . bovis and Theileria spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It was observed that low copy number plasmids are precisely localized to opposite cell halves upon replication (top left panel) but the mechanism underlying this positioning is not well understood. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • The distribution of two autosomes and chromosomes X and Y in sperm heads was compared in primary and secondary spermatocytes and spermatids in porcine testes. (kent.ac.uk)
  • B ) MEFs of the indicated genotypes were transduced with H2B-YFP to visualize chromosomes and followed through mitosis by live-cell microscopy. (jci.org)
  • Instead, kinetochores move themselves and their attached chromosomes, poleward and away from the pole, on the ends of relatively stationary but shortening/elongating kinetochore fiber microtubules. (rupress.org)
  • These "polar ejection forces" appear to play a key role in regulating kinetochore directional instability, and hence, positions achieved by chromosomes on the spindle. (rupress.org)