Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.High Mobility Group Proteins: A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.HMGN1 Protein: An evolutionarily-conserved 10-kDa nuclear protein that binds NUCLEOSOMES and may be involved in the process of CHROMATIN unfolding.Histone Deacetylases: Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.HMGB1 Protein: A 24-kDa HMGB protein that binds to and distorts the minor grove of DNA.Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HISTONE DEACETYLASES. This class of drugs may influence gene expression by increasing the level of acetylated HISTONES in specific CHROMATIN domains.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Nucleosomes: The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.Histone Acetyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Deoxyribonucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) or specific DNA.Heterochromatin: The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.Euchromatin: Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Histone Deacetylase 1: A histone deacetylase subtype that is found along with HISTONE DEACETYLASE 2; RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 4; and RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 7 as core components of histone deacetylase complexes.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HMGB2 Protein: A 23-kDa HMG-box protein that binds to and distorts the minor grove of DNA.Micrococcal Nuclease: An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage to 3'-phosphomononucleotide and 3'-phospholigonucleotide end-products. It can cause hydrolysis of double- or single-stranded DNA or RNA. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.1.31.1.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bromouracil: 5-Bromo-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Brominated derivative of uracil that acts as an antimetabolite, substituting for thymine in DNA. It is used mainly as an experimental mutagen, but its deoxyriboside (BROMODEOXYURIDINE) is used to treat neoplasms.Histone Code: The specific patterns of changes made to HISTONES, that are involved in assembly, maintenance, and alteration of chromatin structural states (such as EUCHROMATIN and HETEROCHROMATIN). The changes are made by various HISTONE MODIFICATION PROCESSES that include ACETYLATION; METHYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; and UBIQUITINATION.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Histone Deacetylase 2: A histone deacetylase subtype that is found along with HISTONE DEACETYLASE 1; RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 4; and RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 7 as core components of histone deacetylase complexes.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Histone Demethylases: Enzymes that catalyse the removal of methyl groups from LYSINE or ARGININE residues found on HISTONES. Many histone demethylases generally function through an oxidoreductive mechanism.Histone Chaperones: Proteins involved in the assembly and disassembly of HISTONES into NUCLEOSOMES.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Hydroxamic Acids: A class of weak acids with the general formula R-CONHOH.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the methylation of the epsilon-amino group of lysine residues in proteins to yield epsilon mono-, di-, and trimethyllysine. EC 2.1.1.43.HMGA1a Protein: An 11-kDa AT-hook motif-containing (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) protein that binds to the minor grove of AT-rich regions of DNA. It is the full-length product of the alternatively-spliced HMGA1 gene and may function as an architectural chromatin binding protein that is involved in transcriptional regulation.Trout: Various fish of the family SALMONIDAE, usually smaller than salmon. They are mostly restricted to cool clear freshwater. Some are anadromous. They are highly regarded for their handsome colors, rich well-flavored flesh, and gameness as an angling fish. The genera Salvelinus, Salmo, and ONCORHYNCHUS have been introduced virtually throughout the world.Oviducts: Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.HMGA Proteins: Proteins containing AT-HOOK MOTIFS that are rich in arginine and glycine residues. They bind to the minor grove of AT-rich regions of DNA.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protamines: A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)Chromosomes, Human, 16-18: The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.HMGN Proteins: A family of HIGH MOBILITY GROUP PROTEINS that bind to NUCLEOSOMES.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Methanosarcina: A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Archaeal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of archaeon.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly: The mechanisms effecting establishment, maintenance, and modification of that specific physical conformation of CHROMATIN determining the transcriptional accessibility or inaccessibility of the DNA.Jumonji Domain-Containing Histone Demethylases: A family of histone demethylases that share a conserved Jumonji C domain. The enzymes function via an iron-dependent dioxygenase mechanism that couples the conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinate to the hydroxylation of N-methyl groups.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Deoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.TritiumProtein Methyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the methylation of amino acids after their incorporation into a polypeptide chain. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine acts as the methylating agent. EC 2.1.1.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.p300-CBP Transcription Factors: A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Butyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Sin3 Histone Deacetylase and Corepressor Complex: A multisubunit enzyme complex that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION by deacetylating the HISTONE residues of NUCLEOSOMES.Protamine Kinase: An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Nucleosome Assembly Protein 1: A histone chaperone that facilitates nucleosome assembly by mediating the formation of the histone octamer and its transfer to DNA.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.PhosphoproteinsValproic Acid: A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Oxidoreductases, N-DemethylatingTranscriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Polycomb Repressive Complex 2: A multisubunit polycomb protein complex that catalyzes the METHYLATION of chromosomal HISTONE H3. It works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 1 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 4: A retinoblastoma-binding protein that is involved in CHROMATIN REMODELING, histone deacetylation, and repression of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION. Although initially discovered as a retinoblastoma binding protein it has an affinity for core HISTONES and is a subunit of chromatin assembly factor-1 and polycomb repressive complex 2.Epigenomics: The systematic study of the global gene expression changes due to EPIGENETIC PROCESSES and not due to DNA base sequence changes.CREB-Binding Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.Butyric Acid: A four carbon acid, CH3CH2CH2COOH, with an unpleasant odor that occurs in butter and animal fat as the glycerol ester.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Sirtuins: A homologous family of regulatory enzymes that are structurally related to the protein silent mating type information regulator 2 (Sir2) found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sirtuins contain a central catalytic core region which binds NAD. Several of the sirtuins utilize NAD to deacetylate proteins such as HISTONES and are categorized as GROUP III HISTONE DEACETYLASES. Several other sirtuin members utilize NAD to transfer ADP-RIBOSE to proteins and are categorized as MONO ADP-RIBOSE TRANSFERASES, while a third group of sirtuins appears to have both deacetylase and ADP ribose transferase activities.Depsipeptides: Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.Sirtuin 2: A sirtuin family member found primarily in the CYTOPLASM. It is a multifunctional enzyme that contains a NAD-dependent deacetylase activity that is specific for HISTONES and a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity.Nucleoplasmins: A family of histone molecular chaperones that play roles in sperm CHROMATIN decondensation and CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY in fertilized eggs. They were originally discovered in XENOPUS egg extracts as histone-binding factors that mediate nucleosome formation in vitro.Protein-Arginine N-Methyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the methylation of arginine residues of proteins to yield N-mono- and N,N-dimethylarginine. This enzyme is found in many organs, primarily brain and spleen.E1A-Associated p300 Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factors that was originally identified as a binding partner for ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Polycomb-Group Proteins: A family of proteins that play a role in CHROMATIN REMODELING. They are best known for silencing HOX GENES and the regulation of EPIGENETIC PROCESSES.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Sea Urchins: Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Chromatin Assembly Factor-1: A histone chaperone protein that plays a role in the deposition of NUCLEOSOMES on newly synthesized DNA. It is comprised of three different subunits of 48, 60, and 150 kDa molecular size. The 48 kDa subunit, RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 4, is also a component of several other protein complexes involved in chromatin remodeling.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Ribonucleoprotein, U7 Small Nuclear: This ribonucleoprotein particle, composed of U7 snRNA, Sm core protein, and U7 snRNP-specific proteins, is involved in the 3'end processing of histone premessenger RNAs.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Ubiquitination: The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Azacitidine: A pyrimidine analogue that inhibits DNA methyltransferase, impairing DNA methylation. It is also an antimetabolite of cytidine, incorporated primarily into RNA. Azacytidine has been used as an antineoplastic agent.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to the 5-position of CYTOSINE residues in DNA.mRNA Cleavage and Polyadenylation Factors: Factors that are involved in directing the cleavage and POLYADENYLATION of the of MESSENGER RNA near the site of the RNA 3' POLYADENYLATION SIGNALS.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 7: A retinoblastoma-binding protein that has an affinity for core HISTONES. It is found as a subunit of protein complexes that are in involved in the enzymatic modification of histones including the Mi2 and Sin3 histone deacetylase complexes and the polycomb repressive complex 2.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Mi-2 Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase Complex: A enzyme complex involved in the remodeling of NUCLEOSOMES. The complex is comprised of at least seven subunits and includes both histone deacetylase and ATPase activities.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.CpG Islands: Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Anacardic Acids: A group of 6-alkyl SALICYLIC ACIDS that are found in ANACARDIUM and known for causing CONTACT DERMATITIS.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 2: A retinoblastoma binding protein that is also a member of the Jumonji-domain histone demethylases. It has demethylation activity towards specific LYSINE residues found on HISTONE H3.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Sirtuin 1: A sirtuin family member found primarily in the CELL NUCLEUS. It is an NAD-dependent deacetylase with specificity towards HISTONES and a variety of proteins involved in gene regulation.Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: A polynucleotide formed from the ADP-RIBOSE moiety of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Silent Information Regulator Proteins, Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A set of nuclear proteins in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE that are required for the transcriptional repression of the silent mating type loci. They mediate the formation of silenced CHROMATIN and repress both transcription and recombination at other loci as well. They are comprised of 4 non-homologous, interacting proteins, Sir1p, Sir2p, Sir3p, and Sir4p. Sir2p, an NAD-dependent HISTONE DEACETYLASE, is the founding member of the family of SIRTUINS.RNA 3' End Processing: The steps that generate the 3' ends of mature RNA molecules. For most mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), 3' end processing referred to as POLYADENYLATION includes the addition of POLY A.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.

Basic homopolyamino acids, histones and protamines are potent antagonists of angiogenin binding to ribonuclease inhibitor. (1/4598)

A radio-ribonuclease inhibitor assay based on the interaction of 125I-angiogenin with ribonuclease inhibitor (RI) was used to detect pancreatic-type ribonucleases and potential modulators of their action. We show that highly basic proteins including the homopolypeptides poly-arginine, poly-lysine and poly-ornithine, core histones, spermatid-specific S1 protein and the protamines HP3 and Z3 were strong inhibitors of angiogenin binding to RI. A minimum size of poly-arginine and poly-lysine was required for efficient inhibition. The inhibition likely resulted from direct association of the basic proteins with the acidic inhibitor, as RI bound to poly-lysine and protamines while 125I-angiogenin did not. Antagonists of the angiogenin-RI interaction are potential regulators of either angiogenin-triggered angiogenesis and/or intracellular RI function, depending on their preferential target.  (+info)

Onset of nucleolar and extranucleolar transcription and expression of fibrillarin in macaque embryos developing in vitro. (2/4598)

Specific aims were to characterize the onset of nucleolar and extranucleolar transcription and expression of the nucleolar protein fibrillarin during preimplantation development in vitro in macaque embryos using autoradiographic and immunocytochemical techniques. Autoradiography was performed on whole embryos cultured with [3H]uridine for assessment of nucleolar (rRNA) and extranucleolar (mRNA) transcription. Expression of fibrillarin was immunocytochemically assessed in whole embryos using a primary antibody against fibrillarin and a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated secondary antibody. Extranucleolar incorporation of [3H]uridine was first detected in 2-cell embryos cultured 6-10 h with [3H]uridine. Culture with alpha-amanitin prevented incorporation of label in 2-cell embryos, and treatment with ribonuclease reduced the signal to background levels, indicating that [3H]uridine was incorporated into mRNA and not rRNA or DNA. Nucleolar incorporation of [3H]uridine was not evident in pronucleate-stage or 2- to 5-cell embryos, but it was detected in one 6-cell embryo and in all 8-cell to blastocyst-stage embryos. Fibrillarin was first expressed in some 6- to 7-cell embryos, but it was consistently expressed in all 8-cell embryos. Fibrillarin was localized to the perimeter of the nucleolar precursor bodies, forming a ring that completely encapsulated these structures. Fibrillarin was not expressed in 8- to 16-cell embryos cultured with alpha-amanitin, indicating that it is transcribed, rather than recruited, at the 8-cell stage. In conclusion, in in vitro-fertilized macaque embryos developing in vitro, extranucleolar synthesis of mRNA is initiated at the 2-cell stage while the onset of nucleolar transcription occurs at the 6- to 8-cell stage, coincident with expression of fibrillarin.  (+info)

MENT, a heterochromatin protein that mediates higher order chromatin folding, is a new serpin family member. (3/4598)

Terminal cell differentiation is correlated with the extensive sequestering of previously active genes into compact transcriptionally inert heterochromatin. In vertebrate blood cells, these changes can be traced to the accumulation of a developmentally regulated heterochromatin protein, MENT. Cryoelectron microscopy of chicken granulocyte chromatin, which is highly enriched with MENT, reveals exceptionally compact polynucleosomes, which maintain a level of higher order folding above that imposed by linker histones. The amino acid sequence of MENT reveals a close structural relationship with serpins, a large family of proteins known for their ability to undergo dramatic conformational transitions. Conservation of the "hinge region" consensus in MENT indicates that this ability is retained by the protein. MENT is distinguished from the other serpins by being a basic protein, containing several positively charged surface clusters, which are likely to be involved in ionic interactions with DNA. One of the positively charged domains bears a significant similarity to the chromatin binding region of nuclear lamina proteins and with the A.T-rich DNA-binding motif, which may account for the targeting of MENT to peripheral heterochromatin. MENT ectopically expressed in a mammalian cell line is transported into nuclei and is associated with intranuclear foci of condensed chromatin.  (+info)

Replication-dependent marking of DNA by PCNA facilitates CAF-1-coupled inheritance of chromatin. (4/4598)

Chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1) is required for inheritance of epigenetically determined chromosomal states in vivo and promotes assembly of chromatin during DNA replication in vitro. Herein, we demonstrate that after DNA replication, replicated, but not unreplicated, DNA is also competent for CAF-1-dependent chromatin assembly. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA polymerase clamp, is a component of the replication-dependent marking of DNA for chromatin assembly. The clamp loader, replication factor C (RFC), can reverse this mark by unloading PCNA from the replicated DNA. PCNA binds directly to p150, the largest subunit of CAF-1, and the two proteins colocalize at sites of DNA replication in cells. We suggest that PCNA and CAF-1 connect DNA replication to chromatin assembly and the inheritance of epigenetic chromosome states.  (+info)

The topoisomerase-related function gene TRF4 affects cellular sensitivity to the antitumor agent camptothecin. (5/4598)

Camptothecin is an antitumor agent that kills cells by converting DNA topoisomerase I into a DNA-damaging poison. Although camptothecin derivatives are now being used to treat tumors in a variety of clinical protocols, the cellular factors that influence sensitivity to the drug are only beginning to be understood. We report here that two genes required for sister chromatid cohesion, TRF4 and MCD1/SCC1, are also required to repair camptothecin-mediated damage to DNA. The hypersensitivity to camptothecin in the trf4 mutant does not result from elevated expression of DNA topoisomerase I. We show that Trf4 is a nuclear protein whose expression is cell cycle-regulated at a post-transcriptional level. Suppression of camptothecin hypersensitivity in the trf4 mutant by gene overexpression resulted in the isolation of three genes: another member of the TRF4 gene family, TRF5, and two genes that may influence higher order chromosome structure, ZDS1 and ZDS2. We have isolated and sequenced two human TRF4 family members, hTRF4-1 and hTRF4-2. The hTRF4-1 gene maps to chromosome 5p15, a region of frequent copy number alteration in several tumor types. The evolutionary conservation of TRF4 suggests that it may also influence mammalian cell sensitivity to camptothecin.  (+info)

The RLF-B component of the replication licensing system is distinct from Cdc6 and functions after Cdc6 binds to chromatin. (6/4598)

Replication licensing factor (RLF) is an essential initiation factor that can prevent re-replication of DNA in a single cell cycle [1] [2]. It is required for the initiation of DNA replication, binds to chromatin early in the cell cycle, is removed from chromatin as DNA replicates and is unable to re-bind replicated chromatin until the following mitosis. Chromatography of RLF from Xenopus extracts has shown that it consists of two components termed RLF-B and RLF-M [3]. The RLF-M component consists of complexes of all six Xenopus minichromosome maintenance (MCM/P1) proteins (XMcm2-7), which bind to chromatin in late mitosis and are removed as replication occurs [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]. The identity of RLF-B is currently unknown. At least two factors must be present on chromatin before licensing can occur: the Xenopus origin recognition complex (XORC) [8] [9] and Xenopus Cdc6 (XCdc6) [10]. XORC saturates Xenopus sperm chromatin at approximately one copy per replication origin whereas XCdc6 binds to chromatin only if XORC is bound first [9] [10] [11]. Although XORC has been shown to be a distinct activity from RLF-B [9], the relationship between XCdc6 and RLF-B is currently unclear. Here, we show that active XCdc6 is loaded onto chromatin in extracts with defective RLF, and that both RLF-M and RLF-B are still required for the licensing of XCdc6-containing chromatin. Furthermore, RLF-B can be separated from XCdc6 by immunoprecipitation and standard chromatography. These experiments demonstrate that RLF-B is both functionally and physically distinct from XCdc6, and that XCdc6 is loaded onto chromatin before RLF-B function is executed.  (+info)

Retardation of cell proliferation after expression of p202 accompanies an increase in p21(WAF1/CIP1). (7/4598)

p202 is an IFN-inducible, primarily nuclear, phosphoprotein (52-kDa) whose constitutive overexpression in transfected cells inhibits colony formation. To investigate the molecular mechanism(s) by which expression of p202 protein impairs colony formation, we established stable cell lines that inducibly express p202. Using this cell model, we demonstrate that the induced expression of p202 in asynchronous cultures of these cells was accompanied by: (a) an increase in steady-state levels of p21(WAF1/CIP1/SDI1) (p21) mRNA and protein; (b) a decrease in Cdk2 protein kinase activity; and (c) an increase in the functional form of retinoblastoma protein (pRb). Transient transfection of a p202-encoding plasmid in Saos-2 cells, which do not harbor a wild-type p53 protein, resulted in an increase in p21 protein, which indicated that p202 could regulate expression of p21 protein independent of p53 protein. Moreover, we demonstrate that expression of p202 in these cells increased cell doubling time without accumulation of cells in a particular phase of the cell cycle. Taken together, these results are consistent with the possibility that p202 protein contributes to the cell growth retardation activity of the IFNs, at least in part, by modulating p21 protein levels.  (+info)

Specific destruction of kinetochore protein CENP-C and disruption of cell division by herpes simplex virus immediate-early protein Vmw110. (8/4598)

Examination of cells at the early stages of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection revealed that the viral immediate-early protein Vmw110 (also known as ICP0) formed discrete punctate accumulations associated with centromeres in both mitotic and interphase cells. The RING finger domain of Vmw110 (but not the C-terminal region) was essential for its localization at centromeres, thus distinguishing the Vmw110 sequences required for centromere association from those required for its localization at other discrete nuclear structures known as ND10, promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) bodies or PODs. We have shown recently that Vmw110 can induce the proteasome-dependent loss of several cellular proteins, including a number of probable SUMO-1-conjugated isoforms of PML, and this results in the disruption of ND10. In this study, we found some striking similarities between the interactions of Vmw110 with ND10 and centromeres. Specifically, centromeric protein CENP-C was lost from centromeres during virus infection in a Vmw110- and proteasome-dependent manner, causing substantial ultrastructural changes in the kinetochore. In consequence, dividing cells either became stalled in mitosis or underwent an unusual cytokinesis resulting in daughter cells with many micronuclei. These results emphasize the importance of CENP-C for mitotic progression and suggest that Vmw110 may be interfering with biochemical mechanisms which are relevant to both centromeres and ND10.  (+info)

Summary The ring-shaped cohesin complex brings together distant DNA domains to maintain, express, and segregate the genome. Establishing specific chromosomal linkages depends on cohesin recruitment to defined loci. One such locus is the budding yeast centromere, which is a paradigm for targeted cohesin loading. The kinetochore, a multiprotein complex that connects centromeres to microtubules, drives the recruitment of high levels of cohesin to link sister chromatids together. We have exploited this system to determine the mechanism of specific cohesin recruitment. We show that phosphorylation of the Ctf19 kinetochore protein by a conserved kinase, DDK, provides a binding site for the Scc2/4 cohesin loading complex, thereby directing cohesin loading to centromeres. A similar mechanism targets cohesin to chromosomes in vertebrates. These findings represent a complete molecular description of targeted cohesin loading, a phenomenon with wide-ranging importance in chromosome segregation and, in ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
The chromo domain was originally identified as a protein sequence motif common to the Drosophila chromatin proteins, Polycomb (Pc) and heterochromatin protein 1 [HP1; Paro and Hogness (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 88, 263-267; Paro (1990) Trends Genet., 6, 416-421]. Here we describe a second chromo domain-like motif in HP1. Subsequent refined searches identified further examples of this chromo domain variant which all occur in proteins that also have an N-terminally located chromo domain. Due to its relatedness to the chromo domain, and its occurrence in proteins that also have a classical chromo domain, we call the variant the chromo shadow domain. Chromo domain-containing proteins can therefore be divided into two classes depending on the presence, for example in HP1, or absence, for example in Pc, of the chromo shadow domain. We have also found examples of proteins which have two classical chromo domains. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe SWI6 protein, involved in repression of the silent ...
Download Caffeine-induced alterations in non-histone chromosomal proteins of Chinese hamster ovary cells ebook by Susan Claire HarrisonType: pdf, ePub, zip, txt
The structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) proteins are fundamental to chromosome organization. They share a characteristic domain structure, featuring a central SMC hinge domain that is critical for forming SMC dimers and interacting with nucleic acids. The structural maintenance of chromosomes flexible hinge domain containing 1 (Smchd1) is a noncanonical member of the SMC family. While it has been well established that Smchd1 serves crucial roles in epigenetic silencing events implicated in development and disease, much less is known about the structure and function of Smchd1 protein. Recently, we demonstrated that the C-terminal hinge domain of Smchd1 forms a nucleic acid-binding homodimer, however, it is unclear how the protomers are assembled within the hinge homodimer and how the full-length Smchd1 protein is organised with respect to the hinge region. Here, by employing small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) we demonstrate that the hinge domain of Smchd1 likely adopts an unconventional ...
We present several lines of evidence in support of a central role for cohesin in the organization of chromosomal domain structure. Using Hi‐C in NSC and AST cells, we show that chromosomal domain architecture is tightly correlated with cohesin/CTCF binding sites, and that in cells lacking functional cohesin complexes, the stability of this architecture is perturbed. Using 3D DNA FISH, we demonstrate that the changes in domain structure of cohesin‐deficient cells identified by Hi‐C reflect domain decompaction. Using high‐resolution 4C‐seq, we show that cohesin/CTCF sites interact preferentially to define both intricate loop structures within domains and the borders of megabase‐scale chromosomal domains. In Rad21‐deficient cells, many of these preferential contacts are lost, accompanied by a general relaxation of the chromosomal domain structure. Thus, domain decompaction comes about as a result of the reduction in cohesin/CTCF distal contacts, which in turn results in more ...
... , Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
c‐MYC and the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex act as master regulators of transcription, and play a key role in human cancer. Although they are known to interact, the molecular details of their interaction are lacking. We have determined the structure of the RPT1 region of the INI1/hSNF5/BAF47/SMARCB1 subunit of the SWI/SNF complex that acts as a c‐MYC‐binding domain, and have localized the i ...
Background The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins and is similar to the brahma protein of Drosophila. Members of this family have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to...
Histones are responsible for packaging the genomes of almost all eukaryotes into fundamental repeating nucleosome units. The packaging must facilitate compaction into the cell nucleus but also enable dynamic access to the genome. A variety of mechanisms exist for targeting enzymes to undertake local opening of chromatin such as at active genes or for DNA repair. However, larger scale transitions in chromatin also occur where extended genome regions have altered chromatin organisation. This often involves abundant non-histone chromatin proteins that switch chromatin between states that are not well understood at the structural level. The contribution of highly basic non-histone chromatin proteins in vitro has been investigated using the HMGA2 protein implicated in human stem cell chromatin opening, and the Hematodinium DVNP protein which is suggested to replace histones as the dominant packaging protein in this dinoflagellate. These two proteins are compared to histone H1 which stabilises ...
The kinetochore directs accurate chromosome segregation by controlling chromosome movements through interactions with spindle microtubules, and also by serving as a platform for various regulatory pathways. Kinetochores assemble on centromere chromatin marked by nucleosomes containing the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A (Allshire and Karpen, 2008; Earnshaw and Rothfield, 1985). The interphase centromere complex (ICEN) associates with the CENP-A nucleosome (Izuta et al., 2006; Obuse et al., 2004), and the constitutive-centromere-associated network (CCAN) forms the inner kinetochore (Basilico et al., 2014; Cheeseman and Desai, 2008; Foltz et al., 2006; Gascoigne et al., 2011; Hori et al., 2008; Okada et al., 2006). The CCAN factors CENP-C (Saitoh et al., 1992) and CENP-T act as a crucial platform for the kinetochore during mitosis (Gascoigne et al., 2011; Hori et al., 2008, 2013; Nishino et al., 2013; Przewloka et al., 2011; Rago et al., 2015). CENP-C binds to CENP-A nucleosomes ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Meiosis-Specific loading of the Centromere-Specific histone CENH3 in Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Ravi, Maruthachalam. AU - Shibata, Fukashi. AU - Ramahi, Joseph S.. AU - Nagaki, Kiyotaka. AU - Chen, Changbin. AU - Murata, Minoru. AU - Chan, Simon W L. PY - 2011/6. Y1 - 2011/6. N2 - Centromere behavior is specialized in meiosis I, so that sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes are pulled toward the same side of the spindle (through kinetochore mono-orientation) and chromosome number is reduced. Factors required for mono-orientation have been identified in yeast. However, comparatively little is known about how meiotic centromere behavior is specialized in animals and plants that typically have large tandem repeat centromeres. Kinetochores are nucleated by the centromere-specific histone CENH3. Unlike conventional histone H3s, CENH3 is rapidly evolving, particularly in its N-terminal tail domain. Here we describe chimeric variants of CENH3 with alterations in the N-terminal ...
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a complex multisystem developmental disorder caused by mutations in cohesin subunits and regulators. While its precise molecular mechanisms are not well defined, they point toward a global deregulation of the transcriptional gene expression program. Cohesin is associated with the boundaries of chromosome domains and with enhancer and promoter regions connecting the three-dimensional genome organization with transcriptional regulation. Here, we show that connected gene communities, structures emerging from the interactions of noncoding regulatory elements and genes in the three-dimensional chromosomal space, provide a molecular explanation for the pathoetiology of CdLS associated with mutations in the cohesin-loading factor NIPBL and the cohesin subunit SMC1A NIPBL and cohesin are important constituents of connected gene communities that are centrally positioned at noncoding regulatory elements ...
Cohesin is a highly conserved multisubunit complex that holds sister chromatids together in mitotic cells. At the metaphase to anaphase transition, proteolytic cleavage of the α kleisin subunit (Rad21) by separase causes cohesins dissociation from chromosomes and triggers sister-chromatid disjunction. To investigate cohesins function in postmitotic cells, where it is widely expressed, we have created fruit flies whose Rad21 can be cleaved by TEV protease. Cleavage causes precocious separation of sister chromatids and massive chromosome missegregation in proliferating cells, but not disaggregation of polytene chromosomes in salivary glands. Crucially, cleavage in postmitotic neurons is lethal. In mushroom-body neurons, it causes defects in axon pruning, whereas in cholinergic neurons it causes highly abnormal larval locomotion. These data demonstrate essential roles for cohesin in nondividing cells and also introduce a powerful tool by which to investigate protein function in metazoa. © 2008 Elsevier
Deardorff M A, Bando M, Nakato R, Watrin E, Itoh T, Minamino M, Saitoh K, Komata M, Katou Y, Clark D, Cole K E, De Baere E, Decroos C, Di Donato N, Ernst S, Francey L J, Gyftodimou Y, Hirashima K, Hullings M, Ishikawa Y, Jaulin C, Kaur M, Kiyono T, Lombardi P M, Magnaghi-Jaulin L, Mortier G R, Nozaki N, Petersen M B, Seimiya H, Siu V M, Suzuki Y, Takagaki K, Wilde J J, Willems P J, Prigent C, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Christianson D W, Kaiser F J, Jackson L G, Hirota T, Krantz I D, and Shirahige K: HDAC8 mutations in Cornelia de Lange syndrome affect the cohesin acetylation cycle. Nature.489:313-317, 2012. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22885700 ...
The present study evaluated the dynamics and regulatory mechanisms of single cohesin molecules. We found that Scc2‐Scc4‐dependent topological loading and cohesin ATPase activity (disengagement of the head domain) are crucial for cohesin translocation along DNA. Consistent with this finding, the ATPase‐dependent translocation of cohesin in budding yeast was described in a previous study (Hu et al, 2011). Although Wapl‐Pds5 promotes the dissociation of cohesin from DNA as previously described (Gandhi et al, 2006; Kueng et al, 2006) (Appendix Fig S2C), we showed that Wapl‐Pds5 renders DNA‐associated cohesin immobile (Fig 2A and B). Considering that the engagement of Smc head domains restrains cohesin movement (Fig 1F), Wapl‐Pds5 may contribute to the tightening of the cohesin ring by associating with SA1, Scc1, and/or Smc3 (Shintomi & Hirano, 2009; Hara et al, 2014; Murayama & Uhlmann, 2015; Ouyang et al, 2016). Therefore, Wapl‐Pds5 may have dual activities: "anti‐establishment ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Diese Arbeit setzt ihren Fokus auf die Charakterisierung eines möglichen SPT4-SPT5 Komplex in Arabidopsis thaliana. Die beiden Untereinheiten SPT4 und SPT5 werden von jeweils zwei Genen kodiert: SPT4-1/2 und SPT5-1/2. Eine Mutante bei der die Expression des gewebespezifisch exprimieren SPT5-1 beeinflusst ist, ist lebensfähig, wohingegen die Inaktivierung des allgemein exprimierten SPT5-2 embryonal letal ist. Ein induzierbarer Knockdown der SPT5 Expression führt zu schwerwiegenden Wachstumsdefekten und einer Gewichtsreduktion auf ungefähr 40% des Wildtyps. Ein herunterregulieren der Expression von SPT4-1 und SPT4-2, mittels RNAi, führt zu schweren Wachstums- und Entwicklungsdefekten, bedingt durch eine verminderte Zellproliferation. Zusätzlich zeigen diese Pflanzen auf Auxin zurück zu führende Phänotypen, z.B. eine gestörte Gravitropismusantwort, ein reduziertes Wurzelwachstum und ein verändertes Blattvenenmuster. Übereinstimmend mit diesen Phänotypen zeigte eine genomweite ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Duncan Simpson.. Cohesins mediate sister chromatid cohesion, which is essential for chromosome segregation and postreplicative DNA repair. In addition, cohesins appear to regulate gene expression and enhancer-promoter interactions. These noncanonical functions remained unexplained because knowledge of cohesin-binding sites and functional interactors in metazoans was lacking. We show that the distribution of cohesins on mammalian chromosome arms is not driven by transcriptional activity. Instead, mammalian cohesins occupy a subset of DNase I hypersensitive sites, many of which contain sequence motifs resembling the consensus for CTCF , a DNA -binding protein with enhancer blocking function and boundary element activity. We find cohesins at most CTCF sites and show that CTCF is required for cohesin localization to these sites. Recruitment by CTCF suggests a rationale for noncanonical cohesin functions and, because CTCF binding is sensitive to ...
SUV39: The Su(var)3-9 gene was originally identified in a genetic screen as a suppressor of position effect variegation in Drosophila. This was the first hint that the Su(var)3-9 protein might be involved in regulating chromatin structure. In mice, there are two highly related homologues of the Drosophila Su(var)3-9, Suv39h1 and Suv39h2. Following the identification of Suv39h1 as a lysine methyltransferase capable of methylating Lys9 of histone H3 (H3K9), confirmation that this protein can modulate chromatin architecture came with the finding that it creates a specific binding site for the heterochromatin protein HP1. As Suv39h1 and HP1 interact, it is thought that Suv39h1 methylating H3 K9, and then HP1 binding to the methylated H3, forms a positive feedback loop allowing HP1 and H3 K9 methylation to spread along chromatin, generating repressive heterochromatin in the process. (1) Reference ...
Centromeres are the specialized chromosomal sites necessary for poleward movement during mitosis and meiosis in eukaryotes. Commonly, a centromere is evident as a prominent constriction within the heterochromatin of each metaphase chromosome. The attachment to and movement of chromosomes along the spindle is mediated by the proteinaceous kinetochores, which form at the centromeres during cell division.. Despite this highly conserved function, centromeric DNA sequences are not conserved between organisms. For example, human centromeres consist of large blocks (200 kb to several megabases) of tandemly repeated 171-bp α-satellite (Willard, 1998), but the sequences can differ from those of apes on homologous chromosomes (Haaf and Willard, 1997). Similarly, Drosophila melanogaster centromeric regions contain blocks of 5- to 12-bp satellite repeats that do not appear to be shared by homologous centromeres of sibling species (Lohe and Brutlag, 1987).. Plant centromeric regions resemble their mammalian ...
Neocentromere activation requires centromere juxtaposition: Here we describe irradiation-mutagenesis experiments designed to identify the mechanism of neocentromere formation in D. melanogaster. Prior to this study, two models existed to explain the generation of neocentromeres in Drosophila and Homo sapiens-derepression of latent centromere-competent euchromatic sequences vs. centromere spreading (Choo 1997a, 1998). We distinguished between these models through a genetic assay for neocentromere activation and recovery. Three substrate chromosomes were irradiated, and an identical 290-kb test segment was liberated and genetically assayed for neocentromere activity. The three test segments were identical in molecular structure and differed only in their chromosomal context. In Dpγ238, the test segment was juxtaposed to an active centromere; in Dp8-23, the test segment was juxtaposed to centric, but centromerically inert DNA; in Tγ1337, the test segment was juxtaposed to euchromatin. ...
Folding of mammalian genomes into spatial domains is critical for gene regulation. CTCF and cohesin control domain location by folding domains into loop structures, which are thought to be highly stable. Combining genomic, biochemical and single-molecule imaging approaches, we show that although CTCF and cohesin can physically interact, CTCF binds chromatin much more dynamically than cohesin (~1 min vs. ~22 min residence time). Moreover, after unbinding, CTCF quickly rebinds another cognate site unlike cohesin (~1 min vs. ~33 min). Thus, CTCF and cohesin form a rapidly exchanging dynamic complex rather than a typical stable complex. Since CTCF and cohesin are required for loop domain formation, our results suggest that chromatin loops constantly break and reform throughout the cell cycle ...
We have separated the nonhistone chro moso mal proteins of pea chro matin fro m other chro moso mal constituents and have studied so me of the biological functions of these proteins. After dissociatio
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncologicas (CNIO) New mutations in cohesin proteins, which are closely associated with cell division, are very common in various types of cancers such as bladder cancer and melanoma. Massive sequencing of cancer genomes brings to light new genes every day that could be involved in the process of tumour formation. A good example of this is cohesin, a ring-shaped protein complex that embraces DNA to control cell division. Just a few months ago, and after several studies in the same direction, the sequencing of thousands of tumour samples identified the STAG2 gene-whose product forms part of cohesin-as one of the most frequently mutated genes in several types of cancer such as bladder cancer and melanoma.. The challenge now is to understand the link between cohesin and the development and evolution of cancer, an area where there is currently little data. Ana Losada, the head of the Chromosome Dynamics Group at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), ...
An intricate network of proteins ensures the faithful transmission of genetic information through cell generations. The Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes (SMC) protein complex family plays a pivotal role in maintaining genome stability. Initially, the three eukaryotic SMC complexes, cohesin, condensin and Smc5/6 complex (Smc5/6) were identified for their functions in chromosome cohesion, condensation and recombination. Later, it was shown that SMC complexes also control replication and transcription. Another important group of proteins involved in the maintenance of genome stability are the topoisomerases. These enzymes control DNA topology to ensure faithful replication, transcription and chromosome segregation ...
Thaete and colleagues (14) showed association of both SS18 and SS18-SSX with the DNA-dependent ATPase BRM, the catalytic subunit of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes. Subsequently, Kato and colleagues (15) showed that SS18 is a stable and integral component of SWI/SNF complexes using coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectroscopy in nuclear extracts of HeLa cells.. Middeljans and colleagues (16) extended these results by showing that the fusion oncoprotein is similarly incorporated into stable SWI/SNF complexes. All commonly observed subunits were recovered in reciprocal purifications between tandem affinity purification-tagged SS18-SSX1 and other subunits, indicating minimal perturbation of the core complex when the fusion oncogene is stably expressed in HEK293 cells. Kadoch and Crabtree (17) observed high-affinity binding of both SS18 and SS18-SSX to the core subunits of SWI/SNF, and immunodepletion of nuclear extracts showed undetectable levels outside of this association. In contrast with ...
Malignant rhabdoid tumours (MRTs) are extremely aggressive cancers of early childhood. They can occur in various locations, mainly the kidney, brain and soft tissues. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses have shown that the deletion of region 11.2 of the long arm of chromosome 22 (22q11.2) is a recurrent genetic characteristic of MRTs, indicating that this locus may encode a tumour suppressor gene. Here we map the most frequently deleted part of chromosome 22q11.2 from a panel of 13 MRT cell lines. We observed six homozygous deletions that delineate the smallest region of overlap between the cell lines. This region is found in the hSNF5/INI1 gene, which encodes a member of the chromatin-remodelling SWI/SNF multiprotein complexes. We analysed the sequence of hSNF5/INI1 and found frameshift or nonsense mutations of this gene in six other cell lines. These truncating mutations of one allele were associated with the loss of the other allele. Identical alterations were observed in corresponding primary ...
Perform reliable PCR with Bio-Rads CENPC1 primer pair, for Human. Designed for EvaGreen-based detection with digital PCR (ddPCR).
The high mobility group (HMG) proteins I and Y are well characterized nonhistone chromosomal proteins which bind to A·T-rich regions of DNA, and may regulate gene expression and/or DNA replication. We utilized a series of mouse mammary epithelial preneoplastic and tumor cell lines to explore the relationship between neoplastic transformation and HMG-I(Y) gene expression. The cell lines used in this study were originally derived from a single hyperplastic outgrowth, and exhibit a distinct gradient of preneoplastic to highly metastatic transformation states. We measured the levels of HMG-I(Y) gene expression in these cell lines during the different phases of cell growth in culture. At both subconfluent and confluent cell densities, elevated levels of HMG-I(Y) mRNA were directly correlated with the relative degree of neoplastic transformation and metastatic progression of these cells. HMG-I(Y) mRNA levels were always highest in proliferating cells. However, the differences in HMG-I(Y) gene ...
Complete information for SMCHD1 gene (Protein Coding), Structural Maintenance Of Chromosomes Flexible Hinge Domain Containing 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The lollipop plot above illustrates recurrent (observed in 3 or more out of 4440 TCGA tumor samples from 15 cancer types) and therefore potentially oncogenic missense mutations (click on Show Cancer Mutations). The bar plot below shows the proportion of tumor samples that have any kind of altering mutation(s) in the given protein. ...
J:131988 Han D, Jeon S, Sohn DH, Lee C, Ahn S, Kim WK, Chung H, Seong RH, SRG3, a core component of mouse SWI/SNF complex, is essential for extra-embryonic vascular development. Dev Biol. 2008 Mar 1;315(1):136-46 ...
Model of the interactions between HOAP and HP1 at SxlPe.(A) Maternal HOAP and HP1 cooperate to form a repressive complex which serves to reduce the sensitivity
Assembly of the Cdc45-Mcm2-7-GINS complex in human cells requires the Ctf4/And-1, RecQL4, and Mcm10 proteins Jun-Sub Im a,1 , Sang-Hee Ki a,1 , Andrea Farina b ...
购买我们的重组人Snf1lk2蛋白。Ab89856为有活性的全长蛋白,在昆虫细胞中生产并经过SDS-PAGE, Western blot, Functional Studies实验验证。中国80%以上现货。
Bukan mudah untuk berjaya, namun usaha berterusan tanpa putus asa membuatkan wanita gigih ini tampil sebagai saintis wanita seterusnya meraih anugerah berpresti
DNA repair in the eukaryotic cell disrupts local chromatin organization. To investigate whether the resetting of nucleosomal arrays can be linked to the repair process, we developed model systems, with both Xenopus egg extract and human cell extracts, to follow repair and chromatin assembly in parallel on circular DNA templates. Both systems were able to carry out nucleotide excision repair of DNA lesions. We observed that UV-dependent DNA synthesis occurs simultaneously with chromatin assembly, strongly indicating a mechanistic coupling between the two processes. A complementation assay established that chromatin assembly factor I (CAF1) is necessary for this repair associated chromatin formation.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The DNA helicase ChlR1 is required for sister chromatid cohesion in mammalian cells. AU - Parish, Joanna L.. AU - Rosa, Jack. AU - Wang, Xiaoyu. AU - Lahti, Jill M.. AU - Doxsey, Stephen J.. AU - Androphy, Elliot J.. PY - 2006/12/1. Y1 - 2006/12/1. N2 - It has recently been suggested that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Chl1p plays a role in cohesion establishment. Here, we show that the human ATP-dependent DNA helicase ChlR1 is required for sister chromatid cohesion in mammalian cells. Localization studies show that ChlR1 diffusely coats mitotic chromatin in prophase and then translocates from the chromatids to concentrate at the spindle poles during the transition to metaphase. Depletion of ChlR1 protein by RNA interference results in mitotic failure with replicated chromosomes failing to segregate after a pro-metaphase arrest. We show that depletion also results in abnormal sister chromatid cohesion, determined by increased separation of chromatid pairs at the centromere. ...
Cohesin is a multi-subunit protein complex essential for sister chromatid cohesion, gene expression and DNA damage repair. Although structurally well studied, the underlying determinant of cohesion establishment on chromosomal arms remains enigmatic. Here, we show two populations of functionally distinct cohesin on chromosomal arms using a combination of genomics and single-locus specific DNA-FISH analysis. Chromatin bound cohesin at the loading sites co-localizes with Pds5 and Eso1 resulting in stable cohesion. In contrast, cohesin independent of its loader is unable to maintain cohesion and associates with chromatin in a dynamic manner. Cohesive sites coincide with highly expressed genes and transcription inhibition leads to destabilization of cohesin on chromatin. Furthermore, induction of transcription results in de novo recruitment of cohesive cohesin. Our data suggest that transcription facilitates cohesin loading onto chromosomal arms and is a key determinant of cohesive sites in fission yeast.
Heterochromatin protein 1 is associated with centromeric heterochromatin in Drosophila, mice, and humans. Loss of function mutations in the gene encoding heterochromatin protein 1 in Drosophila, Suppressor of variegation2-5, decrease the mosaic repression observed for euchromatic genes that have been juxtaposed to centromeric heterochromatin. These heterochromatin protein 1 mutations not only suppress this position-effect variegation, but also cause recessive embryonic lethality. In this study, we analyze the latter phenotype in the hope of gaining insight into heterochromatin function. In our analyses of four alleles of Suppressor of variegation2-5, the lethality was found to be associated with defects in chromosome morphology and segregation. While some of these defects are seen throughout embryonic development, both the frequency and severity of the defects are greatest between cycles 10 and 14 when zygotic transcription of the Suppressor of variegation2-5 gene apparently begins. By this time ...
Chromosome segregation, transcriptional regulation, and repair of DNA double-strand breaks require the cohesin protein complex. Cohesin holds the replicated chromosomes (sister chromatids) together to mediate sister chromatid cohesion. The mechanism of how cohesion is established is unknown. We found that in budding yeast, the head domain of the Smc3p subunit of cohesin is acetylated by the Eco1p acetyltransferase at two evolutionarily conserved residues, promoting the chromatin-bound cohesin to tether sister chromatids. Smc3p acetylation is induced in S phase after the chromatin loading of cohesin and is suppressed in G1 and G2/M. Smc3 head acetylation and its cell cycle regulation provide important insights into the biology and mechanism of cohesion establishment. ...
Molecular Biology Sci Aug 4, 00 Pol : A DNA Polymerase Required for Sister Chromatid Cohesion Zhenghe Wang, Irene B. Castaño,* Alejandro De Las Peñas,* Carrie Adams, Michael F. Christman Establishment of cohesion between sister chromatids is coupled to replication fork passage through an unknown mechanism. Here we report that TRF4, an evolutionarily conserved gene necessary for chromosome segregation, encodes a DNA polymerase with -polymerase-like properties. A double mutant in the redundant homologs, TRF4 and TRF5, is unable to complete S phase, whereas a trf4 single mutant completes a presumably defective S phase that results in a failure of cohesion between the replicated sister chromatids. This suggests that TRFs are a key link in the coordination between DNA replication and sister chromatid cohesion. Trf4 and Trf5 represent the fourth class of essential nuclear DNA polymerases (designated DNA polymerase kappa) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and probably in all eukaryotes. Department of ...
Accurate chromosome segregation in mitosis is required to maintain genetic stability. hZwint-1 [human Zw10 (Zeste white 10)-interacting protein 1] is a kinetochore protein known to interact with the kinetochore checkpoint protein hZw10. hZw10, along with its partners Rod (Roughdeal) and hZwilch, form a complex which recruits dynein-dynactin and Mad1-Mad2 complexes to the kinetochore and are essential components of the mitotic checkpoint. hZwint-1 localizes to the kinetochore in prophase, before hZw10 localization, and remains at the kinetochore until anaphase, after hZw10 has dissociated. This difference in localization timing may reflect a role for hZwint-1 as a structural kinetochore protein. In addition to hZw10, we have found that hZwint-1 interacts with components of the conserved Ndc80 and Mis12 complexes in yeast two-hybrid and GST (glutathione transferase) pull-down assays. Furthermore, hZwint-1 was found to have stable FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) dynamics similar ...
The cohesin complex ensures accurate sister chromatid segregation during cell division but it also seems to play an important role in development. For example, mutations in several cohesin components are associated with the human developmental disorder Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). Until now, there has been no animal model for this syndrome but, on p. 3191, Zhang and co-workers report that mice lacking the cohesin regulatory protein PDS5B are born with developmental abnormalities reminiscent of CdLS. Pds5B-deficient mice, like people with CdLS, exhibit abnormal skeletal patterning, heart defects and cleft palates, they report. Unexpectedly, however, the researchers did not find any chromosome cohesion defects in Pds5B-/- cells. Furthermore, they detected high PDS5B expression in post-mitotic neurons of wild-type mice, identified a DNA-binding domain in mouse PDS5B and showed that the protein localizes to the nucleolus. Overall, these results suggest that PDS5B and the cohesin complex might ...
Stringent regulation of cellular levels of evolutionarily conserved centromeric histone H3 variant (CENP-A in humans, CID in flies, Cse4 in yeast) prevents its mislocalization to non-centromeric chromatin. Overexpression and mislocalization of CENP-A has been observed in cancers and leads to aneuploidy in yeast, flies, and human cells. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of Cse4 by E3 ligases such as Psh1 and Sumo-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligase (STUbL) Slx5 prevent mislocalization of Cse4. Previously, we identified Siz1 and Siz2 as the major E3 ligases for sumoylation of Cse4. In this study, we have identified lysine 65 (K65) in Cse4 as a site that regulates sumoylation and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of Cse4 by Slx5. Strains expressing cse4 K65R exhibit reduced levels of sumoylated and ubiquitinated Cse4 in vivo. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation experiments reveal reduced interaction of cse4 K65R with Slx5, leading to increased stability and mislocalization of cse4 K65R under normal physiological ...
Shop Sister chromatid cohesion 1 protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Sister chromatid cohesion 1 protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Centromeres mediate the conserved and essential process of chromosome segregation, yet centromeric DNA and the centromeric histone, CENP-A, are rapidly evolving. The rapid evolution of loop 1 (L1) of Drosophila CENP-A is thought to modulate the DNA-binding preferences of CENP-A to suppress centromere drive, the preferential transmission of chromosomes with expanded centromeric satellites during female meiosis. Consistent with this model, CENP-A from D. bipectinata (bip) fails to localize to D. melanogaster (mel) centromeres due to amino acid differences between mel and bip L1. Here, I show that this result is, in fact, due to the inability of the mel CENP-A chaperone, CAL1, to incorporate bip CENP-A into chromatin. Co-expression of bip CENP-A and bip CAL1 in mel cells restores centromeric localization, and similar findings apply to other Drosophila species. Furthermore, two co-evolving regions, CENP-A L1 and the CAL1 N-terminus, are identified as critical for lineage-specific CENP-A incorporation.
Autoimmune diseases are characterized by the presence of multiple autoantibodies that react with components of nuclear, cytoplasmic, or surface origin (for review see Nakamura and Tan, 1992; Fritzler, 1997). In clinical medicine, autoantibodies have been used to establish diagnosis, estimate prognosis, follow the progression of a specific autoimmune disease, and, finally, increase our knowledge of the pathophysiology of autoimmunity. In cell biology, autoantibodies have been extremely useful as probes for the identification of novel proteins and isolation of their corresponding genes. Human autoimmune sera have been particularly useful in the study of the eukaryotic nucleus where they have identified a wide range of nuclear antigens, including both single- and double-stranded DNA, RNA, histones, small nuclear RNA-binding proteins, transcription factors, nuclear lamins, heterochromatin-associated proteins, topoisomerase I and II, and centromere proteins (Tan, 1989, 1991; Earnshaw and Rattner, ...
ARID1A, a subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, and its homolog ARID1B function to maintain chromatin accessibility and active histone modifications at enhancers.
Our results show for the first time that mouse SGO2 localizes at the inner centromere domain during both meiotic and mitotic divisions, in the same way as its orthologue Sgo2 in fission yeast (Kitajima et al, 2004; Rabitsch et al, 2004). SGO2 and RAD21 colocalize and show a double cornet arrangement at the inner centromere domain below the closely associated sister kinetochores during metaphase I and anaphase I. By contrast, REC8 colocalizes only with the vertical region of the T‐shaped SGO2 signals during these stages (supplementary Fig 4 online). These results show that there are two different cohesin complexes with either RAD21 or REC8 at the inner domain of metaphase I and anaphase I centromeres, and that these complexes coexist only at the vertical region of the T‐shaped SGO2 signals. Thus, SGO2, as has been proposed for Sgo1 in Drosophila and yeast meiosis (Kitajima et al, 2004; Marston et al, 2004; Rabitsch et al, 2004; Clarke et al, 2005), could protect centromeric cohesin ...
Losada, A., Hirano, M., Hirano, T. (December 2002) Cohesin release is required for sister chromatid resolution, but not for condensin-mediated compaction, at the onset of mitosis. Genes & Development, 16 (23). pp. 3004-3016. ISSN 0890-9369 Losada, A., Hirano, M., Hirano, T. (July 1998) Identification of Xenopus SMC protein complexes required for sister chromatid cohesion. Genes and Development , 12 (13). pp. 1986-97. ISSN 0890-9369 (Print) Losada, A., Hirano, T. (February 2001) Intermolecular DNA interactions stimulated by the cohesin complex in vitro: Implications for sister chromatid cohesion. Current Biology, 11 (4). pp. 268-272. ISSN 0960-9822 Losada, A., Yokochi, T., Hirano, T. (May 2005) Functional contribution of Pds5 to cohesin-mediated cohesion in human cells and Xenopus egg extracts. J Cell Sci, 118 (Pt 10). pp. 2133-41. ISSN 0021-9533 (Print) ...
Kelly Dawe. Distinguished Research Professor What are plant centromeres made of? How are they inherited, what proteins interact with them, and how do they evolve? What are centromeres? For over twelve years our lab has been working through the answers to these questions.lab was founded with the goal of understanding plant kinetochores. We have made good progress mostly by making specific antisera and combining the power of maize cytogenetics with 3D light microscopy. Much of our effort has focused on the inner kinetochore proteins Centromeric Histone H3 (CENH3) and Centromere Protein C (CENP-C), as well as MAD2, a spindle checkpoint protein that localizes to the outer kinetochore. We have worked on a serine-50 phosphorylated form of CENH3, NDC80, and several other kinetochore proteins. Our long-term goal is to identify the complete collection of inner kinetochore proteins, and to develop a model for how these proteins are organized. We intend to pursue the tried-and-true method of identifying ...
Estrogen receptor α (ER) is a member of the family of nuclear receptors and functions as a transcriptional factor to induce gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences upon hormone treatment. It regulates cell growth, development and metabolic homeostasis in multi-cellular organisms. Estrogen-mediated transcription has been intensively studied genome-wide as well as on a small number of specific endogenous target promoters. However, the exact mechanism by which ER coordinates the activities of chromatin remodeling complexes and coactivators to facilitate initiation of transcription remains elusive. Here, we show the molecular mechanisms of the recruitment of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex by Fli-I, and recruitment of Tip60, a histone acetyltransferase.; Fli-I can bind directly to both ER and BAF53, an actin-related component of the SWI/SNF complex, suggesting that Fli-I may recruit SWI/SNF to ER target genes via interaction with BAF53. Depletion of endogenous Fli-I or BAF53 ...
The ZytoLight ® SPEC SMARCB1/22q12 Dual Color Probe is designed for the detection of deletions of the chromosomal region harboring the SMARCB1 gene by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH). The SMARCB1 (SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily b, member 1, a.k.a. INI1, SNF5, or BAF47) gene is located on chromosome 22q11.23 and encodes a tumor suppressor. Rhabdoid tumors are highly malignant neoplasms that typically arise in infancy and early childhood. They are classified as atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) when they occur in the CNS or as malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRT) when they are found in renal or extra-renal sites. The vast majority of AT/RTs and MRTs are characterized by loss of function of the SMARCB1 gene due to deletions or mutations. The molecular alterations are often bi-allelic resulting in complete loss of this tumor suppressor gene, and thus in cell cycle progression. Patients with germline alterations of SMARCB1, including
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modeling post-translational modifications and cancer-associated mutations that impact the heterochromatin protein 1α-importin α heterodimers. AU - Zimmermann, Michael T.. AU - Williams, Monique M.. AU - Klee, Eric W. AU - Lomberk, Gwen A.. AU - Urrutia, Raul. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α) is a protein that mediates cancer-associated processes in the cell nucleus. Proteomic experiments, reported here, demonstrate that HP1α complexes with importin α (IMPα), a protein necessary for its nuclear transport. This data is congruent with Simple Linear Motif (SLiM) analyses that identify an IMPα-binding motif within the linker that joins the two globular domains of this protein. Using molecular modeling and dynamics simulations, we develop a model of the IMPα-HP1α complex and investigate the impact of phosphorylation and genomic variants on their interaction. We demonstrate that phosphorylation of the HP1α linker likely regulates its ...
Sister chromatid cohesion and homologue pairing at prometaphase I in solo; +, +; snm, and solo; snm mutants. X and Y chromosomes were recognized by probes again
The Elg1 Clamp Loader Plays a Role in Sister Chromatid Cohesion. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Centromeres are specialized chromosomal domains which are composed of centromeric DNA, often enriched in satellite repeats, and a large protein complex, the "kinetochore". Proper assembly of the kinetochore complex is a prerequisite for the correct segregation of chromosomes during mitotic and meiotic divisions and, consequently, for genome stability in all eukaryotic organisms. Deposition of the centromeric histone H3 variant CenH3 at the centromeric region is a prerequisite for correct assembly and function of the kinetochore complex in most eukaryotes. CenH3 deposition depends on cenH3 assembly factors, like KNL2 (Lermontova et al., 2013; Sandmann et al., 2017), chaperones (e.g. NASPSIM3, Le Goff et al., 2020), transcription of the centromeric repeats and the epigenetic status of centromeric chromatin. Specific manipulation of the CenH3 assembly factor KNL2 yielded double haploids in Arabidopsis thaliana (I. Lermontova, WO2017/067714). The production of double haploids enables a shortcut to ...
A DNA-binding protein that interacts with a 17-base pair sequence known as the CENP-B box motif. The protein is localized constitutively to the CENTROMERE and plays an important role in its maintenance ...
MAHSKTRTNDGKITYPPGVKEISDKISKEEMVRRLKMVVKTFMDMDQDSEEEKELYLNLALHLASDFFLK 1 - 70 HPDKDVRLLVACCLADIFRIYAPEAPYTSPDKLKDIFMFITRQLKGLEDTKSPQFNRYFYLLENIAWVKS 71 - 140 YNICFELEDSNEIFTQLYRTLFSVINNGHNQKVHMHMVDLMSSIICEGDTVSQELLDTVLVNLVPAHKNL 141 - 210 NKQAYDLAKALLKRTAQAIEPYITNFFNQVLMLGKTSISDLSEHVFDLILELYNIDSHLLLSVLPQLEFK 211 - 280 LKSNDNEERLQVVKLLAKMFGAKDSELASQNKPLWQCYLGRFNDIHVPIRLECVKFASHCLMNHPDLAKD 281 - 350 LTEYLKVRSHDPEEAIRHDVIVSIVTAAKKDILLVNDHLLNFVRERTLDKRWRVRKEAMMGLAQIYKKYA 351 - 420 LQSAAGKDAAKQIAWIKDKLLHIYYQNSIDDRLLVERIFAQYMVPHNLETTERMKCLYYLYATLDLNAVK 421 - 490 ALNEMWKCQNLLRHQVKDLLDLIKQPKTDASVKAIFSKVMVITRNLPDPGKAQDFMKKFTQVLEDDEKIR 491 - 560 KQLEVLVSPTCSCKQAEGCVREITKKLGNPKQPTNPFLEMIKFLLERIAPVHIDTESISALIKQVNKSID 561 - 630 GTADDEDEGVPTDQAIRAGLELLKVLSFTHPISFHSAETFESLLACLKMDDEKVAEAALQIFKNTGSKIE 631 - 700 EDFPHIRSALLPVLHHKSKKGPPRQAKYAIHCIHAIFSSKETQFAQIFEPLHKSLDPSNLEHLITPLVTI 701 - 770 GHIALLAPDQFAAPLKSLVATFIVKDLLMNDRLPGKKTTKLWVPDEEVSPETMVKIQAIKMMVRWLLGMK 771 - 840 ...
Reactivity: Chicken, Cow, Dog and more. Compare 39 different CENPB ELISA Kits & buy the right one directly at antibodies-online.com!
Initial studies of chromatin looping conformation focused on single loci. These studies identified a pivotal role for the 11 zinc finger CCCTC- binding factor, CTCF, in shaping chromatin loops and demonstrated that cohesin co-localised with CTCF to stabilise loops 1-5. Cohesin was also shown to interact with large promoter-enhancer complexes such as Mediator 6. In the last two years our understanding of chromatin organisation has been further increased by studies that have taken a genome-wide approach. It has been noted that architectural proteins CTCF and/or cohesin binding sites are enriched at boundaries between TADS 7; 8. However, CTCF and cohesin sites are also present within TADS and may therefore not be the only determinants of TAD structure.. In the June issue of Cell this year, Phillips-Cremins et al. identified that distinct combinations of CTCF, CTCF, cohesin, and Mediator work in a combinatorial manner to functionally organize chromatin in a cell-type-specific manner at the ...
Our research program is focused on the important basic question of how chromosomes are segregated during cell division to ensure the complete and accurate inheritance of the genome. Chromosome instability is a hallmark of cancer and can drive tumorigenesis. Therefore, how centromere specification is controlled is a basic biological question with great therapeutic potential. Centromeres are specified by the incorporation of a histone variant CENP-A, and stable inheritance of this locus is control...[Read full text]Our research program is focused on the important basic question of how chromosomes are segregated during cell division to ensure the complete and accurate inheritance of the genome. Chromosome instability is a hallmark of cancer and can drive tumorigenesis. Therefore, how centromere specification is controlled is a basic biological question with great therapeutic potential. Centromeres are specified by the incorporation of a histone variant CENP-A, and stable inheritance of this locus ...
Class cohesion is considered as one of the most important object-oriented software attributes. High cohesion is, in fact, a desirable property of software. Many different metrics have been suggested in the last several years to measure the cohesion of classes in object-oriented systems. The class of structural object-oriented cohesion metrics is the most in-vestigated category of cohesion metrics. These metrics measure cohesion on structural information extracted from the source code. Empirical studies noted that these metrics fail in many situations to properly reflect cohesion of classes. This paper aims at exploring the use of hierarchical clustering techniques to improve the measurement of cohesion of classes in object-oriented systems. The proposed approach has been evaluated using three particular case studies. We also used in our study three well-known structural cohesion metrics. The achieved results show that the new approach appears to better reflect the cohesion (and structure) of classes
Laboratory Manager. Emily is a Utah native but left her home state for the wonders of the Northwest where she received her B.S. at The Evergreen State College in environmental/agricultural sciences. She changed her scientific focus when she joined the Malik Lab where she studied the role of genetic conflict between centromeres and centromere-associated proteins in D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Emily is a big fan of hiking, fishing, and kicking a soccer ball around. Karen Peralta ...
etc/php.d/01-ioncube-loader.ini, /etc/php.d/20-bz2.ini, /etc/php.d/20-calendar.ini, /etc/php.d/20-ctype.ini, /etc/php.d/20-curl.ini, /etc/php.d/20-dom.ini, /etc/php.d/20-exif.ini, /etc/php.d/20-fileinfo.ini, /etc/php.d/20-ftp.ini, /etc/php.d/20-gd.ini, /etc/php.d/20-gettext.ini, /etc/php.d/20-gmp.ini, /etc/php.d/20-iconv.ini, /etc/php.d/20-imap.ini, /etc/php.d/20-mbstring.ini, /etc/php.d/20-mcrypt.ini, /etc/php.d/20-mysqlnd.ini, /etc/php.d/20-pdo.ini, /etc/php.d/20-phar.ini, /etc/php.d/20-posix.ini, /etc/php.d/20-shmop.ini, /etc/php.d/20-simplexml.ini, /etc/php.d/20-soap.ini, /etc/php.d/20-sockets.ini, /etc/php.d/20-sqlite3.ini, /etc/php.d/20-sysvmsg.ini, /etc/php.d/20-sysvsem.ini, /etc/php.d/20-sysvshm.ini, /etc/php.d/20-tidy.ini, /etc/php.d/20-tokenizer.ini, /etc/php.d/20-xml.ini, /etc/php.d/20-xmlwriter.ini, /etc/php.d/20-xsl.ini, /etc/php.d/20-zip.ini, /etc/php.d/30-mysql.ini, /etc/php.d/30-mysqli.ini, /etc/php.d/30-pdo_mysql.ini, /etc/php.d/30-pdo_sqlite.ini, /etc/php.d/30-wddx.ini, ...
Evolutionarily conserved Cse4, the centromeric histone H3 variant (CENP-A in humans) and its chaperone Scm3 (HJURP in humans) which are essential for chromosome...
Saratani ya ini ni kansa ambayo huanza katika ini, kinyume na kansa ambayo huanza katika kiungo kingine na kuenea kwenye ini, inayojulikana kama metastasis ya ini. Ili kuelewa kikamilifu kansa ya ini ni muhimu kuwa na ufahamu wa jinsi ya ini linavyofanya kazi. Ini ni mojawapo wa viungo vya mwili vikubwa zaidi. Liko chini ya pafu la kulia na chini ya mbavu. Ini limegawanywa katika sehemu mbili: ya kulia na ya kushoto. Protini huchukuliwa na ini kutoka kwa mshipa wa portal, ambao hubeba damu iliyo na virutubishi tele kutoka kwenye matumbo hadi kwenye ini. Mshipa wa hepatic husambaza damu kwenye ini ambayo ni tajiri kwa oksijeni. Aina kadhaa za uvimbe zinaweza kuendelea katika ini kwa sababu ini limetengenezwa kwa aina mbalimbali za seli. Uvimbe ambao husababisha Kansa huitwa Malignant na uvimbe ambao hauna seli za kansa huitwa Benign. Kansa ya ini hivyo ina uwepo wa uvimbe wa malignant hepatic - uvimbe juu au katika ini (majina ya kimatibabu yanayohusu ini mara nyingi huanza na hepato, au hepatic ...
The GINS complex plays an essential role in the initiation of DNA replication, and progression of DNA replication forks. GINS4 is important for GINS complex assembly. GINS complex seems to bind preferentially to single-stranded DNA.
Compare MIS18 kinetochore protein homolog A (S. pombe) ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Plasmid pYNL-C1_fibrillarin from Dr. Yasushi Okadas lab contains the insert fibrillarin and is published in Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Apr 7;112(14):4352-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1418468112. Epub 2015 Mar 23. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Global antibody supplier and research reagent supplier to the life science community. Find antibodies and reagents all backed by our Guarantee+.
Structural maintenance of chromosome protein-2 (SMC-2) antibody | | Structural maintenance of chromosomes protein 2 (SMC protein 2), (SMC-2), Chromosome-associated protein E (hCAP-E), XCAP-E homolog, SMC2, CAPE, SMC2L1
Heterochromatin is a type of tightly-coiled chromosomal material that carries genes. Although heterochromatin is largely inert...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate tra
Sie sind hier: Subcellular recruitment of fibrillarin to nucleoplasmic proteasomes: Implications for processing of a nucleolar autoantigen. ...
Geneticists from KU Leuven, Belgium, have shown that tumor protein TP53 knows exactly where to bind to our DNA to prevent cancer. Once bound to this specific DNA sequence, the protein can activate the right genes to repair damaged cells.
Informacje o lekach: Cipronex® Cipronex® Cipronex® Cipronex® Cipronex® Dicortineff Atecortin® Betnovate® C Betnovate® C Betnovate® N
Informacje o lekach: Biofuroksym® Biofuroksym® Biofuroksym® Biofuroksym® Biotaksym® Biotaksym® Biotrakson® Biotrakson® Biotum® Biotum®
购买SMC2兔多克隆抗体(ab10399),SMC2抗体经WB验证,可与人,小鼠样本反应。4篇文献引用,3个独立用户反馈。产品出库一年都在质保范围内。中国现货速达。
Sebelum ini kami ada dengar khabar angin mengatakan seorang pengacara TV ada menimbulkan sedikit kekecohan di akaun Instagram Sharnaaz Ahmad di ruang komen
Background: Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a multisystem disorder with distinctive facial appearance, intellectual disability and growth failure as prominent features. Most individuals with typical CdLS have de novo heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in NIPBL with mosaic individuals representing a significant proportion. Mutations in other cohesin components, SMC1A, SMC3, HDAC8 and RAD21 cause less typical CdLS. Methods: We screened 163 affected individuals for coding region mutations in the known genes, 90 for genomic rearrangements, 19 for deep intronic variants in NIPBL and 5 had whole-exome sequencing. Results: Pathogenic mutations [including mosaic changes] were identified in: NIPBL 46 [3] (28.2%); SMC1A 5 [1] (3.1%); SMC3 5 [1] (3.1%); HDAC8 6 [0] (3.6%) and RAD21 1 [0] (0.6%). One individual had a de novo 1.3 Mb deletion of 1p36.3. Another had a 520 kb duplication of 12q13.13 encompassing ESPL1, encoding separase, an enzyme that cleaves the cohesin ring. Three de novo mutations were
The Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) Foundation is a family support organization that exists to ensure early and accurate diagnosis of CdLS, promote research into the causes and manifestations of the syndrome, and help people with a diagnosis of CdLS make informed decisions throughout their lives. The CdLS Foundation is a national non-profit organization that has served people with CdLS and their families since 1981. The Foundations mission is reflected in its slogan: Reaching Out, Providing Help, and Giving Hope.
The aim of this study was to examine executive functioning in adolescents and adults with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) to identify a syndrome and age-related profile of cognitive impairment. Participants were 24 individuals with CdLS aged 13-42 years (M = 22; SD = 8.98), and a comparable contrast group of 21 individuals with Down syndrome (DS) aged 15-33 years (M = 24; SD = 5.82). Measures were selected to test verbal and visual fluency, inhibition, perseverance/flexibility, and working memory and comprised both questionnaire and performance tests. Individuals with CdLS showed significantly greater impairment on tasks requiring flexibility and inhibition (rule switch) and on forwards span capacity. These impairments were also reported in the parent/carer-rated questionnaire measures. Backwards Digit Span was significantly negatively correlated with chronological age in CdLS, indicating increased deficits with age. This was not identified in individuals with DS. The relative deficits in executive
Cornelia de Lange syndrome is a genetic developmental disorder that causes physical, health and learning challenges in children. Early intervention can help.
As a child with Cornelia de Lange syndrome, little was known about how the disorder would affect Megan Ramseys long-term functioning, but she confronts every challenge with an indomitable spirit.
Centromeres are unique chromatin domains that direct the site of kinetochore formation during mitosis and mediate the movement of chromosomes during cell division. Centromeres contain a unique nucleosome in which histone H3 is replaced by centromere protein A (CENP-A). Because of their unique position in chromatin, the CENP-A nucleosome was hypothesized to determine the site of centromere and kinetochore assembly. In order to test the long held assumption that CENP-A dictates the location of the centromere; we developed a novel de novo centromere formation assay, which provides a new and powerful constructive approach to studying centromeres. This system is based on a LacO array that is stably integrated into the long arm of chromosome 1, far away from the existing centromere. Targeting the CENP-A chaperone HJURP or the Mis18 complex to the LacO array, by fusing them to the LacI repressor, drove the stable recruitment of CENP-A nucleosomes to the LacO array at the non-centromeric locus. ...
Dietary nutrients interact with gene networks to orchestrate adaptive responses during metabolic stress. Here, we identify Baf60a as a diet-sensitive subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes in the mouse liver that links the consumption of fat- and cholesterol-rich diet to elevated plasma cholesterol levels. Baf60a expression was elevated in the liver following feeding with a western diet. Hepatocyte-specific inactivation of Baf60a reduced bile acid production and cholesterol absorption, and attenuated diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in mice. Baf60a stimulates expression of genes involved in bile acid synthesis, modification, and transport through a CAR/Baf60a feedforward regulatory loop. Baf60a is required for the recruitment of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes to facilitate an activating epigenetic switch on target genes. These studies elucidate a regulatory pathway that mediates the hyperlipidemic and atherogenic effects of western diet ...
The condensin and chromosomal passenger complexes both have important roles in chromosome condensation in mitosis, and the passenger complex has been shown in many systems to be required for localization or phosphorylation of condensin proteins (Giet and Glover 2001; Morishita et al. 2001; Hagstrom et al. 2002; Kaitna et al. 2002; Lavoie et al. 2004; Lipp et al. 2007). Here we observe distinct meiotic consequences of mutations in dcap-g and incenp. Strikingly, SC disassembly was premature in incenp mutants but delayed in dcap-g mutants, and prometaphase I and metaphase I chromosome configurations were disrupted in both mutants, but in clearly distinguishable ways.. That both the condensin and passenger complexes affect SC disassembly is intriguing because little is known about regulation of this process. BubR1 has recently been shown to be required for SC maintenance (Malmanche et al. 2007), although the mechanism has not yet been established. A suggestion that condensin might be required for SC ...
The centromere-specific histone variant CENP-A (CID in Drosophila) is a structural and functional foundation for kinetochore formation and chromosome segregation. Here, we show that overexpressed CID is mislocalized into normally non-centromeric regions in Drosophila tissue culture cells and animals. Analysis of mitoses in living and fixed cells reveals that mitotic delays, anaphase bridges, chromosome fragmentation, and cell and organismal lethality are all direct consequences of CID mislocalization. In addition, proteins that are normally restricted to endogenous kinetochores assemble at a subset of ectopic CID incorporation regions. The presence of microtubule motors and binding proteins, spindle attachments, and aberrant chromosome morphologies demonstrate that these ectopic kinetochores are functional. We conclude that CID mislocalization promotes formation of ectopic centromeres and multicentric chromosomes, which causes chromosome missegregation, aneuploidy, and growth defects. Thus, CENP-A
DNA methylation is an epigenetically imposed mark of transcriptional repression that is essential for maintenance of chromatin structure and genomic stability. Genome-wide methylation patterns are mediated by the combined action of three DNA methyltransferases: DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B. Compelling links exist between DNMT3B and chromosome stability as emphasized by the mitotic defects that are a hallmark of ICF syndrome, a disease arising from germline mutations in DNMT3B. Centromeric and pericentromeric regions are essential for chromosome condensation and the fidelity of segregation. Centromere regions contain distinct epigenetic marks, including dense DNA hypermethylation, yet the mechanisms by which DNA methylation is targeted to these regions remains largely unknown. In the present study, we used a yeast two-hybrid screen and identified a novel interaction between DNMT3B and constitutive centromere protein CENP-C. CENP-C is itself essential for mitosis. We confirm this interaction in ...
KAT7/HBO1/MYST2 Regulates CENP-A Chromatin Assembly by Antagonizing Suv39h1-Mediated Centromere InactivationKAT7/HBO1/MYST2 Regulates CENP-A Chromatin Assembly by Antagonizing Suv39h1-Mediated Centromere Inactivation ...
1. VegaH, WaisfiszQ, GordilloM, SakaiN, YanagiharaI, et al. (2005) Roberts syndrome is caused by mutations in ESCO2, a human homolog of yeast ECO1 that is essential for the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion. Nat Genet 37: 468-470.. 2. SchuleB, OviedoA, JohnstonK, PaiS, FranckeU (2005) Inactivation mutations in ESCO2 cause SC phocomelia and Roberts Syndrome: No phenotype-genotype correlation. Am J Hum Genet 77: 1117-1128.. 3. GordilloM, VegaH, TrainerAH, HouF, SakaiN, et al. (2008) The molecular mechanism underlying Roberts syndrome involves loss of ESCO2 acetyltransferase activity. Hum Mol Genet 17: 2172-2180.. 4. RudraS, SkibbensRV (2013) Cohesin codes - interpreting chromatin architecture and the many facets of cohesin function. J Cell Science 126: 31-41.. 5. MusioA, SelicorniA, FocarelliML, GervasiniC, MilaniD, et al. (2006) X-linked Cornelia de Lange syndrome owing to SMC1L1 mutations. Nat Genet 38: 528-530.. 6. TonkinET, WangTJ, LisgoS, BamshadMJ, StrachanT (2004) NIPBL, encoding a ...
Meiotic chromosome condensation is a unique process, characterized by dramatic changes in chromosome morphology that are required for the correct progression of pairing, synapsis, recombination and segregation of sister chromatids. We used an antibody that recognizes a ser 10 phosphoepitope on histone H3 to monitor H3 phosphorylation during meiosis in maize meiocytes. H3 phosphorylation has been reported to be an excellent marker for chromosome condensation during mitotic prophase in animal cells. In this study, we find that on maize mitotic chromosomes only pericentromeric regions are stained; there is little staining on the arms. During meiosis, chromosome condensation from leptotene through diplotene occurs in the absence of H3 phosphorylation. Instead, the changes in H3 phosphorylation at different stages of meiosis correlate with the differences in requirements for sister chromatid cohesion at different stages. Just before nuclear envelope breakdown, histone H3 phosphorylation is seen first ...
A parent describes a medical breakthrough announced at the 22nd National Conference of the Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Foundation held in Chicago this summer.
Inner centromere protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the INCENP gene.[5][6][7] In mammalian cells, two broad groups of centromere-interacting proteins have been described: constitutively binding centromere proteins and passenger (or transiently interacting) proteins.[8] The constitutive proteins include CENPA (centromere protein A), CENPB, CENPC1, and CENPD. The term passenger proteins encompasses a broad collection of proteins that localize to the centromere during specific stages of the cell cycle.[9] These include CENPE; MCAK; KID; cytoplasmic dynein (e.g., DYNC1H1); CliPs (e.g. CLIP1); and CENPF/mitosin (CENPF). The inner centromere proteins (INCENPs),[5] the initial members of the passenger protein group, display a broad localization along chromosomes in the early stages of mitosis but gradually become concentrated at centromeres as the cell cycle progresses into mid-metaphase. During telophase, the proteins are located within the midbody in the intercellular bridge, where ...
The accurate distribution of genetic information to daughter cells during cell division relies on the physical attachment of chromosomes to spindle microtubules mediated by kinetochores. Kinetochores are large protein assemblies deposited at specific chromosomal loci known as centromeres [1], [2], [3]. Defective centromere function results in chromosome segregation errors that can contribute to genomic instability implicated in cancer [4]. Hence, understanding the molecular mechanisms that promote kinetochore establishment and maintenance at centromeres is of prime importance.. The location of most eukaryotic centromeres is determined by the assembly of specialized chromatin composed of nucleosomes in which canonical histone H3 is replaced by the centromere‐specific H3 variant CENP‐A in vertebrates and Cnp1 (CENP‐ACnp1) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe [3], [5]. Thus, the establishment and maintenance of kinetochores requires CENP‐A to be recruited to and deposited at centromeres. In S. ...
Shirakawa H, Tsuda K, Yoshida M (May 1990). "Primary structure of non-histone chromosomal protein HMG2 revealed by the ... High-mobility group protein B3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HMGB3 gene.[3][4] ... This article on a gene on the human X chromosome and/or its associated protein is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding ... protein binding. • four-way junction DNA binding. • RNA binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cell nucleus. • chromosome ...
Nagaki S, Yamamoto M, Yumoto Y, Shirakawa H, Yoshida M, Teraoka H (1998). "Non-histone chromosomal proteins HMG1 and 2 enhance ... High mobility group box 1 protein, also known as high-mobility group protein 1 (HMG-1) and amphoterin, is a protein that in ... Like the histones, HMGB1 is among the most important chromatin proteins. In the nucleus HMGB1 interacts with nucleosomes, ... Wen L, Huang JK, Johnson BH, Reeck GR (1989). "A human placental cDNA clone that encodes nonhistone chromosomal protein HMG-1 ...
This gene encodes a member of the non-histone chromosomal high-mobility group protein family. The proteins of this family are ... Nagaki S, Yamamoto M, Yumoto Y, Shirakawa H, Yoshida M, Teraoka H (May 1998). "Non-histone chromosomal proteins HMG1 and 2 ... High-mobility group protein B2 also known as high-mobility group protein 2 (HMG-2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... "High mobility group proteins 1 and 2 can function as DNA-binding regulatory components for DNA-dependent protein kinase in ...
"Reversal of histone lysine trimethylation by the JMJD2 family of histone demethylases". Cell. 125 (3): 467-81. doi:10.1016/j. ... This gene is a member of the Jumonji domain 2 (JMJD2) family and encodes a protein with one JmjC domain, one JmjN domain, two ... Chromosomal aberrations and increased transcriptional expression of this gene are associated with esophageal squamous cell ... This nuclear protein belongs to the 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent dioxygenase superfamily. It functions as a trimethylation- ...
"Isopeptide linkage between nonhistone and histone 2A polypeptides of chromosomal conjugate-protein A24". Proceedings of the ... Later work on modification of histones led to the identification of an unexpected covalent modification of the histone protein ... These proteins are ubiquitinated by SCFTIR1, or SCF in complex with the auxin receptor TIR1. Degradation of Aux/IAA proteins ... Proteins are tagged for degradation with a small protein called ubiquitin. The tagging reaction is catalyzed by enzymes called ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins responsible for nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules ... Histone H1.3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H1D gene. ... "Isolation and characterization of two human H1 histone genes within clusters of core histone genes". Genomics. 10 (4): 940-8. ... The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins responsible for nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules ... 1988). "Two target sites for protein binding in the promoter region of a cell cycle regulated human H1 histone gene". Nucleic ... Histone H1.5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H1B gene. ... Chadwick BP, Willard HF (2001). "A Novel Chromatin Protein, Distantly Related to Histone H2a, Is Largely Excluded from the ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins responsible for nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules ... Histone H1t is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H1T gene. ... The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher ... "Entrez Gene: HIST1H1T histone cluster 1, H1t". Drabent B, Kardalinou E, Doenecke D (1991). "Structure and expression of the ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins responsible for nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules ... 2000). "Characterization of the histone H1-binding protein, NASP, as a cell cycle-regulated somatic protein". J. Biol. Chem. ... "Entrez Gene: HIST1H1A histone cluster 1, H1a". Du Clos TW, Zlock LT, Marnell L (1991). "Definition of a C-reactive protein ... 1995). "Expression and chromosomal mapping of the gene encoding the human histone H1.1". Hum. Genet. 94 (6): 633-9. doi:10.1007 ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins responsible for nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules ... 2000). "Characterization of the histone H1-binding protein, NASP, as a cell cycle-regulated somatic protein". J. Biol. Chem. ... Histone H1.2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H1C gene. ... "Entrez Gene: HIST1H1C histone cluster 1, H1c". Ohe Y, Hayashi H, Iwai K (1990). "Human spleen histone H1. Isolation and amino ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins responsible for nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules ... Histone H1.4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H1E gene. ... "Entrez Gene: HIST1H1E histone cluster 1, H1e". Ohe Y, Hayashi H, Iwai K (1986). "Human spleen histone H1. Isolation and amino ... "Isolation and characterization of two human H1 histone genes within clusters of core histone genes". Genomics. 10 (4): 940-8. ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... Histone H4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST2H4A gene. ... "Entrez Gene: HIST2H4A histone cluster 2, H4a". Green L, Van Antwerpen R, Stein J, et al. (1984). "A major human histone gene ... 1997). "Functional characterization of human nucleosome assembly protein-2 (NAP1L4) suggests a role as a histone chaperone". ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... "Entrez Gene: HIST1H4D histone cluster 1, H4d". Pauli U, Chrysogelos S, Stein G, et al. (1987). "Protein-DNA interactions in ... Histone H4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H4D gene. ... The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... 1987). "Protein-DNA interactions in vivo upstream of a cell cycle-regulated human H4 histone gene". Science. 236 (4806): 1308- ... Histone H4 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the HIST1H4I gene. ... 1991). "Isolation and characterization of two human H1 histone genes within clusters of core histone genes". Genomics. 10 (4): ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... 2001). "Methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 creates a binding site for HP1 proteins". Nature. 410 (6824): 116-20. doi:10.1038/ ... Histone H3.1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H3A gene. ... 2004). "Np95 is a histone-binding protein endowed with ubiquitin ligase activity". Mol. Cell. Biol. 24 (6): 2526-35. doi: ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... Histone H3.1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H3H gene. ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-1178. doi: ... The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... 2001). "Methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 creates a binding site for HP1 proteins". Nature. 410 (6824): 116-20. doi:10.1038/ ... Histone H3.1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H3F gene. ... 1991). "Isolation and characterization of two human H1 histone genes within clusters of core histone genes". Genomics. 10 (4): ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... The protein encoded is a member of the histone H1 family. This gene contains introns, unlike most histone genes. The protein ... Histone H1oo is a protein that in humans is encoded by the H1FOO gene. ... March 2010). "Expression of human oocyte-specific linker histone protein and its incorporation into sperm chromatin during ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... Histone H3.1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H3E gene. ... "Entrez Gene: HIST1H3E histone cluster 1, H3e". Albig W, Kioschis P, Poustka A, et al. (1997). "Human histone gene organization ... "Isolation and characterization of two human H1 histone genes within clusters of core histone genes". Genomics. 10 (4): 940-8. ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... 2001). "Methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 creates a binding site for HP1 proteins". Nature. 410 (6824): 116-20. doi:10.1038/ ... Histone H3.1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H3C gene. ... "Entrez Gene: HIST1H3C histone cluster 1, H3c". Albig W, Doenecke D (1998). "The human histone gene cluster at the D6S105 locus ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... Histone H1x is a protein that in humans is encoded by the H1FX gene. ... Nucleosomes consist of approximately 146 bp of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer composed of pairs of each of the four core ... Albig W, Doenecke D (Feb 1998). "The human histone gene cluster at the D6S105 locus". Hum Genet. 101 (3): 284-294. doi:10.1007/ ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... Histone H3.1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H3I gene. ... "Entrez Gene: HIST1H3I histone cluster 1, H3i". Lusic M, Marcello A, Cereseto A, Giacca M (2004). "Regulation of HIV-1 gene ... The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... 1998). "Core histones and HIRIP3, a novel histone-binding protein, directly interact with WD repeat protein HIRA". Mol. Cell. ... "Entrez Gene: HIST1H4A histone cluster 1, H4a". Pauli U, Chrysogelos S, Stein G, et al. (1987). "Protein-DNA interactions in ... Histone H4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H4A gene. ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... The protein encoded is a replication-independent member of the histone H3 family. Mutation of H3F3A are also linked to certain ... 2001). "Methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 creates a binding site for HP1 proteins". Nature. 410 (6824): 116-20. doi:10.1038/ ... Histone H3.3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the H3F3A gene. ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... Histone H3.1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H3D gene. ... "Entrez Gene: HIST1H3D histone cluster 1, H3d". Albig W, Doenecke D (1998). "The human histone gene cluster at the D6S105 locus ... The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher ...
Though chloroplast DNA is not associated with true histones,[15] in red algae, a histone-like chloroplast protein (HC) coded by ... Arabidopsis thaliana has multiple isoforms of Toc75 that are named by the chromosomal positions of the genes that code for them ... Protein targeting and importEdit. See also: Protein targeting. The movement of so many chloroplast genes to the nucleus means ... A protein kinase drifting around on the outer chloroplast membrane can use ATP to add a phosphate group to the Toc34 protein, ...
T1 - The non-histone chromosomal protein HMG-I(Y) contributes to repression of the immunoglobulin heavy chain germ-line ε RNA ... The non-histone chromosomal protein HMG-I(Y) contributes to repression of the immunoglobulin heavy chain germ-line ε RNA ... The non-histone chromosomal protein HMG-I(Y) contributes to repression of the immunoglobulin heavy chain germ-line ε RNA ... The non-histone chromosomal protein HMG-I(Y) contributes to repression of the immunoglobulin heavy chain germ-line ε RNA ...
Along with a similar protein, HMGN1, the encoded protein may help maintain an open chromatin configuration around transcribable ... The protein has also been found to have antimicrobial activity against bacteria, viruses and fungi. [provided by RefSeq, Oct ... Binds to the inner side of the nucleosomal DNA thus altering the interaction between the DNA and the histone octamer. May be ... The protein encoded by this gene binds nucleosomal DNA and is associated with transcriptionally active chromatin. ...
Acetyltransferases and Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone will be added to the citation. ... In 2008 the MeSH Heading "Gene Products, vpu" is replaced by the Supplementary Concept Record, "vpu protein, Human ... When the SCR ESCO2 protein, human is added to a citation, the MeSH Headings, ... immunodeficiency virus 1." In other words, search this "old" MeSH Heading as: vpu protein, Human immunodeficiency virus 1 [nm] ...
H5 histone --. Protamines --. Histone genes --. Histone variants --. Modifications of chromosomal proteins --. Acetylation --. ... Histones -- H1 histone -- Core histones: H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 -- H5 histone -- Protamines -- Histone genes -- Histone variants ... Synthesis and turnover of histones --. Nonhistone chromosomal proteins --. Structure of chromatin --. DNA-histone interactions ... Genes for other proteins --. Genes for acute-phase proteins --. Heat-shock protein genes --. Genes for structural proteins --. ...
These are the proteins of the high mobility group... ... Analysis of HMG chromosomal proteins by SDS-polyacrylamide gel ... Interactions of a purified non-histone chromosomal protein with DNA and histones. Eur. J. Biochem. 47, 263-270.Google Scholar ... High Mobility Group Chromosomal Protein Chicken Erythrocyte Micrococcal Nuclease High Mobility Group Protein These keywords ... The primary structures of non-histone chromosomal proteins HMG1 and 2. FEBS Lett. 122, 264-270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Chromatin; Chromosomes/Non-histone Chromosomal Proteins; Gene Regulation; HMG Proteins; Mouse Physiology; Transcriptomics; ... Overview of the genotype of Hmgntm1/tm1 mice. Diagrams detailing structural domains of HMGN proteins and the mutations in them ... Protein Section, Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, NCI, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland ... The nuclei of most vertebrate cells contain members of the high mobility group N (HMGN) protein family, which bind specifically ...
E) Chromosomal aberrations following MMC treatment. HeLa cells were transfected with siRNAs and cells were treated with MMC. ... MHF1-MHF2, a histone-fold-containing protein complex, participates in the Fanconi anemia pathway via FANCM.. Singh TR1, Saro D ... MHF1-MHF2, a Histone-Fold-Containing Protein Complex, Participates in the Fanconi Anemia Pathway via FANCM ... MHF1-MHF2, a Histone-Fold-Containing Protein Complex, Participates in the Fanconi Anemia Pathway via FANCM ...
Download Caffeine-induced alterations in non-histone chromosomal proteins of Chinese hamster ovary cells ebook by Susan Claire ... Caffeine-induced alterations in non-histone chromosomal proteins of Chinese hamster ovary cells by Susan Claire Harrison. ... chromosomal Caffeine-induced hamster of in Chinese alterations ovary proteins cells non-histone read online ... Download Caffeine-induced alterations in non-histone chromosomal proteins of Chinese hamster ovary cells ebook by Susan Claire ...
... histone gene-binding protein)-1 family were determined by hybridizing their cloned DNAs to genomic DNAs of nullitetrasomic and ... The genes for histones H1 and H2a, and for all members of the HBP-1 family except HBP-1a(1) are assumed to have different ... The genes for histone 2a and HBP-1a(17) are located in the RFLP maps of chromosomes 2B and 6A, respectively. Gene symbols are ... Genes for the other histones, H2b, H3 and H4, are found in high copy number and are dispersed among a large number of ...
Brain Histones. IV. Nonhistone Chromosomal Proteins (NHCP) of the Brain. V. DNA Polymerase. VI. RNA Polymerase. VII. Concluding ... Perturbation of Protein Synthesis in the Brain. III. Effect of LSD on the Translational Apparatus of the Brain. IV. Effect of ... 9 Analysis of Protein Synthesis in the Mammalian Brain Using LSD And Hyperthermia as Experimental Probes. I. Introduction. II. ... V. Effect of LSD and Hyperthermia on Brain Protein Synthesis In Vivo. VI. Effect of LSD and Hyperthermia on Subsequent Cell- ...
... protein is a 148 amino acid polypeptide ubiquitously expressed in normal cells and overexpressed in many malignancies. ... 0/Cell Cycle Proteins; 0/Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0/INCENP protein, human; 0/JTB protein, human; 0/Membrane Proteins ... Cell Cycle Proteins / chemistry, genetics, metabolism, physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / ... Membrane Proteins / chemistry, genetics, metabolism, physiology*. Mice. Mitosis / genetics. NIH 3T3 Cells. Neoplasm Proteins / ...
Nodal protein‎ (20 В). *. ► Non-histone chromosomal proteins‎ (1 К, 68 В) ... Protein (lb); protein (nb); Protéin (su); Protein (hif); 朊 (lzh); بروتين (ar); Protein (br); ပရိုတိန်း (my); 蛋白質 (yue); Белок ( ... प्रोटिन (dty); Prótín (is); Protein (ms); protein (tr); لحمیات (ur); Bielkovina (sk); білок (uk); 蛋白质 (zh-cn); Protein (gsw); ... protein (sco); Уураг (mn); protein (nn); ಪ್ರೋಟೀನ್ (kn); پرۆتین (ckb); protein (en); fehérje (hu); પ્રોટિન (gu); प्रोटिन (new); ...
Non-histone chromosomal protein. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section"> ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. P40625. G0QVY7. G0R105. Ichthyophthirius ... "Tetrahymena HMG nonhistone chromosomal protein. Isolation and amino acid sequence lacking the N- and C-terminal domains of ...
Multifunctional Sin3 proteins bind histone deacetylases (HDACs) to assemble silencing complexes that selectively target ... It preferentially targets transcribed chromosomal regions and centromere cores. Defects in complex II abrogate global ... Complex II contains a nonessential Sin3 homolog, Pst2, and several conserved proteins. ... Histone acetylation is important in regulating DNA accessibility. ...
Four variants and/or posttranslational modifications of histone H1-like proteins of Trypanosoma brucei brucei procyclic culture ... Crane-Robinson C (1985) How does H1 function in chromatin? In: (eds) Chromosomal proteins and gene expression. Plenum, New York ... Sanders C (1977) A method for the fractionation of the high-mobility group of non-histone proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun ... Toro GC, Galanti N (1988) H1 histone and histone variants inTrypanosoma cruzi. Exp Cell Res 174:16-24PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Histone: proteins that attach to DNA to form chromatin.. HLA locus: a region on chromosome 6 where many genes belonging to the ... 2009). Identification of novel dyslexia candidate genes through the analysis of a chromosomal deletion. Am. J. Med. Genet. B ... The cells are then lysed, the specific protein-DNA complexes are immunoprecipitated with antibody to the protein, and proteins ... One such epigenetic tag is acetylation of histones that causes relaxation of condensed chromatin, comprised of protein and DNA ...
B, in vitro kinase assay with the indicated recombinant GST-tagged Aurora B proteins and recombinant histone H3 as substrate. ... To understand how the chromosomal passenger complex ensures chromosomal stability, it is crucial to identify its substrates and ... The analog-sensitive Aurora B mutants are inhibited by PP1 analogs in cells. A, U2OS cells expressing the indicated proteins ... The Aurora B analog-sensitive mutant thiophosphorylates multiple proteins in cell extracts. A, in vitro kinase assay with ...
Histones and Nucleohistones. [D M P Phillips] -- 1 The Preparation and Characterization of Histones.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.1.1 ... Historical.- 1.2 Definition of Histones.- 1.3 Occurrence of Histones.- 1.3.1 Multicellular organisms.- 1.3.2 Unicellular ... ... 6.3.5 Histone structural modifications-some general conclusions.- 6.4 Changes in Acidic Chromosomal Proteins at Times of Gene ... 5.3.1 Histones in meiosis.- 5.3.2 Arginine-rich proteins of male gametes.- 5.3.3 Histone synthesis in embryos.- 5.4 The ...
Role of Loosely Bound Non-Histone Chromosomal Proteins and SnRNAs. IV. Tissue and Species Specificity of SnRNAs. V. Effect on ... Histone-Histone and DNA-Histone Interactions. V. Histone HI and Alignment of Nucleosomes. VI. Higher Order Packing. VII. ... Histone Deacetylase Activity in the Cell Cycle. VIII. Role of Histone Acetylation. References. 3. Role of HMG-Nucleosome ... Cell Cycle Studies of Histone Acetylation Using Physarum polycephalum as a Model System. IV. Acetate Content of H4 in the Cell ...
DNA is normally coiled around proteins called histones which when che...,Study,reveals,new,role,for,RNA,interference,during, ... chromosomal,replication,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology ... The histone-modifying proteins, which follow right along, establish heterochromatin.. The scientists found that failure or ... DNA is normally coiled around proteins called histones, which when chemically modified at specific locations, aggregate into ...
Recognizes and binds histone H3 tails methylated at Lys-9, leading to epigenetic repression. ... Heterochromatin protein 1. Short name: HP1. Alternative name(s):. Non-histone chromosomal protein C1A9 antigen ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. P05205. Q49BM3. B6UVR2. B6UVQ8. B6UVR1. B6UVQ6. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. P05205. Q49BM3. B6UVR2. B6UVR1. B4HYG3. B6UVQ6. ...
A comparison between histone H1 and MDBP-2-H1 was achieved by analyzing reversed phase HPLC-purified and V8-digested proteins ... The histone H1 subtype H1 01 in MDBP-2-H1 has 150 amino acids, whereas the full-size histone H1 01 is 218 amino acids. The ... In rooster liver the most abundant histone H1 subtypes are H1 01 and H1 11L. Similarly, MDBP-2-H1 contains the same subtypes of ... difference in mass between the two proteins is explained by C-terminal truncation of histone H1 01. ...
Centromere Protein A * Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / genetics* * Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / physiology ... Functional inactivation of the Retinoblastoma protein (pRb) has been indicated as a cause promoting chromosomal instability as ... Background: Aneuploidy is a hallmark of most human cancers that arises as a consequence of chromosomal instability and it is ... resulting in CENP-A protein levels similar to those present in control cells greatly reduced aneuploid cell numbers in pRb- ...
Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism * Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / chemistry* * Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / ...
Cell Cycle Proteins / physiology * Chromatids / ultrastructure* * Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone * DNA Topoisomerases, Type ... Two multisubunit protein complexes termed cohesin and condensin, both composed of SMC (Structural Maintenance of ... suggests that these ancient regulators of chromosome structure might function as topological devices that trap chromosomal DNA ...
  • Our evidence suggests that HMGN2 regulates active and bivalent genes by promoting an epigenetic landscape of active histone modifications at promoters and enhancers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sororin has only been identified in vertebrates, but we show that many invertebrate species contain Sororin-related proteins, and that one of these, Dalmatian, is essential for cohesion in Drosophila. (nih.gov)
  • Eighteen different Drosophila proteins have been classified as PcG members on the basis that HOX gene silencing is lost in animals that lack these proteins. (biologists.org)
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/840287783 Title: Histones and Nucleohistones Author: D M P Phillips Publisher: Boston, MA : Springer US, 1995. (worldcat.org)
  • Alp13, an MRG family protein, is a component of fission yeast Clr6 histone deacetylase required for genomic integrity. (nature.com)
  • Kornberg's research group at Stanford later succeeded in the development of a faithful transcription system from baker's yeast, a simple unicellular eukaryote, which they then used to isolate in a purified form all of the several dozen proteins required for the transcription process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the work of Kornberg and others, it has become clear that these protein components are remarkably conserved across the full spectrum of eukaryotes, from yeast to human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identifying proteins selectively associated with a genomic locus provides an important entry point toward understanding how a specific gene is regulated. (pnas.org)
  • Genomic amplification occurs when a cell gains many copies (often 20 or more) of a small chromosomal region, usually containing one or more oncogenes and adjacent genetic material. (wikipedia.org)