Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Asymmetric Cell Division: Unequal cell division that results in daughter cells of different sizes.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Chromosome Painting: A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.Chromosomes, Human, 1-3: The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Chromosomes, Human, 16-18: The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y: The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Ring Chromosomes: Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromosomes, Human, 4-5: The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Cell Nucleus Division: The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.Chromosome Structures: Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Chromosomes, Human, 19-20: The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Caulobacter crescentus: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that consist of slender vibroid cells.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Chromosomes, Artificial, Human: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Time-Lapse Imaging: Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Chromosome Fragility: Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Chromosome Duplication: An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Enlargement: Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Peptidoglycan Glycosyltransferase: A hexosyltransferase involved in the transfer of disaccharide molecules to the peptidoglycan structure of the CELL WALL SKELETON. It plays an important role in the genesis of the bacterial CELL WALL.Caulobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod- or vibroid-shaped or fusiform bacteria that commonly produce a stalk. They are found in fresh water and soil and divide by binary transverse fission.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Cell division binary fission (simple division) mitosis (fission or budding) meiosis Chromosomes single chromosome more than one ... Main article: Cell division. Cell division involves a single cell (called a mother cell) dividing into two daughter cells. This ... In mammals, major cell types include skin cells, muscle cells, neurons, blood cells, fibroblasts, stem cells, and others. Cell ... Cell wall. Further information: Cell wall. Many types of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have a cell wall. The cell wall acts ...
Normal cell division distributes the genome equally between two daughter cells, with each chromosome attaching to an ovoid ... Successful cell division requires identification and correction of any dangerous errors before the cell splits in two. If the ... During the division process, errors commonly occur in attaching the chromosomes to the spindle, estimated to affect 86 to 90 ... "Molecular forces are key to proper cell division". www.sciencedaily.com. University of Massachusetts Amherst. January 21, 2013 ...
Górski, F. (1975). "Critical review of the mechanisms separating the strands of DNA double helices during cell division". Folia ... if the strands are to separate during cell replication. This leads to the apparent need of the chromosome - or at least some ... Such a chromosome does not need to either spin or unwind during replication. Rodley in later published work makes it clear that ... DNA sequencing then indicated that each of the two bands were enriched in one of the two strands of the chromosome. Separately ...
Mini Chromosome Maintenance MCM5 has been shown to interact with: Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase, MCM2, MCM3, ... "Entrez Gene: MCM5 MCM5 minichromosome maintenance deficient 5, cell division cycle 46 (S. cerevisiae)". Kneissl M, Pütter V, ... "Coding sequence and chromosome mapping of the human gene (CDC46) for replication protein hCdc46/Mcm5". Cytogenet Cell Genet. 73 ... Cell Biol. 6 (2): 97-105. doi:10.1038/ncb1086. PMID 14743216. Ramachandran N, Hainsworth E, Bhullar B, Eisenstein S, Rosen B, ...
Within eukaryotic cells, DNA is organized into long structures called chromosomes. Before typical cell division, these ... Cell division is essential for an organism to grow, but, when a cell divides, it must replicate the DNA in its genome so that ... DNA usually occurs as linear chromosomes in eukaryotes, and circular chromosomes in prokaryotes. The set of chromosomes in a ... In the normal chromosome there is usually only one genoneme; before cell-division this genoneme has become divided into two ...
Telomeres act like protective caps for the chromosome. During cell division, a cell will make copies of its DNA. The enzymes in ... It was thought that these telomeric sequences might protect genes on these tiny chromosomes from erosion during cell division. ... genetic information from the DNA on the ends of chromosomes would be lost with each division. However, because chromosomes have ... The nearly 3MB telomeric array on the W chromosome suggests that mega-telomeres also play a role in sex-chromosome organization ...
This shortens the telomeres of the daughter DNA chromosome. As a result, cells can only divide a certain number of times before ... As the cell grows and divides, it progresses through stages in the cell cycle; DNA replication takes place during the S phase ( ... regulates whether eukaryotic cells enter the process of DNA replication and subsequent division. Cells that do not proceed ... For a cell to divide, it must first replicate its DNA. This process is initiated at particular points in the DNA, known as " ...
... is the failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate properly during cell division. There ... Such a cell is said to be aneuploid. Loss of a single chromosome (2n-1), in which the daughter cell(s) with the defect will ... Gaining a single chromosome, in which the daughter cell(s) with the defect will have one chromosome in addition to its pairs is ... In the anaphase of mitosis, sister chromatids separate and migrate to opposite cell poles before the cell divides. ...
During the later stages of cell division these chromatids separate longitudinally to become individual chromosomes. Chromatid ... Before replication, one chromosome is composed of one DNA molecule. Following replication, each chromosome is composed of two ... leading to a situation known as nondisjunction where one daughter cell lacks the chromosome while the other gets both copies of ... refers to either of the two chromatids of paired homologous chromosomes, that is, the pairing of a paternal chromosome and a ...
During cell division, heterochromatin formation is required for proper chromosome segregation. PRC2/EED-EZH2 complex may also ... It and its homologs play essential roles in development, cell differentiation, and cell division in plants, insects, fish, and ... EZH2 is an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy because it helps cancerous cells divide and proliferate. It is found in ... In breast cancer cells, EZH2 activates genes that promote cell proliferation and survival. It can also activate regulatory ...
Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX-04). *High Resolution Shuttle Glow Spectroscopy (HRSGS-A) ...
The encoded protein may have a role in spermatogenesis, cell cycle control, and in meiotic cell division. GRCh38: Ensembl ... expression and chromosome location of the human pelota gene PELO". Cytogenet Cell Genet. 90 (1-2): 75-8. doi:10.1159/000015667 ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. Andersen JS, Lam YW, Leung AK, et al. (2005). "Nucleolar proteome dynamics". ... 2006). "Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks". Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. ...
He also reasoned in 1902 that a cancerous tumor begins with a single cell in which the makeup of its chromosomes becomes ... His other significant discovery was the centrosome (1888), which he described as the especial organ of cell division. Boveri ... causing the cells to divide uncontrollably. He proposed carcinogenesis was the result of aberrant mitoses and uncontrolled ... Chromosomes and cancer: Theodor Boveri's predictions 100 years later". J. Mol. Med. 80 (9): 545-8. doi:10.1007/s00109-002-0374- ...
Pericentrin has a role in cell division, proper chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis. Since primordial dwarfism disorders ...
These proteins are responsible for binding to the cytoskeleton and assist the cell during cell division. It seems these issues ... arm of the X chromosome or a mutation of the 22q11.2 gene on the 22nd chromosome. Since it is a genetic disease, it is an ... arm of the X chromosome; the autosomal dominant form is due to a mutation on chromosome 22. Both forms of the disease result in ... with early cell division have a significant impact on the physical deformities that typically accompany the disease. Autosomal ...
Swarmer cells differentiate into stalked cells after a short period of motility. Chromosome replication and cell division only ... An essential feature of the Caulobacter cell cycle is that the chromosome is replicated once and only once per cell cycle. This ... This leads to a significant and inevitable cell-to-cell variation time to complete replication of the chromosome. There is ... Caulobacter is an important model organism for studying the regulation of the cell cycle, asymmetric cell division, and ...
When certain diploid cells in animals undergo cytokinesis after meiosis to produce egg cells, they sometimes divide unevenly. ... "Mechanism of the chromosome-induced polar body extrusion in mouse eggs". Wang Qiong, Catharine Racowsky, Manqi Deng. Cell ... the cell must divide asymmetrically, which is fueled by furrowing (formation of a trench) near a particular point on the cell ... Polar bodies serve to eliminate one half of the diploid chromosome set produced by meiotic division in the egg, leaving behind ...
It also examined whether cell division (mitosis) and chromosome behavior were modified by the space environment. ... After the PEMBSIS cell culture chambers were recovered from the Shuttle, specimens of living cells and somatic embryos were ... A substantial number of binucleate cells, cells possessing two nuclei, were also found in the flight samples. The ground- ... Chromosomes were measured and compared within and among cultures. Results[edit]. Newt Study[edit]. According to morphogical ...
Cells that do not immediately die are likely to create aneuploid cells following subsequent attempts at cell division posing a ... "Spontaneous premature chromosome condensation and mitotic catastrophe following irradiation of HeLa S3 cells". Int J Radiat ... cells produced by mitotic catastrophe might later reduce DNA ploidy by reductive division involving meiotic cell division ... Mitotic catastrophe is unrelated to programmed cell death or apoptosis and is observed in cells lacking functional apoptotic ...
... chromosomes resulting from the replication of the chromosomes and the synapsis of homologs without cell division is a process ... It is unknown when chromomeres first appear on the chromosome. Chromomeres can be observed best when chromosomes are highly ... Chromomeres are organized in a discontinuous linear pattern along the condensed chromosomes (pachytene chromosomes) during the ... These chromosomes consist of more than 1000 copies of the same chromatid that are aligned and produce alternating dark and ...
When cell division occurs normally, each daughter cell receives one short arm and one long arm of each chromosome. However, ... The tetrasomy can also be formed independently of cell division. Double stranded breaks in the short arm of chromosome 9 may be ... errors during this process may cause one daughter cell to receive two short arms of chromosome 9, while the other cell receives ... This isochromosome can then be passed on during cell division. In most cases, affected individuals carry the tetrasomy in every ...
Segregation of homologous chromosomes to opposite poles of the cell occurs during the first division of meiosis. Proper ... Dynein is involved in the movement of chromosomes and positioning the mitotic spindles for cell division.[2][3] Dynein carries ... Cytoplasmic dynein, found in all animal cells and possibly plant cells as well, performs functions necessary for cell survival ... "Cytoplasmic dynein and dynactin in cell division and intracellular transport". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 11 (1): 45-53. ...
An error in cell division called nondisjunction can result in reproductive cells with additional chromosomes. For example, an ... the child will have an extra X chromosome in each of her cells. In some cases, trisomy X occurs during cell division in early ... Triple X can result either during the division of the mother's reproductive cells or during division of cells during early ... Triple X syndrome, also known as trisomy X and 47,XXX, is characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome in each cell ...
Within cells DNA is organized into long structures called chromosomes. During cell division these chromosomes are duplicated in ... except some cells such as mature red blood cells), while viruses contain either DNA or RNA, but usually not both. The basic ... providing each cell its own complete set of chromosomes. Eukaryotic organisms (animals, plants, fungi, and protists) store most ... Within the chromosomes, chromatin proteins such as histones compact and organize DNA. These compact structures guide the ...
... is a poison that disrupts cell division by affecting the protein threads that connect the centromere regions of chromosomes, ... Spindle poisons effectively cease the production of new cells by interrupting the mitosis phase of cell division at the spindle ... resulting in the G2/M arrest within the cell cycle and eventually cell death. In contrast, the taxanes arrest the mitotic cell ... The precise division of chromosomes is the primary responsibility of SAC. Its origin stems from kinetochores, proteins that aid ...
Many became exaptations, taking on new functions like participating in cell division, protein routing, and even disease ... "Circular chloroplast chromosomes: the grand illusion". The Plant Cell. 16 (7): 1661-6. doi:10.1105/tpc.160771. PMC 514151 ... Because the cell acquiring a chloroplast already had mitochondria (and peroxisomes, and a cell membrane for secretion), the new ... and therefore topologically outside of the cell, because to reach the chloroplast from the cytosol, you have to cross the cell ...
The cell skeleton, which distributes the chromosomes to the two daughter cells during cell division, attaches to the ... During cell division, the kinetochore provides a point of attachment for the cell skeleton and enables the chromosomes to move ... Now however, a functioning kinetochore arose there which interacted with the cell skeleton during cell division. Using this ... the researchers succeeded in distributing artificial minichromosomes between the two daughter cells during cell division. The ...
Division of Molecular and Cell Genetics, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, School of Life Sciences, Faculty of ... Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT): small cells with huge potential. Mamm Genome. 2003;14(9):583-92.View Article ... Integration-free iPS cells engineered using human artificial chromosome vectors. PLoS One. 2011;6(10), e25961.View Article ... HT1080 or HFL-1 cells were fused with microcells prepared from donor cells, and on the day following PEG fusion, the cells were ...
... are progressively eroded by about 30 to 200 bp because of the end-replication problem during each mitotic cell division (6). ... the process of cell senescence is initiated, resulting in cell-cycle arrest or apoptosis in normal cells (9). For cancer cells ... A genome-wide association study identifies a novel locus on chromosome 18q12.2 influencing white cell telomere length. J Med ... As caps at the ends of chromosomes, telomeres play a critical role in protecting chromosomes from degradation, end-to-end ...
Filamentous spindle fibers must bind to the chromosome centromere to divide equally. For the spindle fiber to be correctly ... Abnormal segregation can cause cell death or diseases like Down syndrome and cancer. ... chromosomes need to be evenly segregated. This equal distribution is important to accurately pass genetic information to the ... joined, the chromosome must have heterochromatin. However, the mechanism for forming this structure has not been sufficiently ...
Transcript of 8-1-1 cell division and chromosome. 8-1-1 세포분열과 염색체. 질문1. 내가 열심히 탁구를 쳐서 탁구를 잘 치게된다면.... -, 자식에게 유전될까?. 질문2. 인스턴트 ...
... and a new study could shed light on the role of chromosome abnormalities in uncontrolled cell replication. They uncovered the ... molecular players and mechanism underlying a little-studied stage of cellular division called Anaphase B. ... Errors in cell division can cause mutations that lead to cancer, ... phase of how cells divide. Errors in cell division can cause ... In cell division - the creation of two daughter cells from one -- it is the doubled chromosomes that are piled in the middle to ...
Cell. 2004 Jun 25;117(7):915-25. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... Coordination of cell division and chromosome segregation by a ... Unexpectedly, cells lacking both Noc and the Min system (which prevents division close to the cell poles) are blocked for ... Under various conditions in which the cell cycle is perturbed, Noc prevents the division machinery from assembling in the ... specifies the division site under a range of conditions and how it avoids catastrophic breakage of the chromosome by division ...
Cellular senescence-when a cell can no longer divide-is a programmed stage in a cells life cycle. Sometimes, as in aging, we ... Chromosomes reconfigure as cell division ends. February 5, 2016, Brown University Chromosomes 4 (red) and 18 (green) are ... Cellular senescence-when a cell can no longer divide-is a programmed stage in a cells life cycle. Sometimes, as in aging, we ... In many different types of cancers, there are cells in which a part of a chromosome looks like it has been pulverized, ... ...
A new Brown University study shows that a cells chromosomes become physically reconfigured at senescence, leading to ... Cells reach a state called senescence when they stop dividing in response to DNA damage. This change can matter greatly to ... than in a nonsenescent cell (left). Image: Nicola Neretti/Brown University Chromosomes reconfigure as cell division ends. ... Chromosome change Chromosomes 4 (red) and 18 (green) are noticeably smaller in the nucleus of a senescent cell (right) ...
... explores cell division. It comes with a self-assessment enabling you to test your knowledge after reading it ... the second in a four-part series on genes and chromosomes, ... Genes and chromosomes 2: cell division and genetic diversity. ... Most nucleated human cells have 46 chromosomes visible during cell division - this is called the diploid number (see part 1). ... These new cells are created by mitosis, a process of cell division whereby a diploid parent cell gives rise to two identical ...
Explain how information is transferred through DNA on chromosomes when cells divide. and find homework help for other ... Explain how information is transferred through DNA on chromosomes when cells divide.. ... When the cell continues through mitosis the chromatids separate and each goes to an opposite side of the cell. When all the ... DNA has made a copy of itself during the S phase of the cell cycle as explained by the previous answer. During prophase the DNA ...
A key question of biomedical research is how chromosomes, which are duplicated during cell division so that each daughter cell ... the stage of cell division during which the cells DNA is duplicated to provide each daughter cell with its own copy. By ... Chromosome "anchors" organize DNA during cell division. Salk discovery of new role for telomeres in cellular growth may shed ... Chromosome anchors organize DNA during cell division. Salk discovery of new role for telomeres in cellular growth may shed ...
... *. ... eg.(cancer,cancers)(cervical,cervix)!("Squamous cell carcinoma",SCC). will return records where either the words cancer or ... Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Other Escherichia coli K-12 Source Type: research ... Despite increasing examples of DNA ADP-ribosylation, the impact of this modification on DNA metabolism and cell physiology is ...
... the physical separation of the two identical daughter cells. ... The process of cell division begins with cell growth and ... The process of cell division begins with cell growth and nuclear doubling and ends with cytokinesis, the physical separation of ...
Building a plant cell wall. In their Cell Science at a Glance article and accompanying poster, Staffan Persson and colleagues ... Paternal chromosome segregation during the first mitotic division determines Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility ... Paternal chromosome segregation during the first mitotic division determines Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility ... Paternal chromosome segregation during the first mitotic division determines Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility ...
Cell Division and Chromosomes/The Transmission Genetics of Eukaryotes/Gene Transfer in Bacteria and Bacteriophages Unit 3-5, ... Genetics: Mutation, Cell Division and Chromosomes/The Transmission Genetics of Eukaryotes/Gene Transfer in Bacteria and ...
During cell division, chromosomes are faithfully duplicated and segregated, so that one copy of each chromosome can be ... In yeast, septins form a ring at the division site throughout most the cell cycle. However, the septin ring dynamics changes ... The spindle position checkpoint: how to deal with spindle misalignment during asymmetric cell division in budding yeast. ... Growing evidence indicates that polyploid cells are genetically unstable and frequently undergo chromosome missegregation and ...
anti-Biorientation of Chromosomes in Cell Division 1 (BOD1) (AA 50-100) antibody (Alexa Fluor 555) ABIN885361 from antibodies- ... anti-Biorientation of Chromosomes in Cell Division 1 (BOD1) (AA 50-100) antibody (Alexa Fluor 555) from antibodies-online. ... Itemanti-Biorientation of Chromosomes in Cell Division 1 (BOD1) (AA 50-100) antibody (Alexa Fluor 555) ...
biorientation of chromosomes in cell division 1. Synonyms: 2310022M17Rik. Gene nomenclature, locus information, and GO, OMIM, ... Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International ...
Each chromosome pair consists of two homologs-chromosomes that resemble each other in both appearance and genetic ... Every gene has a specific location on a particular chromosome. Most organisms have two sets of paired chromosomes (the diploid ... Chromosomes are aggregates of DNA and protein found in every living thing. ... Chromosomes and Cell Division. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. Chromosomes are aggregates of DNA and protein found in every ...
In Vivo Imaging of the Segregation of the 2 Chromosomes and the Cell Division Proteins of Rhodobacter sphaeroides Reveals an ... In vivo imaging of the segregation of the 2 chromosomes and the cell division proteins of Rhodobacter sphaeroides reveals an ... In Vivo Imaging of the Segregation of the 2 Chromosomes and the Cell Division Proteins of Rhodobacter sphaeroides Reveals an ... In Vivo Imaging of the Segregation of the 2 Chromosomes and the Cell Division Proteins of Rhodobacter sphaeroides Reveals an ...
chromosomes. The condensed replicated chromosomes have several points of interest. The kinetochore is the point where ... Eukaryotic Cell Division from BIO BSC1010 at Broward College. ... Presley Chapter 9 CELL DIVISION REQUIREMENTS FOR CELL DIVISION ... Eukaryotic Cell Division Due to their increased numbers of chromosomes, organelles and complexity, eukaryote cell division is ... Lecture 3: Cell cycle. Cell division 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Cell reproduction Pro ...
TopperLearnings Experts and Students has answered all of Structure Of Chromosomes Cell Cycle And Cell Division Meiosis Of ICSE ... Structure Of Chromosomes Cell Cycle And Cell Division Meiosis of ICSE Class 10 Biology on TopperLearning. ... Cell Cycle and Cell Division. Name the following:(a) Pairing of homologous chromosomes(b) Cell with only one set of chromosomes ... ICSE - X - Biology - Structure of Chromosomes, Cell Cycle and Cell Division. why miosis called a reductional division Asked by ...
... a new key mechanism in cell division Scientists at the IFOM-IEO Campus have revealed the function of a protein that is ... This study, published in Cell, opens up new avenues of research to reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy in the treatment of ... indispensable for passing on an accurate copy of the genome from mother to daughter cells. ... IFOM-IEO Campus Press release Ndc80 Chromosome lassoing: ... Chromosome lassoing: a new key mechanism in cell division. ...
By using ultrafast laser pulses to slice off pieces of chromosomes and observe how the chromosomes behave, biomedical engineers ... have gained pivotal insights into mitosis, the process of cell division. ... Slicing Chromosomes Leads To New Insights Into Cell Division. Friday, May 29, 2009 - 18:14 in Biology & Nature ... Slicing chromosomes leads to new insights into cell division. from Biology News Net. Sat, 30 May 2009, 6:42:17 UTC ...
  • Efficacy of chimeric fusogenic proteins was evaluated by the evidence that the HAC, tagged with a drug-resistant gene and an EGFP gene, was transferred from CHO donor cells into human fibroblasts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Retargeted MV-MMCT using chimeric H protein with scFvs succeeded in extending the cell spectrum for gene transfer via HAC vectors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, MMCT is also used in gene transfer using a human artificial chromosome (HAC), mini-chromosome vector. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Application of Measles Virus (MV) fusogenic proteins to MMCT instead of polyethylene glycol (PEG) has partly solved this drawback, whereas the tropism of MV fusogenic proteins is restricted to human CD46- or SLAM-positive cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes at the ends of chromosomes and consist of tandem arrays of short repetitive sequences (TTAGGG in humans) and a set of specialized proteins ( 1-3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Human artificial chromosome (HAC) vectors have some unique characteristics as compared with conventional vectors, carrying large transgenes without size limitation, showing persistent expression of transgenes, and existing independently from host genome in cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It was demonstrated that higher efficiency of microcell fusion was achieved in some human cells by means of microcells which expressed MV-derived fusion machinery, both the hemagglutinin (H) protein and fusion (F) protein, as compared to PEG-induced fusion. (biomedcentral.com)
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