Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, 1-3: The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Painting: A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, 16-18: The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y: The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.Ring Chromosomes: Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.Chromosomes, Human, 4-5: The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Chromosome Structures: Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.Chromosomes, Human, 19-20: The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Chromosomes, Artificial, Human: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Chromosome Fragility: Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Chromosome Duplication: An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Abnormalities, MultiplePolytene Chromosomes: Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Cytogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.Karyotype: The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Chromosome Fragile Sites: Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Sex Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).Monosomy: The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Genes, X-Linked: Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Philadelphia Chromosome: An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Azure Stains: PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chromosomes, Archaeal: Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Chromosome Breakpoints: The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sex Chromatin: In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Chromosomes, Artificial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, elements such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, that are required for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance in progeny cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Sister Chromatid Exchange: An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Pachytene Stage: The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Genes, Y-Linked: Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.Euchromatin: Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Meiotic Prophase I: The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Radiation Hybrid Mapping: A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Genetic Heterogeneity: The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Sex Chromosome Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions of atypical sexual development associated with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions including MONOSOMY; TRISOMY; and MOSAICISM.

Superimposed histologic and genetic mapping of chromosome 9 in progression of human urinary bladder neoplasia: implications for a genetic model of multistep urothelial carcinogenesis and early detection of urinary bladder cancer. (1/1355)

The evolution of alterations on chromosome 9, including the putative tumor suppressor genes mapped to the 9p21-22 region (the MTS genes), was studied in relation to the progression of human urinary bladder neoplasia by using whole organ superimposed histologic and genetic mapping in cystectomy specimens and was verified in urinary bladder tumors of various pathogenetic subsets with longterm follow-up. The applicability of chromosome 9 allelic losses as non-invasive markers of urothelial neoplasia was tested on voided urine and/or bladder washings of patients with urinary bladder cancer. Although sequential multiple hits in the MTS locus were documented in the development of intraurothelial precursor lesions, the MTS genes do not seem to represent a major target for p21-23 deletions in bladder cancer. Two additional tumor suppressor genes involved in bladder neoplasia located distally and proximally to the MTS locus within p22-23 and p11-13 regions respectively were identified. Several distinct putative tumor suppressor gene loci within the q12-13, q21-22, and q34 regions were identified on the q arm. In particular, the pericentromeric q12-13 area may contain the critical tumor suppressor gene or genes for the development of early urothelial neoplasia. Allelic losses of chromosome 9 were associated with expansion of the abnormal urothelial clone which frequently involved large areas of urinary bladder mucosa. These losses could be found in a high proportion of urothelial tumors and in voided urine or bladder washing samples of nearly all patients with urinary bladder carcinoma.  (+info)

TIF1gamma, a novel member of the transcriptional intermediary factor 1 family. (2/1355)

We report the cloning and characterization of a novel member of the Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 1 (TIF1) gene family, human TIF1gamma. Similar to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, the structure of TIF1beta is characterized by multiple domains: RING finger, B boxes, Coiled coil, PHD/TTC, and bromodomain. Although structurally related to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, TIF1gamma presents several functional differences. In contrast to TIF1alpha, but like TIF1beta, TIF1 does not interact with nuclear receptors in yeast two-hybrid or GST pull-down assays and does not interfere with retinoic acid response in transfected mammalian cells. Whereas TIF1alpha and TIF1beta were previously found to interact with the KRAB silencing domain of KOX1 and with the HP1alpha, MODI (HP1beta) and MOD2 (HP1gamma) heterochromatinic proteins, suggesting that they may participate in a complex involved in heterochromatin-induced gene repression, TIF1gamma does not interact with either the KRAB domain of KOX1 or the HP1 proteins. Nevertheless, TIF1gamma, like TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, exhibits a strong silencing activity when tethered to a promoter. Since deletion of a novel motif unique to the three TIF1 proteins, called TIF1 signature sequence (TSS), abrogates transcriptional repression by TIF1gamma, this motif likely participates in TIF1 dependent repression.  (+info)

Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and autoimmune thyroiditis in a boy with a ring chromosome 18: additional evidence of autoimmunity or IDDM gene(s) on chromosome 18. (3/1355)

A 4 year 3 month old boy with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), autoimmune thyroiditis, slight mental retardation, facial dysmorphism, and a de novo ring chromosome 18 (deletion 18q22.3-18qter) is described. This unique association of defects could represent a chance association. Alternatively, the clinical features could be the result of the chromosomal aberration. If so, one could speculate that a gene or genes on chromosome 18 might act as a suppressor or activator of the autoimmune process by itself or in concert with other IDDM loci.  (+info)

Spectral karyotype analysis of T-cell acute leukemia. (4/1355)

Analysis of 15 cases of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with spectral karyotyping (SKY), which can identify all chromosomes simultaneously, clarified the chromosome rearrangements in 3 cases and confirmed them in 11 others; no abnormal cells were identified in 1 case, which had only 10% abnormal cells. Five of the latter cases had a normal karyotype. Thus, the use of SKY substantially improves the precision of karyotype analysis of malignant cells, which in turn leads to a more accurate assessment of the genotypic abnormalities in those cells.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of a secreted frizzled-related protein that is expressed by the retinal pigment epithelium. (5/1355)

The Wnt/frizzled cell signaling pathway has been implicated in the determination of polarity in a number of systems, including the Drosophila retina. The vertebrate retina develops from an undifferentiated neuroepithelium into an organized and laminated structure that demonstrates a high degree of polarity at both the tissue and cellular levels. In the process of searching for molecules that are preferentially expressed by the vertebrate retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), we identified secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5), a member of the SFRP family that appears to act by modulating Wnt signal transduction. SFRP5 is highly expressed by RPE cells, and is also expressed in the pancreas. Within the retina, the related molecule SFRP2 is expressed specifically by cells of the inner nuclear layer. Thus, photoreceptors are likely to be bathed by two opposing gradients of SFRP molecules. Consistent with SFRP5 's postulated role in modulating Wnt signaling in the retina, it inhibits the ability of Xwnt-8 mRNA to induce axis duplication in Xenopus embryos. The human SFRP5 gene consists of three coding exons and it maps to chromosome 10q24.1; human SFRP2 maps to 4q31.3. Based on the biology and complementary expression patterns of SFRP2 and SFRP5, we suggest that they may be involved in determining the polarity of photoreceptor, and perhaps other, cells in the retina.  (+info)

Generation and characterization of human smooth muscle cell lines derived from atherosclerotic plaque. (6/1355)

The study of atherogenesis in humans has been restricted by the limited availability and brief in vitro life span of plaque smooth muscle cells (SMCs). We describe plaque SMC lines with extended life spans generated by the expression of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 E6 and E7 genes, which has been shown to extend the life span of normal adult human aortic SMCs. Resulting cell lines (pdSMC1A and 2) demonstrated at least 10-fold increases in life span; pdSMC1A became immortal. The SMC identity of both pdSMC lines was confirmed by SM22 mRNA expression. pdSMC2 were generally diploid but with various structural and numerical alterations; pdSMC1A demonstrated several chromosomal abnormalities, most commonly -Y, +7, -13, anomalies previously reported in both primary pdSMCs and atherosclerotic tissue. Confluent pdSMC2 appeared grossly similar to HPV-16 E6/E7-expressing normal adult aortic SMCs (AASMCs), exhibiting typical SMC morphology/growth patterns; pdSMC1A displayed irregular cell shape/organization with numerous mitotic figures. Dedifferentiation to a synthetic/proliferative phenotype has been hypothesized as a critical step in atherogenesis, because rat neonatal SMCs and adult intimal SMCs exhibit similar gene expression patterns. To confirm that our pdSMC lines likewise express this apparent plaque phenotype, osteopontin, platelet-derived growth factor B, and elastin mRNA levels were determined in pdSMC1A, pdSMC2, and AASMCs. However, no significant increases in osteopontin or platelet-derived growth factor B expression levels were observed in either pdSMC compared with AASMCs. pdSMC2 alone expressed high levels of elastin mRNA. Lower levels of SM22 mRNA in pdSMC1A suggested greater dedifferentiation and/or additional population doublings in pdSMC1A relative to pdSMC2. Both pdSMC lines (particularly 1A) demonstrated high message levels for matrix Gla protein, previously reported to be highly expressed by human neointimal SMCs in vitro. These results describe 2 novel plaque cell lines exhibiting various features of plaque SMC biology; pdSMC2 may represent an earlier plaque SMC phenotype, whereas pdSMC1A may be representative of cells comprising an advanced atherosclerotic lesion.  (+info)

Localization of single- and low-copy sequences on tomato synaptonemal complex spreads using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). (7/1355)

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful means by which single- and low-copy DNA sequences can be localized on chromosomes. Compared to the mitotic metaphase chromosomes that are normally used in FISH, synaptonemal complex (SC) spreads (hypotonically spread pachytene chromosomes) have several advantages. SC spreads (1) are comparatively free of debris that can interfere with probe penetration, (2) have relatively decondensed chromatin that is highly accessible to probes, and (3) are about ten times longer than their metaphase counterparts, which permits FISH mapping at higher resolution. To investigate the use of plant SC spreads as substrates for single-copy FISH, we probed spreads of tomato SCs with two single-copy sequences and one low-copy sequence (ca. 14 kb each) that are associated with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers on SC 11. Individual SCs were identified on the basis of relative length, arm ratio, and differential staining patterns after combined propidium iodide (PI) and 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. In this first report of single-copy FISH to SC spreads, the probe sequences were unambiguously mapped on the long arm of tomato SC 11. Coupled with data from earlier studies, we determined the distance in micrometers, the number of base pairs, and the rates of crossing over between these three FISH markers. We also observed that the order of two of the FISH markers is reversed in relation to their order on the molecular linkage map. SC-FISH mapping permits superimposition of markers from molecular linkage maps directly on pachytene chromosomes and thereby contributes to our understanding of the relationship between chromosome structure, gene activity, and recombination.  (+info)

Isolation and mapping of a putative b subunit of human ATP synthase (ATP-BL) from human leukocytes. (8/1355)

From a human-leukocyte cDNA library, we cloned cDNA encoding a novel protein, which has a significant homology with the b subunit of ATP synthase (proton-transporting ATPase, F1F0-ATPase; EC3.6.1.34) derived from Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. The cDNA has an open reading frame of 1314 nucleotides corresponding to 438 amino acids. The coding sequence was 37.9% identical over 57 amino acid with b subunit of ATP synthase. The 34-amino-acid region of the predicted peptide sequence displays a coiled-coil motif that could form a complex with some other protein(s). We designated this novel gene as ATP-BL because of its homology to the b subunit of ATP synthase. The ATP-BL locus was mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and radiation hybrid mapping to the q24 region of chromosome 16.  (+info)

Humans typically have 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes in their cells, and a pair of sex chromosomes. About 2.7 million individuals have an extra, 47th autosomal chromosome called a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC). These small supernumerary marker chromosomes can originate from any of the 24 different human chromosomes. About 70% of the cases with sSMC are de novo (new mutations), 30% are inherited within a family. About 30% of the carriers of a sSMC are clinically abnormal. The main problem in connection with a sSMC appears when the diagnosis of the presence of a sSMC is made prenatally. Until recently there was no possibility to make clear predictions about the outcome of the pregnancy. However, research is being carried out into the link between the presence of a sSMC in individuals and any consequent symptoms. Liehr et al. Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) in humans. Cytogenet Genome Research, 2004; 107: 55-67 Liehr et al. Small supernumerary marker ...
Differential distribution of R- and G-band DNA with respect to SC-35 domains in interphase nuclei. (A and B) Probe of R-band 17q21 DNA (red in A, white in B) hy
Looking for online definition of R-banding in the Medical Dictionary? R-banding explanation free. What is R-banding? Meaning of R-banding medical term. What does R-banding mean?
Ring chromosome 6 is an exceptionally rare cytogenetic rearrangement that usually arises de novo and is associated with extreme inter-individual variability in clinical phenotypes. A number of reports have described the clinical features in r(6) patients. However, to our knowledge this is the first case of r(6) involving both a distal 6p deletion and a distal 6q duplication.. At least two case reports have described a r(6) involving a comparable deletion at 6p25.3 [4, 5]. Both patients had psychomotor delay, cerebral ventriculomegaly, a prominent forehead and malformed ears. Furthermore, Zhang et al report a deletion of identical size to the present case (1.78Mb at 6p25.3) and additional clinical features that include, microcephaly, hydrocephalus, epilepsy and hearing loss [5].. Submicroscopic deletions involving the 6p25 subtelomeric region is a distinct clinical syndrome. The clinical phenotypes described include developmental delay, intellectual disability, language impairment, hearing loss, ...
G-banding is one of the chromosome staining techniques that result in banding patterns on chromosomes. It uses the chemical dye, Giemsa, to create distinct chromosome-specific patterns called G-bands. It allows the identification of each chromosome, as well as its different regions, relative to its banding pattern[1]. The method for G-banding begins with subjecting the chromosome to a treatment involving trypsin (a proteolytic enzyme), and then staining it with Giemsa. This produces dark-stained bands at the regions with lower G-C content[2]. ...
A protocol is described for the preparation of high-quality mitotic plant chromosome spreads by a fast air-dry dropping method suitable ...
Preparation Methods of Human Metaphase Chromosomes for their Proteome Analysis.: Chromosomes are supermolecules that contain most of the DNA within a cell and a
Metaphase chromosome preparations were made from leukocyte cultures of normal individuals. The cells were fixed in methanol:acetic acid (3:1 v/v), then dropped on cold, wet slides which were air-dried before storage at 4 degrees C. The slides were st
Read "Production of wheat-rye substitution lines and identification of chromosome composition of karyotypes using C-banding, GISH, and SSR markers, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Liehr T, Mrasek K, Hinreiner S, Reich D, Ewers E, Bartels I, Seidel J, Emmanuil N, Petesen M, Polityko A, Dufke A, Iourov I, Trifonov V, Vermeesch J, Weise A. Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) in patients with a 45,X/46,X,+mar karyotype - 17 new cases and a review of the literature. Sex Dev 1: 353-362, 2007. ...
Forms of leukemia can be found on six different chromosomes. Acute leukemias can be found on chromosomes 1, 2, and 13, T-Cell developmental leukemia is found on chromosomes 3 and X, and the cause of myelogenous leukemia is in a protein coded for in chromosome 11 at 11p11.9. Chromosome 11 contains 134 million bases. Chromosome 11 has been identified with 151 diseases. Only chromosomes 1, 2, and X contain more currently identified diseases. Chromosome 11 has the most cancerous conditions of all of the chromosomes associated with it ...
Do you look a bit like your brothers and sisters? Do you look a bit like your parents? The similarities are because, unless you were adopted, you and the other members of your family have genetic material in common.. Some characteristics, or traits, result from interactions with the environment, others are determined from the genetic material in your chromosomes. Chromosomes are the keepers of the genetic material in eukaryotic cells. An organism has the same chromosomes for its entire life. The chromosomes are located within each cell nucleus. They provide the directions for how the cell is supposed to function and determine some characteristics about how the individual looks. Each chromosome contains a very complex molecule called DNA. The DNA molecule contains genes, which direct how an organisms body is built and maintained.. Heredity is the passage of DNA from the chromosomes of one generation to the chromosomes of the next. Chromosomes in your body are in pairs. One chromosome of each ...
The Chromosome Theory of Heredity Traits are determined by pairs of genes (alleles) A pair of genes are located on a pair of chromosomes, one gene for each trait on each chromosome of a pair. In meiosis, the chromosomes and therefore the genes, segregate independently - one of each pair to a gamete In fertilization, gametes unite resulting in a fertilized egg that has two genes for each trait carried on pairs of chromosomes.
Description of disease Banding of chromosomes. Treatment Banding of chromosomes. Symptoms and causes Banding of chromosomes Prophylaxis Banding of chromosomes
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56) among groups for which eastern people have next. Both G- and C-banding ends for the common Click thank social for operation with the Florida ecology. Although C-banding boundaries have deployed to the scholars of both temperatures( Assis et al. 2002), imports between G-banding faults say more new.
Chromosome 18Q- or Distal 18q affects the long arm of the chromosome and means there is a deletion of information on the long arm of the 18th Chromosome.
I recently suffered a miscarriage. Genetic studies were done indicating that an extra chromosome was present on the #22 chromosome. What does this chromosome determine ...
As weve seen in previous posts, cancer is caused by some sort of error in the DNA of the cancer. Human DNA comes in 46 long strings called chromosomes and it sometimes breaks, but luckily the break is usually repaired. However, sometimes the repair process gets it wrong - for example two DNA ends are joined together that arent meant…
Define chromosome: any of the rod-shaped or threadlike DNA-containing structures of cellular organisms that are located in… - chromosome in a sentence
Our research aims to unravel the biological significance that the different levels of DNA compaction structures and components have on chromosome condensation and DNA processes in the nucleus. We believe that this research will contribute to the understanding of different important themes like cell division, cancer, stem cells, chromosome alterations, fertility and, plant and animal, breeding.
Lone chromosomes stranded outside the nucleus where their fellow chromosomes reside are thought to be the Robinson Crusoes of the intracellular world.
This journal offers high quality papers on all aspects of chromosome and nuclear biology. Coverage emphasizes accounts of experimental studies of chromosome ...
I created a sam file by aligning reads, using bwa. I want to create a new sam file that contains all reads except ones that are on a particular chromosome or have an alternative alignment on that chromosome.. How can I do it?. ...
curWarn ,- getOption("warn") options(warn=0) on.exit(options(warn=curWarn), add=TRUE) if (require("hgu95av2")) { z ,- buildChromLocation("hgu95av2") ## find the number of chromosomes nChrom(z) ## Find the names of the chromosomes chromNames(z) ## get the organism this object refers to organism(z) ## get the lengths of the chromosomes in this object chromLengths(z) } else print("This example requires the hgu95av2 data package ...
iframe src="https://biblio.ugent.be/publication?q=parent+exact+%22CHROMOSOME+RESEARCH%22&embed=1&hide_pagination=1&hide_info=1&hide_options=1&hide_cluster=1" ...
Yes, one gene does contain thousands of nucleotides or base pairs. But what I am really confused is that Does one whole molecule of DNA (which is supposed to contain thousands of nucleotides) equal to one whole piece of chromosome (which we have 46 in a cell ...
Learn about some of the changes in the structure or number of copies of chromosome 16, plus how these can cause problems with health and development.
The National Institutes of Health explains that having more or fewer chromosomes than the typical number - 46 - can cause birth defects or miscarriage. It can also be a factor in conditions that...
chromosome research - Read articles from Issue 2003(11). Read article PDFs using your inistitutions subscriptions with no additional login.
Get an answer for What effect might having too many or too few chromosomes have on an organism? and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Genes are carried on chromosomes and the two that are important in PKD are chromosomes 16 and 4. I am not going to deal with the specifics of inheritance - this is best explained on the PKD Foundation web page. The relevant facts are that: 85% people…
USC scientists have discovered how two different structural apparatuses collaborate to protect repetitive DNA when it is at its most vulnerable - while it is being unzipped for replication.
This is not my deconversion story. Im sure I will share that, in pieces and over time, as would be fitting. But this is not it. Instead, this is a simple address to the advice my kind, compassionate and insightful father posed to me on the night I came out as an atheist. Perhaps you could cool it…
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You are examining three different genes, a, b, and c. They all reside on the same chromosome and you want to know the order of the genes along the chromosome. You determine that genes a and b are 10 cM apart, b and c are 2 cM apart and that a and c are 8 cM apart. What is the order of these genes ...
Effect of Qter® treatment on ATP, protein content and cell growth in H9c2 cells.H9c2 cells were treated up to 72 hours with 100 nM Qter® and the ATP content w
Looking for online definition of pericentric inversion in the Medical Dictionary? pericentric inversion explanation free. What is pericentric inversion? Meaning of pericentric inversion medical term. What does pericentric inversion mean?
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients with a normal karyotype constitute a heterogeneous group from a biological standpoint and their outcome is often unpredictable. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (I-FISH) studies could increase the rate of detection of abnormalities, but previous reports in the literature have been contradictory. We performed I-FISH and conventional karyotyping (G-banding) on 50 MDS patients at diagnosis, after 6 and 12 months or at any time if a transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was detected. Applying a probe-panel targeting the centromere of chromosomes 7 and 8, 5q31, 5p15.2 and 7q31, we observed one case with 5q deletion not identified by G-banding. I-FISH at 6 and 12 months confirmed the karyotype results. Eight cases transformed to AML during follow-up, but no hidden clone was detected by I-FISH in any of them. The inclusion of I-FISH during follow-up of MDS resulted in a small improvement in abnormality detection when compared with ...
Parental balanced reciprocal translocations can result in partial aneuploidies in the offspring due to unbalanced meiotic segregation during gametogenesis. Herein, we report the phenotypic and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a 2 years and 4 months old female child with partial trisomy 7q22 → qter. This is the first such reported case resulting from a parental balanced translocation involving the long arms of chromosomes 7 and 14. The phenotype of the proband was compared with that of previously reported cases of trisomy 7q21 → qter or 7q22 → qter resulting from parental balanced translocations. The proband was born pre-term to a 34-year-old mother with a history of two first trimester miscarriages and an early infant death. She was referred at the age of 8 months for genetic evaluation due to prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, developmental delay and multiple congenital anomalies. On clinical evaluation, she had craniofacial dysmorphic features such as scaphocephaly, large
Chromosome 9 inversion is when there are two breaks on chromosome 9. The segment between the breakpoints flips around and reinserts back into the same place on chromosome 9. If both breaks occur in the same arm of the chromosome, this is called a paracentric inversion. If one break occurs in the short arm and the other in the long arm of the chromosome, then this is called a pericentric inversion. Chromosome 9 inversions commonly occur as a pericentric inversion ...
This software draws an image for one chromosomal rearrangement.. Enter the description of ONE rearrangement (in numbers: 1; it is exactly 1, not 2, not 3!) giving raise to one or more derivative chromosome(s) in the text field below, select the desired map viewer with which chromosomal bands are to be linked, banding resolution and color style, then click "Draw". The CyDAS software will then compute an image map containing the ideogram(s) of the derivative chromosome, with links to the NCBI or Ensembl map viewer.. It is absolutely indispensible that break points are specified; denoting them at a lower resolution than the resolution for the image may yield inconsistencies. Ring chromosomes are shown linearized.. Hint: a complete karyogram can be drawn with the example program #4.. ...
The chromosome band track represents the approximate location of bands seen on Giemsa-stained chromosomes. Chromosomes are displayed in the browser with the short arm first. Cytologically identified bands on the chromosome are numbered outward from the centromere on the short (p) and long (q) arms. At low resolution, bands are classified using the nomenclature [chromosome][arm][band], where band is a single digit. Examples of bands on chromosome 3 include 3p2, 3p1, cen, 3q1, and 3q2. At a finer resolution, some of the bands are subdivided into sub-bands, adding a second digit to the band number, e.g. 3p26. This resolution produces about 500 bands. A final subdivision into a total of 862 sub-bands is made by adding a period and another digit to the band, resulting in 3p26.3, 3p26.2, etc. ...
The chromosome band track represents the approximate location of bands seen on Giemsa-stained chromosomes. Chromosomes are displayed in the browser with the short arm first. Cytologically identified bands on the chromosome are numbered outward from the centromere on the short (p) and long (q) arms. At low resolution, bands are classified using the nomenclature [chromosome][arm][band], where band is a single digit. Examples of bands on chromosome 3 include 3p2, 3p1, cen, 3q1, and 3q2. At a finer resolution, some of the bands are subdivided into sub-bands, adding a second digit to the band number, e.g. 3p26. This resolution produces about 500 bands. A final subdivision into a total of 862 sub-bands is made by adding a period and another digit to the band, resulting in 3p26.3, 3p26.2, etc. ...
The chromosome band track represents the approximate location of bands seen on Giemsa-stained chromosomes. Chromosomes are displayed in the browser with the short arm first. Cytologically identified bands on the chromosome are numbered outward from the centromere on the short (p) and long (q) arms. At low resolution, bands are classified using the nomenclature [chromosome][arm][band], where band is a single digit. Examples of bands on chromosome 3 include 3p2, 3p1, cen, 3q1, and 3q2. At a finer resolution, some of the bands are subdivided into sub-bands, adding a second digit to the band number, e.g. 3p26. This resolution produces about 500 bands. A final subdivision into a total of 862 sub-bands is made by adding a period and another digit to the band, resulting in 3p26.3, 3p26.2, etc. ...
The chromosome band track represents the approximate location of bands seen on Giemsa-stained chromosomes. Chromosomes are displayed in the browser with the short arm first. Cytologically identified bands on the chromosome are numbered outward from the centromere on the short (p) and long (q) arms. At low resolution, bands are classified using the nomenclature [chromosome][arm][band], where band is a single digit. Examples of bands on chromosome 3 include 3p2, 3p1, cen, 3q1, and 3q2. At a finer resolution, some of the bands are subdivided into sub-bands, adding a second digit to the band number, e.g. 3p26. This resolution produces about 500 bands. A final subdivision into a total of 862 sub-bands is made by adding a period and another digit to the band, resulting in 3p26.3, 3p26.2, etc. ...
The chromosome band track represents the approximate location of bands seen on Giemsa-stained chromosomes. Chromosomes are displayed in the browser with the short arm first. Cytologically identified bands on the chromosome are numbered outward from the centromere on the short (p) and long (q) arms. At low resolution, bands are classified using the nomenclature [chromosome][arm][band], where band is a single digit. Examples of bands on chromosome 3 include 3p2, 3p1, cen, 3q1, and 3q2. At a finer resolution, some of the bands are subdivided into sub-bands, adding a second digit to the band number, e.g. 3p26. This resolution produces about 500 bands. A final subdivision into a total of 862 sub-bands is made by adding a period and another digit to the band, resulting in 3p26.3, 3p26.2, etc. ...
aCGH does not give information on the location in the genome of, for instance, duplicated regions, or on the structure of chromosomes. However, patterns of imbalance can be used to deduce this information in some cases; for instance, terminal deletion of one chromosome with duplication of terminal material of another chromosome is indicative of a derivative chromosome, and G-banded chromosome analysis and/or FISH for the parents is recommended in these cases. "Inv dup dels" can also be deduced (e.g. 5p15.33p14.1(148,243-27,385,955)x1,5p14.1p13.3(27,463,381-31,329,932)x3), as can ring chromosomes (e.g. 18p11.32p11.21(170,229-14,918,854)x1~2,18q22.1q23(61,430,694-76,083,117)x1~2), supernumerary ring chromosomes (8p12q11.1(35,817,703-47,655,281)x2~3) and inversion recombinants (e.g. 5p15.33p15.2(148,243-13,743,977)x1,5q35.2q35.3(172,591,725-180,617,107)x3). When aCGH is used as the first line test, cultured material from patients may not be available for immediate confirmation of any suspected ...
The reason why the majority of organisms have an even number of chromosomes is because chromosomes are in pairs. A human, for instance, will have half its chromosomes from the father, and half from its mother. There are exceptions to the rule. For instance, an individual with Down Syndrome will have 47 chromosomes instead of 46, because they have trisomy 21 (three copies of the 21st chromosome, instead of just two). Another exception would be polyploidy , which occurs when organisms have more pairs of chromosomes than a diploid cell does. Below is a picture to help visualize polyploidy. An example of a haploid cell would be a gamete (a sperm cell, for instance), and a diploid cell would be a skin cell of a person with 46 chromosomes.
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Morphology of chromosome lesions and variations of marker chromosomes in the cell population of Ehrlich ascitic tumor after irradiation]. by P F Giriodi
XMP are chromosome-specific and comprise mouse whole chromosome painting probes which are directly labeled with an emitting fluorochrome.
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes are the two major domains of living organisms. This classification is on the basis of the features of their cellular features primarily the nature of membrane bounded organelles and organization of the genetic materials. Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes contain the genetic materials which are organized into specialized structures called Chromosomes. Even though the term chromosome is accurate only for eukaryotes, the genetic materials of prokaryotes are also described as prokaryotic chromosome. The prokaryotic chromosome is considerably different from that of eukaryotes. The present post describes the Similarities and Differences between the Prokaryotic Chromosome and Eukaryotic Chromosome with the help of a Comparison Table.. ...
Top Selling 9 year old girl toys for children | Fun developmental learning toys | At ebeanstalk we provide the best selection of 9 year old girl toys
Top Selling 5 year old girl toys for children | Fun developmental learning toys | At ebeanstalk we provide the best selection of 5 year old girl toys
Cambio (UK) sell mouse paints which are labelled with Cy 3, biotin, or FITC. Alternativly you could make your own if you can get hold of some monochromosomal mouse hybrids and pcr the mouse chromosome ...
The Chromosome Painting feature is an in-depth way of looking at your Ancestry Composition results. It shows a colorful representation of...
Chromosomes are structures within cells that carry DNA, RNA, and proteins. Each chromosome is DNA tightly wound around proteins that support its structure. Chromosomes are not visible in the cell unless the cell is dividing and much of the knowledge concerning chromosomes is learned by observing cells during division. In humans, chromosomes are classified in two ways:
The movement of chromosomes may be regarded in two kinds of relationships according as it involves changes of shape and changes of position. The first are due to movements within the chromosomes, and may be used to infer their internal mechanics. The second are due to movements between chromosomes, and may be used to infer their external mechanic. Many experiments have been devoted to elucidating the principles of the external mechanics, and they have been successful in showing certain essential properties of the cell outside the nucleus, particularly of the spindle and the spindle-determining bodies or centrosomes. But, when applied to the chromosomes, artificial treatment has the drawback that in making one primary change it sets up a series of secondary changes whose importance cannot be accurately assessed; comparison is therefore vitiated. The cytoplasm and, in the resting nucleus, a semi-permeable nuclear membrane separates and protects the chromosomes from external stimuli. Thus ...
DNA.[1] It can be from a typical number of chromosomes or a structural abnormality in one or more chromosomes. Chromosome mutation was formerly used in a strict sense to mean a change in a chromosomal segment, involving more than one ...
Chromosome 1 is the largest of the 23 chromosomes, containing a greater number of nucleotides at its 85 loci than all other chromosomes. There are an estimated 4220 genes on chromosome 1, as discovered during the Human Genome Project around twenty years ago.
Lu Ma is the author of these articles in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Encapsulation Thermogenic Preadipocytes for Transplantation into Adipose Tissue Depots, A Fast Air-dry Dropping Chromosome Preparation Method Suitable for FISH in Plants
Hello All I have list of genes i want to know which all genes will make one chromosome segments So For example i have gene A , B , C , D i want for example A,B, C forming one stretch of chromosome segment (1p15.1p20) 1p15.1p.20 will make one segment. If i have ramdom gene name i want which genes will fall in one stretch of segments.. ...
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes.
Canine chromosomes contains more mathematical germinal cell possibilities than the human chromosome! Amazing! Genetics depend on genes that contain DNA, strung into a chromosome that...
Answer questions correctly. (1 A sexually producing organism has 12 chromosomes in each somatic cell, how many chromosomes would you find in the organisms gametes (sperm/egg)? (2) The # of chromosomes in the human white blood.
Humans normally have 46 chromosomes in each cell, divided into 23 pairs. Two copies of chromosome 6, one copy inherited from each parent, form one of the pairs. Chromosome 6 spans about 171 million base pairs (the building blocks of DNA) and represents between 5.5 percent and 6 percent of the total DNA in cells ...
Like a cars front and back bumpers, your cells chromosomes are capped by telomeres that protect this genetic material against deterioration. Still, after enough replications, a chromosomes telomeres break down and once ...
The chromosomes The chromosomes are threadlike bodies present in the cells nuclei, and they represent the genetic material of the living organisms , They are
Reference.com says that the function of chromosomes is to carry hereditary information. Chromosomes are located in the nucleus of a cell, and when a cell divides, so do the...
... by Ventana Medical Systems, Inc. is intended to determine ploidy status of chromosome 17 via chromogenic SISH in breast cancer specimens.
Not a missing pair, but haploid expression of the 19th chromosome messes up dosages and ends with embryo death. It is possible to have a monosome of a chromosome, but not in this case ...
Be Unique. Shop chromosome onesies created by independent artists from around the globe. We print the highest quality chromosome onesies on the internet.
A chromosome is a structure of DNA that carries the genetic makeup in the nucleus of the cell. Chromosomes contain giant chain molecules of DNA, coiled and folded as aggregates with specific proteins. Chromosomes ensure that during cell division the hereditary information is evenly distributed to the daughter cells. Normal human body cells have 46 chromosomes. Cancer cells can have a different number and/or structure of chromosomes.. ...
Base-Sequence, Chromosome-Mapping, Chromosomes, Comparative-Study, Crosses-Genetic, Cytogenetics, Human, Mice: ge, Mice-Inbred-Strains: ge, Molecular-Sequence-Data, Recombination-Genetic, SUPPORT-NON-U-S-GOVT, SUPPORT-U-S-GOVT-P-H-S. ...
talk , contribs) (New page: This is a new project for which we have one position open for someone interested in constructing totally programmable human chromosomes.) ...
Study Flashcards On DNA and Chromosomes at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
A Johns Hopkins team has stopped in its tracks a form of blood cancer in mice by engineering and inactivating an enzyme, telomerase, thereby shortening the ends of chromosomes, called telomeres.
flat shading style icon chromosome. Download a Free Preview or High Quality Adobe Illustrator Ai, EPS, PDF and High Resolution JPEG versions. ID #16331420.
Chromosome 18 Ring information including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, causes, patient stories, videos, forums, prevention, and prognosis.
Looking for the definition of chromosomes? We break down all the fertility terms you need to know. Minus the crazy medical jargon, of course.
Sex is determined by the presence or absence of certain chromosomes, and it differs between humans (mammals) and other members of the animal kingdom.
By studying processes that occur at the ends of chromosomes, a team of Heidelberg researchers has unravelled an important mechanism towards a better understanding of cellular aging. The scientists focused on the length of ...
Chromosome: X (1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 X Y) *pink background: your gene is a core gene. , green backgroup: your gene is not a core gene. , yellow background: core genes in the chromosomoe. ...
Chromosome: X (1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 X Y) *pink background: your gene is a core gene. , green backgroup: your gene is not a core gene. , yellow background: core genes in the chromosomoe. ...
Counting chromosomes is something that most animals, plants and even single-celled organisms need to know how to do to assure viability and to reproduce.
Meeting the Egg 23 chromosomes in an egg cell 23 chromosomes in a sperm cel 46 chromosomes in a human Meeting the Egg The Journey to the Womb When an egg
Vitturi, R. and F. Lafargue, 1992. Karyotype analyses reveal inter-individual polymorphism and association of nucleolus-organizer-carrying chromosomes in Capros aper (Pisces: Zeiformes). Mar. Biol. 112:37-41 ...
Ryan is 3 1/2 months old and at 2 1/2 months she was diagnosed with an interstitial deletion of her 11th chromosome. This is extremely rare and her deletion is pretty large. This is a little history of her from pregnancy through her diagnosis. 24 weeks pregnant: I went in for level 2 ultrasound to…
Contributions to https://ehumanbiofield.wikispaces.com/ are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 3.0 License. ...
The Rock Krawler Wrangler X Factor Long Arm Suspension System design dominates the professional world of rock crawling while still maintaining perfect drivabili
The Rock Krawler Wrangler X Factor Long Arm Suspension System design dominates the professional world of rock crawling while still maintaining perfect drivabili
Original text and figures were provided by N. Kurata). Chromosome number of cultivated rice was reported as 2n=24 by Kuwada in 1910. Until 1930 this number was confirmed by the observation of rice chromosomes at meiosis. However, due to the extreme smallness, the morphology and structure of rice chromosomes remained unclear and no karyotype analysis was reported until the1970s. Only some attempts of morphological identification based on the figures at pachytene stage in meiosis were reported in this period.. In 1978, Kurata and Omura (1978) invented a new method of chromosome preparation technique, with which karyotype analysis on rice chromosomes was first conducted and identification of all twelve chromosomes became realized. Furthermore, all extra chromosomes of 12 trisomics series of rice (2n=24+1) were identified with this method by Kurata et al. (1981) and Iwata et al. (1984) so that the relationship between the linkage group based on the genes and the chromosomes on which the genes were ...
In addition to that quick fix, i decided to test the accuracy of SupportMixs chromosome paintings by juxtaposing them over the MDLP-World22 chromosome graphs. Due to time limitations, i used only first 7 chromosomes of my own SNP data. At first, i ran the MDLP-World22 modification of DIYDodecad v2.1 in byseg mode on "windows" of 500 contiguous SNPs along a chromosome, slided by increments of 50. After that i cut out chromosome paintings of each chromosome from SupportMixs graphic output and aligned them to the scale of corresponding DIYDodecad chromosome graphs: ...
As you can see in the picture, lets see the normal chromosome first, I really dont know what is chromatid in that normal chromosome, does it have two chromatids? the upper one and the lower one? Then lets see the left, replicating chromosome. My teacher said the chromosome replicated and then became two chromosomeS, for an example, 46 chromomes in the nuclear, then they replicate, so now become 92? but in the picture, i think it is still one, you need to think it is as a whole though it consists of two? Are there four chromatids there? upper two and lower two? In the example i gave, so though they replicate, still 46? BTW, how the chromosome replicates? Is that like this )( , two put together, so ) is a chromosome, ( is another chromosome Or two cross to each other, like this X, so \ is a chromosome, / is another chromosome ...
Chromosomes are the primary objects studied in cytogenetics. Recent efforts have been devoted to automating the analysis of banded metaphase chromosomes. Feature extraction is the first step to identify a chromosome. Many useful features, such as the length and the number of bands of a chromosome, can be measured along with the chromosomes longitudinal symmetric axis. Therefore, finding this axis is a necessary precursor to making those measurements. In this paper, a new algorithm for finding a symmetric axis of a chromosome is discussed. The author introduced a concept of local symmetric property of an oblong object, and, then, applied this concept to a chromosome to find the symmetric axis after the boundary of the chromosome has been found. The results of the experiments show that the algorithm works well for both straight and bent chromosomes. Since the algorithms is based on the geometric properties of an object rather than its biological properties, it also can be used to find the ...
Chromosomes are cell structures made up of genetic material (DNA). They are a part of most types of cells in the body. Humans have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs). Half of a persons chromosomes come from the mother and half from the father. One of the 23 pairs determines a persons gender. The sex chromosomes are called X and Y. For a child to be female, she must inherit an X chromosome from each parent (XX). For a child to be male, he must inherit an X chromosome from his mother and a Y chromosome from his father (XY). The DNA of the chromosomes is divided up into genes. The genes determine the features a person inherits from his or her parents, such as blood type and other characteristics, including risks for developing certain diseases. Changes in chromosomes or genes may cause changes in certain body processes or functions. These changes may be undetectable or may cause genetic diseases, such as hemophilia or Down syndrome. Gene changes can be passed from parents to children or can occur through ...
Normal human foreskin fibroblasts treated in vitro with a chemical carcinogen or irradiated with ultraviolet light subsequently acquired anchorage independent growth and an extended but finite capacity for exponential growth. All cell lines were derived from cells recovered from colonies that had grown in semisolid medium; cell lines originally treated with a chemical carcinogen produced nodules after s.c. inoculation into nude mice. G-banding analysis of 10 cell lines (including one ultraviolet light line) revealed that seven were chromosomally abnormal with structural and numerical chromosome alterations, one was characterized by a consistent trisomy, and the other two were normal diploid. Structural alterations consisted of chromosome deletions, translocations, and partial chromosome duplications. Although no common structural or numerical abnormality was detected, several structural alterations were observed involving chromosomes 1, 7, 11, and 22, where fgr, erb-B, H-ras-1, and sis ...
Our genetic information is stored in 23 pairs of chromosomes that vary widely in size and shape. Chromosome 1 is the largest and is over three times bigger than chromosome 22. The 23rd pair of chromosomes are two special chromosomes, X and Y, that determine our sex. Females have a pair of X chromosomes (46, XX), whereas males have one X and one Y chromosomes (46, XY). Chromosomes are made of DNA, and genes are special units of chromosomal DNA. Each chromosome is a very long molecule, so it needs to be wrapped tightly around proteins for efficient packaging.
Ring chromosome 14 syndrome is caused by a chromosomal abnormality known as a ring chromosome 14, sometimes written as r(14). A ring chromosome is a circular structure that occurs when a chromosome breaks in two places and its broken ends fuse together. People with ring chromosome 14 syndrome have one copy of this abnormal chromosome in some or all of their cells.. Researchers believe that several critical genes near the end of the long (q) arm of chromosome 14 are lost when the ring chromosome forms. The loss of these genes is likely responsible for several of the major features of ring chromosome 14 syndrome, including intellectual disability and delayed development. Researchers are still working to determine which missing genes contribute to the signs and symptoms of this disorder.. Epilepsy is a common feature of ring chromosome syndromes, including ring chromosome 14. There may be something about the ring structure itself that causes epilepsy. Seizures may occur because certain genes on the ...
Fusarium head blight (FHB), leaf rust, and stem rust are the most destructive fungal diseases in current world wheat production. The diploid wheatgrass, Thinopyrum elongatum (Host) Dewey (2n = 2x = 14, EE) is an excellent source of disease resistance genes. Two new Triticum-Secale-Thinopyrum trigeneric hybrids were derived from a cross between a hexaploid triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack, 2n = 6x = 42, AABBRR) and a hexaploid Triticum trititrigia (2n = 6x = 42, AABBEE) , were produced and analyzed using genomic in situ hybridization and molecular markers. The results indicated that line RE21 contained 14 A-chromosomes, 14 B-chromosomes, 3 pairs of R-chromosomes (4R, 6R and 7R), and 4 pairs of E-chromosomes (1E, 2E, 3E and 5E) for a total chromosome number of 2n = 42. Line RE62 contained 14 A-chromosomes, 14 B-chromosomes, 6 pairs of R-chromosomes, and 1 pair of translocation chromosomes between chromosome 5R and 5E, for a total chromosome number of 2n = 42. At the seedling and adult growth stages
... is a genetic condition characterized by lissencephaly, typical facial features, and severe neurologic abnormalities. Symptoms may include severe intellectual disability, developmental delay, seizures, muscle stiffness, weak muscle tone and feeding difficulties. Miller-Dieker syndrome is caused by a deletion of genetic material near the end of the short (p) arm of chromosome 17. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive ...
Penguins are classified in the order Sphenisciformes into a single family, Spheniscidae. The genus Pygoscelis Wagler, 1832, is composed of three species, Pygoscelis antarcticus Forster, 1781, P. papua Forster, 1781 and P. adeliae Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841. In this work, the objective was to describe and to compare the karyotypes of Pygoscelis penguins contributing genetic information to Sphenisciformes. The metaphases were obtained by lymphocyte culture, and the diploid number and the C-banding pattern were determined. P. antarcticus has 2n = 92, P. papua 2n = 94 and P. adeliae exhibited 2n = 96 in males and 2n = 95 in females. The difference of diploid number in P. adeliae was identified as a multiple sex chromosome system where males have Z1Z1Z2Z2 and females Z1Z2W. The C-banding showed the presence of a heterochromatic block in the long arm of W chromosome and Z2 was almost entirely heterochromatic. The probable origin of a multiple system in P. adeliae was a translocation involving the W
Silene latifolia has heteromorphic sex chromosomes, the X and Y chromosomes. The Y chromosome, which is thought to carry the male determining gene, was isolated by UV laser microdissection and amplified by degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR. In situ chromosome suppression of the amplified Y chromosome DNA in the presence of female genomic DNA as a competitor showed that the microdissected Y chromosome DNA did not specifically hybridize to the Y chromosome, but hybridized to all chromosomes. This result suggests that the Y chromosome does not contain Y chromosome-enriched repetitive sequences. A repetitive sequence in the microdissected Y chromosome, RMY1, was isolated while screening repetitive sequences in the amplified Y chromosome. Part of the nucleotide sequence shared a similarity to that of X-43.1, which was isolated from microdissected X chromosomes. Since fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with RMY1 demonstrated that RMY1 was localized at the ends of the chromosome, RMY1 may ...
a b This is indicated by the M130 marker in the Y chromosome. "Traces of a Distant Past", by Gary Stix, Scientific American, ...
Philadelphia chromosome, Renal function, Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, Thyroid function ... Down to the Bone (band). Others. Institutional memory, Norman Pearlstine, Prayer, Richard Bolt ...
chromosome. • nucleoplasm. • condensed nuclear chromosome. • chromosome, centromeric region. • cell nucleus. • kinetochore. • ... Band. X,X F3. Start. 152,016,428 bp[2]. End. 152,062,694 bp[2]. ... Structural maintenance of chromosomes protein 1A (SMC1A) is a ... Members of this family are key regulators of DNA repair, chromosome condensation and chromosome segregation from bacteria to ... chromosome organization. • cellular response to DNA damage stimulus. • stem cell population maintenance. • cell division. • ...
In humans, the AR gene, located on the X chromosome at Xq11-12, may affect penis size. The SRY gene located on the Y chromosome ... For example, a group of band students would not be representative of all students at the middle school, and thus would ...
Mae'r genyn yma wedi ei leoli ar yr edefyn blaen o gromosom dynol 1, band 1p34.2.[2] ...
Diffuse interstellar band. *Earliest known life forms. *Extraterrestrial life. *Extraterrestrial liquid water ...
Polytene chromosomes were originally observed in the larval salivary glands of Chironomus midges by Balbiani in 1881. They form ... Larvae and pupae are important food items for fish, such as trout, banded killifish, and sticklebacks, and for many other ... The species is distinguished by the size of its chromosomes and the lack of a proboscis. ... species that can only be identified by rearing adult males or by cytogenetic analysis of the polytene chromosomes. ...
Chromosome 5 (mouse)[2]. Band. 5 G2,5 82.22 cM. Start. 143,503,634 bp[2]. ...
Mae'r genyn yma wedi ei leoli ar yr edefyn blaen o gromosom dynol 20, band 20q13.12.[1] ...
Some tribes or bands were more accepting of ethnic Africans than others and welcomed them as full members of their respective ... Writing for ScienceDaily, Troy Duster wrote that the two common types of tests used are Y-chromosome and mtDNA (mitochondrial ... Among some bands, Native Americans of mixed white blood stood at the top, pure Native Americans next, and people of African ... and the remaining Native American groups banded together, more determined to face the Europeans from a position of strength ...
Regarding Y-chromosome haplogroups (male lineages), 78.8% of the sequences found in Cubans are of West Eurasian origin, 19.7% ... while American musical elements such as trombones and big band were also significant elements in the formation of Cuban music. ...
Men do not have a second X chromosome to override the chromosome that carries the mutation. If 8% of variants of a given gene ... with the Y chromosome carrying altogether different genes from the X chromosome), and females have two (XX); if a woman ... In turn, a carrier woman has a 50% chance of passing on a mutated X chromosome region to each of her male offspring. The sons ... Because one X chromosome is inactivated at random in each cell during a woman's development, deuteranomalous heterozygotes (i.e ...
X chromosome (human)[۱]. Band. Xp22.2. Start. 15,561,033 bp[۱]. End. 15,602,148 bp[۱]. ...
This article on a gene on human chromosome 7 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Band. 6,6 A3.1. Start. 24,857,997 bp[2]. End. 24,891,958 bp[2]. ... Band. 7q31.32. Start. 123,925,237 bp[1]. End. 123,971,414 bp[1] ... 2003). "The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7". Nature. 424 (6945): 157-64. doi:10.1038/nature01782. PMID 12853948.. ... Six members of the hyaluronidase family are clustered into two tightly linked groups on chromosome 3p21.3 and 7q31.3. This gene ...
The bag is then sealed with a band or string. This treatment has been shown to more than double lifespans up to 3-4 weeks ... Cultivars are placed in groups based on the number of chromosomes they have and which species they are derived from. Thus the ...
Galland F, Stefanova M, Lafage M, Birnbaum D (July 1992). "Localization of the 5' end of the MCF2 oncogene to human chromosome ... Band. 10 B3,10 26.18 cM. Start. 52,045,721 bp[2]. End. 52,195,244 bp[2]. ... "Human ros1 and mas1 oncogenes located in regions of chromosome 6 associated with tumor-specific rearrangements". Oncogene ...
Sonta, SI; Sandberg, AA (1977). "Chromosomes and causation of human cancer and leukemia: XXVIII. Value of detailed chromosome ... Band. 5,5 B1. Start. 30,155,248 bp[2]. End. 30,184,593 bp[2]. ... The HADHB gene is located on chromosome 2, with its specific ... 2005). "Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4". Nature. 434 (7034): 724-31. doi:10.1038/ ...
This article on a gene on human chromosome 5 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Band. 18,18 B1. Start. 34,689,898 bp[2]. End. 34,720,387 bp[2]. ... Band. 5q31.2. Start. 138,252,380 bp[1]. End. 138,274,621 bp[1] ...
The gene is located on the Watson (plus) strand of the short arm of chromosome 12 (12p13.32). The gene itself is 8,348 bases in ... Band. 6 F3,6 61.57 cM. Start. 126,640,397 bp[2]. End. 126,646,384 bp[2]. ... Albrecht B, Weber K, Pongs O (1995). "Characterization of a voltage-activated K-channel gene cluster on human chromosome 12p13 ...
Capelli, C (13 September 2005). "Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin: A Y Chromosome Perspective". Annals of Human ... inferred by Y-chromosome biallelic variability". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 121 (3): 270-279. doi:10.1002/ajpa. ... "Differential Greek and northern African migrations to Sicily are supported by genetic evidence from the Y chromosome" ...
1992). "Ring chromosome 20 and possible assignment of the structural gene encoding human carboxypeptidase-L to the distal ... Band. 2 H3,2 85.27 cM. Start. 164,832,873 bp[2]. End. 164,841,032 bp[2]. ... Wiegant J, Galjart NJ, Raap AK, d'Azzo A (1991). "The gene encoding human protective protein (PPGB) is on chromosome 20". ... segment of the long arm of chromosome 20". Am. J. Med. Genet. 43 (3): 576-9. doi:10.1002/ajmg.1320430314. PMID 1605251.. ...
The gene was localised to chromosome 3q27, a region highlighted as affecting genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes and ... Band. 16 B1,16 13.96 cM. Start. 23,146,536 bp[2]. End. 23,158,028 bp[2]. ...
The CB1 receptor is encoded by the gene CNR1,[13] located on human chromosome 6.[16] Two transcript variants encoding different ... Band. 4 A5,4 16.28 cM. Start. 33,924,593 bp[2]. End. 33,948,831 bp[2]. ...
Palacios R, Aguirrezabal I, Fernandez-Diez B, Brieva L, Villoslada P (October 2005). "Chromosome 5 and multiple sclerosis". J. ... Link H, Huang YM (November 2006). "Oligoclonal bands in multiple sclerosis cerebrospinal fluid: an update on methodology and ... "CSF oligoclonal bands in MS include antibodies against Chlamydophila antigens". Neurology 56 (9): 1168-76. பப்மெட்:11342681 ...
In humans, the gene that encodes TRAIL is located at chromosome 3q26, which is not close to other TNF family members.[5] The ... Band. 3,3 A3. Start. 27,317,028 bp[2]. End. 27,342,427 bp[2]. ... Band. 3q26.31. Start. 172,505,508 bp[1]. End. 172,523,475 bp[1] ...
Mae'r genyn yma wedi ei leoli ar yr edefyn blaen o gromosom dynol 17, band 17q12.[2] ...
The human alpha globin gene cluster located on chromosome 16 spans about 30 kb and includes seven loci: 5'- zeta - pseudozeta ... Fonseka PV, Vasudevan G, Clarizia LJ, McDonald MJ (2007). "Temperature dependent soret spectral band shifts accompany human CN- ...
1991). "Mapping of the MYC gene to band 8q24.12----q24.13 by R-banding and distal to fra(8)(q24.11), FRA8E, by fluorescence in ... "MYC oncogene involved in a t(8;22) chromosome translocation is not altered in its putative regulatory regions". Proc. Natl. ... "Sequence analysis of the MYC oncogene involved in the t(8;14)(q24;q11) chromosome translocation in a human leukemia T-cell ...
Aha I, Hinf I, or Mbo I treatment produced a C-band... ... Fixed metaphase chromosomes from mouse strain RIII embryos or ... Ava II and Bst NI each produced a G-band pattern, but on most chromosomes only a small segment of each C-band, adjacent to the ... Comings DE (1978) Mechanisms of chromosome banding and implications for chromosome structure. Ann Rev Genet 12:25-46Google ... Aha I, Hinf I, or Mbo I treatment produced a C-band pattern, and Eco RII or Hae III produced a G-band plus C-band pattern. ...
The resolution of mBAND is slightly below that of conventional chromosome banding; however, the color bands have a great value ... Application of multicolor banding for identification of complex chromosome 18 rearrangements.. Hu J1, Sathanoori M, Kochmar SJ ... Multicolor chromosome banding (mBAND) is a recently developed technique that allows the delineation of chromosomal regions with ... These abnormalities cannot be defined easily by conventional cytogenetic analysis or chromosome paint. In this report, we ...
... banding, and AgNO3 staining were studied in somatic metaphase complements of fourLactuca species.L. sat ... Chromosome banding patterns obtained with C- and N- ... Chromosome banding patterns obtained with C- and N- banding, ... Schlegel, R., Gill, B. S., 1984: N-banding analysis of rye chromosomes and the relationship between N-banded and C-banded ... Pijnacker, L. P., Ferwerda, M. A., 1984: Giemsa C-banding chromosomes of potato chromosomes. - Canad. J. Genet. Cytol.26: 415- ...
The chromosome band track represents the approximate location of bands seen on Giemsa-stained chromosomes. Chromosomes are ... chromosome][arm][band], where band is a single digit. Examples of bands on chromosome 3 include 3p2, 3p1, cen, 3q1, and 3q2. At ... Chromosome Bands Localized by FISH Mapping Clones (. All Mapping and Sequencing tracks). Display mode: hide. dense. squish. ... some of the bands are subdivided into sub-bands, adding a second digit to the band number, e.g. 3p26. This resolution produces ...
... Journal. Pattern Recognition Letters. Volume , Issue number. 9 ... In this paper several new techniques for automated chromosome analysis are described: one for piecewise-linear chromosome ... A classification procedure is described that is based upon local band descriptors. Classification results obtained with this ... method are compared with results obtained with the global band description method (WDD functions). Data sets from two different ...
C) The best correlation between Giemsa bands and in silico bands observed for chromosome 3q. Giemsa bands are shown in black ( ... Correlation between Giemsa bands and in silico bands in chromosomes 21 (Left) and 22 (Right). Giemsa bands are shown in black ( ... "in silico bands." In silico bands are very similar to Giemsa bands in both chromosomes with the exception of the centromeric or ... of G bands by using dynamic programming (15). Let the i-th G band in a Giemsa banding pattern (pattern A) and the j-th G band ...
Chromosomes were classified according to Guerra (1986).. Chromosome banding was performed as described by Schwarzacher et al. ( ... The C-CMA+/DAPI+ bands appeared in interstitial and terminal regions, and the C-DAPI+ bands were found in all chromosome ... The option for CMA/DAPI staining after chromosome banding was to improve the contrast of the fine bands, due to greater retreat ... chromosome banding and FISH with 45S and 5S rDNA probes. The karyotypes showed a chromosome number of 2n = 2x = 16, with ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
... differing by only three chromosome pairs. Nearly all chromosomes of PDI and PHA were conserved in toto, except for chromosome ... Comparative analysis using G-banding and chromosome painting show that the karyotypic complement of TSA is highly rearranged ... Homologous chromosomes Is the Subject Area "Homologous chromosomes" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Chromosome pairs Is the Subject Area "Chromosome pairs" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Metaphase chromosome preparations were made from leukocyte cultures of normal individuals. The cells were fixed in methanol: ... Next Document: Q- and C-bands in the metaphase chromosomes of Drosophila nasutoides.. ... Metaphase chromosome preparations were made from leukocyte cultures of normal individuals. The cells were fixed in methanol: ... 2272499 - The pattern of x-chromosome inactivation in the embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues o.... 2458419 - Studies on the ...
Feulgen banding of heterochromatin in plant chromosomes Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Journal of Cell ... Feulgen bands can be obtained at the sites of constitutive heterochromatin in the chromosomes of Anemone blanda, Fritillaria ... Short hydrolysis gives no bands in A. blanda and S. siberica but gives negative bands in F. lanceolata. The kind of Feulgen ... Extended hydrolysis gives positive bands in A. blanda and F. lanceolata and negative bands in S. siberica. ...
Positive chromosome bands like C, G and NOR bands were developed on the metaphase chromosome spread. NOR bands were found on ... While, G bands was at A, T-rich regions appearing to be away from centromere towards the end of the chromosome bodies. C bands ... The diploid chromosome number was found to be 50 and the karyotype is composed of 14m+8sm+28 (st and t) with fundamental arm No ... The result showed the diploid chromosome number as 50 which is mostly seen in other cyprindis and the study could localize C, G ...
Preparing, Staining and Observing G-banding human chromosomes Develop an understanding of karyotyping and the association of ... Human Chromosomes Identification by G-Banding. Karyotyping. Experiment Objectives. ... Human Chromosomes Identification by G-Banding. Karyotyping. Experiment Objectives. Preparing, Staining and Observing G-banding ... PowerPoint Slideshow about Human Chromosomes Identification by G-Banding - broderick. An Image/Link below is provided (as is ...
CYP3A4 was mapped on R-banded human prometaphase chromosomes, and the precise localization of CYP3A4 on chromosome 7 was ... Assignment of the human cytochrome P-450 nifedipine oxidase gene (CYP3A4) to chromosome 7 at band q22.1 by fluorescence in situ ... further confirmed by a delineation of G-banded pattern on the same prometaphase chromosomes through a combination of UV-filter ... enzyme as a probe to determine its chromosome localization by fluorescence in situ hybridization. ...
Chromosome composition of some citrus species and cultivars based on the chromomycin A_3 (CMA) banding patterns * * BEFU M. ... Difference between Male and Female Trees of Ginkgo biloba Examined by Karyotype Analysis and Mapping of rDNA on the Chromosomes ...
The term chromosome is... Explanation of banded chromosome ... Looking for banded chromosome? Find out information about ... banded chromosome. structural carrier of hereditary characteristics, found in the nucleus of every cell and so named for its ... chromosome. (redirected from banded chromosome). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical. chromosome. (krō`məsōm), ... Banded chromosome , Article about banded chromosome by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/banded+ ...
Chromosome band 7q34 deletions resulting in KIAA1549-BRAF and FAM131B-BRAF fusions in pediatric low-grade Gliomas.. [Jacquelyn ... The KIAA1549-BRAF fusion typically results from a 2.0 Mb tandem duplication in chromosome band 7q34. In the present study, ...
Dutrillauxs T-banding method was used with minor modifications (Drets et al., 1992). T-banded chromosomes were photographed ... Well spread chromosomes with evident T-bands at both ends were selected for microdensitometric scanning. Chromosomes pairs 13, ... T-banding is a modification of R-banding procedure and is obtained through the incubation of chromosomes in a buffer at a high ... of T-banded human chromosomes appeared non-randomly located at opposite chromosome arms. It is of interest to mention that we ...
21 Mb deletion in chromosome band 13q22.2-q32.1 associated with mild/moderate psychomotor retardation, growth hormone ... The deletion has been estimated to span 21.46 Mb on chromosomal bands 13q22.2 - 13q32.1. The patient has mild/moderate ...
The Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3 α Gene, HNF3α (FOXA1), on Chromosome Band 14q13 Is Amplified and Overexpressed in Esophageal ... The Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3 α Gene, HNF3α (FOXA1), on Chromosome Band 14q13 Is Amplified and Overexpressed in Esophageal ... The Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3 α Gene, HNF3α (FOXA1), on Chromosome Band 14q13 Is Amplified and Overexpressed in Esophageal ... The Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3 α Gene, HNF3α (FOXA1), on Chromosome Band 14q13 Is Amplified and Overexpressed in Esophageal ...
... by C-Banding of Chromosomes, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research ... by C-Banding of Chromosomes. Analysis of Intraspecific Divergence of Hexaploid Wheat Triticum spelta L. by C-Banding of... ... Analysis of Intraspecific Divergence of Hexaploid Wheat Triticum spelta L. by C-Banding of Chromosomes. Dedkova, O.; Badaeva, E ... "Analysis of Intraspecific Divergence of Hexaploid Wheat Triticum spelta L. by C-Banding of Chromosomes." Russian Journal of ...
"Divergence of the polytene chromosome banding sequences as a reflection of evolutionary rearrangements of the genome linear ... Divergence of the polytene chromosome banding sequences as a reflection of evolutionary... Gunderina, L.; Kiknadze, I.; ... Divergence of the polytene chromosome banding sequences as a reflection of evolutionary rearrangements of the genome linear ... Divergence of the polytene chromosome banding sequences as a reflection of evolutionary rearrangements of the genome linear ...
Assignment of the gene encoding the neuronal multidomain serine protease neurotrypsin (PRSS12) to human chromosome band 4q25--, ... to human chromosome band 4q25--,q26 by in situ hybridization. Cytogenetic and Genome Research, 84(1-2):107-108. ...
A gene for the suppression of anchorage independence is located in rat chromosome 5 bands q22-23, and the rat alpha-interferon ... A gene for the suppression of anchorage independence is located in rat chromosome 5 bands q22-23, and the rat alpha-interferon ... A gene for the suppression of anchorage independence is located in rat chromosome 5 bands q22-23, and the rat alpha-interferon ... A gene for the suppression of anchorage independence is located in rat chromosome 5 bands q22-23, and the rat alpha-interferon ...
Assignment of renal-specific Na(+)-phosphate cotransporter gene Slc17a2 to mouse chromosome band 13B by in situ hybridization. ... phosphate cotransporter gene Slc17a2 to mouse chromosome band 13B by in situ hybridization. Cytogenetic and Genome Research, 77 ...
  • Our results provide the first comparison of the genomic architecture of Atlantic salmon from North America and Europe with respect to chromosome organization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, we find that the D. pseudoobscura chromosome with the highest level of inversion polymorphism (Muller's element C ) does not show an unusually fast rate of evolution with respect to chromosome structure, suggesting that this classic case of inversion polymorphism reflects selection rather than mutational processes. (genetics.org)
  • X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a developmental program of heterochromatin formation that initiates during early female mammalian embryonic development and is maintained through a lifetime of cell divisions in somatic cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has been shown that the Ag-method of dyeing can be successfully applied in animal cytogenetic studies as a method for evaluating the functioning of rRNA genes and metabolic activity of an organism, for the rapid identification of chromosomal aberrations, in particular translocations involving chromosomes with NO-regions. (aminbiol.com.ua)
  • Each chromosome consists of many genes and of DNA that does not code for any protein product. (glowm.com)
  • Chromosomes and genes exist in pairs-one of each pair derived from the mother, the other from the father. (glowm.com)
  • Additional inhibition of two pathways known to contribute to Xi maintenance, DNA methylation and Xist RNA coating of the X chromosome, strongly increased the number of cells expressing Xi-linked genes upon Atf7ip knockdown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We find no evidence for extensive transfer of genes among chromosomes in D. miranda . (genetics.org)
  • Comparisons of the localizations of genes have allowed the establishment of homologies among chromosome arms over a wide range of species (see A shburner 1989 , p. 23, Table 5.2). (genetics.org)
  • This led us to investigate the prevalence of the transposition or duplication of genes from the neo- X chromosome onto other chromosomes. (genetics.org)
  • In addition, we have explored the frequency of these events on other chromosomes, to determine if this phenomenon was confined to genes derived from element C , as this model of dosage compensation would predict ( Y i and C harlesworth 2000b ). (genetics.org)
  • Despite identification of the crucial long non-coding RNA Xist and involvement of specific chromatin modifiers in the establishment and maintenance of the heterochromatin of the inactive X chromosome (Xi), interference with known pathways only partially reactivates the Xi once silencing has been established. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Loss of ISWI function in Drosophila causes global transcription defects and dramatic alterations in higher-order chromatin structure, including decondensation of chromosomes , . (prolekarniky.cz)
  • NORs have been studied on preparations of chromosomes, which were prepared according to the standard method of peripheral blood lymphocytes of 10 adult animals kept on the farm of the "Svyato-Pokrovska Holosiyivska Pustyn" monastery - Golosiyevo Ltd. (Gogoliv village, Brovarsky district, Kyiv region). (aminbiol.com.ua)
  • Differential expression of DNAseI-sensitive sites in metaphase chromosomes of T and B lymphocytes. (storysteel.cf)
  • 产品描述 Component of the CENPA-CAD (nucleosome distal) complex, a complex recruited to centromeres which is involved in assembly of kinetochore proteins, mitotic progression and chromosome segregation. (huabio.cn)
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia is a malignant clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder characterized by the expression of the Philadelphia chromosome, generated by a reciprocal translocation between the long arms of chromosomes 9 and 22 ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In a new study, a University of Missouri researcher and Dutch team of research collaborators found that genetic material on chromosome nine was linked to BPD features, a disorder characterized by pervasive instability in moods, interpersonal relationships, self-image and behavior, and can lead to suicidal behavior, substance abuse and failed relationships. (docblog.org)
  • Después de eso descubrí el limpiador de Lush, Angels on Bare Skin, a base de arcilla que comencé a usar por las noches, pero siempre seguí en la mañana usando avena (a excepción de este año que me dio por probar algunos limpiadores a bases de emulsión de aceite-agua. (elblogdelajesu.com)
  • The study confirms that the crystallin beta cluster on chromosome 22, Cx-46, and BFSP1 plays a major role in maintaining lens transparency. (pianolarge.ga)
  • Trull found the strongest evidence for a genetic influence on BPD features on chromosome nine. (docblog.org)
  • On the basis of our results, we propose possible ancestral arrangements for the D. pseudoobscura C chromosome, which are different from those in the current literature. (genetics.org)
  • After the establishment of the Xi, XCI transitions to the maintenance phase in which the repressed state of the X chromosome is stabilized and permanently locked in. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Polyploidy (triploidy, tetraploidy) is the presence of an extra set(s) of chromosomes ( i.e., 69 or 92) and can result from a meiotic or mitotic error, or from dispermy (fertilization of an egg by two sperm). (glowm.com)
  • All of these patients should undergo therapeutic endoscopy with band ligation or sclerotherapy. (saladgaffe.ga)
  • As a result of the research, active regions of the nucleolar organizers in six chromosomes of the karyotype of the investigated buffaloes - 3, 4, 6, 21, 23, 24 - were established. (aminbiol.com.ua)
  • Soft and luxurious wool blend fabric with external side pockets and flattering waist band is fitting perfectly in any silhouette. (theknls.com)