Regions along polytene chromosomes that are uncondensed and active in DNA REPLICATION or RNA transcription (GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION).

A direct role for cohesin in gene regulation and ecdysone response in Drosophila salivary glands. (1/5)

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Balbiani ring mRNPs diffuse through and bind to clusters of large intranuclear molecular structures. (2/5)

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Nucleocytoplasmic mRNP export is an integral part of mRNP biogenesis. (3/5)

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The infant and pubertal human ovary: Balbiani's body-associated VASA expression, immunohistochemical detection of apoptosis-related BCL2 and BAX proteins, and DNA fragmentation. (4/5)

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The ecdysone receptor (ScEcR-A) binds DNA puffs at the start of DNA amplification in Sciara coprophila. (5/5)

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"Chromosomal puffs" is a term that refers to localized expansions or swellings along the length of chromosomes, which can be observed under a microscope during certain stages of the cell cycle. These "puffs" correspond to regions where genes are actively being transcribed and RNA is being produced. They are also known as "chromomeres" or "transcription puffs."

During the process of gene transcription, the DNA double helix must be temporarily unwound and loosened in order for the RNA polymerase enzyme to access the template strand and synthesize a complementary RNA molecule. This unwinding and loosening of the chromatin structure can result in the formation of these puffed-out regions along the chromosome, which are visible under a microscope.

Chromosomal puffs are often associated with increased metabolic activity and may play a role in regulating gene expression during development and differentiation. However, it's worth noting that the study of chromosomal puffs has largely been superseded by more modern techniques for visualizing and analyzing gene expression at the molecular level.

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