Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.
The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.
Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.
Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
Recording the locations and measurements of electrical activity in the EPICARDIUM by placing electrodes on the surface of the heart to analyze the patterns of activation and to locate arrhythmogenic sites.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)
The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.

Mapping of the homothallic genes, HM alpha and HMa, in Saccharomyces yeasts. (1/29088)

Two of the three homothallic genes, HM alpha and HMa, showed direct linkage to the mating-type locus at approximately 73 and 98 strans (57 and 65 centimorgans [cM], respectively, whereas, the other, HO, showed no linkage to 25 standard markers distributed over 17 chromosomes including the mating-type locus. To determine whether the HM alpha and HMa loci located on the left or right side of the mating-type locus, equations for three factor analysis of three linked genes were derived. Tetrad data were collected and were compared with expected values by chi 2 statistics. Calculations indicated that the HM alpha gene is probably located on the right arm at 95 strans (65 cM) from the centromere and the HMa locus at approximately 90 strans (64 cM) on the left arm of chromosome III.  (+info)

The cardiac homeobox gene Csx/Nkx2.5 lies genetically upstream of multiple genes essential for heart development. (2/29088)

Csx/Nkx2.5 is a vertebrate homeobox gene with a sequence homology to the Drosophila tinman, which is required for the dorsal mesoderm specification. Recently, heterozygous mutations of this gene were found to cause human congenital heart disease (Schott, J.-J., Benson, D. W., Basson, C. T., Pease, W., Silberbach, G. M., Moak, J. P., Maron, B. J., Seidman, C. E. and Seidman, J. G. (1998) Science 281, 108-111). To investigate the functions of Csx/Nkx2.5 in cardiac and extracardiac development in the vertebrate, we have generated and analyzed mutant mice completely null for Csx/Nkx2.5. Homozygous null embryos showed arrest of cardiac development after looping and poor development of blood vessels. Moreover, there were severe defects in vascular formation and hematopoiesis in the mutant yolk sac. Interestingly, TUNEL staining and PCNA staining showed neither enhanced apoptosis nor reduced cell proliferation in the mutant myocardium. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated that, among 20 candidate genes examined, expression of ANF, BNP, MLC2V, N-myc, MEF2C, HAND1 and Msx2 was disturbed in the mutant heart. Moreover, in the heart of adult chimeric mice generated from Csx/Nkx2.5 null ES cells, there were almost no ES cell-derived cardiac myocytes, while there were substantial contributions of Csx /Nkx2.5-deficient cells in other organs. Whole-mount &bgr;-gal staining of chimeric embryos showed that more than 20% contribution of Csx/Nkx2. 5-deficient cells in the heart arrested cardiac development. These results indicate that (1) the complete null mutation of Csx/Nkx2.5 did not abolish initial heart looping, (2) there was no enhanced apoptosis or defective cell cycle entry in Csx/Nkx2.5 null cardiac myocytes, (3) Csx/Nkx2.5 regulates expression of several essential transcription factors in the developing heart, (4) Csx/Nkx2.5 is required for later differentiation of cardiac myocytes, (5) Csx/Nkx2. 5 null cells exert dominant interfering effects on cardiac development, and (6) there were severe defects in yolk sac angiogenesis and hematopoiesis in the Csx/Nkx2.5 null embryos.  (+info)

Identification of sonic hedgehog as a candidate gene responsible for the polydactylous mouse mutant Sasquatch. (3/29088)

The mouse mutants of the hemimelia-luxate group (lx, lu, lst, Dh, Xt, and the more recently identified Hx, Xpl and Rim4; [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]) have in common preaxial polydactyly and longbone abnormalities. Associated with the duplication of digits are changes in the regulation of development of the anterior limb bud resulting in ectopic expression of signalling components such as Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and fibroblast growth factor-4 (Fgf4), but little is known about the molecular causes of this misregulation. We generated, by a transgene insertion event, a new member of this group of mutants, Sasquatch (Ssq), which disrupted aspects of both anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) patterning. The mutant displayed preaxial polydactyly in the hindlimbs of heterozygous embryos, and in both hindlimbs and forelimbs of homozygotes. The Shh, Fgf4, Fgf8, Hoxd12 and Hoxd13 genes were all ectopically expressed in the anterior region of affected limb buds. The insertion site was found to lie close to the Shh locus. Furthermore, expression from the transgene reporter has come under the control of a regulatory element that directs a pattern mirroring the endogenous expression pattern of Shh in limbs. In abnormal limbs, both Shh and the reporter were ectopically induced in the anterior region, whereas in normal limbs the reporter and Shh were restricted to the zone of polarising activity (ZPA). These data strongly suggest that Ssq is caused by direct interference with the cis regulation of the Shh gene.  (+info)

Superimposed histologic and genetic mapping of chromosome 9 in progression of human urinary bladder neoplasia: implications for a genetic model of multistep urothelial carcinogenesis and early detection of urinary bladder cancer. (4/29088)

The evolution of alterations on chromosome 9, including the putative tumor suppressor genes mapped to the 9p21-22 region (the MTS genes), was studied in relation to the progression of human urinary bladder neoplasia by using whole organ superimposed histologic and genetic mapping in cystectomy specimens and was verified in urinary bladder tumors of various pathogenetic subsets with longterm follow-up. The applicability of chromosome 9 allelic losses as non-invasive markers of urothelial neoplasia was tested on voided urine and/or bladder washings of patients with urinary bladder cancer. Although sequential multiple hits in the MTS locus were documented in the development of intraurothelial precursor lesions, the MTS genes do not seem to represent a major target for p21-23 deletions in bladder cancer. Two additional tumor suppressor genes involved in bladder neoplasia located distally and proximally to the MTS locus within p22-23 and p11-13 regions respectively were identified. Several distinct putative tumor suppressor gene loci within the q12-13, q21-22, and q34 regions were identified on the q arm. In particular, the pericentromeric q12-13 area may contain the critical tumor suppressor gene or genes for the development of early urothelial neoplasia. Allelic losses of chromosome 9 were associated with expansion of the abnormal urothelial clone which frequently involved large areas of urinary bladder mucosa. These losses could be found in a high proportion of urothelial tumors and in voided urine or bladder washing samples of nearly all patients with urinary bladder carcinoma.  (+info)

TIF1gamma, a novel member of the transcriptional intermediary factor 1 family. (5/29088)

We report the cloning and characterization of a novel member of the Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 1 (TIF1) gene family, human TIF1gamma. Similar to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, the structure of TIF1beta is characterized by multiple domains: RING finger, B boxes, Coiled coil, PHD/TTC, and bromodomain. Although structurally related to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, TIF1gamma presents several functional differences. In contrast to TIF1alpha, but like TIF1beta, TIF1 does not interact with nuclear receptors in yeast two-hybrid or GST pull-down assays and does not interfere with retinoic acid response in transfected mammalian cells. Whereas TIF1alpha and TIF1beta were previously found to interact with the KRAB silencing domain of KOX1 and with the HP1alpha, MODI (HP1beta) and MOD2 (HP1gamma) heterochromatinic proteins, suggesting that they may participate in a complex involved in heterochromatin-induced gene repression, TIF1gamma does not interact with either the KRAB domain of KOX1 or the HP1 proteins. Nevertheless, TIF1gamma, like TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, exhibits a strong silencing activity when tethered to a promoter. Since deletion of a novel motif unique to the three TIF1 proteins, called TIF1 signature sequence (TSS), abrogates transcriptional repression by TIF1gamma, this motif likely participates in TIF1 dependent repression.  (+info)

Substrate specificities of SR proteins in constitutive splicing are determined by their RNA recognition motifs and composite pre-mRNA exonic elements. (6/29088)

We report striking differences in the substrate specificities of two human SR proteins, SF2/ASF and SC35, in constitutive splicing. beta-Globin pre-mRNA (exons 1 and 2) is spliced indiscriminately with either SR protein. Human immunodeficiency virus tat pre-mRNA (exons 2 and 3) and immunoglobulin mu-chain (IgM) pre-mRNA (exons C3 and C4) are preferentially spliced with SF2/ASF and SC35, respectively. Using in vitro splicing with mutated or chimeric derivatives of the tat and IgM pre-mRNAs, we defined specific combinations of segments in the downstream exons, which mediate either positive or negative effects to confer SR protein specificity. A series of recombinant chimeric proteins consisting of domains of SF2/ASF and SC35 in various combinations was used to localize trans-acting domains responsible for substrate specificity. The RS domains of SF2/ASF and SC35 can be exchanged without effect on substrate specificity. The RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) of SF2/ASF are active only in the context of a two-RRM structure, and RRM2 has a dominant role in substrate specificity. In contrast, the single RRM of SC35 can function alone, but its substrate specificity can be influenced by the presence of an additional RRM. The RRMs behave as modules that, when present in different combinations, can have positive, neutral, or negative effects on splicing, depending upon the specific substrate. We conclude that SR protein-specific recognition of specific positive and negative pre-mRNA exonic elements via one or more RRMs is a crucial determinant of the substrate specificity of SR proteins in constitutive splicing.  (+info)

Pseudouridine mapping in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae spliceosomal U small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) reveals that pseudouridine synthase pus1p exhibits a dual substrate specificity for U2 snRNA and tRNA. (7/29088)

Pseudouridine (Psi) residues were localized in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae spliceosomal U small nuclear RNAs (UsnRNAs) by using the chemical mapping method. In contrast to vertebrate UsnRNAs, S. cerevisiae UsnRNAs contain only a few Psi residues, which are located in segments involved in intermolecular RNA-RNA or RNA-protein interactions. At these positions, UsnRNAs are universally modified. When yeast mutants disrupted for one of the several pseudouridine synthase genes (PUS1, PUS2, PUS3, and PUS4) or depleted in rRNA-pseudouridine synthase Cbf5p were tested for UsnRNA Psi content, only the loss of the Pus1p activity was found to affect Psi formation in spliceosomal UsnRNAs. Indeed, Psi44 formation in U2 snRNA was abolished. By using purified Pus1p enzyme and in vitro-produced U2 snRNA, Pus1p is shown here to catalyze Psi44 formation in the S. cerevisiae U2 snRNA. Thus, Pus1p is the first UsnRNA pseudouridine synthase characterized so far which exhibits a dual substrate specificity, acting on both tRNAs and U2 snRNA. As depletion of rRNA-pseudouridine synthase Cbf5p had no effect on UsnRNA Psi content, formation of Psi residues in S. cerevisiae UsnRNAs is not dependent on the Cbf5p-snoRNA guided mechanism.  (+info)

Mammalian staufen is a double-stranded-RNA- and tubulin-binding protein which localizes to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. (8/29088)

Staufen (Stau) is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding protein involved in mRNA transport and localization in Drosophila. To understand the molecular mechanisms of mRNA transport in mammals, we cloned human (hStau) and mouse (mStau) staufen cDNAs. In humans, four transcripts arise by differential splicing of the Stau gene and code for two proteins with different N-terminal extremities. In vitro, hStau and mStau bind dsRNA via each of two full-length dsRNA-binding domains and tubulin via a region similar to the microtubule-binding domain of MAP-1B, suggesting that Stau cross-links cytoskeletal and RNA components. Immunofluorescent double labeling of transfected mammalian cells revealed that Stau is localized to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), implicating this RNA-binding protein in mRNA targeting to the RER, perhaps via a multistep process involving microtubules. These results are the first demonstration of the association of an RNA-binding protein in addition to ribosomal proteins, with the RER, implicating this class of proteins in the transport of RNA to its site of translation.  (+info)

Chromosome Mapping of Ancient Bloodlines teaches people how to trace their bloodlines through chromosome mapping to confirm ancestors. Chromosome mapping collaboration can help confirm the presence of dna signatures on chromosomes left by ordinary, famous or noble ancestors. Chromosome mapping can help trace ancient bloodlines by using end location numbers of CM on chromosomes. Members get access to the database to add information of bloodlines they have mapped and to find end location numbers of researched ancestors and famous people.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A high-resolution map of human chromosome 12. AU - Montgomery, K. T.. AU - Lee, E.. AU - Miller, A.. AU - Lau, S.. AU - Shim, C.. AU - Decker, J.. AU - Chiu, D.. AU - Emerling, S.. AU - Sekhon, M.. AU - Kim, R.. AU - Lenz, J.. AU - Han, J.. AU - Ioshikhes, I.. AU - Renault, B.. AU - Marondel, I.. AU - Yoon, S. J K. AU - Song, K.. AU - Murty, V. V V S. AU - Scherer, S.. AU - Yonescu, R.. AU - Kirsch, I. R.. AU - Ried, T.. AU - Mcpherson, John Douglas. AU - Gibbs, R.. AU - Kucherlapati, R.. PY - 2001/2/15. Y1 - 2001/2/15. N2 - Our sequence-tagged site-content map of chromosome 12 is now integrated with the whole-genome fingerprinting effort. It provides accurate and nearly complete bacterial clone coverage of chromosome 12. We propose that this integrated mapping protocol serves as a model for constructing physical maps for entire genomes.. AB - Our sequence-tagged site-content map of chromosome 12 is now integrated with the whole-genome fingerprinting effort. It provides accurate ...
T-cell growth factor (TCGF) or interleukin-2 (IL-2), an immunoregulatory lymphokine, is produced by lectin- or antigen-activated mature T lymphocytes and in a constitutive manner by certain T-cell lymphoma cell lines. By means of a molecular clone of human TCGF and DNA extracted from a panel of somatic cell hybrids (rodent cells X normal human lymphocytes), the TCGF structural gene was identified on human chromosome 4. In situ hybridization of the TCGF clone to human chromosomes resulted in significant labeling of the midportion of the long arm of chromosome 4, indicating that the TCGF gene was located at band q26-28. Genomic DNA from a panel of hybrids prepared with HUT-102 B2 cells was examined with the same molecular clone. In this clone of cells, which produces human T-cell leukemia virus, the TCGF gene was also located on chromosome 4 and was apparently not rearranged. The homologous TCGF locus in the domestic cat was assigned to chromosome B1 by using a somatic cell hybrid panel that ...
can physical location of gene on any particular chromosome (except near centromearic region) changes over time due to crossing over ...
Chromosome Mapping in Human: Segregation in somatic cell hybrids,Genetic linkage map of human X- chromosome,Restriction fragment length polymorphisms
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic mapping of the T lymphocyte-specific transcription factor 7 gene on mouse Chromosome 11. AU - Kingsmore, S. F.. AU - Watson, M. L.. AU - Seldin, Michael F. PY - 1995/5. Y1 - 1995/5. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0029301425&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0029301425&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1007/BF00364808. DO - 10.1007/BF00364808. M3 - Article. C2 - 7626895. AN - SCOPUS:0029301425. VL - 6. SP - 378. JO - Mammalian Genome. JF - Mammalian Genome. SN - 0938-8990. IS - 5. ER - ...
We were learning about chromosome mapping with this lab. We had to throw a stick across a line and marker how many times a gene had a crossover; we did that a hundred times. Then we had to calculate the frequency of each by taking the number of times that gene had a cross over, then divided by 100. Then taking that frequency, we multiplied by 15 to calculate the gene location of each gene. Then we answered a few questions. This lab was fun to do, and did help with understanding how linkage worked and how certain genes would become recessive and to map a chromosome by finding the frequency to find the length between each gene.. ...
To facilitate mapping of the cystic fibrosis locus (CF) and to isolate the corresponding gene, we have screened a flow-sorted chromosome 7-specific library for additional DNA markers in the 7q31-q32 region. Unique (single-copy) DNA segments were selected from the library and used in hybridization analysis with a panel of somatic cell hybrids containing various portions of human chromosome 7 and patient cell lines with deletion of this chromosome. A total of 258 chromosome 7-specific single-copy DNA segments were identified, and most of them localized to subregions. Fifty three of these corresponded to DNA sequences in the 7q31-q32 region. Family and physical mapping studies showed that two of the DNA markers, D7S122 and D7S340, are in close linkage with CF. The data also showed that D7S122 and D7S340 map between MET and D7S8, the two genetic markers known to be on opposite sides of CF. The study thus reaffirms the general strategy in approaching a disease locus on the basis of chromosome ...
Read High-resolution mapping of a linkage group on mouse chromosome 8 conserved on human chromosome 16Q, Mammalian Genome on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
After accounting for the larger physical size of the RGSC 6.0/rn6 rat genome build (2,619 Mb) compared with the original Baylor 3.4/rn4 rate genome build (2,554 Mb), the increased size of the rat genetic map (1,708 cM) is proportional to the original Jensen-Seaman map (1,542 cM). Thus, although the coordinates of highly recombinant regions in the rat genome were refined in the revised rat genetic map, the sex-averaged genomewide recombination rates did not change (0.66 cM/Mb vs. 0.65 cM/Mb). Although the genomewide recombination rates did not change, fine-scale localization of highly recombinant regions differed between the Jensen-Seaman map and the revised rat genetic map. One potential reason for the refined localization of highly recombinant regions in the revised rat genetic map is the greater potential of genetic variation due to the possibility of eight informative HS founder haplotypes per genomic position, whereas prior rat genetic maps relied on crosses between two parental strains with ...
Our genetic information is stored in 23 pairs of chromosomes that vary widely in size and shape. Chromosome 1 is the largest and is over three times bigger than chromosome 22. The 23rd pair of chromosomes are two special chromosomes, X and Y, that determine our sex. Females have a pair of X chromosomes (46, XX), whereas males have one X and one Y chromosomes (46, XY). Chromosomes are made of DNA, and genes are special units of chromosomal DNA. Each chromosome is a very long molecule, so it needs to be wrapped tightly around proteins for efficient packaging.
Human chromosome 16 is the main focus of the mapping efforts at Los Alamos. The large photomicrograph on these opening pages illustrates the starting point for those mapping efforts, the evaluation of our chromosome-16-specific library of cloned fragments. Among the 23 pairs of human chromosomes, one pair, chromosome 16, is identified by fluorescence in-situ hybridization. Thousands of yellow fluorescent probes derived from the clone library have hybridized to both copies of chromosome 16. The high density and uniform coverage of the fluorescent signals were a strong indication that we could use the library to construct a map of overlapping cloned fragments spanning the entire length of the chromosome.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Novel read density distribution score shows possible aligner artefacts, when mapping a single chromosome. AU - Naumenko, Fedor M.. AU - Abnizova, Irina I.. AU - Beka, Nathan. AU - Genaev, Mikhail A.. AU - Orlov, Yuriy L.. PY - 2018/2/9. Y1 - 2018/2/9. N2 - Background: The use of artificial data to evaluate the performance of aligners and peak callers not only improves its accuracy and reliability, but also makes it possible to reduce the computational time. One of the natural ways to achieve such time reduction is by mapping a single chromosome. Results: We investigated whether a single chromosome mapping causes any artefacts in the alignments performances. In this paper, we compared the accuracy of the performance of seven aligners on well-controlled simulated benchmark data which was sampled from a single chromosome and also from a whole genome. We found that commonly used statistical methods are insufficient to evaluate an aligner performance, and applied a novel measure of a ...
Forms of leukemia can be found on six different chromosomes. Acute leukemias can be found on chromosomes 1, 2, and 13, T-Cell developmental leukemia is found on chromosomes 3 and X, and the cause of myelogenous leukemia is in a protein coded for in chromosome 11 at 11p11.9. Chromosome 11 contains 134 million bases. Chromosome 11 has been identified with 151 diseases. Only chromosomes 1, 2, and X contain more currently identified diseases. Chromosome 11 has the most cancerous conditions of all of the chromosomes associated with it ...
Read Genetic mapping of CHRNA3 and CHRNB4 to pig Chromosome 7 extends the syntenic conservation with human Chromosome 15 and mouse Chromosome 9, Mammalian Genome on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Have you uploaded your raw DNA files to GEDMatch.com? If not, you should consider it. Not only is there the possibility of connecting with new cousins who tested with different DNA companies, there are some nifty tools not available anywhere else. There are a variety of chromosome mapping tools that allow you to analyze your DNA in a variety of ways.. My Ancestry is Split. Just a brief note about my ancestry before we get started so youll have something to compare the charts to.. My dads side is 100% French…Southern France, Basque region…most of my ancestors well into the 1700s came from the same towns.. My moms side is more complication. Her makeup is Portuguese/Azorean (her fathers side), Irish (her maternal maternal grandparents), British (maternal grandfather), and Welsh (maternal paternal grandparents). This pie chart represents how the Eurogenes K36 utility sees my genetic makeup.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The mouse C1q genes are clustered on chromosome 4 and show conservation of gene organization. AU - Petry, F. AU - McClive, PJ. AU - Botto, M. AU - Morley, Bernard J. AU - Morahan, G. AU - Loos, M. PY - 1996/4. Y1 - 1996/4. N2 - Mouse complement component C1q is a serum glycoprotein which consists of six A chains, six B chains and six C chains. The three polypeptides are 223, 228, and 217 residues long, respectively, and are encoded by three genes. DNA probes for mouse C1q A, B, and C chains were hybridized to Southern blots of DNA obtained from various inbred mouse strains. On the basis of fragment length polymorphisms, two different alleles of each of the genes could be identified. The distribution of these alleles was determined in the BXD and LXPL recombinant inbred strain series. Comparison with previously reported strain distribution patterns shows that the genes encoding mouse C1q map to the same locus on distal chromosome 4. Overlapping clones spanning the entire gene ...
eQTL tries to regress each gene expression against each SNP, in order to find those regulatory elements. And eQTL uses normal samples, right? (by normal I mean no disease like those in 1000genome project). GWAS compares SNPs between normal(control) and disease(test) samples, trying to find out those higher-frequency variants enriched for diseases.. linkage mapping/recombination mapping/positional cloning - rely on known markers (typically SNPs) that are close to the gene responsible for a disease or trait to segregate with that marker within a family. Works great for high-penetrance, single gene traits and diseases.. QTL mapping/interval mapping - for quantitative traits like height that are polygenic. Same as linkage mapping except the phenotype is continuous and the markers are put into a scoring scheme to measure their contribution - i.e. marker effects or allelic contribution. Big in agriculture.. GWAS/linkage disequilibrium mapping - score thousands of SNPs at once from a population ...
Building on previous work (Skene et al., 2014), we show that a new ChIP-seq protocol provides superior resolution and ease of use at low sequence depth of coverage for generating genome-wide maps of protein binding.
The use of the MRI-navigation system ensures accurate targeting of TMS. This, in turn, results in TMS motor mapping becoming a routinely used procedure in neuroscience and neurosurgery. However, currently, there is no standardized methodology for assessment of TMS motor-mapping results. Therefore, we developed TMSmap-free standalone graphical interface software for the quantitative analysis of the TMS motor mapping results (http://tmsmap.ru/). In addition to the estimation of standard parameters (such as the size of cortical muscle representation and the center of gravity location), it allows estimation of the volume of cortical representations, excitability profile of the cortical surface map, and the overlap between cortical representations. The input data for the software includes the coordinates of the coil position (or electric field maximum) and the corresponding response in each stimulation point. TMSmap has been developed for versatile assessment and comparison of TMS maps relating to different
The only exceptions to this rule are the genes found on the male sex chromosomes. 2.The genes which show linkage are situated in the same chromosomes are bounded by the chromosomal material. Extranuclear inheritance or cytoplasmic inheritance is the transmission of genes that occur outside the nucleus.It is found in most eukaryotes and is commonly known to occur in cytoplasmic organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts or from cellular parasites like viruses or bacteria. Allele â â ¦ 4. Duplication 3. or other proteins in bacteria Loop chromatin and attach it to a matrix in nuclei Bands and specialized regions of human chromosomes Human chromosomes, ideograms Human chromosomes, â ¦ The types are: 1. This could lead to â designer babiesâ , choosing the genes for your baby. The genes are arranged in linear fashion. Materials: Copies of student handouts Appropriate For: Ages: 12- 18 USA 7- 12 Prep Time: 15 minutes Class Time: arranged in the same order on the chromosomes. six genes ...
A linkage study aims at establishing linkage between genes. Linkage is the tendency for genes and other genetic markers to be inherited together because of their location near one another on the same chromosome. A genetic marker is simply a segment of DNA with an identifiable physical location on a chromosome whose inheritance can be followed. A genetic marker can have a function and thus be a gene. Or a marker can be a section of DNA with no known function. Because DNA segments that lie near each other on a chromosome tend to be inherited together, markers are often used as tools for tracking the inheritance pattern of a gene that has not yet been identified but whose approximate location is known. The statistical estimate of whether two loci are likely to lie near each other on a chromosome and are therefore likely to be inherited together is called a LOD score. A LOD score of 3 or more is generally taken to indicate that the two loci are linked and are close to one another. Today linkage ...
Mouse complement component C1q is a serum glycoprotein which consists of six A chains, six B chains and six C chains. The three polypeptides are 223, 228, and 217 residues long, respectively, and are encoded by three genes. DNA probes for mouse C1q A, B, and C chains were hybridized to Southern blots of DNA obtained from various inbred mouse strains. On the basis of fragment length polymorphisms, two different alleles of each of the genes could be identified. The distribution of these alleles was determined in the BXD and LXPL recombinant inbred strain series. Comparison with previously reported strain distribution patterns shows that the genes encoding mouse C1q map to the same locus on distal chromosome 4. Overlapping clones spanning the entire gene cluster of C1q were isolated from genomic libraries using specific cDNA probes. The three genes C1qA, C1qB, and C1qC are closely arranged on a 19 kilobase stretch of DNA in the 5 to 3 orientation A-C-B. Each gene consists of two exons separated ...
Using high-resolution genetic mapping techniques, we have restricted the position of the Lps gene to a 0.9-cM region of chromosome 4, flanked proximally by D4Nds9 and distally by D4Mit178. A 1.7-Mb cloned DNA contig spanning this interval was sequentially assembled using YAC, BAC, and P1 clones. Our data differ significantly from another recently published physical map encompassing the Lps locus ((37)). In this contig, a gap (estimated at 100 kb by fluorescence in situ hybridization) exists in the BAC contig between D4Nds9 and D4Mit178. Comparison of BAC clone addresses common to both maps suggests that this gap corresponds to the center of our contig, and is ∼950 kb in size. Finally, through cDNA selection and nucleotide sequencing of randomly cloned sheared BACs from our contig, we have identified three transcription units within the Lps candidate region, including Tlr4, and two novel genes.. We provide evidence that implicates mouse Tlr4 as a critical regulator of the innate host response ...
Comparative genome analysis between two distantly related species allows the organization of genes to be traced from a common ancestor. When several genes are mapped in one species and these genes...
32-63. your great-great-great grandparents. If you leave the numbers in for parents, you can then use your chromosome mapper to map starting with your children.. In terms of colors, you would need four palettes instead of two. In my Excel spreadsheet I used shades of pink for my mothers maternal line and shades of orange for her paternal line; and shades of blue for my fathers paternal line and green for his maternal line but whatever colors work is fine with me. Your chromosome mapper is such a great tool, Kitty. Thank you for doing it.. I am one of your Mac testers.. ...
Candid, a teeth aligner startup that aims to make straight teeth more accessible and more affordable than Invisalign, is evolving its direct-to-consumer business. In addition to its at-home impression process, Candid recently started enabling people to come into a physical office to get their teeth scans completed. Today, Candid is opening physical storefronts in San […]
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The Human Proteome Project has been proposed to create a knowledge-based resource based on a systematical mapping of all human proteins, chromosome by chromosome, in a gene-centric manner. With this background, we here describe the systematic analysis of chromosome 21 using an antibody-based approach for protein profiling using both confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry, complemented with transcript profiling using next generation sequencing data. We also describe a new approach for protein isoform analysis using a combination of antibody-based probing and isoelectric focusing. The analysis has identified several genes on chromosome 21 with no previous evidence on the protein level, and the isoform analysis indicates that a large fraction of human proteins have multiple isoforms. A chromosome-wide matrix is presented with status for all chromosome 21 genes regarding subcellular localization, tissue distribution, and molecular characterization of the corresponding proteins. The path to ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in establishment of chromosome localization pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
Understanding the recombination patterns across a chromosome determining the positions and frequency of genetic exchanges between homologous chromosomes is crucial for understanding and tracking inheritance of traits. Mapping genes that affect parasites traits, such as responses to various antimalarial agents, is possible because, during meiosis, homologous chromosomes line up and may exchange segments. Genes or any polymorphic bits of DNA that are close together tend to remain linked during this process, while those far apart tend to become separated. Identifying and following polymorphic markers through multiple generations is a key technique for genetic mapping ...
Provides interactive, configurable and elegant graphics visualization of the chromosomes or chromosome regions of any living organism allowing users to map chromosome elements (like genes, SNPs etc.) on the chromosome plot. It introduces a special plot viz. the chromosome heatmap that, in addition to mapping elements, can visualize the data associated with chromosome elements (like gene expression) in the form of heat colors which can be highly advantageous in the scientific interpretations and research work. Because of the large size of the chromosomes, it is impractical to visualize each element on the same plot. However, the plot provides a magnified view for each of chromosome locus to render additional information and visualization specific for that location. You can map thousands of genes and can view all mappings easily. Users can investigate the detailed information about the mappings (like gene names or total genes mapped on a location) or can view the magnified single or double ...
Come and cruise some chromosome browsers and take a drive to a smoother ride through your genetic genealogy research. Tour multiple chromosome browsers to see how it can expand your horizons. Discover what different results mean. Get hints on how to use this tool in your research by working along with the class through three activities designed to help participants understand how to use different aspects of chromosome browsers in their personal research. We will cover the chromosome browsers offered at 23andMe and FamilyTreeDNA, as well as how the GEDmatch chromosome browsers work with all 3 major testing companies ...
A new type of genomic map, known as the haplotype map, promises to speed the search for elusive genes involved in complex diseases. But to many biologists, its an untested concept hardly worthy of the $110 million it will consume. Welcome to the haplotype map, a new type of genome map that, depending on where you look, is eliciting exuberance or exasperation. ...
Montgomery KT, Lee E, Miller A, Lau S, Shim C, Decker J, Chiu D, Emerling S, Sekhon M, Kim R, Lenz J, Han J, Ioshikhes I, Renault B, Marondel I, Yoon SJ, Song K, Murty VV, Scherer S, Yonescu R, Kirsch IR, Ried T, McPherson J, Gibbs R, Kucherlapati R (2001). A high-resolution map of human chromosome 12. Nature. 409 (6822): 945-6. doi:10.1038/35057174. PMID 11237017 ...
Gene research into breast cancer. A grid of DNA fragments is seen, making up human chromosome 17. Scientists have isolated chromosome 17 to be the site of a defective gene responsible for many cases of inherited breast cancer. This grid represents 20,736 (144x144) pieces of DNA, each of 40 kilobase length, which have been spotted onto filter paper. An X-ray plate has been superimposed onto the grid, showing some DNA fragments tagged with a radioactive marker (dark spots). These tagged DNA fragments, which may correspond to genes, have been hybridised (attached) to specific parts of chromosome 17. It is a technique which enables researchers to map genes on a chromosome. - Stock Image G210/0464
A general tendency for additivity prevailed in recombination frequencies for two-point fine-structure mapping of 14 mutants in the C cistron of Rhizobium meliloti phage 16-3, with little evidence of any marker effect. Intracistronic three-point mapping indicated that double crossovers are rare. Deletion mapping indicated that the two- and three-point mapping data gave the correct order of the mutations. A high frequency (5 to 8%) of c/c+ heterozygotic phage progenies was observed in standard crosses. This pattern implies formation of a relatively long region of heterozygosity. Together with the results of the three-point tests, it suggests certain properties of the branch migration and resolution steps envisioned in current mechanisms of recombination.. ...
MADRID, Jan. 28, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- Adrian Bird wins the Frontiers of Knowledge Award for mapping gene activation and introducing new prospects to cure...
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Each chromosome is made up of a DNA molecule, but what does a DNA molecule actually look like and how does it store information?. Abnormality in three groups of genes, including in enzyme activity, calcium ion binding and protein binding associate genes… These data, and many Web sites on human genetic disorders, are freely accessible on the Internet. Sequence analysis indicated that they have homologous genes on chromosomes 1, 4 and 10, respectively (Table 2), and that the seven relatively short fragments might also have been derived from A-genome genes, with their A-homologues located on chromosomes 1, 3, 8 and 9 (Additional file 7: Table S3). Another gain of function mutation of IL7R is associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Mazzucchelli et al., 2012). Genes are the units of heredity; They are arranged in a linear fashion along chromosomes. The positions can then be assembled in a single probabilistic representation of the genes localization in nuclear space (Fig. Bacterial ...
The molecular marker analysis positioned each deletion breakpoint relative to a defined region on the current MGD/CCR genetic map. This analysis did not identify deletions in addition to the previously characterized 17Pub with breakpoints useful for further refining the ∼0.8-cM functional interval associated with perturbed mesoderm development leading to midgestational lethality of the 1Acrg mutant embryo (Welsh and OBrien 2000). However, a 1.4-Mb BAC contig has been assembled over this critical region and is being used for the identification of candidate genes (Kuriharaet al. 2000). Several of the deletion breakpoints were positioned within the previously characterized functional intervals associated with genes that are essential for newborn survival and normal skeletal and CNS development. In these regions, all of the available D14Mit SSLP markers or STS markers derived from BAC ends were used to construct higher resolution maps (Figures 2 and 3). The ordering of the breakpoints within ...
Each QTL identified in the crosses of inbred mice generally spans a large genomic distance, sometimes almost an entire chromosome. In complex phenotypes such as atherosclerosis, where a large number of genes are involved, transferring a target region onto an inbred background and creating congenic line is a powerful step toward identifying causative genes. Here we have analyzed the effect of the atherosclerosis QTL Aath4 by establishing a congenic line (Aath4aDBA/DBA), where the 5′ region of DBA Aath4 was backcrossed onto a 129S6-Apoe−/− background. As expected, the resulting Aath4aDBA/DBA males had significantly larger plaques, and macrophages isolated from these mice exhibited reduced efferocytosis as a consequence of allele-specific decrease in MERTK expression. Together, our results provide strong evidence that the increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis determined by the DBA allele of Aath4 is, at least in part, due to decreased MERTK expression.. MERTK is known to play a ...
Also known as a genetic marker, a segment of DNA with an identifiable physical location on a chromosome whose inheritance can be followed. A marker can be a gene, or it can be some section of DNA with no known function. Because DNA segments that lie near each other on a chromosome tend to be inherited together, markers are often used as indirect ways of tracking the inheritance pattern of genes that have not yet been identified, but whose approximate locations are known ...
Also known as a genetic marker, a segment of DNA with an identifiable physical location on a chromosome whose inheritance can be followed. A marker can be a gene, or it can be some section of DNA with no known function. Because DNA segments that lie near each other on a chromosome tend to be inherited together, markers are often used as indirect ways of tracking the inheritance pattern of genes that have not yet been identified, but whose approximate locations are known ...
Also known as a genetic marker, a segment of DNA with an identifiable physical location on a chromosome whose inheritance can be followed. A marker can be a gene, or it can be some section of DNA with no known function. Because DNA segments that lie near each other on a chromosome tend to be inherited together, markers are often used as indirect ways of tracking the inheritance pattern of genes that have not yet been identified, but whose approximate locations are known ...
The rat and mouse had a common ancestor 15-40 Myr ago, and although substantial chromosomal rearrangements have occurred since they diverged, there is still a high degree of similarity in gene organization in the two genomes. Taking advantage of this similarity, mapping information can be transferred between the two genomes and prediction of positions for hitherto unmapped genes can be made with a high degree of accuracy. In this work, we have put together available information for 916 orthologous rat and mouse gene pairs and, with very few exceptions, all of the gene pairs fell into 52 distinct chromosomal segments (sex chromosomes not included). Most of these segments were confirmed by mouse-on-rat heterologous painting (zoo-FISH) and they were used to make up the backbone of a rat-mouse comparative map. This comparative map was used as a framework for making a rat-mouse prediction map. Predictions for the rat genome were made in two ways. Firstly, the relative position for each orthologous ...
Early data from the 1,000 Genomes Project is already offering new clues about human disease, including why some people are more severely affected by disease than others.
The expression ratios of 5p arm miRNA to 3p arm miRNA. Several pre-miRNAs have significantly different ratios, demonstrating the arm selection preferences withi
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic and physical mapping on chromosome 4 narrows the localization of the gene for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). AU - Mills, K. A.. AU - Buetow, K. H.. AU - Xu, Y.. AU - Ritty, T. M.. AU - Mathews, K. D.. AU - Bodrug, S. E.. AU - Wijmenga, C.. AU - Balazs, I.. AU - Murray, J. C.. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. N2 - We have used a combination of classical RFLPs and PCR-based polymorphisms including CA repeats and single-strand conformation polymorphisms to generate a fine-structure genetic map of the distal long arm of chromosome 4q. This map is now genetically linked to the pre-existing anchor map of 4pter-4q31 and generates, for the first time, a complete linkage map of this chromosome. The map consists of 32 anchor loci placed with odds of greater than 1,000:1. The high-resolution map in the cytogenetic region surrounding 4q35 provides the order 4cen-D4S171-F11-D4S187-D4S163-D4S139-4qter. When we used somatic cell hybrids from a t(X;4)(p21;q35) translocation, ...
IN the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in an experimental cross, selective genotyping (in which only the individuals at the extremes of the phenotype distribution are genotyped) can provide nearly equivalent power to complete genotyping at a reduced cost (Lander and Botstein 1989; Darvasi and Soller 1992).. Interval mapping with selectively genotyped data is best performed with consideration of all individuals, even those that were not genotyped (Lander and Botstein 1989). Consideration of only the genotyped individuals results in a biased estimate of the QTL effect. Haley-Knott regression (Haley and Knott 1992) generally provides a good approximation to standard interval mapping, but should be avoided in the case of selective genotyping, as it tends to produce inflated evidence for linkage (Feenstra et al. 2006).. Despite the common use of selective genotyping for QTL mapping and the extensive literature on significance thresholds for QTL mapping, we are not aware of any discussion of ...
View Notes - Brooker_Chp5_MappingP from BIO 325 at University of Texas. Chapter 5 Eukaryotic Gene Mapping GENETIC MAPPING Gene mapping / chromosome mapping - Historically, based on recombination
TY - JOUR. T1 - Physical location of the human immunoglobulin lambda-like genes, 14.1, 16.1, and 16.2. AU - Bauer, Thomas R.. AU - McDermid, Heather E.. AU - Budarf, Marcia L.. AU - Van Keuren, Margaret L.. AU - Blomberg, Bonnie B.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1993/9. Y1 - 1993/9. N2 - The human immunoglobulin lambda-like (IGLL) genes, which are homologous to the human immunoglobulin lambda (IGL) light chain genes, are expressed only in pre-B cells and are involved in B cell development. Three IGLL genes, 14.1, 16.1, and 16.2 are present in humans as opposed to one, λ5 (Igll), found in the mouse. To precisely map the location of the human IGLL genes in relation to each other and to the human IGL gene locus, at 22q11.1-2, a somatic cell hybrid panel and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were used. Hybridization with a λ-like gene-specific DNA probe to somatic cell hybrids revealed that these genes reside on 22q11.2 between the breakpoint ...
We assembled the first chromosome level linkage map for the Australian snapper Chrysophrys auratus. Proof checking the marker order against the snapper de novo genome assembly indicated that the linkage groups were of high quality. QTL mapping revealed eight markers on three linkage groups that were significantly associated with growth. Three candidate genes for growth were located on the same linkage groups as these QTL. These genomic resources will be used to inform the selective breeding program in New Zealand and will form the basis of further genomic investigation in snapper.. Linkage maps are essential for genomic and genetic studies, and have been used extensively to derive the order and spatial position of markers (Cnaani et al. 2004; Greenwood et al. 2011; Boulton et al. 2011). Historically, most first generation linkage maps in fish have been constructed with just a handful or a few hundred markers and did not have genome sequences available to evaluate marker order (Castaño-Sánchez ...
The Lith1 region on Chromosome (Chr) 2 contains a gene that markedly affects the prevalence of cholesterol gallstones in inbred mice. We report the high-resolution genetic and radiation hybrid maps of the chromosomal region surrounding Lith1, using three resources: a DNA panel from 188 progeny from two reciprocal backcrosses between C57BL/6 and Mus spretus inbred strains; 423 progeny of an N4 generation from backcrossing the susceptible C57L/J alleles at Lith1 into the resistant AKR/J strain; and the newly developed hamster-mouse T31 radiation hybrid panel. We mapped 17 microsatellite markers in the D2Mit182 to D2Mit14 region and two candidate genes for Lith1, the canalicular bile salt export pump (Bsep) also known as sister of P-glycoprotein (Spgp) and the low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related gene megalin (Gp330). Both genetic maps were in agreement and ordered the microsatellite markers into a 10.4 +/- 1.5 cM region. The high-resolution physical map revealed ordering of microsatellite
The present study was undertaken to identify genes that influence LDL size properties. Although LDL size phenotype has been shown in many studies to be an important CVD risk factor, little is known about the genes that influence LDL size properties. In this study, we used gradient gel electrophoresis to measure the amount of cholesterol in each of 4 different LDL size fractions, and performed mixing experiments to show that LDL particles that differed in size and composition have similar chromogenicities for cholesterol staining (Figure 1⇑). For each of the 4 LDL size fractions, we found significant heritabilities, which ranged from 22% to 37% (Table 1⇑), suggesting the existence of 1 or more genes that influence each of the 4 fractions. These measures of LDL size fractions were also significantly influenced by several covariates, including age and sex. The LDL size fractions are related metabolically36 and they are significantly intercorrelated phenotypically (r2 values for the 6 possible ...
Bovine chromosomes 2 (BTA2) and 5 (BTA5) of purebred, half-sib progeny sired by five Japanese black bulls were genotyped using microsatellite DNA markers. The data were subjected to linkage analysis for the detection and mapping of segregating quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing live weight, average daily gain and body measurements at weaning. Probability coefficients of inheriting allele 1 or 2 from the sire at specific chromosomal intervals were computed. The phenotypic data on progeny were regressed on these probability coefficients in a within-common-parent regression analysis. Fixed effects of sex, parity and season of birth as well as age as a covariate, were fitted in a linear model to the phenotypic data and subsequently analysed using QTL Express by generating an F-statistic through permutation tests at chromosome-wide significance thresholds over 10, 000 iterations at 1 cM intervals. Highly significant (P<0.01) segregating QTL for body measurements were detected on BTA2 for hip
Chromosome mappingChromosome mapping is the assignment of genes to specific locations on a chromosome. A gene map serves many important functions and is much like understanding the basic human anatomy to allow doctors to diagnose patients with disease . A doctor requires knowledge of where each organ is located as well as the function of this organ to understand disease. Source for information on Chromosome Mapping: The Gale Encyclopedia of Science dictionary.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mapping of Mammalian Genomes with Radiation (Goss and Harris) Hybrids. AU - Leach, Robin J.. AU - OConnell, Peter. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - This chapter describes the use of radiation hybrids for constructing high-resolution maps of the human genome. Radiation hybrids have recently been implemented for mouse mapping and have been found to have a higher level of resolution compared to that of interspecies meiotic mapping panels. The chapter presents the advantages and disadvantages of the two different types of radiation hybrid panels. One advantage of the chromosome-specific panels is their reduced complexity. Because the human component in the hybrids is derived from a single chromosome or a reduced number of chromosomes, the hybrid can be used as a resource for chromosome-specific marker isolation. Using methods, such as interspersed repetitive sequence-polymerase chain reaction (IRS-PCR) to obtain the human sequences has greatly improved their usefulness. Moreover, ...
The objective of this study was to confirm a quantitative trait locus for milk production described in a previous study on bovine chromosome 20 using an independent sample. A total of 1191 progeny tested bulls were analyzed for six microsatellite markers spanning bovine chromosome 20. Using multiple-marker regression, we obtained evidence (P , 0.5) for the presence of a quantitative traits locus in the same chromosomal region an affecting the same trait as described in the first study, therefore confirming genuine nature of this QTL.. ...
II. The genotypes spreadsheet contains only the 400 ABI PRISM MD10 markers which would be usual for a general genome-wide linkage screen. The markers are sorted on the basis of chromosome number and genetic distance, and the values for their genetic distances and physical locations are linked to the ABI mapping panels v2.5 spreadsheet by VLOOKUP, although other spreadsheets containing marker details could be used. Figure 1 shows a small section of the genotypes spreadsheet that covers the genotyping data for chromosome 1 markers for samples 1-6.. III. Genotyping data is entered into the raw data spreadsheet. This is most easily done by saving the output from, for example, ABI PRISM Genotyper software as a tab-delimited text file that can be imported into the raw data spreadsheet in the form of four continuous columns of data. Column 1 contains the marker name (which must exactly match the name in other spreadsheets), column 2 contains the sample number (in this example 1-16; see ...
Plant height (PH) and ear height (EH) are two very important agronomic traits related to the population density and lodging in maize. In order to better understand of the genetic basis of nature variation in PH and EH, two bi-parental populations and one genome-wide association study (GWAS) population were used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for both traits. Phenotypic data analysis revealed a wide normal distribution and high heritability for PH and EH in the three populations, and indicated that maize height is a highly polygenic trait. A total of 21 QTL for PH and EH in three common genomic regions (bin 1.05, 5.04/05, and 6.04/05) were identified by QTL mapping in the two bi-parental populations under multiple environments. Additionally, 41 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified for PH and EH by GWAS, of which 29 SNPs were located in 19 unique candidate gene regions. Most of the candidate genes were related to plant growth and development. One QTL on Chromosome 1 was further
Here we report a technique of laser chromosome welding that uses a violet pulse laser micro-beam for welding. The technique can integrate any size of a desired chromosome fragment into recipient chromosomes by combining with other techniques of laser chromosome manipulation such as chromosome cutting, moving, and stretching. We demonstrated that our method could perform chromosomal modifications with high precision, speed and ease of use in the absence of restriction enzymes, DNA ligases and DNA polymerases. Unlike the conventional methods such as de novo artificial chromosome synthesis, our method has no limitation on the size of the inserted chromosome fragment. The inserted DNA size can be precisely defined and the processed chromosome can retain its intrinsic structure and integrity. Therefore, our technique provides a high quality alternative approach to directed genetic recombination, and can be used for chromosomal repair, removal of defects and artificial chromosome creation. The ...
In December 1999, the HGP completed the first finished, full-length sequence of a human chromosome - chromosome 22. This accomplishment demonstrated the power of the HGP method of clone-by-clone sequencing to obtain large amounts of highly accurate sequence. In the clone-by-clone approach, clones of human DNA, such as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), that have a precisely known location on a physical map are the starting points for DNA sequencing reactions. Researchers chose to finish chromosome 22 first because it is relatively small and because highly detailed maps of 22 had already been constructed.. The sequence of chromosome 22 gave scientists their first ever view of the organization of an entire chromosome. The sequencing effort concentrated on the long arm of the chromosome. Each chromosome consists of two arms, a short arm (called p for petite) and a long arm (called q). In the case of chromosome 22, the q arm happens to be very rich in genes. The sequence from the long ...
To create this landmark map, Comeron and colleagues generated recombinant advanced intercross lines (RAIL), derived from eight crosses among twelve wild-derived lines. To accurately identify crossover and noncrossover events, haplotype rather than genotype data are required, and Comeron and colleagues use a clever technique to recover haplotypes. RAIL females were individually crossed to D. simulans, and the genomes of single hybrid progeny were sequenced with Illumina technology. Reads mapping to D. simulans were removed bioinformatically to reveal a haploid, meiotically produced D. melanogaster genome. In all, over 100,000 recombination events were localized with kilobase-level precision.. Certainly, this genome-wide recombination map will empower population genetic and molecular evolutionary studies in Drosophila for years to come. However, the sheer number of events catalogued combined with the resolution at which breakpoints could be mapped facilitates a great deal more than quantifying ...
Rag6 and Rag3c were delimited to a 49-kb interval on chromosome 8 and a 150-kb interval on chromosome 16, respectively. Structural variants in the exons of candidate genes were identified.. The soybean aphid, an invasive species, has significantly threatened soybean production in North America since 2000. Host-plant resistance is known as an ideal management strategy for aphids. Two novel aphid-resistance loci, Rag6 and Rag3c, from Glycine soja 85-32, were previously detected in a 10.5-cM interval on chromosome 8 and a 7.5-cM interval on chromosome 16, respectively. Defining the exact genomic position of these two genes is critical for improving the effectiveness of marker-assisted selection for aphid resistance and for identification of the functional genes. To pinpoint the locations of Rag6 and Rag3c, four populations segregating for Rag6 and Rag3c were used to fine map these two genes. The availability of the Illumina Infinium SoySNP50K/8K iSelect BeadChip, combined with single-nucleotide ...
Maps and/or signs are embedded with plural-bit data in the form of digital watermarks. In one implementation, an apparatus is provided to read two or more digital watermarks embedded within a map. Each of the two or more digital watermarks includes location information for a respective map location. The two or more digital watermarks are embedded through alterations to data representing the map; the alterations are generally imperceptible to a human observer of the map. The apparatus includes: a global positioning system receiver to determine a physical location of said apparatus; an input to receive data corresponding to at least a portion of the respective map area; a processor or electronic processing circuitry to extract the location information from the input data and to correlate the physical location with the extracted location information; and an output to output an indication of a relative correlation between the physical location and watermark location information. Other implementations are
A genetic component in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has clearly been demonstrated by epidemiological and genetic linkage studies. Linkage to IBD on proximal Chromosome (Chr) 16p is well established and replicated. A stratification experiment showed that the recent identification of a disease gene on the q arm does not interfere with the approach on the p arm, and the linkage peak is still significant. Here we present a candidate gene study of the alpha integrins (CD11A-D) on Chr 16. The alpha integrins play a key role in inflammatory processes, including leukocyte adhesion and migration. Their genes are located on the p arm of Chr 16, and therefore represent excellent positional and functional candidates. Since the assignment of the CD11 genes in the genome was not clear, we performed physical, radiation hybrid, and fluorescent in situ hybridization mapping of the gene family. All CD11 genes map on Chr 16p11-12. CD11B-D are arranged in a gene cluster within 300 kb and CD11A ...
Clinical mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland and causes significant costs to dairy production. It is unfavourably genetically correlated to milk production, and, thus, knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie these traits would be valuable to improve both of them simultaneously through breeding. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) that affects both clinical mastitis and milk production has recently been fine-mapped to around 89 Mb on bovine chromosome 6 (BTA6), but identification of the gene that underlies this QTL was not possible due to the strong linkage disequilibrium between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within this region. Our aim was to identify the gene and, if possible, the causal polymorphism(s) responsible for this QTL through association analysis of high-density SNPs and imputed full sequence data in combination with analyses of transcript and protein levels of the identified candidate gene. Associations between SNPs and the studied traits were strongest for SNPs that
Simply put, chromosomes are the structures that hold our genes. Genes are the individual instructions that tell our bodies how to develop and keep our bodies running healthy. In every cell of our body there are 20,000 to 25,000* genes that are located on 46 chromosomes. These 46 chromosomes occur as 23 pairs. We get one of each pair from our mother in the egg, and one of each pair from our father in the sperm. The first 22 pairs are labeled longest to shortest. The last pair are called the sex chromosomes labeled X or Y. Females have two X chromosomes (XX), and males have an X and a Y chromosome (XY). Therefore everyone should have 46 chromosomes in every cell of their body. If a chromosome or piece of a chromosome is missing or duplicated, there are missing or extra genes respectively. When a person has missing or extra information (genes) problems can develop for that individuals health and development. Each chromosomes has a p and q arm; p (petit) is the short arm and q (next letter in the ...
Bulk segregant analysis (BSA) coupled to high throughput sequencing is a powerful method to map genomic regions related with phenotypes of interest. It relies on crossing two parents, one inferior and one superior for a trait of interest. Segregants displaying the trait of the superior parent are pooled, the DNA extracted and sequenced. Genomic regions linked to the trait of interest are identified by searching the pool for overrepresented alleles that normally originate from the superior parent. BSA data analysis is non-trivial due to sequencing, alignment and screening errors. To increase the power of the BSA technology and obtain a better distinction between spuriously and truly linked regions, we developed EXPLoRA (EXtraction of over-rePresented aLleles in BSA), an algorithm for BSA data analysis that explicitly models the dependency between neighboring marker sites by exploiting the properties of linkage disequilibrium through a Hidden Markov Model (HMM). Reanalyzing a BSA dataset for high ethanol
Definition of chromosome mapping. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
Background: The uneven distribution of recombination across the length of chromosomes results in inaccurate estimates of genetic to physical distances. In wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 3B, it has been estimated that 90% of the cross over events occur in distal sub-telomeric regions representing 40% of the chromosome. Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping which does not rely on recombination is a strategy to map genomes and has been widely employed in animal species and more recently in some plants. RH maps have been proposed to provide i) higher and ii) more uniform resolution than genetic maps, and iii) to be independent of the distribution patterns observed for meiotic recombination. An in vivo RH panel was generated for mapping chromosome 3B of wheat in an attempt to provide a complete scaffold for this ~1 Gb segment of the genome and compare the resolution to previous genetic maps. Results: A high density RH map with 541 marker loci anchored to chromosome 3B spanning a total distance of ...
Gene expression profiling, chromosome assignment and mutational analysis of the porcine Golgi-resident UDP-N-Acetylglucosamine transporter SLC35A3 ...
The aim of this study was to estimate the accuracy and convergence of newly developed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genomic resources, primarily genome zipper (GZ) and population sequencing (POPSEQ), at the genome-wide level and to assess their usefulness in applied barley breeding by analyzing seven known loci. Comparison of barley GZ and POPSEQ maps to a newly developed consensus genetic map constructed with data from 13 individual linkage maps yielded an accuracy of 97.8% (GZ) and 99.3% (POPSEQ), respectively, regarding the chromosome assignment. The percentage of agreement in marker position indicates that on average only 3.7% GZ and 0.7% POPSEQ positions are not in accordance with their centimorgan coordinates in the consensus map. The fine-scale comparison involved seven genetic regions on chromosomes 1H, 2H, 4H, 6H, and 7H, harboring major genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL) for disease resistance. In total, 179 GZ loci were analyzed and 64 polymorphic markers were developed. Entirely, ...
We analyzed a large group of Finnish type 2 diabetic families and found evidence for linkage to chromosome 20. Three linkage peaks were seen after analyses of diabetes and diabetes-related traits. These linkages were at approximately 0-25 cM, 50-60 cM, and 63-72 cM respectively from the marker D20S103. Although the second and third peaks could be explained by a single susceptibility locus, evidence for linkage on both arms on chromosome 20 argues for the presence of more than one susceptibility locus. As far as we know, we are the first group to show evidence for linkage to the proximal p arm of chromosome 20 in type 2 diabetes. Most of our evidence comes from families with affected sibships greater than two. Ordered subset analyses of our data revealed that a small number of families, with high or low values of important diabetes-related traits, give rise to large lod scores near the three peaks. These analyses provide additional evidence for more than one susceptibility locus on this ...
Original text and figures were provided by N. Kurata). Chromosome number of cultivated rice was reported as 2n=24 by Kuwada in 1910. Until 1930 this number was confirmed by the observation of rice chromosomes at meiosis. However, due to the extreme smallness, the morphology and structure of rice chromosomes remained unclear and no karyotype analysis was reported until the1970s. Only some attempts of morphological identification based on the figures at pachytene stage in meiosis were reported in this period.. In 1978, Kurata and Omura (1978) invented a new method of chromosome preparation technique, with which karyotype analysis on rice chromosomes was first conducted and identification of all twelve chromosomes became realized. Furthermore, all extra chromosomes of 12 trisomics series of rice (2n=24+1) were identified with this method by Kurata et al. (1981) and Iwata et al. (1984) so that the relationship between the linkage group based on the genes and the chromosomes on which the genes were ...
Descrição: We constructed a metric linkage disequilibrium (LD) map of bovine chromosome 6 (BTA6) on the basis of data from 220 SNPs genotyped on 433 Australian dairy bulls. This metric LD map has distances in LD units (LDUs) that are analogous to centimorgans in linkage maps. The LD map of BTA6 has a total length of 8.9 LDUs. Within the LD map, regions of high LD (represented as blocks) and regions of low LD (steps) are observed, when plotted against the integrated map in kilobases. At the most stringent block definition, namely a set of loci with zero LDU increase over the span of these markers, BTA6 comprises 40 blocks, accounting for 41% of the chromosome. At a slightly lower stringency of block definition (a set of loci covering a maximum of 0.2 LDUs on the LD map), up to 81% of BTA6 is spanned by 46 blocks and with 13 steps that are likely to reflect recombination hot spots. The mean swept radius (the distance over which LD is likely to be useful for mapping) is 13.3 Mb, confirming ...
To cause genomic instability particularly at chromosome loci that are intrinsically difficult to replicate because of the complexity of secondary structures or
Everyone has 23 pairs of chromosomes, 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. The science that relates to the study of these chromosomes is referred to as Cytogenetics. Our tests that we offer, analyzes the whole chromosome and identifies any disorders present.. Why do a Cytogenic Test?. There are many disorders that can be diagnosed by examining a persons whole chromosome.. Chromosome abnormalities constitute a major category of medical genetic disorders. In a clinical setting, chromosome abnormalities account for a large proportion of cases involving individuals referred with congenital malformations, developmental delay, mental retardation, or infertility; women with gonadal dysgenesis; spontaneous abortions, and couples with repeated spontaneous miscarriages.. Cytogenetic laboratories provide microscopic studies of human chromosomes in order to diagnose abnormalities in prenatal/postnatal and cancer specimens. The studies involve analyzing chromosomes found in blood, bone ...
To facilitate large-scale genetic mapping of the human genome, we have developed chromosome-specific sets of microsatellite marker loci suitable for use with a fluorescence-based automated DNA fragment analyser. We present 254 dinucleotide repeat marker loci (80% from the Genethon genetic linkage map) arranged into 39 sets, covering all 22 autosomes and the X chromosome. The average distance between adjacent markers is 13 centiMorgans, and less than 4% of the genome lies more than 20 cM from the nearest marker. Each set of microsatellites consists of up to nine marker loci, with allele size ranges that do not overlap. We selected marker loci on the basis of their reliability in the polymerase chain reaction, polymorphism content, map position and the accuracy with which alleles can be scored automatically by the Genotyper(TM) program ...
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex disease that involves both environmental and genetic factors. Elucidation of the basic etiologic factors involved in RA is essential for preventing and treating this disease. However, the etiology of RA, like that of other complex diseases, is largely unknown. In the present study, we conducted autosomal multipoint linkage scans using affected sib pairs by incorporating the smoking status into analysis. We divided the affected sib pairs into three subgroups based on smoking status (ever, current, or never). Interactions between the susceptibility genes and smoking could then be assessed through linkage mapping. Results suggested that the genetic effect of chromosome 6p21.2-3 in concordant current smoker pairs was about two-fold greater than that of the concordant non-current smoker pairs or discordant pairs. With incorporation of smoking status, additional regions with evidence of linkage were identified, including chromosomes 4q and 20q; while evidence of linkage
Do you look a bit like your brothers and sisters? Do you look a bit like your parents? The similarities are because, unless you were adopted, you and the other members of your family have genetic material in common.. Some characteristics, or traits, result from interactions with the environment, others are determined from the genetic material in your chromosomes. Chromosomes are the keepers of the genetic material in eukaryotic cells. An organism has the same chromosomes for its entire life. The chromosomes are located within each cell nucleus. They provide the directions for how the cell is supposed to function and determine some characteristics about how the individual looks. Each chromosome contains a very complex molecule called DNA. The DNA molecule contains genes, which direct how an organisms body is built and maintained.. Heredity is the passage of DNA from the chromosomes of one generation to the chromosomes of the next. Chromosomes in your body are in pairs. One chromosome of each ...
Kit Contents: Chromosome 1, Chromosome 2, Chromosome 3, Chromosome 4, Chromosome 5, Chromosome 6, Chromosome 7, Chromosome 8, Chromosome 9, Chromosome 10, Chromosome 11, Chromosome 12, Chromosome 13, Chromosome 14, Chromosome 15, Chromosome 16, Chromosome 17, Chromosome 18, Chromosome 19, Chromosome 20, Chromosome 21,
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of death world-wide, and most cases have a complex, multifactorial aetiology that includes a substantial heritable component. Identification of new genes involved in CAD may inform pathogenesis and provide new therapeutic targets. The PROCARDIS study recruited 2,658 affected sibling pairs (ASPs) with onset of CAD before age 66 y from four European countries to map susceptibility loci for CAD. ASPs were defined as having CAD phenotype if both had CAD, or myocardial infarction (MI) phenotype if both had a MI. In a first study, involving a genome-wide linkage screen, tentative loci were mapped to Chromosomes 3 and 11 with the CAD phenotype (1,464 ASPs), and to Chromosome 17 with the MI phenotype (739 ASPs). In a second study, these loci were examined with a dense panel of grid-tightening markers in an independent set of families (1,194 CAD and 344 MI ASPs). This replication study showed a significant result on Chromosome 17 (MI phenotype; p = 0.009 after
In collaboration with The Open University, The Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.. This pack uses a primate genome puzzle to explore differences and similarities between human and chimpanzee chromosomes. The materials can be applied flexibly to themes on heredity, chromosome structure, duplication, deletion, translocation or inversion and even the formation of chromosome-2 by fusion of ancestral ape chromosomes (as featured in the new Scottish Higher qualification). Try hybridising a chimp and human with our puzzle - see what happens!. Chimpanzee & Human Chromosomes Teachers Guide - PDF document (0.8MB). Chimpanzee and Human Chromosomes Links to Scottish Curriculum - PDF document (0.2MB). Chimpanzee & Human Chromosomes Student Activity Sheets - PDF document (0.4MB). This puzzle has been formated for printing on card or paper at around A3. See our Public Engagement with Science review for images of our giant version available in the zoo and at various ...
In collaboration with The Open University, The Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.. This pack uses a primate genome puzzle to explore differences and similarities between human and chimpanzee chromosomes. The materials can be applied flexibly to themes on heredity, chromosome structure, duplication, deletion, translocation or inversion and even the formation of chromosome-2 by fusion of ancestral ape chromosomes (as featured in the new Scottish Higher qualification). Try hybridising a chimp and human with our puzzle - see what happens!. Chimpanzee & Human Chromosomes Teachers Guide - PDF document (0.8MB). Chimpanzee and Human Chromosomes Links to Scottish Curriculum - PDF document (0.2MB). Chimpanzee & Human Chromosomes Student Activity Sheets - PDF document (0.4MB). This puzzle has been formated for printing on card or paper at around A3. See our Public Engagement with Science review for images of our giant version available in the zoo and at various ...
Abstract: The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): Population Density Grid estimates population per square km for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km) grid cells and associated data sets dated circa 2000. A proportional allocation gridding algorithm, utilizing more than 1,000,000 national and sub-national geographic units, is used to assign population values to grid cells. The population count grids are divided by the land area grid to produce population density grids. This data set is produced by the Columbia University Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) in collaboration with the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), The World Bank, and Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT ...
The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1) consists of estimates of human population for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km) grid. The urban extent grids distinguish urban and rural areas based on a combination of population counts (persons), settlement points, and the presence of Nighttime Lights . Areas are defined as urban where contiguous lighted cells from the Nighttime Lights or approximated urban extents based on buffered settlement points for which the total population is greater than 5,000 persons. This data set is produced by the Columbia University Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) in collaboration with the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), The World Bank, and Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT ...
The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1) consists of estimates of human population for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km) grid cells and associated data sets dated circa 2000. Coastlines are derived from the land area grids to show the outlines of pixels (cells) that contain administrative units in GRUMPv1 and that fall along waterbodies. The coastlines are designed for cartographic use with the GRUMPv1 population raster data sets. This data set is produced by the Columbia University Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) in collaboration with the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), The World Bank, and Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT ...
For gene and chromosome mapping. For production of monoclonal antibodies by producing hybridoma. For production of Induced stem ... Each of the fused hybrid cells contained a single nucleus with chromosomes from both fusion partners. Synkaryon became the name ...
1966). "Chromosome mapping with the aid of telocentrics". Proceedings of the 2nd International Wheat Genetics Symposium. ... 1962). "The use of telocentric chromosomes in linkage mapping". Genetics. 47: 983. Shama Rao, H. K.; -- (1964). "Chemical ... The haploids arose in work on wheat-rye hybrids being used to test for chromosome doubling by heat shock. Chinese Spring was ... 1985). "The transfer of short segments of alien chromosome to wheat". In R. B. Singh; R. M. Singh; B. D. Singh (eds.). Advances ...
"Homozygosity mapping at Alström syndrome to chromosome 2p". Hum. Mol. Genet. 6 (2): 213-219. doi:10.1093/hmg/6.2.213. PMID ... The gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 2 (2p13.2) on the plus (Watson) strand. It is 224,161 bases in length ...
It has been mapped to chromosome 2q31-36. It has been associated with PNKD. While not the same in all people, there are several ...
Fisher, Elizabeth Mary Claire (1987). Microcloning and molecular mapping of the mouse X chromosome. london.ac.uk (PhD thesis). ... She dissected individual chromosomes and cloned DNA fragments into plasmids. After graduating from Imperial College London in ... The sex-determining region of the human Y chromosome encodes a finger protein Genealogies of mouse inbred strains Mutations in ... Fisher, Elizabeth M. C. (1987). "The sex-determining region of the human Y chromosome encodes a finger protein". Cell. 51 (6): ...
He has studied repeated sequences in the DNA of mice and produced molecular maps of mouse chromosomes, which were used to ... Fisher, Elizabeth Mary Claire (1987). Microcloning and molecular mapping of the mouse X chromosome. london.ac.uk (PhD thesis). ... of repeated sequences in the mouse genome and the use of novel approaches to generate molecular maps of mouse chromosomes, work ...
By autozygosity mapping, McGregor et al. (2003) located the Fraser syndrome locus to chromosome 4q21. Genetic Heterogeneity In ... Both the female fetus and the phenotypically normal father had a chromosome anomaly: inv(9)(p11q21). An earlier born infant had ... Fraser syndrome and the same chromosome 9 inversion.[citation needed] Van Haelst et al. (2007) provided a revision of the ...
"Molecular mapping of mouse chromosomes 4 and 6: use of a flow-sorted Robertsonian chromosome". Genomics. 13: 761-9. doi:10.1016 ... Truett, GE; Bahary, N; Friedman, JM; Leibel, RL (1991). "Rat obesity gene fatty (fa) maps to chromosome 5: evidence for ... Bahary, N; Zorich, G; Pachter, JE; Leibel, RL; Friedman, JM (1991). "Molecular genetic linkage maps of mouse chromosomes 4 and ... August 1995). "The human obese (OB) gene: RNA expression pattern and mapping on the physical, cytogenetic, and genetic maps of ...
Genetic mapping of the Camurati-Engelmann disease locus to chromosome 19q13. 1-q13. 3. The American Journal of Human Genetics, ... TGFB1 protein is encoded by the TGF-B1 gene, which occurs on chromosome 19q13.1-13.3. This protein is responsible for a ... Camurati-Engelmann disease is caused by autosomal dominant mutations in the gene TGFB1, localized at chromosome 19q13. There ... Localisation of the gene causing diaphyseal dysplasia Camurati-Engelmann to chromosome 19q13. Journal of medical genetics, 37(4 ...
Sørensen PD, Lomholt B, Frederiksen S, Tommerup N (1991). "Fine mapping of human 5S rRNA genes to chromosome 1q42.11----q42.13 ... 1994). "5S rRNA gene hybridizes to human chromosome 1 at two sites (1q42.11→q42.13 and 1q43)". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 68 (1-2 ... Steffensen DM, Duffey P, Prensky W (1975). "Localisation of 5S ribosomal RNA genes on human chromosome 1". Nature. 252 (5485): ... "Report of the committee on the genetic constitution of chromosome 1". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 25 (1-4): 9-20. doi:10.1159/ ...
Jackson, C. E.; Symon, W. E.; Mann, J. D. (December 1964). "X Chromosome Mapping of Genes for Red-Green Colorblindness and Xg ... Therefore, only individuals with two X chromosomes can be a carrier in which the abnormality is not displayed. This person has ... In the case of hemophilia, colorblindness, or other sex-linked traits, the gene is only carried on the X chromosome. ... The most common chromosomal aneuploidy is a trisomy of chromosome 21, which manifests itself as Down syndrome. Current ...
O'Donovan N, Galvin M, Morgan J (1999). "Physical mapping of the CXC chemokine locus on human chromosome 4". Cytogenet Cell ... The gene for CXCL6 is located on human chromosome 4 in a cluster with other CXC chemokine genes. Proost P, Wuyts A, Conings R, ... Modi W, Chen Z (1998). "Localization of the human CXC chemokine subfamily on the long arm of chromosome 4 using radiation ...
Rlm7 has been mapped to Brassica chromosome A07. Rlm8 resides on the A genome in Brassica rapa and Brassica napus, but it has ... The Rlm9 gene (mapped to chromosome A07) has been cloned and it encodes a Wall-associated-kinase-like (WAKL) protein. Rlm9 ... Rlm1 has been mapped to Brassica chromosome A07. Rlm1 will induce a resistance response against an L. maculans strain harboring ... Rlm3 has been mapped to Brassica chromosome A07. Rlm3 will induce a resistance response against an L. maculans strain harboring ...
"A Compositional Map of Human Chromosome Band Xq28". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... Xq28 is a chromosome band and genetic marker situated at the tip of the X chromosome which has been studied since at least 1980 ... Polymorphisms of genetic markers of the X chromosome were analyzed for 40 families to see if a specific marker was shared by a ... One was an X chromosome linkage analysis of 54 pairs of gay brothers carried out by the independent research group of Sanders ...
The scurs locus in cattle maps to bovine chromosome 19. Animal Genetics 35:34-39 Georges, M., R. Drinkwater, T. King, A. Mishra ... Microsatellite mapping of a gene affecting horn development in Bos taurus. Nat. Genet. 3: 206-210. Long, C. R. and K. E. ... Horn type and horn length genes map to the same chromosomal region in Soay sheep. Heredity (Edinb). 104(2):196-205. doi: ...
The amount of sequence tags mapped to each chromosome was counted. If there was a surplus or deficiency in any of the ... This was followed by mapping the chromosome using the quantification of fragments. This was done using advanced methods in DNA ... Screening can detect problems such as neural tube defects, chromosome abnormalities, and gene mutations that would lead to ... has been successively applied for diagnosing fetal aneuploidy as a chromosome- or gene-specific assay. Fetal cell DNA has been ...
Drayna, D.; White, R. (1985-11-15). "The genetic linkage map of the human X chromosome". Science. 230 (4727): 753-758. doi: ... where he created the first full length genetic linkage map of the human X chromosome. After completing his post-doctoral ...
Smith CL, Cantor CR (1989). "Evolving strategies for making physical maps of mammalian chromosomes". Genome. 31 (2): 1055-8. ... While Bottom-up proteomics integrates cleaved products from all proteoforms produced by a gene into a single peptide map of the ... Although Top-down proteomics can be operated in relatively high output in order to successfully map proteome coverage at a ... "Mapping intact protein isoforms in discovery mode using top-down proteomics". Nature. 480 (7376): 254-258. Bibcode:2011Natur. ...
"A two-dimensional electrophoresis reference map of human ovary". J. Mol. Med. 83 (10): 812-21. doi:10.1007/s00109-005-0676-y. ... "Isolation of genes from the rhabdoid tumor deletion region in chromosome band 22q11.2". Gene. 241 (1): 133-41. doi:10.1016/ ... "The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22". Nature. 402 (6761): 489-95. doi:10.1038/990031. PMID 10591208. "Entrez Gene: RAB36 ...
"Fine mapping of an imprinted gene for familial nonchromaffin paragangliomas, on chromosome 11q23". American Journal of Human ... "Fine mapping of a putatively imprinted gene for familial non-chromaffin paragangliomas to chromosome 11q13.1: evidence for ... SDHAF2 is located on the q arm of Chromosome 11 in position 12.2 and spans 16,642 base pairs. The SDHAF2 gene produces a 6.7 ...
Sawera M, Gorodkin J, Cirera S, Fredholm M (2005). "Mapping and expression studies of the mir17-92 cluster on pig chromosome 11 ... Xu W, Li JY, Shen QD, Li L, Yu H (2007). "[DNA sequencing of miR-17-92 cluster at chromosome 13q31-q32 in mantel cell lymphoma ...
This was one of the first genomes physically mapped In addition to his work in the development of mapping tools, in 1988, along ... Chromosome Coordinating Meeting 1992 (CCM92 : Baltimore Conference), with P.L. Pearson, Basel: S. Karger Pub, 1993, ISBN 978-3- ... Chromosome-specific recombinant DNA libraries from the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991 Jun 11;19(11):3105- ... He has published several books on the human genome during the genetic mapping phase of the human genome project. Johns Hopkins ...
Gardner K, Barmada M, Ptacek L, Hoffman E (1997). "A new locus for hemiplegic migraine maps to chromosome 1q31". Neurology. 49 ... The final locus for FHM maps to the q-arm of chromosome 1. A number of attractive candidate genes occur in this area, though no ...
"GeneLoc Integrated Map for Chromosome 1: Exon structure for C1orf94". genecards.weizmann.ac.il. Retrieved 2020-05-01. " ... Chromosome 1 Opening Reading Frame 94 or C1orf94 is a protein in human coded by the C1orf94 gene. The function of this protein ... "C1orf94 chromosome 1 open reading frame 94 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2020-05-01. " ... C1orf94 is located on the short arm of chromosome 1 specifically at 1p34.3 chr1:34,166,883-34,219,131 and is situated near ...
"The SON gene encodes a conserved DNA binding protein mapping to human chromosome 21". Annals of Human Genetics. 58 (1): 25-34. ... and CRF2-4 genes cluster on human Chromosome 21 and mouse Chromosome 16". Mammalian Genome. 4 (6): 338-342. doi:10.1007/ ...
"Obese Locus in WNIN/Obese Rat Maps on Chromosome 5 Upstream of Leptin Receptor". PLOS ONE. 8 (10): 10. Bibcode:2013PLoSO... ...
del Pilar Garavito, Maria (2009). "Fine mapping of autism susceptibility loci on chromosome 1q23-24 and chromosome 13q13-q14". ... KIAA1704 is found on the chromosome 13, at locus q14.12, with the genomic sequence starting at 45,563,687 bp and ending at ... In a second study, researchers used a linkage disequilibrium mapping study of locus 13q13-14 to investigate potential ... Kim, Jognhwan (2005). "Genome- wide mapping of DNA- protein interactions in eukaryotes". University of Austin Texas. "Ensembl ...
... gene and map it to chromosome 21, for which he produced the first complete linkage map. 1993: Carried out chromosome 21 ... 1993: Carried out physical mapping of chromosome 21 to show SOD1 as the first gene causing familial amyotrophic lateral ... Mapped the BACE2 gene to the obligate Down Syndrome region of chromosome 21 2000: Discovered genetic linkage of AD to ... by providing the key genetic and physical mapping data for chromosome 21 used to find the gene defect, published in Nature, ...
... the first mapping results of the wheat chromosome 3B, which is the largest of the 21 chromosomes of wheat. That same year she ... The initial strategy of the IWGSC was to produce physical maps of each individual chromosome and seqence them tot get to a ... Feuillet and her team were the first to establish a physical map of chromosome 3B which was published the journal Science in ... In 2008, she and her team successfully published the first mapping of the largest wheat chromosome, 3B and in 2014, they were ...
CGH uses creates a map that shows the relative abundance of DNA and chromosome number. By comparing the fluorescence in a ... a chromosome will be made visible through discrepancies between fluorescent-labelled cancer chromosomes and healthy chromosomes ... FISH chromosome in-situ hybridization allows the study cytogenetics in pre- and postnatal samples and is also widely used in ... FISH maps out single copy or repetitive DNA sequences through localization labeling of specific nucleic acids. The technique ...
Researchers have completed the DNA sequence of chromosome seven, which is home to genes associated with deafness, cystic ... Mapping an Unlucky Chromosome. The number seven is not so lucky when it comes to chromosomes. Chromosome seven is the home of ... Researchers have studied chromosome seven for more than a decade because it contains many genes associated with disease, ... The good news is, researchers now know more about chromosome seven than ever. Research at five centers around the world has ...
... mapping is the assignment of genes to specific locations on a chromosome. A gene map serves many important functions and is ... Source for information on Chromosome Mapping: The Gale Encyclopedia of Science dictionary. ... Chromosome mapping. Chromosome mapping is the assignment of genes to specific locations on a chromosome. A gene map serves many ... These maps are called cytogenetic maps, linkage maps, physical maps, or a DNA sequence map. A cytogenetic map uses bands ...
Chromosome 1 is the largest and is over three times bigger than chromosome 22. The 23rd pair of chromosomes are two special ... Females have a pair of X chromosomes (46, XX), whereas males have one X and one Y chromosomes (46, XY). Chromosomes are made of ... Each chromosome is a very long molecule, so it needs to be wrapped tightly around proteins for efficient packaging. ... Our genetic information is stored in 23 pairs of chromosomes that vary widely in size and shape. ...
In the Nov. 10 SN: Real benefits of virtual therapy, monkey malaria in humans, round electrons disappoint, mouse pups with two dads, bats hover techniques, Europas icy spikes, a vampire burial and more. ...
Plasmids, recombination and chromosome mapping in Streptomyces lividans 66.. Hopwood DA, Kieser T, Wright HM, Bibb MJ. ... A linkage map of the S. lividans chromosome containing ten markers was derived from the results of matings using several ...
Hitachi High-Technologies said today they will combine their technologies to develop a comprehensive human chromosome mapping ... Hitachi High-Technologies said today they will combine their technologies to develop a comprehensive human chromosome mapping ... The agreement will leverage OpGens Whole Genome Mapping technology and Hitachi High-Technologies and the Hitachi groups ... include bioinformatic tools to complete a human genome sequence and to detect and analyze structural variations in chromosomes ...
The X chromosome requires special treatment in the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL). However, most QTL mapping methods ... For the X chromosome data, all individuals have one chromosome subject to recombination and one nonrecombinant chromosome, and ... The X Chromosome in Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping. Karl W. Broman, Śaunak Sen, Sarah E. Owens, Ani Manichaikul, E. Michelle ... The X Chromosome in Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping. Karl W. Broman, Śaunak Sen, Sarah E. Owens, Ani Manichaikul, E. Michelle ...
chromosome map synonyms, chromosome map pronunciation, chromosome map translation, English dictionary definition of chromosome ... map. n a graphic representation of the positions of genes on chromosomes, obtained by observation of chromosome bands or by ... Chromosome map - definition of chromosome map by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/chromosome+map ... chromosome map. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. chromosome map. n (Genetics) a graphic ...
Immunological method for mapping genes on Drosophila polytene chromosomes. P R Langer-Safer, M Levine, and D C Ward ... Immunological method for mapping genes on Drosophila polytene chromosomes Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... A method is described for localizing DNA sequences hybridized in situ to Drosophila polytene chromosomes. This procedure ...
Three chromosome 1 mutants (white, miniature, and forked) are used. ... Students study crossing over and distance between genes on chromosomes. ... Chromosome Mapping Drosophila BioKit® (with Prepaid Coupon). Item # 171964 Online Only *bvseo_sdk, java_sdk, bvseo-4.0.0 ... Students study crossing over and distance between genes on chromosomes. Three chromosome 1 mutants (white, miniature, and ...
... Genomics. 1996 Sep 15;36(3):530-4. ... The Gyk gene was mapped to the mouse X chromosome by both fluorescence in situ hybridization and an interspecies backcross ...
Mapping quantitative trait loci for anxiety in chromosome substitution strains of mice. Jonathan B. Singer, Annie E. Hill, ... Mapping quantitative trait loci for anxiety in chromosome substitution strains of mice. Jonathan B. Singer, Annie E. Hill, ... Mapping quantitative trait loci for anxiety in chromosome substitution strains of mice. Jonathan B. Singer, Annie E. Hill, ... Mapping quantitative trait loci for anxiety in chromosome substitution strains of mice ...
... map of the short arm of chromosome 16 but also to identify and map many of the genes from the short arm onto this physical map. ... Physical mapping of the short arm of human chromosome 16. Project ID: CIPD940408. Finanziato nellambito di: IC-PECO/COPERNICUS ... Physical mapping of the short arm of human chromosome 16. Dal 1995-06-01 al 1997-03-31 ... a physical and transcriptional map of the short arm of human chromosome 16. The work will continue to build on the results ...
We analyse chromosome location of H3 and H4 histone gene clusters by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) in 35 species of ... Tripputi P, Emanuel BS, Croce CM, Green LG, Stein GS, Stein JL (1986) Human histone genes map to multiple chromosomes. Proc ... Chromosome mapping of H3 and H4 histone gene clusters in 35 species of acridid grasshoppers. ... was located interstitially in the proximal chromosome third. In 17 out of the 21 species with 2n♂ = 23 acrocentric chromosomes ...
"Chromosome Mapping" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Chromosome Mapping" was a major or minor topic ... "Chromosome Mapping" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Chromosome Mapping" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Chromosome Mapping". ...
High-Resolution Mapping of the Spatial Organization of a Bacterial Chromosome. By Tung B. K. Le, Maxim V. Imakaev, Leonid A. ... High-Resolution Mapping of the Spatial Organization of a Bacterial Chromosome. By Tung B. K. Le, Maxim V. Imakaev, Leonid A. ... High-Resolution Mapping of the Spatial Organization of a Bacterial Chromosome Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... 1 Partitioning of the Caulobacter chromosome into CIDs. (A) Normalized NcoI Hi-C contact map for Caulobacter swarmer cells ...
Mapping the Drosophila genome with yeast artificial chromosomes Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... The ability to clone large fragments of DNA in yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) has created the possibility of obtaining ... global physical maps of complex genomes. For this application to be feasible, most sequences in complex genomes must be able to ...
Mapping Novel Pancreatic Islet Genes to Human Chromosomes. Jorge Ferrer, Jonathon Wasson, Kathleen D Schoor, Michael Mueckler, ... Mapping Novel Pancreatic Islet Genes to Human Chromosomes. Jorge Ferrer, Jonathon Wasson, Kathleen D Schoor, Michael Mueckler, ... Mapping Novel Pancreatic Islet Genes to Human Chromosomes Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Diabetes ... Sequencetagged sites developed from 19 islet cDNAs were used to map these genes to human chromosomes using a combination of ...
Cloning and chromosomal mapping of the human p53-related KET gene to chromosome 3q27 and its murine homolog Ket to mouse ... Microclones derived from the mouse chromosome 7 D-E bands map within the proximal region of the C14Co5 deletion in albino ... chromosome 16. Augustin, M.; Bamberger, C.; Paul, D.; Schmale, H.. Zeitschriftenaufsatz 1991. ...
Congenic mapping and candidate gene analysis for streptozotocin-induced diabetes susceptibility locus on mouse chromosome 11. ... Susceptibility to streptozotocin-induced diabetes is mapped to mouse chromosome 11. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 328:158-164 ... Here, we utilized the A/J-11SM consomic strain and a set of chromosome 11 (Chr. 11) congenic strains developed from A/J-11SM to ... We named this locus Stzds1 (STZ-induced diabetes susceptibility 1). Congenic mapping using the Chr. 11 congenic strains ...
A region of consistent deletion in neuroblastoma maps within human chromosome 1p36.2-36.3. P S White, J M Maris, C Beltinger, E ... A region of consistent deletion in neuroblastoma maps within human chromosome 1p36.2-36.3 ... A region of consistent deletion in neuroblastoma maps within human chromosome 1p36.2-36.3 ... A region of consistent deletion in neuroblastoma maps within human chromosome 1p36.2-36.3 ...
1. chromosome mapping (n.). (genetics) the process of locating genes on a chromosome ... 4. mapping (n.). (genetics) the process of locating genes on a chromosome ... 3. mapping (n.). (mathematics) a mathematical relation such that each element of a given set (the domain of the function) is ... 2. chromosome (n.). a threadlike strand of DNA in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order ...
... maps to chromosome 7q36 in a large family. Pre- and postaxial anomalies of the extremities are inherited in this family as an ... have been mapped. These data suggest that human chromosome 7q36 and the homologous region of mouse chromosome 5 contain genes ... A complex bilateral polysyndactyly disease locus maps to chromosome 7q36 Nat Genet. 1994 Mar;6(3):282-6. doi: 10.1038/ng0394- ... We demonstrated that the gene responsible for a congenital limb deformity (polysyndactyly) maps to chromosome 7q36 in a large ...
What is chromosome mapping? Meaning of chromosome mapping medical term. What does chromosome mapping mean? ... Looking for online definition of chromosome mapping in the Medical Dictionary? chromosome mapping explanation free. ... chromosome mapping. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.. Related to chromosome mapping: gene mapping chro·mo· ... Chromosome mapping , definition of chromosome mapping by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
1000 of which were previously identified and mapped by classical genetic crosses. Comparison of these experimentally determined ... Sequencing of the complete Bacillus subtilis chromosome revealed the presence of approximately 4100 genes, ... Chromosome Mapping*. Chromosomes, Bacterial / genetics. DNA, Bacterial / genetics. Genetic Markers. Genome, Bacterial. Models, ... 10101153 - Genetic and physical maps of the bacillus subtilis chromosome.. 9515703 - Use of asymmetric cell division and ...
... mapping to the X chromosome. A region of shared homozygosity on chromosome 10p13-p12.1 was identified in the three affected ... A Novel Gene for Neonatal Diabetes Maps to Chromosome 10p12.1-p13. Gabrielle S. Sellick, Christine Garrett, Richard S. Houlston ... A Novel Gene for Neonatal Diabetes Maps to Chromosome 10p12.1-p13. Gabrielle S. Sellick, Christine Garrett, Richard S. Houlston ... A Novel Gene for Neonatal Diabetes Maps to Chromosome 10p12.1-p13 Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
... on chromosome 19q13.1-13.2 in two multi-affected consanguineous families. The minimum critical region containing the MCPH2 ... The second locus for autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH2) maps to chromosome 19q13.1-13.2. *Emma Roberts. 1. , ... on chromosome 19q13.1-13.2 in two multi-affected consanguineous families. The minimum critical region containing the MCPH2 ...
Physical Mapping of Chromosomes: A Combinatorial Problem in Molecular Biology. Title. Physical Mapping of Chromosomes: A ...
Chromosome Mapping. The Human Genome Project was completed in 2003. One of the key research areas was Chromosome Mapping. This ... Genetic Map 2- to 5-cM resolution map (600 - 1,500 markers). 1-cM resolution map (3,000 markers) September 1994. ... Mapping abstracts from U.S. DOE Human Genome 1997 Program Report *Mapping abstracts from 1996 U.S. DOE Human Genome Program ... Mapping is the construction of a series of chromosome descriptions that depict the position and spacing of unique, identifiable ...
Hi there, this is the uploader of the map.. Dienekes caution makes perfect sense. This kind of map inevitably oversimplifies ... Ancient Y-chromosome studies. Ancient Scripts World Atlas of Language Structures. Ethnologue. Haplogroup predictor. PhyloTree. ... This map was posted on Wikipedia and while I would not vouch for all its details, it is nonetheless and impressive effort of ... There is X (or X2) chromosome there as well. It doesnt make much sense this form of y-dna and mtdna would introgress like that ...
  • The X chromosome requires special treatment in the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL). (genetics.org)
  • However, most QTL mapping methods, and most computer programs for QTL mapping, have focused exclusively on autosomal loci. (genetics.org)
  • THERE is broad interest in genetic loci (called quantitative trait loci, QTL) that contribute to variation in quantitative traits, and so numerous statistical methods and computer programs have been developed to map QTL. (genetics.org)
  • We visualized interactions as a heat map where each matrix position, m ij , reflects the relative frequency of interactions between loci in bins i and j . (sciencemag.org)
  • Our analyses demonstrate that the discrepancies can be accounted for by inaccurate positioning of the early reference markers with respect to which all subsequently identified loci were mapped by transduction and transformation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Tuan D, Biro PA, De Riel JK, Lazarus H, Forget BG (1979) Restriction endonuclease mapping of the human γ-globin gene loci. (springer.com)
  • In this largest fine-mapping study to investigate a large number of rare and novel variants within 5p15.33, we identified novel lung and adenocarcinoma susceptibility loci with large effects and provided support for the role of telomere length as the potential underlying mechanism. (diva-portal.org)
  • The data were subjected to linkage analysis for the detection and mapping of segregating quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing live weight, average daily gain and body measurements at weaning. (academicjournals.org)
  • We have utilized 31 DNA probes which map to the WAGR deletion region, together with six reference loci and 13 WAGR-related deletions, to subdivide this area into 16 intervals. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Delineation, by specific probes, of multiple intervals above and below the critical region and of five intervals within the overlap area provides a framework map for molecular characterization of WAGR gene loci and of deletion boundary regions. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Genetic maps of mouse chromosome 17 including 12 new anonymous DNA loci and 25 anchor loci. (semanticscholar.org)
  • As part of a whole genome scan undertaken to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting milk yield and composition, we have genotyped a granddaughter design comprising 1152 sons for six microsatellite markers spanning bovine chromosome 20. (ovid.com)
  • An integrated genetic and physical map is needed to better characterize quantitative trait loci and to allow for the positional cloning of valuable genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As of this report, 6,921 specific loci including 440 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) [ 9 ], have been identified from 24 different genetic maps. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A number of different quantitative trait loci (QTL) for various phenotypic traits, including milk production, functional, and conformation traits in dairy cattle as well as growth and body composition traits in meat cattle, have been mapped consistently in the middle region of bovine chromosome 6 (BTA6). (biomedcentral.com)
  • This new RH map with a total of 234 loci including 115 genes and ESTs displays a substantial increase in loci density compared to existing physical BTA6 maps. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A high-resolution physical map will provide a basic framework to assist the final high-quality sequence assembly and annotation process of the bovine genome for anchoring genes, anonymous loci, WGS, BES, and preliminary contigs along bovine chromosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Subsequently, the availability of the complete architecture of bovine chromosomes will facilitate positional cloning efforts focusing on targeted identification of the causative sequence variation underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL) [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The location of bovine loci that are homologues of human genes may be predicted from the current knowledge about the conservation of synteny between genomes, but has to be actually proven by direct mapping on the bovine genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We tested hypotheses concerning the origin of bird and mammal sex chromosomes by mapping the location of amniote sex-chromosome loci in a salamander amphibian (Ambystoma). (uky.edu)
  • Autosomal recessive inheritance has been implied in many cases, but no genetic loci have been mapped to date. (elsevier.com)
  • The Toronto researchers used genetic information purchased from Celera , the for-profit company that mapped the entire human genome. (wired.com)
  • A map of the human genome will allow scientist to understand where genes are located so that its function within the human genome can be elucidated. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The agreement will leverage OpGen's Whole Genome Mapping technology and Hitachi High-Technologies' and the Hitachi group's cloud-based systems. (genomeweb.com)
  • The analytical service to be developed will be for clinical research applications, the partners said, and will include bioinformatic tools to complete a human genome sequence and to detect and analyze structural variations in chromosomes. (genomeweb.com)
  • Optical genome mapping (8) of R1101 generated a consensus full-length map showing a circular chromosome map of [much greater than] 4. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sequencetagged sites developed from 19 islet cDNAs were used to map these genes to human chromosomes using a combination of monochromosomal somatic-cell hybrids, genome-wide radiation hybrids, and mega-yeast artificial chromosome analysis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In the 1960's, Japanese-American geneticist and evolutionary biologist Susumu Ohno proposed a theory in which the genes determining sex first arose at various spots scattered across the entire genome, but over time were "captured" on the sex chromosomes. (duke.edu)
  • The researchers sequenced the entire genome of C. amylolentus, mapping the location of all the genes as well as the centromeres on each of the organism's 14 chromosomes. (duke.edu)
  • METHODS Based on a whole genome linkage analysis, in a six generation consanguineous family with autosomal recessive inheritance, the first locus for isolated microphthalmia was mapped to chromosome 14q32. (bmj.com)
  • 1 Mb), these methods are still insufficient to decipher genome organization at the chromosome level. (nanoporetech.com)
  • Here, we describe a strategy based on long reads (MinION or PromethION sequencers) and optical maps (Saphyr system) that can produce chromosome-level assemblies and demonstrate applicability by generating high-quality genome sequences for two new dicotyledon morphotypes, Brassica rapa Z1 (yellow sarson) and Brassica oleracea HDEM (broccoli), and one new monocotyledon, Musa schizocarpa (banana). (nanoporetech.com)
  • The finding is only one of many insights revealed by the long-awaited cannabis genome map detailing gene arrangement on the chromosomes, published November 8, 2018, in the journal Genome Research . (mountsinai.org)
  • Drs. Hughes, Page, and van Bakel first got together in 2011 when they released the first draft of the cannabis genome, which was too fragmented to reveal gene position on chromosomes at the time. (mountsinai.org)
  • Both are found on chromosome 6 of the 10 chromosomes the cannabis genome is packaged into. (mountsinai.org)
  • We used DNA from three consanguineous families with a total of four ICF patients and performed a total genome screen, to localize the ICF syndrome gene by homozygosity mapping. (eur.nl)
  • Completion of the working draft of the human genome has made it possible to analyze the expression of genes according to their position on the chromosomes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Two recent genome-wide association studies have independently identified a prostate cancer susceptibility locus on chromosome 10q11.2. (harvard.edu)
  • A recent genome-wide linkage study by the Genetic Epidemiology of Lung Cancer Consortium (GELCC) mapped a major susceptibility locus to 6q23-25 ( 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Bread wheat has a large and complex allohexaploid genome with low recombination level at chromosome centromeric and peri-centromeric regions. (k-state.edu)
  • This significantly hampers ordering of markers, contigs of physical maps and sequence scaffolds and impedes obtaining of high-quality reference genome sequence. (k-state.edu)
  • The 122 CSSLs offered a broad coverage of the peanut genome, with target wild chromosome segments averaging 39.2 cM in length. (www.gov.uk)
  • Further, comparing the diploid maps with a dense tobacco map revealed that the tobacco genome experienced chromosomal rearrangements more frequently than its diploid relatives, supporting the notion of accelerated genome evolution in allotetraploids. (omicsonline.org)
  • This integrated genomic map describes the first pair of homoeologous chromosomes of an allotetraploid genome in which BAC contigs were identified and partially separated through the use of chromosome-specific probes and locus-specific genetic markers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The approach used in this study should prove useful in the construction of genome-wide physical maps for polyploid plant genomes including Upland cotton. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, essential genomic tools are still in shortage, hindering further advances in such areas as DNA marker development for fine-scale mapping of genes and QTLs, genome-wide mapping of fiber ESTs, and large-scale genome sequencing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genome-wide integrated genetic and physical maps have provided powerful tools and infrastructure for advanced genomics research of human and other animal and plant model species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, no genome-wide physical map or chromosome contig map has been reported for any Gossypium species including Upland cotton ( G. hirsutum L.). Genomics research of cotton has lagged behind that of other major crop plants such as maize, soybean, and wheat. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Comparative chromosome painting was done using mouse and rat paint probes together with in silico analysis from the Ensembl genome browser database. (figshare.com)
  • With the aim to anchor the ten genetic linkage groups to individual chromosomes and develop a tool to facilitate genome analysis and gene cloning, we have optimized a protocol for flow cytometric chromosome analysis and sorting in asparagus. (cas.cz)
  • and supplies basic frame to the whole genome physical mapping and sequencing project. (nig.ac.jp)
  • Dense genetic and physical maps and, ultimately, a fully annotated genome sequence as well as their mutual connections are required to efficiently identify genes and gene variants responsible for genetic variation of phenotypic traits. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A comprehensive high-resolution gene-rich map linking densely spaced bovine markers and genes to the annotated human genome sequence is required as a framework to facilitate this approach for the region on BTA6 carrying the QTL. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The gene-anchored high-resolution RH map (1 locus/300 kb) for the targeted region of BTA6 presented here will provide a valuable platform to guide high-quality assembling and annotation of the currently existing bovine genome sequence draft to establish the final architecture of BTA6. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Preliminary assemblies of the current bovine genome sequence update representing a 6× coverage have been established using whole genome shotgun sequences (WGS) and BAC end sequences (BES) on bovine chromosomes and were announced in October 2005 (Pre! (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the successful use of genome information from sequence-ready maps relies upon the precise identification and characterization of segments of conserved synteny, gene order, and evolutionary breakpoints in the bovine genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chromosomes are made of DNA, and genes are special units of chromosomal DNA. (nih.gov)
  • CIDs appeared to be established during or shortly after DNA replication, and could potentially facilitate chromosomal segregation by preventing newly replicated chromosomes from becoming entangled. (sciencemag.org)
  • We provide evidence that domain boundaries are established by highly expressed genes and the formation of plectoneme-free regions, whereas the histone-like protein HU and SMC (structural maintenance of chromosomes) promote short-range compaction and the colinearity of chromosomal arms, respectively. (sciencemag.org)
  • The mapping of a gene for HOS is, to our knowledge, the first chromosomal localization of a gene responsible for congenital septal heart defect in human. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We used the U133 Affymetrix transcriptome data set for a series of 130 invasive ductal breast carcinomas to construct chromosomal maps of gene expression correlation (transcriptome correlation map). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Using hierarchical clustering on samples and a Treeview representation of whole chromosome arms, we observed a higher-order organization of correlated genes, sometimes involving very large chromosomal domains that could extend to a whole chromosome arm. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chromosomal location of other 362 genes were also assigned to any of 12 chromosomes. (nig.ac.jp)
  • Therefore, we constructed a high-resolution radiation hybrid (RH) map for the QTL containing chromosomal region of BTA6. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hence, a sequence-based map will provide a key resource to facilitate prospective continued efforts for the selection and validation of relevant positional and functional candidates underlying QTL for milk production and growth-related traits mapped on BTA6 and on similar chromosomal regions from evolutionary closely related species like sheep and goat. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In order to construct a high-resolution map for a specific chromosome or targeted chromosomal region, comparative mapping information from maps of the annotated human and mouse genomes can be utilized efficiently. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In particular, the data suggest that chromosomal regions from chicken chromosomes (GGA) Z and 4 and from human chromosomes (HSA) 9, 4, X, 5, and 8 were linked ancestrally. (uky.edu)
  • Overall, our results suggest that sex chromosomal regions of birds and mammals were recruited from a common ancestral chromosome, and thus our findings conflict with the currently accepted hypothesis of separate autosomal origins. (uky.edu)
  • A physical map orders genes or markers along the DNA strand of a chromosome. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A linkage map of the S. lividans chromosome containing ten markers was derived from the results of matings using several different sex plasmids, and protoplast fusions. (nih.gov)
  • These exons will also form the basis for new STS markers which will be used to confirm the physical map. (europa.eu)
  • The ability to detect structural variations and large scale genomic rearrangements using whole human chromosome mapping now enables researchers to better understand the markers and origins of inherited and somatic genetic diseases," said George M. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Only 61 (0.06%) of the markers displayed identifiable non-Mendelian transmission and neither of the two males typed were assigned a heterozygous state for any of the 178 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapping to the X chromosome. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In 1990, DOE initiated projects to enrich the developing chromosome maps with markers for genes. (ornl.gov)
  • Using two additional chromosome 3 markers we were able to map the OPA1 gene in the region between D3S1314 and D3S1265 (3q28-qter). (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this study, 15 microsatellite markers and five cDNAs, spanning 21 cM of Chr 19, were mapped in relation to the bm, ep , and ru genes in 457 progeny of an interspecific backcross utilizing the highly inbred strain PWK derived from the Mus musculus musculus species. (umich.edu)
  • Locations of genetic markers on the physical map of the chromosome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae FA1090. (asm.org)
  • To increase the utility of the previously constructed physical map of the chromosome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae FA1090, 28 additional genetic markers were localized on the map. (asm.org)
  • the locations of all of those markers on the updated map are shown. (asm.org)
  • A robust linkage map for chromosome 2 was established, and additional markers were assigned to the third and X chromosomes by linkage to morphological markers of known physical location. (ajtmh.org)
  • In this study, a fine-mapping analysis using HapMap SNPs was conducted across a approximate to 65-kb region (chr10: 51168330-51234020) flanking rs10993994 with 13 tag SNPs in 6,118 prostate cancer cases and 6,105 controls of European origin from the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) project. (harvard.edu)
  • Brachypodium distachyon synteny was exploited to develop and saturate the susceptibility region with markers, delimiting it to ∼0.24 cM and a partial physical map was constructed. (g3journal.org)
  • From the self-pollinated progenies of plants carrying these aberrations, 19 stable lines with different segments of chromosome 2R which included seven whole arm, six small segmental and three large segmental translocations, one deletion and two ditelosomic additions, were subsequently identified and characterized using cytogenetic and molecular markers. (springer.com)
  • Based on these lines, 88 markers specific for chromosome 2R were physically mapped to 13 different blocks of 2R with three in arm 2RS and 10 in arm 2RL. (springer.com)
  • In this study, we further refined this locus to identify a single candidate gene, by fine mapping using microsatellite markers and association studies using high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Six multigenerational families with five or more affected members were chosen for fine-mapping the 6q linkage region using microsatellite markers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Bovine chromosomes 2 (BTA2) and 5 (BTA5) of purebred, half-sib progeny sired by five Japanese black bulls were genotyped using microsatellite DNA markers. (academicjournals.org)
  • To map this gene(s), recombinant substitution lines for chromosome 3B were produced from crosses of the substitution lines with their recipient parents and genetic maps developed using SSR markers. (cas.cz)
  • A total of 2316 and 2695 markers were successfully mapped to the 4A RH and deletion maps, respectively. (k-state.edu)
  • Relatively even distribution of deletion frequency along the chromosome in the RH panel was observed and putative functional centromere was delimited within a region characterized by two SNP markers. (k-state.edu)
  • DNA probes mapping to chromosome arm 6L of Triticeae species were screened for chromosome 6Ae#1-specific markers. (eurekamag.com)
  • Diverse genomic resources including flow-sorted chromosome survey sequence contigs representing the orthologous region in Brachypodium distachyon, the physical map of chromosome arm 5BS, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) located in the 5BS6-0.81-1.00 deletion bin and resistance gene analog contigs of chromosome arm 5BS were used to develop markers to saturate the target region. (uzh.ch)
  • Abstract Using single-copy conserved ortholog set (COSII) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, we have constructed two genetic maps for diploid Nicotiana species, N. tomentosiformis and N. acuminata, respectively. (omicsonline.org)
  • Mapped COSII markers permitted the investigation of Nicotiana-tomato syntenic relationships. (omicsonline.org)
  • In conclusion, these COSII and SSR markers link the cultivated tobacco map to those of wild diploid Nicotiana species and tomato, thus providing a platform for cross-reference of genetic and genomic information among them as well as other solanaceous species including potato, eggplant, pepper and the closely allied coffee (Rubiaceae). (omicsonline.org)
  • A genetic linkage map of dioecious garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L., 2n = 2x = 20) was constructed using F1 population, simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. (cas.cz)
  • Two resulting parental maps contained 907 and 678 markers spanning 1947 and 1814 cM, for female and male parent, respectively, over ten linkage groups representing ten haploid chromosomes of the species. (cas.cz)
  • Seventy-two SSR markers were used to characterize chromosome content of individual peaks on the flow karyotype. (cas.cz)
  • Mapping of the resistance genes relative to known markers will improve their use in breeding programs. (sun.ac.za)
  • Phenotypical markers mapped on both the CL and IT maps are connected with solid lines. (nig.ac.jp)
  • RFLP markers common to the IT and the RI maps are also lined for position reference. (nig.ac.jp)
  • Genotype segregation data of all 375 markers on the RI map and most sequence information of these markers are also accessible in this database. (nig.ac.jp)
  • This is the most dense molecular genetic map carrying 2275 DNA markers in rice and is constructed with a F2 population (186 plants) of "Nipponbare", a japonica rice, crossed by an indica rice [Kasalath]. (nig.ac.jp)
  • This map covers 1521cM genetic distance and 430Mb length and so has markers at every 283kb length on average. (nig.ac.jp)
  • A high resolution backcross panel and map of mshi has been constructed , which has located this locus on mouse Chromosome 10 to an area of 20 cM between PCR-scorable markers D10Mit51/168/212 and D10Mit170 . (ccsu.edu)
  • Analysis of this panel has isolated mshi within a 1.7 cM interval between the flanking genetic markers D10Mit51/168/212 and D10Mit213 on mouse Chromosome 10 , and has detected 7 recombinant mice within this region . (ccsu.edu)
  • Type 1 FHB resistance was previously located on chromosome 4 of Triticum macha but a lack of polymorphic markers and a limited number of recombinants has prevented accurate mapping of this QTL. (lgcgroup.com)
  • 2013 ). Polymorphic markers were selected for even coverage of chromosome 4AS and primer sets obtained to apply to subsequent populations and resulting recombinant lines. (lgcgroup.com)
  • This region is homologous to a segment of mouse chromosome 5, where the mutations hammer toe (HM) and hemimelic extra toes (HX) have been mapped. (nih.gov)
  • These data suggest that human chromosome 7q36 and the homologous region of mouse chromosome 5 contain genes involved in limb pattern formation. (nih.gov)
  • These mapped ESTs may be used to assist in the positional cloning of diabetes susceptibility genes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Here, we report on the high-resolution mapping of the dominant susceptibility locus near the centromere of chromosome 6H in the barley cultivars Rika and Kombar, which are putatively targeted by necrotrophic effectors from P. teres f. teres isolates 6A and 15A, respectively. (g3journal.org)
  • Chromosome 5p15.33 has been identified as a lung cancer susceptibility locus, however the underlying causal mechanisms were not fully elucidated. (diva-portal.org)
  • We have previously mapped a major susceptibility locus influencing familial lung cancer risk to chromosome 6q23-25. (aacrjournals.org)
  • RGS17 is a major candidate for the familial lung cancer susceptibility locus on chromosome 6q23-25. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Through a combination of genetic fine mapping and association studies we identified RGS17 as the major candidate susceptibility gene. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To identify the causal gene in the 6q susceptibility locus, the present study employed a combination of linkage fine mapping and region-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association analysis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This established RGS17 as a candidate familial lung cancer susceptibility gene for this major locus on chromosome 6q. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Genetic linkage analysis has identified a bipolar disorder susceptibility locus on chromosome 4q35, and the interval harbouring this susceptibility gene has been narrowed to a size that is amenable to positional cloning. (garvan.org.au)
  • This map encompasses the chromosome 4q35 bipolar susceptibility locus, which localises to a ""most probable"" candidate interval of approximately 2.3 Mb, within a more conservative candidate interval of approximately 5 Mb. (garvan.org.au)
  • abstract = "Objective: To describe a novel form of pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) and map its genetic locus. (elsevier.com)
  • The Gyk gene was mapped to the mouse X chromosome by both fluorescence in situ hybridization and an interspecies backcross panel, demonstrating conservation of synteny with dmd. (nih.gov)
  • We analyse chromosome location of H3 and H4 histone gene clusters by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) in 35 species of Acrididae grasshoppers belonging to seven subfamilies. (springer.com)
  • techniques include family studies with linkage analysis, somatic cell hybridization, and chromosome deletion mapping. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 5 Unsupervised clustering and nonnegative matrix factorization of high-resolution ologonucelotide array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) data has revealed hyperdiploid myeloma can be further segregated into 2 groups, one exhibiting trisomies of the odd chromosomes listed here and another exhibiting, in addition, gains of chromosomes 1q and 7, deletion of chromosome 13, and absence of trisomy 11. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 4. For 'Nankan N0.20' unshiu chromosomes, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was performed using Dig labeled 'Nankan N0.20 ' DNA and Biotin labeled 'Tosa-Buntan ' DNA, and chromosomes were stained with anti-Dig rhodamine and avidin FITC. (nii.ac.jp)
  • To date, no studies have been reported in which the entire chromosome 14q of meningioma tumour cells has been studied by high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH). (csic.es)
  • An array containing 807 bacterial artificial chromosome clones specific for chromosome 14q (average resolution of ∼130Kb) was constructed and applied to the study of 25 meningiomas in parallel to the confirmatory interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) analyses. (csic.es)
  • The hybrid panel includes 11 cell lines, which were characterized by Southern blot hybridization with chromosome 8-specific probes of known map location and by fluorescent in situ hybridization with a probe derived from a chromosome 8 library. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Assignment of the human adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein gene (FABP4) to chromosome 8q21 using somatic cell hybrid and fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We mapped these clones on the salivary gland chromosome by in situ hybridization technique. (nii.ac.jp)
  • A cDNA clone of this gene was used as a probe to identify three genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones, one of which was used as a probe to map hTERT by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to chromosome 5p15.33. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Cytogenetic techniques refer to utilization of karyotype preparations, a technique that allows scientists to visualize of chromosomes, using fluorescence so that a fluorescently-labeled gene will reveal where the gene is found on the chromosome. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The analysis of DAPI-stained suspensions of intact mitotic chromosomes by flow cytometry resulted in histograms of relative fluorescence intensity (flow karyotypes) comprising eight major peaks. (cas.cz)
  • A method is described for localizing DNA sequences hybridized in situ to Drosophila polytene chromosomes. (pnas.org)
  • In Drosophila, the sex of an individual is influenced by the number of copies of which chromosome? (proprofs.com)
  • In addition, it describes thousands of recorded chromosome rearrangements used in research on Drosophila. (textbookx.com)
  • This handbook and its accompanying polytene chromosome maps, are sturdily bound into the book as foldouts and available as a separate set, are essential research tools for the Drosophila community. (textbookx.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to establish a random clone library of Drosophila melanogaster which are mapped on the salivary gland chromosome and construct a data bank system based on them. (nii.ac.jp)
  • On the other hand, we collected DNA clones of Drosophila melanogaster which have been mapped on the salivary gland chromosomes from the laboratories of all over the world. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Genetics) a graphic representation of the positions of genes on chromosomes, obtained by observation of chromosome bands or by determining the degree of linkage between genes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • albimanus and provides useful tools for population genetics and genetic mapping studies in this important malaria vector. (ajtmh.org)
  • This map was first reported in 1990 and revised in 1995, 1998 as a committee report of the Rice Genetics Cooperative ( edited by Dr. Kinoshita, T. in the Rice Genetics Newsletter vol. 12, 9-153, 1995, vol. 15, 13-74, 1998 ). (nig.ac.jp)
  • A linkage map , also referred to as a genetic map , orders genes along the DNA strand based on recombination frequency. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Plasmids, recombination and chromosome mapping in Streptomyces lividans 66. (nih.gov)
  • Often crosses are set up to avoid recombination on the X chromosome. (genetics.org)
  • We conclude (i) that specific DNA sequences, such as recombination hotspots or presence of heterologous DNA, had no detectable effect on the results obtained by classical mapping, and (ii) that PBS1 transduction appears to be an accurate and unbiased mapping method in B. subtilis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These regions of the chromosome are so dense that they were once thought to be removed from recombination. (duke.edu)
  • Significantly higher mapping resolution in the centromeric region was observed as compared to recombination maps. (k-state.edu)
  • Studies were initiated to induce homoeologous recombination between the 6Ae#1L chromosome segment from Thinopyrum ponticum (Podp. (eurekamag.com)
  • Our mapping and subsequent experiments demonstrate that inverted repeats of Ty retrotransposable elements are mitotic recombination hotspots. (prolekare.cz)
  • We found that the mitotic recombination maps on the two homologs were substantially different and were unrelated to meiotic recombination maps. (prolekare.cz)
  • Genetic linkage analysis established linkage to chromosome 5, region p13.1-p15.33 with a maximum LOD score of 3.61 at a recombination fraction of 0.00 for marker D5S630 . (arvojournals.org)
  • 1. Comparative analysis of chromosome C-banding pattern. (springer.com)
  • Chen TT (2010) Development and molecular marker analysis of chromosome 2R variations of Secale cereale cv. (springer.com)
  • The analysis of chromosome morphology and localization of 5S and 45S rDNA by FISH on flow-sorted chromosomes, revealed that four chromosomes (IV, V, VI, VIII) could be discriminated and sorted. (cas.cz)
  • The first proposal extends the transcriptional mapping and will use cosmid clones localised to one of 30 intervals of the short arm of chromosome 16 in a concentrated and systematic screening strategy to identify genes. (europa.eu)
  • The second proposal extends the physical mapping and will use modifications of the basic technique of fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) to order genomic clones within one of 30 defined intervals of the short arm. (europa.eu)
  • Clones containing coding regions will also be mapped using these techniques. (europa.eu)
  • To construct a cosmid/PAC/BAC map of the human X chromosome with reference clones accessible to all participants and based on highly annotated YAC maps. (europa.eu)
  • We have characterized a panel of somatic cell hybrids that carry fragments of human chromosome 8 and used this panel for the regional localization of anonymous clones derived from a chromosome 8 library. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Up to date, 286 clones are mapped and the rest of them are now under progress. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 190 clones are mapped on the single sites on the chromosomes and the rest of 96 (33.6%) are mapped on the multiple locations. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Among these clones which were mapped on the single sites, 31 were mapped on the X, 40 were mapped on the 2L, 55 were mapped on the 2R, 35 were mapped on the 3L and 37 were mapped on the 3R. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We report the use of chromosome conformation capture coupled with deep sequencing (Hi-C) to map the structure of bacterial chromosomes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although bacterial chromosomes are probably highly organized within cells ( 1 - 6 ), the resolution of previous studies has been limited. (sciencemag.org)
  • To study the organization of bacterial chromosomes with high resolution, we used Hi-C on Caulobacter cells (figs. S1 and S2). (sciencemag.org)
  • With the availability of near complete coverage of the human X chromosome in YAC contigs, the participants aim at a coordinated effort to construct a map of bacterial vectors, as a substrate to the isolation of most of the transcripts of the chromosome. (europa.eu)
  • To isolate and map the majority of X chromosome transcripts to the cosmide pockets and when established, to the cosmid contigs. (europa.eu)
  • A physical map has been developed with 220 and 115 BAC contigs for homeologous chromosomes 12 and 26, respectively, covering 73.49 Mb and 34.23 Mb in physical length. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Near the center of each chromosome is its centromere, a narrow region that divides the chromosome into a long arm (q) and a short arm (p). (nih.gov)
  • Duke scientists say Cryptococcus swapped chromosome arms at the centromere. (duke.edu)
  • For example, chromosome 1 of C. neoformans contained pieces of four different chromosomes from C. amylolentus, providing evidence of multiple translocations, some within the centromere. (duke.edu)
  • According to their model, multiple translocations deposited the two sex determinants on the same chromosome, with a centromere in between. (duke.edu)
  • Immunodeficiency in association with centromere instability of chromosomes 1, 9, and 16 and facial anomalies (ICF syndrome) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. (eur.nl)
  • This gene had an additive effect of 1- 6 days, depending on environment and genetic background, and was mapped in both populations to a position in the region of marker Xbarc164 near the centromere on the long arm of 3B. (cas.cz)
  • The ability to clone large fragments of DNA in yeast artificial chromosomes (YAC's) has created the possibility of obtaining global physical maps of complex genomes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Previously we independently constructed physical maps of the genomes for these two serovars. (asm.org)
  • Locus Maps of Complex Genomes , ed. (ajtmh.org)
  • Compared to humans and other mammals, rodent genomes, specifically Muroidea species, underwent intense chromosome reshuffling in which many complex structural rearrangements occurred. (figshare.com)
  • Deletion of the short arm of human chromosome 1 is the most common cytogenetic abnormality observed in neuroblastoma. (pnas.org)
  • To characterize the region of consistent deletion, we performed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies on 122 neuroblastoma tumor samples with 30 distal chromosome 1p polymorphisms. (pnas.org)
  • Here we report on the construction of high-density and high-resolution radiation hybrid (RH) map of chromosome 4A supported by high-density chromosome deletion map. (k-state.edu)
  • A total of 119 endosperm-based RH lines of two RH panels and 15 chromosome deletion bin lines were genotyped with 90K iSelect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. (k-state.edu)
  • The chromosome deletion map was ordered in 19 bins and allowed precise identification of centromeric region and verification of the RH panel reliability. (k-state.edu)
  • Research at five centers around the world has culminated in the publication of the complete DNA sequence of chromosome seven in the July 10 issue of Nature . (wired.com)
  • A detailed chromosome map also provides methods to study how genes are segregated and how genetic heterogeneity (variation between a particular gene maternally inherited and the same gene with a slightly different sequence that is paternally inherited) can help identify disease genes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These maps are called cytogenetic maps, linkage maps, physical maps, or a DNA sequence map. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Finally, a DNA sequence, strung together, is the most precise type of map in that it contains both coding (gene-containing) and noncoding DNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Large scale sequencing using state of the art technologies and strategies will be performed in areas where sequence ready maps are already available. (europa.eu)
  • The genomic sequence of human chromosome 21q was recently completed with 225 annotated genes, thus permitting efficient identification and precise mapping of potential cSNPs by bioinformatics approaches. (epfl.ch)
  • To date we have identified 377 cSNPs averaging ~1 SNP per 1.5 kb of transcribed sequence, covering 65% of known genes in the chromosome. (epfl.ch)
  • A combination of bioinformatic tools and laboratory techniques have been applied to annotate this DNA sequence data and establish a comprehensive transcript map that spans approximately 5.5 Mb. (garvan.org.au)
  • Furthermore, the high-resolution sequence-referenced BTA6 map will enable precise identification of multi-species conserved chromosome segments and evolutionary breakpoints in mammalian phylogenetic studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In somatic cell genetic methods, chromosomes are lost from a special type of cell and the remaining chromosome that has one gene, but not a different gene, would suggest that they are located on different chromosomes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As in other organisms, H3 and H4 co-localized in the same chromosome region in the 11 species where double FISH was performed with the H3 and H4 DNA probes. (springer.com)
  • Genes were localized on the physical maps by using Southern blot analysis with specific probes. (asm.org)
  • A hybrid cell mapping panel for regional localization of probes to human chromosome 8. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Chromosome location of H3-H4 histone gene clusters showed high regularity in the species analysed, with all of them carrying a single H3-H4 cluster in an autosome which, in most cases, was located interstitially in the proximal chromosome third. (springer.com)
  • In 17 out of the 21 species with 2n♂ = 23 acrocentric chromosomes, the H3-H4-carrying autosome was about eighth in order of decreasing size. (springer.com)
  • All 14 species with 2n♂ = 17 chromosomes (including three long metacentric autosome pairs, five acrocentric autosome pairs and an acrocentric X chromosome) carried an interstitial H3-H4 cluster in the short arm of the smallest of the three long metacentric pairs. (springer.com)
  • Regardless of the name or species, Heitman contends that some universal principles could govern the evolution of all sex chromosomes. (duke.edu)
  • The new map reveals how hemp and marijuana, which belong to the same species Cannabis sativa , evolved as separate strains with distinct chemical properties. (mountsinai.org)
  • For each species and each rDNA family, the position and number of sites in the various cytotypes suggested the presence of one locus and basic chromosome numbers of 10 for Saccharum officinarum and Saccharum robustum and 8 for Saccharum spontaneum. (ovid.com)
  • The implications of these results for the genetic maps of modern cultivars derived from crosses between the species S. officinarum and S. spontaneum are discussed. (ovid.com)
  • Potential use of these stable aberrations and the colinearity of chromosome 2R with corresponding chromosomes in the other model monocot species were discussed. (springer.com)
  • Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) are powerful QTL mapping populations that have been used to elucidate the molecular basis of interesting traits of wild species. (www.gov.uk)
  • COSII genetic maps of two diploid Nicotiana species provide a detailed picture of synteny with tomato and insights into chromosome evolution in tetraploid N. tabacum. (omicsonline.org)
  • A comparison of the two maps revealed a minimum of seven inversions and one translocation subsequent to the divergence of these two diploid species. (omicsonline.org)
  • Mapping a large number of genes on BTA6 and cross-referencing them with map locations in corresponding syntenic multi-species chromosome segments (human, mouse, rat, dog, chicken) achieved a refined accurate alignment of conserved segments and evolutionary breakpoints across the species included. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We mapped the ATS gene to chromosome 20q13. (bmj.com)
  • Here, we report on the mapping of a gene causing HOS to the distal long arm of chromosome 12 (12q21-qter) by linkage analysis in nine informative families (Zmax = 6.81 at theta = 0 at the D12S354 locus). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The physical location of Sr26 was determined to be on the extreme distal segment of the 6Ae#1 chromosome. (eurekamag.com)
  • The SSR marker sun180 co-segregated with Lr52 and mapped 0.4 cM distal to Yr47. (uzh.ch)
  • In a high resolution mapping population of 600 F2 genotypes Yr47 and Lr52 mapped 0.2 cM apart and marker sun180 was placed 0.4 cM distal to Lr52. (uzh.ch)
  • Gains of the long arm of chromosome 1 (1q) are one of the most common genetic abnormalities in myeloma. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In the remaining two cases, which showed gains of the IGH gene by iFISH, a-CGH did not detected copy number changes in one case showing a tetraploid karyotype, while in the other tumour, varying genetic imbalances along the long arm of chromosome 14 were detected. (csic.es)
  • A cytogenetic map uses bands produced by a dye that stains chromosomes in a karyotpe and assigns genes to these bands. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This method of mapping a gene to a particular band of the chromosome is called cytogenetic mapping. (nih.gov)
  • Whereas cytogenetic mapping gives a bird's eye view of the chromosome, more modern methods show DNA at a much higher resolution. (nih.gov)
  • Integration of genetic and cytogenetic maps and identification of sex chromosome in garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L. (cas.cz)
  • A cDNA library enriched for X chromosome transcripts will be constructed by laboratory in Heidelberg and made available to all participants. (europa.eu)
  • From PREDs and open reading frames to cDNA isolation: revisiting the human chromosome 21 transcription map. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The single chromosome substitution lines of chromosome 3B of the Czech alternative wheat variety Česká přesívka (CP 3B) into two spring varieties Zlatka and Sandra, revealed clear differences in flowering time compared to the recipient varieties. (cas.cz)
  • The CSSL population developed in this study has proved efficient for deciphering the molecular basis of trait variations and will be useful to the peanut scientific community for future QTL mapping studies. (www.gov.uk)
  • For example, the hemoglobin beta gene ( HBB ) is found on chromosome 11p15.4. (nih.gov)
  • The 23rd pair of chromosomes are two special chromosomes, X and Y, that determine our sex. (nih.gov)
  • Females have a pair of X chromosomes (46, XX), whereas males have one X and one Y chromosomes (46, XY). (nih.gov)
  • Surprisingly, they've shown that these crucial translocations occurred at the centromeres, the twisty ties that hold together chromosomes at the center of an x-shaped pair. (duke.edu)
  • Genetic exchange between two arms of a chromosome pair is more likely to occur if the distance between the genes is great. (proprofs.com)
  • p. 731 , published online 24 October) analyzed the structure of the circular chromosome in the prokaryote Caulobacter crescentus by using chromosome conformation capture and deep-sequencing. (sciencemag.org)
  • For eukaryotes, chromosome conformation capture coupled with deep sequencing, or Hi-C, has enabled higher-resolution studies of chromosome structure in vivo ( 7 , 8 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The results obtained in this study will support asparagus improvement by facilitating targeted marker development and gene isolation using flow-sorted chromosomes. (cas.cz)
  • 4 These include over 100 genetic traits (autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and sex linked) and deletions or translocations of virtually all the chromosomes 1 (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/OMIM/ ). (bmj.com)
  • A novel locus has been identified for early-onset autosomal dominant macular dystrophy on chromosome 5. (arvojournals.org)
  • Comparison of genetic maps for two Leptospira interrogans serovars provides evidence for two chromosomes and intraspecies heterogeneity. (asm.org)
  • Genetic maps were constructed for Leptospira interrogans serovars icterohaemorrhagiae and pomona. (asm.org)
  • Comparison of the genetic maps of the larger replicons of the two serovars showed evidence of large rearrangements. (asm.org)
  • Genetic Maps. (ajtmh.org)
  • Comparisons of the genetic maps with other 3B maps developed by the authors indicated that the QTL may be homologous to a QTL segregating in UK germplasm. (cas.cz)
  • The identification of Gene-rich islands in the integrated map provides a platform for positional cloning of important genes and the targeted sequencing of specific genomic regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ashida T, Nasuda S, Sato K, Endo TR (2007) Dissection of barley chromosome 5H in common wheat. (springer.com)
  • Development of BAC libraries and integrated physical mapping of human chromosome 22 using BACs. (unt.edu)
  • Multiple structural aberrations produced by chromosome breakage and reunion not only provide new germplasm for enriching genetic diversity but are also helpful for physical mapping of alien chromosomes introgressed into wheat. (springer.com)
  • Genetic refinement and physical mapping of a biparental complete hydatidiform mole locus on chromosome 19q13.4. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Six lines were homoeologous recombinants involving wheat chromosome 6A and four lines involved crossovers with 6D. (eurekamag.com)
  • 11 ⇓ - 13 Using aCGH on DNA isolated from plasma cells derived from patients with smoldering myeloma, Rosinol and colleagues showed that the risk of conversion to overt disease was linked to gains of 1q21 and loss of chromosome 13. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Interestingly, in seven of these cases, loss of chromosome 14q32.3 was detected by iFISH and confirmed to correspond to monosomy 14 by a-CGH. (csic.es)
  • Genetic studies of this family revealed evidence of significant linkage to chromosome 7q11-21 (maximum multipoint lod score 3.23). (elsevier.com)
  • A double-stranded break (DSB) is a potentially lethal DNA lesion that can lead to genomic instability and chromosome rearrangements if not promptly repaired. (prolekare.cz)
  • D. R. Dewey carrying the stem rust resistance gene Sr26 and homoeologous wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosomes. (eurekamag.com)
  • Mapping of chromosome arm 7DL of Triticum aestivum L. (sun.ac.za)
  • Mapping a Type 1 FHB resistance on chromosome 4AS of Triticum macha and deployment in combination with two Type 2 resistances. (lgcgroup.com)
  • In total, 1376 SNPs and 27 SSRs were used for genetic mapping. (cas.cz)
  • However, the overall highest NPL score was observed on chromosome 2q33.3 using SNPs (NPL score 2.2, empirical P-value 0.007). (diva-portal.org)
  • The haploids arose in work on wheat-rye hybrids being used to test for chromosome doubling by heat shock. (wikipedia.org)
  • Altogether these results confirm the location of a QTL affecting milk production on bovine chromosome 20. (ovid.com)
  • A region of homozygosity harboring the neonatal diabetes disease gene on chromosome 10p12.1-p13 was identified (multipoint logarithm of odds score 3.25). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A region of shared homozygosity on chromosome 10p13-p12.1 was identified in the three affected individuals. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We performed a genomewide screen by homozygosity mapping of three consanguineous multiplex families, two from Morocco, and one from Italy, which included 11 ATS patients. (bmj.com)
  • This study reports the localisation of the ATS gene by homozygosity mapping in two, and probably three, inbred families. (bmj.com)
  • Here, we used a high-resolution a-CGH to define the exact localization and extent of numerical changes of chromosome 14 in meningioma patients. (csic.es)
  • They found that during evolution, a reshuffling of DNA known as translocation brought together separate chunks of sex-determining genes onto a single chromosome, essentially mimicking the human X or Y chromosome. (duke.edu)
  • Chen SW, Chen PD, Wang XE (2008) Inducement of chromosome translocation with small alien segments by irradiating mature female gametes of the whole arm translocation line. (springer.com)
  • For making physical map of citrus chromosomes , chromosome preparation method in which vegetative tissue of mother plant use as a material and chromosomes are relatively long and useful for karyotype analysis , and identification of chromosomes should be confirmed. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Cai XW (1994) Chromosome analysis and C-banded karyotype of "Jingzhouheimai" ( Secale cereale ). (springer.com)
  • The researchers say the chromosome seven data will also help researchers better understand the genetic mutations that cause acute leukemia. (wired.com)
  • The overall aim of the project is to complete, as far as possible, a physical and transcriptional map of the short arm of human chromosome 16. (europa.eu)
  • Both rely on specialised techniques, and concentrate on one aspect of the mapping process to complement and extend the results beyond the scope of the original proposal, in order to achieve a comprehensive physical and transcriptional map of the short arm of chromosome 16. (europa.eu)
  • Our data suggest that altered transcriptional regulation of genes mapping to chromosome 1 may contribute to disease progression, and that expression profiling can be used to identify high-risk disease and guide therapeutic interventions. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 6 Furthermore, transcriptional activation of CCND1, CCND3, MAF, MAFB , or FGFR3/MMSET (resulting from translocations involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus on chromosome 14q32) is typical of nonhyperdiploid myeloma and is present in approximately 40% of patients. (bloodjournal.org)