In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.
The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
Rare neoplasms of mesenchymal origin, usually benign, and most commonly involving the PLEURA (see SOLITARY FIBROUS TUMOR, PLEURAL). They also are found in extrapleural sites.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
A pteridinetriamine compound that inhibits SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
Platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb is an integrin alpha subunit that heterodimerizes with INTEGRIN BETA3 to form PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX. It is synthesized as a single polypeptide chain which is then postranslationally cleaved and processed into two disulfide-linked subunits of approximately 18 and 110 kDa in size.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Surgical formation of an opening in the ureter for external drainage of the urine; cutaneous route utilizes a ureteral orifice emerging through the skin.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, elements such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, that are required for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance in progeny cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
A characteristic symptom complex.
The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Solutions prepared for exchange across a semipermeable membrane of solutes below a molecular size determined by the cutoff threshold of the membrane material.
An enzyme that activates tyrosine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.1.
Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Congenital conditions of atypical sexual development associated with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions including MONOSOMY; TRISOMY; and MOSAICISM.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).

The mouse Spo11 gene is required for meiotic chromosome synapsis. (1/430)

The Spo11 protein initiates meiotic recombination by generating DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and is required for meiotic synapsis in S. cerevisiae. Surprisingly, Spo11 homologs are dispensable for synapsis in C. elegans and Drosophila yet required for meiotic recombination. Disruption of mouse Spo11 results in infertility. Spermatocytes arrest prior to pachytene with little or no synapsis and undergo apoptosis. We did not detect Rad51/Dmc1 foci in meiotic chromosome spreads, indicating DSBs are not formed. Cisplatin-induced DSBs restored Rad51/Dmc1 foci and promoted synapsis. Spo11 localizes to discrete foci during leptotene and to homologously synapsed chromosomes. Other mouse mutants that arrest during meiotic prophase (Atm -/-, Dmc1 -/-, mei1, and Morc(-/-)) showed altered Spo11 protein localization and expression. We speculate that there is an additional role for Spo11, after it generates DSBs, in synapsis.  (+info)

Chromosome synapsis defects and sexually dimorphic meiotic progression in mice lacking Spo11. (2/430)

Spo11, a protein first identified in yeast, is thought to generate the chromosome breaks that initiate meiotic recombination. We now report that disruption of mouse Spo11 leads to severe gonadal abnormalities from defective meiosis. Spermatocytes suffer apoptotic death during early prophase; oocytes reach the diplotene/dictyate stage in nearly normal numbers, but most die soon after birth. Consistent with a conserved function in initiating meiotic recombination, Dmc1/Rad51 focus formation is abolished. Spo11(-/-) meiocytes also display homologous chromosome synapsis defects, similar to fungi but distinct from flies and nematodes. We propose that recombination initiation precedes and is required for normal synapsis in mammals. Our results also support the view that mammalian checkpoint responses to meiotic recombination and/or synapsis defects are sexually dimorphic.  (+info)

M31 and macroH2A1.2 colocalise at the pseudoautosomal region during mouse meiosis. (3/430)

Progression through meiotic prophase is associated with dramatic changes in chromosome condensation. Two proteins that have been implicated in effecting these changes are the mammalian HP1-like protein M31 (HP1beta or MOD1) and the unusual core histone macroH2A1.2. Previous analyses of M31 and macroH2A1.2 localisation in mouse testis sections have indicated that both proteins are components of meiotic centromeric heterochromatin and of the sex body, the transcriptionally inactive domain of the X and Y chromosomes. This second observation has raised the possibility that these proteins co-operate in meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. In order to investigate the roles of M31 and macroH2A1.2 in meiosis in greater detail, we have examined their localisation patterns in surface-spread meiocytes from male and female mice. Using this approach, we report that, in addition to their previous described staining patterns, both proteins localise to a focus within the portion of the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) that contains the steroid sulphatase (Sts) gene. In light of the timing of its appearance and of its behaviour in sex-chromosomally variant mice, we suggest a role for this heterochromatin focus in preventing complete desynapsis of the terminally associated X and Y chromosomes prior to anaphase I.  (+info)

Evidence for meiotic spindle checkpoint from analysis of spermatocytes from Robertsonian-chromosome heterozygous mice. (4/430)

Mice heterozygous for Robertsonian centric fusion chromosomal translocations frequently produce aneuploid sperm. In this study RBJ/Dn x C57BL/6J F1 males, heterozygous for four Robertsonian translocations (2N=36), were analyzed to determine effects on germ cells of error during meiosis. Analysis of sperm by three color fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed significantly elevated aneuploidy, thus validating Robertsonian heterozygous mice as a model for production of chromosomally abnormal gametes. Primary spermatocytes from heterozygous males exhibited abnormalities of chromosome pairing in meiotic prophase and metaphase. In spite of prophase abnormalities, the prophase/metaphase transition occurred. However, an increased frequency of cells with misaligned condensed chromosomes was observed. Cytological analysis of both young and adult heterozygous mice revealed increased apoptosis in spermatocytes during meiotic metaphase I. Metaphase spermatocytes with misaligned chromosomes accounted for a significant proportion of the apoptotic spermatocytes, suggesting that a checkpoint process identifies aberrant meioses. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that kinetochores of chromosomes that failed to align on the spindle stained more intensely for kinetochore antigens CENP-E and CENP-F than did aligned chromosomes. Taken together, these observations are consistent with detection of malattached chromosomes by a meiotic spindle checkpoint mechanism that monitors attachment and/or congression of homologous chromosome pairs. However, the relatively high frequency of gametic aneuploidy suggests that the checkpoint mechanism does not efficiently eliminate all germ cells with chromosomal abnormalities.  (+info)

Checkpoints: chromosome pairing takes an unexpected twist. (5/430)

When meiotic cells complete S phase, homologous chromosomes pair, synapse and undergo recombination. A checkpoint protein is somehow required for meiotic chromosome pairing in C. elegans, thus providing a direct link between S phase and the rest of the meiotic program.  (+info)

Nucleolus-associated telomere clustering and pairing precede meiotic chromosome synapsis in Arabidopsis thaliana. (6/430)

The intranuclear arrangements of centromeres and telomeres during meiotic interphase and early prophase I of meiosis in Arabidopsis thaliana were analysed by fluorescent in situ hybridisation to spread pollen mother cells and embryo-sac mother cells. Meiocyte identification, staging and progression were established by spreading and sectioning techniques, including various staining procedures and bromodeoxyuridine labeling of replicating DNA. Centromere regions of Arabidopsis are unpaired, widely dispersed and peripherally located in nuclei during meiotic interphase, and they remain unpaired and unassociated throughout leptotene. Eventually they associate pairwise during zygotene, as part of the nucleus-wide synapsis of homologous chromosomes. Telomeres, by contrast, show a persistent association with the nucleolus throughout meiotic interphase. Variation in telomere signal number indicates that telomeres undergo pairing during this interval, preceding the onset of general chromosome synapsis. During leptotene the paired telomeres lose their association with the nucleolus and become widely dispersed. As the chromosomes synapse during zygotene, the telomeres reveal a loose clustering within one hemisphere, which may represent a degenerate or relic bouquet configuration. We propose that in Arabidopsis the classical leptotene/zygotene bouquet is absent and is replaced functionally by nucleolus-associated telomere clustering.  (+info)

The mouse meiotic mutation mei1 disrupts chromosome synapsis with sexually dimorphic consequences for meiotic progression. (7/430)

mei1 (meiosis defective 1) is the first meiotic mutation in mice derived by phenotype-driven mutagenesis. It was isolated by using a novel technology in which embryonic stem (ES) cells were chemically mutagenized and used to generate families of mice that were screened for infertility. We report here that mei1/mei1 spermatocytes arrest at the zygotene stage of meiosis I, exhibiting failure of homologous chromosomes to properly synapse. Notably, RAD51 failed to associate with meiotic chromosomes in mutant spermatocytes, despite evidence for the presence of chromosomal breaks. Transcription of genes that are markers for the leptotene and zygotene stages, but not genes that are markers for the pachytene stage, was observed. mei1/mei1 females are sterile, and their oocytes also show severe synapsis defects. Nevertheless, unlike arrested spermatocytes, a small number of mutant oocytes proved capable of progressing to metaphase I and attempting the first meiotic division. However, their chromosomes were unpaired and were not organized properly at the metaphase plate or along the spindle fibers during segregation. mei1 was genetically mapped to chromosome (Chr) 15 in an interval that is syntenic to human Chr 22q13. This region, which has been completely sequenced, contains no known homologs of genes specifically required for meiosis in model organisms. Thus, mei1 may be a novel meiotic gene.  (+info)

Eco1 is a novel acetyltransferase that can acetylate proteins involved in cohesion. (8/430)

Cohesion between sister chromatids is established during S phase and maintained through G2 phase until it is resolved in anaphase (for review, see [1-3]). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a complex consisting of Scc1, Smc1, Smc3, and Scc3 proteins, called "cohesin," mediates the connection between sister chromatids. The evolutionary conserved yeast protein Eco1 is required for establishment of sister chromatid cohesion during S phase but not for its further maintenance during G2 or M phases or for loading the cohesin complex onto DNA. We address the molecular functions of Eco1 with sensitive sequence analytic techniques, including hidden Markov model domain fragment searches. We found a two-domain architecture with an N-terminal C2H2 Zn finger-like domain and an approximately 150 residue C-terminal domain with an apparent acetyl coenzyme A binding motif (http://mendel.imp.univie.ac.at/SEQUENCES/ECO1/). Biochemical tests confirm that Eco1 has the acetyltransferase activity in vitro. In vitro Eco1 acetylates itself and components of the cohesin complex but not histones. Thus, the establishment of cohesion between sister chromatids appears to be regulated, directly or indirectly, by a specific acetyltransferase.  (+info)

Meiosis is essential for eukaryotic sexual reproduction, allowing the production of haploid gametes. In addition, meiotic recombination during the early stages of meiosis allows the exchange of genetic information, serving as an important source of genetic diversity. The success of meiosis depends on a complex and prolonged prophase I that involves homologous chromosome (homolog) pairing, synapsis, and recombination (Zickler and Kleckner, 1999; Page and Hawley, 2003; Schwarzacher, 2003). After pairing, the homologs continue to associate and this interaction has been referred to as homolog juxtaposition (Zickler and Kleckner, 1999). Recombination results in crossover events that correspond to cytologically observed chiasmata, which, in combination with sister chromatid cohesion, maintain the association between homologs in the form of bivalents, ensuring proper segregation of homologs at anaphase I. Synapsis, the formation of synaptonemal complexes (SCs) between closely associated chromosomes, ...
We report the discovery of a checkpoint that monitors synapsis between homologous chromosomes to ensure accurate meiotic segregation. Oocytes containing unsynapsed chromosomes selectively undergo apoptosis even if a germline DNA damage checkpoint is inactivated. This culling mechanism is specifically activated by unsynapsed pairing centers, cis-acting chromosome sites that are also required to promote synapsis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Apoptosis due to synaptic failure also requires the C. elegans homolog of PCH2, a budding yeast pachytene checkpoint gene, which suggests that this surveillance mechanism is widely conserved.. ...
ATM is a member of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PIK)like kinases, some of which are active in regulating DNA damage-induced mitotic cell-cycle checkpoints. ATM also plays a role in meiosis. Spermatogenesis in Atm−/− male mice is disrupted, with chromosome fragmentation leading to meiotic arrest; in human patients with ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), gonadal atrophy is common. Immuno-localization studies indicate that ATM is associated with sites along the synaptonemal complex (SC), the specialized structure along which meiotic recombination occurs. Recombination, preceded by pairing of homologous chromosomes, is thought to require heteroduplex formation between homologous DNA, followed by strand exchange. These early meiotic steps (entailing the formation and processing of meiotic recombination intermediates with DNA-strand interruptions) require ssDNA-binding proteins such as replication protein A (RPA; refs 5-7). In somatic cells, DNA damage induces ATM-dependent phosphorylation of RPA. ...
Chromosome segregation at meiosis I depends on pairing and crossing-over between homologs. In most eukaryotes, pairing culminates with formation of the proteinaceous synaptonemal complex (SC). In budding yeast, recombination initiates through double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) and is thought to be esse …
Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) under its National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT) has initiated the National Digital Library of India (NDL India) pilot project to develop a framework of virtual repository of learning resources with a single-window search facility. Filtered and federated searching is employed to facilitate focused searching so that learners can find out the right resource with least effort and in minimum time. NDL India is designed to hold content of any language and provides interface support for leading Indian languages. It is being arranged to provide support for all academic levels including researchers and life-long learners, all disciplines, all popular form of access devices and differently-abled learners. It is being developed to help students to prepare for entrance and competitive examination, to enable people to learn and prepare from best practices from all over the world and to facilitate researchers to ...
Plays a key role in meiotic progression. Regulates 3 different functions during meiosis: ensures that sufficient numbers of processed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are available for successful homology search by increasing the steady-state numbers of single-stranded DSB ends. Promotes synaptonemal-complex formation independently of its role in homology search. Plays a key role in the male mid-pachytene checkpoint and the female meiotic prophase checkpoint: required for efficient build-up of ATR activity on unsynapsed chromosome regions, a process believed to form the basis of meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC) and meiotic prophase quality control in both sexes.
During metaphase I, the homologous chromosomes are arranged in the center of the cell with the kinetochores facing opposite poles. The homologous pairs orient themselves randomly at the equator. For example, if the two homologous members of chromosome 1 are labeled a and b, then the chromosomes could line up a-b, or b-a. This is important in determining the genes carried by a gamete, as each will only receive one of the two homologous chromosomes. Recall that homologous chromosomes are not identical. They contain slight differences in their genetic information, causing each gamete to have a unique genetic makeup.. This randomness is the physical basis for the creation of the second form of genetic variation in offspring. Consider that the homologous chromosomes of a sexually reproducing organism are originally inherited as two separate sets, one from each parent. Using humans as an example, one set of 23 chromosomes is present in the egg donated by the mother. The father provides the other set ...
Homologous chromosomes are two pieces of DNA within a diploid organism which carry the same genes, one from each parental source.
4. I asked the wrong question. How do the homologous chromosomes pair up (mate/join)? How do they recognize that chromosome with whom to pair? If there are different genes on different chromosomes, I assume that this pairing would have to have 2 chromosomes with the same set of genes. Is this the 1 and the 2 of the 2n (one from the mother side, one from the father side)? Thus each pair of homologous chromosomes have a total of 4 sister chromatids, 2 on each of the homologous chromosomes. How the chromosomes pair correctly is my biggest stumbling point ...
Complete information for MEIOB gene (Protein Coding), Meiosis Specific With OB Domains, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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We want to hear from you!. Like what we do? Want to get involved? Curious about classes, workshops, cabarets, or other happenings?. The Synapsis Collective welcomes new members and is happy to perform at your event! ...
The synapsis is a 4×4 pushbutton matrix that offers performative control of the Bit Ranger.. There are 8 patch points connected to 4 rows (ABCD) and 4 columns (1234) of buttons. Pressing button A1 connects point A to point 1. A2 connects A to 2. B2 connects B to 2 and so on.. Package includes:. ...
The synapsis is a 4×4 pushbutton matrix that offers performative control of the Bit Ranger.. There are 8 patch points connected to 4 rows (ABCD) and 4 columns (1234) of buttons. Pressing button A1 connects point A to point 1. A2 connects A to 2. B2 connects B to 2 and so on.. Package includes:. ...
amongst a established of different varieties of a gene. Diploid cells have two homologous chromosomes (a person derived from Each and every parent) and as a consequence two copies of every gene. Within a diploid mobile, a gene will have two alleles, Each individual occupying the exact same placement on homologous chromosomes ...
Final bouquet for over seven years of WP weekly photo challenges as proverbial curtain comes down signaling summation of much fine work by all participants during this era. I enjoyed every moment being a participant-contributor ever since WP staffers began this wonderful exercise allowing everyone a chance to create and exhibit their work afterwards, being…
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Red Hat, el proveedor de soluciones de código abierto líder en el mundo, suscribieron un acuerdo de colaboración regional para el desarrollo de negocios en el ámbito de las soluciones open source o Software de Código Abierto. Este acuerdo comercial busca el trabajo conjunto entre ambas empresas apuntando hacia el desarrollo de ofertas de valor en el ámbito de las soluciones de Software Libre basadas en open source. Asimismo, la creación de un centro de servicios de Soporte y Consultoría y la participación conjunta en la evolución de la oferta de Red Hat. El convenio firmado por el gerente general de Synapsis, Leonardo Covalschi, y el gerente general en Latinoamérica de Red Hat, Julián Somodi, abarca los mercados en los cuales Synapsis posee operaciones, incluyendo de esta forma a Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia y Perú, convirtiendo a la compañía en Advanced Partner de Red Hat, categoría única en Latinoamérica. De esta forma, Red Hat se incorpora al grupo de alianzas que Synapsis
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Part 2 of the mind bending adventure game, David Carter is again trapped in a series of bizare rooms which he will need to find some way of escape from.Yes its finally here after 2 years of waiting. Part 3 (the final part) will hopefully take a bit less time. Thanks to everyone who has asked me about this for the past 2 years. ...
Part 2 of the mind bending adventure game, David Carter is again trapped in a series of bizarre rooms which he will need to find some way of escape from.. Yes it\s finally here after 2 years of waiting. Part 3 (the final part) will hopefully take a bit less time. Thanks to everyone who has asked me about this for the past 2 years.. ...
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casSAR Dugability of Q03410 | Sycp1 | Synaptonemal complex protein 1 - Also known as SYCP1_RAT, Sycp1, Scp1. Major component of the transverse filaments of synaptonemal complexes, formed between homologous chromosomes during meiotic prophase (PubMed:1464329). Required for normal assembly of the central element of the synaptonemal complexes. Required for normal centromere pairing during meiosis. Required for normal meiotic chromosome synapsis during oocyte and spermatocyte development and for normal male and female fertility. Structural component of synaptonemal complexes (By similarity). Homotetramer that consists of an N-terminal four-helical bundle that bifurcates into two elongated C-terminal dimeric coiled coils. This tetrameric building block potentially self-assembles into a supramolecular zipper-like lattice to mediate meiotic chromosome synapsis. Self-assembly is likely initiated by local proton density at chromosome axis, which is predicted to trigger antiparallel back to back assembly of
The fine structure of bivalents from golden hamster and house cricket spermatocytes has been studied with a whole mount surface-spreading method combined with negative staining. The elements of the synaptonemal complex show detail of structure which is absent in other preparative procedures. The transverse filaments found in the central region of the synaptonemal complex from both species are straight and have a similar width, 1 6-1 8 nm These filaments occur mainly in bundles The central element differs in architecture in the two species In hamster bivalents it is formed of longitudinal stretches of filaments 1.6-1 8 nm wide and a small amount of an amorphous material similar to that of the lateral elements In the cricket, the central element contains transverse fibrils which are continuous with the transverse filaments of the central region, and an amorphous material lying mainly along the sides of the central element All of the components of the central region of the synaptonemal complex are ...
Meiotic recombination generates crossovers between homologous chromosomes that are essential for genome haploidization. The synaptonemal complex is a zipper-like protein assembly that synapses homologue pairs together and provides the structural framework for processing recombination sites into crossovers. Humans show individual differences in the number of crossovers generated across the genome. Recently, an anonymous gene variant in C14ORF39/SIX6OS1 was identified that influences the recombination rate in humans. Here we show that C14ORF39/SIX6OS1 encodes a component of the central element of the synaptonemal complex. Yeast two-hybrid analysis reveals that SIX6OS1 interacts with the well-established protein synaptonemal complex central element 1 (SYCE1). Mice lacking SIX6OS1 are defective in chromosome synapsis at meiotic prophase I, which provokes an arrest at the pachytene-like stage and results in infertility. In accordance with its role as a modifier of the human recombination rate, SIX6OS1 is
This gene encodes a member of the synaptonemal complex, which links homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis. The tripartite structure of the complex is highly conserved amongst metazoans. It consists of two lateral elements and a central region formed by transverse elements and a central element. The protein encoded by this gene localizes to the central element and is required for initiation and elongation of the synapsis. Allelic variants of this gene have been associated with premature ovarian failure and spermatogenic failure. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2016 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Essential role of Fkbp6 in male fertility and homologous chromosome pairing in meiosis. AU - Crackower, Michael A.. AU - Kolas, Nadine K.. AU - Noguchi, Junko. AU - Sarao, Renu. AU - Kikuchi, Kazuhiro. AU - Kaneko, Hiroyuki. AU - Kobayashi, Eiji. AU - Kawai, Yasuhiro. AU - Kozieradzki, Ivona. AU - Landers, Rushin. AU - Mo, Rong. AU - Hui, Chi Chung. AU - Nieves, Edward. AU - Cohen, Paula E.. AU - Osborne, Lucy R.. AU - Wada, Teiji. AU - Kunieda, Tetsuo. AU - Moens, Peter B.. AU - Penninger, Josef M.. PY - 2003/5/23. Y1 - 2003/5/23. N2 - Meiosis is a critical stage of gametogenesis in which alignment and synapsis of chromosomal pairs occur, allowing for the recombination of maternal and paternal genomes. Here we show that FK506 binding protein (Fkbp6) localizes to meiotic chromosome cores and regions of homologous chromosome synapsis. Targeted inactivation of Fkbp6 in mice results in aspermic mates and the absence of normal pachytene spermatocytes. Moreover, we identified the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Initiation of homologous chromosome pairing during meiosis. AU - Jordan, P.. PY - 2006/8/1. Y1 - 2006/8/1. N2 - Following pre-meiotic DNA replication, homologous chromosomes must be paired and become tightly linked to ensure reductional segregation during meiosis I. Therefore initiation of homologous chromosome pairing is vital for meiosis to proceed correctly. A number of factors contribute to the initiation of homologous chromosome pairing including telomere and centromere dynamics, pairing centres, checkpoint proteins and components of the axial element. The present review briefly summarizes recent progress in our understanding of initiation of homologous chromosome pairing during meiosis and discusses the differences that are observed between research organisms.. AB - Following pre-meiotic DNA replication, homologous chromosomes must be paired and become tightly linked to ensure reductional segregation during meiosis I. Therefore initiation of homologous chromosome pairing is ...
The sy10 mutant is one of five nonallelic mutants of rye described to date showing indiscriminate synapsis (Fedotova et al. 1994; Sosnikhina et al. 1994a,b, 2001, 2002a,b). The sy10 mutation appears to not affect the timing or expression of Asy1 and Zyp1 proteins, so it is clearly not an allele of the ASY1 or ZYP1 orthologs of rye, despite some superficial phenotypic similarities with the mutants asy1 (Caryl et al. 2000) and zyp1 (Higgins et al. 2005). Both proteins form linear structures during zygotene, but these fail to assemble into coaligned ribbons at pachytene, which is characteristic of wild type. Interestingly, unsynapsed regions appear to comprise one linear signal each of the two proteins in coalignment at midmeiotic prophase, indicating that the asynaptic phenotype is not the direct result of failure of association of the two proteins per se. Clearly, the mutant phenotype is the result of a lesion in another gene, either responsible for building the tripartite structure of the SC or, ...
To test whether recombination promotes SC formation, we used a panel of yeast spo11 missense mutants that show a range of DSB frequencies. The mutant proteins localized properly to meiotic chromosomes and supported at least some of the normal functions carried out by wild-type Spo11. Two different point mutations that abrogated DSB formation blocked SC formation as severely as a deletion mutation. Our results agree with other studies of the spo11-Y135F mutant in yeast (N. Kleckner and B. Weiner, personal communication and unpublished data; see ref. 34) and an equivalent mutant in S. macrospora (8). We also found that mutants with intermediate DSB defects gave intermediate SC defects. Because several different missense mutations and allele combinations were used, it seems unlikely that we managed fortuitously to covary two independent functions of Spo11. Thus, these findings strongly link the DNA-cleaving activity of Spo11 to its activity in promoting SC formation.. Crossover-Designated ...
We have investigated the role of pairing centers (PCs), cis-acting sites required for accurate segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis in C. elegans. We find that these sites play two distinct roles that contribute to proper segregation. Chromosomes lacking PCs usually fail to synapse a …
Meiotic cells possess surveillance mechanisms or checkpoints that monitor critical meiotic events, such as recombination and chromosome synapsis. Defects in these processes, such as those resulting from the absence of the S. cerevisiae Zip1 protein, activate a meiosis-specific checkpoint network resulting in a delay or arrest of meiotic progression. We are studying this meiotic checkpoint at different levels. Pch2 is an evolutionarily conserved AAA+ ATPase initially discovered as a checkpoint protein required for the zip1-induced meiotic arrest in budding yeast. Pch2 impacts multiple aspects of meiotic chromosome metabolism, including negative regulation of Hop1 chromosomal abundance. It has been suggested that Pch2 promotes the turnover of the Hop1 protein; thus, the pch2 single mutant exhibits more continuous Hop1 localization along synapsed chromosomes. Interestingly, in the zip1 mutant, when the checkpoint is induced, Pch2 is only detectable at the rDNA region (nucleolus). A special ...
Meiosis, the pair of specialized cell divisions required to convert germline diploid progenitor cells into haploid gametes, is an essential process for sexual reproduction in eukaryotes. After pre-meiotic DNA replication, germ cells enter an extended G2 cell cycle phase, termed meiotic prophase, during which homologous chromosomes pair and interact, and an extensive, cell type-specific transcription program turns on to set up gamete differentiation. The homologs then segregate to different daughter cells, commonly during the first meiotic division, followed by segregation of sister chromatids during meiosis II without an intervening S phase. As in mitosis, the timing of key cell cycle events is choreographed by regulated activation and deactivation of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) complexes, in which cyclins play key roles in regulating the timing and targets of Cdk activity. B-type cyclins in particular are instrumental to negotiating the G2/M transition in both mitosis and meiosis.. The ...
of being passed down.. Nevertheless, the large breeding pedigrees (since the founder population) in advanced mapping populations such as the MAGIC and the DSPR are often unavailable or inaccurate. Moreover, inbreeding by selfing instead of sibling mating is usually adopted in plant population resources such as the MAGIC. The relatively simple hidden Markov model (HMM), implemented in HAPPY (Mott et al. 2000), is thus widely used, since it does not incorporate any pedigree information except the effective number of generations. HAPPY has implemented two extremes: the diploid mode where the ancestral origin processes between two homologous chromosomes are independent and the haploid mode for haploid genomes and for diploid lines where the processes are completely dependent.. The full range of the dependencies of the ancestral origin processes between two homologous chromosomes has been modeled by a continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) for both autosomes (Zheng et al. 2014) and X chromosomes (Zheng ...
Build: Wed Jun 21 18:33:50 EDT 2017 (commit: 4a3b2dc). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
Meiosis 1: Homologous chromosomes pair up and their chromatids wrap around each other. Equivalent portions of the chromatids can be exchanged in crossing over. By the end the homologous pairs have separated with one chromosome from each pair going into one of two daughter ...
The diploid chromosomal number of a cat is 38. If one of the homologous chromosome pairs does not separate during Meiosis I, how many chromosomes can be found in the gametes?. ...
Meiosis has three unique features :. The mechanism of cell division varies in important details in different organism. This is particularly true of chromosomal separation mechanism, which differ substantially in protists and fungi from the process in plants and animals that we will describe here. Meiosis in a diploid organism consists of two rounds of division, mitosis of one. Although meiosis and mitosis have much in common, meiosis has three unique features: synapsis, homologous recombination, and reduction division.. Synapsis :. The first unique feature of meiosis happens early during the first nuclear division. Following chromosome replication, homologous chromosomes, or homologous pair all along their length. The process of forming these complexes of homologous chromosomes is called synapsis.. Homologous Recombination :. The second unique feature of meiosis is that genetic exchange occurs between the homologous chromosomes while they are thus physically joined. The exchange process that ...
Meiosis generates haploid gametes, such as sperm and eggs, from a diploid cell such that a diploid genome is restored upon fertilization. The proper segregation...
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Gorlov, I.P.; Ladygina, T.Y.; Borodin, P.M., 1990: Synapsis and recombination in mice homozygous for a double insertion of a homogenously stained region of chromosome No. 1
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A protein structure (synaptonemal complex) forms between the homologous chromosomes in the presence of the step-2 enzyme modified with SUMO. If the step-2 enzyme cannot be modified with SUMO, the complex is completely absent.
The end products of meiosis are gametes, which are cells with half the chromosome amount of normal cells. These genes are the same as ones found in the parent cells, but they have a different...
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mitosis and meiosis are both incredibly well conserved in almost all higher organisms studied. given the degree of evolutionary time that has passed to optimise these processes there will be few if any pressures for change. most if not all mutations will tend to make the processes less efficient and this will be selected against.. That said, it is possible that one or more new mutations might arise at some point in the future that could make the processes more efficient.. ...
one of a established of different sorts of a gene. Diploid cells have two homologous chromosomes (one particular derived from each father or mother) and as a consequence two copies of every gene. Within a diploid cell, a gene should have two alleles, Just about every occupying the identical placement on homologous chromosomes ...
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Were going to create a store using React and Meiosis. Meiosis is not a library, you cant import it. Its a powerful pattern to manage state and it works well…
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Match each meiosis event with the phase in which it occurs. Choose your level! Level 3 has the most matches to complete in the shortest time ...
মিয়োসিস বা মায়োসিস ( ইংরেজী-meiosis) এক বিশেষ ধরণের কোষ বিভাজন প্রক্রিয়া যাতে মাতৃকোষের নিউক্লিয়াসটি উপর্যুপরি দুবার বিভাজিত হলেও ক্রোমোসোমের বিভাজন ঘটে মাত্র একবার, ফলে অপত্য কোষে ক্রোমোসোমের সংখ্যা অর্ধেক হয়ে যায়। ১৮৮৭ খ্রিষ্টাব্দে বোভেরী (Boveri) সর্বপ্রথম গোল কৃমির জননাঙ্গে এরূপ কোষবিভাজন প্রত্যক্ষ করেন। বিজ্ঞানী স্ট্রাসবুর্গার (Strasburgar) ১৮৮৮ খ্রিষ্টাব্দে সপুষ্পক উদ্ভিদের ...
నెల్లూరు: మనుబోలు మండలం బద్వేలు క్రాస్‌రోడ్డు దగ్గర కారు బోల్తా, ముగ్గురికి గాయాలు,కర్నూలు: 16 వ రోజు జగన్ ప్రజా సంకల్ప యాత్ర,రంగారెడ్డి: మైలార్‌దేవ్‌పల్లిలో కింగ్స్‌ కాలనీలో ముస్తఫా అనే వ్యక్తిపై దుండగుల కాల్పులు,కడప: జగన్ సీఎం అయితే తన ఆస్తులు పెరుగుతాయి..చంద్రబాబు సీఎంగా ఉంటే ప్రజల ఆస్తులు పెరుగుతాయి: మంత్రి సోమిరెడ్డి,సిరిసిల్ల: అన్ని గ్రామాల్లో కేసీఆర్ గ్రామీణ ప్రగతి ...
As this karyotype displays, a diploid human cell contains 22 pairs of homologous chromosomes and 2 sex chromosomes.. Section ... They define homologous chromosomes as: "chromosomes that pair during meiosis", which is the classical cytological definition. ... For example, Emmer wheat has the AABB chromosome sets (28 total chromosomes) from Triticum monococcum (AA, 14 chromosomes) and ... chromosomes." For example, the number of homologous sets of chromosomes in humans is 23 if one considers a "set" to be one pair ...
Number of chromosomes. 21 pairs. The genome of the crab-eating macaque has been sequenced. ...
Number of chromosomes. 24 pairs. Relationships among apes. The numbers in this diagram are branch lengths, a measure of ... Duplications of small parts of chromosomes have been the major source of differences between human and chimp genetic material; ...
1976). "Genetic control of chromosome pairing in wheat". Annual Review of Genetics. 10: 31-51. doi:10.1146/annurev.ge.10.120176 ... 1982). "A Wheat Mutation Conditioning an Intermediate Level of Homoeologous Chromosome Pairing". Canadian Journal of Genetics ... The haploids arose in work on wheat-rye hybrids being used to test for chromosome doubling by heat shock. Chinese Spring was ... 1985). "The transfer of short segments of alien chromosome to wheat". In R. B. Singh; R. M. Singh; B. D. Singh (eds.). Advances ...
... hybrids may be weak hybrids may be partially sterile chromosomes may pair poorly or not at all recovery of desired phenotypes ... hybrids are generally fertile with good chromosome pairing; gene segregation is approximately normal and gene transfer is ... chromosome doubling) bridging crosses (e.g., with members of the secondary gene pool). Gene pool centres refers to areas on the ...
Transvection appears to be dependent upon chromosome pairing. In some cases, if one allele is placed on a different chromosome ... The first observation of mitotic (i.e. non-meiotic) chromosome pairing was discovered via microscopy in 1908 by Nettie Stevens. ... McKee BD (March 2004). "Homologous pairing and chromosome dynamics in meiosis and mitosis". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1677 (1-3 ... Other mechanisms include pairing-sensitive silencing and enhancer bypass of a chromatin insulator through pairing-mediated ...
Under normal reproductive processes, a species has each chromosome pair separated, copied, and paired back with its counterpart ... J Herpetol 32:24-33 Lutes, A. A., Neaves, W.B., Baumann, D. P., Wiegraebe, W., Baumann, P. (2010). Sister chromosome pairing ... The desert grassland whiptail lizard, however, has chromosome triplets where each triplet is paired with its copy rather than ... In this process, eggs undergo a chromosome doubling after meiosis, developing into lizards without being fertilized. However, ...
It is located on Chromosome 22 on the minus strand, map position 22q13.1. It spans 10,620 base pairs. Its mRNA transcript is ... C22orf23 (Chromosome 22 Open Reading Frame 23) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the C22orf23 gene. Its predicted ... "Homo sapiens chromosome 22 open reading frame 23 (C22orf23), transcript variant 1, mRNA". Retrieved 2019-05-01. "C22orf23 Gene ... The core promoter is GXP_7541220 (-), and its coordinates are 37953445-37954669 and it is 1225 base pairs long. Protein ...
It has 2 pairs of petals, 3 large sepals (outer petals), known as the 'falls' and 3 inner, smaller petals (or tepals), known as ... having two sets of chromosomes. This can be used to identify hybrids and classification of groupings. It has been counted many ... Normally in pairs of capsules. Inside, are pyriform (pear shaped), paper-like seeds, with a glossy or wrinkled (rugose), ...
... is the pairing of two chromosomes that occurs during meiosis. It allows matching-up of homologous pairs prior to their ... Mitosis also has prophase, but does not ordinarily do pairing of two homologous chromosomes. When the non-sister chromatids ... McKee B (2004). "Homologous pairing and chromosome dynamics in meiosis and mitosis". Biochim Biophys Acta. 1677 (1-3): 165-80. ... Sex chromosomes also undergo synapsis; however, the synaptonemal protein complex that holds the homologous chromosomes together ...
Jablonka, E., & Lamb, M.J. (8 July 1988). "Meiotic pairing constraints and the activity of sex chromosomes". Journal of ... "The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes". Biological Reviews. 65 (3): 249-276. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.1990.tb01426.x. ...
Pairing of identical sister chromosomes, in comparison to the alternative of pairing homologous chromosomes, maintains ... Whereas homologous chromosomes pair and separate during meiosis I in sexual species, identical duplicate sister chromosomes, ... 2010). "Sister chromosome pairing maintains heterozygosity in parthenogenetic lizards". Nature. 464 (7286): 283-286. doi: ... The ability to premeiotically duplicate chromosomes would be selected for in this scenario as it would be the only option for ...
"Meiotic pairing constraints and the activity of sex chromosomes†". Journal of Theoretical Biology. 133 (1): 23-36. doi:10.1016/ ... Jablonka, E.A.; Lamb, M.J. (1990). "The Evolution of Heteromorphic Sex Chromosomes". Biological Reviews. 65 (3): 249-276. doi: ...
The X chromosome is the largest in the metacentric and submetacentric group. There are 31 pairs of acrocentrics. The ... The dromedary has 74 diploid chromosomes, the same as other camelids. The autosomes consist of five pairs of small to medium- ... It may be used for ploughing in pairs or in groups with buffaloes or bullocks. The draught camel can plough at around 2.5 km/h ... Typically, there are eight sternal and four non-sternal pairs of ribs. The spinal cord is nearly 214 cm (84 in) long; it ...
... on chromosomes 1q32.2, 5q33.2, and 8p21-22 and provides support for linkage to schizophrenia, on chromosomes 11q23.3-24 and ... C1orf74 is 2229 base pairs long. The gene contains two exons. C1orf74 is downstream of the gene interferon regulatory factor 6 ... The gene C1orf74 is a protein-encoding gene on chromosome 1 in humans. It is also known as URLC4 in humans. The locus of this ... "C1orf74 chromosome 1 open reading frame 74 [Homo sapiens (human)]". NCBI Gene. NCBI. Retrieved 8 May 2015. "Homo sapiens ...
It has 27 pairs of chromosomes. A perennial flowering plant, it has leaves between 3-5 cm in length and flower heads that are 3 ...
The chromosome contains 3,308,274 base pairs. The GC content of L. plantarum is 44.45% with the average protein count 3063. ... in pairs or in short chains. L. plantarum has one of the largest genomes known among the lactic acid bacteria and is a very ...
from base pair 8,120,590 to 8,126,032. In mice, HES7 is located on chromosome 11. HES7 has 62 known orthologues. The HES7 gene ... The gene that encodes the human HES7 protein is 5kb long and is found on chromosome 17, on the short arm at position 13.1. ... Each cycle of HES7 expression coincides with the formation of a pair of somites. The half life of the HES7 protein is thought ... HES7) or bHLHb37 is protein coding mammalian gene found on chromosome 17 in humans. HES7 is a member of the Hairy and Enhancer ...
The bacterium contains a single chromosome and no known plasmids. The G+C content is 44.7%. The complete genome is accessible ... S. violacea contains 4,962,103 base pairs. It has 4,346 protein genes and 169 RNA genes. ...
Each site is 23 base pairs. A DNA replication terminus (ter) has a role in preventing progress of the DNA replication fork. ... In E. coli, there are 10 closely ter related sites encoded in the chromosome. The sites are designated TerA, TerB, ..., TerJ. ... on the Escherichia coli chromosome". J Bacteriol. 173 (1): 391-3. doi:10.1128/jb.173.1.391-393.1991. PMC 207198. PMID 1824765. ...
In E. coli, Tus binds to 10 closely related sites encoded in the chromosome. Each site is 23 base pairs. The 10 sites are ... The multiple Ter sites in the chromosome are oriented such that the two oppositely moving replication forks are both stalled in ...
Chromosome pairing and the lampbrush diplotene stage of meiotic prophase". Chromosoma (Berlin). 29 (3): 305-16. doi:10.1007/ ... The chromosome number of C. micaceus is n=12. Coprinellus micaceus is an edible species, and cooking inactivates the enzymes ... The chromosomes are readily discernible with light microscopy, and all of the meiotic stages are well-defined. These features ... "Metabolite profiles of interacting mycelial fronts differ for pairings of the wood decay basidiomycete fungus, Stereum hirsutum ...
The jack jumper ant genome is contained on a single pair of chromosomes (males have just one chromosome, as they are haploid). ... Crosland, M.W.J.; Crozier, R.H. (1986). "Myrmecia pilosula, an ant with only one pair of chromosomes". Science. 231 (4743): ... this ant and other members of the complex are known to have a single pair of chromosomes. Their sting generally only causes a ... "Multiplication of 28S rDNA and NOR activity in chromosome evolution among ants of the Myrmecia pilosula species complex". ...
Cell, 2011 Transient homologous chromosome pairing marks the onset of X inactivation. N Xu, CL Tsai, JT Lee. Science, 2006 Tsix ... Xu, Na; Tsai, Chia-Lun; Lee, Jeannie T. (2006-02-24). "Transient homologous chromosome pairing marks the onset of X ... Polycomb proteins targeted by a short repeat RNA to the mouse X chromosome. J Zhao, BK Sun, JA Erwin, JJ Song, JT Lee. Science ... She is known for her work on X-chromosome inactivation and for discovering the functions of a new class of epigenetic ...
On this chromosome are 2,715,461 base pairs. Of these base pairs there are 2573 coding sequences with only 2.1% of the genome ... Clostridium sticklandii has a genome that consists of one circular chromosome. ...
Both taxa also have 14 chromosome pairs. In 2006, the family's classification was redefined using molecular data. Here, Roupala ...
This gene is 2252 base pairs long. CCDC116 has 5 exons and is located on chromosome 22q11.21 on the plus strand. CCDC116 has ...
The addax has 29 pairs of chromosomes. All chromosomes are acrocentric except for the first pair of autosomes, which are ... The X chromosome is the largest of the acrocentric chromosomes, and the Y chromosome is medium-sized. The short and long arms ... of the pair of submetacentric autosomes correspond respectively to the 27th and 1st chromosomes in cattle and goats. In a study ... the banding patterns of chromosomes in addax were found to be similar to those in four other species of the subfamily ...
... is located on the minus strand of chromosome 2 at 2q23.3. It is 3,394 base pairs in length. CCDC121 produces four ... CCDC121 is located on the minus strand of chromosome 2 and encodes three protein isoforms. All isoforms of CCDC121 contain a ... Transcripts for isoforms 1-3 are 2,880, 2,762 and 2,361 base pairs in length respectively. Each of the mRNA variants contains ...
... is located on the plus strand of chromosome 20 at 20p13. The gene is 4,826 base pairs long. It spans from chr20: ... C20orf202 (chromosome 20 open reading frame 202) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C20orf202 gene. In humans, this ... "C20orf202 chromosome 20 open reading frame 202 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 1 May ... "C20orf202 chromosome 20 open reading frame 202 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. "Homo sapiens ...
This article on a gene on human chromosome 2 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... This gene is one of several homeobox HOXD genes located in a cluster on chromosome 2. Deletions that remove the entire HOXD ... Mammals possess four similar homeobox gene clusters, HOXA, HOXB, HOXC and HOXD, located on different chromosomes, consisting of ... "Clustering of two fragile sites and seven homeobox genes in human chromosome region 2q31→q32.1". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 90 (1-2 ...
The institute is also the first develop a test to detect chromosome translocations in human embryos to increase the success ... 2009 First Paired Kidney Exchange in New Jersey Performed, Family Health Magazine, Spring/Summer 2006 - accessed July 11, 2009 ... The division performed the first paired kidney exchange in New Jersey at Saint Barnabas Medical Center in 2005. Over time, it ...
The genome of S. pneumoniae is a closed, circular DNA structure that contains between 2.0 and 2.1 million base pairs depending ... For a bacterium to bind, take up, and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome, it must enter a special physiological state ... They are usually found in pairs (diplococci) and do not form spores and are nonmotile.[2] As a significant human pathogenic ...
When adenine is deaminated, it becomes hypoxanthine, which can pair with cytosine. During replication, the cytosine will pair ... It further contends that only a minority of the genetic material is kept in circular chromosomes while the rest is in branched ... Chloroplast DNAs are circular, and are typically 120,000-170,000 base pairs long.[4][7][8] They can have a contour length of ... Hypoxanthine can bind to cytosine, and when the XC base pair is replicated, it becomes a GC (thus, an A → G base change).[20] ...
... except that the sequences at these loci may differ between the two chromosomes in a matching pair and that a few chromosomes ... in males with normal chromosomes because they have only one X chromosome and few of the same genes are on the Y chromosome. ... A chromosome in a diploid organism is hemizygous when only one copy is present.[2] The cell or organism is called a hemizygote ... Most eukaryotes have two matching sets of chromosomes; that is, they are diploid. Diploid organisms have the same loci on each ...
The Caulobacter CB15 genome has 4,016,942 base pairs in a single circular chromosome encoding 3,767 genes.[7] The genome ... replication of the chromosome involves about 2 million DNA synthesis reactions for each arm of the chromosome over 40 to 80 min ... Chromosome replication and cell division only occurs in the stalked cell stage. Its name derives from its crescent shape caused ... An essential feature of the Caulobacter cell cycle is that the chromosome is replicated once and only once per cell cycle. This ...
Members of this gene family typically encode proteins which contain a paired box domain, an octapeptide, and a paired-type ... Paired box gene 8, also known as PAX8, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PAX8 gene.[5] ... Di Palma T, Nitsch R, Mascia A, Nitsch L, Di Lauro R, Zannini M (January 2003). "The paired domain-containing factor Pax8 and ... Di Palma T, Nitsch R, Mascia A, Nitsch L, Di Lauro R, Zannini M (January 2003). "The paired domain-containing factor Pax8 and ...
They retained only three chromosomes and many genes were transferred to the nucleus of the host cell, while others were lost ... Nucleomorphs are small, vestigial eukaryotic nuclei found between the inner and outer pairs of membranes in certain plastids. ...
The wolf, dingo, dog, coyote, and golden jackal all have 78 chromosomes arranged in 39 pairs.[6] This allows them to hybridize ... because the red fox has 34 metacentric chromosomes and from 0 to 8 small B chromosomes,[10] the raccoon dog has 42 chromosomes ... The wolf-like canids are a group of large carnivores that are genetically closely related because their chromosomes number 78. ... When the differences in number and arrangement of chromosomes is too great, hybridization becomes less and less likely. ...
These unique chromosomes are produced by recombination of each unique chromosome passed by each grandparent to each parent. ... 1 million base pairs centromeric from DQ2.5 may also be associated with Type 1 diabetes. In addition the BAT1 and MICB variant ... These chromosome chimerize within the reproductive cells of each parent which are then passed to the developing person during ... The recombination that creates these blended chromosomes occurs almost randomly along the length, 1 Morgan per generation. ...
Because RPS6KA3 is located on the X chromosome, males (who possess only one copy of the X chromosome) display more severe ... In 2002, Helen Fryssira and RJ Simensen identified a 3 base pair deletion in the gene encoding RSK2, which was the first report ... The syndrome is caused by mutations in the RPS6KA3 gene.[1] This gene is located on the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp22.2 ... A condition is considered X-linked if the gene that causes the disorder is located on the X chromosome (one of the two sex ...
The number of homologous chromosome sets varies from four (n=4) in some Physaria and Stenopetalum species, five (n=5) in other ... The leaves do not have stipules, but there may be a pair of glands at base of leafstalks and flowerstalks. The leaf may be ... less than 3.425 million base pairs per cell), varying from 150 Mbp in Arabidopsis thaliana and Sphaerocardamum spp., to 2375 ... of the species in which chromosomes have been counted have eight sets (n=8). Due to polyploidy, some species may have up to 256 ...
By pairing chromosomes of similar genomes, the chance for these recessive alleles to pair and become homozygous greatly ... This is because such pairings have a 25% probability of producing homozygous zygotes, resulting in offspring with two recessive ... the likelihood of deleterious recessive alleles to pair is significantly higher in a small inbreeding population than in a ...
The chromosomes can be seen in blue. The chromosome that is labeled with green and red spots (upper left) is the one where the ... Each probe for the detection of mRNA and lncRNA is composed of 20 oligonucleotide pairs, each pair covering a space of 40-50 bp ... Then, an interphase or metaphase chromosome preparation is produced. The chromosomes are firmly attached to a substrate, ... Probes that hybridize along an entire chromosome are used to count the number of a certain chromosome, show translocations, or ...
Kang DE, Soriano S, Xia X, Eberhart CG, De Strooper B, Zheng H, Koo EH (September 2002). "Presenilin couples the paired ... "Genetic linkage evidence for a familial Alzheimer's seasesease locus on chromosome 14". Science. 258 (5082): 668-71. Bibcode: ...
... genome of MAP strain K-10 was sequenced in 2005 and found to consist of a single circular chromosome of 4,829,781 base pairs, ...
condensed chromosome. • nuclear chromosome, telomeric region. • nucleus. • nuclear chromatin. • lateral element. • cytosol. • ... In this process, an ATP dependent DNA strand exchange takes place in which a template strand invades base-paired strands of ... nuclear chromosome. • mitochondrial matrix. • nucleolus. • mitochondrion. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • chromatin. • ... condensed nuclear chromosome. • macromolecular complex. Biological process. • regulation of protein phosphorylation. • strand ...
V. faba has a diploid (2n) chromosome number of 12 (six homologous pairs). Five pairs are acrocentric chromosomes and one pair ...
Singh RJ (2011). Genetic Resources, Chromosome Engineering, and Crop Improvement. Medicinal Plants. 6. Boca Raton: CRC Press. p ... In China, sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish, and chopped ginger root is commonly ... paired with meat, when it is cooked. Candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes, and a herbal tea can be ...
... even though the fox genome has 16 pairs of metacentric autosomes and the dog has 37 pairs of acrocentric autosomes.[10] ... Using 320 microsatellites Trut and co-workers showed that all 16 fox autosomes and one X chromosome were covered, and that ...
... usually have a single circular chromosome,[129] with as many as 5,751,492 base pairs in Methanosarcina acetivorans,[130 ... Circular chromosomes, similar translation and transcription to Eukarya. Circular chromosomes, unique translation and ... after the cell's chromosome is replicated and the two daughter chromosomes separate, the cell divides.[154] In the genus ... Multiple, linear chromosomes, similar translation and transcription to Archaea. Internal cell structure. No membrane-bound ...
... is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome ... "Chromosome 16". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2017-05-06.. *. "Chromosome 16". Human Genome Project Information Archive ... Human chromosome 16 pair after G-banding.. One is from mother, one is from father. ... G-banding ideogram of human chromosome 16 in resolution 850 bphs. Band length in this diagram is proportional to base-pair ...
... containing 23 pairs of chromosomes) has about 1.8 meters of DNA; wound on the histones, the diploid cell has about 90 ... This involves the wrapping of DNA around nucleosomes with approximately 50 base pairs of DNA separating each pair of ... Chromosome condensation[edit]. Phosphorylation of H3 at serine 10 (phospho-H3S10). The mitotic kinase aurora B phosphorylates ... Rizzo PJ (Aug 2003). "Those amazing dinoflagellate chromosomes". Cell Research. 13 (4): 215-7. doi:10.1038/sj.cr.7290166. PMID ...
... is a 32 chromosome species that readily hybridizes with other 32 chromosome members of the Carya genus, such as Carya ... "Grill Gourmet: The Best Wood And Food Pairings To Try This Season". Forbes. Retrieved 5 December 2018 ... ovata, Carya laciniosa, Carya cordiformis and has been reported to hybridize with 64 chromosome species such as Carya tomentosa ...
Genetically, there are 74 diploid chromosomes (36 pairs). Appearance[edit]. The crab-eating fox is predominantly greyish-brown ... The adult female gives birth to one or two litters per year, and the breeding pair is monogamous. The pair ranges the plains ... It either hunts individually or lives in pairs; it eats crabs, lizards and different flying animals. It is easy to domesticate ... The crab-eating fox creates monogamic teams for hunting; groups of several monogamic pairs may form during the reproductive ...
Likewise, gray wolf Y-chromosomes have also been found in a few individual male Texan coyotes.[11] This study suggested that ... By late 2012, it was estimated that there were at least 75 wolves and four breeding pairs living in the recovery areas, with 27 ... A pair of Mexican wolves with pups at Sevilleta Wolf Management Facility in Socorro, New Mexico ... based on the sex chromosomes, the male animal was a coyote-wolf hybrid sired by a male Mexican wolf.[12][13] It has been ...
Pu'er with chrysanthemum is the most common pairing, and referred as guk pou or guk bou (菊普; Cantonese Yale: guk1 pou2; pinyin ... This notion has recently been refuted through a systematic chromosome analysis of the species attributed to many East Asian ...
Crosland, M.W.J., Crozier, R.H. Myrmecia pilosula, an ant with only one pair of chromosomes. Science. 1986, 231 (4743): 1278. ... 選擇可以作用在基因而非個體的層級,即使降低個體的適應度,自私DNA仍然可以演化,造成基因組內部衝突。例子包括跳躍子、減數分裂驅動者(meiotic drivers)、殺手X染色體(killer X chromosomes)、自私粒線體(selfish ... Thomas Jr, C. A. The genetic organization of chromosomes (PDF). Annual review of genetics. 1971, 5 (1): 237-256. (原始内容
In 1943, with the help of Arda Green, the pair illustrated that glycogen phosphorylase existed in either the a or b forms ... Genes on human chromosome 11. *Genes on human chromosome 14. *Genes on human chromosome 20 ...
This article on a gene on human chromosome 17 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... "Identification of the base-pair substitution responsible for a human acid alpha glucosidase allele with lower "affinity" for ... It is functionally similar to glycogen debranching enzyme, but is on a different chromosome, processed differently by the cell ...
"Chromosome 1 from your dad has to be paired with chromosome 1 from your mom, chromosome 2 from your dad with chromosome 2 from ... And because chromosomes come in pairs - 23 sets in humans - the chromosomes must be properly matched up before they can be ... chromosomes can pair up more easily if theyre able to recognize their partners and find them at a specific place. "Once ... and using it to form an intimate association that runs the entire length of each pair of chromosomes," Hawley explains. Some ...
Wettstein R. (1981) Unusual Mechanisms of Chromosome Pairing in Arthropoda. In: Schweiger H.G. (eds) International Cell Biology ... Both differentially condensed sex chromosomes present axial structures during meiotic prophase and pair their common ends, ... leading to a better knowledge of meiotic chromosome zones and to a complete analysis of pachytene chromosome complement of ... The application of these concepts to the study of the ultrastructure of mammalian sex chromosomes allowed the establishment of ...
Pairing of homologous chromosomes is an essential feature of meiosis, acting to promote high levels of recombination and to ... Homologous pairing and chromosome dynamics in meiosis and mitosis.. McKee BD1. ... which have allowed investigators to assay the pairing status of chromosomes directly. These approaches have permitted the ... and that the transition from mitotic to meiotic pairing in spermatogenesis is accompanied by a dramatic increase in pairing ...
Scientists are learning how tumor cells nutritional needs differ from those of normal cells. Will their work help launch the next genre of cancer therapies ...
... and the chromosomes can pair. In a wheat-rye hybrid carrying seven rye chromosomes (d), the rye heterochromatin does not ... the translocated chromosome behaves like the rest of the wheat chromosomes. In fact, initially this regular pairing led some ... Effective chromosome pairing requires chromatin remodeling at the onset of meiosis. Isabelle Colas, Peter Shaw, Pilar Prieto, ... Effective chromosome pairing requires chromatin remodeling at the onset of meiosis. Isabelle Colas, Peter Shaw, Pilar Prieto, ...
... chromosome pairs 1B-1Brc and 2B-2Brc (homologous chromosomes-homeologous centromeres; Figure 1A), and (iii) chromosome pair ... The three chromosome combinations that we studied were (i) chromosome pairs 1Brc-1Brc and 2Brc-2Brc (homologous chromosomes- ... Chromosome pairs studied:. We have used wheat chromosomes 1B and 2B with the rye centromeres (rc) (1Brc and 2Brc, respectively ... Three major meiotic processes-chromosome pairing (i.e., an interaction of chromosomes that results in the alignment of homologs ...
... of meiotic pairing of autosomes in male Drosophila. We propose that heterochromatic associations, or chromatid entanglement, ... These changes in chromosome pairing parallel changes in large-scale chromosome organization. ... The dynamics of homologous chromosome pairing during male Drosophila meiosis Curr Biol. 2002 Sep 3;12(17):1473-83. doi: 10.1016 ... Background: Meiotic pairing is essential for the proper orientation of chromosomes at the metaphase plate and their subsequent ...
Segregation of genotypes through homoeologous chromosome pairing in the apogamous species Dryopteris nipponensiswas tested by ... Klekowski EJ, Hickok LG (1974) Non homologous chromosome pairing in the fern Ceratopteris. Amer J Bot 61:422-432Google Scholar ... Allozyme Apogamy Dryopteris Genotype segregation Homoeologous chromosome pairing This is a preview of subscription content, log ... Segregation of genotypes through homoeologous chromosome pairing in the apogamous species Dryopteris nipponensis was tested by ...
Two types of sites required for meiotic chromosome pairing in Caenorhabditis elegans.. K S McKim, K Peters and A M Rose ... Two types of sites required for meiotic chromosome pairing in Caenorhabditis elegans.. K S McKim, K Peters and A M Rose ... Two types of sites required for meiotic chromosome pairing in Caenorhabditis elegans.. K S McKim, K Peters and A M Rose ... Whereas the other half of chromosome I did not confer any ability for homologs to pair and recombine, deficiencies in this ...
... resulting in a total of 46 chromosomes. These chromosomes determine individual genetics traits as well as a persons gender.... ... Do homologous pairs of chromosomes carry the same genes?. A: Homologous pairs of chromosomes carry the same genes. Although the ... Twenty two of the chromosome pairs are similar in both males and females, and a pair of X and Y chromosomes determine the sex. ... Humans typically have 23 pairs of chromosomes, resulting in a total of 46 chromosomes. These chromosomes determine individual ...
... chromosome pairing include Examination of Mitotic and Meiotic Fission Yeast Nuclear Dynamics by Fluorescence Live-Cell ... Associated Chromosome Trap for Identifying Long-range DNA Interactions. ... Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of Chromosomes at homologous sequences. .article_summary_container button.expand{ display: ... Associated Chromosome Trap for Identifying Long-range DNA Interactions. Jianqun Ling1, Andrew R. Hoffman1 ...
Pairing involves multiple interstitial interactions, one per approximately 65 kb. These observations exclude several classes of ... Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis reveals that homologous chromosomes are paired in yeast cells about to enter ... Chromosome pairing via multiple interstitial interactions before and during meiosis in yeast Cell. 1994 Jul 1;77(7):977-91. doi ... Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis reveals that homologous chromosomes are paired in yeast cells about to enter ...
Thus, telomere-led chromosome organization facilitates homologous pairing and also restricts irregular chromosome pairing ... The positions of chromosomes I, II and III, half-sized chromosomes (HC), and minichromosome Ch16 (mini) are indicated on the ... Telomere-led bouquet formation facilitates homologous chromosome pairing and restricts ectopic interaction in fission yeast ... Telomere-led bouquet formation facilitates homologous chromosome pairing and restricts ectopic interaction in fission yeast ...
Fine Structural Cytochemical Analysis of Homologous Chromosome Recognition, Alignment, and Pairing in Guinea Pig Spermatogonia ... "Fine Structural Cytochemical Analysis of Homologous Chromosome Recognition, Alignment, and Pairing in Guinea Pig Spermatogonia ... "Fine Structural Cytochemical Analysis of Homologous Chromosome Recognition, Alignment, and Pairing in Guinea Pig Spermatogonia ... Chromosome Doubling in Early Spermatogonia Produces Diploid Spermatozoa in a... Microarray Based Analysis of Cell Cycle Gene ...
Type 2 diabetes: Evidence for linkage on chromosome 20 in 716 Finnish affected sib pairs. Soumitra Ghosh, Richard M. Watanabe, ... Type 2 diabetes: Evidence for linkage on chromosome 20 in 716 Finnish affected sib pairs ... Type 2 diabetes: Evidence for linkage on chromosome 20 in 716 Finnish affected sib pairs ... Type 2 diabetes: Evidence for linkage on chromosome 20 in 716 Finnish affected sib pairs ...
Pairing and recombination of homologous chromosomes are essential for ensuring reductional segregation in meiosis. However, the ... Meiosis-Specific Noncoding RNA Mediates Robust Pairing of Homologous Chromosomes in Meiosis ... Meiosis-Specific Noncoding RNA Mediates Robust Pairing of Homologous Chromosomes in Meiosis ... Meiosis-Specific Noncoding RNA Mediates Robust Pairing of Homologous Chromosomes in Meiosis ...
The study uncovered how female clones double their chromosomes ... ... Hokkaido University researchers have developed a technique that allows them to track chromosomes during egg production in dojo ... Clonal reproduction assured by sister chromosome pairing in dojo loach, a teleost fish, Chromosome Research (2018). DOI: ... Moreover, their data suggested that sister chromosomes doubled from the same chromosome make pairs so that recombination ...
JoVE publishes peer-reviewed scientific video protocols to accelerate biological, medical, chemical and physical research. Watch our scientific video articles.
Little is known about mechanisms that efficiently partition chromosomes to produce sperm. Using live imaging and tomographic ... Chromosome segregation during male meiosis is tailored to rapidly generate multitudes of sperm. ... reconstructions of spermatocyte meiotic spindles inCaenorhabditis elegans, we find the lagging X chromosome, a distinctive ... elegans males, is due to lack of chromosome pairing. The unpaired chromosome remains tethered to centrosomes by lengthening ...
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification. ... Pair 3" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3" was a major or minor topic of ... "Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3" by people in Profiles. ...
... essentially reaching into the nucleus to bring chromosome pairs together in preparation for recombination and segregation. Read ... Chromosomes dance and pair up on the nuclear membrane. New findings by University of California, Berkeley, scientists including ... essentially reaching into the nucleus to bring chromosome pairs together in preparation for recombination and segregation. ...
This involves the pairing, or synapsis, of homologous chromosomes in which the chromosome from the mother pairs with the ... In humans, that means 46 chromosomes pair off into 23, but in the nematode, 12 chromosomes pair off into 6. ... the pairing of homologous chromosomes. In early meiosis, the chromosomes attach by their pairing centers to proteins on the ... until each chromosome encounters its homolog. Once a chromosome finds its mate and pairs up, the paired homologs remain ...
DNA Protein Analysis Of Human Chromosome 6, Counts 166,880,988 Base Pairs, Covers Global Diseases ...
... sex chromosome pairing in mammals and birds, the significance for fertility or pairing in mammals and birds, the significance ... allow researchers in related fields to come to grips with the recent advances in the cytogenetics of meiotic chromosome pairing ... for fertility of XY pairing and crossing over, the effects of hybridity on pairing and fertility in plants, and the genetic ... This book discusses the nature of meiotic chromosome pairing effects which may play a role in the determination of fertility. ...
Chromosome Mapping Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13 - genetics Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9 - genetics Genes, Recessive Genetic ... Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 - genetics Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9 - genetics Female Finland Genetic markers Genetic ... Chromosome Mapping Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9 - genetics Comorbidity Genetic Linkage Genetic markers Genetic Predisposition to ... Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9 - genetics Cohort Studies DNA Mutational Analysis De Lange Syndrome - genetics Female Humans Male ...
... each chromosome only pairs with its identical, homologue, and not with related or homoelogous chromosomes). Chromosome pairing ... Chromosome pairing and recombination between H. chilense and wheat chromosomes were detected by genomic in situ hybridization. ... Chromosome pairing between Hordeum and wheat can be promoted in the absence of the Ph1 locus. ... However, in the absence of the Ph1 locus (ph1 mutant) the chance of pairing between related chromosomes is increased. In this ...
... general Forensic sciences Genetic aspects Gene mutation Diagnosis Physiological aspects Gene mutations Y chromosome ... Analysis of Mutation Rate of 17 Y-Chromosome Short Tandem Repeats Loci Using Tanzanian Father-Son Paired Samples.(Research ... APA style: Analysis of Mutation Rate of 17 Y-Chromosome Short Tandem Repeats Loci Using Tanzanian Father-Son Paired Samples.. ( ... MLA style: "Analysis of Mutation Rate of 17 Y-Chromosome Short Tandem Repeats Loci Using Tanzanian Father-Son Paired Samples ...
Linkage of Genetic Markers on Human Chromosomes 20 and 12 to NIDDM in Caucasian Sib Pairs With a History of Diabetic ... Linkage of Genetic Markers on Human Chromosomes 20 and 12 to NIDDM in Caucasian Sib Pairs With a History of Diabetic ... Linkage of Genetic Markers on Human Chromosomes 20 and 12 to NIDDM in Caucasian Sib Pairs With a History of Diabetic ... Linkage of Genetic Markers on Human Chromosomes 20 and 12 to NIDDM in Caucasian Sib Pairs With a History of Diabetic ...
The Symmetrical Wave Pattern of Base-Pair Substitution Rates across the Escherichia coli Chromosome Has Multiple Causes. ... The Symmetrical Wave Pattern of Base-Pair Substitution Rates across the Escherichia coli Chromosome Has Multiple Causes ... The Symmetrical Wave Pattern of Base-Pair Substitution Rates across the Escherichia coli Chromosome Has Multiple Causes ... The Symmetrical Wave Pattern of Base-Pair Substitution Rates across the Escherichia coli Chromosome Has Multiple Causes ...
Concordant chromosome 3 results in paired choroidal melanoma biopsies and subsequent tumour resection specimens ... Concordant chromosome 3 results in paired choroidal melanoma biopsies and subsequent tumour resection specimens ... Thirteen cases were classified as monosomy 3 and 12 as disomy 3. Two cases had a loss of chromosome arm 3q in both samples and ... Chromosome 3 data showed prognostic concordance for the patient-matched samples in all 28 cases including 4 cases where samples ...
  • Meiosis reduces the number of chromosomes carried by an individual's regular cells by half, allocating precisely one copy of each chromosome to each egg or sperm cell and thus ensuring that the proper number of chromosomes is passed from parent to offspring. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some model organisms employed in the study of meiosis, such as yeast and the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, use the ends of their chromosomes to facilitate the process. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • But the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster - the model organism in which meiosis has been thoroughly studied for more than a century, and which Hawley has studied for almost 40 years - has unusual chromosome ends that don't lend themselves to the same kind of clustering. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • So even though the study of meiosis began in Drosophila, we really haven't had any idea how chromosomes initiate synapsis in Drosophila," Hawley says. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Homologous pairing and chromosome dynamics in meiosis and mitosis. (nih.gov)
  • Pairing of homologous chromosomes is an essential feature of meiosis, acting to promote high levels of recombination and to ensure segregation of homologs. (nih.gov)
  • In this article, I summarize results of recent molecular studies of pairing in both mitosis and meiosis, focusing especially on studies using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and GFP-tagging of single loci, which have allowed investigators to assay the pairing status of chromosomes directly. (nih.gov)
  • Similar approaches in mammals, plants and fungi have established that with few exceptions, chromosomes enter meiosis unpaired and that chromosome movements involving the telomeric, and sometimes centromeric, regions often precede the onset of meiotic pairing. (nih.gov)
  • During meiosis, homologous chromosomes (homologues) recognize each other and then intimately associate. (pnas.org)
  • Studies exploiting species with large chromosomes reveal that chromatin is remodeled at the onset of meiosis before this intimate association. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, chromatin remodeling at the onset of meiosis enables the chromosomes to become competent to pair and recombine efficiently. (pnas.org)
  • At the start of meiosis, each chromosome must recognize its homologue from among all of the chromosomes present in the nucleus. (pnas.org)
  • Meiotic studies of species with large chromosomes reveal that chromosomes undergo extensive chromatin remodeling at the onset of meiosis ( 2 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • On entry into meiosis just before chromosome pairing, the subtelomeric heterochromatin knobs visualized on Lilium, rye, and maize chromosomes "disappear" as a result of these conformational changes ( 3 ⇓ ⇓ - 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, neither these studies nor any other investigations of meiosis reveal whether chromatin remodeling is essential for chromosome pairing and recombination. (pnas.org)
  • Recently, cell biological investigations have revealed that one of the effects of a major chromosome pairing locus ( Ph1 ) on chromosome 5B in wheat is to control chromatin remodeling at the onset of meiosis. (pnas.org)
  • The Ph1 locus ensures that only true homologues pair at meiosis from among the six related chromosomes ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • At the onset of meiosis, homologues undergo synchronized chromatin remodeling in the presence of Ph1 , when the telomeres cluster as a bouquet and engage in intimate pairing ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • To safeguard a diploid-like behavior at meiosis, many polyploids evolved genetic loci that suppress incorrect pairing and recombination of homeologues. (genetics.org)
  • Using wheat chromosomes that carry rye centromeres, we show that the centromere associations in early meiosis are not based on homology and that the Ph1 locus has no effect on such associations. (genetics.org)
  • In spite of the genetic synteny between homeologous chromosomes, bread wheat forms 21 bivalents at diakinesis and metaphase I (MI) of meiosis. (genetics.org)
  • Meiotic pairing is essential for the proper orientation of chromosomes at the metaphase plate and their subsequent disjunction during anaphase I. In male Drosophila melanogaster, meiosis occurs in the absence of recombination or a recognizable synaptonemal complex (SC). (nih.gov)
  • Chromosome tagging with GFP-Lac repressor protein allowed us to track, for the first time, the behavior of meiotic chromosomes at high resolution, live, at all stages of male Drosophila meiosis. (nih.gov)
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis reveals that homologous chromosomes are paired in yeast cells about to enter meiosis. (nih.gov)
  • As cells enter meiosis, pairing disappears concomitant with DNA replication and then reappears, independent of synaptonemal complex. (nih.gov)
  • Mutant phenotypes suggest that formation of an individual meiotic pairing connection does not require a meiosis-specific double-stranded break (DSB). (nih.gov)
  • Telomere-led bouquet formation facilitates homologous chromosome pairing and restricts ectopic interaction in fission yeast meiosis. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, telomere-led chromosome organization facilitates homologous pairing and also restricts irregular chromosome pairing during meiosis. (nih.gov)
  • Pairing and recombination of homologous chromosomes are essential for ensuring reductional segregation in meiosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • In the sexually reproducing dojo loach, reproductive cells divided through the normal process of meiosis, in which a single cell containing a full set of 50 chromosomes produces one egg containing 25 chromosomes. (phys.org)
  • Chromosome segregation during male meiosis is tailored to rapidly generate multitudes of sperm. (medworm.com)
  • In fact, the cytoskeleton appears to encourage the dance of the chromosomes around the nuclear membrane as they search for their partners, and help make sure they have the right partner before meiosis continues. (healthcanal.com)
  • In early meiosis, the chromosomes attach by their pairing centers to proteins on the nuclear envelope, which are linked to the cytoskeleton of the cell. (healthcanal.com)
  • The cells with only red staining have not yet entered meiosis, while the cells stained both red and green have begun or completed chromosome pairing and synapsis. (healthcanal.com)
  • Despite their genome complexity, wheat behave as iploids during meiosis (each chromosome only pairs with its identical, homologue, and not with related or homoelogous chromosomes). (csic.es)
  • The spatial chromosome arrangement in both configurations is groupal size-dependent and maintained through meiosis. (oalib.com)
  • This species also presented chromosome rearrangements leading to aneuploidies in mitosis and meiosis. (oalib.com)
  • The program of sex chromosome pairing in meiosis is highly conserved across marsupial species: implications for sex chromosome evolution. (semanticscholar.org)
  • During what phase of meiosis do homologous pairs of chromosomes separate from each other? (biology-questions-and-answers.com)
  • complete pairing at meiosis occasionally results in the formation of seven bivalents, although the mean bivalent frequency is somewhat less, being between three and four per cell 5-6 . (x10.mx)
  • However, each chromosome normally conjugates with its complete homologoue at meiosis in T. vulgare, and only bivalents are formed. (x10.mx)
  • Meiosis is normal in the 42-chromosome segregants in the monosomic line, and in the 42-chromosome hybrids from crosses of HH monosomics to euploid plants of Holdfast . (x10.mx)
  • Due to the specific mode of chromosome allocation during meiosis, character inheritance in dogroses is maternally skewed. (rosebreeders.org)
  • DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Our objective is to understand how homologous recombination and telomere organization contribute to the juxtaposition of homologous chromosomes in meiosis. (elsevier.com)
  • How homologs pair is a major unanswered question in the study of meiosis. (elsevier.com)
  • A telomere-bound protein, Ndj1, is involved in linking telomere function to chromosome recombination and segregation in meiosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Meiosis is a critical stage of gametogenesis in which alignment and synapsis of chromosomal pairs occur, allowing for the recombination of maternal and paternal genomes. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, Fkbp6 is a component of the synaptonemal complex essential for sex-specific fertility and for the fidelity of homologous chromosome pairing in meiosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Do chromosomes line up as pairs in mitosis or meiosis? (stackexchange.com)
  • Meiosis - the pairing and recombination of chromosomes, followed by segregation of half to each egg or sperm cell - is a major crossroads in all organisms reproducing sexually. (news-medical.net)
  • In addition, RAD51 is required for meiosis and its Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) ortholog is important for normal meiotic homolog pairing, synapsis, and repair of double-stranded breaks. (plantphysiol.org)
  • During early meiosis, homologous chromosomes in atrad51c-1 fail to undergo synapsis and become severely fragmented. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Cytological and molecular genetic studies support the idea that homolog pairing, synapsis, and recombination are closely coupled events in normal meiosis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • They contain half of the chromosomes number that found in the somatic cellsbecause they are produced by meiosis of gonads cells, they are haploid cells n. (earth-news.info)
  • After the first round of cell division (meiosis I) what happens to the chromosome number in each cell. (scribd.com)
  • Somatic pairing of homologous chromosomes is similar to pre- and early meiotic pairing (see article: Homologous chromosome#In meiosis), and has been observed in Diptera (Drosophila), and budding yeast, for example (whether it evolved multiple times in metazoans is unclear). (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-random segregation of chromosomes is a deviation from the usual distribution of chromosomes during meiosis, that is, during segregation of the genome among gametes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can be due to non-random segregation during meiosis, but also to processes after meiosis that reduce the transmission of the homologous chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the chromosome theory of inheritance formulated by Theodor Boveri in 1904, homologous chromosomes were expected to be randomly distributed among the daughter nuclei during meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It turned out that meiosis I is inequal, i.e. results in two unequal-sized cells, and the X chromosome always ends up in the larger daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two different X chromosomes and no Y chromosome (X1X20), and in meiosis I both X chromosomes are assigned to the same daughter nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The possible roles of proteins involved in homologous recombination, synapsis and sister chromatid cohesion in homolog pairing are discussed with an emphasis on those for which mutant phenotypes have permitted an assessment of effects on homolog pairing. (nih.gov)
  • Consistent with this observation, the subtelomeric regions have been shown to be important for pairing and recombination in wheat ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Whereas the other half of chromosome I did not confer any ability for homologs to pair and recombine, deficiencies in this region dominantly suppressed recombination to the middle of the chromosome. (genetics.org)
  • Thus, the processes of pairing and recombination appear to utilize at least two chromosomal elements, the HRR and other pairing sites. (genetics.org)
  • Recombination can also initiate at internal sites separated from the HRR by chromosome rearrangement, such as deletions of the unc-54 region of chromosome I. When crossing over was suppressed in a region of chromosome I, compensatory increases were observed in other regions. (genetics.org)
  • The number of t = 0 pairing interactions is about the same as the number of subsequent meiotic recombination events. (nih.gov)
  • Mutants defective in recombination before or after DSBs exhibit pairing defects. (nih.gov)
  • These and other observations can be united by a model in which premeiotic pairing and early meiotic pairing occur by closely related paranemic DNA-DNA interactions between intact duplexes, with early meiotic interactions subsequently converted directly to plectonemic recombination intermediates via DSBs. (nih.gov)
  • Consistent with this cytological observation, the frequency of ectopic homologous recombination between a linear minichromosome and a normal chromosome increased in the kms1 background. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, their data suggested that sister chromosomes doubled from the same chromosome make pairs so that recombination between the chromosomes does not affect their clonality. (phys.org)
  • Such recombination normally occurs between paternally-derived and maternally-derived chromosomes . (phys.org)
  • New findings by University of California, Berkeley, scientists including Molecular & Cell Biology Associate Professor Abby Dernburg show that the cell's cytoskeleton, which moves things around in the cell, plays a critical role, essentially reaching into the nucleus to bring chromosome pairs together in preparation for recombination and segregation. (berkeley.edu)
  • Chromosome pairing and recombination between H. chilense and wheat chromosomes were detected by genomic in situ hybridization. (csic.es)
  • However, in addition to this, it is clear that many organisms, including plants, have also evolved a series of recombination-independent mechanisms to facilitate homolog recognition and pairing. (inserm.fr)
  • With a particular focus on plants, we present here an overview of understanding of these early, recombination-independent events that act in the pairing of homologous chromosomes during the first meiotic division. (inserm.fr)
  • For tens of millions of years, the two chromosomes have experienced illegitimate recombination that has been temporally restricted in a stepwise manner, producing structural stratification in the chromosomes. (plantcell.org)
  • One popular class of models involves base-pairing between DNA strands catalyzed by recombination proteins, but pairing still occurs in mutants lacking the relevant functional proteins. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We will explore the potential roles of spatial constraint, chromosome motion and a possible direct role in recombination by Ndj1 or other known telomere-bound proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • Using the predicted bivalent configurations in this population we quantified differences in pairing behaviour among and along homologous chromosomes, leading us to correct our estimates of recombination frequency to account for this behaviour. (rosaceae.org)
  • We confirmed the inferred differences in pairing behaviour among chromosomes by examining repulsion-phase linkage estimates, which also carry information about preferential pairing and recombination. (rosaceae.org)
  • 14)Despite being fairly gene-poor general due to reduced recombination, the X and Y intercourse chromosomes are enriched for genes that relate with development that is sexual. (prismmagazine.org)
  • Meiotic prophase I is a complex process involving homologous chromosome (homolog) pairing, synapsis, and recombination. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Recombination results in crossover events that correspond to cytologically observed chiasmata, which, in combination with sister chromatid cohesion, maintain the association between homologs in the form of bivalents, ensuring proper segregation of homologs at anaphase I. Synapsis, the formation of synaptonemal complexes (SCs) between closely associated chromosomes, has also been implicated to play important roles in meiotic prophase I, although its relationship with recombination differs among organisms. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Segregation of genotypes through homoeologous chromosome pairing in the apogamous species Dryopteris nipponensis was tested by electrophoretic analysis. (springer.com)
  • To ensure balanced segregation, homologous chromosome pairs must migrate to opposite poles at the first meiotic division and this means that they must recognize and pair with each other beforehand. (inserm.fr)
  • These processes are essential to proper chromosome segregation at anaphase I. Defects in these processes can lead to aneuploid gametes, which contribute to birth defects in humans. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition to their medical importance, triatomines are a biological model in chromosome segregation analysis because they harbour holocentric chromosomes (with diffuse or non-localised centromeres) (Pérez et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • Heterochromatin is involved in various functions such as chromosome pairing, segregation, and even gene expression (Dimitri et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • 2012 Pfau and Amon 2012 During mitosis chromatids associate in sister pairs which facilitates their bi-orientation AR-231453 and subsequent segregation AR-231453 to opposite spindle poles. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • This pairing results in polyploid/polytene cells that exhibit only the haploid number of distinct chromosomes (Metz 1916 White 1954 Given these multiple physical connections between polytene chromatids mitosis in polytene cells is considered 'ill-advised for mechanical reasons' (Edgar and Orr-Weaver 2001 Indeed separation of polytene diplochromosomes at anaphase causes chromosome mis-segregation (Vidwans et al. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • While usually according to the 2nd Mendelian rule ("Law of Segregation of genes") homologous chromosomes are randomly distributed among daughter nuclei, there are various modes deviating from this in numerous organisms that are "normal" in the relevant taxa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The third basic variant of non-random segregation, in which the complete sets of chromosomes of maternal and paternal origin are separated from each other, was studied - among some other peculiarities - in the 1920s and 30s by Charles W. Metz and co-workers in fungus gnats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Do homologous pairs of chromosomes carry the same genes? (reference.com)
  • Although the chromosomes carry the same genes, each chromosome in a homologous pair could carry a dif. (reference.com)
  • We are conducting a genome scan at an average resolution of 10 centimorgans (cM) for type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes in 716 affected sib pairs from 477 Finnish families. (pnas.org)
  • Evidence from this and other studies suggests at least two diabetes-susceptibility genes on chromosome 20. (pnas.org)
  • Called the synaptonemal complex, this zipper seems necessary to allow the homologues to break and recombine, thereby exchanging a set of genes between Mom and Dad before sending the chromosomes into the world aboard egg or sperm. (healthcanal.com)
  • The potential contribution of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) genes to NIDDM susceptibility in African-American and Caucasian NIDDM-affected sibling pairs with a history of adult-onset diabetic nephropathy has been evaluated. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Evidence for linkage to NIDDM was found with polymorphic loci that map to the long arms of human chromosomes 20 and 12 in regions containing the MODY1 and MODY3 genes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Tabulation of allele sharing in affected sib pairs with D20S197 and D12S349 suggests that affected sibling pairs may inherit susceptibility genes simultaneously from chromosome 20 and chromosome 12. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Such variations in mutation rates may affect the pace at which genes in different regions of the chromosome evolve and may exert selective pressure on gene placement. (asm.org)
  • In addition, imprinting defects were also identified in genes located on other chromosomes, including GPR1-AS , JAKMP1 and NHP2L1 . (bmj.com)
  • Both intriguing and perplexing is a distal chromosomal region with the greatest DNA similarity between surviving duplicated genes but also with the highest concentration of lineage-specific gene pairs found anywhere in these genomes and with a significantly elevated gene evolutionary rate. (plantcell.org)
  • Chromosome structural stratification, together with enrichment of autoimmune response-related (nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat) genes and accelerated DNA rearrangement and gene loss, confer a striking resemblance of this grass chromosome pair to the sex chromosomes of other taxa. (plantcell.org)
  • Evolutionary history of novel genes on the tammar wallaby Y chromosome: Implications for sex chromosome evolution. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Which chromosome carries the fewest number of genes? (reference.com)
  • At one point in the cell's life, its chromosomes become untangled and open up to expose their genes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Homologous expressed genes in the human sex chromosome pairing region. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The X-located homologue, MIC2X, escapes X-inactivation and the equivalent Y-located locus, MIC2Y, was one of the first genes shown to reside on a mammalian Y chromosome. (ox.ac.uk)
  • [6] The human Y chromosome carries an estimated 100-200 genes, with between 45 and 73 of these protein-coding. (wikipedia.org)
  • All single-copy Y-linked genes are hemizygous (present on only one chromosome) except in cases of aneuploidy such as XYY syndrome or XXYY syndrome . (wikipedia.org)
  • The Y chromosomes of humans and other mammals also contain other genes needed for normal sperm production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over time, genes that were beneficial for males and harmful to (or had no effect on) females either developed on the Y chromosome or were acquired through the process of translocation . (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes are "strung" along the chromosomes, a bit like beads along a necklace. (cuby.info)
  • Chromosomes will be the structures that carry genes which in change transmit hereditary characteristics from moms and dads to offspring. (prismmagazine.org)
  • The Y chromosome is tiny, carries few genes, and has now numerous sequence that is repetitive even though the X chromosome is more autosome-like in type and content. (prismmagazine.org)
  • The Y chromosome is tiny, carries few genes, and contains numerous repeated sequence, although the X chromosome is more autosome-like in kind and content. (blankbookingagency.com)
  • All the instructions for how the child will grow are in the genes on these chromosomes. (earth-news.info)
  • That is, Chromosome 1 has approximately 2, genes, while chromosome 22 has approximately genes. (earth-news.info)
  • These comprised 40 pairing promoting genes and 65 'anti-pairing' genes (of which 2 and 1 were already known, respectively), many of which have human orthologs. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2 ) reported genome-wide significance on chromosome 2q37 on a combined data set of 440 Mexican-American affected sib pairs (ASPs). (pnas.org)
  • Here, we report our results from chromosome 20 as part of an ongoing genome scan in a large Finnish sample of affected sibships and extended families ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Póster presentado en Plant and Animal Genome XXI, celebrada en San Diego del 12 al 16 de enero de 2013. (csic.es)
  • Mutation accumulation experiments followed by whole-genome sequencing have revealed that, for several bacterial species, the rate of base-pair substitutions (BPSs) is not constant across the chromosome but varies in a wave-like pattern that is symmetrical about the origin of replication. (asm.org)
  • IMPORTANCE It has been found in several species of bacteria that the rate at which single base pairs are mutated is not constant across the genome but varies in a wave-like pattern that is symmetrical about the origin of replication. (asm.org)
  • In prokaryotes, chromosomal DNA is circular, and the entire genome is carried on one chromosome. (google.com)
  • The diploid human genome has 46 chromosomes. (google.com)
  • To study chromosome pairing in the hybrid and genome constitution of BD1 progeny, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used. (readabstracts.com)
  • With a 30% difference between humans and chimpanzees, the Y chromosome is one of the fastest-evolving parts of the human genome . (wikipedia.org)
  • We introduce high-throughput and massive paired-end mapping (PEM), a large-scale genome-sequencing method to identify structural variants (SVs) ∼3 kilobases (kb) or larger that combines the rescue and capture of paired ends of 3-kb fragments, massive 454 sequencing, and a computational approach to map DNA reads onto a reference genome. (sciencemag.org)
  • The large number of paired-end reads was optimally mapped to the human genome computationally ( 12 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The human genome consists of 46 (2n*(22+1) ) chromosomes. (stackexchange.com)
  • However, this group shows substantial variability in genome size, the amount and distribution of C-heterochromatin, and the chromosome positions of 45S rDNA clusters. (fiocruz.br)
  • Although there is an extensive karyotypic stability for autosomal complement, the genome size as well as the amount and distribution of some repetitive DNAs, such as C-heterochromatin, and the chromosome positions of 45S rDNA clusters are highly variable. (fiocruz.br)
  • A frequently occurring and long-recognized departure from this paired chromosome structure occurs when the genome reduplicates without chromatid separation (hereafter: genome reduplication). (bio-zentrum.com)
  • Following a single extra S-phase cells frequently form diplochromosomes: four sister chromatids conjoined at centromeres (White 1935 A more general AR-231453 term AR-231453 for chromosomes formed by any degree of genome reduplication without chromatid separation is 'polytene' (Painter 1934 Zhimulev et al. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • The human genome is made up of a total of 23 chromosomes: 22 autosomes, which occur in matched pairs, and 1 set of sex chromosomes. (sciencing.com)
  • The centromere has no effect on metaphase I chiasmate chromosome associations: homologs with identical or different centromeres, in the presence and absence of Ph1 , pair the same. (genetics.org)
  • Three major meiotic processes-chromosome pairing ( i.e. , an interaction of chromosomes that results in the alignment of homologs), synapsis [ i.e ., the formation of the proteinaceous synaptonemal complex (SC) structure between each homologous pair], and crossing over-are involved in the formation of bivalents. (genetics.org)
  • Extensive separation of homologs and sister chromatids along the chromosome arms occurs in mid-G2, several hours before the first meiotic division, and before the G2/M transition. (nih.gov)
  • For example, terminal sequences from other chromosomes increase the ability of free duplications to recombine with their normal homologs, suggesting that telomere-associated sequences, homologous or nonhomologous, play a role in facilitating meiotic exchange. (genetics.org)
  • Some chromosomes do not recognize their homologs before the onset of the leptotene-zygotene stage and undergo classical leptotene and zygotene stages. (bioone.org)
  • To stabilize the chromosome pairs, protein links form along the length of the homologs, like a zipper. (healthcanal.com)
  • The whole goal of the cell at this developmental stage is to pair up homologous chromosomes, to reinforce that pairing through formation of the synaptonemal complex, to make crossovers between homologs, and then to separate the pairs into different daughter cells," said Dernburg, who is also a researcher at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and a faculty affiliate of the California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences (QB3). (healthcanal.com)
  • Although understanding of the mechanisms by which meiotic chromosomes find and pair with their homologs has greatly advanced, it remains far from being fully understood. (inserm.fr)
  • The process of pairing is coupled with a synaptonemal complex assembly between the formation of homologs and crossovers (COs), which provides sufficient tension to align the chromosomes on the spindle. (mdpi.com)
  • After pairing, the homologs continue to associate and this interaction has been referred to as homolog juxtaposition ( Zickler and Kleckner, 1999 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • 2010 In addition to connections between sister chromatids another layer of chromosome association - pairing between homologs - also occurs in some polytene cells. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • Therefore, hexaploid wheat possesses three related genomes, totaling 16,000 Mb in size, composed of seven sets of six related chromosomes with similar gene orders and vast tracts of related and highly repetitive sequences. (pnas.org)
  • We have also screened the gene for maturity-onset diabetes of the young 1, hepatic nuclear factor 4-a ( HNF-4 α) in 64 affected sibships with evidence for high chromosomal sharing at its location on chromosome 20q. (pnas.org)
  • Together with results from previous studies, our findings support the evidence for more than one diabetes-predisposing gene on chromosome 20. (pnas.org)
  • We also show that variants in the HNF-4 α gene for MODY1 do not explain the suggestive logarithm of odds (lod) scores detected on chromosome 20q. (pnas.org)
  • The sme2 RNA transcripts accumulate at their respective gene loci and greatly enhance pairing of homologous loci: Deletion of the sme2 sequence eliminates this robust pairing, whereas transposition to other chromosomal sites confers robust pairing at those ectopic sites. (sciencemag.org)
  • The pericentromeric region of this homeologous chromosome pair accounts for two-thirds of the gene content differences between the modern chromosomes. (plantcell.org)
  • with both members of the paleo-duplicated gene pairs remaining extant in only ~17% of cases. (plantcell.org)
  • Gametes contain only 1 gene from each pair. (justanswer.com)
  • We reported previously that ~80-kilobase pair (kb) P1 bacteriophage clones spanning either the human or mouse apoB gene (clones p158 and p649, respectively) confer apoB expression in the liver of transgenic mice, but not in the intestine. (caltech.edu)
  • To test this possibility, transgenic mice were generated with 145- and 207-kb bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) that contained the human apoB gene and more extensive 5'- and 3'-flanking sequences. (caltech.edu)
  • We discuss an alternative based on two observations: transcription occurs in factories that specialize in transcribing specific gene sub-sets, and chromosomes only pair when transcribed. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Evidence for a gene influencing blood pressure on chromosome 17. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Tau is a candidate gene for chromosome 17 frontotemporal dementia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Olfactory receptor gene cluster on human chromosome 17: possible duplication of an ancestral receptor repertoire. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The terms chromosome and gene were used long before biologists really understood what these structures were. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Watson and Crick discovery made it possible to express biological concepts (such as the gene) and structures (such as the chromosome) in concrete chemical terms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A gene is an ordered sequence of nucleotides located in a particular position on a particular chromosome that encodes a specific functional product (i.e., a protein or RNA molecule). (google.com)
  • Inversions are balanced structural chromosome rearrangements, which can influence gene expression and the risk of unbalanced chromosome constitution in offspring. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In mammals, the Y chromosome contains the gene SRY , which triggers male development. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, the Y chromosome contains a gene, SRY , which triggers embryonic development as a male. (wikipedia.org)
  • When parents discover that their child has a rare chromosome disorder or an autosomal dominant single gene disorder, they often find themselves confronted with a very steep learning curve. (cuby.info)
  • For instance, the gene for hair color from the father pairs up with the gene for hair color from the mother. (earth-news.info)
  • A sex-linked gene is any gene that is found on the sex chromosome labeled X. (earth-news.info)
  • Small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) regulate gene expression in Escherichia coli by base pairing with mRNAs and modulating translation and mRNA stability. (asm.org)
  • Once they've identified each other at some place, they'll begin the process we call synapsis, which involves building this beautiful structure - the synaptonemal complex - and using it to form an intimate association that runs the entire length of each pair of chromosomes," Hawley explains. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The homologues must then become intimately aligned or paired along their entire lengths and a proteinaceous structure known as the synaptonemal complex (SC) must be assembled between them, a process called synapsis, as reviewed by Zickler and Kleckner ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Distal chromosome pairing initiation in wheat explains the failure of homologous synapsis after colchicine-induced inhibition of bouquet formation ( C orredor and N aranjo 2007 ). (genetics.org)
  • The movement is very obvious in the cells on the right side of this frame, which are actively pairing and synapsing their chromosomes, while the motion has slowed in the later-stage cells to the left, which have completed pairing and synapsis. (healthcanal.com)
  • This simple model of a nucleus with only one pair of chromosomes illustrates the process of synapsis - the pairing of homologous chromosomes. (healthcanal.com)
  • This involves the pairing, or synapsis, of homologous chromosomes in which the chromosome from the mother pairs with the analogous chromosome from the father. (healthcanal.com)
  • But the synaptonemal complex can form between non-homologous regions of the chromosomes, so pairing has to be coordinated with synapsis, and synapsis has to be regulated so it happens only between homologous chromosomes. (healthcanal.com)
  • Here we show that FK506 binding protein (Fkbp6) localizes to meiotic chromosome cores and regions of homologous chromosome synapsis. (elsevier.com)
  • And because chromosomes come in pairs - 23 sets in humans - the chromosomes must be properly matched up before they can be divvied up. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have? (reference.com)
  • Humans typically have 23 pairs of chromosomes, resulting in a total of 46 chromosomes. (reference.com)
  • Humans born with both an X and Y chromosome are male, and those born with two X chromosomes are female. (reference.com)
  • A QTL on chromosome 3q23 influences processing speed in humans. (harvard.edu)
  • In humans, that means 46 chromosomes pair off into 23, but in the nematode, 12 chromosomes pair off into 6. (healthcanal.com)
  • Topics dealt with include meiotic and synaptonemal complex behavior in humans and mice with a variety of chromosomal and genetic abnormalities, sex chromosome pairing in mammals and birds, the significance for fertility or pairing in mammals and birds, the significance for fertility of XY pairing and crossing over, the effects of hybridity on pairing and fertility in plants, and the genetic control of synaptonemal complex formation and crossing over in polyploids. (schweitzer-online.de)
  • His current research interests include the study of synaptonemal complexes in humans, animals, and plants, with the aim of investigating aspects of meiotic chromosome-pairing behavior and their bearing on fertility. (schweitzer-online.de)
  • Chapter 1 -- Heterologous Pairing and Fertility in Humans /R. M. Speed -- Chapter 2 -- Chromosome Pairing and Fertility in Mice /P. de Boer and J. H. de Jong -- Chapter 3 -- Sex Chromosome Pairing and Fertility in the Heterogametic Sex of Mammals and Birds /A. Solari -- Chapter 4 -- Chromosome Pairing and Fertility in Plant Hybrids /G. Jenkins -- Chapter 5 -- Chromosome Pairing and Fertility in Polyploids /C. B. Gillies -- Index. (schweitzer-online.de)
  • When was it discovered XY chromosomes decide the sex of a child in humans? (stackexchange.com)
  • How do the chromosomes arrange themselves after fertilization in humans? (stackexchange.com)
  • For example, the number of homologous sets of chromosomes in humans is 23 if one considers a "set" to be one pair of homologous chromosomes, or it could be 2 if one considers a "set" to be the collective number of non-homologous chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, each cell normally contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes ( allosomes ) in mammals , including humans , and many other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gender and Genetics: Humans are created with 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs. (prismmagazine.org)
  • Humans have actually 23 pairs of chromosomes, one 1 / 2 of each set inherited from each parent. (prismmagazine.org)
  • The most common trisomy in humans is trisomy 21, or Down syndrome, where the person has three copies of the twenty-first chromosome. (sciencing.com)
  • The isolation and microscopic observation of chromosomes forms the basis of cytogenetics and is the primary method by which clinicians detect chromosomal abnormalities in humans. (earth-news.info)
  • Humans have 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes (the X and Y). Autosomes are numbered roughly in relation to their sizes. (earth-news.info)
  • Humans and most other mammals have two sex chromosomes, the X and the Y. Females have two X chromosomes in their cells, while males have both X of these two chromosomes, with the X chromosome being much larger than the Y. (earth-news.info)
  • Finally, I consider the question of the distribution and identity of chromosomal pairing sites, using recent data to evaluate possible relationships between pairing sites and other chromosomal sites, such as centromeres, telomeres, promoters and heterochromatin. (nih.gov)
  • A polarized chromosomal arrangement with clustered telomeres in a meiotic prophase nucleus is often called bouquet and is thought to be important for the pairing of homologous chromosomes. (nih.gov)
  • In the female clones, the team found that the chromosomal material doubles twice so that when it divides, each results in an egg cell containing a full set of 50 chromosomes. (phys.org)
  • Intragenomic similarity near this chromosomal terminus may be important in hom(e)ologous chromosome pairing. (plantcell.org)
  • It is suggested that somatic pairing, endomitosis, meiotic alterations, and chromosomal aberrations can be correlated processes. (oalib.com)
  • Draft sequence data are mostly in the form of 10,000 base pair-sized fragments whose approximate chromosomal locations are known. (google.com)
  • Mammals show little pairing apart from in germline cells, taking place at specific loci, and under the control of developmental signalling (understood as a subset of other long-range interchromosomal interactions such as looping, and organisation into chromosomal territories). (wikipedia.org)
  • These chromosomes determine individual genetics traits as well as a person's gender. (reference.com)
  • As part of the International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics project we completed an affected sibling pair study of 142 narrowly defined Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition combined type attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) proband-sibling pairs. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Genetics of meiotic chromosome pairing. (nap.edu)
  • MedlinePlus Genetics provides information about each human chromosome written in lay language. (medlineplus.gov)
  • JS Genetics announces the availability of XCAT-KS, its proprietary buccal swab test for the diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome (KS) and other male sex chromosome aneuploidies. (news-medical.net)
  • Many polyploid species have evolved genetic regulatory systems that ensure a diploid-like behavior with efficient disjunction of homologous chromosomes at the first division ( J enczewski and A lix 2004 ). (genetics.org)
  • Abnormalities in the number of chromosomes may result in genetic defects or serious he. (reference.com)
  • Prognostic genetic testing, for chromosome 3 status, was performed on all tumour specimens, either by MLPA or MSA, depending on DNA yield. (bmj.com)
  • According to this genetic differentiation, sex chromosomes do not synapse during the first meiotic prophase in males, and a special structure, the dense plate, maintains sex chromosome association. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The cytological distinctiveness of the equivalent chromosomes of different genomes is all the more striking in view of the close genetic relationships which have enabled Sears 7 , by nullisomic-tetrasomic compensation, to recognize the seven homoeologous groups into which the complement of wheat can be arranged. (x10.mx)
  • A chromosome is a structure that occurs within cells and that contains the cell's genetic material. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A full set of genetic material consisting of paired chromosomes, one from each parental set. (google.com)
  • HEALTH AND HUMAN SCIENCES Duplication Syndrome 0 Angelman Syndrome 0 0 Student researchers: Colleen Sheehy and Anne Nanninga , Juniors - Several types of copy number variants, or a surplus or absence of genetic information encoded by DNA, appear in the 11.2-13.1 region of chromosome 15. (paperity.org)
  • Angelman syndrome derives from a deletion of the mother's genetic contribution from the 11.2-13.1 region of chromosome 15. (paperity.org)
  • Thus, while Garfunkel has an additional deletion on his maternal chromosome 15, it is clear, as indexed by the results of his VABS and MSEL assessments, that this additional genetic variant did not pose greater developmental risk. (paperity.org)
  • This was the origin of a lifelong involvement in the study of polyploid evolution and on the genetic and meiotic equivalences and distinctions between the chromosomes derived from different parents in the creation of allopolyploids. (nap.edu)
  • Further characterization of such chromosomes would benefit both couples as well as genetic counselors in deciding the reproductive options and estimating the recurrent risk in subsequent pregnancies, respectively. (cuby.info)
  • Structure of DNA DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the cell's genetic material, contained in chromosomes within the cell nucleus and mitochondria. (cuby.info)
  • Klinefelter syndrome, also known as XXY syndrome, is a genetic disorder that involves an additional X sex chromosome in males. (news-medical.net)
  • From these crosses five 20-chromosome, nulli-haploid, plants have been obtained, which, by the nature of their origin, must have had the haploid complement of Holdfast minus the chromosome which is monosomic in the HH line. (x10.mx)
  • As many as nineteen of the twenty chromosomes of the nulli-haploid have been observed in various associations simultaneously, although never more than nine were involved in associations in the same cell in euhaploids. (x10.mx)
  • The methodology does not result in a single continuous sequence that defines an entire (haploid) chromosome. (familytreedna.com)
  • They contain only one set of chromosomes and are thus said to be haploid. (earth-news.info)
  • Our data also suggest that the formation of chromosome territories in the spermatocyte nucleus may play an active role in ensuring the specificity of meiotic pairing in late prophase by disrupting interactions between nonhomologous chromosomes. (nih.gov)
  • The patches form a bridge between the chromosomes and the cytoskeleton outside the nucleus. (healthcanal.com)
  • In prokaryotes, or cells without a nucleus, the chromosome is merely a circle of DNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In eukaryotes, or cells with a distinct nucleus, chromosomes are much more complex in structure. (encyclopedia.com)
  • During this highly dynamic process, the two homologous copies of each chromosome find each other within the nucleus through an active search process that enables the chromosomes to distinguish the "self versus non-self" and to assume a side-by-side alignment [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Within the nucleus of the cell, DNA is arranged into discrete structures called chromosomes. (earth-news.info)
  • Although, as recent studies have confirmed, there is no mechanical linkage, the univalent X chromosome enters the same daughter nucleus that receives the other X chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosome pairing is controlled in wheat by the Ph1 locus, which suppresses homoeologous chromosome pairing. (csic.es)
  • Thus, the pairing attractions between the equivalent, homoeologous, chromosomes of different genomes either no longer exists or is no longer expressed. (x10.mx)
  • A distant hybrid of two diploid species, Alstroemeria aurea and A. inodora, has been studied relative to crossability with A. inodora, homoeologous chromosome pairing, and chromosome transmission to BC1 offspring. (readabstracts.com)
  • Homoeologous crossing over of chromosomes of the parental species in the hybrid was found in all PC1 plants. (readabstracts.com)
  • Although there was regular homoeologous chromosome pairing in 30% of the pollen mother cells, both hybrids were very sterile. (readabstracts.com)
  • The implications of the absence of homoeologous chromosome pairing on gamete constitution and prospects for introgression in Alstroemeria are discussed. (readabstracts.com)
  • Several loci have been identified that affect chromosome pairing in hexaploid wheat (reviewed by S ears 1976 ). (genetics.org)
  • Analysis of Mutation Rate of 17 Y-Chromosome Short Tandem Repeats Loci Using Tanzanian Father-Son Paired Samples. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A maximum LOD score of 1.48 was calculated for linkage to MODYl-linked loci and 1.45 to MODY3-linked loci in Caucasian sib pairs. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • During pairing, however, Xic loci show markedly reduced movements. (illinois.edu)
  • CONCLUSION: Dense linkage mapping has highlighted the presence of 2 loci on chromosome 11q, each conferring susceptibility to hip OA. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Both differentially condensed sex chromosomes present axial structures during meiotic prophase and pair their common ends, forming a short SC segment while the free ends vary in their morphological characteristics from species to species. (springer.com)
  • The sme2 locus shows robust pairing from early in meiotic prophase. (sciencemag.org)
  • As a proof of principle, we tracked homologous chromosomes during meiotic prophase in synchronized and pachytene-arrested cells and captured important features of their spatial reorganization, such as chromatin restructuration into arrays of Rec8-delimited loops, centromere declustering, individualization, and pairing. (pasteur.fr)
  • Common wheat, Triticum vulgare, is a hexaploid species with 42 chromosomes in which the genomes of diploid wheat and of the diploid species Aegilops speltoides and Aegilops squarrosa are combined together 1-5 . (x10.mx)
  • Most animal cells except the gametes have a diploid set of chromosomes. (google.com)
  • 2000). Unlike other hemipteran groups, members of the subfamily Triatominae present high uniformity in their diploid chromosome number. (fiocruz.br)
  • The altered chromosome structure is reflected in the increased transcription activity of a tightly regulated process in prophase I. To elucidate the involvement of PIP2 in the processes during the C. elegans development, we identified the PIP2-binding partners, leucine-rich repeat (LRR-1) protein and proteasome subunit beta 4 (PBS-4), pointing to its involvement in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. (mdpi.com)
  • In Caenorhabditis elegans , this includes the pairing of homologous chromosomes, which occurs during the leptotene and zygotene stages of prophase I (transition zone of the germ line). (mdpi.com)
  • However, homologous pairing also occurs in somatic cells, most regularly in Dipterans such as Drosophila, but also to a lesser extent in other organisms, and it is not known how mitotic and meiotic pairing relate to each other. (nih.gov)
  • These approaches have permitted the demonstration that pairing occurs throughout the cell cycle in mitotic cells in Drosophila, and that the transition from mitotic to meiotic pairing in spermatogenesis is accompanied by a dramatic increase in pairing frequency. (nih.gov)
  • Due to limitations in available cytological techniques, the early stages of homologous chromosome pairing in male Drosophila have not been observed, and the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. (nih.gov)
  • Our results suggest that widespread interactions along the euchromatin are required for the initiation, but not the maintenance, of meiotic pairing of autosomes in male Drosophila. (nih.gov)
  • In 1998 it was determined that homologous pairing in Drosophila occurs through independent initiations (as opposed to a directed, 'processive zippering' motion). (wikipedia.org)
  • An earlier RNAi screen in 2007 showed the disruption of Topoisomerase II activity impairs somatic pairing within Drosophila tissue culture, indicating a role for topoisomerase-mediated organisation (or the direct interactions of topoisomerase enzymes) in pairing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Condensin (despite dependent interactions with Topoisomerase II) is antagonistic to Drosophila homologous pairing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stevens, N. M. (1907) The chromosomes of Drosophila ampelophila. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5000 homozygous exonic variants on chromosome 19, suggestive of UPD19. (bmj.com)
  • Their 'somatic' non-reproductive cells contain a full set of 50 chromosomes-25 from each parent-while their reproductive egg and sperm cells contain 25 chromosomes. (phys.org)
  • Little is known about mechanisms that efficiently partition chromosomes to produce sperm. (medworm.com)
  • Overall, we define novel features that segregate both lagging and paired chromosomes for optimal sperm production. (medworm.com)
  • This research focuses on understanding how chromosomes are properly distributed to sperm and egg cells. (elsevier.com)
  • When there is an error in this division, an egg or sperm cell may end up with an extra chromosome. (sciencing.com)
  • Sex Chromosomes Z-W. If a sperm cell containing an X chromosome fertilizes an egg, the resulting zygote will be XX, or female. (earth-news.info)
  • Every human being starts as one cell, the cell formed when a woman's egg is fertilized An egg or sperm only has half of the parent's sex chromosome pair. (earth-news.info)
  • Thus, each sperm - like the egg - contains an X chromosome, and only female offspring (XX) are produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synaptonemal complex proteins: occurrence, epitope mapping and chromosome disjunction. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This resulted in the re-mapping of 25 695 SNP markers across all homologues of the seven rose chromosomes, tailored to the pairing behaviour of each chromosome in each parent. (rosaceae.org)
  • Finer linkage mapping of primary hip osteoarthritis susceptibility on chromosome 11q in a cohort of affected female sibling pairs. (ox.ac.uk)
  • METHODS: A 50-cM interval of chromosome 11q that we had previously identified as harboring susceptibility to hip OA in a female sibling-pair cohort was subjected to finer linkage mapping. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Development of paired-end mapping for detecting SVs. (sciencemag.org)
  • In order to identify SVs more accurately, we developed paired-end mapping (PEM), which involves the preparation and isolation of paired ends of 3-kb fragments ( 12 ), and their massive sequencing with 454 technology ( Fig. 1 ) ( 13 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Several authors applied a cytogenetical approach to ultrastructural studies, leading to a better knowledge of meiotic chromosome zones and to a complete analysis of pachytene chromosome complement of several species. (springer.com)
  • Many plant species, including important crops like wheat, are polyploids that carry more than two sets of genetically related chromosomes capable of meiotic pairing. (genetics.org)
  • Hirabayashi H (1967) Chromosome numbers in Japanese species of Dryopteris (2). (springer.com)
  • Wheat is an allopolyploid which has two or more sets of related chromosomes as the result of doubling chromosomes following sexual hybridization between closely related species. (csic.es)
  • Therefore the hybridization be tween polyploid wheat and related species caused inter-specific hybrids without chromosome pairing between wheat and related species. (csic.es)
  • Chromosome doubling in oogonia is known in hybrid species and in parthenogenetic salamanders and lizards. (oalib.com)
  • The pseudoautosomal region and sex chromosome aneuploidies in domestic species. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Chromosomes of parental species are studied. (readabstracts.com)
  • Y is normally the sex-determining chromosome in many species , since it is the presence or absence of Y that typically determines the male or female sex of offspring produced in sexual reproduction . (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we analysed the karyotypes of 41 species from six different genera with C-fluorescence banding in order to evaluate the base-pair richness of heterochromatic regions. (fiocruz.br)
  • Further, we discuss the evolution of these repeated sequences in both autosomes and sex chromosomes in species of Triatominae. (fiocruz.br)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15204.001 species of fruit fly Stormo and Fox discovered two distinct ways in AR-231453 which cells respond to extra chromosome duplications. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • Our results show a high heterogeneity in the fluorescent staining of the heterochromatin in both autosomes and sex chromosomes, never reported before within an insect subfamily with holocentric chromosomes. (fiocruz.br)
  • How the reproductive process leads to 50 chromosomes in egg cells has been unclear. (phys.org)
  • To better understand this mechanism, a research team including Masamichi Kuroda and Takafumi Fujimoto of Hokkaido University's Graduate School of Fisheries Sciences developed DNA probes to track the chromosomes in dojo loach's somatic and reproductive cells. (phys.org)
  • Fluorescent signals indicate that the half of the chromosomes in the somatic cells of female clones are derived from type B (green signals). (phys.org)
  • According to the results published in Chromosome Research, the fluorescent signals indicated that somatic cells of the female clones have 25 chromosomes derived from type B, providing evidence that their ancestral origin arose when type A and B mated. (phys.org)
  • We report two antagonic non-random chromosome arrangements in untreated premeiotic cells: the parallel configuration with homologue chromosomes associated side by side in the metaphase plate and the antiparallel configuration having homologue chromosomes with antipolar distribution in the metaphase ring. (oalib.com)
  • By a successive division, these cells form nuclei with one set of chromosomes. (oalib.com)
  • Homologous chromosomes can pair in somatic and germ line cells, and many mechanisms have been proposed to explain how they do so. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Our cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes but the chromosome browser shows single chromosomes. (familytreedna.com)
  • Mechanisms underlying these processes (double-strand break repair, telomere integrity and chromosome organization) contribute directly to the genesis of cancer cells. (elsevier.com)
  • In mice, the choice of X chromosome to inactivate in XX cells is ensured by monoallelic regulation of Xist RNA via its antisense transcription unit Tsix/Xite. (illinois.edu)
  • Here we investigate the live-cell dynamics and outcome of Tsix pairing in differentiating mouse ES cells. (illinois.edu)
  • Human somatic cells have 22 pairs of homologous chromosomes? (stackexchange.com)
  • is that 1 chromosome from the father and 1 chromosome from mother made up 1 pair of autosomes in somatic cells? (stackexchange.com)
  • and therefore, since each pair of autosomes consisted of 1 chromosome from dad and 1 from mom, we can say human somatic cells consisted of 22 pairs of homologous chromosomes (not to mention the sex of the human), right? (stackexchange.com)
  • Somatic cells can have therefore 22 pairs of homologous chromosomes the 22 autosomes . (stackexchange.com)
  • One response occurs in cells that were experimentally engineered to undergo an extra chromosome duplication. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • These cells delay division so that the chromosome separation machinery can somehow adapt to the challenge of separating more than two chromosome copies at once. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • The Fgf2 second response occurs in cells that naturally undergo extra chromosome duplications before division. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • In these cells Stormo and Fox discovered a new type of chromosome separation whereby the extra chromosome copies move apart from each other before cell division. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • Having uncovered two new responses that cells use to adapt to extra chromosomes it will now be important to find other proteins like Mad2 that are important in these events. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • The two cells at the top of the figure each have two of the same type of chromosome. (scribd.com)
  • The first review of somatic pairing was made by Metz in 1916, citing the first descriptions of pairing made in 1907 and 1908 by N. M. Stevens in germline cells, who noted: "it may therefore be true that pairing of homologous chromosomes occurs in connection with each mitosis throughout the life history of these insects" (p.215) Stevens noted the potential for communication and a role in heredity. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is the difference between sister chromatids and homologous pairs? (reference.com)
  • The difference between homologous pairs and sister chromatids is that homologous pairs are already in the cell to begin with, but sister chromatids are for. (reference.com)
  • 2004 While incompletely understood it is appreciated that multiple layers of physical connections tightly intertwine the multiple sister chromatids of polytene chromosomes. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • They have two sister chromatids, but still count as one chromosome. (scribd.com)
  • Papers on these subjects published in 1939 and 1941 gave considerable attention to the methodologies of colchicine treatment as well as to the relationships between chromosome pairing in the initial hybrids and the derived amphiploids. (nap.edu)
  • 5) each time a Y chromosome occurs, early embryonic testes develop all over week that is 10th of. (prismmagazine.org)
  • 5) whenever a Y chromosome occurs, early embryonic testes develop round the tenth week of being pregnant. (blankbookingagency.com)
  • Jacob's syndrome occurs when babies have one X-chromosome and two Y-chromosomes. (sciencing.com)
  • All chromosomes normally appear as an amorphous blob under the microscope and only take on a well-defined shape during mitosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • It is entirely coincidental that the Y chromosome, during mitosis , has two very short branches which can look merged under the microscope and appear as the descender of a Y-shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • A sex chromosome is a type of chromosome that participates in sex determination. (earth-news.info)
  • Human chromosomes are typically distributed equally during reproduction, causing the children to be born with traits inherited from both the mother and father. (reference.com)
  • How many chromosomes are shown in a normal human karyotype? (reference.com)
  • A normal human karyotype typically contains 23 pairs of chromosomes. (reference.com)
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification. (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • This represents, to our knowledge, the first individual human case of paternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 19 (UPD19). (bmj.com)
  • Human Apolipoprotein B Transgenic Mice Generated with 207- and 145-Kilobase Pair Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. (caltech.edu)
  • The designation for each member of the seventeenth largest human autosomal chromosome pair. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This picture of the human chromosomes lined up in pairs is called a karyotype. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The DNA in the human Y chromosome is composed of about 59 million base pairs . (wikipedia.org)
  • I understand that human somatic cell is made up of 22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosome. (stackexchange.com)
  • If the allosome (the 23 chormosome pair) of an human is hemizygot ( X-Y ), he is genetically male. (stackexchange.com)
  • The prize honors Page's groundbreaking body of research on the human Y chromosome. (news-medical.net)
  • The sex chromosomes of human beings and other mammals are designated by scientists as X and Y. (earth-news.info)
  • Females have two copies of the X chromosome, while males have one X of the human chromosomes lined up in pairs is called a karyotype. (earth-news.info)
  • Infants with partial monosomy 11q may have a low number of platelets which For example, females may have an abnormal passage between the bladder and Pairs of human chromosomes are numbered from 1 through 22, and an additional 23rd pair of sex chromosomes which include one X and one Y chromosome in. (earth-news.info)
  • They may involve single chromosome pairs (bivalents) or single chromosomes without mating partners (univalents), or even whole sets of chromosomes, in that these are separated according to their parental origin and, as a rule, only those of maternal origin are passed on to the offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • All the F1's which produced nulli-haploids in F2 had twenty bivalents composed of wheat chromosomes and the HH chromosome and a rye chromosome as univalents. (x10.mx)
  • With R. canina varietites and their weird and wonderful chromosome configuration, do the bivalents only have the influence of the plant growth and characteristics or do the univalents have some say in the matter as well. (rosebreeders.org)
  • The Ph1 locus in wheat was proposed to ensure homologous pairing by controlling the specificity of centromere associations that precede chromosome pairing. (genetics.org)
  • However, in the absence of the Ph1 locus (ph1 mutant) the chance of pairing between related chromosomes is increased. (csic.es)
  • In the absence of the Ph1 locus chromosome specificity has been suppressed in this project, allowing inter-specific chromosome associations between wheat and H. chilense for the first time. (csic.es)
  • Here we report the use of the cloned probe to confirm the localization of the MIC2X locus to the region Xpter-Xp22.32 (ref. 7) and demonstrate, for the first time, that the MIC2Y locus is located on the short arm of the Y chromosome in the distal region Ypter-Yp11.2. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The X and Y chromosomes are thought to have evolved from a pair of identical chromosomes, [10] [11] termed autosomes , when an ancestral animal developed an allelic variation, a so-called "sex locus" - simply possessing this allele caused the organism to be male. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, chromosome attachment sites at the nuclear envelope are marked by green fluorescent protein (GFP), while the chromosomes themselves are labeled with a red fluorescent protein. (healthcanal.com)
  • Once the chromosomes come together, a protein called dynein assesses whether or not the chromosomes are homologous and, if yes, allows formation of a zipper-like synptonemal complex between the two. (healthcanal.com)
  • Stormo and Fox also found that a protein named Mad2 is important in both responses and gives the cell enough time to respond to extra chromosome copies. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • In common with these structural changes in the subtelomeric regions, visualization of the overall chromosome structure by using dispersed repetitive sequences reveals that these repetitive regions also undergo extensive remodeling before pairing ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • These results led to the proposal that a homolog recognition region (HRR), defined as the region containing those sequences enabling homologous chromosomes to pair and recombine, is localized near one end of each chromosome. (genetics.org)
  • The alignment of Chromosomes at homologous sequences. (jove.com)
  • Process of taking a large number of short DNA sequences and putting them back together to create a representation of the original chromosomes from which the DNA originated. (google.com)
  • If you happen to get some good matches, it is possible to infer the sequences of significant chromosome sections. (familytreedna.com)
  • Mutations in dsrA , rprA , or rpoS that disrupt the predicted pairing sequences and reduce translation of RpoS also destabilize the rpoS mRNA. (asm.org)
  • Two strands of DNA are held together in the shape of a double helix by the bonds between base pairs. (google.com)
  • its size is generally given as its total number of base pairs. (google.com)
  • A major class of regulatory sRNAs is synthesized in response to many kinds of stresses and base pairs with target mRNAs. (asm.org)
  • An ultrastructural analysis of spread silver-stained meiotic nuclei of hexaploid wheat by H olm (1986) revealed that, at the beginning of the zygotene stage, telomeres aggregate and chromosome pairing and SC formation is initiated distally. (genetics.org)
  • These deletions may have disrupted pairing mechanisms that are secondary to and require an HRR. (genetics.org)
  • However, the mechanisms by which chromosomes recognize their homologous partners are poorly understood. (sciencemag.org)
  • This effect on fertility is conditioned by the presence of more than two genetically related chromosome sets capable of meiotic pairing. (genetics.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that isolated portions of Caenorhabditis elegans chromosomes are not equally capable of meiotic exchange. (genetics.org)
  • Most therian mammals have only one pair of sex chromosomes in each cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • And in the case of other mammals, this is often similar, although they may have different names for those chromosomes as well. (earth-news.info)
  • These organisms gather all the chromosome ends against the nuclear envelope into one big cluster called a bouquet or into a bunch of smaller clusters called aggregates, and this brings the chromosome ends into proximity with each other," Hawley says. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Organisms exhibiting sexual reproduction carry two copies (homologues) of each chromosome. (pnas.org)
  • These characteristics have not been reported previously in other organisms with holocentric chromosomes (Panzera et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • The immunocytochemical localization of Dmc1 and Rad51 supports the idea that these proteins are not involved in homology search and final pairing. (bioone.org)
  • Chromosome motion can be directly observed by microscopic imaging of worms expressing fluorescent fusion proteins. (healthcanal.com)
  • Today we know that a chromosome contains a single molecule of DNA along with several kinds of proteins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Eukaryotic genomes consist of a number of chromosomes whose DNA is associated with different kinds of proteins. (google.com)
  • Understanding these processes AR-231453 and the proteins involved in more detail could help to prevent diseases that are associated with extra chromosomes. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • Twenty two of the chromosome pairs are similar in both males and females, and a pair of X and Y chromosomes determine the sex. (reference.com)
  • Twenty-two of these pairs, called autosomes, look the same in both males and females. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The 23rd pair, the sex chromosomes, differ between males and females. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Females have two copies of the X chromosome , while males have one X and one Y chromosome . (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are 2 sex chromosomes, called X and Y. Females typically have two X chromosomes (XX) and males typically have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome (XY). (cuby.info)
  • Likewise some females may also be created 46XY due to mutations into the Y chromosome. (prismmagazine.org)
  • Demonstrably, you can find not just females that are XX and men who are XY, but alternatively, there was a selection of chromosome complements, hormones balances, and variations that are phenotypic determine intercourse. (prismmagazine.org)
  • Likewise some females will also be born 46XY due to mutations when you look at the Y chromosome. (blankbookingagency.com)
  • In aphids, sex determination is mostly done according to the XX/X0 type: females have two X chromosomes, males only one. (wikipedia.org)
  • We propose experiments using budding yeast to address two central questions: i) to what extent do base-pairing interactions contribute to the ability of homologous chromosomes to find one another? (elsevier.com)
  • We addressed both limitations by designing and engineering 144 kb of a yeast chromosome with regularly spaced restriction sites (Syn-HiC design). (pasteur.fr)
  • A FISH analysis of the behavior of centromeres and distal chromomeres in telocentric and bi-armed chromosomes demonstrates that it is not the centromeric, but rather the subtelomeric, regions that are involved in the correct partner recognition and selection. (genetics.org)
  • Centromeres, on the other hand, show complex association patterns, with specific homolog pairing taking place in mid-G2. (nih.gov)
  • Comparison of rice ( Oryza sativa ), sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ), maize ( Zea mays ), and Brachypodium distachyon genomes revealed that one paleo-duplicated chromosome pair has experienced very different evolution than all the others. (plantcell.org)
  • Weird animal genomes and the evolution of vertebrate sex and sex chromosomes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In chromosome conformation capture experiments (Hi-C), the accuracy with which contacts are detected varies due to the uneven distribution of restriction sites along genomes. (pasteur.fr)
  • And in a separate lineage, 2 different chromosomes were duplicated giving x=9, like Spiraea. (rosebreeders.org)
  • Recently I notice that the new version of Tophat does not output the read pairs which map to two different chromosomes. (seqanswers.com)
  • To date, our best evidence for linkage is on chromosome 20 with potentially separable peaks located on both the long and short arms. (pnas.org)
  • In a sample from Botnia, Western Finland, a small number of selected pedigrees with the lowest quartile for mean 30-min insulin levels after oral glucose tolerance tests showed significant evidence for linkage to type 2 diabetes on chromosome 12q ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • More recently, evidence for linkage was obtained on chromosome 11q for both diabetes and body mass index (BMI) in 264 Pima Indian families ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Several groups have reported modest evidence for linkage on chromosome 20 for type 2 diabetes ( 11 - 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Linkage analysis of 25 extended families, in each of which at least one affected individual had panic disorder (PD), resulted in a LOD score of 4.18 at D9S271, on chromosome 9q31. (arctichealth.org)
  • Nonparametric analysis of chromosome 12 inheritance data collected with the MODY3-linked markers D12S349 and D12S86 provides evidence for linkage to NIDDM with P values of 0.04 and 0.006, respectively, in Caucasian sib pairs using similar analyses. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • No evidence for linkage of MODY1 and MODY3 markers to NIDDM in African-American sib pairs was observed. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • They conducted a linkage study of 1,176 families (931 from an Australian group and 245 from a UK group), each with at least two members - mainly affected sister pairs - with surgically diagnosed disease. (endometriosis.org)
  • genomewide P = .047) and another region of suggestive linkage on chromosome 20p13 (MLS = 2.09). (endometriosis.org)
  • In this study we used a tetraploid cut rose (Rosa hybrida) population, genotyped using the 68K WagRhSNP array, to construct an ultra-high-density linkage map of all homologous chromosomes using methods previously developed for autotetraploids. (rosaceae.org)
  • polytene chromosomes can also separate prior to metaphase through a spindle-independent mechanism termed Separation-Into-Recent-Sisters (SIRS). (bio-zentrum.com)
  • While Mad2 delays anaphase separation of metaphase polytene chromosomes Mad2's control of overall mitotic timing ensures efficient SIRS. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • Monosomics of HH have been used in crosses with 44-chromosome plants which had the full complement of wheat chromosomes plus a single pair of rye chromosomes. (x10.mx)
  • The situation is somewhat more complicated in the American mole cricket Neocurtilla hexadactyla, which Fernandus Payne described in 1916: Here, three sex chromosomes are present (X1X2Y), two of which mate, while X1 is present as a univalent (unpaired). (wikipedia.org)
  • Background/aim The study's aim was to compare chromosome 3 aberrations of choroidal melanoma (CM) as determined by multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) or microsatellite analysis (MSA) in intraocular tumour biopsies with those results obtained from subsequent endoresection/enucleation of the same CM. (bmj.com)
  • In the present study, the numerical chromosome aberrations were observed in seven cases of sex chromosome mosaicism altogether producing a frequency of 4. (cuby.info)
  • The homologues are then segregated so that each gamete carries only a single copy of each chromosome. (pnas.org)
  • The current technology cannot distinguish the two copies of each chromosome. (familytreedna.com)
  • Although FTDNA COULD have decided to display the two copies of each chromosome separately, they didn't. (familytreedna.com)
  • The meiotic behaviour of the euhaploid plant listed in Table 1 was similar to that of twelve other 21-chromosome plants of Holdfast examined over a period of four years. (x10.mx)
  • Heterochromatin variation in triatomines includes remarkable changes in the amount, size, chromosome location and behaviour of C-blocks during cell divisions (Panzera et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • Using translocations and duplications we have localized the chromosome I HRR to the right end. (genetics.org)
  • Chromosome 15q11.2-13.1 duplication syndrome (dup15q) is caused by duplications of chromosome 15q11.2-13.1. (paperity.org)
  • Its identification was aided by the repeated observation of the same pair of 150 kb long duplications present in cis on chromosome 21 in three Czech families subjected to microarray analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The presence of the same pair of duplications in additional individuals reported in public databases indicates that the inversion may also be present in other populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Three out of the total of about 4000 chromosomes 21 examined in our sample carried the duplications and were inverted, corresponding to carrier frequency of about 1/660. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Without Mad2 the separation of chromosomes with extra duplications is too hasty and can lead to severe cell division errors and cause organs to form incorrectly. (bio-zentrum.com)