A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
'Paintings' are not a medical term, but rather an artistic expression involving the application and manipulation of pigments on a surface to create an image or design, which has no direct medical relevance or definition.
A family of long-tailed terrestrial omnivores including RACCOONS, ringtails, and coatimundis.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Member of the genus Trichechus inhabiting the coast and coastal rivers of the southeastern United States as well as the West Indies and the adjacent mainland from Vera Cruz, Mexico to northern South America. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A family of terrestrial carnivores with long snouts and non-retractable claws. Members include COYOTES; DOGS; FOXES; JACKALS; RACCOON DOGS; and WOLVES.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
An order of fresh water fish with 18 families and over 1600 species. The order includes CHARACINS, hatchetfish, piranhas, and TETRAS.
A family of New World monkeys in the infraorder PLATYRRHINI consisting of two subfamilies: Callicebinae and Pitheciinae.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
The cat family in the order CARNIVORA comprised of muscular, deep-chested terrestrial carnivores with a highly predatory lifestyle.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
The family of civets which are small and medium-sized Old World carnivores, often striped or spotted.
An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
"Medicine in Art" refers to the depiction or use of medical themes, practices, or symbolism in various art forms, such as paintings, sculptures, literature, and performing arts, often serving educational, historical, or aesthetic purposes.
'Paint' is not a medical term, it's a common noun used to describe a substance composed of pigment and liquid binder, used for decorative or protective coating of various surfaces, with no direct medical relevance or application in the context you've asked.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
"Art therapy is a form of expressive therapy that uses the creative process of making art to improve a person's physical, mental, and emotional well-being."
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
While "Humanities" is a broad academic discipline that includes fields such as literature, philosophy, history, and language studies, it does not have a specific medical definition related to the practice of medicine or healthcare.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.

Suppression of tumorigenicity in human ovarian cancer cell lines is controlled by a 2 cM fragment in chromosomal region 6q24-q25. (1/191)

Multiple distinct regions of chromosome 6 are frequently affected by losses of heterozygosity in primary human ovarian carcinomas. We introduced a normal human chromosome 6 into HEY and SKOV-3 ovarian carcinoma cell lines using microcell-mediated chromosome transfer techniques to further investigate the role of this chromosome in ovarian tumorigenesis. The exogenous chromosome was stably propagated in the recipient cells based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses with a chromosome 6 painting probe. The tumorigenicity of HEY and SKOV-3 cells was completely suppressed after transfer of chromosome 6, but not after transfer of a chromosome 11q13-qter fragment used as control. Using 46 polymorphic microsatellite markers, the region bounded by D6S1649 and D6S1564 was found to be commonly deleted in HEY: chromosome 6 tumorigenic revertant clones. The boundaries of the commonly deleted region could be further narrowed down to a 2 cM (based on the Whitehead genetic map) or 0.36 megabase (based on gdb mapping data) region between D6S1637 and D6S1564 after transferring the exogenous chromosome from revertants into mouse L cells and performing allelic deletion mapping studies against this mouse background. We conclude that this region contains a tumor suppressor gene important for the control of ovarian tumor development.  (+info)

Comparison of AluI-induced frequencies of dicentrics and translocations in human lymphocytes by chromosome painting. (2/191)

It has been shown repeatedly that following irradiation of human lymphocytes in the G0 stage, more translocations are induced than dicentrics. To check the role of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) alone for the induction of symmetrical and asymmetrical chromosome aberrations, the frequencies of induced exchange aberrations by the restriction enzyme AluI were analyzed. The enzyme was introduced into cells using the pellet pipetting technique. Frequencies of induced translocations and dicentrics were determined using a chromosome painting assay with chromosome-specific DNA libraries for chromosomes 1, 4 and X (representing 16.8% of the human genome). The number of translocations detected was approximately 3-fold higher than the number of dicentrics, indicating that the increased frequency of translocations compared with dicentrics found in irradiated human lymphocytes does not result from DNA lesions other than DSB but from differential processing of DSB.  (+info)

Analysis of bleomycin-induced chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster primary embryonic cells by FISH using arm-specific painting probes. (3/191)

Chinese hamster primary embryonic cells (at G1 phase) were treated with 1.0 or 3.0 microg/ml bleomycin and chromosomal aberrations in first division metaphases were analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using arm-specific painting probes for chromosomes 3, 4, 8 and 9. We observed that bleomycin induced all classes of chromosome-type aberrations very efficiently. The interesting findings were: (i) the frequency of induced interstitial translocations (i.e. insertions) was approximately equal to that of reciprocal translocations; (ii) the frequency of induced pericentric inversions was higher than that of centric rings. In our earlier studies, we found that X-rays induced a low frequency of interstitial translocations in comparison with reciprocal translocations and equal frequencies of centric rings and pericentric inversions. These data suggest that bleomycin differs from X-rays with respect to the induction of some specific types of aberrations. The results of a chi2 test examining the hypothesis that formed aberrations among the chromosomes or chromosome arms are randomly distributed on the basis of their relative lengths revealed a differential involvement of these chromosomes in the aberrations following exposure to bleomycin. In general, chromosome 8 was found to be more involved in induced aberrations than expected, chromosome 4 was randomly involved, whereas chromosomes 3 and 9 were less involved. This study demonstrates the utility of arm-specific painting probes for efficient detection of a large variety of chromosomal aberrations induced by bleomycin.  (+info)

The application of comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization to the characterization of genotoxicity screening tester strains AHH-1 and MCL-5. (4/191)

AHH-1 TK+/- is a human B cell-derived lymphoblastoid cell line that constitutively expresses a high level of the cytochrome CYP1A1. The MCL-5 cell line was developed by transfection of AHH-1 with cDNAs encoding the human cytochrome P450s, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4 and microsomal epoxide hydrolase carried in plasmids. The metabolic components of these cell lines make them a useful screening tool for use in mutagenicity studies. Although AHH-1 and MCL-5 are closely related, the two cell lines show differences which cannot be attributed to transfection. In the present study both cell lines were investigated for chromosome stability by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using whole chromosome probes and telomeric probes. Amplification in chromosomes 4q, 3q and 9p was observed in both cell lines. To compare the cell lines directly, AHH-1 and MCL-5 DNAs were co-hybridized on the same metaphases using a modified CGH technique. The only difference observed between AHH-1 and MCL-5 was the degree of amplification involving the subtelomeric region of chromosome 4; the additional telomeric region (4q) was translocated onto chromosome 11 and/or chromosome X. FISH was use to show the presence of isochromosomes 3q and 9p in both cell lines with a chromosome number of 48 or higher. These data demonstrate that CGH and FISH with chromosome-specific probes are able to resolve complex karyotypes and to highlight subchromosomal regions involved in rearrangements and potential chromosome fragile sites. Analyses such as those described here may be of considerable value in the determination of the stability of a variety of the cell lines used in the mutagenicity testing of chemicals.  (+info)

Multiplex-FISH for pre- and postnatal diagnostic applications. (5/191)

For >3 decades, Giemsa banding of metaphase chromosomes has been the standard karyotypic analysis for pre- and postnatal diagnostic applications. However, marker chromosomes or structural abnormalities are often encountered that cannot be deciphered by G-banding alone. Here we describe the use of multiplex-FISH (M-FISH), which allows the visualization of the 22 human autosomes and the 2 sex chromosomes, in 24 different colors. By M-FISH, the euchromatin in marker chromosomes could be readily identified. In cases of structural abnormalities, M-FISH identified translocations and insertions or demonstrated that the rearranged chromosome did not contain DNA material from another chromosome. In these cases, deleted or duplicated regions were discerned either by chromosome-specific multicolor bar codes or by comparative genomic hybridization. In addition, M-FISH was able to identify cryptic abnormalities in patients with a normal G-karyotype. In summary, M-FISH is a reliable tool for diagnostic applications, and results can be obtained in +info)

Association of chromosome territories with the nuclear matrix. Disruption of human chromosome territories correlates with the release of a subset of nuclear matrix proteins. (6/191)

To study the possible role of the nuclear matrix in chromosome territory organization, normal human fibroblast cells are treated in situ via classic isolation procedures for nuclear matrix in the absence of nuclease (e.g., DNase I) digestion, followed by chromosome painting. We report for the first time that chromosome territories are maintained intact on the nuclear matrix. In contrast, complete extraction of the internal nuclear matrix components with RNase treatment followed by 2 M NaCl results in the disruption of higher order chromosome territory architecture. Correlative with territorial disruption is the formation of a faint DNA halo surrounding the nuclear lamina and a dispersive effect on the characteristically discrete DNA replication sites in the nuclear interior. Identical results were obtained using eight different human chromosome paints. Based on these findings, we developed a fractionation strategy to release the bulk of nuclear matrix proteins under conditions where the chromosome territories are maintained intact. A second treatment results in disruption of the chromosome territories in conjunction with the release of a small subset of acidic proteins. These proteins are distinct from the major nuclear matrix proteins and may be involved in mediating chromosome territory organization.  (+info)

Spatial relationship between transcription sites and chromosome territories. (7/191)

We have investigated the spatial relationship between transcription sites and chromosome territories in the interphase nucleus of human female fibroblasts. Immunolabeling of nascent RNA was combined with visualization of chromosome territories by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Transcription sites were found scattered throughout the territory of one of the two X chromosomes, most likely the active X chromosome, and that of both territories of chromosome 19. The other X chromosome territory, probably the inactive X chromosome, was devoid of transcription sites. A distinct substructure was observed in interphase chromosome territories. Intensely labeled subchromosomal domains are surrounded by less strongly labeled areas. The intensely labeled domains had a diameter in the range of 300-450 nm and were sometimes interconnected, forming thread-like structures. Similar large scale chromatin structures were observed in HeLa cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged histone H2B. Strikingly, nascent RNA was almost exclusively found in the interchromatin areas in chromosome territories and in between strongly GFP-labeled chromatin domains. These observations support a model in which transcriptionally active chromatin in chromosome territories is markedly compartmentalized. Active loci are located predominantly at or near the surface of compact chromatin domains, depositing newly synthesized RNA directly into the interchromatin space.  (+info)

Gain of chromosomes 15 and 19 is frequent in both mouse hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and primary tumors, but loss of chromosomes 4 and 12 is detected only in the cell lines. (8/191)

Chromosomal alterations were investigated in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, primary tumors and liver epithelial cell lines derived from normal livers of C57BL/6JxC3H/HeJ F(1) and C3H/HeJxC57BL/6J F(1) mice. In the primary tumors, non-random gain of chromosomes 15 and 19 was found in seven and five of 14 hepatocellular carcinomas, respectively. On the other hand, in the cases of both liver epithelial and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, frequent changes were loss of chromosomes 4 (4/9 cell lines) and 12 (3/9) as well as gain of chromosomes 15 (5/9) and 19 (4/9). These results indicate that the chromosomal gain is associated with both in vivo carcinogenesis and establishment of cell lines, while the loss is specific for the latter. PCR analysis using polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers revealed that the loss of chromosome 12 as well as chromosome 4 was much more frequent for the C57BL/6J hepatocarcinogenesis-resistant rather than the susceptible C3H/HeJ strain.  (+info)

Chromosome painting is a molecular cytogenetic technique used to identify and visualize the specific chromosomes or chromosomal regions that are present in an abnormal location or number in a cell. This technique uses fluorescent probes that bind specifically to different chromosomes or chromosomal regions, allowing for their identification under a fluorescence microscope.

The process of chromosome painting involves labeling different chromosomes or chromosomal regions with fluorescent dyes of distinct colors. The labeled probes are then hybridized to the metaphase chromosomes of a cell, and any excess probe is washed away. The resulting fluorescent pattern allows for the identification of specific chromosomes or chromosomal regions that have been gained, lost, or rearranged in the genome.

Chromosome painting has numerous applications in medical genetics, including prenatal diagnosis, cancer cytogenetics, and constitutional genetic disorders. It can help to identify chromosomal abnormalities such as translocations, deletions, and duplications that may contribute to disease or cancer development.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "paintings" are generally not a term that would have a medical definition. Paintings are artistic creations, typically made by applying pigments to a surface like canvas or paper, often using brushes or other tools. They can be created with various intentions and may evoke different emotions, thoughts, or reactions in viewers, but they do not have a direct connection to medicine or healthcare. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

Procyonidae is not a medical term, but a biological term referring to a family of mammals that includes raccoons, coatis, ringtails, and others. They are part of the order Carnivora, although many members have a diet that is primarily herbivorous or omnivorous.

If you're looking for medical definitions, I can certainly help with those as well! Just let me know what specific terms you're interested in.

Chromosome banding is a technique used in cytogenetics to identify and describe the physical structure and organization of chromosomes. This method involves staining the chromosomes with specific dyes that bind differently to the DNA and proteins in various regions of the chromosome, resulting in a distinct pattern of light and dark bands when viewed under a microscope.

The most commonly used banding techniques are G-banding (Giemsa banding) and R-banding (reverse banding). In G-banding, the chromosomes are stained with Giemsa dye, which preferentially binds to the AT-rich regions, creating a characteristic banding pattern. The bands are numbered from the centromere (the constriction point where the chromatids join) outwards, with the darker bands (rich in A-T base pairs and histone proteins) labeled as "q" arms and the lighter bands (rich in G-C base pairs and arginine-rich proteins) labeled as "p" arms.

R-banding, on the other hand, uses a different staining procedure that results in a reversed banding pattern compared to G-banding. The darker R-bands correspond to the lighter G-bands, and vice versa. This technique is particularly useful for identifying and analyzing specific regions of chromosomes that may be difficult to visualize with G-banding alone.

Chromosome banding plays a crucial role in diagnosing genetic disorders, identifying chromosomal abnormalities, and studying the structure and function of chromosomes in both clinical and research settings.

A karyotype is a method used in genetics to describe the number and visual appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. It includes the arrangement of the chromosomes by length, position of the centromeres, and banding pattern. A karyotype is often represented as a photograph or image of an individual's chromosomes, arranged in pairs from largest to smallest, that has been stained to show the bands of DNA. This information can be used to identify genetic abnormalities, such as extra or missing chromosomes, or structural changes, such as deletions, duplications, or translocations. A karyotype is typically obtained by culturing cells from a sample of blood or tissue, then arresting the cell division at metaphase and staining the chromosomes to make them visible for analysis.

'Trichechus manatus' is the scientific name for the West Indian Manatee, also known as the American Manatee. It is a large, aquatic, herbivorous mammal that lives in warm, shallow waters of the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and Atlantic Ocean along the North American coast. They are known for their slow movement, wrinkled skin, and paddle-like flippers. West Indian Manatees are an endangered species due to habitat loss, boat strikes, and other human activities.

Chromosomes are thread-like structures that exist in the nucleus of cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes. They are composed of DNA and proteins, and are typically present in pairs in the nucleus, with one set inherited from each parent. In humans, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46 chromosomes. Chromosomes come in different shapes and forms, including sex chromosomes (X and Y) that determine the biological sex of an individual. Changes or abnormalities in the number or structure of chromosomes can lead to genetic disorders and diseases.

Canidae is a biological family that includes dogs, wolves, foxes, and other members of the canine group. Canids are characterized by their long legs, narrow snouts, and sharp teeth adapted for hunting. They are generally social animals, often living in packs with complex hierarchies. Many species are known for their endurance and speed, as well as their strong sense of smell and hearing. Some members of this family are domesticated, such as dogs, while others remain wild and are sometimes kept as pets or used for hunting.

In situ hybridization, fluorescence (FISH) is a type of molecular cytogenetic technique used to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes through the use of fluorescent probes. This technique allows for the direct visualization of genetic material at a cellular level, making it possible to identify chromosomal abnormalities such as deletions, duplications, translocations, and other rearrangements.

The process involves denaturing the DNA in the sample to separate the double-stranded molecules into single strands, then adding fluorescently labeled probes that are complementary to the target DNA sequence. The probe hybridizes to the complementary sequence in the sample, and the location of the probe is detected by fluorescence microscopy.

FISH has a wide range of applications in both clinical and research settings, including prenatal diagnosis, cancer diagnosis and monitoring, and the study of gene expression and regulation. It is a powerful tool for identifying genetic abnormalities and understanding their role in human disease.

Mammalian chromosomes are thread-like structures that exist in the nucleus of mammalian cells, consisting of DNA, hist proteins, and RNA. They carry genetic information that is essential for the development and function of all living organisms. In mammals, each cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes, with one set inherited from the mother and the other from the father.

The chromosomes are typically visualized during cell division, where they condense and become visible under a microscope. Each chromosome is composed of two identical arms, separated by a constriction called the centromere. The short arm of the chromosome is labeled as "p," while the long arm is labeled as "q."

Mammalian chromosomes play a critical role in the transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next and are essential for maintaining the stability and integrity of the genome. Abnormalities in the number or structure of mammalian chromosomes can lead to various genetic disorders, including Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, and Klinefelter syndrome.

Karyotyping is a medical laboratory test used to study the chromosomes in a cell. It involves obtaining a sample of cells from a patient, usually from blood or bone marrow, and then staining the chromosomes so they can be easily seen under a microscope. The chromosomes are then arranged in pairs based on their size, shape, and other features to create a karyotype. This visual representation allows for the identification and analysis of any chromosomal abnormalities, such as extra or missing chromosomes, or structural changes like translocations or inversions. These abnormalities can provide important information about genetic disorders, diseases, and developmental problems.

Chromosome mapping, also known as physical mapping, is the process of determining the location and order of specific genes or genetic markers on a chromosome. This is typically done by using various laboratory techniques to identify landmarks along the chromosome, such as restriction enzyme cutting sites or patterns of DNA sequence repeats. The resulting map provides important information about the organization and structure of the genome, and can be used for a variety of purposes, including identifying the location of genes associated with genetic diseases, studying evolutionary relationships between organisms, and developing genetic markers for use in breeding or forensic applications.

Chromosome aberrations refer to structural and numerical changes in the chromosomes that can occur spontaneously or as a result of exposure to mutagenic agents. These changes can affect the genetic material encoded in the chromosomes, leading to various consequences such as developmental abnormalities, cancer, or infertility.

Structural aberrations include deletions, duplications, inversions, translocations, and rings, which result from breaks and rearrangements of chromosome segments. Numerical aberrations involve changes in the number of chromosomes, such as aneuploidy (extra or missing chromosomes) or polyploidy (multiples of a complete set of chromosomes).

Chromosome aberrations can be detected and analyzed using various cytogenetic techniques, including karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). These methods allow for the identification and characterization of chromosomal changes at the molecular level, providing valuable information for genetic counseling, diagnosis, and research.

Translocation, genetic, refers to a type of chromosomal abnormality in which a segment of a chromosome is transferred from one chromosome to another, resulting in an altered genome. This can occur between two non-homologous chromosomes (non-reciprocal translocation) or between two homologous chromosomes (reciprocal translocation). Genetic translocations can lead to various clinical consequences, depending on the genes involved and the location of the translocation. Some translocations may result in no apparent effects, while others can cause developmental abnormalities, cancer, or other genetic disorders. In some cases, translocations can also increase the risk of having offspring with genetic conditions.

Chromosomes are thread-like structures that contain genetic material, i.e., DNA and proteins, present in the nucleus of human cells. In humans, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes, in each diploid cell. Twenty-two of these pairs are called autosomal chromosomes, which come in identical pairs and contain genes that determine various traits unrelated to sex.

The last pair is referred to as the sex chromosomes (X and Y), which determines a person's biological sex. Females have two X chromosomes (46, XX), while males possess one X and one Y chromosome (46, XY). Chromosomes vary in size, with the largest being chromosome 1 and the smallest being the Y chromosome.

Human chromosomes are typically visualized during mitosis or meiosis using staining techniques that highlight their banding patterns, allowing for identification of specific regions and genes. Chromosomal abnormalities can lead to various genetic disorders, including Down syndrome (trisomy 21), Turner syndrome (monosomy X), and Klinefelter syndrome (XXY).

Characiformes is an order of ray-finned fish that includes around 2,000 species, such as characins, tetras, and hatchetfish. These fish are characterized by their small to medium size, streamlined bodies, and teeth that are arranged in a single row on the jaw bones. They are found primarily in freshwater environments in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, particularly in South America. Characiformes species vary widely in their ecology and behavior, with some living in schools and others being solitary predators. Some members of this order, such as the piranha, have a reputation for being aggressive feeders, while others are popular aquarium fish due to their vibrant colors and patterns.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pitheciidae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category used in biology, specifically in the classification of primates. Pitheciidae is the family that includes titis, sakis, and uakaris - small to medium-sized New World monkeys found in Central and South America. If you have any questions about biological terms or concepts, I'd be happy to try to help with those!

The X chromosome is one of the two types of sex-determining chromosomes in humans (the other being the Y chromosome). It's one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes that make up a person's genetic material. Females typically have two copies of the X chromosome (XX), while males usually have one X and one Y chromosome (XY).

The X chromosome contains hundreds of genes that are responsible for the production of various proteins, many of which are essential for normal bodily functions. Some of the critical roles of the X chromosome include:

1. Sex Determination: The presence or absence of the Y chromosome determines whether an individual is male or female. If there is no Y chromosome, the individual will typically develop as a female.
2. Genetic Disorders: Since females have two copies of the X chromosome, they are less likely to be affected by X-linked genetic disorders than males. Males, having only one X chromosome, will express any recessive X-linked traits they inherit.
3. Dosage Compensation: To compensate for the difference in gene dosage between males and females, a process called X-inactivation occurs during female embryonic development. One of the two X chromosomes is randomly inactivated in each cell, resulting in a single functional copy per cell.

The X chromosome plays a crucial role in human genetics and development, contributing to various traits and characteristics, including sex determination and dosage compensation.

Felidae is the biological family that includes all extant (living) members of the cat group, also known as felids. This family consists of big cats such as lions, tigers, and leopards, as well as small cats like domestic cats, cheetahs, and pumas. Felidae is part of the order Carnivora and is characterized by specialized adaptations for hunting and stalking prey, including retractile claws, sharp teeth, and flexible bodies. The family has a worldwide distribution, with species found in various habitats across all continents except Antarctica.

Cytogenetics is a branch of genetics that deals with the study of chromosomes and their structure, function, and abnormalities. It involves the examination of chromosome number and structure in the cells of an organism, usually through microscopic analysis of chromosomes prepared from cell cultures or tissue samples. Cytogenetic techniques can be used to identify chromosomal abnormalities associated with genetic disorders, cancer, and other diseases.

The process of cytogenetics typically involves staining the chromosomes to make them visible under a microscope, and then analyzing their number, size, shape, and banding pattern. Chromosomal abnormalities such as deletions, duplications, inversions, translocations, and aneuploidy (abnormal number of chromosomes) can be detected through cytogenetic analysis.

Cytogenetics is an important tool in medical genetics and has many clinical applications, including prenatal diagnosis, cancer diagnosis and monitoring, and identification of genetic disorders. Advances in molecular cytogenetic techniques, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), have improved the resolution and accuracy of chromosome analysis and expanded its clinical applications.

Viverridae is not a medical term, but a taxonomic family in the order Carnivora, which includes mammals that are primarily carnivores. This family includes various species of civets, genets, and linsangs, among others. These animals are mostly found in Africa and Asia, and they have diverse habits and diets, with some being more arboreal and insectivorous while others are terrestrial and carnivorous.

While Viverridae is not a medical term, understanding the classification of animals can be important in medicine, particularly in veterinary medicine and public health, as it helps to identify potential risks associated with different species and their interactions with humans and other animals.

Carnivora is an order of mammals that consists of animals whose primary diet consists of flesh. The term "Carnivora" comes from the Latin words "caro", meaning flesh, and "vorare", meaning to devour. This order includes a wide variety of species, ranging from large predators such as lions, tigers, and bears, to smaller animals such as weasels, otters, and raccoons.

While members of the Carnivora order are often referred to as "carnivores," it is important to note that not all members exclusively eat meat. Some species, such as raccoons and bears, have an omnivorous diet that includes both plants and animals. Additionally, some species within this order have evolved specialized adaptations for their specific diets, such as the elongated canines and carnassial teeth of felids (cats) and canids (dogs), which are adapted for tearing and shearing meat.

Overall, the medical definition of Carnivora refers to an order of mammals that have a diet primarily consisting of flesh, although not all members exclusively eat meat.

Metaphase is a phase in the cell division process (mitosis or meiosis) where the chromosomes align in the middle of the cell, also known as the metaphase plate or equatorial plane. During this stage, each chromosome consists of two sister chromatids attached to each other by a protein complex called the centromere. The spindle fibers from opposite poles of the cell attach to the centromeres of each chromosome, and through a process called congression, they align the chromosomes in the middle of the cell. This alignment allows for accurate segregation of genetic material during the subsequent anaphase stage.

A DNA probe is a single-stranded DNA molecule that contains a specific sequence of nucleotides, and is labeled with a detectable marker such as a radioisotope or a fluorescent dye. It is used in molecular biology to identify and locate a complementary sequence within a sample of DNA. The probe hybridizes (forms a stable double-stranded structure) with its complementary sequence through base pairing, allowing for the detection and analysis of the target DNA. This technique is widely used in various applications such as genetic testing, diagnosis of infectious diseases, and forensic science.

"Medicine in Art" is not a medical term per se, but rather a term used to describe the intersection and representation of medical themes, practices, or symbols in various art forms. It can include but is not limited to:

1. The depiction of medical scenes, practitioners, or patients in paintings, sculptures, or photographs.
2. The use of medical imagery such as X-rays, MRIs, or anatomical drawings in mixed media works.
3. The exploration of medical issues, diseases, or treatments in conceptual art.
4. The creation of art by artists with medical conditions, which can provide insight into their experiences.
5. The use of art therapy as a healing modality in medical settings.

This term is often used in the context of art history, visual culture, and medical humanities to analyze and understand the complex relationships between art, medicine, and society.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "paint" is not a medical term. In a general sense, paint is a substance that is applied as a protective or decorative coating to various surfaces. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like me to clarify, please let me know!

Sex chromosomes, often denoted as X and Y, are one of the 23 pairs of human chromosomes found in each cell of the body. Normally, females have two X chromosomes (46,XX), and males have one X and one Y chromosome (46,XY). The sex chromosomes play a significant role in determining the sex of an individual. They contain genes that contribute to physical differences between men and women. Any variations or abnormalities in the number or structure of these chromosomes can lead to various genetic disorders and conditions related to sexual development and reproduction.

Human chromosome pair 1 refers to the first pair of chromosomes in a set of 23 pairs found in the cells of the human body, excluding sex cells (sperm and eggs). Each cell in the human body, except for the gametes, contains 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs. These chromosomes are rod-shaped structures that contain genetic information in the form of DNA.

Chromosome pair 1 is the largest pair, making up about 8% of the total DNA in a cell. Each chromosome in the pair consists of two arms - a shorter p arm and a longer q arm - connected at a centromere. Chromosome 1 carries an estimated 2,000-2,500 genes, which are segments of DNA that contain instructions for making proteins or regulating gene expression.

Defects or mutations in the genes located on chromosome 1 can lead to various genetic disorders and diseases, such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A, Huntington's disease, and certain types of cancer.

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the DNA sequence or protein structure over time, driven by mechanisms such as mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection. It refers to the evolutionary study of changes in DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how these changes accumulate and lead to new species and diversity of life. Molecular evolution can be used to understand the history and relationships among different organisms, as well as the functional consequences of genetic changes.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Human chromosome pair 7 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each member of the pair is a single chromosome, and together they contain the genetic material that is inherited from both parents. They are identical in size, shape, and banding pattern and are therefore referred to as homologous chromosomes.

Chromosome 7 is one of the autosomal chromosomes, meaning it is not a sex chromosome (X or Y). It is composed of double-stranded DNA that contains approximately 159 million base pairs and around 1,200 genes. Chromosome 7 contains several important genes associated with human health and disease, including those involved in the development of certain types of cancer, such as colon cancer and lung cancer, as well as genetic disorders such as Williams-Beuren syndrome and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

Abnormalities in chromosome 7 have been linked to various genetic conditions, including deletions, duplications, translocations, and other structural changes. These abnormalities can lead to developmental delays, intellectual disabilities, physical abnormalities, and increased risk of certain types of cancer.

I am not aware of a specific medical definition for the term "art." In general, art refers to creative works that express or evoke emotions through meaning, symbolism, form, and/or color. This can include various forms such as visual arts (painting, sculpture, photography), performing arts (theater, music, dance), literary arts (poetry, novels), and more.

However, there is a field of study called medical humanities that explores the intersection between medicine and the humanities, including art. In this context, art can be used as a tool for healing, communication, reflection, and understanding in healthcare settings. For example, art therapy is a form of expressive therapy that uses creative activities like drawing, painting, or sculpting to help patients explore their emotions, improve their mental health, and enhance their well-being.

Therefore, while there may not be a specific medical definition for "art," it can have significant implications for healthcare and the human experience.

Bacterial chromosomes are typically circular, double-stranded DNA molecules that contain the genetic material of bacteria. Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA housed within a nucleus, bacterial chromosomes are located in the cytoplasm of the cell, often associated with the bacterial nucleoid.

Bacterial chromosomes can vary in size and structure among different species, but they typically contain all of the genetic information necessary for the survival and reproduction of the organism. They may also contain plasmids, which are smaller circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation.

One important feature of bacterial chromosomes is their ability to replicate rapidly, allowing bacteria to divide quickly and reproduce in large numbers. The replication of the bacterial chromosome begins at a specific origin point and proceeds in opposite directions until the entire chromosome has been copied. This process is tightly regulated and coordinated with cell division to ensure that each daughter cell receives a complete copy of the genetic material.

Overall, the study of bacterial chromosomes is an important area of research in microbiology, as understanding their structure and function can provide insights into bacterial genetics, evolution, and pathogenesis.

Chromosome segregation is the process that occurs during cell division (mitosis or meiosis) where replicated chromosomes are separated and distributed equally into two daughter cells. Each chromosome consists of two sister chromatids, which are identical copies of genetic material. During chromosome segregation, these sister chromatids are pulled apart by a structure called the mitotic spindle and moved to opposite poles of the cell. This ensures that each new cell receives one copy of each chromosome, preserving the correct number and composition of chromosomes in the organism.

Human chromosome pair 11 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each member of the pair is a single chromosome, and together they contain the genetic material that is inherited from both parents. They are located on the eleventh position in the standard karyotype, which is a visual representation of the 23 pairs of human chromosomes.

Chromosome 11 is one of the largest human chromosomes and contains an estimated 135 million base pairs. It contains approximately 1,400 genes that provide instructions for making proteins, as well as many non-coding RNA molecules that play a role in regulating gene expression.

Chromosome 11 is known to contain several important genes and genetic regions associated with various human diseases and conditions. For example, it contains the Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) gene, which is associated with kidney cancer in children, and the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene, which is associated with a genetic disorder that causes benign tumors to grow on nerves throughout the body. Additionally, chromosome 11 contains the region where the ABO blood group genes are located, which determine a person's blood type.

It's worth noting that human chromosomes come in pairs because they contain two copies of each gene, one inherited from the mother and one from the father. This redundancy allows for genetic diversity and provides a backup copy of essential genes, ensuring their proper function and maintaining the stability of the genome.

Human chromosome pair 17 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each human cell. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled around histone proteins, forming a complex called chromatin. Chromosomes carry genetic information in the form of genes, which are segments of DNA that contain instructions for the development and function of an organism.

Human cells typically have 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes. Pair 17 is one of the autosomal pairs, meaning it is not a sex chromosome (X or Y). Chromosome 17 is a medium-sized chromosome and contains an estimated 800 million base pairs of DNA. It contains approximately 1,500 genes that provide instructions for making proteins and regulating various cellular processes.

Chromosome 17 is associated with several genetic disorders, including inherited cancer syndromes such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Mutations in genes located on chromosome 17 can increase the risk of developing various types of cancer, including breast, ovarian, colon, and pancreatic cancer.

A chromosome deletion is a type of genetic abnormality that occurs when a portion of a chromosome is missing or deleted. Chromosomes are thread-like structures located in the nucleus of cells that contain our genetic material, which is organized into genes.

Chromosome deletions can occur spontaneously during the formation of reproductive cells (eggs or sperm) or can be inherited from a parent. They can affect any chromosome and can vary in size, from a small segment to a large portion of the chromosome.

The severity of the symptoms associated with a chromosome deletion depends on the size and location of the deleted segment. In some cases, the deletion may be so small that it does not cause any noticeable symptoms. However, larger deletions can lead to developmental delays, intellectual disabilities, physical abnormalities, and various medical conditions.

Chromosome deletions are typically detected through a genetic test called karyotyping, which involves analyzing the number and structure of an individual's chromosomes. Other more precise tests, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), may also be used to confirm the diagnosis and identify the specific location and size of the deletion.

Chromosomes in plants are thread-like structures that contain genetic material, DNA, and proteins. They are present in the nucleus of every cell and are inherited from the parent plants during sexual reproduction. Chromosomes come in pairs, with each pair consisting of one chromosome from each parent.

In plants, like in other organisms, chromosomes play a crucial role in inheritance, development, and reproduction. They carry genetic information that determines various traits and characteristics of the plant, such as its physical appearance, growth patterns, and resistance to diseases.

Plant chromosomes are typically much larger than those found in animals, making them easier to study under a microscope. The number of chromosomes varies among different plant species, ranging from as few as 2 in some ferns to over 1000 in certain varieties of wheat.

During cell division, the chromosomes replicate and then separate into two identical sets, ensuring that each new cell receives a complete set of genetic information. This process is critical for the growth and development of the plant, as well as for the production of viable seeds and offspring.

Human chromosome pair 6 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each human cell. They are identical in size and shape and contain genetic material, made up of DNA and proteins, that is essential for the development and function of the human body.

Chromosome pair 6 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes found in humans, with one chromosome inherited from each parent. Each chromosome contains thousands of genes that provide instructions for the production of proteins and regulate various cellular processes.

Chromosome pair 6 contains several important genes, including those involved in the development and function of the immune system, such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. It also contains genes associated with certain genetic disorders, such as hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), a condition that affects the nerves, and Waardenburg syndrome, a disorder that affects pigmentation and hearing.

Abnormalities in chromosome pair 6 can lead to various genetic disorders, including numerical abnormalities such as trisomy 6 (three copies of chromosome 6) or monosomy 6 (only one copy of chromosome 6), as well as structural abnormalities such as deletions, duplications, or translocations of parts of the chromosome.

Human chromosome pair 9 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell of the human body. Each member of the pair contains thousands of genes and other genetic material, encoded in the form of DNA molecules. The two chromosomes in a pair are identical or very similar to each other in terms of their size, shape, and genetic makeup.

Chromosome 9 is one of the autosomal chromosomes, meaning that it is not a sex chromosome (X or Y) and is present in two copies in all cells of the body, regardless of sex. Chromosome 9 is a medium-sized chromosome, and it is estimated to contain around 135 million base pairs of DNA and approximately 1200 genes.

Chromosome 9 contains several important genes that are associated with various human traits and diseases. For example, mutations in the gene that encodes the protein APOE on chromosome 9 have been linked to an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Additionally, variations in the gene that encodes the protein EGFR on chromosome 9 have been associated with an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer.

Overall, human chromosome pair 9 plays a critical role in the development and function of the human body, and variations in its genetic makeup can contribute to a wide range of traits and diseases.

Human chromosome pair 21 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each member of the pair is a single chromosome, and they are identical to each other. Chromosomes are made up of DNA, which contains genetic information that determines many of an individual's traits and characteristics.

Chromosome pair 21 is one of the 23 pairs of human autosomal chromosomes, meaning they are not sex chromosomes (X or Y). Chromosome pair 21 is the smallest of the human chromosomes, and it contains approximately 48 million base pairs of DNA. It contains around 200-300 genes that provide instructions for making proteins and regulating various cellular processes.

Down syndrome, a genetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability, developmental delays, distinct facial features, and sometimes heart defects, is caused by an extra copy of chromosome pair 21 or a part of it. This additional genetic material can lead to abnormalities in brain development and function, resulting in the characteristic symptoms of Down syndrome.

Human chromosome pair 13 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled around histone proteins, forming a complex structure called a chromatin.

Chromosomes carry genetic information in the form of genes, which are sequences of DNA that code for specific traits and functions. Human cells typically have 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes. Chromosome pair 13 is one of the autosomal pairs, meaning it is not a sex chromosome (X or Y).

Chromosome pair 13 contains several important genes that are associated with various genetic disorders, such as cri-du-chat syndrome and Phelan-McDermid syndrome. Cri-du-chat syndrome is caused by a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 13 (13p), resulting in distinctive cat-like crying sounds in infants, developmental delays, and intellectual disabilities. Phelan-McDermid syndrome is caused by a deletion or mutation of the terminal end of the long arm of chromosome 13 (13q), leading to developmental delays, intellectual disability, absent or delayed speech, and autistic behaviors.

It's important to note that while some genetic disorders are associated with specific chromosomal abnormalities, many factors can contribute to the development and expression of these conditions, including environmental influences and interactions between multiple genes.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Chromosomes in fungi are thread-like structures that contain genetic material, composed of DNA and proteins, present in the nucleus of a cell. Unlike humans and other eukaryotes that have a diploid number of chromosomes in their somatic cells, fungal chromosome numbers can vary widely between and within species.

Fungal chromosomes are typically smaller and fewer in number compared to those found in plants and animals. The chromosomal organization in fungi is also different from other eukaryotes. In many fungi, the chromosomes are condensed throughout the cell cycle, whereas in other eukaryotes, chromosomes are only condensed during cell division.

Fungi can have linear or circular chromosomes, depending on the species. For example, the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) has a set of 16 small circular chromosomes, while other fungi like Neurospora crassa (red bread mold) and Aspergillus nidulans (a filamentous fungus) have linear chromosomes.

Fungal chromosomes play an essential role in the growth, development, reproduction, and survival of fungi. They carry genetic information that determines various traits such as morphology, metabolism, pathogenicity, and resistance to environmental stresses. Advances in genomic technologies have facilitated the study of fungal chromosomes, leading to a better understanding of their structure, function, and evolution.

A genome is the complete set of genetic material (DNA, or in some viruses, RNA) present in a single cell of an organism. It includes all of the genes, both coding and noncoding, as well as other regulatory elements that together determine the unique characteristics of that organism. The human genome, for example, contains approximately 3 billion base pairs and about 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes.

The term "genome" was first coined by Hans Winkler in 1920, derived from the word "gene" and the suffix "-ome," which refers to a complete set of something. The study of genomes is known as genomics.

Understanding the genome can provide valuable insights into the genetic basis of diseases, evolution, and other biological processes. With advancements in sequencing technologies, it has become possible to determine the entire genomic sequence of many organisms, including humans, and use this information for various applications such as personalized medicine, gene therapy, and biotechnology.

Chromosomes are thread-like structures that contain genetic material, made up of DNA and proteins, in the nucleus of cells. In humans, there are typically 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs, with one member of each pair coming from each parent. The six pairs of chromosomes numbered 6 through 12, along with the X chromosome, are part of these 23 pairs and are referred to as autosomal chromosomes and a sex chromosome.

Human chromosome 6 is one of the autosomal chromosomes and contains an estimated 170 million base pairs and around 1,500 genes. It plays a role in several important functions, including immune response, cell signaling, and nervous system function.

Human chromosome 7 is another autosomal chromosome that contains approximately 159 million base pairs and around 1,200 genes. Chromosome 7 is best known for containing the gene for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, whose mutations can lead to cystic fibrosis.

Human chromosome 8 is an autosomal chromosome that contains around 146 million base pairs and approximately 900 genes. Chromosome 8 has been associated with several genetic disorders, including Smith-Magenis syndrome and 8p deletion syndrome.

Human chromosome 9 is an autosomal chromosome that contains around 139 million base pairs and approximately 950 genes. Chromosome 9 has been linked to several genetic disorders, including Hereditary Spherocytosis and CHARGE syndrome.

Human chromosome 10 is an autosomal chromosome that contains around 135 million base pairs and approximately 800 genes. Chromosome 10 has been associated with several genetic disorders, including Dyschondrosteosis and Melanoma.

Human chromosome 11 is an autosomal chromosome that contains around 135 million base pairs and approximately 800 genes. Chromosome 11 has been linked to several genetic disorders, including Wilms tumor and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

Human chromosome 12 is an autosomal chromosome that contains around 133 million base pairs and approximately 750 genes. Chromosome 12 has been associated with several genetic disorders, including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A and Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies (HNPP).

The X chromosome is one of the two sex chromosomes in humans. Females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y chromosome. The X chromosome contains around 155 million base pairs and approximately 1,000 genes. It has been linked to several genetic disorders, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Fragile X syndrome.

The Y chromosome is the other sex chromosome in humans. Males have one X and one Y chromosome, while females have two X chromosomes. The Y chromosome contains around 59 million base pairs and approximately 70 genes. It is primarily responsible for male sexual development and fertility.

In summary, the human genome consists of 23 pairs of chromosomes, including 22 autosomal pairs and one sex chromosome pair (XX in females and XY in males). The total length of the human genome is approximately 3 billion base pairs, and it contains around 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes. Chromosomes are made up of DNA and proteins called histones, which help to package the DNA into a compact structure. The chromosomes contain genetic information that is passed down from parents to their offspring through reproduction.

Human chromosome pair 12 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled around histone proteins, forming a complex structure called a chromatin.

Chromosomes come in pairs, with one chromosome inherited from each parent. In humans, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes in each cell. Chromosome pair 12 is the 12th pair of autosomal chromosomes, meaning they are not sex chromosomes (X or Y).

Chromosome 12 is a medium-sized chromosome and contains an estimated 130 million base pairs of DNA. It contains around 1,200 genes that provide instructions for making proteins and regulating various cellular processes. Some of the genes located on chromosome 12 include those involved in metabolism, development, and response to environmental stimuli.

Abnormalities in chromosome 12 can lead to genetic disorders, such as partial trisomy 12q, which is characterized by an extra copy of the long arm of chromosome 12, and Jacobsen syndrome, which is caused by a deletion of the distal end of the long arm of chromosome 12.

Chromosome disorders are a group of genetic conditions caused by abnormalities in the number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosomes are thread-like structures located in the nucleus of cells that contain most of the body's genetic material, which is composed of DNA and proteins. Normally, humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes.

Chromosome disorders can result from changes in the number of chromosomes (aneuploidy) or structural abnormalities in one or more chromosomes. Some common examples of chromosome disorders include:

1. Down syndrome: a condition caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21, resulting in intellectual disability, developmental delays, and distinctive physical features.
2. Turner syndrome: a condition that affects only females and is caused by the absence of all or part of one X chromosome, resulting in short stature, lack of sexual development, and other symptoms.
3. Klinefelter syndrome: a condition that affects only males and is caused by an extra copy of the X chromosome, resulting in tall stature, infertility, and other symptoms.
4. Cri-du-chat syndrome: a condition caused by a deletion of part of the short arm of chromosome 5, resulting in intellectual disability, developmental delays, and a distinctive cat-like cry.
5. Fragile X syndrome: a condition caused by a mutation in the FMR1 gene on the X chromosome, resulting in intellectual disability, behavioral problems, and physical symptoms.

Chromosome disorders can be diagnosed through various genetic tests, such as karyotyping, chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Treatment for these conditions depends on the specific disorder and its associated symptoms and may include medical interventions, therapies, and educational support.

Human chromosome pair 2 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell of the human body. Each member of the pair contains thousands of genes and other genetic material, encoded in the form of DNA molecules. Chromosomes are the physical carriers of inheritance, and human cells typically contain 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46 chromosomes.

Chromosome pair 2 is one of the autosomal pairs, meaning that it is not a sex chromosome (X or Y). Each member of chromosome pair 2 is approximately 247 million base pairs in length and contains an estimated 1,000-1,300 genes. These genes play crucial roles in various biological processes, including development, metabolism, and response to environmental stimuli.

Abnormalities in chromosome pair 2 can lead to genetic disorders, such as cat-eye syndrome (CES), which is characterized by iris abnormalities, anal atresia, hearing loss, and intellectual disability. This disorder arises from the presence of an extra copy of a small region on chromosome 2, resulting in partial trisomy of this region. Other genetic conditions associated with chromosome pair 2 include proximal 2q13.3 microdeletion syndrome and Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS).

Human chromosome pair 16 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled around histone proteins, forming a complex structure called a chromatin.

Chromosomes come in pairs, with one chromosome inherited from each parent. Chromosome pair 16 contains two homologous chromosomes, which are similar in size, shape, and genetic content but may have slight variations due to differences in the DNA sequences inherited from each parent.

Chromosome pair 16 is one of the 22 autosomal pairs, meaning it contains non-sex chromosomes that are present in both males and females. Chromosome 16 is a medium-sized chromosome, and it contains around 2,800 genes that provide instructions for making proteins and regulating various cellular processes.

Abnormalities in chromosome pair 16 can lead to genetic disorders such as chronic myeloid leukemia, some forms of mental retardation, and other developmental abnormalities.

Human chromosome pair 22 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled around histone proteins, forming a complex structure called a chromatin.

Chromosome pair 22 is one of the 22 autosomal pairs of human chromosomes, meaning they are not sex chromosomes (X or Y). Chromosome 22 is the second smallest human chromosome, with each arm of the chromosome designated as p and q. The short arm is labeled "p," and the long arm is labeled "q."

Chromosome 22 contains several genes that are associated with various genetic disorders, including DiGeorge syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome, and cat-eye syndrome, which result from deletions or duplications of specific regions on the chromosome. Additionally, chromosome 22 is the location of the NRXN1 gene, which has been associated with an increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia when deleted or disrupted.

Understanding the genetic makeup of human chromosome pair 22 can provide valuable insights into human genetics, evolution, and disease susceptibility, as well as inform medical diagnoses, treatments, and research.

Chromosome pairing, also known as chromosome synapsis, is a process that occurs during meiosis, which is the type of cell division that results in the formation of sex cells or gametes (sperm and eggs).

In humans, each cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes. Of these, 22 pairs are called autosomal chromosomes, and they are similar in size and shape between the two copies in a pair. The last pair is called the sex chromosomes (X and Y), which determine the individual's biological sex.

During meiosis, homologous chromosomes (one from each parent) come together and pair up along their lengths in a process called synapsis. This pairing allows for the precise alignment of corresponding genes and genetic regions between the two homologous chromosomes. Once paired, the chromosomes exchange genetic material through a process called crossing over, which increases genetic diversity in the resulting gametes.

After crossing over, the homologous chromosomes separate during meiosis I, followed by the separation of sister chromatids (the two copies of each chromosome) during meiosis II. The end result is four haploid cells, each containing 23 chromosomes, which then develop into sperm or eggs.

Chromosome pairing is a crucial step in the process of sexual reproduction, ensuring that genetic information is accurately passed from one generation to the next while also promoting genetic diversity through recombination and independent assortment of chromosomes.

Artificial bacterial chromosomes (ABCs) are synthetic replicons that are designed to function like natural bacterial chromosomes. They are created through the use of molecular biology techniques, such as recombination and cloning, to construct large DNA molecules that can stably replicate and segregate within a host bacterium.

ABCs are typically much larger than traditional plasmids, which are smaller circular DNA molecules that can also replicate in bacteria but have a limited capacity for carrying genetic information. ABCs can accommodate large DNA inserts, making them useful tools for cloning and studying large genes, gene clusters, or even entire genomes of other organisms.

There are several types of ABCs, including bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), P1-derived artificial chromosomes (PACs), and yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs). BACs are the most commonly used type of ABC and can accommodate inserts up to 300 kilobases (kb) in size. They have been widely used in genome sequencing projects, functional genomics studies, and protein production.

Overall, artificial bacterial chromosomes provide a powerful tool for manipulating and studying large DNA molecules in a controlled and stable manner within bacterial hosts.

Human chromosome pair 5 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of human cells, which contain genetic material in the form of DNA and proteins. Each member of chromosome pair 5 is a single chromosome, and humans typically have 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46 chromosomes in every cell of their body (except gametes or sex cells, which contain 23 chromosomes).

Chromosome pair 5 is one of the autosomal pairs, meaning it is not a sex chromosome. Each member of chromosome pair 5 is approximately 197 million base pairs in length and contains around 800-900 genes that provide instructions for making proteins and regulating various cellular processes.

Chromosome pair 5 is associated with several genetic disorders, including cri du chat syndrome (resulting from a deletion on the short arm of chromosome 5), Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome (both resulting from abnormalities in gene expression on the long arm of chromosome 5).

Human chromosome pair 4 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each member of the pair is a single chromosome, and they are identical or very similar in length and gene content. Chromosomes are made up of DNA, which contains genetic information, and proteins that package and organize the DNA.

Human chromosomes are numbered from 1 to 22, with chromosome pair 4 being one of the autosomal pairs, meaning it is not a sex chromosome (X or Y). Chromosome pair 4 is a medium-sized pair and contains an estimated 1,800-2,000 genes. These genes provide instructions for making proteins that are essential for various functions in the body, such as development, growth, and metabolism.

Abnormalities in chromosome pair 4 can lead to genetic disorders, including Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, which is caused by a deletion of part of the short arm of chromosome 4, and 4p16.3 microdeletion syndrome, which is caused by a deletion of a specific region on the short arm of chromosome 4. These conditions can result in developmental delays, intellectual disability, physical abnormalities, and other health problems.

Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that is an essential part of the immune system. They are responsible for recognizing and responding to potentially harmful substances such as viruses, bacteria, and other foreign invaders. There are two main types of lymphocytes: B-lymphocytes (B-cells) and T-lymphocytes (T-cells).

B-lymphocytes produce antibodies, which are proteins that help to neutralize or destroy foreign substances. When a B-cell encounters a foreign substance, it becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies. These antibodies bind to the foreign substance, marking it for destruction by other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes, on the other hand, are involved in cell-mediated immunity. They directly attack and destroy infected cells or cancerous cells. T-cells can also help to regulate the immune response by producing chemical signals that activate or inhibit other immune cells.

Lymphocytes are produced in the bone marrow and mature in either the bone marrow (B-cells) or the thymus gland (T-cells). They circulate throughout the body in the blood and lymphatic system, where they can be found in high concentrations in lymph nodes, the spleen, and other lymphoid organs.

Abnormalities in the number or function of lymphocytes can lead to a variety of immune-related disorders, including immunodeficiency diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer.

Human chromosome pair 10 refers to a group of genetic materials that are present in every cell of the human body. Chromosomes are thread-like structures that carry our genes and are located in the nucleus of most cells. They come in pairs, with one set inherited from each parent.

Chromosome pair 10 is one of the 22 autosomal chromosome pairs, meaning they contain genes that are not related to sex determination. Each member of chromosome pair 10 is a single, long DNA molecule that contains thousands of genes and other genetic material.

Chromosome pair 10 is responsible for carrying genetic information that influences various traits and functions in the human body. Some of the genes located on chromosome pair 10 are associated with certain medical conditions, such as hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1, and Waardenburg syndrome type 2A.

It's important to note that while chromosomes carry genetic information, not all variations in the DNA sequence will result in a change in phenotype or function. Some variations may have no effect at all, while others may lead to changes in how proteins are made and function, potentially leading to disease or other health issues.

Human Y chromosomes are one of the two sex-determining chromosomes in humans (the other being the X chromosome). They are found in the 23rd pair of human chromosomes and are significantly smaller than the X chromosome.

The Y chromosome is passed down from father to son through the paternal line, and it plays a crucial role in male sex determination. The SRY gene (sex-determining region Y) on the Y chromosome initiates the development of male sexual characteristics during embryonic development.

In addition to the SRY gene, the human Y chromosome contains several other genes that are essential for sperm production and male fertility. However, the Y chromosome has a much lower gene density compared to other chromosomes, with only about 80 protein-coding genes, making it one of the most gene-poor chromosomes in the human genome.

Because of its small size and low gene density, the Y chromosome is particularly susceptible to genetic mutations and deletions, which can lead to various genetic disorders and male infertility. Nonetheless, the Y chromosome remains a critical component of human genetics and evolution, providing valuable insights into sex determination, inheritance patterns, and human diversity.

Human chromosome pair 8 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell of the human body. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled around histone proteins, forming a complex structure known as a chromatin.

Human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes. Pair 8 is one of the autosomal pairs, meaning that it is not a sex chromosome (X or Y). Each member of chromosome pair 8 has a similar size, shape, and banding pattern, and they are identical in males and females.

Chromosome pair 8 contains several genes that are essential for various cellular functions and human development. Some of the genes located on chromosome pair 8 include those involved in the regulation of metabolism, nerve function, immune response, and cell growth and division.

Abnormalities in chromosome pair 8 can lead to genetic disorders such as Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, which is caused by a partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4, or partial trisomy 8, which results from an extra copy of all or part of chromosome 8. Both of these conditions are associated with developmental delays, intellectual disability, and various physical abnormalities.

Human chromosome pair 19 refers to a group of 19 identical chromosomes that are present in every cell of the human body, except for the sperm and egg cells which contain only 23 chromosomes. Chromosomes are thread-like structures that carry genetic information in the form of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules.

Each chromosome is made up of two arms, a shorter p arm and a longer q arm, separated by a centromere. Human chromosome pair 19 is an acrocentric chromosome, which means that the centromere is located very close to the end of the short arm (p arm).

Chromosome pair 19 contains approximately 58 million base pairs of DNA and encodes for around 1,400 genes. It is one of the most gene-dense chromosomes in the human genome, with many genes involved in important biological processes such as metabolism, immunity, and neurological function.

Abnormalities in chromosome pair 19 have been associated with various genetic disorders, including Sotos syndrome, which is characterized by overgrowth, developmental delay, and distinctive facial features, and Smith-Magenis syndrome, which is marked by intellectual disability, behavioral problems, and distinct physical features.

Chromosome breakage is a medical term that refers to the breaking or fragmentation of chromosomes, which are thread-like structures located in the nucleus of cells that carry genetic information. Normally, chromosomes are tightly coiled and consist of two strands called chromatids, joined together at a central point called the centromere.

Chromosome breakage can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as radiation or chemicals, or inherited genetic disorders. When a chromosome breaks, it can result in various genetic abnormalities, depending on the location and severity of the break.

For instance, if the break occurs in a region containing important genes, it can lead to the loss or alteration of those genes, causing genetic diseases or birth defects. In some cases, the broken ends of the chromosome may rejoin incorrectly, leading to chromosomal rearrangements such as translocations, deletions, or inversions. These rearrangements can also result in genetic disorders or cancer.

Chromosome breakage is commonly observed in individuals with certain inherited genetic conditions, such as Bloom syndrome, Fanconi anemia, and ataxia-telangiectasia, which are characterized by an increased susceptibility to chromosome breakage due to defects in DNA repair mechanisms.

A chromosome is a thread-like structure that contains genetic material, made up of DNA and proteins, in the nucleus of a cell. In humans, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes, in each cell of the body, with the exception of the sperm and egg cells which contain only 23 chromosomes.

The X chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes in humans. Females typically have two X chromosomes (XX), while males have one X and one Y chromosome (XY). The X chromosome contains hundreds of genes that are responsible for various functions in the body, including some related to sexual development and reproduction.

Humans inherit one X chromosome from their mother and either an X or a Y chromosome from their father. In females, one of the two X chromosomes is randomly inactivated during embryonic development, resulting in each cell having only one active X chromosome. This process, known as X-inactivation, helps to ensure that females have roughly equal levels of gene expression from the X chromosome, despite having two copies.

Abnormalities in the number or structure of the X chromosome can lead to various genetic disorders, such as Turner syndrome (X0), Klinefelter syndrome (XXY), and fragile X syndrome (an X-linked disorder caused by a mutation in the FMR1 gene).

Human chromosomes are the thread-like structures located in the nucleus of human cells, which carry genetic information in the form of DNA. Humans have a total of 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs. The first 22 pairs are called autosomes, and the last pair are the sex chromosomes, X and Y.

Chromosomes 1-3 are the largest human chromosomes, and they contain a significant portion of the human genome. Here is a brief overview of each:

1. Chromosome 1: This is the largest human chromosome, spanning about 8% of the human genome. It contains approximately 2,800 genes that are responsible for various functions such as cell growth and division, nerve function, and response to stimuli.
2. Chromosome 2: The second largest human chromosome, spanning about 7% of the human genome. It contains approximately 2,300 genes that are involved in various functions such as metabolism, development, and immune response.
3. Chromosome 3: This is the third largest human chromosome, spanning about 6% of the human genome. It contains approximately 1,900 genes that are responsible for various functions such as DNA repair, cell signaling, and response to stress.

It's worth noting that while these chromosomes contain a large number of genes, they also have significant amounts of non-coding DNA, which means that not all of the genetic material on these chromosomes is responsible for encoding proteins or other functional elements.

Human chromosome pair 15 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled around histone proteins, forming a complex structure called a chromatin.

Chromosomes come in pairs, with one chromosome inherited from each parent. Chromosome pair 15 includes two homologous chromosomes, meaning they have the same size, shape, and gene content but may contain slight variations in their DNA sequences.

These chromosomes play a crucial role in inheritance and the development and function of the human body. Chromosome pair 15 contains around 100 million base pairs of DNA and approximately 700 protein-coding genes, which are involved in various biological processes such as growth, development, metabolism, and regulation of gene expression.

Abnormalities in chromosome pair 15 can lead to genetic disorders, including Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome, which are caused by the loss or alteration of specific regions on chromosome 15.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "humanities" is not typically used in a medical context as it relates to fields such as literature, philosophy, arts, and languages. The humanities are academic disciplines that study human culture, including language, history, philosophy, and the creation of art. They provide valuable insights into human nature, behavior, and experience, which can certainly have applications in various fields, including healthcare. However, a specific medical definition of "humanities" would not be applicable.

Human chromosome pair 14 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of human cells, which contain genetic material in the form of DNA and proteins. Each member of the pair contains a single very long DNA molecule that carries an identical set of genes and other genetic elements, totaling approximately 105 million base pairs. These chromosomes play a crucial role in the development, functioning, and reproduction of human beings.

Chromosome 14 is one of the autosomal chromosomes, meaning it is not involved in determining the sex of an individual. It contains around 800-1,000 genes that provide instructions for producing various proteins responsible for numerous cellular functions and processes. Some notable genes located on chromosome 14 include those associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, cancer susceptibility, and immune system regulation.

Human cells typically have 23 pairs of chromosomes, including 22 autosomal pairs (numbered 1-22) and one pair of sex chromosomes (XX for females or XY for males). Chromosome pair 14 is the eighth largest autosomal pair in terms of its total length.

It's important to note that genetic information on chromosome 14, like all human chromosomes, can vary between individuals due to genetic variations and mutations. These differences contribute to the unique characteristics and traits found among humans.

Human chromosome pair 18 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell of the human body. Chromosomes are made up of DNA, protein, and RNA, and they carry genetic information that determines an individual's physical characteristics, biochemical processes, and susceptibility to disease.

Chromosome pair 18 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes that make up the human genome. Each member of chromosome pair 18 has a length of about 75 million base pairs and contains around 600 genes. Chromosome pair 18 is also known as the "smart chromosome" because it contains many genes involved in brain development, function, and cognition.

Abnormalities in chromosome pair 18 can lead to genetic disorders such as Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18), in which there is an extra copy of chromosome 18, or deletion of a portion of the chromosome, leading to various developmental and cognitive impairments.

Chromosomes are thread-like structures located in the nucleus of cells that contain most of the DNA present in cells. They come in pairs, with one set inherited from each parent. In humans, there are typically 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes.

Chromosomes 16-18 refer to the specific chromosomes that make up the 16th and 17th pairs in human cells. Chromosome 16 is an acrocentric chromosome, meaning it has a short arm (p arm) and a long arm (q arm), with the centromere located near the middle of the chromosome. It contains around 115 million base pairs of DNA and encodes approximately 1,100 genes.

Chromosome 17 is a metacentric chromosome, meaning it has a centromere located in the middle, dividing the chromosome into two arms of equal length. It contains around 81 million base pairs of DNA and encodes approximately 1,300 genes.

Chromosome 18 is a small acrocentric chromosome with a short arm (p arm) and a long arm (q arm), with the centromere located near the end of the short arm. It contains around 76 million base pairs of DNA and encodes approximately 1,200 genes.

Abnormalities in these chromosomes can lead to various genetic disorders, such as Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18), Patau syndrome (trisomy 13), and some forms of Down syndrome (translocation between chromosomes 14 and 21).

Human chromosome pair 20 is one of the 23 pairs of human chromosomes present in every cell of the body, except for the sperm and egg cells which contain only 23 individual chromosomes. Chromosomes are thread-like structures that carry genetic information in the form of genes.

Human chromosome pair 20 is an acrocentric chromosome, meaning it has a short arm (p arm) and a long arm (q arm), with the centromere located near the junction of the two arms. The short arm of chromosome 20 is very small and contains few genes, while the long arm contains several hundred genes that play important roles in various biological processes.

Chromosome pair 20 is associated with several genetic disorders, including DiGeorge syndrome, which is caused by a deletion of a portion of the long arm of chromosome 20. This syndrome is characterized by birth defects affecting the heart, face, and immune system. Other conditions associated with abnormalities of chromosome pair 20 include some forms of intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, and cancer.

Artificial chromosomes, yeast are synthetic chromosomes that have been created in the laboratory and can function in yeast cells. They are made up of DNA sequences that have been chemically synthesized or engineered from existing yeast chromosomes. These artificial chromosomes can be used to introduce new genes or modify existing ones in yeast, allowing for the study of gene function and genetic interactions in a controlled manner.

The creation of artificial chromosomes in yeast has been an important tool in biotechnology and synthetic biology, enabling the development of novel industrial processes and the engineering of yeast strains with enhanced properties for various applications, such as biofuel production or the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. Additionally, the study of artificial chromosomes in yeast has provided valuable insights into the fundamental principles of genome organization, replication, and inheritance.

A chromosome inversion is a genetic rearrangement where a segment of a chromosome has been reversed end to end, so that its order of genes is opposite to the original. This means that the gene sequence on the segment of the chromosome has been inverted.

In an inversion, the chromosome breaks in two places, and the segment between the breaks rotates 180 degrees before reattaching. This results in a portion of the chromosome being inverted, or turned upside down, relative to the rest of the chromosome.

Chromosome inversions can be either paracentric or pericentric. Paracentric inversions involve a segment that does not include the centromere (the central constriction point of the chromosome), while pericentric inversions involve a segment that includes the centromere.

Inversions can have various effects on an individual's phenotype, depending on whether the inversion involves genes and if so, how those genes are affected by the inversion. In some cases, inversions may have no noticeable effect, while in others they may cause genetic disorders or predispose an individual to certain health conditions.

Human chromosomes 13-15 are part of a set of 23 pairs of chromosomes found in the cells of the human body. Chromosomes are thread-like structures that contain genetic material, or DNA, that is inherited from each parent. They are responsible for the development and function of all the body's organs and systems.

Chromosome 13 is a medium-sized chromosome and contains an estimated 114 million base pairs of DNA. It is associated with several genetic disorders, including cri du chat syndrome, which is caused by a deletion on the short arm of the chromosome. Chromosome 13 also contains several important genes, such as those involved in the production of enzymes and proteins that help regulate growth and development.

Chromosome 14 is a medium-sized chromosome and contains an estimated 107 million base pairs of DNA. It is known to contain many genes that are important for the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, as well as genes involved in the production of immune system proteins. Chromosome 14 is also associated with a number of genetic disorders, including Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, which is caused by a deletion on the short arm of the chromosome.

Chromosome 15 is a medium-sized chromosome and contains an estimated 102 million base pairs of DNA. It is associated with several genetic disorders, including Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome, which are caused by abnormalities in the expression of genes on the chromosome. Chromosome 15 also contains important genes involved in the regulation of growth and development, as well as genes that play a role in the production of neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers of the brain.

It is worth noting that while chromosomes 13-15 are important for normal human development and function, abnormalities in these chromosomes can lead to a variety of genetic disorders and developmental issues.

"Chromosome painting using repetitive DNA sequences as probes for somatic chromosome identification in maize". Proceedings of ... Chromosomes can also be fused artificially. For example, the 16 chromosomes of yeast have been fused into one giant chromosome ... Chromosomes in humans can be divided into two types: autosomes (body chromosome(s)) and allosome (sex chromosome(s)). Certain ... red panda and five mustelid species revealed by comparative chromosome painting and G-banding". Chromosome Research. 10 (3): ...
2008). "Chromosome painting shows that skunks (Mephitidae, Carnivora) have highly rearranged karyotypes". Chromosome Research. ... "Comparative chromosome painting between two marsupials: origins of an XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system". Mammalian Genome. 8 (6 ... "Comparative chromosome painting of chicken autosomal paints 1-9 in nine different bird species". Cytogenetic and Genome ... revealed by cross-species chromosome painting with Chinese muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi) and human (Homo sapiens) paints". ...
Chromosome painting is currently the main experimental technique. Recently, researchers have developed computational methods to ... Watterson GA, Ewens WJ, Hall TE, Morgan A (1982). "The chromosome inversion problem". Journal of Theoretical Biology. 99 (1): 1 ... Sturtevant AH, Dobzhansky T (July 1936). "Inversions in the Third Chromosome of Wild Races of Drosophila Pseudoobscura, and ... Dobzhansky T, Sturtevant AH (January 1938). "Inversions in the Chromosomes of Drosophila Pseudoobscura". Genetics. 23 (1): 28- ...
"Chromosome painting in the manatee supports Afrotheria and Paenungulata". Evolutionary Biology. 7: 6. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-6 ...
"Chromosome painting in the manatee supports Afrotheria and Paenungulata". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 7 (6): 6. doi:10.1186/1471- ...
Fauth E, Zankl H (April 1999). "Comparison of spontaneous and idoxuridine-induced micronuclei by chromosome painting". Mutation ...
"Chromosome painting in Tragulidae facilitates the reconstruction of Ruminantia ancestral karyotype". Chromosome Research. 19 (4 ...
"Phylogenomic study of spiral-horned antelope by cross-species chromosome painting". Chromosome Research. 16 (7): 935-947. doi: ... It was found that chromosomes involved in centric fusions in these species used a complete set of cattle painting probes ... The eland have 31 male chromosomes and 32 female chromosomes. In a 2008 phylogenomic study of spiral-horned antelopes, ... The study confirmed the presence of the chromosome translocation known as Robertsonian translocation (1;29), a widespread ...
"Phylogenomic study of spiral-horned antelope by cross-species chromosome painting". Chromosome Research. 16 (7): 935-47. doi: ... The nyala has 55 male chromosomes and 56 female chromosomes. The Y chromosome has been translocated onto the 14th chromosome, ... as in other tragelaphids, but no inversion of the Y chromosome occurs. Cranial studies have shown that the mountain nyala and ...
"Painting a specific chromosome with CRISPR/Cas9 for live-cell imaging". Cell Res. 27 (2): 298-301. doi:10.1038/cr.2017.9. PMC ... "Noninvasive chromosome screening of human embryos by genome sequencing of embryo culture medium for in vitro fertilization". ... Chromosome structure and dynamics, and Genomic instability; Technological: Single-molecule imaging, Single-cell genomics, ... "Live births after simultaneous avoidance of monogenic diseases and chromosome abnormality by next-generation sequencing with ...
"Phylogenomic study of spiral-horned antelope by cross-species chromosome painting". Chromosome Research. 16 (7): 935-947. doi: ... It was found that chromosomes involved in centric fusions in these species used a complete set of cattle painting probes ... The giant eland has 31 male chromosomes and 32 female chromosomes. In a 2008 phylogenomic study of spiral-horned antelopes, ... The study confirmed the presence of the chromosome translocation known as Robertsonian translocation (1;29), a widespread ...
"Chromosomal Homologies among Vampire Bats Revealed by Chromosome Painting (Phyllostomidae, Chiroptera)". Lubbock, Texas: Texas ... It was originally described to have a diploid karyotype of 28 chromosomes, but it actually has 32. It is sanguivorous, feeding ...
"Comparative Chromosome Painting in Two Brazilian Stork Species with Different Diploid Numbers". Cytogenetic and Genome Research ...
... have highly conserved karyotypes as revealed by chromosome painting". Cytogenetic and Genome Research. 127 (2-4): 224-231. doi: ... Despite making up 15% of reptiles, skinks have a relatively conserved chromosome number, between 11 and 16 pairs. Skink genomes ... Kostmann, Alexander; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Rovatsos, Michail (2021-01-27). "Poorly differentiated XX/XY sex chromosomes are widely ... Despite having sex chromosomes that are not distinguishable with a microscope, all major skink lineages share an old XY system ...
... whole chromosomes of one species to metaphase chromosomes of another species. Comparative chromosome painting allows a rapid ... "Cytogenetic Analysis by Chromosome Painting Using Dop-Pcr Amplified Flow-Sorted Chromosomes". Gene Chromosome Canc. 4 (3): 257- ... microdissection of chromosomes and chromosome regions was also used to obtain probes for chromosome painting. Best results were ... Total human chromosomes or their arms can efficiently paint extended chromosome regions in many placentals down to Afrotheria ...
"Chromosome painting refines the history of genome evolution in hares and rabbits (order Lagomorpha)". Cytogenetic and Genome ...
"Comparative chromosome painting between two marsupials: origins of an XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system". Mamm Genome. 8 (6): 418- ... but males have one X chromosome and two non-sequence homology Y chromosomes. This system is thought to arise from a series of ... The swamp wallaby is notable for having a distinct sex-chromosome system from most other Theria (the subclass that includes ...
Robinson, T. J.; Yang, F.; Harrison, W. R. (2002). "Chromosome painting refines the history of genome evolution in hares and ... The Pronolagus chromosomes have undergone four fusions and one fission from the Lagomorpha ancestral state (2n=48), which ... All species in this genus have 21 pairs of chromosomes (2n = 42). The karotype for P. rupestris has been published. ... Robinson, T. J. (1980). "Comparative chromosome studies in the family Leporidae (Lagomorpha, Mammalia)". Cytogenetics and Cell ...
... using chromosome painting and G-banding". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 8: 169. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-169. PMC 2435554. PMID ...
... using chromosome painting and G-banding". BMC Evol. Biol. 8: 169. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-169. PMC 2435554. PMID 18534011. ...
... using chromosome painting and G-banding". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 8: 169. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-169. PMC 2435554. PMID ... The wedge-capped capuchin has a diploid chromosome number of 52, though some others in the genus have 54 chromosomes. Nine ... human chromosomes correspond to those of the C. olivaceus. Phylogenetic analysis and constructions of cladograms have ...
Robinson, T.; Yang, F.; Harrison, W. (2002). "Chromosome painting refines the history of genome evolution in hares and rabbits ... Morelle, Rebecca (4 June 2013). "Rediscovered hula painted frog 'is a living fossil'". BBC News. Retrieved 4 June 2013. Look up ... Bomfleur B, McLoughlin S, Vajda V (March 2014). "Fossilized nuclei and chromosomes reveal 180 million years of genomic stasis ... Hula painted frog (Latonia nigriventer) Purple frog (Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis) Jawless fish Hagfish (Myxinidae) family ...
"Comparative chromosome painting of four Siberian Vespertilionidae species with Aselliscus stoliczkanus and Human probes". ... Family Vespertilionidae subfamily Kerivoulinae genus Kerivoula - painted bats genus Phoniscus subfamily Myotinae genus ...
Meller V; Wu K; Roman G.; Kuroda M; Davis R (1997). "roX1 RNA paints the X chromosome of male Drosophila and is regulated by ... As males only contain one X chromosome, male flies dosage compensate for the X chromosome by hyper-transcribing the X ... It was also shown that in the presence of mutant roX RNA the MSL complex was unable to localize on the X chromosome and ... This is achieved by the MSL complex binding to the X chromosome and inducing histone H4 lysine 16 acetylation and allows for ...
"Chromosome Painting in Three Species of Buteoninae: A Cytogenetic Signature Reinforces the Monophyly of South American Species ...
Chromosome Painting: Principles, Strategies and Scope, Chromosome Techniques: Theory and Practice, Chromosome Techniques - A ... ISBN 978-1-57808-413-5. Arun Kumar Sharma; Archana Sharma (27 June 2011). Chromosome Painting: Principles, Strategies and Scope ... Arun Kumar Sharma; Archana Sharma (27 June 2011). Chromosome Painting: Principles, Strategies and Scope. Springer Science & ... Considered by many as the father of Indian cytology, he headed the Centre for Advanced Study on Cell and Chromosome at the ...
... revealed by chromosome painting". The Nucleus. 65 (2): 233-237. doi:10.1007/s13237-021-00381-0. ISSN 0976-7975. S2CID 244740122 ...
"Comparative chromosome painting defines the karyotypic relationships among the domestic dog, Chinese raccoon dog and Japanese ... Wada, Masayasu; Tamaki Suzuki; Kimiyuki Tsuchiya (1998). "Re-examination of the chromosome homology between two subspecies of ... raccoon dog". Chromosome Research. 11 (8): 735-740. doi:10.1023/B:CHRO.0000005760.03266.29. PMID 14712859. S2CID 44979180. " ...
He is also known for his lab's contributions to maize karyotyping by "chromosome painting" or fluorescence in situ ... Yu, Weichang; Yau, Yuan-Yeu; Birchler, James A. (2015-09-15). "Plant artificial chromosome technology and its potential ... he moved to Indiana University where he studied maize dosage effects using B chromosomes with Drew Schwartz, graduating in 1977 ... by using telomere repeat sequences to truncate B chromosomes in maize. James A. Birchler also developed Fast-Flowering Mini- ...
2007). "Cross-species chromosome painting among camel, cattle, pig and human: further insights into the putative ... The Y is a small metacentric chromosome, while the X is a large metacentric chromosome. The hybrid camel, a hybrid between ... A 2007 study flow sorted camel chromosomes, building on the fact that camels have 37 pairs of chromosomes (2n=74), and found ... The chromosomes of two male Camelidae: Camelus bactrianus and Lama vicugna". Acta Zoologica et Pathologica Antverpiensia. 52: ...
"Chromosome painting using repetitive DNA sequences as probes for somatic chromosome identification in maize". Proceedings of ... Chromosomes can also be fused artificially. For example, the 16 chromosomes of yeast have been fused into one giant chromosome ... Chromosomes in humans can be divided into two types: autosomes (body chromosome(s)) and allosome (sex chromosome(s)). Certain ... red panda and five mustelid species revealed by comparative chromosome painting and G-banding". Chromosome Research. 10 (3): ...
Chromosome painting in cultivated bananas and their wild relatives (Musa spp.) reveals differences in chromosome structure - ... Chromosome painting in cultivated bananas and their wild relatives (Musa spp.) reveals differences in chromosome structure. ... Chromosome painting in cultivated bananas and their wild relatives (Musa spp.) reveals differences in chromosome structure. ... Keywords : Chromosome translocation * Fluorescence in situ hybridization * Karyotype evolution * Oligo painting FISH * ...
... SGURA, Antonella;STRONATI ... 2005). Use of chromosome painting for detecting stable chromosome aberrations induced by melphalan in mice. ENVIRONMENTAL AND ... 2005). Use of chromosome painting for detecting stable chromosome aberrations induced by melphalan in mice. ENVIRONMENTAL AND ... The results indicate that chromosome painting is a useful tool for detecting stable chromosome aberrations in somatic cells ...
Structural chromosome rearrangements involving translocations, fusions and fissions lead to evolutionary variation between ... Structural chromosome rearrangements involving translocations, fusions and fissions lead to evolutionary variation between ... which painted 14 chromosomes out of 28, designating the A genome (Figure 2). Chromosomes that were not painted by pAs120 were ... AF226603 painted 14 chromosomes out of 28 while Ast-T116 showed dispersed signals along the remaining 14 chromosomes, proving ...
The pattern of X-Y chromosome pairing in male meiosis is an important taxonomic feature of grey voles of the genus Microtus. ... Male mouse recombination maps for each autosome identified by chromosome painting. Am J Hum Genet 71:1353-1368 (2002). ... X-Y Chromosome Synapsis and Recombination in 3 Vole Species of Asian Lineage of the Genus Microtus (Rodentia: Arvicolinae) ... We analyzed sex chromosome pairing and recombination in M. maximowiczii, M. mujanensis and M. fortis which also belong to the ...
... marked the beginning of a new era for the study of chromosome structure and function. ... XIST RNA paints the inactive X chromosome at interphase: evidence for a novel RNA involved in nuclear/chromosome structure. J. ... Reverse chromosome painting: a method for the rapid analysis of aberrant chromosomes in clinical cytogenetics. J. Med. Genet. ... Complete characterization of a large marker chromosome by reverse and forward chromosome painting. Hum. Genet. 90:371-374.. ...
Categories: Chromosome Painting Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
It is a personal account influenced by a fascination with chromosomes that has drawn him into many studies, including sex ... Cytogenetic analysis by chromosome painting using DOP-PCR amplified flow-sorted chromosomes. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 4:257-63 ... Cytogenetic analysis by chromosome painting using DOP-PCR amplified flow-sorted chromosomes. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 4:257-63 ... Comparative chromosome map of the laboratory mouse and Chinese hamster defined by reciprocal chromosome painting. Chromosome ...
Chromosome 2 is the second largest human chromosome, spanning about 243 million building blocks of DNA (base pairs) and ... Characterization of a small supernumerary ring marker derived from chromosome 2 by forward and reverse chromosome painting. Am ... Another chromosome 2 abnormality is known as a ring chromosome 2. A ring chromosome is formed when breaks occur at both ends of ... Two copies of chromosome 2, one copy inherited from each parent, form one of the pairs. Chromosome 2 is the second largest ...
METHODS: Translocations were scored using fluorescence in situ hybridization chromosome painting. Cumulative radiation doses ... Chromosome disorders; Radiation; Radiation exposure; Ionizing radiation; Cosmic radiation; Humans; Men; Pilots; Models; ... BACKGROUND: Chromosome translocations are a biomarker of cumulative exposure to ionizing radiation. We examined the relation ... Chromosome translocations and cosmic radiation dose in male U.S. commercial airline pilots. ...
... characterization of an interchromosomal insertion by forward and reverse chromosome painting. Nordgren A; Arver S; Kvist U; ...
Chromosome Painting * ElementZero Biolabs * MagIC Beads Nucleic Acid Capture * Advantages of MagIC beads for RNA ...
Chromosome Painting * ElementZero Biolabs * MagIC Beads Nucleic Acid Capture * Advantages of MagIC beads for RNA ...
... of an Oregon Council and Ford Foundation Professional Development Grant for the creation and exhibition of Chromosome Painting ...
... chromosome organisation, karyotype evolution and developed the clinical database, DECIPHER. Dr Carter retired from the ... The development of rapid methods for the production of chromosome paints, such as DOP-PCR, led Nigel to become interested in ... The group, now led by Dr Matthew Hurles, has research interests in chromosome rearrangement, chromosome organisation, karyotype ... Nigel led the Molecular Cytogenetics Team, which has research interests in chromosome rearrangement, chromosome organisation, ...
What it does is paint the chromosomes and try to identify common genetic lesions that are found in many patients. We can see ... Patients who had deletions in chromosome 13 or had an extra copy of chromosome 12 tended to fare better, and it was not really ... changes in chromosome 11, chromosome 13, and chromosome 17, and some of these have very strong prognostic and predictive value. ... Some time ago, in the year 2000, it was first shown that patients who have deletion in chromosome 17 actually have an inferior ...
This germline-specific DNA is lost in the form of large fragments, including entire chromosomes, and available evidence ... Germline-specific chromosomes were identified on the basis of hybridization to a previously described laser-capture painting ... Figure 4. An idiogram of germline-specific chromosomes. Twelve germline-specific chromosomes (a-l) can be distinguished by DAPI ... Figure 4. An idiogram of germline-specific chromosomes. Twelve germline-specific chromosomes (a-l) can be distinguished by DAPI ...
Chromosomal rearrangements and karyotype evolution in carnivores revealed by chromosome painting. Heredity. 2012;108:17-27. ... The X chromosome has been especially depleted of genetic variation: the average X chromosome-to-autosomal normalized diversity ... Section 22: X chromosome versus autosomes genetic diversity. Section 23: Patterns of diversity across the genome. Section 24: ... The interrelationships of chromosome-banding patterns in canids, mustelids, hyena, and felids. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1982;34: ...
... generated using chromosome-specific paint probes. Chromosome Research. 1999, 7 (5): 401-406. 10.1023/A:1009224232134. ... The domestic dog karyotype comprises 38 pairs of single-armed chromosomes and a pair of bi-armed sex chromosomes (2n = 78). ... Table 3 Thirteen regions along seven dog chromosomes showed significant differences between BMD and FCR tumors.. Full size ... The chromosome copy number status line for the tumor appears as an orange overlay of the center-line when there is a normal ...
... interchanges between all possible heterologous pairs of chromosomes were measured with 24-color whole-chromosome painting ( ... interchanges between all possible heterologous pairs of chromosomes were measured with 24-color whole-chromosome painting ( ... interchanges between all possible heterologous pairs of chromosomes were measured with 24-color whole-chromosome painting ( ... interchanges between all possible heterologous pairs of chromosomes were measured with 24-color whole-chromosome painting ( ...
Chromosome Painting (2) *Clusters (32) *Code (7) *Dataset (38) *MDS (3) *Miscellaneous (27) ...
Using our unique chromosome painting method, youll gain an insight into your ancestry at a level previously unseen. Explore ...
Whole Chromosome MD PAINT $0.00. - $155.00. Human Chromosome MD Paint Targeting Chromosomes 10 tests ...
The numbered images refer to the 23 chromosomes that carry DNA, with one number repeated to represent the one chromosome that ... Some of the laboratory bottles contain fragmentary depictions of the wounded body of Christ from Renaissance paintings, while ... others contain the X and Y chromosomes that control genetic makeup. ...
Reconstruction of genomic rearrangements in great apes and gibbons by chromosome painting. In: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 89, 1992 ... The chromosomes of humans Chromosome 1 , Chromosome 2 , Chromosome 3 , Chromosome 4 , Chromosome 5 , Chromosome 6 , Chromosome ... Chromosome 16 , Chromosome 17 , Chromosome 18 , Chromosome 19 , Chromosome 20 , Chromosome 21 , Chromosome 22 , X chromosome , ... 7 , Chromosome 8 , Chromosome 9 , Chromosome 10 , Chromosome 11 , Chromosome 12 , Chromosome 13 , Chromosome 14 , Chromosome 15 ...
CHROMOSOME PAINTING. PINTURA CROMOSOMICA. CONCENTRAÇÃO INIBIDORA 50. INHIBITORY CONCENTRATION 50. CONCENTRACION 50 INHIBIDORA. ... PHYSICAL CHROMOSOME MAPPING. MAPEO DE CROMOSOMA FISICO. MARCAÇÃO IN SITU COM PRIMERS. PRIMED IN SITU LABELING. ETIQUETADO IN ...
CHROMOSOME PAINTING. PINTURA CROMOSOMICA. COLORAÇÃO CROMOSSÔMICA. CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. SEGREGACION CROMOSOMICA. SEGREGAÇÃO ...
CHROMOSOME PAINTING. PINTURA CROMOSOMICA. CONCENTRAÇÃO INIBIDORA 50. INHIBITORY CONCENTRATION 50. CONCENTRACION 50 INHIBIDORA. ... PHYSICAL CHROMOSOME MAPPING. MAPEO DE CROMOSOMA FISICO. MARCAÇÃO IN SITU COM PRIMERS. PRIMED IN SITU LABELING. ETIQUETADO IN ...
The test involves cloning the telomere gene, painting it with a fluorescent die and mapping it to a chromosome. This provides ... These protect the function of DNA so that when chromosomes divide they lose telomere length rather than functional DNA which is ... By the mid-seventies it was recognised that both ends of every chromosome have junk DNA identified as telomeres. ... crucial to the integrity of the chromosomes. The telomeres were likened to the caps on shoe laces that prevent essential DNA ...
  • Chromosome translocation as a cause of familial mongolism. (annualreviews.org)
  • OBJECTIVE Comprehensive use of molecular cytogenetic techniques for the detection of 1 case of small chromosome translocation. (whocc.org.cn)
  • Two-color FISH indicated a chromosomal translocation segment of 22q13.3 to one end of the short arm of chromosome 4. (whocc.org.cn)
  • Subtelomeric FISH probe showed the end of the long arm of chromosome 22 and the end of the short arm of chromosome 4 reciprocal translocation. (whocc.org.cn)
  • 12 explained that three types of chromosome 21 abnormalities can be described: a) free trisomy 21, b) mosaicism, and c) translocation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Translocation involves the long arm of acrocentric chromosomes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Structural chromosome rearrangements involving translocations, fusions and fissions lead to evolutionary variation between species and potentially reproductive isolation and variation in gene expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • While the wheats (Triticeae, Poaceae) and oats (Aveneae) all maintain a basic chromosome number of x =7, genomes of oats show frequent intergenomic translocations, in contrast to wheats where these translocations are relatively rare. (frontiersin.org)
  • There was a predominance of distal intergenomic translocations from the C- into the D-genome chromosomes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Translocations from A- to C-, or D- to C-genome chromosomes were less frequent, proving that at least some of the translocations in oat polyploids are non-reciprocal. (frontiersin.org)
  • Rare translocations from A- to D-, D- to A- and C- to B-genome chromosomes were also visualized. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chromosome translocations and cosmic radiation dose in male U.S. commercial airline pilots. (cdc.gov)
  • METHODS: Translocations were scored using fluorescence in situ hybridization chromosome painting. (cdc.gov)
  • Spectral karyotyping analysis (also called chromosome painting) uses chromosome-specific multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques that improve the visibility of certain defects, including translocations and inversions. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Chromosome 2 deletions or duplications that cause MAND lead to an abnormal amount of MBD5 protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is also unknown whether the loss or gain of other genes in chromosome 2 deletions or duplications contribute to the features of MAND. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As a prognostic category, those patients who had deletions in chromosome 11 fell into an intermediate category. (onclive.com)
  • Patients who had deletions in chromosome 13 or had an extra copy of chromosome 12 tended to fare better, and it was not really certain as to why that was. (onclive.com)
  • For example, patients who have deletions in chromosome 17 typically have an inactive protein called p53. (onclive.com)
  • Use of the Indian muntjac idiogram to align conserved chromosomal segments in sheep and human genomes by chromosome painting. (annualreviews.org)
  • The following chromosomal conditions are associated with changes in the structure or number of copies of chromosome 2. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aneuploidy: The most common chromosomal abnormality caused by an extra or missing chromosome. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Down's syndrome (DS) or trisomy 21 is a chromosomal disorder resulting from the presence of an extra chromosome 21, in all cells or part of them. (bvsalud.org)
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome-arm-specific oligo painting probes was used for comparative karyotype analysis in a set of wild Musa species and edible banana clones. (cas.cz)
  • The introduction of FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) marked the beginning of a new era for the study of chromosome structure and function. (biosyn.com)
  • With special methods, however, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization , the chromosomes can still be detected as separate units. (zxc.wiki)
  • METHODS Following conventional chromosome preparation, G- banding karyotype analysis , spectral karyotyping (SKY), whole chromosome painting , two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and subtelomeric probe FISH were performed. (whocc.org.cn)
  • OBJECTIVE To characterize a supernumerary marker chromosome (SMC) by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and traditional cytogenetic techniques, and to explore the clinical application of these techniques in delineating de novo marker chromosomes. (whocc.org.cn)
  • In animal cells, chromosomes reach their highest compaction level in anaphase during chromosome segregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fusion of gametes with structurally different chromosome sets may give rise to progenies with structural chromosome heterozygosity and reduced fertility due to aberrant chromosome pairing and unbalanced chromosome segregation. (cas.cz)
  • Chromosomes are normally visible under a light microscope only during the metaphase of cell division (where all chromosomes are aligned in the center of the cell in their condensed form). (wikipedia.org)
  • During metaphase the X-shaped structure is called a metaphase chromosome, which is highly condensed and thus easiest to distinguish and study. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each metaphase chromosome is made up of two daughter chromatids, which are separated lengthways by a dark gap. (zxc.wiki)
  • This high accuracy, resulting in an average of 5 corrections per metaphase, is anticipated to significantly reduce the time spent on preparing karyograms, allowing Cytogenetics professionals to focus more time on chromosome analysis and reporting. (spectral-imaging.com)
  • A karyotype analysis involves blocking cells in mitosis during metaphase and staining the condensed chromosomes. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The chromosomes are less condensed than in routine metaphase analysis, and the number of identifiable bands is expanded, allowing a more sensitive karyotype analysis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • 22q11.3), SKY karyotype analysis was 46, XX, der (4)t(4;6) and found no abnormalities on chromosome 22, staining signal was not found with any abnormalities on chromosome 6. (whocc.org.cn)
  • Abnormalities that affect autosomes (the 22 paired chromosomes that are alike in males and females) are more common than those that affect sex chromosomes (X and Y). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Numerical abnormalities may involve a part of, or the entire, chromosome. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A chromosome is a long DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material of an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wilhelm Roux suggested that each chromosome carries a different genetic configuration, and Boveri was able to test and confirm this hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 2q37 deletion syndrome is caused by a deletion of genetic material near the end of the long (q) arm of chromosome 2, at a location designated 2q37. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Genetic changes on the q arm of chromosome 2 have been found to cause SATB2 -associated syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What it does is paint the chromosomes and try to identify common genetic lesions that are found in many patients. (onclive.com)
  • Scientists use chromosome painting to mark the locations of genes on human chromosomes with fluorescent tags. (studyslide.com)
  • In classical banding (eg, G [Giemsa]-banding, Q [fluorescent]-banding, and C-banding), a dye is used to stain bands on the chromosomes. (msdmanuals.com)
  • they lead to exchange of chromosome segments within and between the ancestral genomes. (frontiersin.org)
  • In viruses whose genome consists of one or more nucleic acid molecules (DNA or RNA ), these segments are sometimes referred to as chromosomes. (zxc.wiki)
  • For example, the RNA genome of influenza A viruses consists of 8 such segments (chromosomes). (zxc.wiki)
  • In A. agadiriana (2 n =4 x =28), the selected probes hybridized to all chromosomes indicating that this species originated from one (autotetraploid) or closely related ancestors with the same genomes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Asynaptic sex chromosomes have been found in the majority of species of the Palearctic phylogenetic lineage of this genus, while normal X-Y synapsis has been observed in the species of subgenus Pallasiinus belonging to the Asian phylogenetic lineage. (karger.com)
  • Using immunostaining for the proteins of the synaptonemal complex (SCP3) and recombination nodules (MLH1) we demonstrated that X and Y chromosomes of these species paired and recombined in a short subtelomeric region. (karger.com)
  • This indicates that the sex chromosomes of these species retain an ancestral fully functional pseudoautosomal region, which has been lost or rearranged in the asynaptic species of the genus Microtus . (karger.com)
  • 2007 . Cross-species painting among camel, cattle, pig and human: further insights into the putative Cetartiodactyla ancestral karyotype. (annualreviews.org)
  • It is also possible to apply this technique to the chromosomes of many different species. (studyslide.com)
  • 1992 . Reverse chromosome painting: a method for the rapid analysis of aberrant chromosomes in clinical cytogenetics. (annualreviews.org)
  • Humans normally have 46 chromosomes in each cell, divided into 23 pairs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Because researchers use different approaches to predict the number of genes on each chromosome, the estimated number of genes varies. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chromosome 2 likely contains 1,200 to 1,300 genes that provide instructions for making proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This germline-specific DNA is lost in the form of large fragments, including entire chromosomes, and available evidence suggests that DNA elimination acts as a permanent silencing mechanism that prevents the somatic expression of a specific subset of "germline" genes. (mdpi.com)
  • 1990. Chromosome aberration and sister chromatid exchange test results with 42 chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • Study of X chromosome abnormality in XX males using bivariate flow karyotype analysis and flow sorted dot blots. (annualreviews.org)
  • We analyzed sex chromosome pairing and recombination in M. maximowiczii, M. mujanensis and M. fortis which also belong to the Asian phylogenetic lineage (subgenus Alexandromys ). (karger.com)
  • This first evaluation of the new Aided Karyotyping capabilities showed that the application correctly segmented and classified 92% of peripheral blood or neoplastic bone marrow chromosomes in metaphases containing an average of 11 overlaps, touching chromosomes or more complex clusters. (spectral-imaging.com)
  • High-resolution chromosome analysis uses special culture methods to obtain a high percentage of prophase and prometaphase spreads. (msdmanuals.com)
  • 1997 . Previously hidden chromosome aberrations in T(12;15)-positive BALB/c plasmacytomas uncovered by multicolor spectral karyotyping. (annualreviews.org)
  • New insights into the chromosome organization and structural chromosome changes will be a valuable asset in breeding programs, particularly in the selection of appropriate parents for cross hybridization. (cas.cz)
  • Prokaryotic chromosomes have less sequence-based structure than eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some use the term chromosome in a wider sense, to refer to the individualized portions of chromatin in cells, either visible or not under light microscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pattern of X-Y chromosome pairing in male meiosis is an important taxonomic feature of grey voles of the genus Microtus . (karger.com)
  • These protect the function of DNA so that when chromosomes divide they lose telomere length rather than functional DNA which is crucial to the integrity of the chromosomes. (optimalhealth.org.uk)
  • Aided by the rediscovery at the start of the 1900s of Gregor Mendel's earlier work, Boveri was able to point out the connection between the rules of inheritance and the behaviour of the chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In his famous textbook The Cell in Development and Heredity, Wilson linked together the independent work of Boveri and Sutton (both around 1902) by naming the chromosome theory of inheritance the Boveri-Sutton chromosome theory (the names are sometimes reversed). (wikipedia.org)
  • The prokaryotes - bacteria and archaea - typically have a single circular chromosome, but many variations exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • By inspection through the microscope, he counted 24 pairs, which would mean 48 chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chromosomes of most bacteria, which some authors prefer to call genophores, can range in size from only 130,000 base pairs in the endosymbiotic bacteria Candidatus Hodgkinia cicadicola and Candidatus Tremblaya princeps, to more than 14,000,000 base pairs in the soil-dwelling bacterium Sorangium cellulosum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two copies of chromosome 2, one copy inherited from each parent, form one of the pairs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chromosome 2 is the second largest human chromosome, spanning about 243 million building blocks of DNA (base pairs) and representing almost 8 percent of the total DNA in cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Although the occurrence of lead in the environment has greatly decreased due to the elimination of most leaded gasoline, substantial occupational exposures continue primarily via lead in the battery industry and lead pigments in paints. (who.int)
  • The number of human chromosomes was published in 1923 by Theophilus Painter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before this happens, each chromosome is duplicated (S phase), and both copies are joined by a centromere, resulting either in an X-shaped structure (pictured above), if the centromere is located equatorially, or a two-arm structure, if the centromere is located distally. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reports of Down syndrome (DS) date back to 1500 BC and are evidenced by paintings found in the Oxtotitlan cave located near Chilapa, Mexico. (bvsalud.org)
  • overexpressed in DS due to the extra chromosome. (bvsalud.org)
  • In about 95% of DS cases, the anomaly occurs because of an extra total chromosome 21 in all cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • These chromosomes display a complex three-dimensional structure, which plays a significant role in transcriptional regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results revealed large differences in chromosome structure, discriminating individual accessions. (cas.cz)
  • The diagram below represents a segment of a gene on two chromosomes. (studyslide.com)
  • In 1842, the Swiss botanist Carl Wilhelm von Nägeli described "transitory cytoblasts" (stainable rod-shaped structures in the nucleus of plant cells) which were probably chromosomes. (zxc.wiki)
  • Karyotype: The full set of chromosomes in a person's cells. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Chromosomes from single cells are photographed, and their images are arranged, forming a karyotype. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In 2% of cases of DS, mosaicism is observed, meaning the anomaly is located in only some cells of the body, while others have normal chromosomes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Loss (deletion) or gain (duplication) of a small piece of chromosome 2 at position q23.1 can cause MBD5 -associated neurodevelopmental disorder (MAND). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The low density and small size of these bridges, and aneuploid chromosome number biologically persistent particles makes respiratory were observed. (cdc.gov)
  • The prokaryotic organisms, i.e. bacteria and archaea , do not have a cell nucleus and also have no chromosomes in the classical sense. (zxc.wiki)
  • Spirochaetes of the genus Borrelia are a notable exception to this arrangement, with bacteria such as Borrelia burgdorferi, the cause of Lyme disease, containing a single linear chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term chromosome , literally "color body", comes from the fact that these structures , which consist of chromatin , can easily be colored with basic dyes. (zxc.wiki)

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