Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Physical Chromosome Mapping: Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Chromosome Painting: A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.Chromosomes, Human, 1-3: The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, 16-18: The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y: The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.Ring Chromosomes: Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.Chromosomes, Human, 4-5: The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Chromosome Structures: Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Chromosomes, Human, 19-20: The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Chromosomes, Artificial, Human: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Radiation Hybrid Mapping: A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.Chromosome Fragility: Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Chromosome Duplication: An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.Body Surface Potential Mapping: Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Abnormalities, MultipleGenes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Polytene Chromosomes: Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Epicardial Mapping: Recording the locations and measurements of electrical activity in the EPICARDIUM by placing electrodes on the surface of the heart to analyze the patterns of activation and to locate arrhythmogenic sites.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Cytogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Karyotype: The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Chromosome Fragile Sites: Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)Monosomy: The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Genes, X-Linked: Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.Sex Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).Chromosome Breakpoints: The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.

Mapping of the homothallic genes, HM alpha and HMa, in Saccharomyces yeasts. (1/29088)

Two of the three homothallic genes, HM alpha and HMa, showed direct linkage to the mating-type locus at approximately 73 and 98 strans (57 and 65 centimorgans [cM], respectively, whereas, the other, HO, showed no linkage to 25 standard markers distributed over 17 chromosomes including the mating-type locus. To determine whether the HM alpha and HMa loci located on the left or right side of the mating-type locus, equations for three factor analysis of three linked genes were derived. Tetrad data were collected and were compared with expected values by chi 2 statistics. Calculations indicated that the HM alpha gene is probably located on the right arm at 95 strans (65 cM) from the centromere and the HMa locus at approximately 90 strans (64 cM) on the left arm of chromosome III.  (+info)

The cardiac homeobox gene Csx/Nkx2.5 lies genetically upstream of multiple genes essential for heart development. (2/29088)

Csx/Nkx2.5 is a vertebrate homeobox gene with a sequence homology to the Drosophila tinman, which is required for the dorsal mesoderm specification. Recently, heterozygous mutations of this gene were found to cause human congenital heart disease (Schott, J.-J., Benson, D. W., Basson, C. T., Pease, W., Silberbach, G. M., Moak, J. P., Maron, B. J., Seidman, C. E. and Seidman, J. G. (1998) Science 281, 108-111). To investigate the functions of Csx/Nkx2.5 in cardiac and extracardiac development in the vertebrate, we have generated and analyzed mutant mice completely null for Csx/Nkx2.5. Homozygous null embryos showed arrest of cardiac development after looping and poor development of blood vessels. Moreover, there were severe defects in vascular formation and hematopoiesis in the mutant yolk sac. Interestingly, TUNEL staining and PCNA staining showed neither enhanced apoptosis nor reduced cell proliferation in the mutant myocardium. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated that, among 20 candidate genes examined, expression of ANF, BNP, MLC2V, N-myc, MEF2C, HAND1 and Msx2 was disturbed in the mutant heart. Moreover, in the heart of adult chimeric mice generated from Csx/Nkx2.5 null ES cells, there were almost no ES cell-derived cardiac myocytes, while there were substantial contributions of Csx /Nkx2.5-deficient cells in other organs. Whole-mount &bgr;-gal staining of chimeric embryos showed that more than 20% contribution of Csx/Nkx2. 5-deficient cells in the heart arrested cardiac development. These results indicate that (1) the complete null mutation of Csx/Nkx2.5 did not abolish initial heart looping, (2) there was no enhanced apoptosis or defective cell cycle entry in Csx/Nkx2.5 null cardiac myocytes, (3) Csx/Nkx2.5 regulates expression of several essential transcription factors in the developing heart, (4) Csx/Nkx2.5 is required for later differentiation of cardiac myocytes, (5) Csx/Nkx2. 5 null cells exert dominant interfering effects on cardiac development, and (6) there were severe defects in yolk sac angiogenesis and hematopoiesis in the Csx/Nkx2.5 null embryos.  (+info)

Identification of sonic hedgehog as a candidate gene responsible for the polydactylous mouse mutant Sasquatch. (3/29088)

The mouse mutants of the hemimelia-luxate group (lx, lu, lst, Dh, Xt, and the more recently identified Hx, Xpl and Rim4; [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]) have in common preaxial polydactyly and longbone abnormalities. Associated with the duplication of digits are changes in the regulation of development of the anterior limb bud resulting in ectopic expression of signalling components such as Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and fibroblast growth factor-4 (Fgf4), but little is known about the molecular causes of this misregulation. We generated, by a transgene insertion event, a new member of this group of mutants, Sasquatch (Ssq), which disrupted aspects of both anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) patterning. The mutant displayed preaxial polydactyly in the hindlimbs of heterozygous embryos, and in both hindlimbs and forelimbs of homozygotes. The Shh, Fgf4, Fgf8, Hoxd12 and Hoxd13 genes were all ectopically expressed in the anterior region of affected limb buds. The insertion site was found to lie close to the Shh locus. Furthermore, expression from the transgene reporter has come under the control of a regulatory element that directs a pattern mirroring the endogenous expression pattern of Shh in limbs. In abnormal limbs, both Shh and the reporter were ectopically induced in the anterior region, whereas in normal limbs the reporter and Shh were restricted to the zone of polarising activity (ZPA). These data strongly suggest that Ssq is caused by direct interference with the cis regulation of the Shh gene.  (+info)

Superimposed histologic and genetic mapping of chromosome 9 in progression of human urinary bladder neoplasia: implications for a genetic model of multistep urothelial carcinogenesis and early detection of urinary bladder cancer. (4/29088)

The evolution of alterations on chromosome 9, including the putative tumor suppressor genes mapped to the 9p21-22 region (the MTS genes), was studied in relation to the progression of human urinary bladder neoplasia by using whole organ superimposed histologic and genetic mapping in cystectomy specimens and was verified in urinary bladder tumors of various pathogenetic subsets with longterm follow-up. The applicability of chromosome 9 allelic losses as non-invasive markers of urothelial neoplasia was tested on voided urine and/or bladder washings of patients with urinary bladder cancer. Although sequential multiple hits in the MTS locus were documented in the development of intraurothelial precursor lesions, the MTS genes do not seem to represent a major target for p21-23 deletions in bladder cancer. Two additional tumor suppressor genes involved in bladder neoplasia located distally and proximally to the MTS locus within p22-23 and p11-13 regions respectively were identified. Several distinct putative tumor suppressor gene loci within the q12-13, q21-22, and q34 regions were identified on the q arm. In particular, the pericentromeric q12-13 area may contain the critical tumor suppressor gene or genes for the development of early urothelial neoplasia. Allelic losses of chromosome 9 were associated with expansion of the abnormal urothelial clone which frequently involved large areas of urinary bladder mucosa. These losses could be found in a high proportion of urothelial tumors and in voided urine or bladder washing samples of nearly all patients with urinary bladder carcinoma.  (+info)

TIF1gamma, a novel member of the transcriptional intermediary factor 1 family. (5/29088)

We report the cloning and characterization of a novel member of the Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 1 (TIF1) gene family, human TIF1gamma. Similar to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, the structure of TIF1beta is characterized by multiple domains: RING finger, B boxes, Coiled coil, PHD/TTC, and bromodomain. Although structurally related to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, TIF1gamma presents several functional differences. In contrast to TIF1alpha, but like TIF1beta, TIF1 does not interact with nuclear receptors in yeast two-hybrid or GST pull-down assays and does not interfere with retinoic acid response in transfected mammalian cells. Whereas TIF1alpha and TIF1beta were previously found to interact with the KRAB silencing domain of KOX1 and with the HP1alpha, MODI (HP1beta) and MOD2 (HP1gamma) heterochromatinic proteins, suggesting that they may participate in a complex involved in heterochromatin-induced gene repression, TIF1gamma does not interact with either the KRAB domain of KOX1 or the HP1 proteins. Nevertheless, TIF1gamma, like TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, exhibits a strong silencing activity when tethered to a promoter. Since deletion of a novel motif unique to the three TIF1 proteins, called TIF1 signature sequence (TSS), abrogates transcriptional repression by TIF1gamma, this motif likely participates in TIF1 dependent repression.  (+info)

Substrate specificities of SR proteins in constitutive splicing are determined by their RNA recognition motifs and composite pre-mRNA exonic elements. (6/29088)

We report striking differences in the substrate specificities of two human SR proteins, SF2/ASF and SC35, in constitutive splicing. beta-Globin pre-mRNA (exons 1 and 2) is spliced indiscriminately with either SR protein. Human immunodeficiency virus tat pre-mRNA (exons 2 and 3) and immunoglobulin mu-chain (IgM) pre-mRNA (exons C3 and C4) are preferentially spliced with SF2/ASF and SC35, respectively. Using in vitro splicing with mutated or chimeric derivatives of the tat and IgM pre-mRNAs, we defined specific combinations of segments in the downstream exons, which mediate either positive or negative effects to confer SR protein specificity. A series of recombinant chimeric proteins consisting of domains of SF2/ASF and SC35 in various combinations was used to localize trans-acting domains responsible for substrate specificity. The RS domains of SF2/ASF and SC35 can be exchanged without effect on substrate specificity. The RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) of SF2/ASF are active only in the context of a two-RRM structure, and RRM2 has a dominant role in substrate specificity. In contrast, the single RRM of SC35 can function alone, but its substrate specificity can be influenced by the presence of an additional RRM. The RRMs behave as modules that, when present in different combinations, can have positive, neutral, or negative effects on splicing, depending upon the specific substrate. We conclude that SR protein-specific recognition of specific positive and negative pre-mRNA exonic elements via one or more RRMs is a crucial determinant of the substrate specificity of SR proteins in constitutive splicing.  (+info)

Pseudouridine mapping in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae spliceosomal U small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) reveals that pseudouridine synthase pus1p exhibits a dual substrate specificity for U2 snRNA and tRNA. (7/29088)

Pseudouridine (Psi) residues were localized in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae spliceosomal U small nuclear RNAs (UsnRNAs) by using the chemical mapping method. In contrast to vertebrate UsnRNAs, S. cerevisiae UsnRNAs contain only a few Psi residues, which are located in segments involved in intermolecular RNA-RNA or RNA-protein interactions. At these positions, UsnRNAs are universally modified. When yeast mutants disrupted for one of the several pseudouridine synthase genes (PUS1, PUS2, PUS3, and PUS4) or depleted in rRNA-pseudouridine synthase Cbf5p were tested for UsnRNA Psi content, only the loss of the Pus1p activity was found to affect Psi formation in spliceosomal UsnRNAs. Indeed, Psi44 formation in U2 snRNA was abolished. By using purified Pus1p enzyme and in vitro-produced U2 snRNA, Pus1p is shown here to catalyze Psi44 formation in the S. cerevisiae U2 snRNA. Thus, Pus1p is the first UsnRNA pseudouridine synthase characterized so far which exhibits a dual substrate specificity, acting on both tRNAs and U2 snRNA. As depletion of rRNA-pseudouridine synthase Cbf5p had no effect on UsnRNA Psi content, formation of Psi residues in S. cerevisiae UsnRNAs is not dependent on the Cbf5p-snoRNA guided mechanism.  (+info)

Mammalian staufen is a double-stranded-RNA- and tubulin-binding protein which localizes to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. (8/29088)

Staufen (Stau) is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding protein involved in mRNA transport and localization in Drosophila. To understand the molecular mechanisms of mRNA transport in mammals, we cloned human (hStau) and mouse (mStau) staufen cDNAs. In humans, four transcripts arise by differential splicing of the Stau gene and code for two proteins with different N-terminal extremities. In vitro, hStau and mStau bind dsRNA via each of two full-length dsRNA-binding domains and tubulin via a region similar to the microtubule-binding domain of MAP-1B, suggesting that Stau cross-links cytoskeletal and RNA components. Immunofluorescent double labeling of transfected mammalian cells revealed that Stau is localized to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), implicating this RNA-binding protein in mRNA targeting to the RER, perhaps via a multistep process involving microtubules. These results are the first demonstration of the association of an RNA-binding protein in addition to ribosomal proteins, with the RER, implicating this class of proteins in the transport of RNA to its site of translation.  (+info)

*Cell fusion

For gene and chromosome mapping. For production of monoclonal antibodies by producing hybridoma. For production of Induced stem ... Each of the fused hybrid cells contained a single nucleus with chromosomes from both fusion partners. Synkaryon became the name ...

*Autosome

"Chromosome mapping Facts, information, pictures , Encyclopedia.com articles about Chromosome mapping". www.encyclopedia.com. ... All human autosomes have been identified and mapped by extracting the chromosomes from a cell arrested in metaphase or ... An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome). The members of an autosome pair in a diploid cell have ... TDF functions by activating the SOX9 gene on chromosome 17, so mutations of the SOX9 gene can cause humans with a Y chromosome ...

*Alfred Sturtevant

Sturtevant constructed the first genetic map of a chromosome in 1913. Throughout his career he worked on the organism ... Chromosome Map. NCBI. April 11, 2007 gi?rid=gnd.chapter.272 Definition of Chromosome Inversion. April 11, 2007. http://www. ... This was the beginning of the chromosome theory; Roux viewed his findings as argument that chromosomes contain units of ... which became a classical method of chromosome mapping that we still use today. In 1913, he determined that genes were arranged ...

*GJA4

1996). "The gene for human gap junction protein connexin37 (GJA4) maps to chromosome 1p35.1, in the vicinity of D1S195". ... Molecular cloning, expression, and chromosome mapping". J. Biol. Chem. 267 (3): 2057-64. PMID 1370487. Risek B, Guthrie S, ... 2001). "Diverse transcriptional initiation revealed by fine, large-scale mapping of mRNA start sites". EMBO Rep. 2 (5): 388-93 ... "Six genes of the human connexin gene family coding for gap junctional proteins are assigned to four different human chromosomes ...

*CDC25B

Demetrick DJ, Beach DH (1994). "Chromosome mapping of human CDC25A and CDC25B phosphatases". Genomics. 18 (1): 144-7. doi: ...

*Galectin-7

... and chromosome mapping of human galectin-7". J Biol Chem. 270 (11): 5823-29. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.11.5823. PMID 7534301. ...

*RuvB-like 1

Makino Y, Kanemaki M, Koga A, Osano K, Matsu-Ura T, Kurokawa Y, Kishimoto T, Tamura T (2000). "Chromosome mapping and ... "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3: 89. doi:10.1038/msb4100134 ...

*R. Ellen Magenis

Her special interest continues to be in human chromosome mapping. Magenis died on February 4, 2014, after a long illness. Ellen ... The mapping of haptoglobin to 16q was the second instance in which a human gene was mapped to a specific autosome (non-sex ... Magenis's first major research project involved a heritable fragile site on the long (q) arm of chromosome 16. She traced this ... She is the director of the Cytogenetic Laboratory and Chromosome Clinic at the Child Development and Rehabilitation Center at ...

*Formyl peptide receptor 3

Characterization and chromosome mapping of a peptide chemoattractant receptor family". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 267 ... Bao L, Gerard NP, Eddy RL, Shows TB, Gerard C (Jun 1992). "Mapping of genes for the human C5a receptor (C5AR), human FMLP ... Mouse FPR receptors localize to chromosome 17A3.2 in the following order: Fpr1, Fpr-rs2 (or fpr2), Fpr-rs1 (or LXA4R), Fpr-rs4 ... All three genes localize to chromosome 19q.13.3 in the order of FPR1 (19q13.410), FPR2 (19q13.3-q13.4), and FPR3 (19q13.3-q13.4 ...

*GAS2

... "cDNA characterization and chromosome mapping of the human GAS2 gene". Genomics. 48 (2): 265-9. doi:10.1006/geno.1997.5172. PMID ...

*Formyl peptide receptor 2

Characterization and chromosome mapping of a peptide chemoattractant receptor family". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 267 ... Characterization and chromosome mapping of a peptide chemoattractant receptor family". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 267 ... Characterization and chromosome mapping of a peptide chemoattractant receptor family". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 267 ... It forms a cluster with FPR1 and FPR3 genes on chromosome 19q.13.3 in the order of FPR1, FPR2, and FPR3; this cluster also ...

*SOX6

... characterization and chromosome mapping of the human SOX6 gene". Gene. 265 (1-2): 157-64. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(01)00346-8. ...

*SMAP1

Marcos I, Borrego S, Rodriguez de Cordoba S, Galan JJ, Antinolo G (Jul 2002). "Cloning, characterization and chromosome mapping ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ... 2005). "High-throughput mapping of a dynamic signaling network in mammalian cells". Science. 307 (5715): 1621-5. doi:10.1126/ ... 2003). "The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6". Nature. 425 (6960): 805-11. doi:10.1038/nature02055. PMID ...

*Formyl peptide receptor 1

Characterization and chromosome mapping of a peptide chemoattractant receptor family". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 267 ... Characterization and chromosome mapping of a peptide chemoattractant receptor family". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 267 ... All three genes localize to chromosome 19q.13.3 in the order of FPR1, FPR2, and FPR3 to from a cluster which also includes the ... Bao L, Gerard NP, Eddy RL, Shows TB, Gerard C (Jun 1992). "Mapping of genes for the human C5a receptor (C5AR), human FMLP ...

*Ronald Fisher

During this time he also worked on mouse chromosome mapping; breeding the mice in laboratories in his own house. Fisher ...

*Isochore (genetics)

2006). "An isochore map of human chromosomes". Genome Research. 16 (4): 536-541. doi:10.1101/gr.4910606. PMC 1457033 . PMID ... 2001). "Isochore chromosome maps of eukaryotic genomes". Gene. 276 (1-2): 47-56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(01)00641-2. PMID ... The homogeneity of compositional domains is compared to that of the chromosome on which they reside using the F-test, which ... Häring and Kypr; Kypr, J (2001). "No Isochores in the Human Chromosomes 21 and 22?". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ...

*IL13RA2

1997). "Chromosome mapping and expression of the human interleukin-13 receptor". Genomics. 42 (1): 141-5. doi:10.1006/geno. ... 2005). "The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome". Nature. 434 (7031): 325-37. doi:10.1038/nature03440. PMC 2665286 . PMID ...

*B3GAT2

Marcos I, Galán JJ, Borrego S, Antiñolo G (2003). "Cloning, characterization, and chromosome mapping of the human GlcAT-S gene ... 2003). "The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6". Nature. 425 (6960): 805-11. doi:10.1038/nature02055. PMID ... genomic structure and chromosomal mapping of the mouse glucuronyltransferase-S involved in the biosynthesis of the HNK-1 ...

*LYL1

Kuo SS, Mellentin JD, Copeland NG, Gilbert DJ, Jenkins NA, Cleary ML (June 1991). "Structure, chromosome mapping, and ... "Mapping of translocation breakpoints on the short arm of chromosome 19 in acute leukemias by in situ hybridization". Genes, ... "Fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of human chromosome 19: cytogenetic band location of 540 cosmids and 70 genes or DNA ... Chromosomes & Cancer. 2 (4): 259-65. doi:10.1002/gcc.2870020402. PMID 2268576. Wadman I, Li J, Bash RO, Forster A, Osada H, ...

*IRX2

"Cloning and chromosome mapping of human and chicken Iroquois (IRX) genes". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 92 (3-4): 320-5. doi:10.1159/ ... 2008). "A genome-wide scan maps a novel high myopia locus to 5p15". Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49 (9): 3768-78. doi:10.1167/ ... 2004). "The prepattern transcription factor Irx2, a target of the FGF8/MAP kinase cascade, is involved in cerebellum formation ... 2006). "Frequent amplifications and abundant expression of TRIO, NKD2, and IRX2 in soft tissue sarcomas". Genes Chromosomes ...

*IRX5

"Cloning and chromosome mapping of human and chicken Iroquois (IRX) genes". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 92 (3-4): 320-5. doi:10.1159/ ...

*ICAM-1

Katz FE, Parkar M, Stanley K, Murray LJ, Clark EA, Greaves MF (Jan 1985). "Chromosome mapping of cell membrane antigens ... "Isolation and mapping of a polymorphic DNA sequence (pMCT108.2) on chromosome 18 [D18S24]". Nucleic Acids Research. 16 (9): ...

*IRX1

"Cloning and chromosome mapping of human and chicken Iroquois (IRX) genes". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 92 (3-4): 320-5. doi:10.1159/ ... Lam CY, Tam PO, Fan DS, Fan BJ, Wang DY, Lee CW, Pang CP, Lam DS (2008). "A genome-wide scan maps a novel high myopia locus to ... IRX1, IRX2, and IRX4 are found on human chromosome 5, and their orientation corresponds to that of IRX3, IRX5, and IRX6 found ... IRX1 is located on the forward DNA strand (see Sense (molecular biology)) of chromosome 5, from position 3596054 - 3601403 at ...

*RAB3A

"Chromosome mapping of the human ras-related rab3A gene to 19p13.2". Genomics. 5 (4): 694-8. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(89)90110-9. ... "Fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of human chromosome 19: cytogenetic band location of 540 cosmids and 70 genes or DNA ...

*S100A12

1996). "Human CAAF1 gene--molecular cloning, gene structure, and chromosome mapping". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 221 (2): ... S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein is proposed to be ... 1995). "Isolation of a YAC clone covering a cluster of nine S100 genes on human chromosome 1q21: rationale for a new ... a new member of the S100 gene cluster on chromosome 1q21". Cell Calcium. 20 (6): 459-64. doi:10.1016/S0143-4160(96)90087-1. ...

*Antonius Suwanto

He has found two circular chromosomes or plasmids in Rhodobacter with Kaplan S in 1989. He received an award as cum laude from ... Suwanto, A; Kaplan, S (1989). "Physical and genetic mapping of the Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 genome: Presence of two unique ... Suwanto, A; Kaplan, S (1989). "Physical and genetic mapping of the Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 genome: Genome size, fragment ... Suwanto, A; Kaplan, S (1992). "Chromosome transfer in Rhodobacter sphaeroides: Hfr formation and genetic evidence for two ...
... teaches people how to trace their bloodlines through chromosome mapping to confirm ancestors. Chromosome mapping collaboration can help confirm the presence of dna signatures on chromosomes left by ordinary, famous or noble ancestors. Chromosome mapping can help trace ancient bloodlines by using end location numbers of CM on chromosomes. Members get access to the database to add information of bloodlines they have mapped and to find end location numbers of researched ancestors and famous people.
can physical location of gene on any particular chromosome (except near centromearic region) changes over time due to crossing over ...
Read "High-resolution mapping of a linkage group on mouse chromosome 8 conserved on human chromosome 16Q, Mammalian Genome" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
After accounting for the larger physical size of the RGSC 6.0/rn6 rat genome build (2,619 Mb) compared with the original Baylor 3.4/rn4 rate genome build (2,554 Mb), the increased size of the rat genetic map (1,708 cM) is proportional to the original Jensen-Seaman map (1,542 cM). Thus, although the coordinates of highly recombinant regions in the rat genome were refined in the revised rat genetic map, the sex-averaged genomewide recombination rates did not change (0.66 cM/Mb vs. 0.65 cM/Mb). Although the genomewide recombination rates did not change, fine-scale localization of highly recombinant regions differed between the Jensen-Seaman map and the revised rat genetic map. One potential reason for the refined localization of highly recombinant regions in the revised rat genetic map is the greater potential of genetic variation due to the possibility of eight informative HS founder haplotypes per genomic position, whereas prior rat genetic maps relied on crosses between two parental strains with ...
Human chromosome 16 is the main focus of the mapping efforts at Los Alamos. The large photomicrograph on these opening pages illustrates the starting point for those mapping efforts, the evaluation of our chromosome-16-specific library of cloned fragments. Among the 23 pairs of human chromosomes, one pair, chromosome 16, is identified by fluorescence in-situ hybridization. Thousands of yellow fluorescent probes derived from the clone library have hybridized to both copies of chromosome 16. The high density and uniform coverage of the fluorescent signals were a strong indication that we could use the library to construct a map of overlapping cloned fragments spanning the entire length of the chromosome.
Forms of leukemia can be found on six different chromosomes. Acute leukemias can be found on chromosomes 1, 2, and 13, T-Cell developmental leukemia is found on chromosomes 3 and X, and the cause of myelogenous leukemia is in a protein coded for in chromosome 11 at 11p11.9. Chromosome 11 contains 134 million bases. Chromosome 11 has been identified with 151 diseases. Only chromosomes 1, 2, and X contain more currently identified diseases. Chromosome 11 has the most cancerous conditions of all of the chromosomes associated with it ...
Read "Genetic mapping of CHRNA3 and CHRNB4 to pig Chromosome 7 extends the syntenic conservation with human Chromosome 15 and mouse Chromosome 9, Mammalian Genome" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Have you uploaded your raw DNA files to GEDMatch.com? If not, you should consider it. Not only is there the possibility of connecting with new cousins who tested with different DNA companies, there are some nifty tools not available anywhere else. There are a variety of chromosome mapping tools that allow you to analyze your DNA in a variety of ways.. My Ancestry is Split. Just a brief note about my ancestry before we get started so youll have something to compare the charts to.. My dads side is 100% French…Southern France, Basque region…most of my ancestors well into the 1700s came from the same towns.. My moms side is more complication. Her makeup is Portuguese/Azorean (her fathers side), Irish (her maternal maternal grandparents), British (maternal grandfather), and Welsh (maternal paternal grandparents). This pie chart represents how the Eurogenes K36 utility sees my genetic makeup.. ...
eQTL tries to regress each gene expression against each SNP, in order to find those regulatory elements. And eQTL uses "normal" samples, right? (by normal I mean "no disease" like those in 1000genome project). GWAS compares SNPs between normal(control) and disease(test) samples, trying to find out those higher-frequency variants enriched for diseases.. linkage mapping/recombination mapping/positional cloning - rely on known markers (typically SNPs) that are close to the gene responsible for a disease or trait to segregate with that marker within a family. Works great for high-penetrance, single gene traits and diseases.. QTL mapping/interval mapping - for quantitative traits like height that are polygenic. Same as linkage mapping except the phenotype is continuous and the markers are put into a scoring scheme to measure their contribution - i.e. "marker effects" or "allelic contribution". Big in agriculture.. GWAS/linkage disequilibrium mapping - score thousands of SNPs at once from a population ...
Building on previous work (Skene et al., 2014), we show that a new ChIP-seq protocol provides superior resolution and ease of use at low sequence depth of coverage for generating genome-wide maps of protein binding.
A linkage study aims at establishing linkage between genes. Linkage is the tendency for genes and other genetic markers to be inherited together because of their location near one another on the same chromosome. A genetic marker is simply a segment of DNA with an identifiable physical location on a chromosome whose inheritance can be followed. A genetic marker can have a function and thus be a gene. Or a marker can be a section of DNA with no known function. Because DNA segments that lie near each other on a chromosome tend to be inherited together, markers are often used as tools for tracking the inheritance pattern of a gene that has not yet been identified but whose approximate location is known. The statistical estimate of whether two loci are likely to lie near each other on a chromosome and are therefore likely to be inherited together is called a LOD score. A LOD score of 3 or more is generally taken to indicate that the two loci are linked and are close to one another. Today linkage ...
Mouse complement component C1q is a serum glycoprotein which consists of six A chains, six B chains and six C chains. The three polypeptides are 223, 228, and 217 residues long, respectively, and are encoded by three genes. DNA probes for mouse C1q A, B, and C chains were hybridized to Southern blots of DNA obtained from various inbred mouse strains. On the basis of fragment length polymorphisms, two different alleles of each of the genes could be identified. The distribution of these alleles was determined in the BXD and LXPL recombinant inbred strain series. Comparison with previously reported strain distribution patterns shows that the genes encoding mouse C1q map to the same locus on distal chromosome 4. Overlapping clones spanning the entire gene cluster of C1q were isolated from genomic libraries using specific cDNA probes. The three genes C1qA, C1qB, and C1qC are closely arranged on a 19 kilobase stretch of DNA in the 5 to 3 orientation A-C-B. Each gene consists of two exons separated ...
Using high-resolution genetic mapping techniques, we have restricted the position of the Lps gene to a 0.9-cM region of chromosome 4, flanked proximally by D4Nds9 and distally by D4Mit178. A 1.7-Mb cloned DNA contig spanning this interval was sequentially assembled using YAC, BAC, and P1 clones. Our data differ significantly from another recently published physical map encompassing the Lps locus ((37)). In this contig, a gap (estimated at 100 kb by fluorescence in situ hybridization) exists in the BAC contig between D4Nds9 and D4Mit178. Comparison of BAC clone addresses common to both maps suggests that this gap corresponds to the center of our contig, and is ∼950 kb in size. Finally, through cDNA selection and nucleotide sequencing of randomly cloned sheared BACs from our contig, we have identified three transcription units within the Lps candidate region, including Tlr4, and two novel genes.. We provide evidence that implicates mouse Tlr4 as a critical regulator of the innate host response ...
Comparative genome analysis between two distantly related species allows the organization of genes to be traced from a common ancestor. When several genes are mapped in one species and these genes...
32-63. your great-great-great grandparents. If you leave the numbers in for parents, you can then use your chromosome mapper to map starting with your children.. In terms of colors, you would need four palettes instead of two. In my Excel spreadsheet I used shades of pink for my mothers maternal line and shades of orange for her paternal line; and shades of blue for my fathers paternal line and green for his maternal line but whatever colors work is fine with me. Your chromosome mapper is such a great tool, Kitty. Thank you for doing it.. I am one of your Mac testers.. ...
bionet.genome.chromosomes is a moderated newsgroup. Group submission address: biochrom at net.bio.net For your newsgroups file: bionet.genome.chromosomes Mapping/sequencing of eucaryote chromosomes. (Moderated) This newgroup message changes bionet.genome.chromosomes to moderated as discussed in the group. NOTE: the moderated bionet newsgroups follow the convention that articles can be delivered to the moderator by forming an address consisting of the newsgroup name with the dots changed to dashes @net.bio.net (i.e., bionet.software.www articles go to bionet-software-www at net.bio.net.) If you run INN, you can add bionet.*:%s at net.bio.net to /usr/lib/news/moderators to achieve the same effect. This newsgroup will be moderated by: Gary Williams ,gwilliam at hgmp.mrc.ac.uk, Unapproved posts and posts with forged approval are subject to cancellation without notice. The guidelines for proper use of the Usenet News System as stated in the rules of netiquette posted to news.announce.newgroups are ...
The Human Proteome Project has been proposed to create a knowledge-based resource based on a systematical mapping of all human proteins, chromosome by chromosome, in a gene-centric manner. With this background, we here describe the systematic analysis of chromosome 21 using an antibody-based approach for protein profiling using both confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry, complemented with transcript profiling using next generation sequencing data. We also describe a new approach for protein isoform analysis using a combination of antibody-based probing and isoelectric focusing. The analysis has identified several genes on chromosome 21 with no previous evidence on the protein level, and the isoform analysis indicates that a large fraction of human proteins have multiple isoforms. A chromosome-wide matrix is presented with status for all chromosome 21 genes regarding subcellular localization, tissue distribution, and molecular characterization of the corresponding proteins. The path to ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in establishment of chromosome localization pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
Understanding the recombination patterns across a chromosome determining the positions and frequency of genetic exchanges between homologous chromosomes is crucial for understanding and tracking inheritance of traits. Mapping genes that affect parasites traits, such as responses to various antimalarial agents, is possible because, during meiosis, homologous chromosomes line up and may exchange segments. Genes or any polymorphic bits of DNA that are close together tend to remain linked during this process, while those far apart tend to become separated. Identifying and following polymorphic markers through multiple generations is a key technique for genetic mapping ...
A new type of genomic map, known as the haplotype map, promises to speed the search for elusive genes involved in complex diseases. But to many biologists, its an untested concept hardly worthy of the $110 million it will consume. Welcome to the haplotype map, a new type of genome map that, depending on where you look, is eliciting exuberance or exasperation. ...
Gene research into breast cancer. A grid of DNA fragments is seen, making up human chromosome 17. Scientists have isolated chromosome 17 to be the site of a defective gene responsible for many cases of inherited breast cancer. This grid represents 20,736 (144x144) pieces of DNA, each of 40 kilobase length, which have been spotted onto filter paper. An X-ray plate has been superimposed onto the grid, showing some DNA fragments tagged with a radioactive marker (dark spots). These tagged DNA fragments, which may correspond to genes, have been hybridised (attached) to specific parts of chromosome 17. It is a technique which enables researchers to map genes on a chromosome. - Stock Image G210/0464
Each QTL identified in the crosses of inbred mice generally spans a large genomic distance, sometimes almost an entire chromosome. In complex phenotypes such as atherosclerosis, where a large number of genes are involved, transferring a target region onto an inbred background and creating congenic line is a powerful step toward identifying causative genes. Here we have analyzed the effect of the atherosclerosis QTL Aath4 by establishing a congenic line (Aath4aDBA/DBA), where the 5′ region of DBA Aath4 was backcrossed onto a 129S6-Apoe−/− background. As expected, the resulting Aath4aDBA/DBA males had significantly larger plaques, and macrophages isolated from these mice exhibited reduced efferocytosis as a consequence of allele-specific decrease in MERTK expression. Together, our results provide strong evidence that the increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis determined by the DBA allele of Aath4 is, at least in part, due to decreased MERTK expression.. MERTK is known to play a ...
Also known as a genetic marker, a segment of DNA with an identifiable physical location on a chromosome whose inheritance can be followed. A marker can be a gene, or it can be some section of DNA with no known function. Because DNA segments that lie near each other on a chromosome tend to be inherited together, markers are often used as indirect ways of tracking the inheritance pattern of genes that have not yet been identified, but whose approximate locations are known ...
Also known as a genetic marker, a segment of DNA with an identifiable physical location on a chromosome whose inheritance can be followed. A marker can be a gene, or it can be some section of DNA with no known function. Because DNA segments that lie near each other on a chromosome tend to be inherited together, markers are often used as indirect ways of tracking the inheritance pattern of genes that have not yet been identified, but whose approximate locations are known ...
The rat and mouse had a common ancestor 15-40 Myr ago, and although substantial chromosomal rearrangements have occurred since they diverged, there is still a high degree of similarity in gene organization in the two genomes. Taking advantage of this similarity, mapping information can be transferred between the two genomes and prediction of positions for hitherto unmapped genes can be made with a high degree of accuracy. In this work, we have put together available information for 916 orthologous rat and mouse gene pairs and, with very few exceptions, all of the gene pairs fell into 52 distinct chromosomal segments (sex chromosomes not included). Most of these segments were confirmed by mouse-on-rat heterologous painting (zoo-FISH) and they were used to make up the backbone of a rat-mouse comparative map. This comparative map was used as a framework for making a rat-mouse prediction map. Predictions for the rat genome were made in two ways. Firstly, the relative position for each orthologous ...
Early data from the 1,000 Genomes Project is already offering new clues about human disease, including why some people are more severely affected by disease than others.
The expression ratios of 5p arm miRNA to 3p arm miRNA. Several pre-miRNAs have significantly different ratios, demonstrating the arm selection preferences withi
Humans normally have 46 chromosomes in each cell, divided into 23 pairs. Two copies of chromosome 6, one copy inherited from each parent, form one of the pairs. Chromosome 6 spans about 171 million base pairs (the building blocks of DNA) and represents between 5.5 percent and 6 percent of the total DNA in cells ...
Olecular characterization of MAR, a multiple aberration area on human chromosome segment 12q13q15 implicated in a variety of strong tumors. Genes Chromosomes
Distorted loci tended to be clustered, which allowed definition of segregation distortion regions (SDRs). A total of 14 SDRs were identified in the 4 populations. Using the high-density composite map, several SDRs were shown tohave consistent map locations in two or more populations; one SDR on chromosome 1H was present in all four populations. The analysis of haplotypes underlying seven SDRs indicated that in three cases the under-represented haplotypes were common across populations, but for four SDRs the under-represented haplotypes varied ...
When authors make use of data they should cite both the data set and the scientific publication, if available. Such a practice gives credit to data set producers and advances principles of transparency and reproducibility. Please visit the data citations page for details. Users who would like to choose to format the citation(s) for this dataset using a myriad of alternate styles can copy the DOI number and paste it into Crosscites website.. † For EndNote users, please check the Research Note field for issues with importing authors that are organizations when using the ENW file format.. ...
ArkDB is a generic, species-independent database built to capture the state of published information on genome mapping in a given species. It stores details of references, markers and loci and genetic linkage and cytogenetic maps which can be drawn using the online map-drawing application. Data from linkage maps held within the ArkDB system can be drawn alongside their corresponding genome sequence maps (extracted from Ensembl). Registered users may upload their own QTL mapping data and export for GridQTL analysis.
Geospatial PDF showing scenic index and hiking trails Our methodology for creating the Scenic Index uses ArcGISs Raster Calculator function to find areas that are not covered in tree canopy and are illuminated by a setting and/or rising sun using the suns position for September 21. The index uses three layers as input in Raster Calculator; an NDVI raster from 2016 NAIP aerial photography and two Hillshade rasters from 10-meter DEM showing areas of illumination during an equinox sunrise and sunset. Find the students pages here: http://sweb.uky.edu/~blshea1/nre355/pksnp/ ...
The following is a list of provided dependencies in the DependencyManagement of this project. These dependencies can be included in the submodules to compile the submodule, but should be provided by default when using the library: ...
Genomic organization, chromosomal mapping, nucleotide sequence, and predicted amino acid sequence of the murine MCP-5 gene. (A) Partial restriction map and ge
EpiTect Hi-C Kit for high resolution mapping of chromatin folding, high quality assembly of genome sequences, and haplotype phasing.
A high-resolution map of the human brain in utero is providing hints about the origins of brain disorders including schizophrenia and autism. The map shows
Researchers have revealed a high-resolution map which shows gene activity in a human fetus brain. The map holds promise of showing the way to understand de
The POLH gene is located on the short (p) arm of chromosome 6 at position 21.1, precisely from base pair 43,576,140 to base pair 43,620,522 ...
Genome mapping in animals is now one of the leading disciplines in animal sciences. It is employed for all facets in genome analysis in animals and their improvement for benefit of human beings. Mapping of genomes in farm animals, ...
curWarn ,- getOption("warn") options(warn=0) on.exit(options(warn=curWarn), add=TRUE) if (require("hgu95av2")) { z ,- buildChromLocation("hgu95av2") ## find the number of chromosomes nChrom(z) ## Find the names of the chromosomes chromNames(z) ## get the organism this object refers to organism(z) ## get the lengths of the chromosomes in this object chromLengths(z) } else print("This example requires the hgu95av2 data package ...
As you know, the CGD grant is up for renewal this year and we are going to submit an application to the NIH this summer. We have previously asked members of the community to complete a User Survey to help us formulate future directions for CGD and we greatly appreciate the massive response we have received, with all the invaluable suggestions. We are now asking our users for letters of support to accompany the application. It is very important to demonstrate unequivocally how crucial the continued existence of CGD is to Candida research and to the community. We will greatly appreciate if you can email your letter of support to by June 25 and if you also encourage your colleagues and students to do the same. We are counting on your support ...
It is stated we use much less than 10% of the potential of our brains throughout everyday life. Even the most gifted amongst us barely use more than this. Imagine what our lives and our world would be like if we were able to boost our mental capacity by j... Read , ...
A positive association between birth weight and risk of type 1 diabetes has recently been described in large epidemiological studies, even after exclusion of maternal diabetes (1,2). Together with other lines of evidence, such studies have been taken as evidence that environmental risk factors for type 1 diabetes may play a role in utero or early in life (3). However, we cannot exclude the possibility that the above-mentioned association (1,2) is explained by genes associated with both increased birth weight and increased risk of type 1 diabetes.. The most important genetic contribution to the risk of type 1 diabetes is encoded within the HLA complex on chromosome 6p (4), and different HLA-DQA1 and -DQB1 alleles confer either strongly increased or reduced risk (5). The insulin gene region (INS) on chromosome 11p is probably the second most important genetic contribution to variation in susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (4,6). The class I allele at INS VNTR that confers susceptibility to type 1 ...
FISH (Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization) is a cytogenetic technique used to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes. This technique is based on the mechanism of nucleic acid base pairing. Characterized by high degree of sequence complementarity, only the exact matching parts of the chromosome will be recognized and bound by fluorescent probes. This powerful technique enables researchers to identify a range of chromosomal aberrations across the genome in a short time, including those causing mental retardation, various cancers, birth defects, etc. ...
This gene encodes a member of the p34Cdc2 protein kinase family. p34Cdc2 kinase family members are known to be essential for eukaryotic cell cycle control. This gene is in close proximity to CDC2L2, a nearly identical gene in the same chromosomal region. The gene loci including this gene, CDC2L2, as well as metalloprotease MMP21/22, consist of two identical, tandemly linked genomic regions which are thought to be a part of the larger region that has been duplicated. This gene and CDC2L2 were shown to be deleted or altered frequently in neuroblastoma with amplified MYCN genes. The protein kinase encoded by this gene could be cleaved by caspases and was demonstrated to play roles in cell apoptosis. Several alternatively spliced variants of this gene have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Without knowing the cause of sexual addiction, its difficult to predict what could prevent it, but there are a few factors that can help. First and foremost, if you or someone you care about seems to be exhibiting symptoms of sexual addiction, the best thing to do is get help from a qualified sexual addiction therapist as quickly as possible. This can keep symptoms from escalating and prevent a downward spiral that takes patients into a place thats hard to recover from later. For those who recognize the signs of sexual addiction within themselves, its wise to stay away from drugs and alcohol, as well as pornographic websites and physical locations where it might be tempting to look for a sexual partner.. ...
Data governance solutions enable you locate and retrieve information about data objects, their meaning, physical location, characteristics, and usage. It also can help you manage your business information throughout its lifecycle.
A paper just published online in Nature Genetics describes a brute force approach to finding the genes underlying serious diseases in cases where traditional methods fall flat. While somewhat successful, the study also illustrates the paradoxical challenge of working with large-scale sequencing data: there are often too many possible disease variants, and it can be extremely difficult to work out which are actually causing the disease in question.. The authors looked at 208 families where multiple members suffered from mental retardation and where the family history was consistent with the underlying gene being carried on the X chromosome. In most cases the families werent large enough to use linkage analysis to narrow down the location of the gene - in other words, the disease-causing mutation could be almost anywhere among the more than 800 genes scattered along this chromosome.. In these cases the traditional approaches of genetics break down - apart from screening the known genes involved ...
The laboratory of Ting Wu at Harvard University, in collaboration with Bruker, has developed a method for imaging and visualizing DNA sequences in specific chromosomal regions at the super resolution level using the Vutara 352.
antibody-antibodies.com is the marketplace for research antibodies. Find the right antibody for your research needs. Human chromosome 7: DNA sequence and biology.
Another study applying ChIP-seq for two different TFs (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 α) in the livers of five vertebrates species provides an alternative view of conservation of TF-binding events (Schmidt et al., 2010). This work demonstrated that the majority of binding events are species specific, rather than consistently localized in conserved regions. Binding to conserved sequences in one species was rarely indicative of binding to the homologous sequence in others. These differences in binding were consistently observed between human and mouse in the livers of both species, and also in the livers of aneuploid mice harbouring human chromosome 21. Binding to the human chromosome in mouse was representative of binding to the endogenous chromosome in human, rather than binding to mouse chromosomes (Wilson et al., 2008) (Fig. 4). The differences in binding between species are therefore unlikely to be due to non-equivalence in the assayed tissue. Similarly, ...
Chromosome 6 FPC contigs # 277 and 280 order should be reversed, based on 1. genetic map coordinate of chromosome anchors ctg277 umc1857 203.3 iCM on IBM2 6 ctg 280 pl1 211.5 iCM on IBM2 6 2. Fig 7, and Table 8 data for region 6.2 described in Ganal et al 2011 PUBMED ID 22174790; over 20,000 SNP mapped on high resolution IBM population, using the 55K SNP chip array from Illumina. The region for IBM map order not consistent with the assembly can be corrected if the 2 contigs were switched ...
C1orf129, 0.1 ml. Chromosome 1 is the largest human chromosome spanning about 260 million base pairs and making up 8% of the human genome.
Studies using PKC regulatory/catalytic domain chimeras have underscored the complexity of PKC functions in relation to its structural domains. In previous reports, we and others showed that certain features of isozyme-specific PKC functions could be attributed to the catalytic domain only. These include the PKC-δ-mediated PMA-induced macrophage differentiation of 32D cells (14), the tumorigenicity of PKC-ε-overexpressing NIH 3T3 cells (15), the PKC-βII-mediated growth promotion in K-562 cells (26), and the protection of PKC-δ from down-regulation induced by bryostatin 1 in NIH 3T3 cells (17). However, in some cases, both the regulatory and the catalytic domains contribute to the isoform-specific effects (15, 18, 27). Further mapping of the structural domains beyond the catalytic and regulatory regions is essential to clearly determine the function of each structural domain and to understand how individual domains interact with each other to regulate PKC function.. Previous studies on the ...
Public health experts traditionally expect that the poorer you are, the more likely you are to be unwell and die before your time. But newly available data on cancer rates show thats not always true.
Things are going pretty well for Miami Heat superstar LeBron James. James has led the Heat to 16 wins in a row and the reigning NBA most valuable player will soon marry his high school sweetheart,
The development of parallel morphological characters suggests that in each case closely similar sequences of cell division and cell differentiation occur, which thus lead to similar forms. This in turn suggests that similar sets of genes are involved. It is known in a number of cases (except when too many chromosomal translocations have occurred such as in Drosophila) that genes involved in development of individual organs are frequently located together in chromosome segments. This almost forces us to assume that these parallel forms are due to the presence of similar chromosome segments. According to this view, the similarities did not arise by identical series of mutations in all plants with parallel forms (which would have resulted in whole series of intermediate forms), but by a one-time transfer of the same chromosome segment ...
Segmental structure of various scales exists in genomic sequences. Many evolutionary and genetic mechanisms leading to variation in DNA operate on segments of the genome (duplications and inversions of segments, recombinations). Furthermore, eukaryotic chromosomes consist of alternating regions of gene-rich and gene-poor regions. A gene-rich region can be further decomposed into non-coding segments, segments that contain regulatory information, and genes, which in turn consist of introns and exons. Also, remnants of viral or microbial inserts in a genome form a type of segmental structure.. There are many types of features with which one can segment the sequences. For any given technique, there may exist alternative biological features to segment on. For example, if the goal is to identify coding and noncoding segments in a sequence, one may study the distribution of three-letter words (codons) along the sequence to determine where to set the segment boundaries. An alternative would be, for ...
Like GRCh37, the updated reference assembly provides alternate sequence representation for variant regions in the form of alternate loci (alt loci) scaffolds. The alt loci are stand-alone, accessioned sequences for which chromosomal context is provided via alignment to the reference chromosomes. All alternate loci include at least one anchor sequence, a component also found on the reference chromosomes, to ensure these alignments are of high quality. Alt loci belong to alternate loci assembly units: the assembly unit ALT_REF_LOCI_1 contains the first alternate sequence representation for any genomic locus, ALT_REF_LOCI_2 contains the second alternate sequence representation and so forth. GRCh38 contains 261 alt loci scaffolds, in 35 alternate assembly units. 72 of these alternate loci were previously available as NOVEL patches to GRCh37. The LRC/KIR complex on chr. 19 has the largest number of alternate sequence representations (35), followed by the MHC on chr. 6 (7 ...
Assuming that each replication fork moves at a rate of 500 base pairs per second, how long would it take to replicate the E. coli chromosome (with 4.6 million base pairs) from a single origin of replication? ...
Representing a spherical view of the world on a flat computer monitor or print requires some manner of mapping from the 3D spherical scene in which the camera and viewer are embedded to the 2D medium on which they are rendered. The techniques used for mapping are of exactly the same type long used by map makers to project the entire globe, or portions of it, onto two dimensional maps. There is no single, unique projection for representing sections of the sphere on the globe. Instead, all projections have various attributes and limitations. There are many classes of projections used for various purposes (e.g. Mathwords Projection Page), but only a few are traditionally used for panoramic imaging. ...
What are the detailed physical effects of drugs? For example: why do some people have that yellowish color to their eyeballs, what drug can do that? What drug makes peoples pupils really small (pin hole sized)? Effects like these and others please.
Overview This chapter provides an overview of how geneticists use the familial nature of disease to identify the responsible genes and gene variants. Whether a disease is inherited in a recognizable mendelian pattern or just occurs at a higher frequency in relatives of affected individuals, the genetic contribution to disease must result from genotypic differences among family members that either cause disease outright or increase or decrease disease susceptibility.
The coordinates of the tag sequences along the genome were determined and each tag was classified into one of these four categories: 1) class 1 - within an existing ORF, 2) class 2 - within 500 bp downstream of existing an ORF, 3) class 4 - opposite of an existing ORF, or 4) class 3 - none of the above. The regions between two existing ORFs which contained one or more unique class 3 tags (number 4) above) were examined for potential coding sequences in which the unique tag was located either within the coding sequence or 500bp downstream of this sequence. BLASTP analysis was then performed for each potential ORF meeting these criteria against the non-redundant (nr) NCBI dataset, and those with a P value exponent of -6 or less were analyzed further. The BLAST results were analyzed on an individual basis for each potential ORF meeting the above criteria. Those potential ORFs which exhibited reasonable homology to other proteins, and did not appear to be matched with other proteins based on ...
The coordinates of the tag sequences along the genome were determined and each tag was classified into one of these four categories: 1) class 1 - within an existing ORF, 2) class 2 - within 500 bp downstream of existing an ORF, 3) class 4 - opposite of an existing ORF, or 4) class 3 - none of the above. The regions between two existing ORFs which contained one or more unique class 3 tags (number 4) above) were examined for potential coding sequences in which the unique tag was located either within the coding sequence or 500bp downstream of this sequence. BLASTP analysis was then performed for each potential ORF meeting these criteria against the non-redundant (nr) NCBI dataset, and those with a P value exponent of -6 or less were analyzed further. The BLAST results were analyzed on an individual basis for each potential ORF meeting the above criteria. Those potential ORFs which exhibited reasonable homology to other proteins, and did not appear to be matched with other proteins based on ...
UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
Enables students to explore connections between prehistoric mammals and their modern-day counterparts. With a science-based focus on understanding physical structure and function, students are also encouraged to extend their knowledge by putting forward researched and original ideas on issues such as food chains, adaptations and extinction ...
Proteins perform many functions essential for life. The building blocks of proteins are the twenty naturally occurring amino acids. We study the chemical and physical structure of amino acids and...
Concerned with designing and building physical structures involving mechanical motion using structures, heat transfer, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, controls, materials, energy ...
Concerned with designing and building physical structures involving mechanical motion using structures, heat transfer, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, controls, materials, energy ...
ArkDB/GridQTL is an extension of the ArkDB database system, for the storage and retrieval of genetic maps for QTL mapping analyses performed on the GridQTL system. Users can browse and a download maps for the available species, and registered users may upload new mapping data of their own.. Select one of the species listed below, or if you are logged in you may create a new species.. ...
... of particles. Assume that the particles in the batch being sampled are spherical with a radius of 0.5 mm. 36% of the particles appeared to be pink and are known to have a polymeric stationary phase attached. The average density of the mixture is 0.288 g cm-3. If 5.3126„b0.0003 g of the sample is weighed out, calculate ...
Wikia is not accessible if youve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected ...
The brain is not like a computer that can support any operating system and run any software, instead, it is intimately correlated with the brains structure.
A team of biologists has identified 20 hot spots around the world where mammal species, while not yet appearing threatened, are likely to be at high risk of extinction in decades to come.
Fine mapping of the circling(cir) gene on the distal portion of mouse chromosome 9 / K I Cho; Jeong Woong Lee; K S Kim; E J Lee; J G Suh; H J Lee; H T Kim; S H Hong; W H Chung; Kyu Tae Chang; Byung Hwa Hyun; Y S Oh; Z Y Ryoo , 2003 ...
Finding the right workout routine or program can be hard because it has to be something you like and enjoy if you are going to have any shot at sticking with it. If you need help finding something to work for you, please message me and Ill help you narrow down your options! ...
Nucleated Peripheral Red Cells Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Anemia. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
Chest Pain Worse when Lying Down & Pseudologia Fantastica & Slow Pulse Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Cardiomyopathy. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
Now for the misses of this year... It felt hard to narrow down this list, but then I realized that it was only hard because I had six to show you. Other ones were taken off this list because they were reworked into other versions. Ill also share some of my makes that held over…
Combined display of all available logs of WebRef.org. You can narrow down the view by selecting a log type, the username (case-sensitive), or the affected page (also case-sensitive). ...
Hi we are due dd3 in April and stumped on a name . We have a Lyla and a Emmie put cant even narrow down any we like . Emmie was a name dh came up wi
Combined display of all available logs of Magicpedia. You can narrow down the view by selecting a log type, the username (case-sensitive), or the affected page (also case-sensitive). ...
Combined display of all available logs of CommonJS Spec Wiki. You can narrow down the view by selecting a log type, the username (case-sensitive), or the affected page (also case-sensitive). ...
Combined display of all available logs of CommonJS Spec Wiki. You can narrow down the view by selecting a log type, the username (case-sensitive), or the affected page (also case-sensitive). ...
Combined display of all available logs of The Infosphere, the Futurama Wiki. You can narrow down the view by selecting a log type, the username (case-sensitive), or the affected page (also case-sensitive). ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
Genes are carried on chromosomes and the two that are important in PKD are chromosomes 16 and 4. I am not going to deal with the specifics of inheritance - this is best explained on the PKD Foundation web page. The relevant facts are that: 85% people…
The system plays these different levels of correspondence off of each other. It might begin, for instance, with a few competing hypotheses for alphabetical mappings, based entirely on symbol frequency - mapping symbols that occur frequently in one language onto those that occur frequently in the other. Using a type of probabilistic modeling common in artificial-intelligence research, it would then determine which of those mappings seems to have identified a set of consistent suffixes and prefixes. On that basis, it could look for correspondences at the level of the word, and those, in turn, could help it refine its alphabetical mapping. "We iterate through the data hundreds of times, thousands of times," says Snyder, "and each time, our guesses have higher probability, because were actually coming closer to a solution where we get more consistency." Finally, the system arrives at a point where altering its mappings no longer improves consistency ...
Quint, M., Mihaljevic, R., Dussle, C.M., Xu, M.L., Melchinger, A.E. & Lübberstedt, T. Development of RGA-CAPS markers and genetic mapping of candidate genes for SCMV resistance in maize Theor Appl Genet 105, 355-366, (2002) ...
pep:known chromosome:VEGA66:12:56691767:56712707:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000023206 transcript:OTTMUST00000056158 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Pax9 description:paired box gene 9 ...
IN the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in an experimental cross, selective genotyping (in which only the individuals at the extremes of the phenotype distribution are genotyped) can provide nearly equivalent power to complete genotyping at a reduced cost (Lander and Botstein 1989; Darvasi and Soller 1992).. Interval mapping with selectively genotyped data is best performed with consideration of all individuals, even those that were not genotyped (Lander and Botstein 1989). Consideration of only the genotyped individuals results in a biased estimate of the QTL effect. Haley-Knott regression (Haley and Knott 1992) generally provides a good approximation to standard interval mapping, but should be avoided in the case of selective genotyping, as it tends to produce inflated evidence for linkage (Feenstra et al. 2006).. Despite the common use of selective genotyping for QTL mapping and the extensive literature on significance thresholds for QTL mapping, we are not aware of any discussion of ...
View Notes - Brooker_Chp5_MappingP from BIO 325 at University of Texas. Chapter 5 Eukaryotic Gene Mapping GENETIC MAPPING Gene mapping / chromosome mapping - Historically, based on recombination
We assembled the first chromosome level linkage map for the Australian snapper Chrysophrys auratus. Proof checking the marker order against the snapper de novo genome assembly indicated that the linkage groups were of high quality. QTL mapping revealed eight markers on three linkage groups that were significantly associated with growth. Three candidate genes for growth were located on the same linkage groups as these QTL. These genomic resources will be used to inform the selective breeding program in New Zealand and will form the basis of further genomic investigation in snapper.. Linkage maps are essential for genomic and genetic studies, and have been used extensively to derive the order and spatial position of markers (Cnaani et al. 2004; Greenwood et al. 2011; Boulton et al. 2011). Historically, most first generation linkage maps in fish have been constructed with just a handful or a few hundred markers and did not have genome sequences available to evaluate marker order (Castaño-Sánchez ...
The Lith1 region on Chromosome (Chr) 2 contains a gene that markedly affects the prevalence of cholesterol gallstones in inbred mice. We report the high-resolution genetic and radiation hybrid maps of the chromosomal region surrounding Lith1, using three resources: a DNA panel from 188 progeny from two reciprocal backcrosses between C57BL/6 and Mus spretus inbred strains; 423 progeny of an N4 generation from backcrossing the susceptible C57L/J alleles at Lith1 into the resistant AKR/J strain; and the newly developed hamster-mouse T31 radiation hybrid panel. We mapped 17 microsatellite markers in the D2Mit182 to D2Mit14 region and two candidate genes for Lith1, the canalicular bile salt export pump (Bsep) also known as sister of P-glycoprotein (Spgp) and the low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related gene megalin (Gp330). Both genetic maps were in agreement and ordered the microsatellite markers into a 10.4 +/- 1.5 cM region. The high-resolution physical map revealed ordering of microsatellite
The present study was undertaken to identify genes that influence LDL size properties. Although LDL size phenotype has been shown in many studies to be an important CVD risk factor, little is known about the genes that influence LDL size properties. In this study, we used gradient gel electrophoresis to measure the amount of cholesterol in each of 4 different LDL size fractions, and performed mixing experiments to show that LDL particles that differed in size and composition have similar chromogenicities for cholesterol staining (Figure 1⇑). For each of the 4 LDL size fractions, we found significant heritabilities, which ranged from 22% to 37% (Table 1⇑), suggesting the existence of 1 or more genes that influence each of the 4 fractions. These measures of LDL size fractions were also significantly influenced by several covariates, including age and sex. The LDL size fractions are related metabolically36 and they are significantly intercorrelated phenotypically (r2 values for the 6 possible ...
Life history traits such as fecundity are important to evolution because they make up components of lifetime fitness. Due to their polygenic architectures, such traits are difficult to investigate with genetic mapping. Therefore, little is known about their molecular basis. One possible way toward finding the underlying genes is to map intermediary molecular phenotypes, such as gene expression traits. We set out to map candidate quantitative trait genes for egg fecundity in the chicken by combining quantitative trait locus mapping in an advanced intercross of wild by domestic chickens with expression quantitative trait locus mapping in the same birds. We measured individual egg fecundity in 232 intercross chickens in two consecutive trials, the second one aimed at measuring brooding. We found 12 loci for different aspects of egg fecundity. We then combined the genomic confidence intervals of these loci with expression quantitative trait loci from bone and hypothalamus in the same intercross. ...
The observation that variants regulating gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci, eQTL) are at a high frequency among SNPs associated with complex traits has made the genome-wide characterization of gene expression an important tool in genetic mapping studies of such traits. As part of a study to identify genetic loci contributing to bipolar disorder and other quantitative traits in members of 26 pedigrees from Costa Rica and Colombia, we measured gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from 786 pedigree members. The study design enabled us to comprehensively reconstruct the genetic regulatory network in these families, provide estimates of heritability, identify eQTL, evaluate missing heritability for the eQTL, and quantify the number of different alleles contributing to any given locus. In the eQTL analysis, we utilize a recently proposed hierarchical multiple testing strategy which controls error rates regarding the discovery of functional variants. Our results ...
Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is an important oilseed crop which produces about 30 %of the worlds edible vegetable oil. The quality of soybean oil is determined by its fatty acid composition. Soybean oil high in oleic and low in linolenic fatty acids is desirable for human consumption and other uses. The objectives of this study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for unsaturated fatty acids and to evaluate the genetic effects of single QTL and QTL combinations in soybean. A population of recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross of SD02-4-59 X A02-381100 was evaluated for fatty acid content in seven environments. In total, 516 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism markers, 477 polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers and three GmFAD3 geneswere used to genotype the mapping population. By using the composite interval mapping and/or the interval mapping method, a total of 15 QTLs for the three unsaturated fatty acids were detected in more than two environments. Two QTLs for
Cassava is an important tuber crop grown mainly in the tropical and sub-tropical regions. The crop is a source of calories for over 500 million people worldwide. To improve the crop, genetic improvement through breeding is necessary. The use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) are the powerful tools to generate a linkage map in cassava. F1 mapping population from 96 1089A and TME 117 was developed with 180 progenies. To produce the linkage map, parental lines were screened with over 200 SSR markers and the polymorphic markers were used on the progenies. Of 717 SNP markers used, 347 were polymorphic. 253 markers comprising of 248 SNP and 5 SSR markers were used. 18 linkage groups were drawn with an average of 14 markers on each chromosome and the average marker distance of 6.5cM. The total length of the map was 1,493cM. SNP markers are many and could be easily used to construct a genetic linkage map compared with SSR markers.. ...
Silene latifolia has heteromorphic sex chromosomes, the X and Y chromosomes. The Y chromosome, which is thought to carry the male determining gene, was isolated by UV laser microdissection and amplified by degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR. In situ chromosome suppression of the amplified Y chromosome DNA in the presence of female genomic DNA as a competitor showed that the microdissected Y chromosome DNA did not specifically hybridize to the Y chromosome, but hybridized to all chromosomes. This result suggests that the Y chromosome does not contain Y chromosome-enriched repetitive sequences. A repetitive sequence in the microdissected Y chromosome, RMY1, was isolated while screening repetitive sequences in the amplified Y chromosome. Part of the nucleotide sequence shared a similarity to that of X-43.1, which was isolated from microdissected X chromosomes. Since fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with RMY1 demonstrated that RMY1 was localized at the ends of the chromosome, RMY1 may ...
B chromosomes have a functional effect on sex determination in a species of cichlid fishes from Lake Victoria [...] The researchers found sex-ratio distortions caused by B chromosomes in the breeding line of the cichlids, as well as several protein-coding genes in the B chromosomes. The resultant ratio was female biased, suggesting a role for B chromosomes in female sex determination. [...] In the present study, the researchers performed an extensive analysis of B chromosomes in cichlid fishes from Lake Victoria to investigate their effect on cichlid evolution. Karyotype analysis of Lake Victoria cichlids suggested that, in one species, Lithochromis rubripinnis, there are female-specific B chromosomes. Crossbreeding experiments suggested that an effector of female sex determination in this species was the B chromosome. Furthermore, analyses of large-scale sequences of B chromosomes in Lake Victoria cichlids revealed multiple protein-coding genes in B chromosomes. The sex determination gene was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of a locus, distinct from RDS-peripherin, for autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa on chromosome 6p. AU - Knowles, James A.. AU - Shugart, Yin. AU - Banerjee, Poulabi. AU - Gilliam, T. Conrad. AU - Lewis, Charles A.. AU - Jacobson, Samuel G.. AU - Ott, Jurg. PY - 1994/8. Y1 - 1994/8. N2 - We performed a genomic search for linkage to autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa in a large pedigree obtained from the Dominican Republic using microsatellite markers. Regions of the genome known to contain genes for retinitis pigmentosa were preferentially tested. One of these regions, on chromosome 6p, which contains the gene for peripherin, gave positive lod scores. Use of a mononucleotide repeat polymorphism in the peripherin gene excluded this locus. Two- and multi-point analyses suggest that the most likely location for the disease gene is near D6S291, which is located approximately 20 centimorgans telomeric from peripherin.. AB - We performed a genomic search for ...
DOSAGE compensation is an essential, chromosome-wide regulatory process that equalizes expression of most X-linked genes between males (usually XO or XY) and females (usually XX), despite their two-fold difference in X chromosome dose. Flies, worms, and mammals utilize diverse mechanisms of dosage compensation, but all involve global changes in X chromosome structure that ultimately serve to adjust the level of X-linked transcripts in only one sex (Cline and Meyer 1996; Meller 2000; Meyer 2000). These X chromosome changes are mediated by dosage compensation machinery that must recognize and associate specifically with the X chromosome(s) of only the dosage-compensating sex. Although the identity and properties of proteins and noncoding RNAs that execute dosage compensation are known in detail, much less is known about the cis-acting factors that must reside on the X chromosome to recruit the dosage compensation machinery. Important advances in understanding the problem of X chromosome ...

Patent WO2009132089A2 - A method to identify asian soybean rust resistance quantitative trait loci ... - Google PatentsPatent WO2009132089A2 - A method to identify asian soybean rust resistance quantitative trait loci ... - Google Patents

J.P. GUSTAFSON AND R. APPELS: "Molecular mapping in plant chromosomes. chromosome structure andfunction: Impact of new concepts ... Selection of appropriate mapping populations is important to map construction. The choice of an appropriate mapping population ... Molecular mapping in plant chromosomes, chromosome structure and function: Impact of new concepts J.P. Gustafson and R. Appels ... Haplotype windows can be mapped along each chromosome in the genome. Haplotype windows are not fixed per se and, given the ever ...
more infohttp://www.google.com.au/patents/WO2009132089A2?cl=en

Chromosome Mapping | Encyclopedia.comChromosome Mapping | Encyclopedia.com

... mapping is the assignment of genes to specific locations on a chromosome. A gene map serves many important functions and is ... Source for information on Chromosome Mapping: The Gale Encyclopedia of Science dictionary. ... Chromosome mapping. Chromosome mapping is the assignment of genes to specific locations on a chromosome. A gene map serves many ... These maps are called cytogenetic maps, linkage maps, physical maps, or a DNA sequence map. A cytogenetic map uses bands ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/chromosome-mapping-0

Chromosome mapping definition | Drugs.comChromosome mapping definition | Drugs.com

Definition of chromosome mapping. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... chromosome mapping. Definition: the process of determining the position of loci on specific chromosomes and constructing a ... diagram of each chromosome showing the relative positions of loci; techniques include family studies with linkage analysis, ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/chromosome-mapping.html

OpGen, Hitachi Developing Human Chromosome Mapping Analytical Service | GenomeWebOpGen, Hitachi Developing Human Chromosome Mapping Analytical Service | GenomeWeb

Hitachi High-Technologies said today they will combine their technologies to develop a comprehensive human chromosome mapping ... Hitachi High-Technologies said today they will combine their technologies to develop a comprehensive human chromosome mapping ... The agreement will leverage OpGens Whole Genome Mapping technology and Hitachi High-Technologies and the Hitachi groups ... include bioinformatic tools to complete a human genome sequence and to detect and analyze structural variations in chromosomes ...
more infohttps://www.genomeweb.com/sequencing/opgen-hitachi-developing-human-chromosome-mapping-analytical-service

Chromosome Mapping Drosophila BioKit® (with Prepaid Coupon) | Carolina.comChromosome Mapping Drosophila BioKit® (with Prepaid Coupon) | Carolina.com

Three chromosome 1 mutants (white, miniature, and forked) are used. ... Students study crossing over and distance between genes on chromosomes. ... Chromosome Mapping Drosophila BioKit® (with Prepaid Coupon). Item # 171964 Online Only *bvseo_sdk, java_sdk, bvseo-4.0.0 ... Students study crossing over and distance between genes on chromosomes. Three chromosome 1 mutants (white, miniature, and ...
more infohttps://www.carolina.com/drosophila-fruit-fly-genetics/chromosome-mapping-drosophila-biokit-with-prepaid-coupon/171964.pr

Chromosome Mapping | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard CatalystChromosome Mapping | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst

"Chromosome Mapping" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Chromosome Mapping" was a major or minor topic ... "Chromosome Mapping" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Chromosome Mapping" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Chromosome Mapping". ...
more infohttps://connects.catalyst.harvard.edu/Profiles/display/Concept/Chromosome%20Mapping

Fraunhofer-Publica List: chromosome mappingFraunhofer-Publica List: chromosome mapping

Cloning and chromosomal mapping of the human p53-related KET gene to chromosome 3q27 and its murine homolog Ket to mouse ... Microclones derived from the mouse chromosome 7 D-E bands map within the proximal region of the C14Co5 deletion in albino ... chromosome 16. Augustin, M.; Bamberger, C.; Paul, D.; Schmale, H.. Zeitschriftenaufsatz 1991. ...
more infohttp://publica.fraunhofer.de/schlagwoerter/chromosome%20mapping

Plasmids, recombination and chromosome mapping in Streptomyces lividans 66.  - PubMed - NCBIPlasmids, recombination and chromosome mapping in Streptomyces lividans 66. - PubMed - NCBI

Plasmids, recombination and chromosome mapping in Streptomyces lividans 66.. Hopwood DA, Kieser T, Wright HM, Bibb MJ. ... A linkage map of the S. lividans chromosome containing ten markers was derived from the results of matings using several ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6631413?dopt=Abstract

Synonyms and Antonyms for chromosome-mapping | Synonym.comSynonyms and Antonyms for chromosome-mapping | Synonym.com

1. chromosome mapping (n.). (genetics) the process of locating genes on a chromosome ... 4. mapping (n.). (genetics) the process of locating genes on a chromosome ... 3. mapping (n.). (mathematics) a mathematical relation such that each element of a given set (the domain of the function) is ... 2. chromosome (n.). a threadlike strand of DNA in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order ...
more infohttps://www.synonym.com/synonyms/chromosome-mapping

Chromosome map - definition of chromosome map by The Free DictionaryChromosome map - definition of chromosome map by The Free Dictionary

chromosome map synonyms, chromosome map pronunciation, chromosome map translation, English dictionary definition of chromosome ... map. n a graphic representation of the positions of genes on chromosomes, obtained by observation of chromosome bands or by ... Chromosome map - definition of chromosome map by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/chromosome+map ... chromosome map. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. chromosome map. n (Genetics) a graphic ...
more infohttp://www.thefreedictionary.com/chromosome+map

Report of the Second International Workshop on Y Chromosome Mapping 1995.  - PubMed - NCBIReport of the Second International Workshop on Y Chromosome Mapping 1995. - PubMed - NCBI

Report of the Second International Workshop on Y Chromosome Mapping 1995.. Affara N1, Bishop C, Brown W, Cooke H, Davey P, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8646888?dopt=Abstract

Chromosome mapping | definition of chromosome mapping by Medical dictionaryChromosome mapping | definition of chromosome mapping by Medical dictionary

What is chromosome mapping? Meaning of chromosome mapping medical term. What does chromosome mapping mean? ... Looking for online definition of chromosome mapping in the Medical Dictionary? chromosome mapping explanation free. ... chromosome mapping. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.. Related to chromosome mapping: gene mapping chro·mo· ... Chromosome mapping , definition of chromosome mapping by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/chromosome+mapping

Chromosome Mapping: Human Genome Research ArchiveChromosome Mapping: Human Genome Research Archive

Chromosome Mapping. The Human Genome Project was completed in 2003. One of the key research areas was Chromosome Mapping. This ... Genetic Map 2- to 5-cM resolution map (600 - 1,500 markers). 1-cM resolution map (3,000 markers) September 1994. ... Mapping abstracts from U.S. DOE Human Genome 1997 Program Report *Mapping abstracts from 1996 U.S. DOE Human Genome Program ... Mapping is the construction of a series of chromosome descriptions that depict the position and spacing of unique, identifiable ...
more infohttps://web.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/research/mapping.shtml

Chromosome mapping of H3 and H4 histone gene clusters in 35 species of acridid grasshoppers | SpringerLinkChromosome mapping of H3 and H4 histone gene clusters in 35 species of acridid grasshoppers | SpringerLink

We analyse chromosome location of H3 and H4 histone gene clusters by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) in 35 species of ... Tripputi P, Emanuel BS, Croce CM, Green LG, Stein GS, Stein JL (1986) Human histone genes map to multiple chromosomes. Proc ... Chromosome mapping of H3 and H4 histone gene clusters in 35 species of acridid grasshoppers. ... was located interstitially in the proximal chromosome third. In 17 out of the 21 species with 2n♂ = 23 acrocentric chromosomes ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10577-009-9030-5

KAKEN - Research Projects | Study for citrus chromosome mapping (KAKENHI-PROJECT-10660030)KAKEN - Research Projects | Study for citrus chromosome mapping (KAKENHI-PROJECT-10660030)

For making physical map of citrus chromosomes , chromosome preparation method in which vegetative tissue of mother plant use as ... Furthermore in Nankan N0.20 chromosomes, 8 type-E chromosomes were classified to 2 long, 2 medium and 4 short chromosomes by ... Eight type-D chromosomes of Nankan N0.20 were classified to I chromosome with large yellow signal, I with small yellow ... citrus / chromosome / karyotype / Giemsa stain / CMA stain / GISH / chromosome preparation method / ヘキスト染色. ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-10660030/

Product Details for The Genome of Dropsophila Melanogaster Chromosome Maps by Dan L. LindsleyProduct Details for The Genome of Dropsophila Melanogaster Chromosome Maps by Dan L. Lindsley

Buy The Genome of Dropsophila Melanogaster Chromosome Maps by Dan L. Lindsley at TextbookX.com. ISBN/UPC: 9780124509917. Save ... and the detailed maps of the chromosome arms produced by C.B. and P.M. Bridges* All maps are reprinted as high-quality foldouts ... This handbook and its accompanying polytene chromosome maps, are sturdily bound into the book as foldouts and available as a ... Describes all recorded chromosome rearrangements of Drosophila melanogaster as of the end of 1989* Contains the cytogenetic map ...
more infohttps://www.textbookx.com/book/The-Genome-of-Dropsophila-Melanogaster-Chromosome-Maps/9780124509917/

Worlds First Cannabis Chromosome Map Reveals the Plants Evolutionary History |  Mount Sinai - New YorkWorld's First Cannabis Chromosome Map Reveals the Plant's Evolutionary History | Mount Sinai - New York

The chromosome map now clearly shows that two distinct genes are at play, which should make it possible to separate them during ... Worlds First Cannabis Chromosome Map Reveals the Plants Evolutionary History. The herbs past points to its future as a ... "The chromosome map is an important foundational resource for further research which, despite cannabis widespread use, has ... Both are found on chromosome 6 of the 10 chromosomes the cannabis genome is packaged into. There, the enzyme genes are ...
more infohttps://www.mountsinai.org/about/newsroom/2018/worlds-first-cannabis-chromosome-map-reveals-the-plants-evolutionary-history

Brooker Chp5 MappingP - Chapter 5 Eukaryotic Gene Mapping GENETIC MAPPING Gene mapping chromosome mapping Historically based on...Brooker Chp5 MappingP - Chapter 5 Eukaryotic Gene Mapping GENETIC MAPPING Gene mapping chromosome mapping Historically based on...

Chapter 5 Eukaryotic Gene Mapping GENETIC MAPPING Gene mapping / chromosome mapping - Historically, based on recombination ... Gene mapping / chromosome mapping - Historically, based on recombination events during meiosis  Determine the linear order of ... Map distance = Number of recombinant offspring Total number of offspring X 100 By convention 1 map unit = 1% recombination ... Chromosomes are the product of a crossover during meiosis in the heterozygous parent Recombinant offspring are fewer in number ...
more infohttps://www.coursehero.com/file/133155/Brooker-Chp5-MappingP/

Two Human Chromosomes Entirely Mapped | Science NewsTwo Human Chromosomes Entirely Mapped | Science News

In the Nov. 10 SN: Real benefits of virtual therapy, monkey malaria in humans, round electrons disappoint, mouse pups with two dads, bats hover techniques, Europas icy spikes, a vampire burial and more. ...
more infohttps://www.sciencenews.org/archive/two-human-chromosomes-entirely-mapped?mode=magazine&context=742

Chapter 13: Chromosomes, Mapping And The Meiosis Inheritance Connection - ProProfs QuizChapter 13: Chromosomes, Mapping And The Meiosis Inheritance Connection - ProProfs Quiz

Chapter 13: Chromosomes, Mapping And The Meiosis Inheritance Connection 28 Questions , By Aggiegal8 , Last updated: Mar 7, 2013 ... In a two-point cross to map genes A and B, you obtained 98 recombinant flies out of a total of 730 progeny. How far apart are ... Occasionally, chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis, leading to a condition in which the diploid number is not normal. ... Genetic exchange between two arms of a chromosome pair is more likely to occur if the distance between the genes is great. It ...
more infohttps://www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/story.php?title=chapter-13-chromosomes-mapping-and-the-meiosis-inheritance-connection

Chromosome Mapping | Profiles RNSChromosome Mapping | Profiles RNS

"Chromosome Mapping" by people in this website by year, and whether "Chromosome Mapping" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Chromosome Mapping" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Chromosome Mapping" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Chromosome Mapping". ...
more infohttps://profiles.rush.edu/display/18619

Chromosome Mapping of Ancient BloodlinesChromosome Mapping of Ancient Bloodlines

Chromosome mapping can help trace ancient bloodlines by using end location numbers of CM on chromosomes. Members get access to ... Chromosome mapping can help trace ancient bloodlines by using end location numbers of CM on chromosomes. Members get access to ... Chromosome mapping collaboration can help confirm the presence of dna signatures on chromosomes left by ordinary, famous or ... Chromosome mapping collaboration can help confirm the presence of dna signatures on chromosomes left by ordinary, famous or ...
more infohttp://www.chromosomemappingofancientbloodlines.com/Home?redirectTo=%2Fresults

Chromosome Mapping | The Chopra LibraryChromosome Mapping | The Chopra Library

High-resolution mapping and chromosome landing at the root-know nematode resistance locus Ma from Myrobalan plum using a large- ... Microsatellite genetic linkage maps of myrobalan plum and an almond-peach hybrid--location of root-knot nematode resistance ...
more infohttp://isharonline.org/tags/chromosome-mapping

Supplementary Material for: A High-Resolution Comparative Chromosome Map of Cricetus cricetus and Peromyscus eremicus Reveals...Supplementary Material for: A High-Resolution Comparative Chromosome Map of Cricetus cricetus and Peromyscus eremicus Reveals...

A High-Resolution Comparative Chromosome Map of Cricetus cricetus and Peromyscus eremicus Reveals the Involvement of ... Here, we present the first combined chromosome comparative maps between 2 Cricetidae species, ,i,Cricetus cricetus,/i, and ,i, ... Supplementary Material for: A High-Resolution Comparative Chromosome Map of Cricetus cricetus and Peromyscus eremicus Reveals ... p,Compared to humans and other mammals, rodent genomes, specifically Muroidea species, underwent intense chromosome reshuffling ...
more infohttps://figshare.com/articles/Supplementary_Material_for_A_High-Resolution_Comparative_Chromosome_Map_of_Cricetus_cricetus_and_Peromyscus_eremicus_Reveals_the_Involvement_of_Constitutive_Heterochromatin_in_Breakpoint_Regions/4535540/1

KAKEN - Research Projects | Gene library planning based on the salivary gland chromosome map of Drosophila melanogaster ...KAKEN - Research Projects | Gene library planning based on the salivary gland chromosome map of Drosophila melanogaster ...

31 were mapped on the X, 40 were mapped on the 2L, 55 were mapped on the 2R, 35 were mapped on the 3L and 37 were mapped on the ... 190 clones are mapped on the single sites on the chromosomes and the rest of 96 (33.6%) are mapped on the multiple locations. ... We mapped these clones on the salivary gland chromosome by in situ hybridization technique. Up to date, 286 clones are mapped ... On the other hand, we collected DNA clones of Drosophila melanogaster which have been mapped on the salivary gland chromosomes ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/en/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-02554025/
  • The combination of a genetic map and PacBio sequencing technology allowed us to increase the size of the puzzle pieces and find enough distinguishing features to facilitate the assembly process and pinpoint the synthase genes. (mountsinai.org)
  • That is , CMA(+) regions in terminal of both arms and a proximal (type-A) , in terminal of one arm and a proximal (type-B) , in terminal of both arms (type-C), in terminal of one arm (type-D) and no CMA(+) region (type-E) on chromosome. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Chromosome mapping of the genes for murine arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs), enzymes involved in the metabolism of carcinogens: identification of a novel upstream noncoding exon for murine Nat2. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The researchers expect the map will speed up breeding efforts to create new strains with desired medical properties as well as varieties that can be grown more sustainably, or with increased resistance to diseases and pests. (mountsinai.org)
  • The new map reveals how hemp and marijuana, which belong to the same species Cannabis sativa , evolved as separate strains with distinct chemical properties. (mountsinai.org)
  • Compared to humans and other mammals, rodent genomes, specifically Muroidea species, underwent intense chromosome reshuffling in which many complex structural rearrangements occurred. (figshare.com)
  • As in other organisms, H3 and H4 co-localized in the same chromosome region in the 11 species where double FISH was performed with the H3 and H4 DNA probes. (springer.com)
  • Karyograms and staining techniques can only detect large-scale disruptions to chromosomes-chromosomal aberrations smaller than a few million base pairs generally cannot be seen on a karyogram. (wikipedia.org)
  • We know that the DNA from each parent recombines before it is passed down - we may get a paternal copy of chromosome 11 that has a piece of Dad's father's DNA followed by some of his mom's DNA. (wordpress.com)
  • One should be particularly cautious about mapping segments to people who are related to you at no closer than about the 6th cousin level without additional corroborating evidence, such as two or more people who share the same segment with you (or your parents) and who also share the same common ancestor. (smithsworldwide.org)
  • I would highly recommend it if you are trying to 'see' the areas of chromosomes you have from which branch of your family tree. (blogspot.com)
  • One of the key research areas was Chromosome Mapping. (ornl.gov)
  • The chromosome map is an important foundational resource for further research which, despite cannabis' widespread use, has lagged behind other crops due to restrictive legislation," says Tim Hughes, PhD, a professor in the Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research and co-leader of the study. (mountsinai.org)