Chromosome Fragile Sites: Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)Chromosome Fragility: Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Aphidicolin: An antiviral antibiotic produced by Cephalosporium aphidicola and other fungi. It inhibits the growth of eukaryotic cells and certain animal viruses by selectively inhibiting the cellular replication of DNA polymerase II or the viral-induced DNA polymerases. The drug may be useful for controlling excessive cell proliferation in patients with cancer, psoriasis or other dermatitis with little or no adverse effect upon non-multiplying cells.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.National Human Genome Research Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports research into the mapping of the human genome and other organism genomes. The National Center for Human Genome Research was established in 1989 and re-named the National Human Genome Research Institute in 1997.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Human Genome Project: A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.Genetic Research: Research into the cause, transmission, amelioration, elimination, or enhancement of inherited disorders and traits.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Genomic Instability: An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1089-94)DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Myotonic Dystrophy: Neuromuscular disorder characterized by PROGRESSIVE MUSCULAR ATROPHY; MYOTONIA, and various multisystem atrophies. Mild INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY may also occur. Abnormal TRINUCLEOTIDE REPEAT EXPANSION in the 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS of DMPK PROTEIN gene is associated with Myotonic Dystrophy 1. DNA REPEAT EXPANSION of zinc finger protein-9 gene intron is associated with Myotonic Dystrophy 2.Neuromuscular Diseases: A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)PolyaminesAlu Elements: The Alu sequence family (named for the restriction endonuclease cleavage enzyme Alu I) is the most highly repeated interspersed repeat element in humans (over a million copies). It is derived from the 7SL RNA component of the SIGNAL RECOGNITION PARTICLE and contains an RNA polymerase III promoter. Transposition of this element into coding and regulatory regions of genes is responsible for many heritable diseases.Biogenic Polyamines: Biogenic amines having more than one amine group. These are long-chain aliphatic compounds that contain multiple amino and/or imino groups. Because of the linear arrangement of positive charge on these molecules, polyamines bind electrostatically to ribosomes, DNA, and RNA.Spermidine: A polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Putrescine: A toxic diamine formed by putrefaction from the decarboxylation of arginine and ornithine.AxisTeaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Spondylolisthesis: Forward displacement of a superior vertebral body over the vertebral body below.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Love: Affection; in psychiatry commonly refers to pleasure, particularly as it applies to gratifying experiences between individuals.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.

How many tumor suppressor genes are involved in human lung carcinogenesis? (1/223)

To date, only a limited number of tumor suppressor genes have been identified as being inactivated in lung cancer. The p53 and RB genes are frequently inactivated by genetic alterations such as chromosomal deletions and loss-of-function mutations, while the p16 gene is inactivated not only by genetic alterations but also by transcriptional silencing due to hypermethylation. Recently, it was shown that the FHIT gene encompassing the chromosomal fragile site, FRA3B, is also inactivated in a large proportion of lung cancers. Several lines of evidence indicate the presence of additional tumor suppressor genes involved in lung carcinogenesis. Lung cancer cells often show deletions at multiple chromosomal regions, and deletion mapping studies have defined more than 30 regions dispersed on 21 different chromosome arms as candidate tumor suppressor loci. Several chromosomal regions hypermethylated in lung cancer cells and a number of chromosomal fragile sites have been mapped to the regions deleted in lung cancer. These chromosomal loci can harbor unknown tumor suppressor genes inactivated in lung cancer. Studies on the inherited susceptibility to lung cancer in mice have also indicated the presence of additional tumor suppressor genes for lung cancer. Further analyses of these loci should elucidate how many tumor suppressor genes are involved in human lung carcinogenesis. Molecular and functional analyses of those genes will make it possible to fully understand the molecular mechanism of lung carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Type and frequency of chromosome aberrations in 781 couples undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection. (2/223)

Cytogenetic investigations were performed in 781 couples prior to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) because of severe male infertility or fertilization failures in previous in-vitro fertilization attempts. Out of these 1562 patients, 1012 had a normal karyotype without any aberrations (64.8%), 204 patients had an abnormal karyotypes (13.1%). These chromosome aberrations included constitutional aberrations (4.4%), fragile sites of autosomes (3.0%), low level mosaicism of sex chromosomes (4.0%) and secondary structural chromosome aberrations (4.2%). Combinations of different types of abnormalities were stated. Another 346 patients (22.1%) showed single cell aberrations; the significance of these is unclear at the moment. Constitutional chromosome aberrations were detected in 69 patients. The following chromosome aberrations were observed: 35 sex chromosomal aberrations (comprising hyperploidies of X or Y chromosomes, mosaicisms and derivative X and Y chromosomes), 34 autosomal aberrations including 14 reciprocal translocations, five Robertsonian translocations, six inversions, one marker chromosome, one trisomy 18 mosaicism and seven other structural aberrations. Three autosomal regions showed fragile sites: 6q13 in 2.9% of the patients, 17p12 and 10q24 in 0.05% each. In conclusion, our data show that a high number of infertile couples in an ICSI programme are affected by chromosome aberrations which occur in both sexes. It is suggested that a chromosomal analysis should be performed on both partners before ICSI treatment is initiated.  (+info)

CGG/CCG repeats exhibit orientation-dependent instability and orientation-independent fragility in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (3/223)

An expansion to >200 CGG/CCG repeats (hereafter called CGG) in the 5' region of the FMR1 gene causes fragile X syndrome, and this locus becomes a folate-sensitive fragile site. We used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system to study the stability and fragility of CGG repeats. Tracts of (CGG)(81)and (CGG)(160)were integrated onto a yeast chromosome in both orientations relative to the nearest replication origin. Tracts of this length are pre-mutation alleles in humans, with a high probability of expansion in future generations. The CGG tracts in yeast colonies showed a length-dependent instability with longer tracts being more prone to contraction than shorter tracts. In addition, there was an orientation bias for tract stability with tracts having fewer contractions when the CCG strand was the template for lagging strand synthesis. Expansions of the CGG tracts also occurred in an orientation-dependent manner, although at a lower frequency than contractions. To determine whether CGG tracts are fragile sites in yeast, the CGG tracts were flanked by direct repeats, and the rate of recombination between the repeats determined. Strains carrying the (CGG)(160)tract in either orientation had a large increase in their rate of recombination compared with a no-tract control strain. Because this increase was dependent on genes involved in double-strand break repair, recombination was likely to be initiated by CGG tract-induced breakage between the direct repeats. The observation of orientation-dependent instability and orientation-independent fragility suggests that at least some aspects of their underlying mechanisms are different.  (+info)

Chromosomal fragile site FRA16D and DNA instability in cancer. (4/223)

It has been proposed that common aphidicolin-inducible fragile sites, in general, predispose to specific chromosomal breakage associated with deletion, amplification, and/or translocation in certain forms of cancer. Although this appears to be the case for the fragile site FRA3B and may be the case for FRA7G, it is not yet clear whether this association is a general property of this class of fragile site. The major aim of the present study was to determine whether the FRA16D chromosomal fragile site locus has a role to play in predisposing DNA sequences within and adjacent to the fragile site to DNA instability (such as deletion or translocation), which could lead to or be associated with neoplasia. We report the localization of FRA16D within a contig of cloned DNA and demonstrate that this fragile site coincides with a region of homozygous deletion in a gastric adenocarcinoma cell line and is bracketed by translocation breakpoints in multiple myeloma, as reported previously (Chesi, M., et al., Blood, 91: 4457-4463, 1998). Therefore, given similar findings at the FRA3B and FRA7G fragile sites, it is likely that common aphidicolin-inducible fragile sites exhibit the general property of localized DNA instability in cancer cells.  (+info)

A 700-kb physical map of a region of 16q23.2 homozygously deleted in multiple cancers and spanning the common fragile site FRA16D. (5/223)

We have identified a >600-kb region at 16q23.2 that is homozygously deleted from malignant ovarian ascites using representational difference analysis. Overlapping homozygous deletions were also observed in the colon carcinoma cell line HCT116 and a xenograft established from the small cell lung cancer cell line WX330. This region coincides with that described previously by others as showing loss of heterozygosity in prostate and breast cancers (C. Li et al., Genes Chromosomes Cancer, 24: 175-182, 1999; A. Latil et al., Cancer Res., 57: 1058-1062, 1997; K. Driouch et al., Genes Chromosomes Cancer, 19: 185-191, 1997; A. Iida et al., Br. J. Cancer, 75: 264-267, 1997). In addition, the minimally deleted region spans the common fragile site FRA16D. We have constructed a 700-kb physical map encompassing the deleted region. By fluorescence in situ hybridization of aphidicolin-induced metaphase chromosomes, we have preliminary data to suggest that P1-derived bacterial artificial chromosome clones from the contig lie on both sides of FRA16D. This is confirmed by extensive fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of the region reported in the accompanying article (M. Mangelsdorf et al., Cancer Res., 60: 1683-1689, 2000) and is consistent with an involvement of this common fragile site in the loss of 16q23.2 material in various cancer types. The minimally deleted region of approximately 210 kb has been characterized using our own markers and public domain markers. Eleven distinct expressed sequences mapped to the region, providing a basis for identifying the predicted tumor suppressor gene in this region.  (+info)

Definitive functional evidence for a tumor suppressor gene on human chromosome 7q31.1 neighboring the Fra7G site. (6/223)

We have previously shown that loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on human chromosome (hchr) 7 at q31.1 is common in a variety of tumors of epithelial origin. Frequent LOH of a specific chromosomal marker is indicative of a closely linked tumor suppressor gene (TSG). However, recent reports have also indicated that such a high frequency of LOH could be due to the presence in this region of the second most common aphidicolin-inducible fragile site in the human genome (Fra7G). To address this controversy, we introduced single copies of hchr7 or hchr12 into a highly aggressive human prostate carcinoma cell line (PC3) by microcell-mediated transfer. The tumorigenicity of six clones of PC3/hchr7 hybrids and three clones of PCRhchr12 hybrids, obtained in four separate fusion experiments, were studied in BALB/c nude mice. All but one of the PC3/hchr7 hybrids increased tumor latency by at least twofold, whereas none of the PC3/hchr12 hybrids delayed tumor onset. No differences in the in vitro growth rate were observed among any of the cell lines assayed (parental and hybrids) suggesting that the observed tumor suppression was due to factors other than cell cycle regulation. Deletion mapping of the PC3/hchr7 tumors obtained after reversion to the malignant phenotype revealed a common region of loss centred around 7q31.1, supporting the TSG hypothesis. The smallest commonly deleted region was approximately 1.5 Mb in size and flanked by the markers D7S486 and D7S655.  (+info)

Co-localisation of CCG repeats and chromosome deletion breakpoints in Jacobsen syndrome: evidence for a common mechanism of chromosome breakage. (7/223)

Folate-sensitive fragile sites are associated with the expansion and hypermethylation of CCG-repeats. The fragile site in 11q23.3, FRA11B, has been shown to cause chromosome deletions in vivo, its expression being associated with Jacobsen (11q-) syndrome. However, the majority of Jacobsen deletions are distal to FRA11B and are not related to its expression. To test the hypothesis that other unidentified fragile sites might be located in 11q23.3-24 and may cause these deletions, we have identified and characterised CCG-trinucleotide repeats within a 40 Mb YAC contig spanning distal chromosome 11q. Only eight CCG-repeats were identified within the entire YAC contig (not including FRA11B ), six of which map to the region of 11q23.3-24 that includes Jacobsen deletions. We have previously collated the deletion mapping data of 24 Jacobsen patients with the physical map of chromosome 11q, and accurately localised six breakpoints to short intervals corresponding to individual YAC clones. We now show that in each of these cases, YAC clones found to contain a deletion breakpoint also contain a CCG-repeat. The improved analysis of one of these deletions, together with those of several new Jacobsen cases, further strengthens this association by localising five breakpoints to individual PAC clones containing CCG-repeats. These data provide strong evidence for the non-random clustering of chromosome deletion breakpoints with CCG-repeats, and suggests that they may play an important role in a common mechanism of chromosome breakage.  (+info)

The expression of common fragile sites in peripheral blood lymphocytes of breast and colorectal cancer patients with aphidicolin. (8/223)

The frequency and distribution of aphidicolin induced common fragile sites was evaluated on chromosomes of peripheral blood lymphocytes in 10 breast and 10 colorectal cancer patients, and 10 healthy controls to determine correlation between specific fragile sites and cancer breakpoints. Fifty complete metaphases were screened from each culture and the results were evaluated by Student's t-test. The total number of fragile sites was found as 933 in breast cancer patients, 950 in colorectal cancer patients and 501 in control group. Both the number of aberrations per cell and number of aberrations per damaged cell were significantly higher in the patient groups. These findings indicate that genetic instability in the breast and colorectal cancer patients increased and fragile sites may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of breast and colorectal cancer.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Deletion of the FHIT gene in neoplastic and invasive cervical lesions is related to high-risk HPV infection but is independent of histopathological features. AU - Butler, David. AU - Collins, Claire. AU - Mabruk, Mohamed. AU - Walsh, Caitriona Barry. AU - Leader, Mary B.. AU - Kay, Elaine W.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - The fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene encompasses the common chromosomal fragile site FRA3B. Human papilloma virus (HPV), which is the main aetiological agent in cervical cancers, has been found to be able to integrate its genes into the chromosome 3 fragile site of cultured cells, deleting a piece of DNA which includes the FHIT gene. Eighty-six microdissected archival cervical LLETZ biopsies comprising cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I (n=27), CIN3 (n=30) and microinvasive carcinoma (n=29) were evaluated for HPV infection and FHIT gene loss of heterozygosity (LOH). FHIT gene LOH was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact fj246.. Cambridge-based speakers: ( 2×15 mins). Dr. Paul Wijnhoven (AstraZeneca): "AZD7648 is a potent and selective DNA -PK inhibitor that enhances the activity of radiation, chemotherapy and Olaparib". Dr Israel Salguero (Gurdon Institute): "There is life beyond yH2AX". External Keynote speaker: (40 mins). Prof. Ian Hickson, FRS F MedSci Center for Chromosome Stability, Copenhagen "Recombination-dependent completion of DNA replication at fragile site loci". This talk is part of the Replication, Recombination, Repair: 3Rs Seminar Series series.. ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject areas.
The fragile gene, encompassing the chromosomal fragile site FRA3B, can be an early target of DNA damage in precancerous cells. can occur in regular lead and cells to regions of metaplasia with minimal FHIT expression. Loss of the next allele can result in complete lack of FHIT manifestation, which can be seen in many dysplastic Read More. ...
We have used recombinant clones derived from microdissection of the fragile X region to characterize breakpoints around the fragile site at Xq27.3. So far, no microdissection markers derived from Xq28 material have been found, thus allowing a rapid screening for clones surrounding the fragile site by their presence in a somatic cell hybrid containing Xq27.2-Xqter. A total of 43 new DNA markers from Xq27 have been sublocalized within this chromosome band. Of these new DNA markers, 5 lie in an interval defined as containing the fragile X region. The saturation of Xq27 with DNA markers by microdissection demonstrates the power of this technique and provides the resources for generating a complete physical map of the region.
In this study, we demonstrated that: (a) WWOX is altered by deletion and/or aberrant expression in 4 of 9 pancreatic cancer cell lines (44%) and 6 of 15 primary pancreatic adenocarcinomas (40%); (b) promoter hypermethylation of WWOX, including −37 position site-specific methylation, is detected in 2 cell lines (22%) and in 2 samples (13%), and treatment with the demethylating agent 5-AZAC elevated significantly WWOX expression in Hs766T; (c) all of the cell lines showed low levels of WWOX expression using real-time reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot, and 6 primary cases (40%) showed a statistically significant reduction in WWOX expression; and (d) transfection with WWOX induced apoptosis and suppressed colony formation in cell lines.. The WWOX gene was identified recently as a tumor suppressor gene at 16q23.3-24.1, a chromosome region that spans the common fragile site FRA16D (8, 9, 10, 11) . Several studies have revealed alterations of WWOX in several types of human cancers (8, 9, 10, ...
The maintenance of genome integrity is critical for the suppression of cancer and premature ageing. Only recently has it become appreciated that DNA replication stress is a crucial driver of genomic instability. The timely progression of replisomes can be disrupted by lesions and secondary structures in the template, by bound proteins and by conflicts with the transcription machinery. A prolonged pause of the replisome then exposes single stranded DNA, which, due to its recombinogenic nature, can lead to genome rearrangements, fragile site expression and cell death. Importantly, some cancers present excessive endogenous levels of replication stress, which can be exploited for their clearance. In this conference, we aim to bring together scientists studying DNA replication and repair, with those interested in how DNA damage can influence cancer and ageing.. Key Sessions. ...
Telomeres and genes encoding 45S ribosomal RNA (rDNA) are frequently located adjacent to each other on eukaryotic chromosomes. Although their primary roles are different, they show striking similarities with respect to their features and additional functions. Both genome domains have remarkably dynamic chromatin structures. Both are hypersensitive to dysfunctional histone chaperones, responding at the genomic and epigenomic levels. Both generate non-coding transcripts that, in addition to their epigenetic roles, may induce gross chromosomal rearrangements. Both give rise to chromosomal fragile sites, as their replication is intrinsically problematic. However, at the same time, both are essential for maintenance of genomic stability and integrity. Here we discuss the structural and functional inter-connectivity of telomeres and rDNA, with a focus on recent results obtained in plants.. ...
Telomeres and genes encoding 45S ribosomal RNA (rDNA) are frequently located adjacent to each other on eukaryotic chromosomes. Although their primary roles are different, they show striking similarities with respect to their features and additional functions. Both genome domains have remarkably dynamic chromatin structures. Both are hypersensitive to dysfunctional histone chaperones, responding at the genomic and epigenomic levels. Both generate non-coding transcripts that, in addition to their epigenetic roles, may induce gross chromosomal rearrangements. Both give rise to chromosomal fragile sites, as their replication is intrinsically problematic. However, at the same time, both are essential for maintenance of genomic stability and integrity. Here we discuss the structural and functional inter-connectivity of telomeres and rDNA, with a focus on recent results obtained in plants.. ...
Collision between the molecular machineries responsible for transcription and replication is an important source of genome instability. Certain transcribed regions known as chromosomal fragile sites...
Complete information for FRA6G gene (Uncategorized), Fragile Site, Aphidicolin Type, Common, Fra(6)(Q15), including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for FRA10B gene (Uncategorized), Fragile Site, BrdU Type, Rare, Fra(10)(Q25.2), including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Our working hypothesis focuses on the convergence of prosurvival, angiogenesis and motility signals at common pathways in the local tumor microenvironment for t...
THERE GOES THE NEIGHBORHOODS Monday morning came around too soon. We both groaned at six when it was time to get up, eat at commons, and head out for our eight oclock class. No one ever adequately explains why all freshman year classes start so early. All the studies agree that teenagers are mindless zombies …
CL induces DNA modification and irreversible/reversible DNA breakage at gyrase cleavage sites. (A) Probing CL modification and cleavage reversibility. The S fra
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Biologisk antropologi, ogs kaldet fysisk antropologi, er betegnelsen for de videnskaber, der besk ftiger sig med mennesket som en biologisk organisme. Faget omfatter studier af menneskets udvikling, det biologiske grundlag for menneskets adf rd samt menneskets anatomiske og genetiske variation. Aber og menneskeaber er menneskets n rmeste nulevende sl gtninge, og viden om deres udvikling, adf rd og kologi inddrages ogs . Biologisk antropologi udnytter tillige unders gelser fra en r kke nabovidenskaber s som ark ologi, etnografi, lingvistik, geologi og kologi.. I unders gelser af menneskets biologiske variation kan indg s vel menneskeskeletter fra forhistorisk og historisk tid som nutidsmennesker. Emnet kan fx v re en sammenligning af geografisk adskilte skeletfund fra den europ iske j ger- og bondestenalder eller en unders gelse af v kst, kropsst rrelse og alderssammens tning i en middelalderbefolkning ud fra skeletfund fra en kirkeg rd. Studier af nulevende befolkninger omhandler ofte unders ...
Vi indsamler aktuelle tilbud fra danske shops sådan at du ikke behøver betale mere end højst nødvendigt. Så kig forbi i dag og spar. ...
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INFORMERER Annonseringsdato: Meddelelse nummer: 158 MEDDELELSER FRA NORSK ELEKTROTEKNISK KOMITE IEC-normer og tekniske rapporter CENELEC Europanormer (EN) CENELEC Harmoniseringsdokumenter (HD)
INFORMERER Annonseringsdato: Meddelelse nummer: 134 MEDDELELSER FRA NORSK ELEKTROTEKNISK KOMITE IEC-normer og tekniske rapporter CENELEC Europanormer (EN) CENELEC Harmoniseringsdokumenter (HD)
Fingeraftryk Fingeraftryk er baseret på at anvende teksten fra personernes videnskabelige dokumenter til at skabe et indeks med vægtede ord, som definerer de vigtigste emner fra hver enkelt forsker. ...
Skjorte fra Solid med en dekorativ glidelås på siden. Materiale: 100% Bomull. Modellen er 182 cm og avbildet i L.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chromosomal aberrations and common fragile sites in neuroblastoma patients. AU - Vernole, P.. AU - Tedeschi, B.. AU - Pianca, C.. AU - Nicoletti, B.. AU - Riccardi, R.. AU - Melino, G.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - We analyzed cytogenetically blood cells and bone marrow cells from 20 neuroblastoma patients. Chromosome common fragile sites were induced by aphidicolin in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes. All neuroblastoma patients showed a higher increase of aberrations after aphidicolin treatment as compared to that found in normal controls. In some cases it was possible to correlate the increase of the expression of a specific fragile site, 1p32, with deletions in the same area in bone marrow cells.. AB - We analyzed cytogenetically blood cells and bone marrow cells from 20 neuroblastoma patients. Chromosome common fragile sites were induced by aphidicolin in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes. All neuroblastoma patients showed a higher increase of aberrations after aphidicolin ...
Secreted modular calcium binding protein-1 (Smoc-1) belongs to the BM-40 family which has been implicated with tissue remodeling, angiogenesis and bone mineralization. Besides its anticipated role in embryogenesis, Smoc-1 has been characterized only in a few mammalian species. We made use of the consensus sequence (5 CACCTCTCCACCTGCC 3) of 33.15 repeat loci to explore the buffalo transcriptome and uncovered the Smoc-1 transcript tagged with this repeat. The main objective of this study was to gain an insight into its structural and functional organization, and expressional status of Smoc-1 in water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. We cloned and characterized the buffalo Smoc-1, including its copy number status, in-vitro protein expression, tissue & age specific transcription/translation, chromosomal mapping and localization to the basement membrane zone. Buffalo Smoc-1 was found to encode a secreted matricellular glycoprotein containing two EF-hand calcium binding motifs homologous to that of BM-40/SPARC
Possibilities for how the c-myc proto-oncogene can be amplified in different tumor cells.Vol. 20, Iss. 3, Genome Instability in the Context of ChromatinStructure and Fragile Sites. ...
Possibilities for how the c-myc proto-oncogene can be amplified in different tumor cells.Vol. 20, Iss. 3, Genome Instability in the Context of ChromatinStructure and Fragile Sites. ...
Possibilities for how the c-myc proto-oncogene can be amplified in different tumor cells.Vol. 20, Iss. 3, Genome Instability in the Context of ChromatinStructure and Fragile Sites. ...
In Eastwood and another v Magnox Electric plc; McCabe v Cornwall County Council and others, the House of Lords holds that, in cases where psychiatric injury is alleged to have been caused by acts of the employer committed prior to, and separately from the act of dismissal itself, a cause of action will exist at common law for damages.
Chronic inflammation refers to a response by your immune system that sticks around long after an infection, injury, or exposure to a toxin. Well look at common symptoms, its role in various diseases, and the kinds of treatments that are available, from medications to anti-inflammatory diets.
Roylco. 15 real X-rays reveal a detailed look at common breaks. Use on a light table, hold up to a window, or place on white paper. Includes idea guide/fact sheet, which gives …
Check out what Elizabeth Cherevaty will be attending at COMMON THREADS: Post-Infectious Autoimmune Diseases of the Brain Conference
Published: Feb 23rd, 2009. It may have been a cold night, but it was one hot party at Common Grounds Friday night. Hundreds of people showed up to the Seventh Annual Music Law Conferences […]. ...
UN says Kenyan seaport of Mombasa and capital Nairobi are regions most important transit points and have been systematically exploited
An article containing a liquid pervious topsheet coated with a lotion composition is disclosed. The lotion composition provides a skin benefit and/or reduces the adherence of BM to the skin of the wearer, thereby improving the case of BM clean up. The lotion composition applied to the article in a nonuniform manner, preferably such there are regions on the articles topsheet that are not coated with lotion.
De fleste staudene kommer til vårt hagesenter fra midten av april. Utvalget er naturlig nok størst fra våren av. Listen er ikke fulstendig, den inneholder oversikt over forhåndsbestilte vårleveranser fra våre hovedleverandører. (Med forbehold om vellykket overvintring). Listen er ment for å gi et intrykk av utvalget og blir ikke ajourført utover i sesongen. At en staude står merket med Nyhet eller NY i staudelister betyr at de er nye i vårt utvalg, de er ikke nødvendigvis helt nye på markedet. Vårt staudeutvalg varieres fra år til år. I løpet av de over 30 år Kongsberg Hagesenter har vært i drift, har det blitt en god del sorter. Forhåpentligvis har dette bidratt til større mangfold i hagene i vårt distrikt og stor hageglede for våre kunder! God staudejakt ...
Kom hjem i nat efter et par dage i Simrishamn sammen med Jarl som gast og en flok fra JSK. Det blev til tre laks i alt hvoraf en på 4 kg. er kommet i fryseren ...
13. dec 2017 - Lej fra folk i Greffeil, Frankrig fra 127 kr DKK/nat. Find unikke steder at bo hos lokale værter i 191 lande. Hjemme overalt med Airbnb.
Nasjonale faglige retningslinjer fra Helsedirektoratet V Nasjonale faglige retningslinjer fra Helsedirektoratet Nasjonalt handlingsprogram med retningslinjer for diagnostikk, behandling og oppfølging av pasienter med brystkreft 2007 - revisjon forventet i 2013
Boklista er utarbeidet av Bokhandlerforeningen. Salgsstatistikk er hentet fra følgende bedrifter: ARK Bokhandel, Tanum, Akademika, Norli, Libris, Tynset Bokhandel, Aksdal Bok og Papir, Haugenbok.no, Bokkilden, AdLibris og Boksalongen LiB. Bokdata fra Bokbasen AS. Boklista følger fastprisperioden og viser salget av titler utgitt innenfor inneværende fastprisperiode. For bøker med fripris inkluderes kun titler som ikke overstiger mer enn 80 prosent salg via en kjede. Månedens bestselger vises med alle utgivelsesår. Norsklista publiseres hver høst uke 36-52, og viser salget av ny norsk skjønnlitteratur og sakprosa for voksne.. ...
Boklista er utarbeidet av Bokhandlerforeningen. Salgsstatistikk er hentet fra følgende bedrifter: ARK Bokhandel, Tanum, Akademika, Norli, Libris, Tynset Bokhandel, Aksdal Bok og Papir, Haugenbok.no, Bokkilden, AdLibris og Boksalongen LiB. Bokdata fra Bokbasen AS. Boklista følger fastprisperioden og viser salget av titler utgitt innenfor inneværende fastprisperiode. For bøker med fripris inkluderes kun titler som ikke overstiger mer enn 80 prosent salg via en kjede. Månedens bestselger vises med alle utgivelsesår. Norsklista publiseres hver høst uke 36-52, og viser salget av ny norsk skjønnlitteratur og sakprosa for voksne.. ...
The figure for Australia on the extent of other wooded land for year 2005 is a FAO estimate, based on the assumption that the area of other wooded land has been constant since 2000 ...
Urinsystemet består av to nyrer, to urinledere, urinblæren og urinrøret. Nyrene fjerner avfallsstoffer fra blodet og danner urin. Urinen passerer så g...
Hoteller i nærheten av SantAngelo In Pontano: Se anmeldelser fra reisende, bilder og gode tilbud på hotell i nærheten av SantAngelo In Pontano, Italia på TripAdvisor.
Sigdcelleanemi er en blodsykdom som nedarves fra begge foreldrene. Sykdommen er vanligere i visse etniske grupper som afrikanere, arabere, grekere, it...
This chromosome fragility involves the generation of chromosome/chromatid gaps or breaks, or the high frequency loss of one or both copies of the affected gene. Other repeat diseases, like Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) have been shown to have chromosome fragility. This has not been previously studied in FA. This research shows that the region of chromosome 9 that contains the FXN locus is intrinsically prone to breakage in vivo even in control cells. However, like FXS alleles, FRDA alleles show significantly elevated levels of chromosome abnormalities in the presence of an ATM inhibitor, consistent with the formation of a fragile site.. Read more: Evidence for chromosome fragility at the frataxin locus in Friedreich ataxia. ...
The vast majority of patients with fragile X syndrome show a folate-sensitive fragile site at Xq27.3 (FRAXA) at the cytogenetic level, and both amplification of the (CGG)n repeat and hypermethylation of the CpG island in the 5 fragile X gene (FMR-1) at the molecular level. We have studied the FMR-1 gene of a patient with the fragile X phenotype but without cytogenetic expression of FRAXA, a (CGG)n repeat of normal length and an unmethylated CpG island. We find a single point mutation in FMR-1 resulting in an Ile367Asn substitution. This de novo mutation is absent in the patients family and in 130 control X chromosomes, suggesting that the mutation causes the clinical abnormalities. Our results suggest that mutations in FMR-1 are directly responsible for fragile X syndrome, irrespective of possible secondary effects caused by FRAXA. ...
UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
Whakapapa and science go hand in hand in a new art collaboration for a festival all about water. The Common Ground Hutt Public Art Festival has commissioned five projects that relate to water. Central to Johanna Mechen and Angela Kilfords Wairua project are conversations with Te Ati Awa iwi, community members in the Hutt Valley and scientists.
By examining the earliest steps before influx of metastatic tumor cells in distant organs, we have defined an essential cellular event leading to the formation of the "premetastatic niche" ( 26). By flow cytometry and immunofluorescence, these bone marrow-derived cells, labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP), arrive and form clusters of cells in the tissue parenchyma at common sites of metastasis before evidence of fluorescently labeled red tumor cells. At these sites, bone marrow-derived cells express VEGFR1 and coexpress several other hematopoietic markers, including CD34, CD11b, c-kit, and Sca-1, maintaining their progenitor cell status within the tissue parenchyma in the premetastatic niche. As a result of multiple ongoing events in response to primary tumor chemokines, the VEGFR1+ HPCs proliferate and circulate in the bloodstream but also preferentially localize to areas of increased fibronectin, newly synthesized by resident fibroblasts and fibroblast-like cells, which often reside ...
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Section 1983 provides a cause of action against state actors who violate an individuals rights under federal law. 42 U. S. C. §1983. At common law, those who carried out the work of government enjoyed various protections from liability when doing so, in order to allow them to serve the government without undue fear of personal exposure. Our decisions have looked to these common law protections in affording either absolute or qualified immunity to individuals sued under §1983. The question in this case is whether an individual hired by the government to do its work is prohibited from seeking such immunity, solely be- cause he works for the government on something other than a permanent or full-time basis ...
Helianthus annuus Attracted many comments in past sunflower trials at Common Ground Fair. Stunning brown-centered 6 flowers in maroonish red with yellow tips and a hint of yellow around the center. Mixes well with other sunflowers; makes the whole bouquet pop. 3 tall. Annual. 40 seeds/g. Especially attractive to pollinators.
Propofol at common clinical concentrations-is potent ventilatory depressant and therefore it is sometimes common with the name propofol respiratory depressi
It was surrounded by many plant species, so it was quite impossible to determine its host, and it is beyond recognition from the flowers. Based purely on the surrounding vegetation I will make a stab at Common Broomrape and will have to visit it again next summer when the flowers will be fresh. No Thyme was found nearby (and the habitat was wrong ...
Have a look at common early signs of Parkinson disease that you need to look for. When dopamine levels in the brain decrease and when the neurons die, Parkinson
WWOX gene plays an important role in the altered metabolism of cancer cells which are known to use glucose differently than normal cells.
Discover Exfoliant Fraîchelle and other Body Exfoliators by Lancome. Secure payment of Exfoliant Fraîchelle on the official Lancome USA online shop Lancome
Brugervejledning for Sanovent ventilationsanlæg med roterende-varmeveksler VEC Fra FIB Ventilator Afkast HRO Roterende Posefilter Fraluft FIB Posefilter varmeveksler VEC Ventilator COW varmeflade Frisk
Ol-sen Bil. ● Brukt-bil-for-hand-ler Geir Egil Ol-sen (40) er sik-tet for grov bounn-dra-gel-se, grovt be-dra-ge-ri, grov kor-rup-sjon, he-le-ri, do-ku-ment-for-falsk-ning, urik-ti-ge opp-lys-nin-ger til myn-dig-he-te-ne og unn-dra-gel-se av kjøre-tøy fra pant-ha-ver.. ● Et fa-mi-lie-med-lem er sik-tet for grovt be-dra-ge-ri, mens en an-satt i Sta-tens veg-ve-sen (40) er sik-tet for grov kor-rup-sjon.. ● Sta-tens veg-ve-sen gjen-nom-fø-rer nå en stor-kon-troll av bi-ler fra Ol-sen Bil. De fryk-ter man-ge av dem er tra-fikk-far-li-ge.. ● Si-den 2012 har 3000 bi-ler rul-let ut på vei-ene fra Grim-stad-fir-ma-et, har dag-lig le-der Geir Egil Ol-sen tid-li-ge-re opp-lyst til Fædre-lands-ven-nen.. ...
Fujitsu introducerer nu et af de bredeste udvalg af enheder med Windows 8, herunder sin første Windows 8-baserede hybrid tablet, Fujitsu STYLISTIC Q702.
Norsk førskolelærerutdanning er i perioden 2008-2010 blitt evaluert av NOKUT på oppdrag fra Kunnskapsdepartementet. Rapportene fra evalueringen ble...
GRATIS RETURNERING ➤ Bestil inden kl. 16 man-fre og vi sender i dag ✔ Køb Sportsernæring fra Isostar online ✔ Velkommen på Bikester.dk
26. Sep 2003 - S er vi klar med endnu en test af eg GeForce FX grafikkort fra Albatron. Det er deres GeForce FX 5900 PV, der er u ...
Tilf jelsen hedder... and on its ability to perform its traditional work... og dukker op som slutbem rkning i den nyeste standard. ENDELIG har vi f et et effektiv v rkt j (som vi har ventet p at FCI ville adoptere fra hjemlandets standard) til at prioritere ...
Når du følger bedriften, mottar du relevant informasjon fra bedriften om stillinger i bedriften. Bedriften kan se personopplysningene dine, som navn, adresse m.m. Dermed er du synlig når bedriften skal rekruttere nye medarbeidere. ...
Hotelltilbud i Lakeview: Finn gode tilbud fra hundrevis av nettsteder, og bestill det riktige hotellet for deg ved å bruke TripAdvisors 1 234 anmeldelser av hotell i Lakeview.
Et mix af bioplante-teknologi, enzymaktivitet og udvalgte vitaminer udjævner, blødgør og ensarter hudoverfladen via frugtsyrer fra bl.a. hawaiblomst, agurk, morbær og papaja, som reducerer pigmentering samt øger cellefornyelsen og collagenproduktionen.
Fregoso,M. Laine,J.P. Aguilar-Fuentes,J. Moquet,V. Reynaud,E. Coin,F. Egly,J.M. Zurita,M. 2007. DNA repair and transcriptional deficiencies caused by mutations in the Drosophila p52 subunit of TFIIH generate developmental defects and chromosome fragility Molecular and Cellular Biology, 27, 3640-3650 ...
In a recent decision, Justice Finkelstein of the Federal Court reopened the debate surrounding the legal status of picketing and whether certified (or unregistered) agreements can operate and have effect as contracts at common law. Australia Consumer Protection Freehills 10 Jun 2004
There is now sufficient scientific data about the biological effects of EMF, and in particular about radiofrequency (RF) radiation, to argue for adoption of precautionary measures. We can state unequivocally that EMF can cause single and double strand DNA breakage at exposure levels that are considered safe under the FCC guidelines in the USA. As I shall illustrate below, there are also epidemiology studies that show an increased risk of cancers associated with exposure to RF. Since we know that an accumulation of changes or mutations in DNA is associated with cancer, there is good reason to believe that the elevated rates of cancers among persons living near radio towers are probably linked to DNA damage caused by EMF. Because of the nature of EMF exposure and the length of time it takes for most cancers to develop, one cannot expect conclusive proof such as the link between helicobacter pylori and gastric ulcer. (That link was recently demonstrated by the Australian doctor who proved a link ...
There are regions in the world where the mineral content of ground water is so high that it is impossible to get non-contaminated water from a well or borehole. For the first time ever, a technology is available that can provide communities in these regions with fresh clean drinking water. Heres the link to the release: http://www.protectorsystems.com/PR-2010-10-13. ...
Varige bivirkninger fra Fentanyl Pain Patch Når det gjelder behandling av kronisk eller alvorlig smerte, er det få medikamenter høyere på listen enn fentanyl. Fentanyl er vanligvis gitt til pasienter som har bygget toleranser til, eller mottar ingen lindring fra opiater som morfin og oxycontin
Den er selvf lgelig kompatibelt med Dolby TrueHD- og DTS-HD-lydspor til konventionelle 5.1- eller 7.1- kanals lyd. Audyssey MultEQ forenkler ops tningen og kalibrering, mens den valgfrie Audyssey MultEQ Editor App kan bruges til yderligere at forbedre opstillingen eller justere den i realtime for at passe til ens personlige smag. Desuden s rger Audyssey Dynamic EQ for klarhed og dynamik, selvom systemet spiller p lave niveauer, mens Dynamic Volume udligner de irriterende spring mellem programmer og reklamer. HD stopper ikke i hjemmebiografen - og det g r underholdningen heller ikke.. NR1608 streamer ogs musik fra et lokalt netv rkslager eller internettet og der kan enten bruges kablet netv rk eller Wi-Fi til at oprette forbindelse til en router. Internetradio og -tjenester, herunder Deezer, Spotify Connect og Tidal, kan den ogs streame! Musik fra en computer eller et NAS-drev underst ttes op til 192kHz/24bit og DSD5.6MHz, s vel som popul re formater, herunder MP3,Flac. Man kan endda afspille ...
Full nutritional breakdown of the calories in Pasta Pescatore Fra Diavolo based on the calories and nutrition in each ingredient, including Barilla Linguine, Arrabiatta Fra Diavolo Sauce, Mussels, Squid, raw, Milk, 1% and the other ingredients in this recipe.
Bedste Girona (GRO) Lufthavn lufthavnstransfers. Tag fra GRO Girona (GRO) Lufthavn internationale lufthavn til dit hotel. Lave priser, pålideligt, hurtigt og komfortabelt. Book vores transfers fra Girona (GRO) Lufthavn til de laveste priser.
Passagerer på udvalgte ruter hos Air France kan snart se landskabet under sig klart og i real tid ved hjælp af satellitbilleder fra ESA.
spain.info Norge. Matkulturen i Castile-Leon i Spania: oppskrift på Astorga Lardy Cakes. Hvordan man lager Astorga Lardy Cakes: ingredienser, tilberedning og servering. Flere oppskrifter fra regionen Castile-Leon på den offisielle portalen for turisme i Spania.
Hvorfor er Afrika det eneste kontinent i verden, hvor man ikke kan finde ud af at holde fred? Der er gået 50 år siden afkolonialiseringen, og vi smadrer det hele selv. Hvorfor? spørger UNHCRs nye chef i Cameroun, der stammer fra Mali. Forfatteren Peder Frederik Jensen skriver fra Cameroun, der huser flygtninge i tusindvis, som kommer fra den krigshærgede, dysfunktionelle Centralafrikanske Republik ...
Russians are buying up London property as a way to protect their money against the instability at home. But they have little interest in actually living in their luxury investments.
Fingeraftryk Dyk ned i de forskningsemner, hvor IRS, Sydvestjysk Sygehus, Arbejdsmedicin er aktiv. Disse emneetiketter kommer fra arbejdet fra denne organisations medlemmer. Sammen danner de et unikt fingeraftryk. ...
P grunn av misbruk og uhemmet kopiering uten oppgi v r nettside som kilde, vi ikke lenger tillater bruk av tekster fra v re nettsider p andre nettsider, uten at det p forh nd er innhentet skriftlig tillatelse fra oss. Vi kan kontaktes ved klikke her. ...
P grunn av misbruk og uhemmet kopiering uten oppgi v r nettside som kilde, vi ikke lenger tillater bruk av tekster fra v re nettsider p andre nettsider, uten at det p forh nd er innhentet skriftlig tillatelse fra oss. Vi kan kontaktes ved klikke her. ...
Cookies på Jobbsafari Vi bruker informasjonskapsler til statistikk og til å gjøre hjemmesiden mer brukervennlig. Det utplasseres informasjonskapsler fra Jobbsafari og fra samarbeidspartnerne våre. Klikker du videre på siden, aksepterer du at det utplasseres informasjonskapsler til disse formålene. Les mer her om vår bruk av informasjonskapsler, herunder hvordan du velger bort bruken av informasjonskapsler. ...
Mattilsynet i samarbeid med Helsedirektoratet, Folkehelseinstituttet, Veterinærinstituttet, NIBIO, Havforskningsinstituttet, Vitenskapskomiteen for mat og miljø (VKM) og Statens strålevern.. ...
Inorganic Reactions and Methods: v. 1-18 (Innbundet) av forfatter J. J. Zuckerman. Pris kr 82 879. Se flere bøker fra J. J. Zuckerman.
Vegetabilske kapsler med bredspektrede antioksidanter fra vitaminer, mineraler, bioflavonoider, urter og OPC (druekjerneekstrakt). Antioksidanter er en fellesbetegnelse på en gruppe
Per la sua quinta edizione, la fiera torna al MACRO Testaccio dal 25 al 27 maggio 2012 con un progetto rinnovato e ricco di proposte. Fra le novità di questa quinta edizione la nuova e pi ...
Immediately download the Vietnam War summary, chapter-by-chapter analysis, book notes, essays, quotes, character descriptions, lesson plans, and more - everything you need for studying or teaching Vietnam War.
Introduction: Genomic instability has been proposed to play a role in cancer development and can occur through different mechanisms including telomere association and telomere loss. Studies carried out in our unit have demonstrated that familial papillary thyroid cancer (fPTC) patients display an imbalance, at the germinal level, in telomere-telomerase complex. Aim: We aimed to verify whether familial fPTC patients show an increased spontaneous chromosome fragility. Methods: To this purpose, we compared telomeric fusions and associations as well as other chromosomal fragility features by conventional and molecular cytogenetic analyses, in phytohemagglutinin stimulated T-lymphocytes from fPTC patients, unaffected family members, sporadic papillary thyroid cancer patients, and healthy subjects. Results: We demonstrate that fPTC patients have a significant increase in spontaneous telomeric associations and telomeric fusions compared with healthy subjects and sporadic cases in the frame of an ...
Ive been saying for a while I am going to start a blog but never got round to it. Well now I have. And it seems I have a good post to start with. After visiting the Dr. Me An Apple A Day opening night at Common (and taking full advantage of the free gin) I then walked back past the little substation on Tib St. and thought nothing of the construction work going on. It wasnt until I spotted Alex and Scanners paying it extra attention that I noticed what it was. Apparently, a day or two earlier, what is thought to be a genuine Banksy mural was uncovered by workers clearing foliage from the wall. I was quite excited to spot it as I am a fan of Banksys work and its quite an event when you see a piece of work like this, especially in your own town. I used to walk past one of his murals nearly every day when I was at college until finally the weather (and I expect the council) washed it away. I also searched out one of the more famous ones when I was in Bristol earlier on this year (see) but its ...
February 2014 - People with mental health disabilities are often among the most vulnerable people in Ontario. Many face a unique set of challenges where they live, in workplaces, or in our communities. When people are in crisis they also present a unique set of challenges to police services when considering the use of force. This leads to many concerns from a human rights perspective. It is not the role of the Ontario Human Rights Commission (OHRC) to comment on individual cases - we leave it to other experts to resolve these. But it is our role to look at common themes and concerns, and offer ways to move forward.. ...
February 2014 - People with mental health disabilities are often among the most vulnerable people in Ontario. Many face a unique set of challenges where they live, in workplaces, or in our communities. When people are in crisis they also present a unique set of challenges to police services when considering the use of force. This leads to many concerns from a human rights perspective. It is not the role of the Ontario Human Rights Commission (OHRC) to comment on individual cases - we leave it to other experts to resolve these. But it is our role to look at common themes and concerns, and offer ways to move forward.. ...
Looks at common causes of minor and serious head injuries. Discusses possible head injury emergencies. Offers tool to help you check symptoms and decide when to call a doctor. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.
Activists aboard the Greenpeace ship, Arctic Sunrise unfurl a banner reading Dont Wreck The Arctic while a team of activists attach themselves to the anchor chain of the Anna Akhmatova and chain their inflatable to it, preventing the ship from lifting anchor and sailing to the Prirazlomnaya oil platform to complete the work that will allow them to begin drilling in this fragile region.
Our study of the effect of the lead ion on the development of the chick embryo has brought out the following facts:. 1. Gross growth is retarded.. 2. Somite growth is retarded to a degree greater than that exhibited by body length and width.. 3. The head and optic anlagen are regions of particular sensitivity. Their differential development is markedly inhibited.. From the purely biological point of view these results are in line with the findings of Child (10) and his school as to the sensitivity of the head end of rapidly growing organisms to harmful influences, and with those of Stockard (11) as to the peculiar sensitivity of the optic anlagen.. It is almost too well known to need repetition that the head region and the somites of embryos are specific areas of intense growth by increase in cell number. Therefore, turning from the general to the particular, the differential retardation of these regions which is caused by lead, is evidence justifying the conclusion that it is areas of rapid ...
Ive actually started AS level Chemistry and I think I lack an understanding of this basic concept. This is what I know:- Orbitals are regions where...
Several months later, I was attending my first class at W&L, Intro to Environmental Studies, taught by Leah Green. Over the summer, I had been uneasy about my decision to come here, but that course changed everything. One day, we were visited by Ben Eland - who is now Professor Greens husband - and learned about Common Ground, the intentional community where they lived. I was taken instantly. I spoke with Ben after class to inquire about Common Ground, as he had mentioned that they often welcomed students to intern there in the summers, which was a strange calling for me. Even though Id come from a rural area, I was by no means a "farm kid." With Professor Greens recommendation, I wound up doing my environmental service learning placement at Common Ground the following term, and ultimately spent a summer there after my sophomore year. During this time, I was able to truly connect with various members of the university and Common Ground, in addition to Ben and Professor Green. Suddenly, it ...
One of the factors limiting indefinite proliferation of somatic cells is telomere length [1], [2]. Indeed, the inability to fully replicate both strands of a linear DNA molecule is expected to lead to gradual shortening of telomeres in cells that do not express telomerase. Telomere shortening may be even more severe, if the replication machinery fails to reach the telomeric end. Indeed, the highly repetitive primary structure of telomeres [3], the presence of G‐quadruplexes [4], DNA-RNA hybrids [5], [6], and T‐loops [7], as well as the extensive telomeric heterochromatinization [8], challenge the process of terminal DNA replication and make telomeres prone to fork collapse, similar to common fragile sites [9], [10]. Fork collapse within a telomere is unlikely to be resolved by incoming forks or dormant forks, since human telomeres are thought to be devoid of replication origins. Instead, telomere replication is normally dependent on a single origin, located at the subtelomeric regions [11]. ...
Allelic deletions involving the short arm of chromosome 3 (3p13-21.1) have been observed frequently in cervical carcinomas. Recently, a candidate tumor suppressor gene, FHIT (Fragile Histidine Triad), was cloned and mapped to this chromosomal region (3p14.2). Abnormal FHIT transcripts have been identified previously in a variety of tumor cell lines and primary carcinomas, although their significance and the molecular mechanisms underlying their origin remain incompletely defined. In addition, integration of human papillomavirus DNA has been identified at a fragile site (FRA3B) within the FHIT locus in cervical cancer. These observations motivated us to evaluate FHIT mRNA and protein expression in cervical cancer cell lines, primary cervical carcinomas, and normal tissues. Transcripts of the expected size and sequence were the predominant species identified by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR in cultured keratinocytes and all normal tissues evaluated. In contrast, aberrant FHIT transcripts were ...
Other drugs such as phenobarbitol, primidone, diphenylhydantoin, oxcarbamazepine, sulfonamides and methotrexate may increase the risk for other potentially folate-sensitive birth defects such as cleft lip and palate and heart defects) or increase NTD risks when combined with other drugs. Other medications known to elevate folate requirements include metformin, triamterene and barbiturates.. Where there is an elevated folate requirement, a higher dose of folic acid (greater than 0.4 mg per day) is recommended. However, clear instructions should be given by a health professional on when this higher dose should be started, changed or stopped.. Back to Top. ...
The SePIA workflow allows analysis of paired-end total RNA, poly(A)-derived RNA, and single-end small RNA data. All three data types were processed by the same RNA-seq components at common steps in the workflow, such as preprocessing and alignment, to produce standardized outputs. The ease in which SePIAs pipelines can be extended was demonstrated in Case I, where variant calling was performed as an additional, independently-executed analysis of transcript-level data. Integrated analysis was demonstrated in Case II, identifying biologically interesting miRNA-mRNA pairs by combining expression correlation with in silico target predictions [24]. Though Cufflinks and HTSeq are used in the workflow for mapped read quantification, users may prefer other tools such as RSEM [50], eXpress [51], and BitSeq [52]. These are available as components that can also be used with SePIA and instructions on how to implement them is given on the SePIA website. Users with a basic proficiency in a programming ...
Durkin, Sandra G.; Glover, Thomas W. (Dec 2007). "Chromosome Fragile Sites". Annual Review of Genetics. 41 (1): 169-192. doi: ... These sites are called fragile sites, and can occur commonly as naturally present in most mammalian genomes or occur rarely as ... Rare fragile sites can lead to genetic disease such as fragile X mental retardation syndrome, myotonic dystrophy, Friedrich's ... Although, seemingly harmful, these common fragile sites are conserved all the way to yeast and bacteria. These ubiquitous sites ...
"Clustering of two fragile sites and seven homeobox genes in human chromosome region 2q31→q32.1". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 90 (1-2 ... This article on a gene on human chromosome 2 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... This gene is one of several homeobox HOXD genes located in a cluster on chromosome 2. Deletions that remove the entire HOXD ...
2005). "Folate-sensitive fragile site FRA10A is due to an expansion of a CGG repeat in a novel gene, FRA10AC1, encoding a ... C10orf4 chromosome 10 open reading frame 4". Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, et al. (2005). "A human protein-protein interaction ... This gene is found within the rare FRA10A folate-sensitive fragile site. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000148690 - Ensembl ...
"Clustering of C2-H2 zinc finger motif sequences within telomeric and fragile site regions of human chromosomes". Genomics. 13 ( ... This article on a gene on human chromosome 16 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... This gene is located in a region next to ZNF23, a gene also encoding a zinc finger protein, on chromosome 16.[5] ...
2008). "Disabled-1 is a large common fragile site gene, inactivated in multiple cancers". Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 47 (2): 165 ... 2006). "Functional dissection of Reelin signaling by site-directed disruption of Disabled-1 adaptor binding to apolipoprotein E ...
"Clustering of two fragile sites and seven homeobox genes in human chromosome region 2q31→q32.1". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 90 (1-2 ...
"Clustering of two fragile sites and seven homeobox genes in human chromosome region 2q31→q32.1". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 90 (1-2 ... This gene is one of several homeobox HOXD genes located at 2q31-2q37 chromosome regions. Deletions that removed the entire HOXD ... Mammals possess four similar homeobox gene clusters, HOXA, HOXB, HOXC and HOXD, located on different chromosomes, consisting of ...
"Clustering of two fragile sites and seven homeobox genes in human chromosome region 2q31→q32.1". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 90 (1-2 ... This gene is one of several homeobox HOXD genes located in a cluster on chromosome 2. Deletions that remove the entire HOXD ... Mammals possess four similar homeobox gene clusters, HOXA, HOXB, HOXC and HOXD, located on different chromosomes, consisting of ... end of HOX4 locus on chromosome 2". Genomics. 10 (1): 43-50. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(91)90482-T. PMID 1675198. McAlpine PJ, Shows ...
"Clustering of two fragile sites and seven homeobox genes in human chromosome region 2q31-->q32.1". Cytogenetics and Cell ... This gene is one of several homeobox HOXD genes located at 2q31-2q37 chromosome regions. Deletions that removed the entire HOXD ... Mammals possess four similar homeobox gene clusters, HOXA, HOXB, HOXC and HOXD, located on different chromosomes, consisting of ... "Human homeo box-containing genes located at chromosome regions 2q31----2q37 and 12q12----12q13". American Journal of Human ...
"Clustering of two fragile sites and seven homeobox genes in human chromosome region 2q31-->q32.1". Cytogenetics and Cell ... It is included in a cluster of homeobox D genes located on chromosome 2. The encoded nuclear protein functions as a sequence- ...
"Effect of exogenous E2F-1 on the expression of common chromosome fragile site genes, FHIT and WWOX". Biochem. Biophys. Res. ... Ramos D, Aldaz CM (2007). "WWOX, a chromosomal fragile site gene and its role in cancer". Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 587: 149-59. doi ... Ludes-Meyers JH, Bednarek AK, Popescu NC, Bedford M, Aldaz CM (2004). "WWOX, the common chromosomal fragile site, FRA16D, ... "Common chromosomal fragile site FRA16D sequence: identification of the FOR gene spanning FRA16D and homozygous deletions and ...
"Clustering of C2-H2 zinc finger motif sequences within telomeric and fragile site regions of human chromosomes". Genomics. 13 ( ... 2006). "Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks". Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/ ...
"Clustering of C2-H2 zinc finger motif sequences within telomeric and fragile site regions of human chromosomes". Genomics. 13 ( ...
"CGG-Repeat Expansion in the DIP2B Gene is Associated with the Fragile Site FRA12A on Chromosome 12q13.1". The American Journal ... This gene is located near a folate-sensitive fragile site. Model organisms have been used in the study of DIP2B function. A ... as well as AMP-binding sites. The presence of these sites suggests that DIP2B may participate in DNA methylation. ... A member of the disco-interacting protein homolog 2 protein family, it contains a binding site for the transcriptional ...
Heritable Fragile Site on Chromosome 16: Probable Localization of Haptoglobin Locus in Man by R. Ellen Magenis, Frederick Hecht ... Magenis's first major research project involved a heritable fragile site on the long (q) arm of chromosome 16. She traced this ... 16q fragile site through a multigenerational family and, together with Hecht and Everett Lovrien, she linked the 16q fragile ... Her special interest continues to be in human chromosome mapping. Magenis died on February 4, 2014, after a long illness. Ellen ...
2007). "CGG-repeat expansion in the DIP2B gene is associated with the fragile site FRA12A on chromosome 12q13.1". Am. J. Hum. ... Gardiner K, Slavov D, Bechtel L, Davisson M (2002). "Annotation of human chromosome 21 for relevance to Down syndrome: gene ...
... s have been associated with chromosome fragile sites and are proximal to a number of recurrent translocation ... Minisatellites are prominent in the centromeres and telomeres of chromosomes, the latter protecting the chromosomes from damage ... which protect the ends of a chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighbouring chromosomes. ... In humans, 90% of minisatellites are found at the sub-telomeric region of chromosomes. The human telomere sequence itself is a ...
"Clustering of C2-H2 zinc finger motif sequences within telomeric and fragile site regions of human chromosomes". Genomics. 13 ( ... to human chromosome 17p13.1 by in situ hybridization". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 89 (3-4): 218-9. doi:10.1159/000015617. ...
1992). "Clustering of C2-H2 zinc finger motif sequences within telomeric and fragile site regions of human chromosomes". ... 2004). "The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19". Nature. 428 (6982): 529-35. doi:10.1038/nature02399. PMID ... "Cloning of six new genes with zinc finger motifs mapping to short and long arms of human acrocentric chromosome 22 (p and q11.2 ...
1992). "Clustering of C2-H2 zinc finger motif sequences within telomeric and fragile site regions of human chromosomes". ... 2006). "The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1". Nature. 441 (7091): 315-21. doi:10.1038/nature04727 ...
1992). "Clustering of C2-H2 zinc finger motif sequences within telomeric and fragile site regions of human chromosomes". ... Gao Y, Kobayashi H, Ganss B (2004). "The human KROX-26/ZNF22 gene is expressed at sites of tooth formation and maps to the ... 1992). "A cluster of expressed zinc finger protein genes in the pericentromeric region of human chromosome 10". Genomics. 13 (3 ... "Twenty-seven nonoverlapping zinc finger cDNAs from human T cells map to nine different chromosomes with apparent clustering". ...
In the simple crossover model, the two homologous chromosomes overlap on or near a common Chromosomal fragile site (CFS). This ... In another model, two overlapping sister chromosomes form a double Holliday junction at a common repeat site and are later ... The net effect of this would be one heterozygous chromosome and one homozygous chromosome. Mitotic crossover is known to occur ... In either model, the chromosomes are not guaranteed to trade evenly, or even to rejoin on opposite sides thus most patterns of ...
The gene encompasses the common fragile site FRA3B on chromosome 3, where carcinogen-induced damage can lead to translocations ... spanning the chromosome 3p14.2 fragile site and renal carcinoma-associated t(3;8) breakpoint, is abnormal in digestive tract ... Bis(5'-adenosyl)-triphosphatase also known as fragile histidine triad protein (FHIT) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by ... Zanesi N, Pekarsky Y, Croce CM (December 2005). "A mouse model of the fragile gene FHIT: From carcinogenesis to gene therapy ...
Some chemicals have the ability to induce fragile sites in regions of the chromosome where oncogenes are present, which could ... Regions sensitive to breakage, called fragile sites, may result from genotoxic agents (such as pesticides). ... Also, chromosomes' integrity may be altered through chromosome loss and clastogenic lesions causing multiple gene and ... To further analyze the site of lesion, it was observed that polymerase stopped at the site and adenine was inappropriately ...
The human gene Chromosome 3 open reading frame 14 is a gene of uncertain function located at 3p14.2 near fragile site FRBA3- ... and the chromosomal fragile site FRBA3. Breakage at this site inactivates FHIT and can lead to the loss of C3orf14. Because ... Four sites of possible phosphorylation have been identified, and at least two sites of phosphorylation are conserved in all ...
FRA3A encoding protein Fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(3)(p24.2). *FRMD4B encoding protein FERM domain containing ... Chromosome 3 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome 3 ... "Chromosome 3". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2017-05-06.. *. "Chromosome 3". Human Genome Project Information Archive 1990 ... "Chromosome 3: Chromosome summary - Homo sapiens". Ensembl Release 88. 2017-03-29. Retrieved 2017-05-19.. ...
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... The leaves may be dry and fragile, but not powdery. Good tea should be quite fragrant, even when dry. Good pressed pu'er cakes ... This notion has recently been refuted through a systematic chromosome analysis of the species attributed to many East Asian ...
that miR-129-1 is located in a fragile site region of the human genome near a specific site, FRA7H in chromosome 7q32, which is ... 2004). "Human microRNA genes are frequently located at fragile sites and genomic regions involved in cancers". Proc Natl Acad ... a site commonly deleted in many cancers. miR-129-2 is located in 11p11.2. miR-129 seems to have a tissue specific expression ...
Thats because the etiology, the cause of Fragile X syndrome, is having some extra material on the X chromosome. Females have ... Plug-ins Site Map Staff Search FOIA Privacy Copyright Contact Accessibility Plug-ins Site Map Staff Search FOIA. ... Fragile X Syndrome. Fragile X syndrome is a hereditary disorder affecting mostly males. Symptoms include mental retardation, ... Fragile X Syndrome. Fragile X syndrome is a hereditary disorder affecting mostly males. Symptoms include mental retardation, ...
Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. ... The FHIT gene, spanning the chromosome 3p14.2 fragile site and renal carcinoma-associated t(3;8) breakpoint, is abnormal in ... A 200-300 kb region of chromosome 3p14.2, including the fragile site locus FRA3B, is homozygously deleted in multiple tumor- ... and exon 5 within the homozygously deleted fragile region. Aberrant transcripts of the FHIT locus were found in approximately ...
Folate sensitive and BrdU dependent fragile sites on human chromosomes. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 1988 Mar; 26(3 ...
Chromosome fragile sites. . Annu. Rev. Genet. 41, 169-192 (2007).. **CAS*PubMed*Article*Google Scholar*27.. Zhang, H. & ... An AT-rich sequence in human common fragile site FRA16D causes fork stalling and chromosome breakage in S. cerevisiae. . Mol. ... ATR regulates fragile site stability. . Cell 111, 779-789 (2002).. **CAS*PubMed*Article*Google Scholar*24.. Benjamini, Y. & ... Systematic identification of fragile sites via genome-wide location analysis of gamma-H2AX. . Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 17, 299- ...
All diploids contain fragile site FS2 on the MS71-derived homolog of chromosome III. Both experimental diploids are homozygous ... Models of repair by homologous recombination at yeast fragile site FS2. (A) The right arm of one homolog of yeast chromosome ... Gene conversions are stimulated by instability at fragile site FS2 during S phase. The MS71-derived homolog of chromosome III ... indicates a restriction site exists, ● indicates lack of the site. Numbers are the approximate chromosome coordinate in kb. On ...
Fragile Sites on Human Chromosomes. Oxford Monographs on Medical Genetics. Vol. 13. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1985 ... Diagnosis of the fragile X syndrome (Martin-Bell syndrome). Clinical findings in 27 males with the fragile site at Xq28. J Ment ... X-linked mental retardation, macro-orchidism, and the Xq27 fragile site. J Pediatr. 1980;96(5):837-841pmid:7189210. ... Fragile X Clinical and Research Consortium. FXS - fragile X syndrome. GER - gastroesophageal reflux. GI - gastrointestinal. ID ...
Common fragile sites as targets for chromosome rearrangements. . DNA Repair (Amst.) 5, 1126-1135 (2006) ... ATR regulates fragile site stability. . Cell 111, 779-789 (2002). **CAS*PubMed*Article*Google Scholar*34.. Arlt, M. F., Durkin ... Mammalian telomeres resemble fragile sites and require TRF1 for efficient replication. . Cell 138, 90-103 (2009) ... Chromosome Res. 13, 505-515 (2005). **CAS*PubMed*Article*Google Scholar*40.. Mayshar, Y. et al. Identification and ...
FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X ... followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g ... Chromosome Fragile Sites. Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a ... Some CHROMOSOME FRAGILE SITES are composed of sequences where trinucleotide repeat expansion occurs. ...
Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. ... The Detection and Analysis of Chromosome Fragile Sites.. Bjerregaard VA, Özer Ö, Hickson ID, Liu Y. ... RECQ5 Helicase Cooperates with MUS81 Endonuclease in Processing Stalled Replication Forks at Common Fragile Sites during ... Pathways for maintenance of telomeres and common fragile sites during DNA replication stress. ...
Fragility Extraordinaire: Unsolved Mysteries of Chromosome Fragile Sites. Pages 489-526. Feng, Wenyi (et al.) ... JavaScript is currently disabled, this site works much better if you enable JavaScript in your browser. ... Interaction of Rif1 Protein with G-Quadruplex in Control of Chromosome Transactions ...
Brainscape is a web and mobile study platform that helps you learn things faster. Our mission is to create a smarter world by ... Translocation chromosome derived from chromosome 1 and containing the centromere of chromosome 1 ... Translocation chromosome derived from chromosome 1 and containing the centromere of chromosome 1 ... Translocation chromosome containing centromeres from both the X and the Y chromosomes ...
FRA3A encoding protein Fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(3)(p24.2). *FRMD4B encoding protein FERM domain containing ... Chromosome 3 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome 3 ... "Chromosome 3". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2017-05-06.. *. "Chromosome 3". Human Genome Project Information Archive 1990 ... "Chromosome 3: Chromosome summary - Homo sapiens". Ensembl Release 88. 2017-03-29. Retrieved 2017-05-19.. ...
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2019; 58(5):284-294 [PubMed] Related Publications Common fragile sites (cFSs) represent parts of the ... The FRA14B common fragile site maps to a region prone to somatic and germline rearrangements within the large GPHN gene.. ... Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2001; 32(3):212-21 [PubMed] Related Publications We report a novel MLL-associated chromosome ... Home] Page last revised: 31 August, 2019 Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999 ...
This is the fourth edition of an acclaimed introductory textbook on the structure and function of human chromosomes. The ... Fragile Sites, Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion, and the Fragile X Syndrome. Pages 295-308 ... This is the fourth edition of an acclaimed introductory textbook on the structure and function of human chromosomes. The ... Download Product Flyer Request Instructor Sample on Partner Site macmillanihe.com Download High-Resolution Cover ...
In Renpennings syndrome, there is no fragile site on the X chromosome. Renpennings cases have short stature, moderate ... "marker X chromosome" in association with mental disability.[3] In 1970 Frederick Hecht coined the term "fragile site". ... There are four generally accepted states of the chromosome region involved in Fragile X syndrome which relate to the length of ... Fragile X syndrome (FXS), or Martin-Bell syndrome, is a genetic syndrome which results in a spectrum of characteristic physical ...
Mechanisms involved in mitotic chromosome segregation and chromosome imbalance, translocations, and fragile sites ... Role of DNA fragile sites, which are regions of the chromosome that are prone to breakage and are hotspots for translocations ... Role of nonconventional DNA structures in generating fragile sites. Emerging research areas include understanding the role of ... An emerging area of interest is the role that chromosome translocations play in driving tumorigenesis and cancer progression. ...
fragile site. 13. readthrough. 9. region. 1. unknown. 25. virus integration site. 1. ... Click on a chromosome below to see a statistics & download page for the chosen chromosome. The table below contains the number ... The old file format can still be found on our FTP site and will continue to be updated in the short term. If you use the old ... Site maintained by the External Services team at EMBL-EBI , Terms of Use , Privacy , Cookies ...
fragile site. 6. readthrough. 2. region. 2. unknown. 18. Total Approved Symbols. 1848. ... Click on a chromosome below to see a statistics & download page for the chosen chromosome. The table below contains the number ... The old file format can still be found on our FTP site and will continue to be updated in the short term. If you use the old ... Site maintained by the External Services team at EMBL-EBI , Terms of Use , Privacy , Cookies ...
Common fragile sites as targets for chromosome rearrangements. DNA Repair. 2006;5(9-10):1126-35.View ArticlePubMedGoogle ... Chromosome fragile sites. Annu Rev Genet. 2007;41:169-92.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. ... These include breakage of chromosomes at common fragile sites under replication stress, followed by repair of the double-strand ... Chromosome size differences in Phytophthora palmivora, a pathogen of cocoa. Nature. 1975;255(5511):704-5.View ArticlePubMed ...
Durkin, Sandra G.; Glover, Thomas W. (Dec 2007). "Chromosome Fragile Sites". Annual Review of Genetics. 41 (1): 169-192. doi: ... These sites are called fragile sites, and can occur commonly as naturally present in most mammalian genomes or occur rarely as ... Rare fragile sites can lead to genetic disease such as fragile X mental retardation syndrome, myotonic dystrophy, Friedrichs ... Although, seemingly harmful, these common fragile sites are conserved all the way to yeast and bacteria. These ubiquitous sites ...
"Clustering of two fragile sites and seven homeobox genes in human chromosome region 2q31→q32.1". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 90 (1-2 ... This article on a gene on human chromosome 2 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... This gene is one of several homeobox HOXD genes located in a cluster on chromosome 2. Deletions that remove the entire HOXD ...
This gene is located in chromosome 16q23.3-24.1, an area known as the common fragile site FRA16D. The full-length WWOX protein ... Ishii, H., and Furukawa, Y. (2004). Alterations of common chromosome fragile sites in hematopoietic malignancies. Int. J. ... 2011). Drosophila orthologue of WWOX, the chromosomal fragile site FRA16D tumour suppressor gene, functions in aerobic ... There are two conserved tyrosine phosphorylation sites, Tyr33 and Tyr287. Other phosphorylation sites predicted by NetPhos 2.0 ...
... have identified the ion channel known as Kv1.2 as a new target for reducing certain Fragile X syndrome (FXS) symptoms ... Molecular guardians monitor chromosomes during cell division 09/28/2018 Genetics and Birth Defects ... FXS is caused when there are low levels of the Fragile Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), which is a type of protein that is ... The research identifies Kv1.2 as an entirely new molecular site that can be targeted by drugs or gene therapy in the future and ...
fragile sites. Fragile X syndrome, 2nd most common cause of mental retardation. carrier of fragile X gene and pass it on to ... actual site of protein synthesis. dipoid cells. chromosomes appear in pairs. (23 pairs or 46 chromosomes in the nucleus of each ... Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page. Normal ... sex chromosome aneuploidy. Turner, Klinefelter, 47,XYY. clastogen. extent of chromosome breakage is increased with presence of ...
Alterations of Common Chromosome Fragile Sites in Hematopoietic Malignancies (2004) * 9. ISHII Hideshi ID: 9000001624237 ... Investigation of Individual Micrometer-Size Kosa Particle with On-Site Combination of Electron Microscope and Synchrotron X-Ray ... Site-Specific Extinction Rule for Kikuchi Bands in X-ray Photoelectron Diffraction (1997) ...
  • To further study the role of chromosome 3p allele loss in the pathogenesis of lung cancer, we performed high resolution loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies on 97 lung cancer and 54 preneoplastic/preinvasive microdissected respiratory epithelial samples using a panel of 28 3p markers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our data demonstrate a high level of reuse of breakpoints among muroid rodents, further supporting the "Fragile Breakage Model" of chromosome evolution. (deepdyve.com)
  • i) rDNA clusters showed extensive diversity in number between species and an almost exclusive pericentromeric location, ii) a strong association between rDNA sites and centromeres was retrieved which may be related to their shared constraint of concerted evolution, iii) 24% of the observed breakpoints mapped near an rDNA cluster, and iv) a substantial rate of rDNA cluster change (insertion, deletion) also occurred in the absence of chromosomal rearrangements. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both of these genomic structures coincide with breakpoints in the genus Mus , suggesting that the accumulation of a large number of repeats in the centromeric region may contribute to the high level of chromosome repatterning observed in this group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Breakpoints were seen in A,B,C, and D group of Denver's classification of chromosomes. (indmedica.com)
  • Transmission electron micrographs of whole metaphase chromosomes isolated from Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells showing the characteristic paired chromatids and centromeric constrictions. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • The work begins with a look at historical themes, such as the analysis of metaphase chromosomes using microscopy and staining techniques, advances in which provided our first broad glimpse into the genetic anatomy of a malignant cell. (wisepress.com)
  • After chromosome segregation in mitosis, the light pink cell remains heterozygous at all SNPs, while the red cell is homozygous for the YJM789 form of all SNPs distal to the invasion site. (genetics.org)
  • The SMC proteins were initially identified through genetic studies of chromosome segregation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [ 13 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • The FHIT locus is composed of ten exons distributed over at least 500 kb, with three 5' untranslated exons centromeric to the renal carcinoma-associated 3p14.2 breakpoint, the remaining exons telomeric to this translocation breakpoint, and exon 5 within the homozygously deleted fragile region. (nih.gov)
  • Objective: The Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, consisting of the t(9;22)(q34;q11) translocation, is observed in--90% of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this study, we fine mapped the location of FRA14B and showed that the fragile region spans 765 kb at 14q23.3, containing the large gephyrin (GPHN) gene. (cancerindex.org)
  • Chromosome 3 spans almost 200 million base pairs (the building material of DNA ) and represents about 6.5 percent of the total DNA in cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosome 1 spans about 249 million nucleotide base pairs , which are the basic units of information for DNA . (wikipedia.org)
  • This nucleoprotein complex protects the ends of chromosomes from being recognized as double-strand breaks, thereby preventing recombination between telomeres that leads to chromosomal fusions and instability ( 11 , 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • The silenced HML and HMR loci are located 10 and 20 kb from the telomeres on chromosome III. (rupress.org)
  • Nucleolar expansion due to abnormal increases in polyamines could disrupt nearby chromatin, such as the inactive X chromosome, leading to expression of previously sequestered DNA. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the hypothesis it was proposed that enlargement of the nucleolus in response to cellular stress could disrupt neighboring chromatin, such as the inactive X chromosome. (frontiersin.org)
  • Common fragile sites are of interest in cancer studies because they are frequently affected in cancer and they can be found in healthy individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HPV-16 virus, the strain of human papilloma virus most likely to produce cancer, appear to integrate preferentially in or around fragile sites, and it has been proposed that this is crucial to the development of tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contributions feature numerous colour tables and illustrations and this volume will provide a basis for understanding cancer chromosomes for many years to come. (wisepress.com)
  • Similarly, fragile sites may contribute to cancer more frequently than non-fragile loci due their enhanced sensitivity to certain conditions that down-regulate the IC/IS bias rather than intrinsically higher rates of recombination. (prolekare.cz)
  • Our previous studies suggest that the chromosome 1p12-13 is related to thyroid cancer incidence. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our data provide evidence of a strong association of the chromosome 1p12 with thyroid cancer risk, and it is the first study describing susceptibility loci for thyroid cancer in this region. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In a previous study, we have reported that the chromosome 1p12-13is related to thyroid cancer susceptibility ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Identification of the expression profile of apoptotic esophageal cancer cells by adenoviral-fragile histidine triad treatment. (curehunter.com)
  • Restoration of fragile histidine triad (FHIT) expression induces apoptosis and suppresses tumorigenicity in breast cancer cell lines. (curehunter.com)
  • Restoration of fragile histidine triad (FHIT) expression induces apoptosis and suppresses tumorigenicity in lung and cervical cancer cell lines. (curehunter.com)
  • The site lies in the middle of a tumor suppressor gene and chromosome breakage in this area is highly associated with cancer. (phys.org)
  • What we did was take two of these regions of predicted high flexibility, plus a region near a cancer cell breakpoint and a control region, and test whether any of these regions could cause breakage of a yeast chromosome," Freudenreich said. (phys.org)
  • Furthermore, because meningiomas do not tend to lose the entire chromosome 10 (17) , as is the case with the majority of astrocytic gliomas (18) , detailed LOH studies may well be useful in defining candidate tumor suppressor loci. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Purpose: WWOX (WW domain containing oxidoreductase) is a tumor suppressor gene that maps to the common fragile site FRA16D . (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, 2 primary tumor samples (13%) showed promoter hypermethylation including the position of site-specific methylation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recently, in the WWOX (WW domain containing oxidoreductase), a candidate tumor suppressor gene, chromosome 16q23.3-24.1 was isolated. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1993. Analysis of aphidicolineinduced chromosome fragile sites in domestic pig (Sus scrofa) Cytogenet cell Genet. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Harper ME, Saunders GF (1981) Localization of single copy DNA sequences on G-based human chromosomes by in situ hybridization. (springer.com)
  • Zinc finger motif sequences within telomeric and fragile site regions of human chromosomes. (springer.com)
  • The physical mapping of three abundant tandemly repeated DNA sequences, CON1, CON2, and COM2, and the distributional pattern of AT- and GC-rich regions in the chromosomes of 32 species of the grass family Poaceae have been established by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization and fluorochrome banding with chromomycin and DAPI. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Functional repetitive sequences and fragile sites in chromosomes of Lolium perenne L. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A single chromosome bears 18S rDNA clusters in most species, except C. johanna , where population variation exists in terms of the quantity and distribution of clusters and their association with interstitial telomeric sequences. (biologists.org)
  • All species showed hybridization of 5S rDNA sequences in an interstitial region on an acrocentric chromosome pair. (biologists.org)
  • Fragile sites are specific loci that show up during karyo-typing as a gap/s on a chromatid arm after culturing the cells under specific conditions . (indmedica.com)
  • Tom's thesis research was performed in the lab of Walt Fangman, with the goal of providing evidence that individual yeast chromosomes were indeed composed of a single, duplex DNA molecule. (genetics.org)
  • They expect the results will be similar when tested in human cells based on previous research using yeast chromosomes. (phys.org)
  • Azzalin CM, Reichenbach P, Khoriauli L, Giulotto E, Lingner J (2007) Telomeric repeat containing RNA and RNA surveillance factors at mammalian chromosome ends. (springer.com)
  • The essential features of trypanosome antigenic variation have been understood for many years and comprise a dense, protective Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) coat, which can be changed by recombination-based and transcription-based processes that focus on telomeric VSG gene transcription sites. (asmscience.org)
  • the position of the centromere determines whether the chromosome is considered an acrocentric, metacentric or telomeric chromosome. (kumc.edu)
  • This analysis revealed a high level of chromosome breakpoint conservation between Rattus and Peromyscus and indicated that the chromosomes of Mus are highly derived. (deepdyve.com)
  • Usually, all cells in an individual in a given species (plant or animal) show a constant number of chromosomes, which constitute what is known as the karyotype defining this species (see also List of number of chromosomes of various organisms), although some species present a very high karyotypic variability. (wikipedia.org)
  • one member of each chromosome pair-23 chromosomes, gamate cells-sperm and egg cells. (studystack.com)
  • Spectral karyotyping (SKY) to identify chromosomes or chromosomal segments that are structurally and numerically altered in cells. (roswellpark.org)
  • In addition, there are some species where there is no pseudoautosomal region and special proteins shepherd the X and Y chromosome on their way to the sperm cells. (uta.edu)
  • These clusters are the most actively transcribed DNA regions in cells, as well as the most fragile sites in human chromosomes. (springer.com)
  • The PAR shrinkage makes the production of offspring without an X or Y from the father more likely, the new paper said.In addition, there are some species where there is no pseudoautosomal region and special proteins shepherd the X and Y chromosome on their way to the sperm cells. (medindia.net)
  • Amniocentesis -- prenatal diagnosis method using cells in the amniotic fluid to determine the number and kind of chromosomes of the fetus and, when indicated, perform biochemical studies. (kumc.edu)
  • Barr body -- the condensed single X-chromosome seen in the nuclei of somatic cells of female mammals. (kumc.edu)
  • MGR was applied using 107 chromosome homologies between Mus, Rattus, Peromyscus, the muroid sister taxon Cricetulus griseus, and Sciurus carolinensis as a non-Muroidea outgroup, with specific attention paid to breakpoint reuse and centromere evolution. (deepdyve.com)
  • In all diploids, BIR that is initiated by a lesion on the chromosome III homolog carrying the fragile site and in which invasion of the opposite homolog occurs at a location centromere-proximal to the marker gene ( SUP4-o or ADE2 ) will produce a sectored colony. (genetics.org)
  • telocentrics which are chromosomes that have a terminal centromere. (slideserve.com)
  • High-resolution GTG-banded karyotype showed lack of centromeric constriction in some chromosomes, premature centromere separation in others, and repulsion of the heterochromatin regions. (stanford.edu)