A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)
A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
The chromosome region which is active in nucleolus formation and which functions in the synthesis of ribosomal RNA.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
The use of silver, usually silver nitrate, as a reagent for producing contrast or coloration in tissue specimens.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain the cardiotonic PROSCILLARIDIN. The common name of squill is also used for URGINEA.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members of this genus produce imperialine, a steroidal alkaloid which acts at muscarinic receptors.
The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.
Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant genus of the family TAXODIACEAE. Members contain DITERPENES.
A plant genus of the family CAMPANULACEAE. The common name of bellflower may sometimes be confused with other plants in the family that have similar appearance.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A subclass of GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS containing one or more sugars within their head group connected directly to a ceramide moiety. They consist of monoglycosyl-, and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
Animals that are produced through selective breeding to eliminate genetic background differences except for a single or few specific loci. They are used to investigate the contribution of genetic background differences to PHENOTYPE.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Those individuals engaged in research.
Financial support of research activities.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
A subdiscipline of human genetics which entails the reliable prediction of certain human disorders as a function of the lineage and/or genetic makeup of an individual or of any two parents or potential parents.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.

Superimposed histologic and genetic mapping of chromosome 9 in progression of human urinary bladder neoplasia: implications for a genetic model of multistep urothelial carcinogenesis and early detection of urinary bladder cancer. (1/1355)

The evolution of alterations on chromosome 9, including the putative tumor suppressor genes mapped to the 9p21-22 region (the MTS genes), was studied in relation to the progression of human urinary bladder neoplasia by using whole organ superimposed histologic and genetic mapping in cystectomy specimens and was verified in urinary bladder tumors of various pathogenetic subsets with longterm follow-up. The applicability of chromosome 9 allelic losses as non-invasive markers of urothelial neoplasia was tested on voided urine and/or bladder washings of patients with urinary bladder cancer. Although sequential multiple hits in the MTS locus were documented in the development of intraurothelial precursor lesions, the MTS genes do not seem to represent a major target for p21-23 deletions in bladder cancer. Two additional tumor suppressor genes involved in bladder neoplasia located distally and proximally to the MTS locus within p22-23 and p11-13 regions respectively were identified. Several distinct putative tumor suppressor gene loci within the q12-13, q21-22, and q34 regions were identified on the q arm. In particular, the pericentromeric q12-13 area may contain the critical tumor suppressor gene or genes for the development of early urothelial neoplasia. Allelic losses of chromosome 9 were associated with expansion of the abnormal urothelial clone which frequently involved large areas of urinary bladder mucosa. These losses could be found in a high proportion of urothelial tumors and in voided urine or bladder washing samples of nearly all patients with urinary bladder carcinoma.  (+info)

TIF1gamma, a novel member of the transcriptional intermediary factor 1 family. (2/1355)

We report the cloning and characterization of a novel member of the Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 1 (TIF1) gene family, human TIF1gamma. Similar to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, the structure of TIF1beta is characterized by multiple domains: RING finger, B boxes, Coiled coil, PHD/TTC, and bromodomain. Although structurally related to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, TIF1gamma presents several functional differences. In contrast to TIF1alpha, but like TIF1beta, TIF1 does not interact with nuclear receptors in yeast two-hybrid or GST pull-down assays and does not interfere with retinoic acid response in transfected mammalian cells. Whereas TIF1alpha and TIF1beta were previously found to interact with the KRAB silencing domain of KOX1 and with the HP1alpha, MODI (HP1beta) and MOD2 (HP1gamma) heterochromatinic proteins, suggesting that they may participate in a complex involved in heterochromatin-induced gene repression, TIF1gamma does not interact with either the KRAB domain of KOX1 or the HP1 proteins. Nevertheless, TIF1gamma, like TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, exhibits a strong silencing activity when tethered to a promoter. Since deletion of a novel motif unique to the three TIF1 proteins, called TIF1 signature sequence (TSS), abrogates transcriptional repression by TIF1gamma, this motif likely participates in TIF1 dependent repression.  (+info)

Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and autoimmune thyroiditis in a boy with a ring chromosome 18: additional evidence of autoimmunity or IDDM gene(s) on chromosome 18. (3/1355)

A 4 year 3 month old boy with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), autoimmune thyroiditis, slight mental retardation, facial dysmorphism, and a de novo ring chromosome 18 (deletion 18q22.3-18qter) is described. This unique association of defects could represent a chance association. Alternatively, the clinical features could be the result of the chromosomal aberration. If so, one could speculate that a gene or genes on chromosome 18 might act as a suppressor or activator of the autoimmune process by itself or in concert with other IDDM loci.  (+info)

Spectral karyotype analysis of T-cell acute leukemia. (4/1355)

Analysis of 15 cases of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with spectral karyotyping (SKY), which can identify all chromosomes simultaneously, clarified the chromosome rearrangements in 3 cases and confirmed them in 11 others; no abnormal cells were identified in 1 case, which had only 10% abnormal cells. Five of the latter cases had a normal karyotype. Thus, the use of SKY substantially improves the precision of karyotype analysis of malignant cells, which in turn leads to a more accurate assessment of the genotypic abnormalities in those cells.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of a secreted frizzled-related protein that is expressed by the retinal pigment epithelium. (5/1355)

The Wnt/frizzled cell signaling pathway has been implicated in the determination of polarity in a number of systems, including the Drosophila retina. The vertebrate retina develops from an undifferentiated neuroepithelium into an organized and laminated structure that demonstrates a high degree of polarity at both the tissue and cellular levels. In the process of searching for molecules that are preferentially expressed by the vertebrate retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), we identified secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5), a member of the SFRP family that appears to act by modulating Wnt signal transduction. SFRP5 is highly expressed by RPE cells, and is also expressed in the pancreas. Within the retina, the related molecule SFRP2 is expressed specifically by cells of the inner nuclear layer. Thus, photoreceptors are likely to be bathed by two opposing gradients of SFRP molecules. Consistent with SFRP5 's postulated role in modulating Wnt signaling in the retina, it inhibits the ability of Xwnt-8 mRNA to induce axis duplication in Xenopus embryos. The human SFRP5 gene consists of three coding exons and it maps to chromosome 10q24.1; human SFRP2 maps to 4q31.3. Based on the biology and complementary expression patterns of SFRP2 and SFRP5, we suggest that they may be involved in determining the polarity of photoreceptor, and perhaps other, cells in the retina.  (+info)

Generation and characterization of human smooth muscle cell lines derived from atherosclerotic plaque. (6/1355)

The study of atherogenesis in humans has been restricted by the limited availability and brief in vitro life span of plaque smooth muscle cells (SMCs). We describe plaque SMC lines with extended life spans generated by the expression of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 E6 and E7 genes, which has been shown to extend the life span of normal adult human aortic SMCs. Resulting cell lines (pdSMC1A and 2) demonstrated at least 10-fold increases in life span; pdSMC1A became immortal. The SMC identity of both pdSMC lines was confirmed by SM22 mRNA expression. pdSMC2 were generally diploid but with various structural and numerical alterations; pdSMC1A demonstrated several chromosomal abnormalities, most commonly -Y, +7, -13, anomalies previously reported in both primary pdSMCs and atherosclerotic tissue. Confluent pdSMC2 appeared grossly similar to HPV-16 E6/E7-expressing normal adult aortic SMCs (AASMCs), exhibiting typical SMC morphology/growth patterns; pdSMC1A displayed irregular cell shape/organization with numerous mitotic figures. Dedifferentiation to a synthetic/proliferative phenotype has been hypothesized as a critical step in atherogenesis, because rat neonatal SMCs and adult intimal SMCs exhibit similar gene expression patterns. To confirm that our pdSMC lines likewise express this apparent plaque phenotype, osteopontin, platelet-derived growth factor B, and elastin mRNA levels were determined in pdSMC1A, pdSMC2, and AASMCs. However, no significant increases in osteopontin or platelet-derived growth factor B expression levels were observed in either pdSMC compared with AASMCs. pdSMC2 alone expressed high levels of elastin mRNA. Lower levels of SM22 mRNA in pdSMC1A suggested greater dedifferentiation and/or additional population doublings in pdSMC1A relative to pdSMC2. Both pdSMC lines (particularly 1A) demonstrated high message levels for matrix Gla protein, previously reported to be highly expressed by human neointimal SMCs in vitro. These results describe 2 novel plaque cell lines exhibiting various features of plaque SMC biology; pdSMC2 may represent an earlier plaque SMC phenotype, whereas pdSMC1A may be representative of cells comprising an advanced atherosclerotic lesion.  (+info)

Localization of single- and low-copy sequences on tomato synaptonemal complex spreads using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). (7/1355)

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful means by which single- and low-copy DNA sequences can be localized on chromosomes. Compared to the mitotic metaphase chromosomes that are normally used in FISH, synaptonemal complex (SC) spreads (hypotonically spread pachytene chromosomes) have several advantages. SC spreads (1) are comparatively free of debris that can interfere with probe penetration, (2) have relatively decondensed chromatin that is highly accessible to probes, and (3) are about ten times longer than their metaphase counterparts, which permits FISH mapping at higher resolution. To investigate the use of plant SC spreads as substrates for single-copy FISH, we probed spreads of tomato SCs with two single-copy sequences and one low-copy sequence (ca. 14 kb each) that are associated with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers on SC 11. Individual SCs were identified on the basis of relative length, arm ratio, and differential staining patterns after combined propidium iodide (PI) and 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. In this first report of single-copy FISH to SC spreads, the probe sequences were unambiguously mapped on the long arm of tomato SC 11. Coupled with data from earlier studies, we determined the distance in micrometers, the number of base pairs, and the rates of crossing over between these three FISH markers. We also observed that the order of two of the FISH markers is reversed in relation to their order on the molecular linkage map. SC-FISH mapping permits superimposition of markers from molecular linkage maps directly on pachytene chromosomes and thereby contributes to our understanding of the relationship between chromosome structure, gene activity, and recombination.  (+info)

Isolation and mapping of a putative b subunit of human ATP synthase (ATP-BL) from human leukocytes. (8/1355)

From a human-leukocyte cDNA library, we cloned cDNA encoding a novel protein, which has a significant homology with the b subunit of ATP synthase (proton-transporting ATPase, F1F0-ATPase; EC3.6.1.34) derived from Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. The cDNA has an open reading frame of 1314 nucleotides corresponding to 438 amino acids. The coding sequence was 37.9% identical over 57 amino acid with b subunit of ATP synthase. The 34-amino-acid region of the predicted peptide sequence displays a coiled-coil motif that could form a complex with some other protein(s). We designated this novel gene as ATP-BL because of its homology to the b subunit of ATP synthase. The ATP-BL locus was mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and radiation hybrid mapping to the q24 region of chromosome 16.  (+info)

Humans typically have 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes in their cells, and a pair of sex chromosomes. About 2.7 million individuals have an extra, 47th autosomal chromosome called a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC). These small supernumerary marker chromosomes can originate from any of the 24 different human chromosomes. About 70% of the cases with sSMC are de novo (new mutations), 30% are inherited within a family. About 30% of the carriers of a sSMC are clinically abnormal. The main problem in connection with a sSMC appears when the diagnosis of the presence of a sSMC is made prenatally. Until recently there was no possibility to make clear predictions about the outcome of the pregnancy. However, research is being carried out into the link between the presence of a sSMC in individuals and any consequent symptoms. Liehr et al. Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) in humans. Cytogenet Genome Research, 2004; 107: 55-67 Liehr et al. Small supernumerary marker ...
Differential distribution of R- and G-band DNA with respect to SC-35 domains in interphase nuclei. (A and B) Probe of R-band 17q21 DNA (red in A, white in B) hy
Matured bovine oocytes and zygotes obtained by in vitro maturation and fertilization techniques (IVM and IVF) were cytogenetically prepared by using an improved method for chromosome preparations. The method, which involves ...
Looking for online definition of R-banding in the Medical Dictionary? R-banding explanation free. What is R-banding? Meaning of R-banding medical term. What does R-banding mean?
Although the physical dimensions of chromosomes are such that they fall well within the spatial resolving power of scanning electron microscopes, results in the past have been disappointing. This is most likely due to limitations in preparative techniques, coupled with the initial necessity to separate the chromosomes from the remainder of the metaphase cell. Two approaches have been employed, a; to use a variety of isolation buffers which provide bulk chromosome preparations, b; to use metaphase spreads prepared essentially as for light microscopy and re-processed for SEM. In the former, wide variations in chromosome surface topography and fibre organisation arise according to the choice of isolation buffer, and mixed populations preclude individual chromosome identification. In the latter the shortcomings in preparation can be considered the air drying that occurs during the making of spreads, and the initial use of methanol/acetic acid fixation. In our view however, these limitations in preparation
Ring chromosome 6 is an exceptionally rare cytogenetic rearrangement that usually arises de novo and is associated with extreme inter-individual variability in clinical phenotypes. A number of reports have described the clinical features in r(6) patients. However, to our knowledge this is the first case of r(6) involving both a distal 6p deletion and a distal 6q duplication.. At least two case reports have described a r(6) involving a comparable deletion at 6p25.3 [4, 5]. Both patients had psychomotor delay, cerebral ventriculomegaly, a prominent forehead and malformed ears. Furthermore, Zhang et al report a deletion of identical size to the present case (1.78Mb at 6p25.3) and additional clinical features that include, microcephaly, hydrocephalus, epilepsy and hearing loss [5].. Submicroscopic deletions involving the 6p25 subtelomeric region is a distinct clinical syndrome. The clinical phenotypes described include developmental delay, intellectual disability, language impairment, hearing loss, ...
The human and chimpanzee genomes are distinguishable in terms of ten gross karyotypic differences including nine pericentric inversions and a chromosomal fusion. Seven of these large pericentric inversions are chimpanzee-specific whereas two of them, involving human chromosomes 1 and 18, were fixed in the human lineage after the divergence of humans and chimpanzees. We have performed detailed molecular and computational characterization of the breakpoint regions of the human-specific inversion of chromosome 1. FISH analysis and sequence comparisons together revealed that the pericentromeric region of HSA 1 contains numerous segmental duplications that display a high degree of sequence similarity between both chromosomal arms. Detailed analysis of these regions has allowed us to refine the p-arm breakpoint region to a 154.2 kb interval at 1p11.2 and the q-arm breakpoint region to a 562.6 kb interval at 1q21.1. Both breakpoint regions contain human-specific segmental duplications arranged in ...
G-banding is one of the chromosome staining techniques that result in banding patterns on chromosomes. It uses the chemical dye, Giemsa, to create distinct chromosome-specific patterns called G-bands. It allows the identification of each chromosome, as well as its different regions, relative to its banding pattern[1]. The method for G-banding begins with subjecting the chromosome to a treatment involving trypsin (a proteolytic enzyme), and then staining it with Giemsa. This produces dark-stained bands at the regions with lower G-C content[2]. ...
The article studies a new method of making chromosomes by callus and bud, and analyses the karyotype of Campotheca acuminata Decne. The results demonstrated the chromosome amount to 44. The karyotype formula is K_((2n))=44=2M+32m+2sm+8T. Among them, 1pair is median point (M),16 pairs are median region (m),1 pair is submedian region (sm), 4 pairs are terminal point(T),belonging to2B type.
A protocol is described for the preparation of high-quality mitotic plant chromosome spreads by a fast air-dry dropping method suitable ...
O:13:\PanistOpenUrl\:36:{s:10:\\u0000*\u0000openUrl\;N;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000idc\;N;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000fmt\;s:7:\journal\;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000doi\;s:0:\\;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000pii\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000pmid\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000atitle\;s:62:\A TECHNIQUE FOR C-BANDING CHROMOSOMES WITH PINACYANOL CHLORIDE\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000jtitle\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000stitle\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000date\;s:4:\1980\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000volume\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000issue\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000spage\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000epage\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000pages\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000issn\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000eissn\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000aulast\;s:7:\NARAYAN\;s:10:\\u0000*\u0000aufirst\;s:3:\RKJ\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000auinit\;N;s:10:\\u0000*\u0000auinitm\;N;s:5:\\u0000*\u0000au\;a:1:{i:0;s:11:\NARAYAN ...
Preparation Methods of Human Metaphase Chromosomes for their Proteome Analysis.: Chromosomes are supermolecules that contain most of the DNA within a cell and a
Metaphase chromosome preparations were made from leukocyte cultures of normal individuals. The cells were fixed in methanol:acetic acid (3:1 v/v), then dropped on cold, wet slides which were air-dried before storage at 4 degrees C. The slides were st
Read Production of wheat-rye substitution lines and identification of chromosome composition of karyotypes using C-banding, GISH, and SSR markers, Russian Journal of Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Kit Contents: Chromosome 1, Chromosome 2, Chromosome 3, Chromosome 4, Chromosome 5, Chromosome 6, Chromosome 7, Chromosome 8, Chromosome 9, Chromosome 10, Chromosome 11, Chromosome 12, Chromosome 13, Chromosome 14, Chromosome 15, Chromosome 16, Chromosome 17, Chromosome 18, Chromosome 19, Chromosome 20, Chromosome 21,
Liehr T, Mrasek K, Hinreiner S, Reich D, Ewers E, Bartels I, Seidel J, Emmanuil N, Petesen M, Polityko A, Dufke A, Iourov I, Trifonov V, Vermeesch J, Weise A. Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) in patients with a 45,X/46,X,+mar karyotype - 17 new cases and a review of the literature. Sex Dev 1: 353-362, 2007. ...
Forms of leukemia can be found on six different chromosomes. Acute leukemias can be found on chromosomes 1, 2, and 13, T-Cell developmental leukemia is found on chromosomes 3 and X, and the cause of myelogenous leukemia is in a protein coded for in chromosome 11 at 11p11.9. Chromosome 11 contains 134 million bases. Chromosome 11 has been identified with 151 diseases. Only chromosomes 1, 2, and X contain more currently identified diseases. Chromosome 11 has the most cancerous conditions of all of the chromosomes associated with it ...
Do you look a bit like your brothers and sisters? Do you look a bit like your parents? The similarities are because, unless you were adopted, you and the other members of your family have genetic material in common.. Some characteristics, or traits, result from interactions with the environment, others are determined from the genetic material in your chromosomes. Chromosomes are the keepers of the genetic material in eukaryotic cells. An organism has the same chromosomes for its entire life. The chromosomes are located within each cell nucleus. They provide the directions for how the cell is supposed to function and determine some characteristics about how the individual looks. Each chromosome contains a very complex molecule called DNA. The DNA molecule contains genes, which direct how an organisms body is built and maintained.. Heredity is the passage of DNA from the chromosomes of one generation to the chromosomes of the next. Chromosomes in your body are in pairs. One chromosome of each ...
A testing method that makes a certain characteristic of chromosomes easier to see. A karyotype is the systematic arrangement, using images, of the 46 human chromosomes of a cell. Karyotypes are examined for deviations from the expected arrangement, number, size, shape or other characteristics of the chromosomes. Each chromosome pair has a characteristic banding pattern. To make the banding pattern easier to see, a dye called Giemsa may be used as a stain. This process is also referred to as G-banding. G-banding karyotyping and other cytogenetic tests provide doctors with information that contributes to determining the best treatment approach for an individual patient. The test takes longer than the FISH test, but has the advantage of being able to detect any changes that are visible because it does not rely on specific probes. Usually, both tests are done on samples from the marrow, especially at the time of diagnosis.. ...
A testing method that makes a certain characteristic of chromosomes easier to see. A karyotype is the systematic arrangement, using images, of the 46 human chromosomes of a cell. Karyotypes are examined for deviations from the expected arrangement, number, size, shape or other characteristics of the chromosomes. Each chromosome pair has a characteristic banding pattern. To make the banding pattern easier to see, a dye called Giemsa may be used as a stain. This process is also referred to as G-banding. G-banding karyotyping and other cytogenetic tests provide doctors with information that contributes to determining the best treatment approach for an individual patient. The test takes longer than the FISH test, but has the advantage of being able to detect any changes that are visible because it does not rely on specific probes. Usually, both tests are done on samples from the marrow, especially at the time of diagnosis.. ...
If you seek to connect and present your product or service to an engaged oncology healthcare community, you have come to the right place. More information. ...
in human male karyogram.. Chromosome 22 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in human cells.. Humans normally have two copies of chromosome 22 in each cell.. Chromosome 22 is the second smallest human chromosome, spanning about 49 million DNA base pairs and representing between 1.5 and 2% of the total DNA in cells... ...
The karyotype of a male human being. The largest chromosome, chromosome 1, contains about 8000 genes. The smallest chromosome, chromosome 21, contains about 300 genes. (Chromosome 22 should be the smallest, but the scientists made a mistake when they first numbered them!).. The DNA that contains your genes is stored in your cells in a structure called the nucleus.. ...
The Chromosome Theory of Heredity Traits are determined by pairs of genes (alleles) A pair of genes are located on a pair of chromosomes, one gene for each trait on each chromosome of a pair. In meiosis, the chromosomes and therefore the genes, segregate independently - one of each pair to a gamete In fertilization, gametes unite resulting in a fertilized egg that has two genes for each trait carried on pairs of chromosomes.
A [[Has type::Text]] property defining a single value. * Structure: [[Subproperty of::chromosome]] * It is a [[Subproperty of::2n=18,2n]] * It is a property of structure constraint: [[Subproperty of::2n=18,2n]] * Character: [[Subproperty of::quantity]] * A [[:Category:Top Level Property,Top Level Property]] [[Category:Top Level Property]] ==Types of 2n=18,2n chromosome quantity== {{#ask: [[Type of::Property:2n=18,2n chromosome quantity]],limit=500,format=category,default=None.}} ==Parts of 2n=18,2n chromosome quantity== {{#ask: [[Part of::Property:2n=18,2n chromosome quantity]],limit=500,format=category,default=None ...
Description of disease Banding of chromosomes. Treatment Banding of chromosomes. Symptoms and causes Banding of chromosomes Prophylaxis Banding of chromosomes
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56) among groups for which eastern people have next. Both G- and C-banding ends for the common Click thank social for operation with the Florida ecology. Although C-banding boundaries have deployed to the scholars of both temperatures( Assis et al. 2002), imports between G-banding faults say more new.
Chromosome 18Q- or Distal 18q affects the long arm of the chromosome and means there is a deletion of information on the long arm of the 18th Chromosome.
I recently suffered a miscarriage. Genetic studies were done indicating that an extra chromosome was present on the #22 chromosome. What does this chromosome determine ...
As weve seen in previous posts, cancer is caused by some sort of error in the DNA of the cancer. Human DNA comes in 46 long strings called chromosomes and it sometimes breaks, but luckily the break is usually repaired. However, sometimes the repair process gets it wrong - for example two DNA ends are joined together that arent meant…
Define chromosome: any of the rod-shaped or threadlike DNA-containing structures of cellular organisms that are located in… - chromosome in a sentence
Our research aims to unravel the biological significance that the different levels of DNA compaction structures and components have on chromosome condensation and DNA processes in the nucleus. We believe that this research will contribute to the understanding of different important themes like cell division, cancer, stem cells, chromosome alterations, fertility and, plant and animal, breeding.
Lone chromosomes stranded outside the nucleus where their fellow chromosomes reside are thought to be the Robinson Crusoes of the intracellular world.
This journal offers high quality papers on all aspects of chromosome and nuclear biology. Coverage emphasizes accounts of experimental studies of chromosome ...
I created a sam file by aligning reads, using bwa. I want to create a new sam file that contains all reads except ones that are on a particular chromosome or have an alternative alignment on that chromosome.. How can I do it?. ...
curWarn ,- getOption(warn) options(warn=0) on.exit(options(warn=curWarn), add=TRUE) if (require(hgu95av2)) { z ,- buildChromLocation(hgu95av2) ## find the number of chromosomes nChrom(z) ## Find the names of the chromosomes chromNames(z) ## get the organism this object refers to organism(z) ## get the lengths of the chromosomes in this object chromLengths(z) } else print(This example requires the hgu95av2 data package ...
iframe src=https://biblio.ugent.be/publication?q=parent+exact+%22CHROMOSOME+RESEARCH%22&embed=1&hide_pagination=1&hide_info=1&hide_options=1&hide_cluster=1 ...
Yes, one gene does contain thousands of nucleotides or base pairs. But what I am really confused is that Does one whole molecule of DNA (which is supposed to contain thousands of nucleotides) equal to one whole piece of chromosome (which we have 46 in a cell ...
Please help. Just need to clarify my answers for these 9 questions. Chromosomes that occur in pairs and code for the - Answered by a verified Tutor
Learn about some of the changes in the structure or number of copies of chromosome 16, plus how these can cause problems with health and development.
The diagram below represents the changes in the number of chromosomes during several processes that occur in an animal. [image] (i) Name the process of cell division occurring atX and Y. (ii) State two differences in…
The National Institutes of Health explains that having more or fewer chromosomes than the typical number - 46 - can cause birth defects or miscarriage. It can also be a factor in conditions that...
OMRF scientist Dean Dawson received a four-year grant to study chromosomes and the cellular processes that organize them during cell division.. ...
chromosome research - Read articles from Issue 2003(11). Read article PDFs using your inistitutions subscriptions with no additional login.
Get an answer for What effect might having too many or too few chromosomes have on an organism? and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Six cases of partial duplication-deficiency 21 syndrome: 21(dupq22delp23) due to maternal pericentric inversion: inv(21)(p12;q22). A family study.: Six probands
Genes are carried on chromosomes and the two that are important in PKD are chromosomes 16 and 4. I am not going to deal with the specifics of inheritance - this is best explained on the PKD Foundation web page. The relevant facts are that: 85% people…
USC scientists have discovered how two different structural apparatuses collaborate to protect repetitive DNA when it is at its most vulnerable - while it is being unzipped for replication.
This is not my deconversion story. Im sure I will share that, in pieces and over time, as would be fitting. But this is not it. Instead, this is a simple address to the advice my kind, compassionate and insightful father posed to me on the night I came out as an atheist. Perhaps you could cool it…
This adorable tee is so soft and light that youll want to wear it again and again. Its classic and stylish at the same time. Comes pre-shrunk to ensure a cons
You are examining three different genes, a, b, and c. They all reside on the same chromosome and you want to know the order of the genes along the chromosome. You determine that genes a and b are 10 cM apart, b and c are 2 cM apart and that a and c are 8 cM apart. What is the order of these genes ...
The following optional query parameters are supported to be part of the src URL to control what is displayed and the mode the viewer is placed in: ...
Effect of Qter® treatment on ATP, protein content and cell growth in H9c2 cells.H9c2 cells were treated up to 72 hours with 100 nM Qter® and the ATP content w
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Tate G, Satoh H, Endo Y, Mitsuya T (2000). "Assignment of desert hedgehog (DHH) to human chromosome bands 12q12→q13.1 by in ... The human homolog (DHH) is on chromosome band 12q13.1. The protein encoded by this gene is involved in cell signaling. The ... to chromosome band 12q13.1 by in situ hybridization". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 87 (1-2): 117-8. doi:10.1159/000015376. PMID ...
This chromosome banding technique eventually became known as the Q-banding technique. With this technique, she discovered the ... first chromosome band in the Y-chromosome of a human cell. After her discovery and the acceptance of the Q-banding technique by ... Unlike many of her colleagues, Zech firmly believed that human chromosomes, similar to plant chromosomes, had different bands. ... She discovered that staining chromosomes with quinacrine makes the bands on the chromosome exhibit fluorescence when exposed to ...
... somewhere in the range from sub-band 4 of region 1 to sub-band 1 of region 2. The ends of a chromosome are labeled "pter" and " ... Overview at ornl.gov Chromosome Banding and Nomenclature from NCBI.. ... The cytogenetic bands are areas of the chromosome either rich in actively-transcribed DNA (euchromatin) or packaged DNA ( ... band 2 (read as "two, two", not "twenty-two") 1 = sub-band 1 Thus the entire locus of the example above would be read as "three ...
... localization to human chromosome band 19q13.3". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 70 (1-2): 45-7. doi:10.1159/000133988. PMID 7736787. ... localization to human chromosome band 19q13.3". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 70 (1-2): 45-7. doi:10.1159/000133988. PMID 7736787. ... 1996). "Genetic linkage mapping of the dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (STD) gene on the chromosome 19q13.3 region". ...
... having 62 chromosomes. Q-band analysis showed no Y chromosome. From a morphological point of view, electron microscopy revealed ...
April 2008). "Duplication of chromosome band 12q24.11q24.23 results in apparent Noonan syndrome". American Journal of Medical ...
"Localization of the human coproporphyrinogen oxidase gene to chromosome band 3q12". Human Genetics. 94 (5): 557-9. doi:10.1007/ ... Human CPOX is a mitochondrial enzyme encoded by a 14 kb CPOX gene containing seven exons located on chromosome 3 at q11.2. CPOX ...
The gene has 7 exons and locates at chromosome band 1p34.2. The human protein proteasome subunit beta type-2 is 23 kDa in size ...
The gene has 9 exons and locates at chromosome band 15q25.1. The human protein proteasome subunit alpha type-4 is 29.5 kDa in ... have linked the chromosome 15q25.1 locus to the susceptibility of lung cancer and implicated the proteasome subunit alpha type- ...
Hecht BK, Hecht F, Münke M (Jul 1991). "Forebrain cleavage gene causing holoprosencephaly: deletion mapping to chromosome band ...
The Npas2 gene resides on chromosome 2 at the band q13. The gene is 176,679 bases long and contains 25 exons. The predicted 824 ... The Npas2 gene has been found to reside on chromosome 1 at 17.98 centimorgans and is 169,505 bases long. The NPAS2 protein is a ...
The gene has 5 exons and locates at chromosome band 14q11.2. The human protein proteasome subunit beta type-5 is 22 kDa in size ...
The gene has 6 exons and locates at chromosome band 6q27. The human protein proteasome subunit beta type-1 is 26.5 kDa in size ... subunits of human proteasomes map to chromosomes 6q27 and 7p12-p13 by fluorescence in situ hybridization". Genomics. 27 (2): ...
2010). Chromosome analysis by GTG banding technique in the DongGyeongi dogs. Korean Journal of Veterinary Service. 33. The ...
... is located on human chromosome band 16q12.1. The gene consists of seven exons and is highly expressed in both the brain ... July 2007). "Common variants on chromosomes 2q35 and 16q12 confer susceptibility to estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer". ...
... is a chromosome band and genetic marker situated at the tip of the X chromosome which has been studied since at least 1980 ... "A Compositional Map of Human Chromosome Band Xq28". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... The band contains three distinct regions, totaling about 8 Mbp of genetic information. The marker came to the public eye in ... Polymorphisms of genetic markers of the X chromosome were analyzed for 40 families to see if a specific marker was shared by a ...
The gene is found on chromosome 17 on the cytogenetic band 17p11.2. This gene has two paralog in the human genome, LOC201158, ... which is located on chromosome 17 at 17p12, and TVP23A, which is located on chromosome 16. The duplication appears to have ... It is located on Chromosome 17 at 18,684,582-18,710,026, and the most common mRNA has 7 exons. This gene encode a protein of ...
The human ASH1L gene spans 227.5 kb on chromosome 1, band q22. This region is rearranged in a variety of human cancers such as ... is a histone-lysine N-methyltransferase enzyme encoded by the ASH1L gene located at chromosomal band 1q22. ASH1L is the human ...
"Assignment of WNT7B to human chromosome band 22q13 by in situ hybridization". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 77 (3-4): 288-289 ...
"The human homolog of the myeloproliferative virus maps to chromosome band 1p34". Hum. Genet. 83 (2): 194-6. doi:10.1007/ ...
"Tissue-specific cancer-related serpin gene cluster at human chromosome band 3q26". Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer. 29 (3): 240-55 ... Chromosomes & Cancer. 22 (3): 179-85. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2264(199807)22:3. 3.0.CO;2-T. PMID 9624529. "Entrez Gene: SERPINI2 ...
Duval A, Busson-Leconiat M, Berger R, Hamelin R (2000). "Assignment of the TCF-4 gene (TCF7L2) to human chromosome band 10q25.3 ... The TCF7L2 gene is located on chromosome 10q25.2-q25.3, contains 19 exons and has autosomal dominant inheritance. As a member ... The TCF7L2 gene, encoding the TCF7L2 protein, is located on chromosome 10q25.2-q25.3. The gene contains 19 exons and has ... "Linkage of type 2 diabetes mellitus and of age at onset to a genetic location on chromosome 10q in Mexican Americans". American ...
"The interrelationships of chromosome banding patterns in canids, mustelids, hyena, and felids". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics ... because the red fox has 34 metacentric chromosomes and from 0 to 8 small B chromosomes, the raccoon dog has 42 chromosomes, and ... The wolf-like canids are a group of large carnivores that are genetically closely related because their chromosomes number 78. ... When the differences in number and arrangement of chromosomes is too great, hybridization becomes less and less likely. All the ...
The PROB1 gene is located on human chromosome 5, cytogenetic band 5q31.2. PROB1 is expressed in 89 types of tissue in the human ... Proline-rich basic protein 1 (PROB1) is a protein encoded by the PROB1 gene located on human chromosome 5, open reading frame ...
ISBN 978-0-520-24638-6. Wurster-Hill, D. H.; Centerwall, W. R. (1982). "The interrelationships of chromosome banding patterns ... The wolf-like canids are a group of large carnivores that are genetically closely related because they all have 78 chromosomes ... As they possess 78 chromosomes, all members of the genus Canis are karyologically indistinguishable from each other, and from ...
Gubina, E.; Ruiz-Hidalgo, M.J.; Baladrón, V.; Laborda, J. (1999). "Assignment of DLK1 to human chromosome band 14q32 by in situ ...
"Assignment1 of SUPV3L1 to human chromosome band 10q22.1 by in situ hybridization". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 83 (1-2): 84 ...
Wurster-Hill, D. H.; Centerwall, W. R. (1982). "The interrelationships of chromosome banding patterns in canids, mustelids, ... All species within the genus Canis, the wolf-like canids, are phylogenetically closely related with 78 chromosomes and can ... Location of nuclear DNA within the chromosomes of a cell nucleus The structure of part of a DNA double helix The results of DNA ... are a group of large carnivores that are genetically closely related because their chromosomes number 78. The group includes ...
1995). "Localization of the undulin gene (UND) to human chromosome band 8q23". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 68 (3-4): 233-4. doi: ... 2006). "DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 8". Nature. 439 (7074): 331-5. doi:10.1038/nature04406. PMID 16421571. v ...
The human gene has 8 exons and locates at chromosome band 2p12. Protein HtrA2, also known as Omi, is a mitochondrially-located ...
大多數人類基因擁有許多的外顯子,且人類的內含子比位在其兩端的外顯子更長。這些基因參差不齊地分佈在染色體中,每一個染色體皆含有一些基因較多的區段與基因較少的區段。這些區段的差異,則與染色體帶(chromosome bands)及GC含量相關。基因
This article on a gene on human chromosome 2 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Band. 2 C3,2 44.13 cM. Start. 74,704,615 bp[2]. End. 74,707,933 bp[2]. ... This gene is one of several homeobox HOXD genes located in a cluster on chromosome 2. Deletions that remove the entire HOXD ... Mammals possess four similar homeobox gene clusters, HOXA, HOXB, HOXC and HOXD, located on different chromosomes, consisting of ...
MN1 is a gene found on human chromosome 22, with gene map locus 22q12.3-qter.[5] Its official full name is meningioma ( ... Band. 5 F,5 53.86 cM. Start. 111,417,362 bp[2]. End. 111,457,033 bp[2]. ... a gene from chromosome 22q11, which is disrupted by a balanced translocation in a meningioma". Oncogene. 10 (8): 1521-8. PMID ...
McLean PJ, Farb DH, Russek SJ (Aug 1995). "Mapping of the alpha 4 subunit gene (GABRA4) to human chromosome 4 defines an alpha ... Band. 5,5 C3.1-C3.2. Start. 71,569,749 bp[2]. End. 71,658,308 bp[2]. ...
This article on a gene on human chromosome 7 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. ... Band. 5 G2,5 75.62 cM. Start. 135,980,099 bp[2]. End. 135,988,624 bp[2]. ...
This article on a gene on human chromosome 19 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. *v ... Band. 7 A3,7 9.94 cM. Start. 19,678,083 bp[2]. End. 19,681,479 bp[2]. ...
For example, Down syndrome happens when there are three copies of chromosome #21. (Usually people have 2 of every chromosome.) ... "Changes in herd stallions among feral horse bands and the absence of forced copulation and induced abortion". Behavioral ... When a human is conceived, it gets 23 chromosomes from its mother and 23 from its father. If it does not get the right number ... Most embryos and fetuses with chromosome problems will not live for a long time. They die very early. There are a few ...
Chromosome 2 (mouse)[2]. Band. 2 A3,2 16.43 cM. Start. 24,420,560 bp[2]. ...
Wurster-Hill, D. H.; Centerwall, W. R. (1982). "The interrelationships of chromosome banding patterns in canids, mustelids, ... because the red fox has 34 metacentric chromosomes and from 0 to 8 small B chromosomes,[10] the raccoon dog has 42 chromosomes ... The wolf, dingo, dog, coyote, and golden jackal all have 78 chromosomes arranged in 39 pairs.[6] This allows them to hybridize ... The wolf-like canids are a group of large carnivores that are genetically closely related because their chromosomes number 78. ...
"The progesterone receptor gene maps to human chromosome band 11q13, the site of the mammary oncogene int-2". Proceedings of the ... In humans, PR is encoded by a single PGR gene residing on chromosome 11q22,[5][6][7] it has two isoforms, PR-A and PR-B, that ...
Other variants are less functional and are termed A-L and N-Z, dependent on whether they run proximal or distal to the M band. ... Another name used is alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI). The gene is located on the long arm of the fourteenth chromosome ( ... In blood test results, the IEF results are notated as in PiMM, where Pi stands for protease inhibitor and "MM" is the banding ... The presence of deviant bands on IEF can signify the presence of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Since the number of identified ...
Banded mongoose females regularly mate with their fathers and brothers.[48]. *Bed bugs: North Carolina State University found ... By pairing chromosomes of similar genomes, the chance for these recessive alleles to pair and become homozygous greatly ... Few studies have found evidence of regular incest avoidance in mammals but banded mongooses are an exception.[48] ...
... technologist is required to distinguish subtle differences in banding patterns on bent and twisted metaphase chromosomes. FISH ... The chromosomes can be seen in blue. The chromosome that is labeled with green and red spots (upper left) is the one where the ... Then, an interphase or metaphase chromosome preparation is produced. The chromosomes are firmly attached to a substrate, ... Probes that hybridize along an entire chromosome are used to count the number of a certain chromosome, show translocations, or ...
Differences between the X chromosome and Y chromosome versions of the amelogenin gene (AMELX and AMELY respectively) enable it ... Two bands of DNA, at 106bps and 112bps, are resolved if both the AMELX and AMELY versions of the gene are present (i.e. the ... The amelogenin gene's location on sex chromosomes has implications for variability both between the X chromosome form (AMELX) ... The amelogenin gene has been most widely studied in humans, where it is a single copy gene, located on the X and Y chromosomes ...
"Genetic linkage evidence for a familial Alzheimer's seasesease locus on chromosome 14". Science. 258 (5082): 668-71. Bibcode: ... Band. 12 D1,12 38.84 cM. Start. 83,688,152 bp[2]. End. 83,735,199 bp[2]. ...
condensed chromosome. • nuclear chromosome, telomeric region. • nucleus. • nuclear chromatin. • lateral element. • cytosol. • ... Band. 2 E5,2 59.92 cM. Start. 119,112,793 bp[2]. End. 119,147,445 bp[2]. ... nuclear chromosome. • mitochondrial matrix. • nucleolus. • mitochondrion. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • chromatin. • ... condensed nuclear chromosome. • macromolecular complex. Biological process. • regulation of protein phosphorylation. • strand ...
... to chromosome 12p13.2-pter using a dinucleotide repeat". Genomics. 14 (1): 206-7. doi:10.1016/S0888-7543(05)80312-X. PMID ... Band. 6 F1,6 55.86 cM. Start. 118,587,240 bp[2]. End. 119,196,418 bp[2]. ... to chromosome 12p12-pter". Genomics. 10 (3): 835-9. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(91)90471-P. PMID 1653763.. ... "Mapping of a human brain voltage-gated calcium channel to human chromosome 12p13-pter". Genomics. 14 (4): 1092-4. doi:10.1016/ ...
G-bands of human chromosome 16 in resolution 850 bphs[18] Chr. Arm[19] Band[20] ISCN. start[21] ISCN. stop[21] Basepair. start ... Chromosome 16 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome ... G-banding patterns of human chromosome 16 in three different resolutions (400,[14] 550[15] and 850[4]). Band length in this ... G-banding ideogram of human chromosome 16 in resolution 850 bphs. Band length in this diagram is proportional to base-pair ...
Gregory SG, Barlow KF, McLay KE (2006). "The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1". Nature. 441 (7091 ... Band. 1q44. Start. 247,754,846 bp[1]. End. 247,760,556 bp[1]. Gene ontology. ...
Sonta, SI; Sandberg, AA (1977). "Chromosomes and causation of human cancer and leukemia: XXVIII. Value of detailed chromosome ... Band. 5,5 B1. Start. 30,155,248 bp[2]. End. 30,184,593 bp[2]. ... The HADHB gene is located on chromosome 2, with its specific ... 2005). "Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4". Nature. 434 (7034): 724-31. doi:10.1038/ ...
2005). "Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4". Nature. 434 (7034): 724-31. doi:10.1038/ ... Band. 1 C2,1 32.74 cM. Start. 64,730,558 bp[2]. End. 64,737,751 bp[2]. ... Saitoh T, Hirai M, Katoh M (Jun 2001). "Molecular cloning and characterization of human Frizzled-5 gene on chromosome 2q33.3- ...
Genetically, there are 74 diploid chromosomes (36 pairs). Appearance[edit]. The crab-eating fox is predominantly greyish-brown ...
"A testis-specific form of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha subunit is coded for by an intronless gene on chromosome 4 ... Band. 4q22.3. Start. 95,840,019 bp[1]. End. 95,841,474 bp[1]. Gene ontology. ...
The LCT and MCM6 genes are both located on the long arm (q) of chromosome 2 in region 21. The locus can be expressed as 2q21.[ ... Colored bands are obtained as final result, and depending on the different combinations, it would be possible to determine ...
This article on a gene on the human X chromosome and/or its associated protein is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding ... Band. Xp11.23. Start. 48,255,317 bp[1]. End. 48,267,444 bp[1]. RNA expression pattern. ... 2003). "A novel fusion gene, SS18L1/SSX1, in synovial sarcoma". Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 37 (2): 195-200. doi:10.1002/gcc. ... This translocation results in the fusion of the synovial sarcoma translocation gene on chromosome 18 to one of the SSX genes on ...
... to human chromosome band 2q35 by fluorescent in situ hybridization". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 89 (3-4): 160-1. doi:10.1159/ ... This article on a gene on human chromosome 2 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... 2005). "Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4". Nature. 434 (7034): 724-31. Bibcode: ...
This article on a gene on human chromosome 17 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Band. 11 E2,11 83.35 cM. Start. 119,267,887 bp[2]. End. 119,285,454 bp[2]. ... It is functionally similar to glycogen debranching enzyme, but is on a different chromosome, processed differently by the cell ...
The BDNF protein is encoded by a gene that is also called BDNF, found in humans on chromosome 11.[7][8] Structurally, BDNF ... Band. 2 E3,2 56.63 cM. Start. 109,674,700 bp[2]. End. 109,727,007 bp[2]. ...
Thus, a fly whose chromosomes are mutant in both copies of the Bicoid gene but who is born from a mother carrying one normal ... Antibodies raised against bcd fusion proteins recognize a 55-57 kd doublet band in Western blots of extracts of 0-4 hr old ...
In testing the paternity of a male child, comparison of the Y chromosome can be used, since it is passed directly from father ... Child's DNA sample should contain a mixture of different size DNA bands of both parents. In this case person #1 is likely the ...
Aha I, Hinf I, or Mbo I treatment produced a C-band... ... Fixed metaphase chromosomes from mouse strain RIII embryos or ... Ava II and Bst NI each produced a G-band pattern, but on most chromosomes only a small segment of each C-band, adjacent to the ... Comings DE (1978) Mechanisms of chromosome banding and implications for chromosome structure. Ann Rev Genet 12:25-46Google ... Aha I, Hinf I, or Mbo I treatment produced a C-band pattern, and Eco RII or Hae III produced a G-band plus C-band pattern. ...
The resolution of mBAND is slightly below that of conventional chromosome banding; however, the color bands have a great value ... Application of multicolor banding for identification of complex chromosome 18 rearrangements.. Hu J1, Sathanoori M, Kochmar SJ ... Multicolor chromosome banding (mBAND) is a recently developed technique that allows the delineation of chromosomal regions with ... These abnormalities cannot be defined easily by conventional cytogenetic analysis or chromosome paint. In this report, we ...
... banding, and AgNO3 staining were studied in somatic metaphase complements of fourLactuca species.L. sat ... Chromosome banding patterns obtained with C- and N- ... Chromosome banding patterns obtained with C- and N- banding, ... Schlegel, R., Gill, B. S., 1984: N-banding analysis of rye chromosomes and the relationship between N-banded and C-banded ... Pijnacker, L. P., Ferwerda, M. A., 1984: Giemsa C-banding chromosomes of potato chromosomes. - Canad. J. Genet. Cytol.26: 415- ...
The chromosome band track represents the approximate location of bands seen on Giemsa-stained chromosomes. Chromosomes are ... chromosome][arm][band], where band is a single digit. Examples of bands on chromosome 3 include 3p2, 3p1, cen, 3q1, and 3q2. At ... Chromosome Bands Localized by FISH Mapping Clones (. All Mapping and Sequencing tracks). Display mode: hide. dense. squish. ... some of the bands are subdivided into sub-bands, adding a second digit to the band number, e.g. 3p26. This resolution produces ...
... Journal. Pattern Recognition Letters. Volume , Issue number. 9 ... In this paper several new techniques for automated chromosome analysis are described: one for piecewise-linear chromosome ... A classification procedure is described that is based upon local band descriptors. Classification results obtained with this ... method are compared with results obtained with the global band description method (WDD functions). Data sets from two different ...
C) The best correlation between Giemsa bands and in silico bands observed for chromosome 3q. Giemsa bands are shown in black ( ... Correlation between Giemsa bands and in silico bands in chromosomes 21 (Left) and 22 (Right). Giemsa bands are shown in black ( ... "in silico bands." In silico bands are very similar to Giemsa bands in both chromosomes with the exception of the centromeric or ... of G bands by using dynamic programming (15). Let the i-th G band in a Giemsa banding pattern (pattern A) and the j-th G band ...
Chromosomes were classified according to Guerra (1986).. Chromosome banding was performed as described by Schwarzacher et al. ( ... The C-CMA+/DAPI+ bands appeared in interstitial and terminal regions, and the C-DAPI+ bands were found in all chromosome ... The option for CMA/DAPI staining after chromosome banding was to improve the contrast of the fine bands, due to greater retreat ... chromosome banding and FISH with 45S and 5S rDNA probes. The karyotypes showed a chromosome number of 2n = 2x = 16, with ...
A simple method for obtaining high-resolution banding patterns on elongated chromosomes was devised as follows: Human ... effect of ethidium bromide on mitotic chromosome condensation and its application to high-resolution chromosome banding ... simultaneously for 2 h and then routinely harvested for chromosome preparation. High-resolution G-bands were obtained by Giemsa ... Inhibition of mitotic chromosome condensation as a possible mechanism involved in this phenomenon is discussed. ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
... differing by only three chromosome pairs. Nearly all chromosomes of PDI and PHA were conserved in toto, except for chromosome ... Comparative analysis using G-banding and chromosome painting show that the karyotypic complement of TSA is highly rearranged ... Homologous chromosomes Is the Subject Area "Homologous chromosomes" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Chromosome pairs Is the Subject Area "Chromosome pairs" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Metaphase chromosome preparations were made from leukocyte cultures of normal individuals. The cells were fixed in methanol: ... Next Document: Q- and C-bands in the metaphase chromosomes of Drosophila nasutoides.. ... Metaphase chromosome preparations were made from leukocyte cultures of normal individuals. The cells were fixed in methanol: ... 2272499 - The pattern of x-chromosome inactivation in the embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues o.... 2458419 - Studies on the ...
Feulgen banding of heterochromatin in plant chromosomes Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Journal of Cell ... Feulgen bands can be obtained at the sites of constitutive heterochromatin in the chromosomes of Anemone blanda, Fritillaria ... Short hydrolysis gives no bands in A. blanda and S. siberica but gives negative bands in F. lanceolata. The kind of Feulgen ... Extended hydrolysis gives positive bands in A. blanda and F. lanceolata and negative bands in S. siberica. ...
Positive chromosome bands like C, G and NOR bands were developed on the metaphase chromosome spread. NOR bands were found on ... While, G bands was at A, T-rich regions appearing to be away from centromere towards the end of the chromosome bodies. C bands ... The diploid chromosome number was found to be 50 and the karyotype is composed of 14m+8sm+28 (st and t) with fundamental arm No ... The result showed the diploid chromosome number as 50 which is mostly seen in other cyprindis and the study could localize C, G ...
Preparing, Staining and Observing G-banding human chromosomes Develop an understanding of karyotyping and the association of ... Human Chromosomes Identification by G-Banding. Karyotyping. Experiment Objectives. ... Human Chromosomes Identification by G-Banding. Karyotyping. Experiment Objectives. Preparing, Staining and Observing G-banding ... PowerPoint Slideshow about Human Chromosomes Identification by G-Banding - broderick. An Image/Link below is provided (as is ...
CYP3A4 was mapped on R-banded human prometaphase chromosomes, and the precise localization of CYP3A4 on chromosome 7 was ... Assignment of the human cytochrome P-450 nifedipine oxidase gene (CYP3A4) to chromosome 7 at band q22.1 by fluorescence in situ ... further confirmed by a delineation of G-banded pattern on the same prometaphase chromosomes through a combination of UV-filter ... enzyme as a probe to determine its chromosome localization by fluorescence in situ hybridization. ...
Chromosome composition of some citrus species and cultivars based on the chromomycin A_3 (CMA) banding patterns * * BEFU M. ... Difference between Male and Female Trees of Ginkgo biloba Examined by Karyotype Analysis and Mapping of rDNA on the Chromosomes ...
The term chromosome is... Explanation of banded chromosome ... Looking for banded chromosome? Find out information about ... banded chromosome. structural carrier of hereditary characteristics, found in the nucleus of every cell and so named for its ... chromosome. (redirected from banded chromosome). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical. chromosome. (krō`məsōm), ... Banded chromosome , Article about banded chromosome by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/banded+ ...
Chromosome band 7q34 deletions resulting in KIAA1549-BRAF and FAM131B-BRAF fusions in pediatric low-grade Gliomas.. [Jacquelyn ... The KIAA1549-BRAF fusion typically results from a 2.0 Mb tandem duplication in chromosome band 7q34. In the present study, ...
Dutrillauxs T-banding method was used with minor modifications (Drets et al., 1992). T-banded chromosomes were photographed ... Well spread chromosomes with evident T-bands at both ends were selected for microdensitometric scanning. Chromosomes pairs 13, ... T-banding is a modification of R-banding procedure and is obtained through the incubation of chromosomes in a buffer at a high ... of T-banded human chromosomes appeared non-randomly located at opposite chromosome arms. It is of interest to mention that we ...
21 Mb deletion in chromosome band 13q22.2-q32.1 associated with mild/moderate psychomotor retardation, growth hormone ... The deletion has been estimated to span 21.46 Mb on chromosomal bands 13q22.2 - 13q32.1. The patient has mild/moderate ...
The Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3 α Gene, HNF3α (FOXA1), on Chromosome Band 14q13 Is Amplified and Overexpressed in Esophageal ... The Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3 α Gene, HNF3α (FOXA1), on Chromosome Band 14q13 Is Amplified and Overexpressed in Esophageal ... The Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3 α Gene, HNF3α (FOXA1), on Chromosome Band 14q13 Is Amplified and Overexpressed in Esophageal ... The Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3 α Gene, HNF3α (FOXA1), on Chromosome Band 14q13 Is Amplified and Overexpressed in Esophageal ...
... by C-Banding of Chromosomes, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research ... by C-Banding of Chromosomes. Analysis of Intraspecific Divergence of Hexaploid Wheat Triticum spelta L. by C-Banding of... ... Analysis of Intraspecific Divergence of Hexaploid Wheat Triticum spelta L. by C-Banding of Chromosomes. Dedkova, O.; Badaeva, E ... "Analysis of Intraspecific Divergence of Hexaploid Wheat Triticum spelta L. by C-Banding of Chromosomes." Russian Journal of ...
"Divergence of the polytene chromosome banding sequences as a reflection of evolutionary rearrangements of the genome linear ... Divergence of the polytene chromosome banding sequences as a reflection of evolutionary... Gunderina, L.; Kiknadze, I.; ... Divergence of the polytene chromosome banding sequences as a reflection of evolutionary rearrangements of the genome linear ... Divergence of the polytene chromosome banding sequences as a reflection of evolutionary rearrangements of the genome linear ...
Prognostic value of chromosome (sub)bands containing spiked genes. Among the 862 reported chromosome bands and sub-bands37 ( ... Genes with a spike expression are clustered in chromosome (sub)bands and spike (sub)bands have a powerful prognostic value in ... Genes with a spike expression are clustered in chromosome (sub)bands and spike (sub)bands have a powerful prognostic value in ... B) Visualization of the spike (sub)bands and associated spike genes for chromosome 1. The three spike (sub)bands with ≥ ten ...
However, in this study of silencing in colorectal cancer, we found common repression of the entire 4-Mb band of chromosome 2q. ... epigenetic silencing can span large regions of the chromosome, and both DNA-methylated and neighboring unmethylated genes can ... However, in this study of silencing in colorectal cancer, we found common repression of the entire 4-Mb band of chromosome 2q. ... Epigenetic remodeling in colorectal cancer results in coordinate gene suppression across an entire chromosome band. Abstract. ...
Assignment of the gene encoding the neuronal multidomain serine protease neurotrypsin (PRSS12) to human chromosome band 4q25--, ... to human chromosome band 4q25--,q26 by in situ hybridization. Cytogenetic and Genome Research, 84(1-2):107-108. ...
A gene for the suppression of anchorage independence is located in rat chromosome 5 bands q22-23, and the rat alpha-interferon ... A gene for the suppression of anchorage independence is located in rat chromosome 5 bands q22-23, and the rat alpha-interferon ... A gene for the suppression of anchorage independence is located in rat chromosome 5 bands q22-23, and the rat alpha-interferon ... A gene for the suppression of anchorage independence is located in rat chromosome 5 bands q22-23, and the rat alpha-interferon ...
Assignment of renal-specific Na(+)-phosphate cotransporter gene Slc17a2 to mouse chromosome band 13B by in situ hybridization. ... phosphate cotransporter gene Slc17a2 to mouse chromosome band 13B by in situ hybridization. Cytogenetic and Genome Research, 77 ...
Treatment Banding of chromosomes. Symptoms and causes Banding of chromosomes Prophylaxis Banding of chromosomes ... Chromosome Banding. C-banding stains centromeres. R-banding is the reverse of C-banding and stains non-centromeric regions in ... Chromosome banding , GeneticsSuite - Welcome to GeneticsSuite .... Chromosomes display a banded pattern when treated with some ... Banding of chromosomes: The treatment of chromosomes to reveal characteristic patterns of horizontal bands like bar codes. The ...
Chromosome in situ suppression hybridization using PCR products from a microdissected chromosome band as a probe pool. Human ... Publications] Deng H-X, Yoshiura K, Dirks RW, Harada N, Hirota T, Tsukamoto K, Jinno Y, Niikawa N.: Chromosome band-specific ... In order to construct chromosomal region or band-specific DNA libraries, we developed a method of chromosome microdissection/ ... Construction of DNA Libraries Specific for Chromosomal Regions or Bands by Chromosome Microdissection, and Its Application to ...
  • Barbara Trask, Vivian Cheung, Norma Nowak and others in the BAC Resource Consortium used fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) to determine a cytogenetic location for large genomic clones on the chromosomes. (ucsc.edu)
  • Assignment of the human cytochrome P-450 nifedipine oxidase gene (CYP3A4) to chromosome 7 at band q22.1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. (nih.gov)
  • We have used a full length cDNA clone (2.2 kb) for the human cytochrome P-450 nifedipine oxidase (CYP3A4) enzyme as a probe to determine its chromosome localization by fluorescence in situ hybridization. (nih.gov)
  • Assignment of renal-specific Na(+)-phosphate cotransporter gene Slc17a2 to mouse chromosome band 13B by in situ hybridization. (uzh.ch)
  • Karyotype analysis of Lilium longiflorum and Lilium rubellum by chromosome banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Interphase chromosome profiling (ICP) demonstrated results similar to conventional chromosome analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization in 55 previously studied cases and obtained useful ICP chromosome analysis results on another 29 cases in which conventional methods failed. (elsevier.com)
  • Cannizzaro, LA & Emanuel, BS 1984, ' An improved method for G-banding chromosomes after in situ hybridization ', Cytogenetic and Genome Research , vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 308-309. (elsevier.com)
  • Specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) signal bands were detected on all individual chromosome pairs. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • To begin to define the gene(s) involved on chromosome 13, we have performed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a panel of YACs from the region, on a series of 10 cases of acute leukemia with t(12;13)(p12;q14) and 1 case each with "variant" translocations including t(12;13)(q21;q14), t(10;13)(q24;q14) and t(9;13)(p21;q14). (openrepository.com)
  • The aim of this study was to describe mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of Cycloneda sanguinea using C-banding, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) rDNA probes, and sequential FISH/Ag-NOR staining. (ufv.br)
  • A fluorescence in situ hybridization map of human chromosome 21 consisting of 30 genetic and physical markers on the chromosome: localization of 137 additional YAC and cosmid clones with respect to this map. (openrepository.com)
  • Preparative in situ hybridization: selection of chromosome region-specific libraries on mitotic chromosomes. (openrepository.com)
  • Regional localization of 32 NotI-HindIII fragments from a human chromosome 13 library by a somatic cell hybrid panel and in situ hybridization. (openrepository.com)
  • The cytogenetic characteristics of the grasshopper Podisma sapporensis (two races 2n = 23♂ X0/XX and 2n = 22♂ neo-XY/neo-XX) were analysed through fluorescence in situ hybridization with rDNA and telomeric DNA probes, C-banding, fluorochrome and silver staining. (nature.com)
  • Dev VG, Miller DA, Miller OJ, Marshall JT, Hsu TC (1973) Quinacrine fluorescence of Mus cervicolor chromosomes: bright and dull centromeric heterochromatin. (springer.com)
  • The confirmation that the PCR product was derived from the dissected regions was done by fluorescence chromosome in situ suppression hybridization (chromosome painting) using the product as a probe pool. (nii.ac.jp)
  • She discovered that staining chromosomes with quinacrine makes the bands on the chromosome exhibit fluorescence when exposed to ultraviolet light. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mouse centromeric heterochromatin is highly reactive, showing intense fluorescence in ail centromeric regions, whereas human chromosomes show no fluorescence in such regions. (cirad.fr)
  • Chez la souris, l'hétérochromatine centromérique a fortement réagi et présenté une fluorescence intense dans toutes les régions centromériques alors que, chez les chromosomes humains, il y a eu absence de fluorescence dans de telles régions. (cirad.fr)
  • Multicolor chromosome banding (mBAND) is a recently developed technique that allows the delineation of chromosomal regions with a resolution of a few megabase pairs. (nih.gov)
  • The relative position of each boundary between neighboring Giemsa bands in relation to the total euchromatic portion of each chromosomal arm was obtained from Francke ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Preparing, Staining and Observing G-banding human chromosomes Develop an understanding of karyotyping and the association of various chromosomal abnormalities to diseases. (slideserve.com)
  • The deletion has been estimated to span 21.46 Mb on chromosomal bands 13q22.2 - 13q32.1. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Miroshnichenko, L. 2005-03-15 00:00:00 Banding sequences of five chromosomal arms (A, C, D, E, and F), accounting for about 70% of the total genome size in 63 Chironomus species, were used as markers to analyze divergence patterns of the linear genome structure during the evolution. (deepdyve.com)
  • The number of chromosomal breakpoints between the pairs of banding sequences compared served as a measure of divergence. (deepdyve.com)
  • In cytogenetics, the study of chromosomes and their abnormalities, every chromosomal pair has a G- band pattern that is unique. (drugster.info)
  • In order to construct chromosomal region or band-specific DNA libraries, we developed a method of chromosome microdissection/microcloning. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In short, a defined chromosomal region or band was dissected under a microscope equipped with a fine glass-needle handling a micromanipulator. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Chromosomal polymorphism as detected by C-banding patterns in Chilean alfalfa germplasm (1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • BackgroundThe multicolor banding MCB-mBAND technique provides a unique opportunity to characterize intrachromosomal rearrangements and to determine chromosomal breakpoints. (duhnnae.com)
  • Given the success of the cDNA selection method for finding a large number of genes in YACs from other chromosomal regions, these results suggest that the 6 Mb of DNA in the dark band 21q21 contains few single-copy sequences expressed in this tissue set. (elsevier.com)
  • The Philadelphia chromosome was the first chromosomal change found to be characteristic of a human disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This book continues to fulfill that need, and is strengthened by the complete revision of material on the molecular genetics of chromosomes and chromosomal defects. (springer.com)
  • Chromosomal Aberrations Chromosomal aberrations are abnormalities in the structure or number of chromosomes and are often responsible for genetic disorders. (bookrags.com)
  • Chromosomal Banding A chromosome banding pattern is comprised of alternating light and dark stripes, or bands, that appear along its length after being stained with a dye. (bookrags.com)
  • Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance The chromosomal theory of inheritance is the idea that genes, the units of heredity, are physical in nature and are found in the chromosomes. (bookrags.com)
  • Chromosomal Mutations and Abnormalities Chromosome abnormalities describe alterations in the normal number of chromosomes or structural problems within the chromosomes themselves. (bookrags.com)
  • The precision necessary to fuse two chromosomes, inactivate one centromere, and adjust the amount of heterochromatin suggests that the chromosomal translocation mechanisms were designed by God to provide for His creatures in this present fallen world. (answersingenesis.org)
  • Our results indicated a significant degree of chromosomal differentiation between P. sapporensis races when comparing the number and position of the rDNA sites, as well as the heterochromatin composition and distribution obtained by C-banding and DAPI/CMA 3 staining. (nature.com)
  • While complex- ments and oncogenes in malignancy and the ities of older questions of chromosome/ parallelism between the neoplastic and phy- chromatin organization are being understood, logenetic chromosomal alterations are discussed newer dimensions and perspectives have been in the next two chapters. (indigo.ca)
  • The differences in band patterns among the species studied here, along with data from other nine species reported in the literature, suggest that the bands are dispersed in an equilocal and non-equilocal manner and that structural rearrangements can be responsible for internal karyotype diversification. (scielo.br)
  • However, it is important to point out that the structural changes involving repetitive segments did not culminate in substantial changes in the general karyotype structure concerning chromosome size and morphology. (scielo.br)
  • The diploid chromosome number was found to be 50 and the karyotype is composed of 14m+8sm+28 (st and t) with fundamental arm No. (FN) 72. (scialert.net)
  • The spelt accessions did not differ in karyotype structure or heterochromatin distribution from common wheat, but showed greater intraspecific polymorphism by chromosome rearrangements (translocations, inversions) and banding patterns. (deepdyve.com)
  • All the cell lines were subjected to detailed karyotype analysis in G-banding, which resulted in the finding that cells from the original BS140 hybrid contained at least one copy of each rat chromosome, whereas BS140 a- and h-subclones had lost both copies of rat chromosome 5. (biologists.org)
  • ICP is a new and powerful method to karyotype peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirate preparations without reliance on metaphase chromosome preparations. (elsevier.com)
  • The karyotype of B. germanica contained many gray bands that may indicate euchroaatin interspersed with heterochromatin. (vt.edu)
  • Translocation heterozygote stocks were used to correlate the banded karyotype with linkage groups. (vt.edu)
  • A C-banded prophase II karyotype of a closely related species, Blattella vaga , was prepared to assess the variability of heterochromatin distribution. (vt.edu)
  • In order to precisely recognize and karyotype Brassica napus L. chromosomes, C 0 t -1 DNA was extracted from its genomic DNA, labeled withbiotin-11-dUTP and in situ hybridized. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The B. napus karyotype has been constructed, for the first time, on the basis of both C 0 t -1 DNA FISH banding patterns and chromosome morphology. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • A routine chromosome analysis, or karyotype , is usually used to make the initial diagnosis, although it may also be made by microarray analysis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of them have been mosaics with one 45,-G cell line and one or two more cell lines with a normal karyotype and/or a structural chromosome abnormality involving a G chromosome (reviews in Greenwood and Sommer 1971 and Weber et al. (fondationlejeune.org)
  • 1971 ) staining showed only one chromosome 21, but an otherwise normal female karyotype (fig. 2). (fondationlejeune.org)
  • The karyotype of C. sorbi was found to be characterized by a very small amount of C-positive material, localized in a telomere of the Y chromosome. (edu.pl)
  • The karyotype of C. mali was also characterized by a very small amount of C-banded material. (edu.pl)
  • Chromosome banding patterns in Lettuce species ( Lactuca sect. (springer.com)
  • Chromosome banding patterns obtained with C- and N- banding, and AgNO 3 staining were studied in somatic metaphase complements of four Lactuca species. (springer.com)
  • Koopman, W.J.M., De Jong, J.H. & De Vries, I.M. Chromosome banding patterns in Lettuce species ( Lactuca sect. (springer.com)
  • To elucidate the precise relationship between GC content and Giemsa banding patterns, we developed an " in silico chromosome staining" method for reconstructing Giemsa bands computationally from the whole human genome sequence. (pnas.org)
  • Distinct patterns of Giemsa-dark (G) and -light (R) bands observed on mitotic chromosomes reflect regional differences in chromatin higher-order structures and functions at various levels. (pnas.org)
  • These results indicate that Giemsa banding patterns cannot be explained only by the difference in base composition. (pnas.org)
  • A simple method for obtaining high-resolution banding patterns on elongated chromosomes was devised as follows: Human lymphocytes cultured for 3 days with phytohemagglutinin were exposed to EB (5-10 micrograms/ml) and Colcemid (0.02 micrograms/ml) simultaneously for 2 h and then routinely harvested for chromosome preparation. (nih.gov)
  • These patterns were confirmed by scanning T-banded endoreduplicated CHO chromosomes in which the same interchromatid distribution of HD chromatin appeared in both sister chromosomes (Drets and Mendizábal, 1998). (scielo.br)
  • On evidence of C-banding patterns, spelt was assumed to occupy an intermediate position between tetraploid and hexaploid wheat species. (deepdyve.com)
  • Accessions of the Asian spelt subspecies had more diverse banding patterns than European accessions. (deepdyve.com)
  • Visual analysis revealed high uniformity of chromosome banding patterns in T. spelta populations of Afghanistan, Spain, and Germany (Bavarian group), suggesting a significant role of the founder effect in their evolution. (deepdyve.com)
  • The treatment of chromosomes to reveal characteristic patterns of horizontal bands like bar codes. (drugster.info)
  • The banding patterns lend each chromosome a distinctive appearance so the 22 pairs of human nonsex chromosomes and the X and Y chromosomes can be identified and distinguished without ambiguity. (drugster.info)
  • Banding Patterns. (drugster.info)
  • Each chromosome pair showed specific banding patterns. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In the sodium butyrate-treated cells the resulting banding patterns of the high- and low-acetylated fractions were strikingly different. (naver.com)
  • ConclusionsThe present method can be applied for generation of whole or region-specific DNA probes for species, where karyotyping of G-banded chromosomes is challenging due to similar chromosome morphology and-or chromosome banding patterns. (duhnnae.com)
  • This allowed me to identify individual chromosomes at meiosis and record their patterns of recombination. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • 1972). In the present paper we report on a 54 years old mentally retarded woman who originally was considered to have a presumptive monosomy 21 on the basis of an analysis of the direct Giemsa (G) and quinacrine (Q) chromosome banding patterns. (fondationlejeune.org)
  • and chromosome-banding patterns revealed by differential staining. (elsevier.com)
  • They make use of diagrams referred to as chromosome ideograms to determine the relative sizes and the banding patterns of chromosomes . (biology-online.org)
  • By applying specific stains, the banding patterns become apparent. (biology-online.org)
  • The resulting pattern is similar to the G-banding pattern in a way that the bright and dull regions produced along the chromosome correspond to the dark and light regions in G-banding patterns, respectively. (biology-online.org)
  • Characteristic Q-banding patterns are found at the distal long arm of the Y chromosome (which fluoresces extremely brightly), at the heterochromatic regions of chromosomes 1, 9, and 16, and at the satellite regions of the acrocentric chromosomes. (biology-online.org)
  • 8 Steroid Sulphatase Inactivation Patterns and X-chromosome Inactivation. (indigo.ca)
  • Differential evolution of specific heterochromatin classes (and presumably of highly repetitive DNA classes), as revealed by chromosome banding techniques was not linked to domestication. (springer.com)
  • Schlegel, R., Gill, B. S. , 1984: N-banding analysis of rye chromosomes and the relationship between N-banded and C-banded heterochromatin. (springer.com)
  • Feulgen bands can be obtained at the sites of constitutive heterochromatin in the chromosomes of Anemone blanda, Fritillaria lanceolata and Scilla siberica, simply by means of a short or extended acid hydrolysis. (biologists.org)
  • A chromosome banding protocol for Blattella germanica speramtocytes was developed to reveal locations of constitutive heterochromatin (C-bands). (vt.edu)
  • Frequency and distribution of large centromeric heterochromatin was investigated on swine telomerlc chromosomes. (wcgalp.org)
  • In most cases chromosome pair No. 16 showed heterochromatin larger than usual. (wcgalp.org)
  • All chromosomes showed pericentromeric heterochromatin. (ufv.br)
  • As part of an effort to isolate genes from the entire long arm of human chromosome 21, we performed cDNA selection with 15 YACs from the regions of the pericentromeric heterochromatin and the two Giemsa dark bands of this chromosome using cDNA libraries from six different tissues. (elsevier.com)
  • The different types of banding methods are Giemsa (G-) banding, reverse (R-) banding, constitutive heterochromatin (C-) banding, quinacrine (Q-) banding, Nucleolar Organizer Region (NOR-) banding, and telomeric R (T-) banding. (biology-online.org)
  • Paracentric heterochromatin variants usually occur on the long arms of chromosomes 1, 9, 16, and distal heterochromatin of the Y chromosome [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In particular, the heterochromatin polymorphism of chromosome 9 is the structural variant most frequently present in infertile men [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • While recent data about sperm DNA integrity in balanced chromosomes rearranged carriers have been published [ 7 , 8 ], no data from carriers of heterochromatin polymorphism have been published to-date so, consequently, a lack of information about the effects on the phenotype is still present. (hindawi.com)
  • Standard protocols for G- and C-banding analysis were performed on lymphocyte metaphases showing the presence of a 9qh+++ chromosome in which the pericentromeric heterochromatin block tripled the normal length (Figure 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • b) C-banding shows an increase in the heterochromatin region of chromosome 9. (hindawi.com)
  • 7 , 8 Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays have made it possible to confirm the classification of patients into two major groups, hyperdiploid MM characterized by odd chromosome duplications and non-hyperdiploid MM, and have identified numerous microalterations, some with prognostic value. (haematologica.org)
  • We report a method for producing high-resolution G-bands on chromosomes of normal and neoplastic human cells after hybridization of 3 H-labeled probes to the chromosomes and after autoradiography. (elsevier.com)
  • DNA from low-acetylated chromatin labeled several pericentric regions, whereas hybridization with DNA from highly acetylated chromatin resulted in a pattern similar to inverse G-bands on many chromsomes. (naver.com)
  • The capture and hybridization of DNA from interphase chromatin at different acetylation states provides a "snap-shot" of the distribution of gene activity on chromosomes at the time of cell harvest. (naver.com)
  • What is the most common method for staining chromosomes in cytogenetics? (brainscape.com)
  • Generation of MCB probes for chromosomes of other species, useful and required in many cytogenetics research fields, was limited by technical difficulties. (duhnnae.com)
  • This volume covers a range of methods used in plant cytogenetics, beginning with basic analysis of chromosomes and visualizing gene locations, to manipulating and dissecting chromosomes, and then focusing on less understood features of chromosomes such as recombination initiation sites and epigenomic marks. (springer.com)
  • This chromosome banding method proved to be one of the most important advancements to clinical cytogenetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • These abnormalities cannot be defined easily by conventional cytogenetic analysis or chromosome paint. (nih.gov)
  • The microdissection/PCR was applied to the diagnosis of chromosome abnormalities of which origin was unknown. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Each label so generated by using cloned bacterial artificial chromosome probes is molecularly distinct with unique spectral characteristics, so the number and position of the labels can be tracked to identify chromosome abnormalities. (elsevier.com)
  • The modal chromosome number of all three cases was neardiploid, with all samples demonstrating multiple structural abnormalities. (nebraska.edu)
  • Abnormalities shared by all three patients were alterations of chromosomes 1 and 8. (nebraska.edu)
  • Other structural abnormalities common to two of the three patients involved chromosomes 6, 7, 9 and 10. (nebraska.edu)
  • Abnormalities of chromosome band 13q14 occur in hematologic malignancies of all lineages and at all stages of differentiation. (openrepository.com)
  • After her discovery and the acceptance of the Q-banding technique by other scientists and medical professionals, Zech used the technique to find chromosome abnormalities in two types of blood cancer - leukemia and lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • In collaboration with tumor biologist Georg Klein, Zech helped identify the chromosome abnormalities in tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Q-banding is very useful in the examination of the heteromorphism associated with the Y chromosome and the satellite regions of the acrocentric chromosomes as well as the characterization of structural abnormalities associated with Y chromosome material. (biology-online.org)
  • Chromosome banding studies have shown that it is possible to identify individual chromosomes of M. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. (pozzter.com)
  • Location of nucleolar organizers in animal and plant chromosomes by means of an improved N-banding technique. (naver.com)
  • At the research institute, it was proven that DNA-binding fluorescent dyes could be used as a chromosome banding technique for plant chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike many of her colleagues, Zech firmly believed that human chromosomes, similar to plant chromosomes, had different bands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ava II and Bst NI each produced a G-band pattern, but on most chromosomes only a small segment of each C-band, adjacent to the centromere, was stained. (springer.com)
  • Cytologically identified bands on the chromosome are numbered outward from the centromere on the short (p) and long (q) arms. (ucsc.edu)
  • In this paper several new techniques for automated chromosome analysis are described: one for piecewise-linear chromosome stretching and projection, two for accurately localizing the centromere and one for two-dimensional local band pattern description. (uva.nl)
  • While, G bands was at A, T-rich regions appearing to be away from centromere towards the end of the chromosome bodies. (scialert.net)
  • To label multiple targets in an equidistant fashion along the entire length of each chromosome, including landmark subtelomere and centromere regions. (elsevier.com)
  • It is well known that the usual banding procedures (C-, G-, R- and T-) reveal the underlying structure and composition of DNA and associated proteins in mitotic chromosomes (Therman and Susman, 1993). (scielo.br)
  • The cells were fixed in methanol:acetic acid (3:1 v/v), then dropped on cold, wet slides which were air-dried before storage at 4 degrees C. The slides were stained to identify the chromosomes by one of the following procedures: (1) Quinacrine. (biomedsearch.com)
  • I was also in Stockholm in 1970, when it was discovered in Torbjorn Caspersson's laboratory at the Karolinska Institute that human chromosomes display distinct bands along their entire length, following the application of quinacrine mustard. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Analysis of the banding pattern of the chromosomes after quinacrine (Caspersson et al. (fondationlejeune.org)
  • Her research alongside Torbjörn allowed her to create the first chromosome banding technique known as the quinacrine or Q-banding technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quinacrine banding (or Q-banding) is the first chromosome banding pattern reported. (biology-online.org)
  • It is done by treating the chromosomes with quinacrine dihydrochloride. (biology-online.org)
  • Fixed metaphase chromosomes from mouse strain RIII embryos or A9 cells were treated with a restriction endonuclease, followed by Giemsa staining. (springer.com)
  • Holmquist G, Gray M, Porter T, Jordan J (1982) Characterization of Giemsa dark and light-band DNA. (springer.com)
  • The chromosome band track represents the approximate location of bands seen on Giemsa-stained chromosomes. (ucsc.edu)
  • Giemsa staining has been used for identifying individual human chromosomes. (pnas.org)
  • Here we show that 850-level Giemsa bands are best correlated with the difference in GC content between a local window of 2.5 megabases and a regional window of 9.3 megabases along a chromosome. (pnas.org)
  • Our results clearly show that Giemsa-dark bands are locally GC-poor regions compared with the flanking regions. (pnas.org)
  • These findings are consistent with the model that matrix-associated regions, which are known to be AT-rich, are present more densely in Giemsa-dark bands than in -light bands. (pnas.org)
  • Giemsa bands are related to functional nuclear processes such as replication or transcription in the following points. (pnas.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to elucidate the precise relationship between Giemsa bands and genome sequences by using the draft sequence of the whole human genome ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • The basic idea to calculate the similarity score S between Giemsa bands and in silico bands is to determine the optimal "alignment" of G bands by using dynamic programming ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • High-resolution G-bands were obtained by Giemsa staining following mild trypsin treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Metaphase chromosome preparation was made using standard hypotonic solution, methanol acetic-acid fixation followed by Giemsa staining for karyotyping of the species. (scialert.net)
  • T-banding is a modification of R-banding procedure and is obtained through the incubation of chromosomes in a buffer at a high temperature followed by Giemsa staining. (scielo.br)
  • Treating aged metaphase preparations with a protease (trypsin) before Giemsa stain is applied to generate a reproducible banding pattern. (brainscape.com)
  • Reverse banding achieved by incubating chromosomes with phosphate buffer before adding Giemsa. (brainscape.com)
  • Nine of these YACs mapped to the Giemsa dark band, 21q21. (elsevier.com)
  • However, later studies using the reversed Giemsa (R) banding technique demonstrated an unbalanced 4q/21 q translocation. (fondationlejeune.org)
  • Chromosome band 7q34 deletions resulting in KIAA1549-BRAF and FAM131B-BRAF fusions in pediatric low-grade Gliomas. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Banding also permits the recognition of chromosome deletions (lost segments), chromosome duplications (surplus segments) and other types of structural rearrangements of chromosomes. (drugster.info)
  • Our study also showed that cytogenetically evident deletions were frequent in chromosome 1p, almost always involving the p36 region, whereas duplications were rare and never encompassed the p36 region. (nebraska.edu)
  • [3] Because ring 18 can involve unique deletions of both the p and q arms of the chromosome there is twice as much reason for the variability between individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the ring involves deletions of both the long arm (18q-) and the short arm (18p-) of chromosome 18, individuals with ring 18 can have features of both 18p- as well as distal 18q- . (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular cytogenetic delineation of deletions and translocations involving chromosome band 7q22 in myeloid leukemias. (openrepository.com)
  • Chromosome translocations and deletions may alter cellular proto-oncogenes and result in cellular changes that are important in the pathogenesis of malignancy. (elsevier.com)
  • L. sativa and L. serriola have almost identical chromosome morphology, and L. saligna differs only slightly from them, but L. virosa is quite distinct from the other species. (springer.com)
  • The karyotypes of four South American species of Cestrum ( C. capsulare, C. corymbosum, C. laevigatum and C. megalophylum ) were studied using conventional staining, C-CMA/DAPI chromosome banding and FISH with 45S and 5S rDNA probes. (scielo.br)
  • 2006, 2007) described different numbers of 45S rDNA sites and the constancy in number and location of 5S rDNA sites in four species of Cestrum , plus the occurrence of a Ty 3- gypsy retrotransposon family dispersed along chromosomes and forming blocks associated with NORs in C. intermedium Sendtn. (scielo.br)
  • The result showed the diploid chromosome number as 50 which is mostly seen in other cyprindis and the study could localize C, G and NOR bands for the first time on this species. (scialert.net)
  • Data obtained from the chromosome banding techniques are scarce not only for the species of the genus Atta but for other species of the tribe Attini as well, (Barros et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Restriction enzyme digestion chromosome banding in Crassostrea and Ostrea species: comparative karyological analysis within Ostreidae. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Research on the genome size of other abalone species in general and specifically South African species, combined with chromosome banding techniques, could provide more insight into the evolution of this genus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The basic banding pattern was preserved in four of the twelve chromosomes although the bands were larger in this species. (vt.edu)
  • ResultsHere we present a complete workflow for MCB probe generation for those cases and species where chromosome morphology is too challenging to recognize target chromosomes by conventional methods and where WCP probes are not available. (duhnnae.com)
  • Y is the sex-determining chromosome in many species , since it is the presence or absence of Y that determines the male or female sex of offspring produced in sexual reproduction . (wikipedia.org)
  • The normal diploid number of chromosomes is constant for each species. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • an extra CHROMOSOME (supernumerary) above the normal number for the SPECIES . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Polyploidy means that species contain more than the normal two chromosome sets in their cells. (idw-online.de)
  • Hybrid forms with more than two chromosomes sets form if two already separate species mate and after mergence of the two genomes, all chromosomes of the ancestral forms are maintained. (idw-online.de)
  • The C-banding and Ag staining in the studied Cacopsylla species did not provide any additional cytological markers for an understanding of the pathways of sex determination system transformation in the evolution of the species. (edu.pl)
  • In the genetic relationships among five species examined, the 24 chromosome brown frogs ( R. dybowskii , R. huanrenensis , and R. chensinensis ) did not form a monophyletic group. (bioone.org)
  • The differential reactivity of each chro-mosome region showed by this method demonstrates a heterogeneous distribution of chromosome proteins, resulting in a chromosome banding pattern, which is in this case species dependent. (cirad.fr)
  • Hyperdiploid MM harbor odd chromosome duplications and non-hyperdiploid MM recurrent translocations. (haematologica.org)
  • The gene continues to be identified on chromosome band 3q27, which may be the breakpoint of reciprocal chromosome translocations seen in B\cell non\Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). (cloudlegalproject.org)
  • Metaphase chromosome preparations were made from leukocyte cultures of normal individuals. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Positive chromosome bands like C, G and NOR bands were developed on the metaphase chromosome spread. (scialert.net)
  • To develop a method similar to banded metaphase chromosome analysis that relies only on interphase nuclei. (elsevier.com)
  • 1 DNA Organization in the Interphase Nucleus and Metaphase Chromosome. (indigo.ca)
  • This algorithm works well for different intensity levels and adopts the structural changes to identify the bands in image. (cytgen.com)
  • The diagnostic karyotypes revealed that 12% of these cases exhibited structural rearrangements involving chromosome band 1p36. (nebraska.edu)
  • Even more, novel chromosome techniques tion by flow cytometry, and mapping of structural- have become an integral component of clinical ly and functionally distinct domains on metaphase and molecular genetic methodologies. (indigo.ca)
  • Beauchamp RS, Mitchell AR, Buckland RA, Bostock CJ (1979) Specific arrangements of human satellite III DNA sequences in human chromosomes. (springer.com)
  • Brown SDM, Dover GA (1980) The specific organisation of satellite DNA sequences on the X-chromosome of Mus musculus: partial independence of chromosome evolution. (springer.com)
  • the breakpoint number was maximum in a comparison of the banding sequences in the subgenera Chironomus and Camptochironomus. (deepdyve.com)
  • Using Southern blotting, we tested whether any of several gene probes, known to correspond to DNA sequences in rat chromosome 5, were homologous to sequences in the deletion. (biologists.org)
  • The absence of histones in dinoflagellate chromosomes suggest that the search for Z-DNA sequences might be fruitful and could provide one indication of the physiological role of this particular DNA conformation. (rupress.org)
  • Arnheim N, Treco D, Taylor B, Eicher EM (1982) Distribution of ribosomal gene length variants among mouse chromosomes. (springer.com)
  • Krystal M, D'Eustachio P, Ruddle FH, Arnheim N (1981) Human nucleolus organizers on nonhomologous chromosomes can share the same ribosomal gene variants. (springer.com)
  • Second, R bands are gene-rich and contain most housekeeping genes as well as a large number of CpG islands, whereas G bands are gene-poor and preferentially contain tissue-specific genes ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • The spike band score was independent of other gene expression profiling-based risk scores, t(4;14), or del17p in an independent validation cohort of 345 patients. (haematologica.org)
  • These data change our understanding of epigenetic gene silencing in cancer cells: namely, epigenetic silencing can span large regions of the chromosome, and both DNA-methylated and neighboring unmethylated genes can be coordinately suppressed by global changes in histone modification. (garvan.org.au)
  • The interphase nuclei of human sperm are organized in a non-random way, driven by the gene density and chromosome size. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is still a matter of discussion what influences more the nuclear position of chromosomes: chromosome size or gene density. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human chromosome #19, which is gene-dense and early replicating shows a localization in the central part, for the approximately same sized chromosome 18 a localization in the peripheral part of the nucleus was repeatedly proven. (biomedcentral.com)
  • [4] This is due to the deletion of the TGIF gene on the short arm of chromosome 18 in some people with ring 18. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, the Y chromosome contains the gene SRY , which triggers testis development. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, the Y chromosome contains a gene, SRY , which triggers embryonic development as a male. (wikipedia.org)
  • [11] Platypus sex chromosomes have strong sequence similarity with the avian Z chromosome , (indicating close homology ), [12] and the SRY gene so central to sex-determination in most other mammals is apparently not involved in platypus sex-determination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. (meta.org)
  • Application of multicolor banding for identification of complex chromosome 18 rearrangements. (nih.gov)
  • Here for the first time a combination of multicolor banding (MCB) and three-dimensional analysis of interphase cells was used to characterize the position and orientation of all human chromosomes in sperm cells of a healthy donor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chromosome intrachanges and interchanges detected by multicolor banding in lymphocytes: searching for clastogen signatures in the human genome. (tu-darmstadt.de)
  • Until recently, MCB probes have only been available for human and some murine chromosomes. (duhnnae.com)
  • MCB probes are established by chromosome microdissection followed by whole genomic DNA amplification. (duhnnae.com)
  • Miller DA, Choi YC, Miller OJ (1983) Chromosome localization of highly repetitive human DNAs and amplified rDNA by use of restriction enzymes. (springer.com)
  • The C-CMA + bands and 45S rDNA were located predominantly in terminal regions. (scielo.br)
  • type (TTTAGGG) n telomeres, which seem to be replaced by an A/T-rich minisatellite family in Cestrum , Sessea and Vestia , besides an uncommon occurrence of 45S and 5S rDNA in B-chromosomes of Cestrum parqui L'Her. (scielo.br)
  • Karyotyping of Brassica napus L. Based on C0t-1 DNA Banding by Fl. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In chromosome analysis, local band analysis plays the main role to identify the perfect matched chromosome in metaspread images to attain the karyotyping. (cytgen.com)
  • Each of these chromosome numbers is the so-called diploid number, i.e., the number found in the somatic (body) cells and in the germ cells that give rise to the gametes, or reproductive cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When the germ cells divide in the two-step process of meiosis meiosis , process of nuclear division in a living cell by which the number of chromosomes is reduced to half the original number. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The principal constituents of the chromosomes are nucleoproteins containing deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA (see nucleic acid nucleic acid, any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The very large chromosomes in the salivary gland cells of Drosophila and other insects have furnished valuable material for the study of genetics genetics, scientific study of the mechanism of heredity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sexually reproducing organisms in both the plant and animal kingdoms begin their development by the fusion of two haploid germ cells and are thus diploid (2 n ), with two sets of chromosomes in each body cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cell hybrids between malignant mouse hepatoma cells and normal rat fibroblasts with approximately one set of chromosomes from each parent exhibited remarkable karyotypic stability. (biologists.org)
  • Nucleosomes from untreated and butyrate-treated HeLa cells were fractionated by their acetylation level and the associated DNA labeled, and hybridized to normal human chromosomes. (naver.com)
  • The male-determining member of a pair of human chromosomes (XY) present in the somatic cells of all male humans. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Her research and discoveries paved the way for the identification of anomalies in chromosomes of diseased cells and eventually for many treatments and therapies for these diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is hardly visible: their cells contain 3 or even 4 chromosome sets, which led to completely new characteristics that enable them, for example, to adapt to new ecological conditions. (idw-online.de)
  • The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes ( allosomes ) in mammals , including humans , and many other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • With a 30% difference between humans and chimpanzees, the Y chromosome is one of the fastest-evolving parts of the human genome . (wikipedia.org)
  • The Y chromosomes of humans and other mammals also contain other genes needed for normal sperm production. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of two chromosomes, the X and Y chromosomes, that determine sex in humans and that carry the genes for sex-linked characteristics. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Analysis of balanced rearrangements of chromosome 6 in acute leukemia: clustered breakpoints in q22-q23 and possible involvement of c-MYB in a new recurrent translocation, t(6;7)(q23;q32 through 36). (openrepository.com)
  • This is the fifth description of a cytogenetic abnormality in mesenchymal hamartoma and is similar to the four cases reported previously in that one of the breakpoints involved chromosome band 19q13.4. (elsevier.com)
  • The X and Y chromosomes are thought to have evolved from a pair of identical chromosomes, [14] [15] termed autosomes , when an ancestral animal developed an allelic variation, a so-called "sex locus" - simply possessing this allele caused the organism to be male. (wikipedia.org)
  • During meiosis, these genes were mapped to a region outside the sex vesicle by FISH, although Xyp was deeply stained with silver at metaphase I. These results suggest that these argyrophilic substances are of a nucleolar protein nature, and seem to be synthesized by a pair of autosomes and imported during meiosis (prophase I) to the sex pair, during the association of the sex chromosomes. (ufv.br)
  • Of these, 22 are autosomes and one is the sex chromosome (X or Y). At fertilization, the chromosomes from the sperm unite with the chromosomes from the ovum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Both the sex chromosomes and the autosomes displayed a marked polymorphism of C-positive bands within different individuals and even the same individual. (edu.pl)
  • These analyses are fundamental in the design of control specimens present C-heterochromatic blocks in most of campaigns because their results will help determine the their 22 chromosomes, whereas non-Andean specimens have only 4-7 autosomes with C-banding. (cdc.gov)
  • pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes (XY in Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Montpellier, males, XX in females) (8). (cdc.gov)
  • Translocation multivalents frequently contained C-bands Dot resolved in wild type chromosomes. (vt.edu)
  • Over time, genes that were beneficial for males and harmful to (or had no effect on) females either developed on the Y chromosome or were acquired through the process of translocation . (wikipedia.org)
  • An abnormal chromosome 22 in which there is translocation of the distal portion of its long arm to chromosome 9. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • CYP3A4 was mapped on R-banded human prometaphase chromosomes, and the precise localization of CYP3A4 on chromosome 7 was further confirmed by a delineation of G-banded pattern on the same prometaphase chromosomes through a combination of UV-filter. (nih.gov)
  • Localization of the estrogen receptor locus (ESR) to chromosome 6q25.1 by FISH and a simple post-FISH banding technique. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The possible relationship of this observation to the mode of replication of the terminal chromosome region is briefly discussed. (scielo.br)
  • What is replication banding? (brainscape.com)
  • 6 Comparative Aspects of Chromosome Replication in Drosophila and Mammals. (indigo.ca)
  • Y-chr is most fluorescent and therefore Q-banding may be useful when confirming presence/rearrangement of Y chr material. (brainscape.com)
  • The karyotypes showed a chromosome number of 2 n = 2 x = 16, with metacentric chromosomes, except for the eighth submeta- to acrocentric pair. (scielo.br)
  • Stevens proposed that chromosomes always existed in pairs and that the Y chromosome was the pair of the X chromosome discovered in 1890 by Hermann Henking . (wikipedia.org)
  • Most mammals have only one pair of sex chromosomes in each cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • [16] The chromosome with this allele became the Y chromosome, while the other member of the pair became the X chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosome Identification and Banding Each pair of chromosomes in the eukaryotic cell contains a unique set of genes and thus the DNA sequence is also unique for each different chromosome pair. (bookrags.com)
  • Microdensitometric scanning and computer graphic image analysis of high-resolution microphotographs of T-banded segments of human and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) chromosomes allowed the detection of a differential distribution of HD sub-telomeric chromatin between sister chromatids. (scielo.br)
  • Telomeric banding. (brainscape.com)
  • C-band polymorphism studies on swine telomeric chromosomes. (wcgalp.org)
  • In contrast, selected cDNA libraries from the pericentromeric region, the telomeric border of the dark band 21q21, and the dark band 21q22.2 yielded more than 30 new ESTs. (elsevier.com)
  • however, some chromosome ends lacked signals, probably due to a low number of telomeric repeats. (nature.com)
  • the chromosomes are separated in such a way that each daughter cell receives a haploid (half the diploid) number of chromosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Fusion of the male and female gametes in fertilization restores the diploid number in the fertilized egg, or zygote, which thus contains two sets of homologous chromosomes, one from each parent. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • So, Asian relatives of the European green toads have two, three or even four chromosome sets, they are either diploid, triploid or tetraploid. (idw-online.de)
  • Matsukuma S, Utakoji T (1976) Uneven extraction of protein in Chinese hamster chromosomes during G-staining procedures. (springer.com)
  • Recently, 338 clones were mapped to 850-level bands of varying staining intensity, and the sequence analysis of the regions surrounding these clones confirmed that G bands are more AT-rich than R bands with statistical significance ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Ag-staining of nucleolus organizer regions of chromosomes after A-,C-, G-, or R-banding procedures. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2004) confer high resistance to heat denaturation to the terminal regions of metaphase chromosomes which results in selective staining after T-banding (Dutrillaux, 1973). (scielo.br)
  • Chromosomes in metaphase can be identified using certain staining techniques, so called banding . (drugster.info)
  • Previously proposed protocols suggested G-banding staining or preliminary FISH with whole chromosome paints WCP as methods to identify the chromosome of interest. (duhnnae.com)
  • Q-Banding: Fluoroescent staining of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • C-banding and Ag staining were applied to Cacopsylla sorbi and C. mali. (edu.pl)
  • In this report, we present the application of the mBAND analysis for identification of complex intrachromosome rearrangements of chromosome 18 in a child with dysmorphic features. (nih.gov)
  • A relatively high frequency of chromosome rearrangements was observed in Iranian accessions. (deepdyve.com)
  • Rearrangements of band 1p36 were found among different histopathological subtypes. (nebraska.edu)
  • Chromosome band 1p36 harbors many candidate tumor suppressor genes, and we propose that one or more of these genes might be deleted or functionally disrupted as a molecular consequence of the rearrangements, thus contributing to lymphomagenesis. (nebraska.edu)
  • Chromosomes display a banded pattern when treated with some stains. (drugster.info)
  • C- banding stains centromeres. (drugster.info)
  • R- banding is the reverse of C- banding and stains non-centromeric regions in preference to centromeres (left upper image from rev). (drugster.info)
  • Previous research using microdensitometric scanning and computer graphic image analysis showed that T-banded segments of human metaphase chromosomes usually exhibit an asymmetrical distribution of high density (HD) chromatin between sister chromatids. (scielo.br)
  • Therefore, we performed microdensitometric scanning and computer graphic image analysis to study HD chromatin distribution at T-banded human chromosomes that showed asymmetry at opposite ends. (scielo.br)
  • Chromosomes pairs 13, 14, 15, 19, 20, 21, 22 and the Y chromosome were excluded from the analyses because of their small short arm and length which prevent a detailed quantitative analysis of the terminal chromosome region. (scielo.br)
  • Chromosome analysis on bone marrow or peripheral blood samples fails in a small proportion of attempts. (elsevier.com)
  • Used for the detection of SCEs for use in chromosome breakage analysis. (brainscape.com)
  • Literature investigations are narrow in chromosome image band analysis due to the higher complexities. (cytgen.com)
  • Somasundaram D. Pixel sensible local band analysis in microscopic chromosome images using CSPA, Tsitol Genet. (cytgen.com)
  • D. Somasundaram Pixel sensible local band analysis in microscopic chromosome images using CSPA, Cytol Genet . (cytgen.com)
  • Trent, J. M. / Examination of clonal variants from human malignant melanoma studied by chromosome banding analysis . (nebraska.edu)
  • At the University Hospital, she specifically committed her time to discussions on chromosome analysis at the Department of Medical Genetics, where she taught many research students. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chromosome G-banding analysis showed 46,XX. (nature.com)
  • The term chromosome is usually reserved for the structure when it is condensed and readily visible during cell division (see mitosis mitosis , process of nuclear division in a living cell by which the carriers of hereditary information, or the chromosomes, are exactly replicated and the two copies distributed to identical daughter nuclei. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Memo) Chromosomes changes its physical length (sometimes longer, sometimes shorter) through each stages of mitosis . (wikimedia.org)
  • All chromosomes normally appear as an amorphous blob under the microscope and only take on a well-defined shape during mitosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • It is entirely coincidental that the Y chromosome, during mitosis , has two very short branches which can look merged under the microscope and appear as the descender of a Y-shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosome Segregation and Rearrangement Chromosome segregation refers to the coordinated movement of chromosomes to opposite poles of the cell during either cellular reproduction (mitosis) or the pro. (bookrags.com)
  • Second, populations of tags can be directly matched to the assembled genomic sequence, allowing observed tags to be sequentially ordered along each chromosome. (pnas.org)
  • In this article, we show that G bands are the regions in which the GC content is relatively lower than that of the surrounding regions. (pnas.org)
  • The C-CMA + /DAPI + bands appeared in interstitial and terminal regions, and the C-DAPI + bands were found in all chromosome regions. (scielo.br)
  • NOR bands were found on the constriction regions near centromeric, as well as, slightly away from terminal regions. (scialert.net)
  • C bands were localized on the regions adjacent or immediate to the centromeres and on the constrictions as indicating the concurrency with constitutive hetrochromatin. (scialert.net)
  • Chromosome banding Amphibia, IV Differentiation of GC- and AT- rich chromosoma regions in Anura. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Normality of the acid treatment used to denature basic (histone) proteins, temperature of the salt solution used to extract DNA from unhanded regions, and the components of the Romanowsky-type stain proved to be critical components in the C-banding process. (vt.edu)
  • Chromosomes have been demonstrated to be located in specific regions in the interphase nucleus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Myeloid- and lymphoid-specific breakpoint cluster regions in chromosome band 13q14 in acute leukemia. (openrepository.com)
  • Weissman, Sherman M. / A Search for Genes from the Dark Band Regions of Human Chromosome 21 . (elsevier.com)
  • A chromosome specially stained to delineate bands of various widths on its regions or loci. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Brief communication: comparative mapping of the human estrogen receptor (ESR) and the Kallmann (KAL) regions to the chromosomes of the great apes. (openrepository.com)
  • Single copy changes in specific chromosomes or smaller regions can result in a number of developmental disorders, including Down, Prader Willi, Angelman, and cri du chat syndromes ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Five subchromosomal regions (homologous to human chromosome 1p, 2p, 2q, 12, and X) were found to be conserved and homologous by all the stated criteria. (nova.edu)
  • This reagent has been used on methanol - acetic acid fixed metaphase chromosomes of mouse and man and proved to be very effective in differen-tiating chromosome regions in both genomes. (cirad.fr)
  • The implications of conservation of chromosome homologies between mammalian orders whose last common ancestor became extinct more than 60 million years ago is discussed. (nova.edu)
  • Genotypes for the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with the strongest statistical association to sex suggested that wild zebrafish have WZ/ZZ sex chromosomes. (genetics.org)
  • The DNA in the human Y chromosome is composed of about 59 million base pairs . (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the platypus relies on an XY sex-determination system based on five pairs of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • As it happened I was the first person to be shown the metaphase plates with 46 chromosomes in orcein stained squash preparations made by Joe-Hin Tjio, who at the time was a visiting scientist with Albert Levan at the Institute of Genetics in Lund. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Banding techniques are used to reveal the characteristic pattern of light and dark bands on individual chromosome . (biology-online.org)
  • Human chromosomes were obtained from peripheral lymphocytes using routine methods. (scielo.br)
  • G-band DNA is localized at the nuclear periphery, whereas R-band DNA is in the interior of the nucleus ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Chromosomes are found in all organisms with a cell nucleus (eukaryotes) and are located within the nucleus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chromosome Chromosomes are structures in the nucleus of the cell that contain the DNA or hereditary material which form genes. (bookrags.com)
  • Chromosome Chromosomes are thread-like bodies in the cell nucleus of all plants and animals that hold the genes--the blueprints of heredity. (bookrags.com)
  • Is the Subject Area "Homologous chromosomes" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • A double chromosome resulting from the conjugation of two homologous chromosomes in synapsis, which occurs during the first meiotic division. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Additionally, two of the 19 segments homologous to mouse chromosomes were initially identified in this study. (nih.gov)
  • Alterations of 1p36 never occurred as a sole abnormality, and in 42 of 53 cases, alterations of the band 14q32 were observed. (nebraska.edu)
  • 13 Chromosome Alterations and Oncogenes in Human Neoplasia. (indigo.ca)
  • 14 Chromosome Alterations in Speciation and Neoplastic Transformation: A Parallelism. (indigo.ca)
  • The explosion of information on human genetic diseases has meant that there is a greater need than ever for students, practising physicians, laboratory technicians, and researchers to have a concise, up-to-date summary of the normal and abnormal behavior of chromosomes. (springer.com)
  • Abnormal chromosome 9 (right) showing an increased length in the q arm compared to its homologous chromosome (left). (hindawi.com)
  • Mezzanotte R, Bianchi U, Vanni R, Ferrucci L (1983) Chromatin organization and restriction endonuclease activity on human metaphase chromosomes. (springer.com)
  • At other times the chromosome appears as a fibrous structure, called the chromonema, consisting of accumulations (called chromomeres) of chromatin, the dye-absorbing material. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Here, we employed the same methods to analyze HD chromatin distribution at opposite ends of T-banded human lymphocyte chromosomes. (scielo.br)
  • This study revealed that in most chromosomes with an asymmetrical distribution of HD chromatin at both ends, the highest densities of each arm were located in opposite chromatids. (scielo.br)
  • The frequency of this configuration was 0.792 per chromosome, indicating that the highest chromatin densities of the terminal segments of T-banded human chromosomes were non-randomly distributed at opposite chromosome arms. (scielo.br)
  • Nevertheless, quantitative computerized microdensitometrical analyses on the distribution of HD chromatin at opposite ends of T-banded chromosomes have not yet been reported. (scielo.br)
  • Islands of acetylated histone H4 in polytene chromosomes and their relationship to chromatin packaging and transcriptional activity. (naver.com)
  • During meiosis, the karyotypic meioformula was n = 9 + Xyp, and sex chromosomes configured a parachute at metaphase I. At the beginning of pachytene, bivalents were still individualized, and sex chromosomes were associated end-to-end through the heteropycnotic region of the X chromosome. (ufv.br)
  • Integration of empirical data with proposed models of chromosome evolution was performed to understand the probable conditions for Tonatia 's karyotypic evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The trajectory of reorganization of chromosome blocks since the common ancestor of Glossophaginae and Phyllostominae subfamilies suggests that multiple tandem fusions, as well as disruption and fusions of conserved phyllostomid chromosomes were major drivers of karyotypic reshuffling in Tonatia . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because of their high levels of karyotypic variation, phyllostomid bats are an ideal group to investigate the mechanisms responsible for chromosome evolution and stasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • the chromatins in G bands are more condensed than those in R bands during both metaphase and interphase ( 5 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • We describe a method to label the interphase distribution of DNA associated with various histone acetylation stages on chromosomes. (naver.com)
  • It is only recently that a phase chromosomes are structurally not homo- molecular view of the meiotic cell division is geneous through their length, a new world was beginning to emerge: chapter ten refers to human in the offing. (indigo.ca)
  • Application of various molecular meiosis and the next to molecular events in techniques in chromosome research has subse- meiotic prophase in the baker's yeast. (indigo.ca)
  • Chromosome banding by restriction enzyme digestion distinguish between Mus domesticus and Mus musculus karyotypes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • by chromosome banding and physical mapping of 18S-5. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Kersey, J. H. / Mapping studies and expression of genes located on human chromosome 11, band q23 . (elsevier.com)
  • Chromosome Mapping Also known as cytogenetic mapping or genetic mapping, chromosome mapping is a technique used to locate particular characteristics (coded for by specific genes) on specific chromosom. (bookrags.com)
  • Chromosome Mapping and Sequencing A chromosome map describes the order of genes and other markers, and the spacing between them on the chromosome. (bookrags.com)

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