In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.
The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, elements such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, that are required for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance in progeny cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
A characteristic symptom complex.
The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.
Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Congenital conditions of atypical sexual development associated with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions including MONOSOMY; TRISOMY; and MOSAICISM.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.

The mouse Spo11 gene is required for meiotic chromosome synapsis. (1/430)

The Spo11 protein initiates meiotic recombination by generating DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and is required for meiotic synapsis in S. cerevisiae. Surprisingly, Spo11 homologs are dispensable for synapsis in C. elegans and Drosophila yet required for meiotic recombination. Disruption of mouse Spo11 results in infertility. Spermatocytes arrest prior to pachytene with little or no synapsis and undergo apoptosis. We did not detect Rad51/Dmc1 foci in meiotic chromosome spreads, indicating DSBs are not formed. Cisplatin-induced DSBs restored Rad51/Dmc1 foci and promoted synapsis. Spo11 localizes to discrete foci during leptotene and to homologously synapsed chromosomes. Other mouse mutants that arrest during meiotic prophase (Atm -/-, Dmc1 -/-, mei1, and Morc(-/-)) showed altered Spo11 protein localization and expression. We speculate that there is an additional role for Spo11, after it generates DSBs, in synapsis.  (+info)

Chromosome synapsis defects and sexually dimorphic meiotic progression in mice lacking Spo11. (2/430)

Spo11, a protein first identified in yeast, is thought to generate the chromosome breaks that initiate meiotic recombination. We now report that disruption of mouse Spo11 leads to severe gonadal abnormalities from defective meiosis. Spermatocytes suffer apoptotic death during early prophase; oocytes reach the diplotene/dictyate stage in nearly normal numbers, but most die soon after birth. Consistent with a conserved function in initiating meiotic recombination, Dmc1/Rad51 focus formation is abolished. Spo11(-/-) meiocytes also display homologous chromosome synapsis defects, similar to fungi but distinct from flies and nematodes. We propose that recombination initiation precedes and is required for normal synapsis in mammals. Our results also support the view that mammalian checkpoint responses to meiotic recombination and/or synapsis defects are sexually dimorphic.  (+info)

M31 and macroH2A1.2 colocalise at the pseudoautosomal region during mouse meiosis. (3/430)

Progression through meiotic prophase is associated with dramatic changes in chromosome condensation. Two proteins that have been implicated in effecting these changes are the mammalian HP1-like protein M31 (HP1beta or MOD1) and the unusual core histone macroH2A1.2. Previous analyses of M31 and macroH2A1.2 localisation in mouse testis sections have indicated that both proteins are components of meiotic centromeric heterochromatin and of the sex body, the transcriptionally inactive domain of the X and Y chromosomes. This second observation has raised the possibility that these proteins co-operate in meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. In order to investigate the roles of M31 and macroH2A1.2 in meiosis in greater detail, we have examined their localisation patterns in surface-spread meiocytes from male and female mice. Using this approach, we report that, in addition to their previous described staining patterns, both proteins localise to a focus within the portion of the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) that contains the steroid sulphatase (Sts) gene. In light of the timing of its appearance and of its behaviour in sex-chromosomally variant mice, we suggest a role for this heterochromatin focus in preventing complete desynapsis of the terminally associated X and Y chromosomes prior to anaphase I.  (+info)

Evidence for meiotic spindle checkpoint from analysis of spermatocytes from Robertsonian-chromosome heterozygous mice. (4/430)

Mice heterozygous for Robertsonian centric fusion chromosomal translocations frequently produce aneuploid sperm. In this study RBJ/Dn x C57BL/6J F1 males, heterozygous for four Robertsonian translocations (2N=36), were analyzed to determine effects on germ cells of error during meiosis. Analysis of sperm by three color fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed significantly elevated aneuploidy, thus validating Robertsonian heterozygous mice as a model for production of chromosomally abnormal gametes. Primary spermatocytes from heterozygous males exhibited abnormalities of chromosome pairing in meiotic prophase and metaphase. In spite of prophase abnormalities, the prophase/metaphase transition occurred. However, an increased frequency of cells with misaligned condensed chromosomes was observed. Cytological analysis of both young and adult heterozygous mice revealed increased apoptosis in spermatocytes during meiotic metaphase I. Metaphase spermatocytes with misaligned chromosomes accounted for a significant proportion of the apoptotic spermatocytes, suggesting that a checkpoint process identifies aberrant meioses. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that kinetochores of chromosomes that failed to align on the spindle stained more intensely for kinetochore antigens CENP-E and CENP-F than did aligned chromosomes. Taken together, these observations are consistent with detection of malattached chromosomes by a meiotic spindle checkpoint mechanism that monitors attachment and/or congression of homologous chromosome pairs. However, the relatively high frequency of gametic aneuploidy suggests that the checkpoint mechanism does not efficiently eliminate all germ cells with chromosomal abnormalities.  (+info)

Checkpoints: chromosome pairing takes an unexpected twist. (5/430)

When meiotic cells complete S phase, homologous chromosomes pair, synapse and undergo recombination. A checkpoint protein is somehow required for meiotic chromosome pairing in C. elegans, thus providing a direct link between S phase and the rest of the meiotic program.  (+info)

Nucleolus-associated telomere clustering and pairing precede meiotic chromosome synapsis in Arabidopsis thaliana. (6/430)

The intranuclear arrangements of centromeres and telomeres during meiotic interphase and early prophase I of meiosis in Arabidopsis thaliana were analysed by fluorescent in situ hybridisation to spread pollen mother cells and embryo-sac mother cells. Meiocyte identification, staging and progression were established by spreading and sectioning techniques, including various staining procedures and bromodeoxyuridine labeling of replicating DNA. Centromere regions of Arabidopsis are unpaired, widely dispersed and peripherally located in nuclei during meiotic interphase, and they remain unpaired and unassociated throughout leptotene. Eventually they associate pairwise during zygotene, as part of the nucleus-wide synapsis of homologous chromosomes. Telomeres, by contrast, show a persistent association with the nucleolus throughout meiotic interphase. Variation in telomere signal number indicates that telomeres undergo pairing during this interval, preceding the onset of general chromosome synapsis. During leptotene the paired telomeres lose their association with the nucleolus and become widely dispersed. As the chromosomes synapse during zygotene, the telomeres reveal a loose clustering within one hemisphere, which may represent a degenerate or relic bouquet configuration. We propose that in Arabidopsis the classical leptotene/zygotene bouquet is absent and is replaced functionally by nucleolus-associated telomere clustering.  (+info)

The mouse meiotic mutation mei1 disrupts chromosome synapsis with sexually dimorphic consequences for meiotic progression. (7/430)

mei1 (meiosis defective 1) is the first meiotic mutation in mice derived by phenotype-driven mutagenesis. It was isolated by using a novel technology in which embryonic stem (ES) cells were chemically mutagenized and used to generate families of mice that were screened for infertility. We report here that mei1/mei1 spermatocytes arrest at the zygotene stage of meiosis I, exhibiting failure of homologous chromosomes to properly synapse. Notably, RAD51 failed to associate with meiotic chromosomes in mutant spermatocytes, despite evidence for the presence of chromosomal breaks. Transcription of genes that are markers for the leptotene and zygotene stages, but not genes that are markers for the pachytene stage, was observed. mei1/mei1 females are sterile, and their oocytes also show severe synapsis defects. Nevertheless, unlike arrested spermatocytes, a small number of mutant oocytes proved capable of progressing to metaphase I and attempting the first meiotic division. However, their chromosomes were unpaired and were not organized properly at the metaphase plate or along the spindle fibers during segregation. mei1 was genetically mapped to chromosome (Chr) 15 in an interval that is syntenic to human Chr 22q13. This region, which has been completely sequenced, contains no known homologs of genes specifically required for meiosis in model organisms. Thus, mei1 may be a novel meiotic gene.  (+info)

Eco1 is a novel acetyltransferase that can acetylate proteins involved in cohesion. (8/430)

Cohesion between sister chromatids is established during S phase and maintained through G2 phase until it is resolved in anaphase (for review, see [1-3]). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a complex consisting of Scc1, Smc1, Smc3, and Scc3 proteins, called "cohesin," mediates the connection between sister chromatids. The evolutionary conserved yeast protein Eco1 is required for establishment of sister chromatid cohesion during S phase but not for its further maintenance during G2 or M phases or for loading the cohesin complex onto DNA. We address the molecular functions of Eco1 with sensitive sequence analytic techniques, including hidden Markov model domain fragment searches. We found a two-domain architecture with an N-terminal C2H2 Zn finger-like domain and an approximately 150 residue C-terminal domain with an apparent acetyl coenzyme A binding motif ( Biochemical tests confirm that Eco1 has the acetyltransferase activity in vitro. In vitro Eco1 acetylates itself and components of the cohesin complex but not histones. Thus, the establishment of cohesion between sister chromatids appears to be regulated, directly or indirectly, by a specific acetyltransferase.  (+info)

Meiosis is essential for eukaryotic sexual reproduction, allowing the production of haploid gametes. In addition, meiotic recombination during the early stages of meiosis allows the exchange of genetic information, serving as an important source of genetic diversity. The success of meiosis depends on a complex and prolonged prophase I that involves homologous chromosome (homolog) pairing, synapsis, and recombination (Zickler and Kleckner, 1999; Page and Hawley, 2003; Schwarzacher, 2003). After pairing, the homologs continue to associate and this interaction has been referred to as homolog juxtaposition (Zickler and Kleckner, 1999). Recombination results in crossover events that correspond to cytologically observed chiasmata, which, in combination with sister chromatid cohesion, maintain the association between homologs in the form of bivalents, ensuring proper segregation of homologs at anaphase I. Synapsis, the formation of synaptonemal complexes (SCs) between closely associated chromosomes, ...
We report the discovery of a checkpoint that monitors synapsis between homologous chromosomes to ensure accurate meiotic segregation. Oocytes containing unsynapsed chromosomes selectively undergo apoptosis even if a germline DNA damage checkpoint is inactivated. This culling mechanism is specifically activated by unsynapsed pairing centers, cis-acting chromosome sites that are also required to promote synapsis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Apoptosis due to synaptic failure also requires the C. elegans homolog of PCH2, a budding yeast pachytene checkpoint gene, which suggests that this surveillance mechanism is widely conserved.. ...
ATM is a member of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PIK)like kinases, some of which are active in regulating DNA damage-induced mitotic cell-cycle checkpoints. ATM also plays a role in meiosis. Spermatogenesis in Atm−/− male mice is disrupted, with chromosome fragmentation leading to meiotic arrest; in human patients with ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), gonadal atrophy is common. Immuno-localization studies indicate that ATM is associated with sites along the synaptonemal complex (SC), the specialized structure along which meiotic recombination occurs. Recombination, preceded by pairing of homologous chromosomes, is thought to require heteroduplex formation between homologous DNA, followed by strand exchange. These early meiotic steps (entailing the formation and processing of meiotic recombination intermediates with DNA-strand interruptions) require ssDNA-binding proteins such as replication protein A (RPA; refs 5-7). In somatic cells, DNA damage induces ATM-dependent phosphorylation of RPA. ...
Chromosome segregation at meiosis I depends on pairing and crossing-over between homologs. In most eukaryotes, pairing culminates with formation of the proteinaceous synaptonemal complex (SC). In budding yeast, recombination initiates through double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) and is thought to be esse …
Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) under its National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT) has initiated the National Digital Library of India (NDL India) pilot project to develop a framework of virtual repository of learning resources with a single-window search facility. Filtered and federated searching is employed to facilitate focused searching so that learners can find out the right resource with least effort and in minimum time. NDL India is designed to hold content of any language and provides interface support for leading Indian languages. It is being arranged to provide support for all academic levels including researchers and life-long learners, all disciplines, all popular form of access devices and differently-abled learners. It is being developed to help students to prepare for entrance and competitive examination, to enable people to learn and prepare from best practices from all over the world and to facilitate researchers to ...
Plays a key role in meiotic progression. Regulates 3 different functions during meiosis: ensures that sufficient numbers of processed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are available for successful homology search by increasing the steady-state numbers of single-stranded DSB ends. Promotes synaptonemal-complex formation independently of its role in homology search. Plays a key role in the male mid-pachytene checkpoint and the female meiotic prophase checkpoint: required for efficient build-up of ATR activity on unsynapsed chromosome regions, a process believed to form the basis of meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC) and meiotic prophase quality control in both sexes.
During metaphase I, the homologous chromosomes are arranged in the center of the cell with the kinetochores facing opposite poles. The homologous pairs orient themselves randomly at the equator. For example, if the two homologous members of chromosome 1 are labeled a and b, then the chromosomes could line up a-b, or b-a. This is important in determining the genes carried by a gamete, as each will only receive one of the two homologous chromosomes. Recall that homologous chromosomes are not identical. They contain slight differences in their genetic information, causing each gamete to have a unique genetic makeup.. This randomness is the physical basis for the creation of the second form of genetic variation in offspring. Consider that the homologous chromosomes of a sexually reproducing organism are originally inherited as two separate sets, one from each parent. Using humans as an example, one set of 23 chromosomes is present in the egg donated by the mother. The father provides the other set ...
Homologous chromosomes are two pieces of DNA within a diploid organism which carry the same genes, one from each parental source.
4. I asked the wrong question. How do the homologous chromosomes pair up (mate/join)? How do they recognize that chromosome with whom to pair? If there are different genes on different chromosomes, I assume that this pairing would have to have 2 chromosomes with the same set of genes. Is this the 1 and the 2 of the 2n (one from the mother side, one from the father side)? Thus each pair of homologous chromosomes have a total of 4 sister chromatids, 2 on each of the homologous chromosomes. How the chromosomes pair correctly is my biggest stumbling point ...
Complete information for MEIOB gene (Protein Coding), Meiosis Specific With OB Domains, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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The synapsis is a 4×4 pushbutton matrix that offers performative control of the Bit Ranger.. There are 8 patch points connected to 4 rows (ABCD) and 4 columns (1234) of buttons. Pressing button A1 connects point A to point 1. A2 connects A to 2. B2 connects B to 2 and so on.. Package includes:. ...
The synapsis is a 4×4 pushbutton matrix that offers performative control of the Bit Ranger.. There are 8 patch points connected to 4 rows (ABCD) and 4 columns (1234) of buttons. Pressing button A1 connects point A to point 1. A2 connects A to 2. B2 connects B to 2 and so on.. Package includes:. ...
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amongst a established of different varieties of a gene. Diploid cells have two homologous chromosomes (a person derived from Each and every parent) and as a consequence two copies of every gene. Within a diploid mobile, a gene will have two alleles, Each individual occupying the exact same placement on homologous chromosomes ...
Final bouquet for over seven years of WP weekly photo challenges as proverbial curtain comes down signaling summation of much fine work by all participants during this era. I enjoyed every moment being a participant-contributor ever since WP staffers began this wonderful exercise allowing everyone a chance to create and exhibit their work afterwards, being…
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Red Hat, el proveedor de soluciones de código abierto líder en el mundo, suscribieron un acuerdo de colaboración regional para el desarrollo de negocios en el ámbito de las soluciones open source o Software de Código Abierto. Este acuerdo comercial busca el trabajo conjunto entre ambas empresas apuntando hacia el desarrollo de ofertas de valor en el ámbito de las soluciones de Software Libre basadas en open source. Asimismo, la creación de un centro de servicios de Soporte y Consultoría y la participación conjunta en la evolución de la oferta de Red Hat. El convenio firmado por el gerente general de Synapsis, Leonardo Covalschi, y el gerente general en Latinoamérica de Red Hat, Julián Somodi, abarca los mercados en los cuales Synapsis posee operaciones, incluyendo de esta forma a Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia y Perú, convirtiendo a la compañía en Advanced Partner de Red Hat, categoría única en Latinoamérica. De esta forma, Red Hat se incorpora al grupo de alianzas que Synapsis
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Part 2 of the mind bending adventure game, David Carter is again trapped in a series of bizare rooms which he will need to find some way of escape from.Yes its finally here after 2 years of waiting. Part 3 (the final part) will hopefully take a bit less time. Thanks to everyone who has asked me about this for the past 2 years. ...
Part 2 of the mind bending adventure game, David Carter is again trapped in a series of bizarre rooms which he will need to find some way of escape from.. Yes it\s finally here after 2 years of waiting. Part 3 (the final part) will hopefully take a bit less time. Thanks to everyone who has asked me about this for the past 2 years.. ...
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casSAR Dugability of Q03410 | Sycp1 | Synaptonemal complex protein 1 - Also known as SYCP1_RAT, Sycp1, Scp1. Major component of the transverse filaments of synaptonemal complexes, formed between homologous chromosomes during meiotic prophase (PubMed:1464329). Required for normal assembly of the central element of the synaptonemal complexes. Required for normal centromere pairing during meiosis. Required for normal meiotic chromosome synapsis during oocyte and spermatocyte development and for normal male and female fertility. Structural component of synaptonemal complexes (By similarity). Homotetramer that consists of an N-terminal four-helical bundle that bifurcates into two elongated C-terminal dimeric coiled coils. This tetrameric building block potentially self-assembles into a supramolecular zipper-like lattice to mediate meiotic chromosome synapsis. Self-assembly is likely initiated by local proton density at chromosome axis, which is predicted to trigger antiparallel back to back assembly of
The fine structure of bivalents from golden hamster and house cricket spermatocytes has been studied with a whole mount surface-spreading method combined with negative staining. The elements of the synaptonemal complex show detail of structure which is absent in other preparative procedures. The transverse filaments found in the central region of the synaptonemal complex from both species are straight and have a similar width, 1 6-1 8 nm These filaments occur mainly in bundles The central element differs in architecture in the two species In hamster bivalents it is formed of longitudinal stretches of filaments 1.6-1 8 nm wide and a small amount of an amorphous material similar to that of the lateral elements In the cricket, the central element contains transverse fibrils which are continuous with the transverse filaments of the central region, and an amorphous material lying mainly along the sides of the central element All of the components of the central region of the synaptonemal complex are ...
Meiotic recombination generates crossovers between homologous chromosomes that are essential for genome haploidization. The synaptonemal complex is a zipper-like protein assembly that synapses homologue pairs together and provides the structural framework for processing recombination sites into crossovers. Humans show individual differences in the number of crossovers generated across the genome. Recently, an anonymous gene variant in C14ORF39/SIX6OS1 was identified that influences the recombination rate in humans. Here we show that C14ORF39/SIX6OS1 encodes a component of the central element of the synaptonemal complex. Yeast two-hybrid analysis reveals that SIX6OS1 interacts with the well-established protein synaptonemal complex central element 1 (SYCE1). Mice lacking SIX6OS1 are defective in chromosome synapsis at meiotic prophase I, which provokes an arrest at the pachytene-like stage and results in infertility. In accordance with its role as a modifier of the human recombination rate, SIX6OS1 is
This gene encodes a member of the synaptonemal complex, which links homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis. The tripartite structure of the complex is highly conserved amongst metazoans. It consists of two lateral elements and a central region formed by transverse elements and a central element. The protein encoded by this gene localizes to the central element and is required for initiation and elongation of the synapsis. Allelic variants of this gene have been associated with premature ovarian failure and spermatogenic failure. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2016 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Essential role of Fkbp6 in male fertility and homologous chromosome pairing in meiosis. AU - Crackower, Michael A.. AU - Kolas, Nadine K.. AU - Noguchi, Junko. AU - Sarao, Renu. AU - Kikuchi, Kazuhiro. AU - Kaneko, Hiroyuki. AU - Kobayashi, Eiji. AU - Kawai, Yasuhiro. AU - Kozieradzki, Ivona. AU - Landers, Rushin. AU - Mo, Rong. AU - Hui, Chi Chung. AU - Nieves, Edward. AU - Cohen, Paula E.. AU - Osborne, Lucy R.. AU - Wada, Teiji. AU - Kunieda, Tetsuo. AU - Moens, Peter B.. AU - Penninger, Josef M.. PY - 2003/5/23. Y1 - 2003/5/23. N2 - Meiosis is a critical stage of gametogenesis in which alignment and synapsis of chromosomal pairs occur, allowing for the recombination of maternal and paternal genomes. Here we show that FK506 binding protein (Fkbp6) localizes to meiotic chromosome cores and regions of homologous chromosome synapsis. Targeted inactivation of Fkbp6 in mice results in aspermic mates and the absence of normal pachytene spermatocytes. Moreover, we identified the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Initiation of homologous chromosome pairing during meiosis. AU - Jordan, P.. PY - 2006/8/1. Y1 - 2006/8/1. N2 - Following pre-meiotic DNA replication, homologous chromosomes must be paired and become tightly linked to ensure reductional segregation during meiosis I. Therefore initiation of homologous chromosome pairing is vital for meiosis to proceed correctly. A number of factors contribute to the initiation of homologous chromosome pairing including telomere and centromere dynamics, pairing centres, checkpoint proteins and components of the axial element. The present review briefly summarizes recent progress in our understanding of initiation of homologous chromosome pairing during meiosis and discusses the differences that are observed between research organisms.. AB - Following pre-meiotic DNA replication, homologous chromosomes must be paired and become tightly linked to ensure reductional segregation during meiosis I. Therefore initiation of homologous chromosome pairing is ...
The sy10 mutant is one of five nonallelic mutants of rye described to date showing indiscriminate synapsis (Fedotova et al. 1994; Sosnikhina et al. 1994a,b, 2001, 2002a,b). The sy10 mutation appears to not affect the timing or expression of Asy1 and Zyp1 proteins, so it is clearly not an allele of the ASY1 or ZYP1 orthologs of rye, despite some superficial phenotypic similarities with the mutants asy1 (Caryl et al. 2000) and zyp1 (Higgins et al. 2005). Both proteins form linear structures during zygotene, but these fail to assemble into coaligned ribbons at pachytene, which is characteristic of wild type. Interestingly, unsynapsed regions appear to comprise one linear signal each of the two proteins in coalignment at midmeiotic prophase, indicating that the asynaptic phenotype is not the direct result of failure of association of the two proteins per se. Clearly, the mutant phenotype is the result of a lesion in another gene, either responsible for building the tripartite structure of the SC or, ...
To test whether recombination promotes SC formation, we used a panel of yeast spo11 missense mutants that show a range of DSB frequencies. The mutant proteins localized properly to meiotic chromosomes and supported at least some of the normal functions carried out by wild-type Spo11. Two different point mutations that abrogated DSB formation blocked SC formation as severely as a deletion mutation. Our results agree with other studies of the spo11-Y135F mutant in yeast (N. Kleckner and B. Weiner, personal communication and unpublished data; see ref. 34) and an equivalent mutant in S. macrospora (8). We also found that mutants with intermediate DSB defects gave intermediate SC defects. Because several different missense mutations and allele combinations were used, it seems unlikely that we managed fortuitously to covary two independent functions of Spo11. Thus, these findings strongly link the DNA-cleaving activity of Spo11 to its activity in promoting SC formation.. Crossover-Designated ...
We have investigated the role of pairing centers (PCs), cis-acting sites required for accurate segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis in C. elegans. We find that these sites play two distinct roles that contribute to proper segregation. Chromosomes lacking PCs usually fail to synapse a …
Meiotic cells possess surveillance mechanisms or checkpoints that monitor critical meiotic events, such as recombination and chromosome synapsis. Defects in these processes, such as those resulting from the absence of the S. cerevisiae Zip1 protein, activate a meiosis-specific checkpoint network resulting in a delay or arrest of meiotic progression. We are studying this meiotic checkpoint at different levels. Pch2 is an evolutionarily conserved AAA+ ATPase initially discovered as a checkpoint protein required for the zip1-induced meiotic arrest in budding yeast. Pch2 impacts multiple aspects of meiotic chromosome metabolism, including negative regulation of Hop1 chromosomal abundance. It has been suggested that Pch2 promotes the turnover of the Hop1 protein; thus, the pch2 single mutant exhibits more continuous Hop1 localization along synapsed chromosomes. Interestingly, in the zip1 mutant, when the checkpoint is induced, Pch2 is only detectable at the rDNA region (nucleolus). A special ...
Meiosis, the pair of specialized cell divisions required to convert germline diploid progenitor cells into haploid gametes, is an essential process for sexual reproduction in eukaryotes. After pre-meiotic DNA replication, germ cells enter an extended G2 cell cycle phase, termed meiotic prophase, during which homologous chromosomes pair and interact, and an extensive, cell type-specific transcription program turns on to set up gamete differentiation. The homologs then segregate to different daughter cells, commonly during the first meiotic division, followed by segregation of sister chromatids during meiosis II without an intervening S phase. As in mitosis, the timing of key cell cycle events is choreographed by regulated activation and deactivation of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) complexes, in which cyclins play key roles in regulating the timing and targets of Cdk activity. B-type cyclins in particular are instrumental to negotiating the G2/M transition in both mitosis and meiosis.. The ...
of being passed down.. Nevertheless, the large breeding pedigrees (since the founder population) in advanced mapping populations such as the MAGIC and the DSPR are often unavailable or inaccurate. Moreover, inbreeding by selfing instead of sibling mating is usually adopted in plant population resources such as the MAGIC. The relatively simple hidden Markov model (HMM), implemented in HAPPY (Mott et al. 2000), is thus widely used, since it does not incorporate any pedigree information except the effective number of generations. HAPPY has implemented two extremes: the diploid mode where the ancestral origin processes between two homologous chromosomes are independent and the haploid mode for haploid genomes and for diploid lines where the processes are completely dependent.. The full range of the dependencies of the ancestral origin processes between two homologous chromosomes has been modeled by a continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) for both autosomes (Zheng et al. 2014) and X chromosomes (Zheng ...
Build: Wed Jun 21 18:33:50 EDT 2017 (commit: 4a3b2dc). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
Meiosis 1: Homologous chromosomes pair up and their chromatids wrap around each other. Equivalent portions of the chromatids can be exchanged in crossing over. By the end the homologous pairs have separated with one chromosome from each pair going into one of two daughter ...
The diploid chromosomal number of a cat is 38. If one of the homologous chromosome pairs does not separate during Meiosis I, how many chromosomes can be found in the gametes?. ...
Meiosis has three unique features :. The mechanism of cell division varies in important details in different organism. This is particularly true of chromosomal separation mechanism, which differ substantially in protists and fungi from the process in plants and animals that we will describe here. Meiosis in a diploid organism consists of two rounds of division, mitosis of one. Although meiosis and mitosis have much in common, meiosis has three unique features: synapsis, homologous recombination, and reduction division.. Synapsis :. The first unique feature of meiosis happens early during the first nuclear division. Following chromosome replication, homologous chromosomes, or homologous pair all along their length. The process of forming these complexes of homologous chromosomes is called synapsis.. Homologous Recombination :. The second unique feature of meiosis is that genetic exchange occurs between the homologous chromosomes while they are thus physically joined. The exchange process that ...
Meiosis generates haploid gametes, such as sperm and eggs, from a diploid cell such that a diploid genome is restored upon fertilization. The proper segregation...
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Gorlov, I.P.; Ladygina, T.Y.; Borodin, P.M., 1990: Synapsis and recombination in mice homozygous for a double insertion of a homogenously stained region of chromosome No. 1
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A protein structure (synaptonemal complex) forms between the homologous chromosomes in the presence of the step-2 enzyme modified with SUMO. If the step-2 enzyme cannot be modified with SUMO, the complex is completely absent.
The end products of meiosis are gametes, which are cells with half the chromosome amount of normal cells. These genes are the same as ones found in the parent cells, but they have a different...
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mitosis and meiosis are both incredibly well conserved in almost all higher organisms studied. given the degree of evolutionary time that has passed to optimise these processes there will be few if any pressures for change. most if not all mutations will tend to make the processes less efficient and this will be selected against.. That said, it is possible that one or more new mutations might arise at some point in the future that could make the processes more efficient.. ...
one of a established of different sorts of a gene. Diploid cells have two homologous chromosomes (one particular derived from each father or mother) and as a consequence two copies of every gene. Within a diploid cell, a gene should have two alleles, Just about every occupying the identical placement on homologous chromosomes ...
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Thus, the B chromosome influences the transmission of a regular chromosome pair, while even in this case it follows Mendelian ... This is the case when the sex chromosomes (X and Y) do not pair during meiosis I. In this case, the unpaired chromosomes ... We first consider cases where only a single chromosome pair or a single unpaired chromosome (univalent) is affected, in the ... They may involve single chromosome pairs (bivalents) or single chromosomes without mating partners (univalents), or even whole ...
The 23rd pair of chromosomes are called allosomes. These consist of two X chromosomes in most females, and an X chromosome and ... In humans, each cell nucleus contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, a total of 46 chromosomes. The first 22 pairs are called ... An X chromosome is always present as the 23rd chromosome in the ovum, while either an X or Y chromosome may be present in an ... Females therefore have 23 homologous chromosome pairs, while males have 22. The X and Y chromosomes have small regions of ...
It seems that we can regard these chromosomes as corresponding with paired pachytene chromosomes at meiosis in which the ... Koller, P. C. (1935). "The Internal Mechanics of the Chromosomes. IV.-Pairing and Coiling in Salivary Gland Nuclei of ... Polytene chromosomes were first reported by E.G.Balbiani in 1881. Polytene chromosomes are found in dipteran flies: the best ... Polytene chromosomes are large chromosomes which have thousands of DNA strands. They provide a high level of function in ...
Somatic pairing of homologous chromosomes is similar to pre- and early meiotic pairing (see article: Homologous chromosome#In ... Metz, Charles W. (1916). "Chromosome studies on the Diptera. II. The paired association of chromosomes in the Diptera, and its ... Fung, Jennifer C.; Marshall, Wallace F.; Dernburg, Abby; Agard, David A.; Sedat, John W. (1998). "Homologous Chromosome Pairing ... Copenhaver, Gregory P.; Bosco, Giovanni (2012). "Chromosome Pairing: A Hidden Treasure No More". PLOS Genetics. 8 (5): e1002737 ...
... with females possessing five pairs of X chromosomes as the homogametic sex, and males possessing five X and five Y chromosomes ... of the Y chromosome during meiosis. Additionally, 10-25% of human X chromosome genes, and 3-7% of mouse X chromosome genes ... These three RNAs regulate the X-X pair in a cisorientation in order to be able to have both chromosomes available for ... For example, in humans, females (XX) silence the transcription of one X chromosome of each pair, and transcribe all information ...
The chromosome conformation capture (3C) experiment quantifies interactions between a single pair of genomic loci. For example ... As a result, they proposed that motif pairing multiplicity (number of motifs that are paired with a given motif) is linked to ... Chromosome conformation capture-on-chip (4C) (also known as circular chromosome conformation capture) captures interactions ... Ka-Chun Wong; MotifHyades: expectation maximization for de novo DNA motif pair discovery on paired sequences, Bioinformatics, ...
The chromosome contains 3,308,274 base pairs. The GC content of L. plantarum is 44.45% with the average protein count 3063. ... in pairs or in short chains. L. plantarum has one of the largest genomes known among the lactic acid bacteria and is a very ...
... has 6 total chromosome pairs. 5 have median centromeres, and the remaining one is a dot-shaped pair. The shape ... Heterochromatin is scattered throughout the chromosomes of C. pilipes flies, and the localization of sex-controlling genes is ...
Both taxa also have 14 chromosome pairs. In 2006, the family's classification was redefined using molecular data. Here, Roupala ...
On this chromosome are 2,715,461 base pairs. Of these base pairs there are 2573 coding sequences with only 2.1% of the genome ... Acetoanaerobium sticklandii has a genome that consists of one circular chromosome. ...
"one mutation in every 30 million base pairs" Karmin; et al. (2015). "A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides ... Subclades are defined by a terminal SNP, the SNP furthest down in the Y-chromosome phylogenetic tree. The Y Chromosome ... Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups are the major branches on the human paternal family tree. Each haplogroup has many ... 2005 Y-chromosome Phylogenetic Tree, from ^ A Nomenclature system for the Tree of Human Y-Chromosomal ...
1976). "Genetic control of chromosome pairing in wheat". Annual Review of Genetics. 10: 31-51. doi:10.1146/ ... 1982). "A Wheat Mutation Conditioning an Intermediate Level of Homoeologous Chromosome Pairing". Canadian Journal of Genetics ... 1985). "The transfer of short segments of alien chromosome to wheat". In R. B. Singh; R. M. Singh; B. D. Singh (eds.). Advances ... 1966). "Chromosome mapping with the aid of telocentrics". Proceedings of the 2nd International Wheat Genetics Symposium. ...
Chromosome 23 pair, recognized by Joe Hin Tjio. Electro-Capacitive Cancer Therapy, developed by Warsito Taruno. Pancasila, the ...
from base pair 8,120,590 to 8,126,032. In mice, HES7 is located on chromosome 11. HES7 has 62 known orthologues. The HES7 gene ... The gene that encodes the human HES7 protein is 5kb long and is found on chromosome 17, on the short arm at position 13.1. ... Each cycle of HES7 expression coincides with the formation of a pair of somites. The half life of the HES7 protein is thought ... HES7) or bHLHb37 is protein coding mammalian gene found on chromosome 17 in humans. HES7 is a member of the Hairy and Enhancer ...
... hybrids may be weak hybrids may be partially sterile chromosomes may pair poorly or not at all recovery of desired phenotypes ... hybrids are generally fertile with good chromosome pairing; gene segregation is approximately normal and gene transfer is ... chromosome doubling) bridging crosses (e.g., with members of the secondary gene pool). Gene pool centres refers to areas on the ...
Transvection appears to be dependent upon chromosome pairing. In some cases, if one allele is placed on a different chromosome ... The first observation of mitotic (i.e. non-meiotic) chromosome pairing was discovered via microscopy in 1908 by Nettie Stevens. ... McKee BD (March 2004). "Homologous pairing and chromosome dynamics in meiosis and mitosis". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1677 (1-3 ... Other mechanisms include pairing-sensitive silencing and enhancer bypass of a chromatin insulator through pairing-mediated ...
Under normal reproductive processes, a species has each chromosome pair separated, copied, and paired back with its counterpart ... J Herpetol 32:24-33 Lutes, A. A., Neaves, W.B., Baumann, D. P., Wiegraebe, W., Baumann, P. (2010). Sister chromosome pairing ... The desert grassland whiptail lizard, however, has chromosome triplets where each triplet is paired with its copy rather than ... In this process, eggs undergo a chromosome doubling after meiosis, developing into lizards without being fertilized. However, ...
Parthenogenesis appears to involve initial meiotic chromosome pairing. During both cyclic and obligate parthenogenesis a polar ... It bears the mouthparts, and two pairs of antennae, the second pair of which is enlarged into powerful organs used for swimming ... It can only be recognised by its appendages (only ever one pair per segment), and by studying its internal anatomy. The head is ... One of the most astonishing features of the D. pulex genome is its compactness: despite being around 200 megabase pairs (Mbp) ...
... is located on the complement strand of chromosome 16 (16p12.2) spanning 13059 base pairs and is located entirely within ... The span of the gene is 13059 base pairs. The theoretical isoelectric point (pI) and molecular weight (mw) for the IGSF6 ... A common alias for IGSF6 is downregulated by activation (DORA). The cytogenic location is on chromosome 16 (16p12.2). IGSF6 has ...
... pairs of XY sex chromosomes, each pair consisting of sex chromosomes with homologous regions. The chromosomes of neighboring ... The chromosome with this allele became the Y chromosome, while the other member of the pair became the X chromosome. Over time ... Stevens proposed that chromosomes always existed in pairs and that the smaller chromosome (now labelled "Y") was the pair of ... Most therian mammals have only one pair of sex chromosomes in each cell. Males have one Y chromosome and one X chromosome, ...
It shows 22 homologous autosomal chromosome pairs, both the female (XX) and male (XY) versions of the two sex chromosomes, as ... Crosland MW, Crozier RH (March 1986). "Myrmecia pilosula, an Ant with Only One Pair of Chromosomes". Science. 231 (4743): 1278 ... As other non-human extant hominidae have 48 chromosomes it is believed that the human chromosome 2 is the result of the merging ... The list of organisms by chromosome count describes ploidy or numbers of chromosomes in the cells of various plants, animals, ...
Elyonurus argenteus, a South African Grass with Five Chromosome Pairs. Bull. of the Torrey Botanical Club 84 (3): 157-162 , ... Basic Chromosome Number of Four in the Subfamily Panicoideae of the Gramineae. Science 126 (3285): 1247-1248 K.L. Mehra, M.L. ... Tertiary Butyl Alcohol Dehydration of Chromosome Smears. Biotechnic & Histochemistry 31 (4): 155-157 1957. ...
PMID 5882191 McKee, Bruce D. (2004-03-15). "Homologous pairing and chromosome dynamics in meiosis and mitosis". Biochimica et ... when two genes are located on different chromosomes or when they are widely separated on the same chromosome. This is a ... While recombination of chromosomes is an essential process during meiosis, there is a large range of frequency of cross overs ... During meiosis, chromosomes assort randomly into gametes, such that the segregation of alleles of one gene is independent of ...
RAI14 contains 15 exons and is located on the plus strand of chromosome number 5 at position 5p13.2. It spans 5,068 base pairs ... Genes TTC23L and LOC105374721 neighbor RAI14 on chromosome 5. RAI14 is expressed within a wide range of human tissues. Some ...
The C4orf51 gene is located at 4q31.21 on the plus strand of chromosome 4. The gene spans 120,289 base pairs and contains 6 ... GXP_921944 spans 1910 base pairs on chromosome 4. There are 15 coding transcripts supporting this promoter, but none are ... "C4orf51 chromosome 4 open reading frame 51 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". Retrieved 2019-05-06. " ... "C4orf51 chromosome 4 open reading frame 51 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". Retrieved 2019-04-21. ...
... is the pairing of two chromosomes that occurs during meiosis. It allows matching-up of homologous pairs prior to their ... Mitosis also has prophase, but does not ordinarily do pairing of two homologous chromosomes. When the non-sister chromatids ... McKee B (2004). "Homologous pairing and chromosome dynamics in meiosis and mitosis". Biochim Biophys Acta. 1677 (1-3): 165-80. ... whereas for sex chromosomes, this only takes place at one end of each chromosome. This is not to be confused with mitosis. ...
Pairing of identical sister chromosomes, in comparison to the alternative of pairing homologous chromosomes, maintains ... Whereas homologous chromosomes pair and separate during meiosis I in sexual species, identical duplicate sister chromosomes, ... 2010). "Sister chromosome pairing maintains heterozygosity in parthenogenetic lizards". Nature. 464 (7286): 283-286. Bibcode: ... The ability to premeiotically duplicate chromosomes would be selected for in this scenario as it would be the only option for ...
The typical human karyotypes contain 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes (allosomes). The ... For each chromosome pair, the scale to the left shows the length in terms of million base pairs, and the scale to the right ... Humans have one pair fewer chromosomes than the great apes. Human chromosome 2 appears to have resulted from the fusion of two ... Each chromosome has a characteristic banding pattern that helps to identify them; both chromosomes in a pair will have the same ...
It has 27 pairs of chromosomes. A perennial flowering plant, it has leaves between 3-5 cm in length and flower heads that are 3 ...
... is located on the minus strand of the first chromosome at 1p36.13. The gene consists of 118,172 base pairs stretching ... The most common variant is X1, which includes all exons and spans the entire 118,172 base pairs. The most common protein ... Genes CAPZB and LOC105376823 neighbor TMCO4 on chromosome 1. TMCO4 consists of 16 exons. There are twenty mRNA transcript ... Genes on human chromosome 1, Human proteins, Transmembrane proteins). ...
... gene to river buffalo chromosomes by FISH". Chromosome Research. 2 (3): 255-6. doi:10.1007/BF01553326. PMID 8069469. S2CID ... In Salmonella typhimurium, a new pair of antiparallel β-sheets is created and five new interatomic contacts are formed in the ... In humans, the gene that codes for this enzyme is located on the long arm of chromosome 3 (3q13). This bifunctional enzyme has ... Portal: Biology (Genes on human chromosome 3, EC 4.1.1, EC 2.4.2). ...
... is caused by mutations in both copies of the CENPF gene, located on the long arm of chromosome 1. CENPF codes ... They are made by the centrosome, which contains a pair of cylindrical centrioles at right-angles to each other. Before division ... This allows the microtubules to pull the chromosomes apart in the process of dividing the cell. Mutations in this gene lead to ... which are disc-shaped protein complexes that allow the centromeres of chromosomes (in the dividing form, known as chromatids) ...
Furthermore, DNA polymerase III must be able to distinguish between correctly paired bases and incorrectly paired bases. This ... Chromosome replication in bacteria is regulated at the initiation stage. DnaA-ATP is hydrolyzed into the inactive DnaA-ADP by ... This pocket has a tyrosine residue that is able to form van der Waals interactions with the correctly paired nucleotide. In ... The mutation rate per base pair per replication during phage T4 DNA synthesis is 1.7 per 108. Termination of DNA replication in ...
Odz1 to Mouse Chromosome 11; and ODZ3 to Human Chromosome Xq25". Genomics. 58 (1): 102-3. doi:10.1006/geno.1999.5798. PMID ... Levine A, Bashan-Ahrend A, Budai-Hadrian O, Gartenberg D, Menasherow S, Wides R (May 1994). "odd Oz: A novel Drosophila pair ... Odz1to Mouse Chromosome 11; and ODZ3 to Human Chromosome Xq25". Genomics. 58 (1): 102-103. doi:10.1006/geno.1999.5798. PMID ... Ben-Zur, T.; Feige, E.; Motro, B.; Wides, R. (2000). "The Mammalian Odz Gene Family: Homologs of a Drosophila Pair-Rule Gene ...
NRC-1 genome consists of 2,571,010 base pairs on one large chromosome and two mini-chromosomes. The genome encodes 2,360 ... Although chromosomes are initially shattered into many fragments, complete chromosomes are regenerated by making use of over- ... The large chromosome is very G-C rich (68%). High GC-content of the genome increases stability in extreme environments. Whole ...
... as the base pairs would not be paired in the known way. The four base pairs are: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine, where ... These structures are normally located at the telomeres (the ends of the chromosomes). The G-quadruplex can either be parallel ... an antiparallel DNA double helix structure is because of its hydrogen bonding between the complementary nitrogenous base pairs ...
Biologists have found that sex chromosomes in plants originated from pairs of autosomes. As these chromosomes diverge from ... In the case of Silene, the pair of automsomal chromosomes are transformed into heteromorphic sex-determining chromosomes ... pair during female meiosis. Contrastingly, recombination is suppressed across most of the Y chromosomes during pairing in male ... A few, such as S. colpophylla, possess homomorphic sex chromosomes. Plants with sex-determining chromosomes, like Silene, can ...
number of base pairs = mass in pg × 9.78 × 10 8 {\displaystyle {\text{number of base pairs}}={\text{mass in pg}}\times 9.78\ ... I. DNA-content and chromosome sets in various species of Cyprinidae". Humangenetik. 7 (3): 240-244. doi:10.1007/BF00273173. ... or as the total number of nucleotide base pairs, usually in megabases (millions of base pairs, abbreviated Mb or Mbp). One ...
Each blade is cut into about 20 pairs of pinnae. These are opposite and widely spaced at the base of the blade, but are closer ... The triploid sporophyte has a chromosome number of 90. Reproduction is apogamous: triploid spores are formed by mitosis, rather ... There are 6 to 11 pairs of pinnules per pinna. The fern shrivels up into a brown curled mass and appears dead in periods of ...
It has 2 pairs of petals, 3 large sepals (outer petals), known as the 'falls' and 3 inner, smaller petals (or tepals, known as ... It has a chromosome count: 2n=20. It was also counted as 2n=22, 44 by (Zahareva and Makeushenko 1968) and (Fedorov 1969). It is ... As most irises are diploid, having two sets of chromosomes. This can be used to identify hybrids and classification of ...
Gagniuc P, Ionescu-Tirgoviste C (April 2013). "Gene promoters show chromosome-specificity and reveal chromosome territories in ... These pairs of promoters can be positioned in divergent, tandem, and convergent directions. They can also be regulated by ... On average, only 3 to 4 of the 6 base pairs in each consensus sequence are found in any given promoter. Few natural promoters ... 47% of bidirectionally paired genes in the Gene Ontology database shared a functional category. Hypermethylation downregulates ...
... is a protein coding that is located on the plus strand of chromosome 2. The locus for the gene is 2q11.2. It is also ... FAM178B spans 110,720 base pairs, and contains 827 amino acids. There are two isoforms of the gene transcript that exist by ... "Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4". Nature. 434 (7034): 724-731. Bibcode:2005Natur. ...
The promoter for TTC39B starts at base pair 15,307,109 and ends at base pair 15,307,858. It has a length of 750 base pairs. The ... The gene for TTC39B is located on the short arm of the ninth chromosome at 9p22.3. The genomic DNA is 136,517 bases long, ... On a locus on chromosome 9p22 found to be associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), TTC39B was the only one of several ... transcription start site for TTC39B protein isoform 1 is located from base pairs 15,307,340 to 15,307,389 and has a length of ...
It has a chromosome count of 2n=20. It was originally described as Iris acutiloba var. schelkownicowii by A.V. Fomin in 1904. ... Like other irises, it has two pairs of petals: three large sepals (outer petals), known as the 'falls', and three inner, ... As most irises are diploid, having two sets of chromosomes. This can be used to identify hybrids and classification of ...
Medusozoa and calcarea clades however have species with linear mitochondrial chromosomes. In terms of base pairs, the anemone ... HVR1, for example, consists of about 440 base pairs. These 440 base pairs are compared to the same regions of other individuals ... This sequencing revealed that the human mtDNA includes 16,569 base pairs and encodes 13 proteins. Since animal mtDNA evolves ... Some plant species have enormous mitochondrial genomes, with Silene conica mtDNA containing as many as 11,300,000 base pairs. ...
The new cells typically will have too many or too few chromosomes. The odd number of chromosomes causes the defective cells to ... A prenatal diagnosis of Roberts syndrome requires an ultrasound examination paired with cytogenetic testing or prior ... Chromosomes that have HR experience separation of the heterochromatic regions during metaphase. Chromosomes with these two ... As a result, the chromosomes do not get lined up properly, which causes the cell to divide very slowly or even to not divide at ...
... and CRF2-4 genes cluster on human Chromosome 21 and mouse Chromosome 16". Mammalian Genome. 4 (6): 338-342. doi:10.1007/ ... Many individuals with ZTTK syndrome have identified heterozygosity for a de novo 4-base pair deletion, de novo mutation in exon ... "The SON gene encodes a conserved DNA binding protein mapping to human chromosome 21". Annals of Human Genetics. 58 (1): 25-34. ...
During the process of mitosis the pairs of chromosomes condense and attach to microtubules that pull the sister chromatids to ... Cell Cycle, Chromosomes and Cancer. Vol. 15. Miami Beach, FL: University of Miami School of Medicine. Alter O, Golub GH ( ... In this checkpoint, the cell checks to ensure that the spindle has formed and that all of the chromosomes are aligned at the ... Thus, during this phase, the amount of DNA in the cell has doubled, though the ploidy and number of chromosomes are unchanged. ...
Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genes on human chromosome 3, All articles with unsourced ... Martinet L, Smyth MJ (April 2015). "Balancing natural killer cell activation through paired receptors". Nature Reviews. ... Human chromosome 3 gene stubs, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the United States National Library of Medicine). ...
The chromosome number is 2n = 32. The bracts in the inflorescence form effective shelters for the flowers from rain, their red- ... The stiff upright hairy stem is square and bears simple leaves growing in opposite pairs. They are ovate, hairy above and below ...
It is now known that Drosophila has 6 chromosomes-an X/Y pair and four autosomal chromosomes. The genome comprises about 139.5 ... This could cause the heterogametic sex chromosome in the hybrid to be inviable or sterile, but homogametic sex chromosome will ... Gender is determined in Drosophila not by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome as in mammals, but by the ratio of X ... The possible interactions of Y chromosome are X-Y, Y-autosome and Y-cytoplasm. The sterile males carry a set of conspecific ...
For this sample, a better estimate would be that 95% of the base pairs are exactly shared between chimpanzee and human DNA." ... April 2015). "A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture". Genome Research. 25 (4 ... "Sequencing Y Chromosomes Resolves Discrepancy in Time to Common Ancestor of Males Versus Females". Science. 341 (6145): 562-565 ... "Analysis of one million base pairs of Neanderthal DNA". Nature. 444 (7117): 330-336. Bibcode:2006Natur.444..330G. doi:10.1038/ ...
The chromosome has a very complex and hierarchical system of organizing the genome. This system of organization, which includes ... SINEs have 50-500 base pair internal regions which contain a tRNA-derived segment with A and B boxes that serve as an internal ... Changes in chromosome structure influence gene expression primarily by affecting the accessibility of genes to transcriptional ... Furthermore, the shape and density of certain areas of a chromosome can affect the shape and density of neighboring (or even ...
... (Chromosome 17 Open Reading Frame 78) is found on the long arm cytogenetic band 17q12. The genomic sequence spans from ... Isoform 1 is encoded by a mRNA sequence that is 1920 base pairs in length. Isoform 2 derives from a mRNA sequence of 1678 base ... "C17orf78 chromosome 17 open reading frame 78 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". Retrieved 2020-04-30 ... The name denotes the location of the parent gene, being at the 78th open reading frame, on the 17th human chromosome. The ...
The human LECT2 gene, LECT2, is located on the long, i.e, "q", arm of chromosome 5 at position q31.1 (notated as 5q31.1). This ... Human LECT2 is composed of 4 exons, 3 introns, and ~8,000 base pairs. The gene has numerous single nucleotide variants as well ... 2004). "The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 5". Nature. 431 (7006): 268-74. doi:10.1038/nature02919. ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genes on human chromosome 5). ...
... univalens has one pair of chromosomes and P. equorum has two pairs. However, new genomic research suggests that both Parascaris ... The species are distinguished by the number of chromosomes. Karyotyping is the only way to differentiate between the two: P. ... Both species are model organisms for chromosome organization and cell division. The species is yellow-white in color, with ...
All of these genes are located in histone cluster 1 on chromosome 6 and cluster 2 and cluster 3 on chromosome 1. In each gene ... DNA is then wrapped around the entire nucleosome in groups of approximately 160 base pairs of DNA. The wrapping continues until ... It plays an important role in the biology of the nucleus where it is involved in the packaging and maintaining of chromosomes, ... This docking facilitates the recruitment of these proteins to the correct region of the chromosome. Ubiquitinated histone H2B ...
Each pinna on a fertile frond has three or more pairs of sori. These are 1 to 2 millimeters (0.04 to 0.08 in) long, and rusty ... A. × wherryi showed the same pattern, as it also contains chromosomes from both of those species. A specimen of A. stotleri was ... The blade is cut into 5 to 15 pairs of pinnae (possibly as low as 3 or as high as 20 in unusual specimens), which are ... The species has a chromosome number of 144 in the sporophyte, indicating an allotetraploid origin. It sporulates from June to ...
It is paired with keratin 6 in a number of epithelial tissues, including nail bed, esophagus, tongue, and hair follicles. ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genes on human chromosome 17, Keratins, All stub ... "A group of type I keratin genes on human chromosome 17: characterization and expression". Mol. Cell. Biol. 8 (2): 722-36. doi: ... "Three epidermal and one simple epithelial type II keratin genes map to human chromosome 12". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 57 (1): 33- ...
By pairing chromosomes of similar genomes, the chance for these recessive alleles to pair and become homozygous greatly ... Thus, the likelihood of deleterious recessive alleles to pair is significantly higher in a small inbreeding population than in ... This is because such pairings have a 25% probability of producing homozygous zygotes, resulting in offspring with two recessive ...
Eighteen pairs, the lowest chromosome number known in the Bambusae, was encountered in Chusquea subtessellata Hitchc, an ... Virkki, N. (1963). Eighteen Chromosome Pairs in an American Bamboo, Chusquea subtessellata Hitchc. The Journal of Agriculture ... Eighteen Chromosome Pairs in an American Bamboo, Chusquea subtessellata Hitchc. Articles. ... Niilo Virkki, Caridad M. Purcell, THE LOWEST CHROMOSOME NUMBER IN COLEOPTERA , The Journal of Agriculture of the University of ...
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification. ... Pair 4" by people in this website by year, and whether "Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4" by people in Profiles. ...
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification. ... Pair 20" by people in this website by year, and whether "Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20" by people in Profiles. ...
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification. ... Pair 7" by people in this website by year, and whether "Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7" by people in Profiles. ...
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification. ... Pair 19" by people in this website by year, and whether "Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19" by people in Profiles. ...
A pair of stained chromosomes under the microscope. The chromosome on the right acquired an additional piece by duplication of ... A pair of stained chromosomes under the microscope. The chromosome on the right acquired an additional piece by duplication of ... Chromosomes stained with fluorescence dyes under the microscope. While all DNA is stained blue, a specific sequence stained ... Chromosomes stained with fluorescence dyes under the microscope. While all DNA is stained blue, a specific sequence stained ...
Whats Holding Back the A Pair Of Homologous Chromosomes Refers To Industry? ... Sorting of pairing homologous pair of a chromosomes to them. Homologous chromosomes might or might not be the same as each ... How to Explain A Pair Of Homologous Chromosomes Refers To to Your Mom. This random along a pair of homologous chromosomes to ... The homologous chromosomes pair and exchange DNA to form recombinant chromosomes. In certain ways, sex chromosomes function ...
... each chromosome will be paired one from mother and father ... Chromosomes are contained in the nucleus of a cell, spread out ... called X chromosome and 46 would be called a Y chromosome.. If this cell was from a female, 45 would be called X chromosome and ... The pairs carry the same type of genes along their length. Within each pair you inherit one chromosome from your mother and one ... Starts with one human cell containing 46 chromosomes. Ends up with 4 cells each containing 23 chromosomes. ...
Chromosome pair sketch PNG Image. Edit Online and Create T-Shirt & Merch Designs ready to sell. Download as Transparent SVG, ... Chromosome pair sketch PNG Design structuregenegeneticshereditybiologymutationtestcellribosome chromosomepairsketchpng imagepng ...
Classifier-assisted metric for chromosome pairing Title:. Classifier-assisted metric for chromosome pairing. ...
Fosmid End Pairs. hide. dense. squish. pack. full. Gap. hide. dense. squish. pack. full. GC Percent. hide. dense. full. GRC ... Chromosome Band. hide. dense. squish. pack. full. deCODE Recomb. hide. dense. squish. pack. full. ENCODE Pilot. hide. dense. ...
... each cell normally contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46. ... The other two chromosomes, X and Y, are the sex chromosomes. This picture of the human chromosomes lined up in pairs is called ... The 23rd pair, the sex chromosomes, differ between males and females. Females have two copies of the X chromosome, while males ... In humans, each cell normally contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46. Twenty-two of these pairs, called autosomes ...
It is a random mutation that occurs in the chromosome pairs before birth. Gene mutations Gene mutations can vary from different ...
Describes a cell that contains two copies of each chromosome. ... and 22 pairs of autosomal, or non-sex, chromosomes. The total ... Germ line cells are haploid, which means they contain a single set of chromosomes. In diploid cells, one set of chromosomes is ... Humans have 46 chromosomes in each diploid cell. Among those, there are two sex-determining chromosomes, ... Nearly all the cells in the human body carry two homologous, or similar, copies of each chromosome. The only exception is cells ...
How do chromosomes pair up correctly during reproduction?. joelh605 Uncategorized May 18, 2019. 1 Minute ... Other separation errors can result in two or zero X or Y chromosomes, making 22 or 24 chromosomes and resulting in a baby with ... Each one has 46 chromosomes and a nucleus.. Sperm and egg cells skip the "copy" part, and when there are two cells, each has 23 ... Birth defects sometimes occur due to separation errors, e.g. one cell may have BOTH Chromosome 22s - if this cell results in a ...
Paired-end sequencing; Title: Breakpoint analysis of balanced chromosome rearrangements by next-generation paired-end ... 2010). Breakpoint analysis of balanced chromosome rearrangements by next-generation paired-end sequencing. European Journal of ... By identifying read pairs spanning the breakpoints, we were able to map the breakpoints to a region of a few hundred base pairs ... Breakpoint analysis of balanced chromosome rearrangements by next-generation paired-end sequencing ...
Tag: recombinant chromosomes. Identification of strong genetic signatures related to lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung. ...
Number of chromosomes. 24 pairs. Year of completion. 2011. Orangutans have 48 chromosomes.[23] The Sumatran orangutan genome ...
Distance in Base Pairs from Selected Gene. Chromosome. Ordered by Chromosome Position. ...
Chromosome Mapping * Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1* * Consensus Sequence * Cricetinae * DNA, Complementary * Diptera ...
We explain the different number of chromosomes and changes in chromosomes. We also talk about complex conditions. ... Chromosomes come in pairs and humans have 46 chromosomes, in 23 pairs. Children randomly get one of each pair of chromosomes ... The chromosomes that form the 23rd pair are called the sex chromosomes. They decide if a person is born a male or female. A ... Different Number of Chromosomes. People usually have 23 pairs of chromosomes. But, sometimes a person is born with a different ...
RT @Yuxuan_Yuan: Telomere-to-telomere assembly of a fish Y chromosome reveals the origin of a young sex chromosome pair https ... Telomere-to-telomere assembly of a fish Y chromosome reveals the origin of a young sex chromosome pair. Overview of attention ... RT @jsantoyo: Telomere-to-telomere assembly of a fish Y chromosome reveals the origin of a young sex chromosome pair. # ... Telomere-to-telomere assembly of a fish Y chromosome reveals the origin of a young sex chromosome pair. ...
Fosmid End Pairs. hide. dense. squish. pack. full. Gap. hide. dense. squish. pack. full. GC Percent. hide. dense. full. GRC ... Chromosome Band. hide. dense. squish. pack. full. deCODE Recomb. hide. dense. squish. pack. full. ENCODE Pilot. hide. dense. ...
... they are packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes . Diploid organisms, such as humans, have chromosomes... ... have chromosomes that come in homologous pairs (except for the sex chromosomes), with each parent contributing one chromosome ... Each chromosome in a given homologous pair represents the same genes, but with different expressions (called alleles) of those ... they are packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Diploid organisms, such as humans, ...
... at AMPG 2019 where we looked at the data associated with correlation between mutations found In FFPE tumor tissue and paired ... Pair. cfDNA, FFPE, or Both. Gene. Chromosome. Position. Mutation. ClinVar mutation. Breast. Pair 1. Both. BRCA2. chr13. ... Chromosome. Position. Mutation. ClinVar mutation. Conditions associated. CRC. Pair 4. FFPE. APC. chr5. 1.12E+08. C,T. C,T. ... To determine if mutations were evenly distributed throughout chromosomes, each chromosome was divided into 10 bins; the first ...
Previous studies indicate that transcription factors such as paired box 5 (PAX5), Yin Yang 1 (YY1), and CCCTC-binding factor ( ... This includes homology search, DNA strand invasion, repair DNA synthesis, and restoration of intact chromosomes. Aspects of DNA ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae Red1 protein exhibits nonhomologous DNA end-joining activity and potentiates Hop1-promoted pairing of ... Dynamic interactions of the homologous pairing 2 (Hop2)-meiotic nuclear divisions 1 (Mnd1) protein complex with meiotic ...
b) Chromosome pairs assisting chromatin interactions and their numbers. Horizontal axis represents different chromosome pairs ... 100 base pair paired end sequencing was done using Illumina HiSeq. 2000 (Ilumina, USA). The exome sequence data is also ... Chromosome proximity and fusion transcripts. To determine the chromosome proximity we used Hi-C data from ENCODE phase 3 ... Paired-end Hi-C sequencing data were mapped and curated using a published pipeline HiCUP37 (v0.5.8) and Bowtie38 (v2.2.6). All ...
HP1γ facilitates homologous chromosome pairing. As homologous synapsis is initiated by chromosome pairing, we went on to ... Progression of pairing in the middle part region of chromosome 4. (A) Genomic position and properties of the probe used to ... This probe detects 2qA1 region on chromosome 2 (shown by the red bar). (B) Progression of pairing at the Chr2-Cen region. ... This probe detects 2qA1 region on chromosome 2 (shown by the red bar). (B) Progression of pairing at the Chr2-Cen region. ...
The order of bases on all twenty-three pairs of human chromosomes.. ... A region of a chromosome that contains multiple copies of a core DNA sequence that are arranged in a repeating fashion.. ... The specific pairing of base A with T and base C with G in double-stranded DNA.. ... A region of a DNA molecule that contains short segments of three to seven repeating base pairs.. ...
  • However, conventional methods for mapping chromosome breakpoints, such as in situ hybridisation with fluorescent dye-labelled bacterial artificial chromosome clones (BAC-FISH), are laborious, time consuming and often with insufficient resolution to unequivocally identify the disrupted gene. (
  • Our results show the feasibility of paired-end sequencing of systematic breakpoint mapping and gene finding in patients with disease-associated chromosome rearrangements. (
  • Genetic disorders often are described in terms of the chromosome that contains the gene that is changed in people who have the disorder. (
  • If the gene is on one of the first 22 pairs of chromosomes, called the autosomes, the genetic disorder is called an autosomal condition. (
  • If the gene is on the X chromosome, the disorder is called X-linked. (
  • It is caused by a mutation in a gene found on chromosome 11. (
  • It is caused by a change in a gene on the X chromosome. (
  • The disorder results from mutations in MAGED2 , a gene on the X chromosome that encodes melanoma-associated antigen D2 (MAGE-D2), which is essential for fetal renal salt reabsorption, amniotic fluid homeostasis, and the maintenance of pregnancy. (
  • Define the chromosome theory of inheritance as "genes are located on chromosomes" and know that chromosomes can be solo or paired with homologs that contain the same genes but possibly different gene variants, called alleles. (
  • The structural chromosome alterations may arise at the chromosome level (e.g., translocations and gains or losses of large portions of chromosomes) or at the nucleotide level, which influence gene structure or expression such as mutations, insertions, deletions, gene amplifications, and gene silencing by epigenetic effects ( Jefford and Irminger-Finger, 2006 ). (
  • The red colour of cats is sex-linked, which means that the gene is on the x chromosome. (
  • The NF1 gene is cytogenetically located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 17, at band 11.2 (17q11.2). (
  • the NF1 gene has a very large locus (about 350,000 base pairs, or 350 kilobases),[1, 2] which may account for the observed de novo cases. (
  • 11 SNPs exceeded genome-wide significance with the strongest association with rs12913832 SNP on chromosome 15, mapping to HERC2 gene (p=6.94x10-14). (
  • The sex of human and other mammal babies is decided by a male-determining gene on the Y chromosome. (
  • But the human Y chromosome is degenerating and may disappear in a few million years, leading to our extinction unless we evolve a new sex gene. (
  • But the Y chromosome packs a punch because it contains an all-important gene that kick-starts male development in the embryo. (
  • It works by triggering a genetic pathway starting with a gene called SOX9 which is key for male determination in all vertebrates, although it does not lie on sex chromosomes. (
  • What they discovered was a tiny difference near the key sex gene SOX9, on chromosome 3 of the spiny rat. (
  • gene, unit of hereditary information that occupies a fixed position (locus) on a chromosome. (
  • Chromosome fusions accompanied by the deletions of telomeres and centromeres result in the loss of chromosomal interactions and a drastic change of global chromosome organization, but alter gene expression marginally. (
  • Mutations in the chromosome pairing gene FKBP6 are not a common cause of non-obstructive azoospermia. (
  • Human DNA gene sequencing has long been known for Chromosome 8, commonly known as the God Gene for its specific effect on Human Behaviors (see definition in next section). (
  • The PCR test template (gene sequence) for the "lab test" also is the same as that found on Chromosome 8, and it has also been found in Swabs used to collect nasal cell samples. (
  • The gene defect is located on chromosome 8, characterized as the intestinal zinc transporter gene ( ZIP4 ), or SLC39A4 gene, at locus 8q24.3. (
  • The researchers applied a method called 'Hi-C' (High-throughput Chromosome Conformation Capture) to samples from patients with developmental disorders suspected to be caused by chromosomal rearrangements. (
  • The classical analysis of chromosomal defects is done by a karyogram, which is a microscopic view of stained chromosomes. (
  • As a major form of genomic instability, chromosomal instability comprises aberrant chromosome numbers (i.e., aneuploidy or polyploidy) and structural changes in chromosomes. (
  • We conclude that eukaryotic genomes are robust against dramatic chromosomal reconfiguration, and stochastic changes in chromosome number and genome organization during evolution underlie reproductive isolation and speciation. (
  • Having an extra chromosome is called trisomy. (
  • This extra chromosome is located in pair 21 3 . (
  • And oh yeah, she rocks her extra chromosome. (
  • Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic disorder, resulting from an extra chromosome in pair 21. (
  • The 23rd pair, the sex chromosomes, differ between males and females. (
  • The chromosomes that form the 23rd pair are called the sex chromosomes. (
  • What does the 23rd pair of chromosomes determine? (
  • The 23rd pair of chromosomes are two special chromosomes, X and Y, that determine our sex. (
  • The 23rd pair in gonadal cell called sex chromosome which is not always a perfect pair. (
  • There are 46 chromosomes in human body cells, spread out randomly within the nucleus. (
  • Nearly all the cells in the human body carry two homologous, or similar, copies of each chromosome. (
  • Germ line cells are haploid, which means they contain a single set of chromosomes. (
  • In diploid cells, one set of chromosomes is inherited from the individual's mother, while the second is inherited from the father. (
  • The total number of chromosomes in diploid cells is described as 2n, which is twice the number of chromosomes in a haploid cell (n). (
  • The first answer's reference to "meiosis" is the part about any cell becoming two cells - the 46 chromosomes each replicate, and by a mechanism which cell biologists surely have a name for (if that name isn't already meiosis) the cell membrane pinches, and two cells exist. (
  • Sperm and egg cells skip the "copy" part, and when there are two cells, each has 23 chromosomes. (
  • Each cell (except for red blood cells) contains a nucleus that houses these chromosomes. (
  • Very early in meiosis, the cells duplicate the chromosomes. (
  • The cells in the sample are stained with fluorescent dyes that will only attach to certain parts of chromosomes. (
  • And in the mitosis videos, I focused on cells of an organism, I just kind of made it up, that had two chromosomes, that had a diploid number of two that had one homologous pair, that had one chromosome from each of its parents. (
  • Cells prefer to have matching pairs of chromosomes, with an even number in total. (
  • Chromosomes are the keepers of the genetic material in eukaryotic cells . (
  • If you are wondering how your cells age, look no further than the ends of your chromosomes. (
  • And the cells in your body have 23 pairs of chromosomes. (
  • Duplication of the proximal region of chromosome 4 occurred in 22% of the spontaneously-occurring high-invasive cells strains and 83% of the chemically-induced high-invasive cell culrures. (
  • Intriguingly, other chromosome organizers, including cohesin, condensin, and topoisomerases, are differentially depleted from the same regions even in non-meiotic cells, indicating that these DNA sequence-defined chromatin islands exert a general influence on the patterning of chromosome structure. (
  • However, there is no difference in clinical aspect between the different types, and they are only differentiated in exams of the chromosomes of blood cells. (
  • Recently published research papers are now demonstrating how Human cells can rewrite RNA sequences into DNA Chromosomes. (
  • In humans, each cell normally contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46. (
  • Humans have 46 chromosomes in each diploid cell. (
  • Chromosomes come in pairs and humans have 46 chromosomes, in 23 pairs. (
  • Diploid organisms, such as humans, have chromosomes that come in homologous pairs (except for the sex chromosomes), with each parent contributing one chromosome per homologous pair. (
  • How did humans go from 48 to 46 chromosomes? (
  • I've been reading about how humans went from 48 to 46 chromosomes. (
  • In turn, this must mean the Y chromosome has lost 900-55 active genes over the 166 million years that humans and platypus have been evolving separately. (
  • I Technically, these chromosomes could be any of the 22 pairs of chromosomes (out of 23 pairs humans have). (
  • Prior to meiosis, homologous chromosomes replicate to form sister chromatids. (
  • Cytokinesis separates the antipairing of chromosomes of chick oocytes from each meiosis ii usually partitioned into compact rather than euchromatin. (
  • Genetic recombination is a process of crossover between chromosomes during MEIOSIS (meiosis = a very specialized cell division that creates eggs and sperm for reproduction). (
  • However, in the first step of meiosis, the chromosomes are duplicated to result in a total of 92 chromosomes. (
  • A pair of homologous chromosomes lined up next to each other during prophase I of meiosis. (
  • The random seperation of homologous chromosomes during anaphase I of meiosis. (
  • The pairing of homologous chromosomes during Meiosis. (
  • A tetrad is made of 4 chromatids in a pair of homologous chromosomes that come together durign meiosis. (
  • The determination of chromosome number, the analysis of chromosome structure, and pairing behaviour in meiosis were hampered by difficulties in analysing the small chromosomes of Musa . (
  • This is because the gametes (sperm and egg) only carry 19 chromosomes, due to a process known as meiosis (reduction and division) which takes place in the ovaries or testicles. (
  • Which best describes the amount of chromosomes during meiosis 1? (
  • The single-chromosome strains display little defects in cell morphology, mitosis, genotoxin sensitivity, and meiosis. (
  • Crosses between a wild-type strain and a single-chromosome strain or between two single-chromosome strains with different fusion orders suffer defective meiosis and poor spore viability. (
  • How these chromosomes are transmitted during meiosis is however poorly understood-despite their often high impact on the fitness of the host. (
  • Titled "Control of Meiotic Pairing and Recombination by Chromosomally Tethered 26S Proteasome," the study is devoted to the mechanism of chromosome juxtaposition and segregation in meiosis. (
  • Every time a cell divides, the DNA strands at the ends of your chromosomes get a little bit shorter. (
  • Telomeres are small structures that protect the ends of your chromosomes. (
  • Each of these conditions is a variation on the normal diploid number of chromosomes. (
  • So here, it has a diploid number of chromosomes. (
  • Telomeres are stretches of DNA and proteins at the ends of our chromosomes. (
  • Telomeres are a protective nucleoprotein structure at each chromosome end. (
  • Twenty-two of these pairs, called autosomes, look the same in both males and females. (
  • Human chromosomes 1 through 22 are called autosomes, and the final or 23rd chromosome is a pair of sex chromosomes, so-called because they determine the biological sex of the human. (
  • These analyses are fundamental in the design of control specimens present C-heterochromatic blocks in most of campaigns because their results will help determine the their 22 chromosomes, whereas non-Andean specimens have only 4-7 autosomes with C-banding. (
  • pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes (XY in Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Montpellier, males, XX in females) (8). (
  • The Y chromosome is present in males, who have one X and one Y chromosome, while females have two X chromosomes. (
  • The end result is 45 instead of 46 chromosomes, with very little DNA lost. (
  • Persons with Down Syndrome present 47 chromosomes in each cell, instead of 46, as others do. (
  • Inside a living cell (plant and animal) is a nucleus which contains chromosomes. (
  • The cell's nucleus contains chromosomes. (
  • In the combination of the nuclear polarity through recombination of a homologous pair. (
  • instead, a few pieces are traded between nonsister chromosomes in a process called RECOMBINATION. (
  • Successful meiotic recombination, and thus fertility, depends on conserved axis proteins that organize chromosomes into arrays of anchored chromatin loops and provide a protected environment for DNA exchange. (
  • Sep 22, 2022 Telomere vesicles retained the Rad51 recombination factor that enabled telomere fusion with T-cell chromosome ends lengthening them by an average of 3,000 base pairs. (
  • Thirty-six chromosome pseudomolecules comprised 93% of the entire sequenced genome length. (
  • Genlisea nigrocaulis , with 86 Mbp one of the smallest plant genomes, and the 18-fold larger genome of G. hispidula (1,550 Mbp) possess identical chromosome numbers (2 n = 40) but differ considerably in chromatin organization, nuclear and cell size. (
  • Beginning in 1990 and finishing in 2003, the Human Genome Project was an international research initiative that aimed to write the entire sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up the human genome, including the mapping of all its genes that determine our physical and functional attributes. (
  • The publicly funded $3bn project was able to map 99% of the human genome with 99.99% accuracy, which included its 3.2bn Mega-base pairs, 20,000 genes and 23 chromosome pairs, and has led to advancements in bioinformatics, personalised medicine and a deeper understanding of human evolution. (
  • The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific effort to sequence the entire human genome, that is, to produce a map of the base pairs of DNA in the human chromosomes, most of which do not vary among individuals. (
  • Deficiency tests of the SNPs delimited six A(t)-genome members of the MIC-3 family clustered to chromosome arm 4sh, and one D(t)-genome member to chromosome 19. (
  • Clustering was confirmed by long-PCR amplification of the intergenic regions using A(t)-genome-specific MIC-3 primer pairs. (
  • Deploying the Whole Genome Sequence In Medicine and Public Health, One Base Pair At A Time. (
  • Lined up in order of size, these chromosomes look like this although chromosome 46 changes depending on whether the cell is from a female or a male. (
  • Diploid describes a cell that contain two copies of each chromosome. (
  • Birth defects sometimes occur due to separation errors, e.g. one cell may have BOTH Chromosome 22's - if this cell results in a baby, it will have Down Syndrome. (
  • As to correctly, the "correctly" part begins with cell division, where each cell gets one copy, thus an original 46 chromosomes becomes 92 before the cell splits in half. (
  • Normally, every cell has 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes. (
  • The process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus. (
  • As mitotic activity in vitro is usually low, flow cytometry is an attractive alternative to chromosome counting to monitor karyological instability of cell and tissue cultures, and to characterise regenerated plants. (
  • The diagram shows the relationship between the cell, its nucleus, chromosomes in the nucleus, and genes. (
  • Chromosomes are stick-shaped structures in the middle of each cell in the body. (
  • Each cell has 46 chromosomes grouped in 23 pairs. (
  • Chromosome pairs like these are in every human cell. (
  • The chromosomes are located within each cell nucleus . (
  • The chromosomes assemble on the equatorial plate (an imaginary disc that crosses the center of the 3-dimensional cell). (
  • Chromosomes (now single molecules of DNA with associated proteins) have reached opposite poles of the cell. (
  • Sister chromatids have separated from each other, and they, as new chromosomes, are moving to opposite poles of the cell. (
  • When a cell divides, chromosomes are replicated and each daughter cell inherits an identical pair. (
  • Rapid degradation of condensin I and condensin II - two essential regulators of mitotic chromosome structure - revealed that both complexes are individually required for cell division in precursor lymphocytes, but not in their differentiated peripheral lymphocyte derivatives. (
  • There are 23 pairs of chromosomes in the cell of human body. (
  • Which best describes the amount of chromosomes during the cell cycle with mitosis? (
  • We used Spectral Karyoryping (SKY), mapping with fluorescently labeled genomic clones (FISH), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), expression array, real time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot to analyze 15 primary adenocarcinoma and 9 pairs of high and low invasive cell cultures to detect molecular changes. (
  • The medial portion of chromosome 4 was deleted in 67% of all of the cell Strains. (
  • Mouse chromosome 1 and 15 were amplified in 90% of the high-invasive cell strains. (
  • Every human being has a pair of sex chromosomes in each cell. (
  • In a female who has two X chromosomes sometime early in development, randomly in each cell, at that particular point in development, one of her chromosomes becomes inactive. (
  • And the chromosome X that becomes inactive in that cell is actually stably inactive. (
  • That is, every cell that derives from that initial cell will have the same X chromosome inactive. (
  • 1) the ovum contributes one chromosome of each pair to the fertilized cell (2) When a human sperm fertilizes a human ovum , a single cell is created with the potential to grow into a human person. (
  • For researchers who wish to convert T/S ratio to base pairs (bp), the formula is (3,274 + 2,413 * (T/S)). The conversion from T/S ratio to bp is calculated based on comparison of telomeric restriction fragment (TRF) length from Southern blot analysis and T/S ratios using DNA samples from the human diploid fibroblast cell line IMR90 at different population doublings. (
  • The homologous chromosomes pair and exchange DNA to form recombinant chromosomes. (
  • This picture of the human chromosomes lined up in pairs is called a karyotype. (
  • Key to connecting chromosomes to symptoms and traits is the karyotype, a size-order alignment of chromosome pairs in a chart. (
  • A karyotype is a single person's set of chromosomes. (
  • Diferences among the karyotypes of the studied species were small, suggesting that karyotype diversity in the genus evolved by small changes in the structure of chromosomes. (
  • The karyotype of the swan goose is 2n=80, consisting of four pairs of macrochromosomes, 35 pairs of microchromosomes, and a pair of sex chromosomes. (
  • Sister chromatids pair up with their homologs and exchange genetic material with one another. (
  • Sister chromatids then invade one additional transgenes from centrosomes that are present at equivalent positions of homologous pair of a cloned dna to a mitotic division of the three main differences. (
  • That one chromosome is now made up of two sister chromatids. (
  • And then you have that shorter chromosome from the father and then that also replicates into two sister chromatids attached at a centromere. (
  • Chromosomes consist of two sister chromatids (DNA replicas + associated proteins) attached together at a specialized region called the centromere . (
  • Replicated chromosomes, consisting of two sister chromatids held together at the centromere, have condensed and can be seen as stained bodies (chromo-somes). (
  • Chromosome length assembly sequences were aligned to the genomes of related species to reveal corresponding chromosomes. (
  • A variety of repetitive DNA sequences have been localised to Musa chromosomes. (
  • Probes of tandem repetitive sequences together with rDNA allow the unequivocal discrimination of 13 out of 20 chromosome pairs of G. hispidula . (
  • One of the repetitive sequences labeled half of the chromosome set almost homogenously supporting an allopolyploid status of G. hispidula and its close relative G. subglabra (1,622 Mbp, 2 n = 40). (
  • The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences. (
  • Since then, the field of cytogenetics-linking chromosome abnormalities with syndromes-has proceeded more or less in fits and starts, with key developments in chromosome preparation explaining more and more once mysterious medical conditions. (
  • FISH can be used to find chromosome abnormalities that may not show up in an extended banding chromosome study. (
  • Chromosomes become visible and nucleoli disappear (DNA + associated proteins become tightly organized). (
  • Polymerase allows the DNA strands to unwind from paired chain and the insertion new proteins encoded in the DNA which remains for future mRNA synthesis from the template strand. (
  • For instance, benzpyrene, a component of cigarette smoke, adds a large chemical group to guanine, making it unavailable for base pairing. (
  • A cross that considers one pair of contrasting traits. (
  • A cross that considers two pairs of contrasting traits. (
  • As the accurate determination of chromosome number and/or ploidy by chromosome counting is laborious, a variety of phenotypic traits including stomata size, stomata density and pollen size were used as alternative approaches to estimate ploidy [3,4]. (
  • Some characteristics, or traits, result from interactions with the environment, others are determined from the genetic material in your chromosomes. (
  • a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is located usually on a chromosome and that is the functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits by specifying the structure of a particular polypeptide and especially a protein or controlling the function of other genetic material. (
  • We compare processes responsible for the non-Mendelian transmission of accessory chromosomes for different fungal eukaryotes and discuss the structural traits of fungal accessory chromosomes affecting their meiotic transmission. (
  • Meiotic pairing in the experimental male hybrid progeny between Andean and non-Andean specimens of Triatoma infestans . (
  • A: First meiotic metaphase in an insect obtained by crossing a female from Andean region (with C-banded X chromosomes) with a male from non-Andean region. (
  • For several fungal organisms, a non-Mendelian transmission or a mechanistically unique meiotic drive of accessory chromosomes have been reported. (
  • In this review, we provide an overview of the possible mechanisms that can cause the non-Mendelian transmission or meiotic drives of fungal accessory chromosomes. (
  • As such, Dr. Börner's findings provide an integrated model how targeted protein degradation controls large-scale chromosome juxtaposition, with important effects on meiotic crossing over and ultimately chromosome segregation. (
  • Short tandem repeats located on the human Y chromosome. (
  • The imminent - evolutionarily speaking - disappearance of the human Y chromosome has elicited speculation about our future. (
  • What is chromosome theory of inheritance? (
  • Rarely, females are affected with HA as a result of skewed X-chromosome inactivation or inheritance of two aberrant F8 alleles from their mother and father. (
  • Break off and attach to adjacent chromatids on the homologous chromosome. (
  • Metaphase ends when the centromeres of each pair of chromatids split apart. (
  • At this point esch chromosome consist of a pair of chromatids and the two associated chromosomes are termed a tetrad. (
  • The enzymes responsible for this process, called DNA polymerases, can easily replicate one strand of DNA in the chromosome, but replication of the other strand is much more complex. (
  • Missing a small part of a chromosome is called a deletion. (
  • FISH mapping further narrowed the region of deletion of chromosome 4 to 39.6 centimorgans (cM) and the region of duplication to 10-35 cM. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Partial deletion of the long arm chromosome 11 in Jacobsen syndrome. (
  • This random along a pair of homologous chromosomes to bring homologous pair are formed and. (
  • Sorting of pairing homologous pair of a chromosomes to them. (
  • Each chromosome in a given homologous pair represents the same genes, but with different expressions (called alleles ) of those genes. (
  • Genes located on structures called chromosomes carry the genetic information that determines the characteristics of each individual. (
  • All species showed a high proportion of metacentric chromosomes combined with a lower proportion of submetacentric pairs. (
  • The two largest macrochromosome pairs as well as the Z (female) chromosome are submetacentric, while the third-largest chromosome pair is acrocentric and the fourth-largest is metacentric. (
  • While all DNA is stained blue, a specific sequence stained pink appears duplicated in one of the two copies of chromosome 17, but not the other. (
  • Females have two copies of the X chromosome , while males have one X and one Y chromosome . (
  • A region of a chromosome that contains multiple copies of a core DNA sequence that are arranged in a repeating fashion. (
  • There are 4 copies of chromosome 1 (2 copies of the chromosome you got from your mother, and 2 copies of the chromosome you got from your father). (
  • There are 4 copies of chromosome 2, and so on. (
  • New cytogenetic markers are urgently needed to analyse the behaviour of chromosomes during evolution and in breeding programmes, and to integrate the physical and genetic maps. (
  • Chromosomes are analyzed by healthcare providers trained in cytogenetic technology and genetics. (
  • This test can find some chromosome changes that can't be seen with standard cytogenetic testing. (
  • Chromosomes stained with fluorescence dyes under the microscope. (
  • The analysis of the long-range organisation of Musa chromosomes has progressed thanks to the application of fluorescence in situ hybridisation. (
  • Independent susceptibility markers for atrial fibrillation on chromosome 4q25. (
  • Analysis of positional candidate genes in the AAA1 susceptibility locus for abdominal aortic aneurysms on chromosome 19. (
  • The first is X chromosome inactivation. (
  • In the case of female X chromosome inactivation, that actually occurs within the first couple weeks of embryonic development. (
  • While comparisons across studies of telomere length in base pairs are commonly done, it is not highly accurate. (
  • Autosomal dominant distal spinal muscular atrophy type V (dSMA-V) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2D (CMT2D) segregate within a single large kindred and map to a refined region on chromosome 7p15. (
  • Females have a pair of X chromosomes (46, XX), whereas males have one X and one Y chromosomes (46, XY). (
  • A small duplication (only 17,000 base pairs out of more than 3 billion) was present in all males and no females. (
  • Because F8 is located on the X chromosome, HA predominately affects males who either inherit a mutation in F8 from their mother or develop a de novo mutation. (
  • Different fragment lengths of base pairs that result from cutting a DNA molecule with restriction enzymes. (
  • A region of a DNA molecule that contains short segments of three to seven repeating base pairs. (
  • Each chromosome contains a very complex molecule called DNA. (
  • This high-bone-mass trait (HBM) was originally localized by linkage analysis to chromosome 11q12-13. (
  • The homologous linkage groups on human chromosomes 9p2I, 1p36, 9q and 8q are altered in asbestos -induced human lung adenocarcinoma. (
  • The exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes. (
  • It has twice the genetic material but it is still one chromosome. (
  • Hi-C, a method to map the three-dimensional structure of chromosomes, promises more reliable and accurate diagnoses of such defects, but is not used in the clinic yet. (
  • Two nitrogen-containing bases (or nucleotides) that pair together to form the structure of DNA. (
  • Changes in chromosomes, whether in number or in structure, have large effects on characteristics because they contain large numbers of genes. (
  • Some of the improvement programmes are based on crossing plants with different ploidy levels, giving rise to progenies representing combinations of male and female gametes with various chromosome numbers [11,12]. (
  • Flow cytometry can replace laborious chromosome counting, and it is now used routinely to estimate ploidy levels. (
  • For this video, I'm gonna focus on a species, not human beings, that would have 23 pairs or 46 chromosomes. (
  • The mole voles of eastern Europe and the spiny rats of Japan each boast some species in which the Y chromosome, and SRY, have completely disappeared. (
  • The male can have sperm carrying either the x chromosome or the y chromosome, whereas the female's eggs can only carry the x chromosome. (
  • To reproduce, we need sperm and we need men, meaning that the end of the Y chromosome could herald the extinction of the human race. (
  • MedlinePlus Genetics provides information about each human chromosome written in lay language. (
  • By combining DNA array hybridisation with chromosome sorting, the efficiency of breakpoint mapping has dramatically improved. (
  • By identifying read pairs spanning the breakpoints, we were able to map the breakpoints to a region of a few hundred base pairs that could be confirmed by subsequent PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing of the junction fragments. (
  • Amplification of mouse chromosome 4 in chemically induced and invasive mouse lung adenocarcinoma. (
  • Chromosome studies are usually done from a small sample of tissue from a person's body. (
  • Again, assume that the members of each pair are not identical. (
  • This protein has the identical amino acid coding (sequence) found in Human DNA-Chromosome 8. (
  • Based on a previous GWAS study, 14 DA associated loci and flanking regions were selected for NGS (6,996,180 base pairs). (