Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
An evolutionarily-conserved 10-kDa nuclear protein that binds NUCLEOSOMES and may be involved in the process of CHROMATIN unfolding.
Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
A 24-kDa HMGB protein that binds to and distorts the minor grove of DNA.
Compounds that inhibit HISTONE DEACETYLASES. This class of drugs may influence gene expression by increasing the level of acetylated HISTONES in specific CHROMATIN domains.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.
Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins conjugated with deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) or specific DNA.
The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.
Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A histone deacetylase subtype that is found along with HISTONE DEACETYLASE 2; RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 4; and RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 7 as core components of histone deacetylase complexes.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A 23-kDa HMG-box protein that binds to and distorts the minor grove of DNA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage to 3'-phosphomononucleotide and 3'-phospholigonucleotide end-products. It can cause hydrolysis of double- or single-stranded DNA or RNA. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.1.31.1.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
5-Bromo-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Brominated derivative of uracil that acts as an antimetabolite, substituting for thymine in DNA. It is used mainly as an experimental mutagen, but its deoxyriboside (BROMODEOXYURIDINE) is used to treat neoplasms.
The specific patterns of changes made to HISTONES, that are involved in assembly, maintenance, and alteration of chromatin structural states (such as EUCHROMATIN and HETEROCHROMATIN). The changes are made by various HISTONE MODIFICATION PROCESSES that include ACETYLATION; METHYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; and UBIQUITINATION.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A histone deacetylase subtype that is found along with HISTONE DEACETYLASE 1; RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 4; and RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 7 as core components of histone deacetylase complexes.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Enzymes that catalyse the removal of methyl groups from LYSINE or ARGININE residues found on HISTONES. Many histone demethylases generally function through an oxidoreductive mechanism.
Proteins involved in the assembly and disassembly of HISTONES into NUCLEOSOMES.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A class of weak acids with the general formula R-CONHOH.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
An enzyme that catalyzes the methylation of the epsilon-amino group of lysine residues in proteins to yield epsilon mono-, di-, and trimethyllysine. EC 2.1.1.43.
An 11-kDa AT-hook motif-containing (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) protein that binds to the minor grove of AT-rich regions of DNA. It is the full-length product of the alternatively-spliced HMGA1 gene and may function as an architectural chromatin binding protein that is involved in transcriptional regulation.
Various fish of the family SALMONIDAE, usually smaller than salmon. They are mostly restricted to cool clear freshwater. Some are anadromous. They are highly regarded for their handsome colors, rich well-flavored flesh, and gameness as an angling fish. The genera Salvelinus, Salmo, and ONCORHYNCHUS have been introduced virtually throughout the world.
Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Proteins containing AT-HOOK MOTIFS that are rich in arginine and glycine residues. They bind to the minor grove of AT-rich regions of DNA.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)
The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A family of HIGH MOBILITY GROUP PROTEINS that bind to NUCLEOSOMES.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
The mechanisms effecting establishment, maintenance, and modification of that specific physical conformation of CHROMATIN determining the transcriptional accessibility or inaccessibility of the DNA.
A family of histone demethylases that share a conserved Jumonji C domain. The enzymes function via an iron-dependent dioxygenase mechanism that couples the conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinate to the hydroxylation of N-methyl groups.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Enzymes that catalyze the methylation of amino acids after their incorporation into a polypeptide chain. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine acts as the methylating agent. EC 2.1.1.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A multisubunit enzyme complex that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION by deacetylating the HISTONE residues of NUCLEOSOMES.
An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
A histone chaperone that facilitates nucleosome assembly by mediating the formation of the histone octamer and its transfer to DNA.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
A multisubunit polycomb protein complex that catalyzes the METHYLATION of chromosomal HISTONE H3. It works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 1 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.
A retinoblastoma-binding protein that is involved in CHROMATIN REMODELING, histone deacetylation, and repression of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION. Although initially discovered as a retinoblastoma binding protein it has an affinity for core HISTONES and is a subunit of chromatin assembly factor-1 and polycomb repressive complex 2.
The systematic study of the global gene expression changes due to EPIGENETIC PROCESSES and not due to DNA base sequence changes.
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.
A four carbon acid, CH3CH2CH2COOH, with an unpleasant odor that occurs in butter and animal fat as the glycerol ester.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
A homologous family of regulatory enzymes that are structurally related to the protein silent mating type information regulator 2 (Sir2) found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sirtuins contain a central catalytic core region which binds NAD. Several of the sirtuins utilize NAD to deacetylate proteins such as HISTONES and are categorized as GROUP III HISTONE DEACETYLASES. Several other sirtuin members utilize NAD to transfer ADP-RIBOSE to proteins and are categorized as MONO ADP-RIBOSE TRANSFERASES, while a third group of sirtuins appears to have both deacetylase and ADP ribose transferase activities.
Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.
A sirtuin family member found primarily in the CYTOPLASM. It is a multifunctional enzyme that contains a NAD-dependent deacetylase activity that is specific for HISTONES and a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity.
A family of histone molecular chaperones that play roles in sperm CHROMATIN decondensation and CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY in fertilized eggs. They were originally discovered in XENOPUS egg extracts as histone-binding factors that mediate nucleosome formation in vitro.
Enzymes that catalyze the methylation of arginine residues of proteins to yield N-mono- and N,N-dimethylarginine. This enzyme is found in many organs, primarily brain and spleen.
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factors that was originally identified as a binding partner for ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A family of proteins that play a role in CHROMATIN REMODELING. They are best known for silencing HOX GENES and the regulation of EPIGENETIC PROCESSES.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A histone chaperone protein that plays a role in the deposition of NUCLEOSOMES on newly synthesized DNA. It is comprised of three different subunits of 48, 60, and 150 kDa molecular size. The 48 kDa subunit, RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 4, is also a component of several other protein complexes involved in chromatin remodeling.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
This ribonucleoprotein particle, composed of U7 snRNA, Sm core protein, and U7 snRNP-specific proteins, is involved in the 3'end processing of histone premessenger RNAs.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
A pyrimidine analogue that inhibits DNA methyltransferase, impairing DNA methylation. It is also an antimetabolite of cytidine, incorporated primarily into RNA. Azacytidine has been used as an antineoplastic agent.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to the 5-position of CYTOSINE residues in DNA.
Factors that are involved in directing the cleavage and POLYADENYLATION of the of MESSENGER RNA near the site of the RNA 3' POLYADENYLATION SIGNALS.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
A retinoblastoma-binding protein that has an affinity for core HISTONES. It is found as a subunit of protein complexes that are in involved in the enzymatic modification of histones including the Mi2 and Sin3 histone deacetylase complexes and the polycomb repressive complex 2.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A enzyme complex involved in the remodeling of NUCLEOSOMES. The complex is comprised of at least seven subunits and includes both histone deacetylase and ATPase activities.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A group of 6-alkyl SALICYLIC ACIDS that are found in ANACARDIUM and known for causing CONTACT DERMATITIS.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A retinoblastoma binding protein that is also a member of the Jumonji-domain histone demethylases. It has demethylation activity towards specific LYSINE residues found on HISTONE H3.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A sirtuin family member found primarily in the CELL NUCLEUS. It is an NAD-dependent deacetylase with specificity towards HISTONES and a variety of proteins involved in gene regulation.
A polynucleotide formed from the ADP-RIBOSE moiety of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A set of nuclear proteins in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE that are required for the transcriptional repression of the silent mating type loci. They mediate the formation of silenced CHROMATIN and repress both transcription and recombination at other loci as well. They are comprised of 4 non-homologous, interacting proteins, Sir1p, Sir2p, Sir3p, and Sir4p. Sir2p, an NAD-dependent HISTONE DEACETYLASE, is the founding member of the family of SIRTUINS.
The steps that generate the 3' ends of mature RNA molecules. For most mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), 3' end processing referred to as POLYADENYLATION includes the addition of POLY A.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.

Basic homopolyamino acids, histones and protamines are potent antagonists of angiogenin binding to ribonuclease inhibitor. (1/4598)

A radio-ribonuclease inhibitor assay based on the interaction of 125I-angiogenin with ribonuclease inhibitor (RI) was used to detect pancreatic-type ribonucleases and potential modulators of their action. We show that highly basic proteins including the homopolypeptides poly-arginine, poly-lysine and poly-ornithine, core histones, spermatid-specific S1 protein and the protamines HP3 and Z3 were strong inhibitors of angiogenin binding to RI. A minimum size of poly-arginine and poly-lysine was required for efficient inhibition. The inhibition likely resulted from direct association of the basic proteins with the acidic inhibitor, as RI bound to poly-lysine and protamines while 125I-angiogenin did not. Antagonists of the angiogenin-RI interaction are potential regulators of either angiogenin-triggered angiogenesis and/or intracellular RI function, depending on their preferential target.  (+info)

Onset of nucleolar and extranucleolar transcription and expression of fibrillarin in macaque embryos developing in vitro. (2/4598)

Specific aims were to characterize the onset of nucleolar and extranucleolar transcription and expression of the nucleolar protein fibrillarin during preimplantation development in vitro in macaque embryos using autoradiographic and immunocytochemical techniques. Autoradiography was performed on whole embryos cultured with [3H]uridine for assessment of nucleolar (rRNA) and extranucleolar (mRNA) transcription. Expression of fibrillarin was immunocytochemically assessed in whole embryos using a primary antibody against fibrillarin and a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated secondary antibody. Extranucleolar incorporation of [3H]uridine was first detected in 2-cell embryos cultured 6-10 h with [3H]uridine. Culture with alpha-amanitin prevented incorporation of label in 2-cell embryos, and treatment with ribonuclease reduced the signal to background levels, indicating that [3H]uridine was incorporated into mRNA and not rRNA or DNA. Nucleolar incorporation of [3H]uridine was not evident in pronucleate-stage or 2- to 5-cell embryos, but it was detected in one 6-cell embryo and in all 8-cell to blastocyst-stage embryos. Fibrillarin was first expressed in some 6- to 7-cell embryos, but it was consistently expressed in all 8-cell embryos. Fibrillarin was localized to the perimeter of the nucleolar precursor bodies, forming a ring that completely encapsulated these structures. Fibrillarin was not expressed in 8- to 16-cell embryos cultured with alpha-amanitin, indicating that it is transcribed, rather than recruited, at the 8-cell stage. In conclusion, in in vitro-fertilized macaque embryos developing in vitro, extranucleolar synthesis of mRNA is initiated at the 2-cell stage while the onset of nucleolar transcription occurs at the 6- to 8-cell stage, coincident with expression of fibrillarin.  (+info)

MENT, a heterochromatin protein that mediates higher order chromatin folding, is a new serpin family member. (3/4598)

Terminal cell differentiation is correlated with the extensive sequestering of previously active genes into compact transcriptionally inert heterochromatin. In vertebrate blood cells, these changes can be traced to the accumulation of a developmentally regulated heterochromatin protein, MENT. Cryoelectron microscopy of chicken granulocyte chromatin, which is highly enriched with MENT, reveals exceptionally compact polynucleosomes, which maintain a level of higher order folding above that imposed by linker histones. The amino acid sequence of MENT reveals a close structural relationship with serpins, a large family of proteins known for their ability to undergo dramatic conformational transitions. Conservation of the "hinge region" consensus in MENT indicates that this ability is retained by the protein. MENT is distinguished from the other serpins by being a basic protein, containing several positively charged surface clusters, which are likely to be involved in ionic interactions with DNA. One of the positively charged domains bears a significant similarity to the chromatin binding region of nuclear lamina proteins and with the A.T-rich DNA-binding motif, which may account for the targeting of MENT to peripheral heterochromatin. MENT ectopically expressed in a mammalian cell line is transported into nuclei and is associated with intranuclear foci of condensed chromatin.  (+info)

Replication-dependent marking of DNA by PCNA facilitates CAF-1-coupled inheritance of chromatin. (4/4598)

Chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1) is required for inheritance of epigenetically determined chromosomal states in vivo and promotes assembly of chromatin during DNA replication in vitro. Herein, we demonstrate that after DNA replication, replicated, but not unreplicated, DNA is also competent for CAF-1-dependent chromatin assembly. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA polymerase clamp, is a component of the replication-dependent marking of DNA for chromatin assembly. The clamp loader, replication factor C (RFC), can reverse this mark by unloading PCNA from the replicated DNA. PCNA binds directly to p150, the largest subunit of CAF-1, and the two proteins colocalize at sites of DNA replication in cells. We suggest that PCNA and CAF-1 connect DNA replication to chromatin assembly and the inheritance of epigenetic chromosome states.  (+info)

The topoisomerase-related function gene TRF4 affects cellular sensitivity to the antitumor agent camptothecin. (5/4598)

Camptothecin is an antitumor agent that kills cells by converting DNA topoisomerase I into a DNA-damaging poison. Although camptothecin derivatives are now being used to treat tumors in a variety of clinical protocols, the cellular factors that influence sensitivity to the drug are only beginning to be understood. We report here that two genes required for sister chromatid cohesion, TRF4 and MCD1/SCC1, are also required to repair camptothecin-mediated damage to DNA. The hypersensitivity to camptothecin in the trf4 mutant does not result from elevated expression of DNA topoisomerase I. We show that Trf4 is a nuclear protein whose expression is cell cycle-regulated at a post-transcriptional level. Suppression of camptothecin hypersensitivity in the trf4 mutant by gene overexpression resulted in the isolation of three genes: another member of the TRF4 gene family, TRF5, and two genes that may influence higher order chromosome structure, ZDS1 and ZDS2. We have isolated and sequenced two human TRF4 family members, hTRF4-1 and hTRF4-2. The hTRF4-1 gene maps to chromosome 5p15, a region of frequent copy number alteration in several tumor types. The evolutionary conservation of TRF4 suggests that it may also influence mammalian cell sensitivity to camptothecin.  (+info)

The RLF-B component of the replication licensing system is distinct from Cdc6 and functions after Cdc6 binds to chromatin. (6/4598)

Replication licensing factor (RLF) is an essential initiation factor that can prevent re-replication of DNA in a single cell cycle [1] [2]. It is required for the initiation of DNA replication, binds to chromatin early in the cell cycle, is removed from chromatin as DNA replicates and is unable to re-bind replicated chromatin until the following mitosis. Chromatography of RLF from Xenopus extracts has shown that it consists of two components termed RLF-B and RLF-M [3]. The RLF-M component consists of complexes of all six Xenopus minichromosome maintenance (MCM/P1) proteins (XMcm2-7), which bind to chromatin in late mitosis and are removed as replication occurs [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]. The identity of RLF-B is currently unknown. At least two factors must be present on chromatin before licensing can occur: the Xenopus origin recognition complex (XORC) [8] [9] and Xenopus Cdc6 (XCdc6) [10]. XORC saturates Xenopus sperm chromatin at approximately one copy per replication origin whereas XCdc6 binds to chromatin only if XORC is bound first [9] [10] [11]. Although XORC has been shown to be a distinct activity from RLF-B [9], the relationship between XCdc6 and RLF-B is currently unclear. Here, we show that active XCdc6 is loaded onto chromatin in extracts with defective RLF, and that both RLF-M and RLF-B are still required for the licensing of XCdc6-containing chromatin. Furthermore, RLF-B can be separated from XCdc6 by immunoprecipitation and standard chromatography. These experiments demonstrate that RLF-B is both functionally and physically distinct from XCdc6, and that XCdc6 is loaded onto chromatin before RLF-B function is executed.  (+info)

Retardation of cell proliferation after expression of p202 accompanies an increase in p21(WAF1/CIP1). (7/4598)

p202 is an IFN-inducible, primarily nuclear, phosphoprotein (52-kDa) whose constitutive overexpression in transfected cells inhibits colony formation. To investigate the molecular mechanism(s) by which expression of p202 protein impairs colony formation, we established stable cell lines that inducibly express p202. Using this cell model, we demonstrate that the induced expression of p202 in asynchronous cultures of these cells was accompanied by: (a) an increase in steady-state levels of p21(WAF1/CIP1/SDI1) (p21) mRNA and protein; (b) a decrease in Cdk2 protein kinase activity; and (c) an increase in the functional form of retinoblastoma protein (pRb). Transient transfection of a p202-encoding plasmid in Saos-2 cells, which do not harbor a wild-type p53 protein, resulted in an increase in p21 protein, which indicated that p202 could regulate expression of p21 protein independent of p53 protein. Moreover, we demonstrate that expression of p202 in these cells increased cell doubling time without accumulation of cells in a particular phase of the cell cycle. Taken together, these results are consistent with the possibility that p202 protein contributes to the cell growth retardation activity of the IFNs, at least in part, by modulating p21 protein levels.  (+info)

Specific destruction of kinetochore protein CENP-C and disruption of cell division by herpes simplex virus immediate-early protein Vmw110. (8/4598)

Examination of cells at the early stages of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection revealed that the viral immediate-early protein Vmw110 (also known as ICP0) formed discrete punctate accumulations associated with centromeres in both mitotic and interphase cells. The RING finger domain of Vmw110 (but not the C-terminal region) was essential for its localization at centromeres, thus distinguishing the Vmw110 sequences required for centromere association from those required for its localization at other discrete nuclear structures known as ND10, promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) bodies or PODs. We have shown recently that Vmw110 can induce the proteasome-dependent loss of several cellular proteins, including a number of probable SUMO-1-conjugated isoforms of PML, and this results in the disruption of ND10. In this study, we found some striking similarities between the interactions of Vmw110 with ND10 and centromeres. Specifically, centromeric protein CENP-C was lost from centromeres during virus infection in a Vmw110- and proteasome-dependent manner, causing substantial ultrastructural changes in the kinetochore. In consequence, dividing cells either became stalled in mitosis or underwent an unusual cytokinesis resulting in daughter cells with many micronuclei. These results emphasize the importance of CENP-C for mitotic progression and suggest that Vmw110 may be interfering with biochemical mechanisms which are relevant to both centromeres and ND10.  (+info)

Summary The ring-shaped cohesin complex brings together distant DNA domains to maintain, express, and segregate the genome. Establishing specific chromosomal linkages depends on cohesin recruitment to defined loci. One such locus is the budding yeast centromere, which is a paradigm for targeted cohesin loading. The kinetochore, a multiprotein complex that connects centromeres to microtubules, drives the recruitment of high levels of cohesin to link sister chromatids together. We have exploited this system to determine the mechanism of specific cohesin recruitment. We show that phosphorylation of the Ctf19 kinetochore protein by a conserved kinase, DDK, provides a binding site for the Scc2/4 cohesin loading complex, thereby directing cohesin loading to centromeres. A similar mechanism targets cohesin to chromosomes in vertebrates. These findings represent a complete molecular description of targeted cohesin loading, a phenomenon with wide-ranging importance in chromosome segregation and, in ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
The chromo domain was originally identified as a protein sequence motif common to the Drosophila chromatin proteins, Polycomb (Pc) and heterochromatin protein 1 [HP1; Paro and Hogness (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 88, 263-267; Paro (1990) Trends Genet., 6, 416-421]. Here we describe a second chromo domain-like motif in HP1. Subsequent refined searches identified further examples of this chromo domain variant which all occur in proteins that also have an N-terminally located chromo domain. Due to its relatedness to the chromo domain, and its occurrence in proteins that also have a classical chromo domain, we call the variant the chromo shadow domain. Chromo domain-containing proteins can therefore be divided into two classes depending on the presence, for example in HP1, or absence, for example in Pc, of the chromo shadow domain. We have also found examples of proteins which have two classical chromo domains. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe SWI6 protein, involved in repression of the silent ...
Download Caffeine-induced alterations in non-histone chromosomal proteins of Chinese hamster ovary cells ebook by Susan Claire HarrisonType: pdf, ePub, zip, txt
Padilla-Benavides T, Reyes-Gutierrez P, Imbalzano AN. Regulation of the Mammalian SWI/SNF Family of Chromatin Remodeling Enzymes by Phosphorylation during Myogenesis. Biology (Basel). 2020 Jul 03; 9(7 ...
Our results suggest a role for the cohesin-associated protein Wapl in the control of gene expression and regulation of PcG silencing at genes co-regulated by cohesin and PcG proteins. This is supported by three results: Wapl colocalizes with the cohesin subunit Rad21 on polytene chromosome; waplAG interferes with the function of PcG-silencing at specific targets; and waplAG phenotypes are modified by mutations in Nipped-B and pds5, two cohesin-associated factors.. wapl-null mutants die as third instar larvae and are germline lethal. By contrast, waplAG mutants live until the pharate adult stage and germline clones are viable. waplAG is a mutation that introduces a stop codon in the Wapl-L transcription unit, leaving the Wapl-S transcription unit intact. Wapl-L is transcribed throughout development, whereas Wapl-S is transcribed at all times except in larvae. We suggest that the lethality of waplAG results from a loss in total Wapl levels owing to the absence of expression of Wapl-S in larvae, ...
Subunits of mammalian SWI/SNF (mSWI/SNF or BAF) complexes have recently been implicated as tumor suppressors in human malignancies. To understand the full extent of their involvement, we conducted a proteomic analysis of endogenous mSWI/SNF complexes, which identified several new dedicated, stable s …
The structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) proteins are fundamental to chromosome organization. They share a characteristic domain structure, featuring a central SMC hinge domain that is critical for forming SMC dimers and interacting with nucleic acids. The structural maintenance of chromosomes flexible hinge domain containing 1 (Smchd1) is a noncanonical member of the SMC family. While it has been well established that Smchd1 serves crucial roles in epigenetic silencing events implicated in development and disease, much less is known about the structure and function of Smchd1 protein. Recently, we demonstrated that the C-terminal hinge domain of Smchd1 forms a nucleic acid-binding homodimer, however, it is unclear how the protomers are assembled within the hinge homodimer and how the full-length Smchd1 protein is organised with respect to the hinge region. Here, by employing small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) we demonstrate that the hinge domain of Smchd1 likely adopts an unconventional ...
We present several lines of evidence in support of a central role for cohesin in the organization of chromosomal domain structure. Using Hi‐C in NSC and AST cells, we show that chromosomal domain architecture is tightly correlated with cohesin/CTCF binding sites, and that in cells lacking functional cohesin complexes, the stability of this architecture is perturbed. Using 3D DNA FISH, we demonstrate that the changes in domain structure of cohesin‐deficient cells identified by Hi‐C reflect domain decompaction. Using high‐resolution 4C‐seq, we show that cohesin/CTCF sites interact preferentially to define both intricate loop structures within domains and the borders of megabase‐scale chromosomal domains. In Rad21‐deficient cells, many of these preferential contacts are lost, accompanied by a general relaxation of the chromosomal domain structure. Thus, domain decompaction comes about as a result of the reduction in cohesin/CTCF distal contacts, which in turn results in more ...
Cohesin complexes mediate sister-chromatid cohesion in dividing cells but may also contribute to gene regulation in postmitotic cells. How cohesin regulates gene expression is not known. Here we describe cohesin-binding sites in the human genome and show that most of these are associated with the CC …
Losada, A., Yokochi, T., Hirano, T. (May 2005) Functional contribution of Pds5 to cohesin-mediated cohesion in human cells and Xenopus egg extracts. J Cell Sci, 118 (Pt 10). pp. 2133-41. ISSN 0021-9533 (Print) Ono, T., Losada, A., Hirano, M., Myers, M. P., Neuwald, A. F., Hirano, T. (October 2003) Differential contributions of condensin I and condensin II to mitotic chromosome architecture in vertebrate cells. Cell, 115 (1). pp. 109-121. ISSN 0092-8674 Losada, A., Hirano, M., Hirano, T. (December 2002) Cohesin release is required for sister chromatid resolution, but not for condensin-mediated compaction, at the onset of mitosis. Genes & Development, 16 (23). pp. 3004-3016. ISSN 0890-9369 MacCallum, D. E., Losada, A., Kobayashi, R., Hirano, T. (January 2002) ISWI remodeling complexes in Xenopus egg extracts: Identification as major chromosomal components that are regulated by INCENP-aurora B. Molecular Biology of the Cell, 13 (1). pp. 25-39. ISSN 1059-1524 Losada, A., Hirano, T. (October 2001) ...
SCHLAP1 (SWI/SNF complex antagonist associated with prostate cancer 1 (non-protein coding)), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
c‐MYC and the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex act as master regulators of transcription, and play a key role in human cancer. Although they are known to interact, the molecular details of their interaction are lacking. We have determined the structure of the RPT1 region of the INI1/hSNF5/BAF47/SMARCB1 subunit of the SWI/SNF complex that acts as a c‐MYC‐binding domain, and have localized the i ...
Background The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins and is similar to the brahma protein of Drosophila. Members of this family have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to...
Histones are responsible for packaging the genomes of almost all eukaryotes into fundamental repeating nucleosome units. The packaging must facilitate compaction into the cell nucleus but also enable dynamic access to the genome. A variety of mechanisms exist for targeting enzymes to undertake local opening of chromatin such as at active genes or for DNA repair. However, larger scale transitions in chromatin also occur where extended genome regions have altered chromatin organisation. This often involves abundant non-histone chromatin proteins that switch chromatin between states that are not well understood at the structural level. The contribution of highly basic non-histone chromatin proteins in vitro has been investigated using the HMGA2 protein implicated in human stem cell chromatin opening, and the Hematodinium DVNP protein which is suggested to replace histones as the dominant packaging protein in this dinoflagellate. These two proteins are compared to histone H1 which stabilises ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - M32, a murine homologue of Drosophila heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), localises to euchromatin within interphase nuclei and is largely excluded from constitutive heterochromatin. AU - Horsley, D. AU - Hutchings, A. AU - Butcher, G W. AU - Singh, P B. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Mice possess two structural homologues of Drosophila HP1, termed M31 and M32 (Singh et al., 1991). We have previously shown that an M31-specific monoclonal antibody (MoAb), MAC 353, localises to constitutive heterochromatin (Wreggett et al., 1994). Here we report that a MoAb raised against the M32 protein (MAC 385) recognises a 22-kDa protein in murine nuclear extracts and that M32 is distributed in a fine-grain speckled pattern within interphase nuclei. M32 is also largely excluded from the large masses of constitutive heterochromatin that are labelled by MAC 353.. AB - Mice possess two structural homologues of Drosophila HP1, termed M31 and M32 (Singh et al., 1991). We have previously shown that an ...
The kinetochore directs accurate chromosome segregation by controlling chromosome movements through interactions with spindle microtubules, and also by serving as a platform for various regulatory pathways. Kinetochores assemble on centromere chromatin marked by nucleosomes containing the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A (Allshire and Karpen, 2008; Earnshaw and Rothfield, 1985). The interphase centromere complex (ICEN) associates with the CENP-A nucleosome (Izuta et al., 2006; Obuse et al., 2004), and the constitutive-centromere-associated network (CCAN) forms the inner kinetochore (Basilico et al., 2014; Cheeseman and Desai, 2008; Foltz et al., 2006; Gascoigne et al., 2011; Hori et al., 2008; Okada et al., 2006). The CCAN factors CENP-C (Saitoh et al., 1992) and CENP-T act as a crucial platform for the kinetochore during mitosis (Gascoigne et al., 2011; Hori et al., 2008, 2013; Nishino et al., 2013; Przewloka et al., 2011; Rago et al., 2015). CENP-C binds to CENP-A nucleosomes ...
Regulation of gene transcription is central to developmental processes. By establishing and maintaining specific patterns of transcription, various pathways are co-ordinated for correct development of the organism. Primary control occurs through interactions between specific regulatory DNA sequences and a large variety of transcription factors. A higher order of control occurs through regulation of chromatin states. Position effect variegation in Drosophila is a well known example of how gene expression can be affected by chromatin organisation (Lu and Eissenberg, 1998). Heterochromatin-associated protein 1 (HP1) of Drosophila, is one of the key components in this phenomenon, and is involved in the generation and maintenance of an inactive heterochromatin structure that silences gene expression (Eissenberg and Elgin, 2000). Cell differentiation or developmental processes such as embryogenesis, also require chromatin modifications to maintain repression of homeotic genes mediated by ...
The centromere facilitates the assembly of the kinetochore ensuring the accurate chromosome segregation. Active centromeres are specified epigenetically by nucleosomes containing the histone H3 variant, CENP-A, which is in place of histone H3. CENP-A is deposited by an assembly factor called HJURP in humans and Scm3 in yeast. However, homologs of HJURP/Scm3 are only present in a subset of eukaryotes. How CENP-A is deposited exclusively at centromeres in organisms that lack CENP-A chaperones remains unknown. This thesis addresses the above-mentioned gaps in the understanding of CENP-A assembly and identifies CAL1 as an essential recruiter for Drosophila CENP-A, which fulfills the function of HJURP/Scm3 in the dipteran lineage. Mis-targeting CAL1 is sufficient to trigger the formation of a functional centromere at the ectopic site, where the recruitment of centromeric proteins and microtubule attachments are detected. This additional centromere can be propagated epigenetically to the next generation and
Sister chromatid cohesion essential for mitotic chromosome segregation is thought to involve the co-entrapment of sister DNAs within cohesin rings. Although cohesin can load onto chromosomes throughout the cell cycle, it only builds cohesion during S phase. A key question is whether cohesion is generated by conversion of cohesin complexes associated with un-replicated DNAs ahead of replication forks into cohesive structures behind them, or from nucleoplasmic cohesin that is loaded de novo onto nascent DNAs associated with forks, a process that would be dependent on cohesins Scc2 subunit. We show here that in S. cerevisiae, both mechanisms exist and that each requires a different set of replisome-associated proteins. Cohesion produced by cohesin conversion requires Tof1/Csm3, Ctf4 and Chl1 but not Scc2 while that created by Scc2-dependent de novo loading at replication forks requires the Ctf18-RFC complex. The association of specific replisome proteins with different types of cohesion establishment
TY - JOUR. T1 - Meiosis-Specific loading of the Centromere-Specific histone CENH3 in Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Ravi, Maruthachalam. AU - Shibata, Fukashi. AU - Ramahi, Joseph S.. AU - Nagaki, Kiyotaka. AU - Chen, Changbin. AU - Murata, Minoru. AU - Chan, Simon W L. PY - 2011/6. Y1 - 2011/6. N2 - Centromere behavior is specialized in meiosis I, so that sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes are pulled toward the same side of the spindle (through kinetochore mono-orientation) and chromosome number is reduced. Factors required for mono-orientation have been identified in yeast. However, comparatively little is known about how meiotic centromere behavior is specialized in animals and plants that typically have large tandem repeat centromeres. Kinetochores are nucleated by the centromere-specific histone CENH3. Unlike conventional histone H3s, CENH3 is rapidly evolving, particularly in its N-terminal tail domain. Here we describe chimeric variants of CENH3 with alterations in the N-terminal ...
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a complex multisystem developmental disorder caused by mutations in cohesin subunits and regulators. While its precise molecular mechanisms are not well defined, they point toward a global deregulation of the transcriptional gene expression program. Cohesin is associated with the boundaries of chromosome domains and with enhancer and promoter regions connecting the three-dimensional genome organization with transcriptional regulation. Here, we show that connected gene communities, structures emerging from the interactions of noncoding regulatory elements and genes in the three-dimensional chromosomal space, provide a molecular explanation for the pathoetiology of CdLS associated with mutations in the cohesin-loading factor NIPBL and the cohesin subunit SMC1A NIPBL and cohesin are important constituents of connected gene communities that are centrally positioned at noncoding regulatory elements ...
Cohesin is a highly conserved multisubunit complex that holds sister chromatids together in mitotic cells. At the metaphase to anaphase transition, proteolytic cleavage of the α kleisin subunit (Rad21) by separase causes cohesins dissociation from chromosomes and triggers sister-chromatid disjunction. To investigate cohesins function in postmitotic cells, where it is widely expressed, we have created fruit flies whose Rad21 can be cleaved by TEV protease. Cleavage causes precocious separation of sister chromatids and massive chromosome missegregation in proliferating cells, but not disaggregation of polytene chromosomes in salivary glands. Crucially, cleavage in postmitotic neurons is lethal. In mushroom-body neurons, it causes defects in axon pruning, whereas in cholinergic neurons it causes highly abnormal larval locomotion. These data demonstrate essential roles for cohesin in nondividing cells and also introduce a powerful tool by which to investigate protein function in metazoa. © 2008 Elsevier
Deardorff M A, Bando M, Nakato R, Watrin E, Itoh T, Minamino M, Saitoh K, Komata M, Katou Y, Clark D, Cole K E, De Baere E, Decroos C, Di Donato N, Ernst S, Francey L J, Gyftodimou Y, Hirashima K, Hullings M, Ishikawa Y, Jaulin C, Kaur M, Kiyono T, Lombardi P M, Magnaghi-Jaulin L, Mortier G R, Nozaki N, Petersen M B, Seimiya H, Siu V M, Suzuki Y, Takagaki K, Wilde J J, Willems P J, Prigent C, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Christianson D W, Kaiser F J, Jackson L G, Hirota T, Krantz I D, and Shirahige K: HDAC8 mutations in Cornelia de Lange syndrome affect the cohesin acetylation cycle. Nature.489:313-317, 2012. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22885700 ...
The present study evaluated the dynamics and regulatory mechanisms of single cohesin molecules. We found that Scc2‐Scc4‐dependent topological loading and cohesin ATPase activity (disengagement of the head domain) are crucial for cohesin translocation along DNA. Consistent with this finding, the ATPase‐dependent translocation of cohesin in budding yeast was described in a previous study (Hu et al, 2011). Although Wapl‐Pds5 promotes the dissociation of cohesin from DNA as previously described (Gandhi et al, 2006; Kueng et al, 2006) (Appendix Fig S2C), we showed that Wapl‐Pds5 renders DNA‐associated cohesin immobile (Fig 2A and B). Considering that the engagement of Smc head domains restrains cohesin movement (Fig 1F), Wapl‐Pds5 may contribute to the tightening of the cohesin ring by associating with SA1, Scc1, and/or Smc3 (Shintomi & Hirano, 2009; Hara et al, 2014; Murayama & Uhlmann, 2015; Ouyang et al, 2016). Therefore, Wapl‐Pds5 may have dual activities: anti‐establishment ...
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Diese Arbeit setzt ihren Fokus auf die Charakterisierung eines möglichen SPT4-SPT5 Komplex in Arabidopsis thaliana. Die beiden Untereinheiten SPT4 und SPT5 werden von jeweils zwei Genen kodiert: SPT4-1/2 und SPT5-1/2. Eine Mutante bei der die Expression des gewebespezifisch exprimieren SPT5-1 beeinflusst ist, ist lebensfähig, wohingegen die Inaktivierung des allgemein exprimierten SPT5-2 embryonal letal ist. Ein induzierbarer Knockdown der SPT5 Expression führt zu schwerwiegenden Wachstumsdefekten und einer Gewichtsreduktion auf ungefähr 40% des Wildtyps. Ein herunterregulieren der Expression von SPT4-1 und SPT4-2, mittels RNAi, führt zu schweren Wachstums- und Entwicklungsdefekten, bedingt durch eine verminderte Zellproliferation. Zusätzlich zeigen diese Pflanzen auf Auxin zurück zu führende Phänotypen, z.B. eine gestörte Gravitropismusantwort, ein reduziertes Wurzelwachstum und ein verändertes Blattvenenmuster. Übereinstimmend mit diesen Phänotypen zeigte eine genomweite ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Duncan Simpson.. Cohesins mediate sister chromatid cohesion, which is essential for chromosome segregation and postreplicative DNA repair. In addition, cohesins appear to regulate gene expression and enhancer-promoter interactions. These noncanonical functions remained unexplained because knowledge of cohesin-binding sites and functional interactors in metazoans was lacking. We show that the distribution of cohesins on mammalian chromosome arms is not driven by transcriptional activity. Instead, mammalian cohesins occupy a subset of DNase I hypersensitive sites, many of which contain sequence motifs resembling the consensus for CTCF , a DNA -binding protein with enhancer blocking function and boundary element activity. We find cohesins at most CTCF sites and show that CTCF is required for cohesin localization to these sites. Recruitment by CTCF suggests a rationale for noncanonical cohesin functions and, because CTCF binding is sensitive to ...
SUV39: The Su(var)3-9 gene was originally identified in a genetic screen as a suppressor of position effect variegation in Drosophila. This was the first hint that the Su(var)3-9 protein might be involved in regulating chromatin structure. In mice, there are two highly related homologues of the Drosophila Su(var)3-9, Suv39h1 and Suv39h2. Following the identification of Suv39h1 as a lysine methyltransferase capable of methylating Lys9 of histone H3 (H3K9), confirmation that this protein can modulate chromatin architecture came with the finding that it creates a specific binding site for the heterochromatin protein HP1. As Suv39h1 and HP1 interact, it is thought that Suv39h1 methylating H3 K9, and then HP1 binding to the methylated H3, forms a positive feedback loop allowing HP1 and H3 K9 methylation to spread along chromatin, generating repressive heterochromatin in the process. (1) Reference ...
Centromeres are the specialized chromosomal sites necessary for poleward movement during mitosis and meiosis in eukaryotes. Commonly, a centromere is evident as a prominent constriction within the heterochromatin of each metaphase chromosome. The attachment to and movement of chromosomes along the spindle is mediated by the proteinaceous kinetochores, which form at the centromeres during cell division.. Despite this highly conserved function, centromeric DNA sequences are not conserved between organisms. For example, human centromeres consist of large blocks (200 kb to several megabases) of tandemly repeated 171-bp α-satellite (Willard, 1998), but the sequences can differ from those of apes on homologous chromosomes (Haaf and Willard, 1997). Similarly, Drosophila melanogaster centromeric regions contain blocks of 5- to 12-bp satellite repeats that do not appear to be shared by homologous centromeres of sibling species (Lohe and Brutlag, 1987).. Plant centromeric regions resemble their mammalian ...
Neocentromere activation requires centromere juxtaposition: Here we describe irradiation-mutagenesis experiments designed to identify the mechanism of neocentromere formation in D. melanogaster. Prior to this study, two models existed to explain the generation of neocentromeres in Drosophila and Homo sapiens-derepression of latent centromere-competent euchromatic sequences vs. centromere spreading (Choo 1997a, 1998). We distinguished between these models through a genetic assay for neocentromere activation and recovery. Three substrate chromosomes were irradiated, and an identical 290-kb test segment was liberated and genetically assayed for neocentromere activity. The three test segments were identical in molecular structure and differed only in their chromosomal context. In Dpγ238, the test segment was juxtaposed to an active centromere; in Dp8-23, the test segment was juxtaposed to centric, but centromerically inert DNA; in Tγ1337, the test segment was juxtaposed to euchromatin. ...
Folding of mammalian genomes into spatial domains is critical for gene regulation. CTCF and cohesin control domain location by folding domains into loop structures, which are thought to be highly stable. Combining genomic, biochemical and single-molecule imaging approaches, we show that although CTCF and cohesin can physically interact, CTCF binds chromatin much more dynamically than cohesin (~1 min vs. ~22 min residence time). Moreover, after unbinding, CTCF quickly rebinds another cognate site unlike cohesin (~1 min vs. ~33 min). Thus, CTCF and cohesin form a rapidly exchanging dynamic complex rather than a typical stable complex. Since CTCF and cohesin are required for loop domain formation, our results suggest that chromatin loops constantly break and reform throughout the cell cycle ...
We have separated the nonhistone chro moso mal proteins of pea chro matin fro m other chro moso mal constituents and have studied so me of the biological functions of these proteins. After dissociatio
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncologicas (CNIO) New mutations in cohesin proteins, which are closely associated with cell division, are very common in various types of cancers such as bladder cancer and melanoma. Massive sequencing of cancer genomes brings to light new genes every day that could be involved in the process of tumour formation. A good example of this is cohesin, a ring-shaped protein complex that embraces DNA to control cell division. Just a few months ago, and after several studies in the same direction, the sequencing of thousands of tumour samples identified the STAG2 gene-whose product forms part of cohesin-as one of the most frequently mutated genes in several types of cancer such as bladder cancer and melanoma.. The challenge now is to understand the link between cohesin and the development and evolution of cancer, an area where there is currently little data. Ana Losada, the head of the Chromosome Dynamics Group at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), ...
An intricate network of proteins ensures the faithful transmission of genetic information through cell generations. The Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes (SMC) protein complex family plays a pivotal role in maintaining genome stability. Initially, the three eukaryotic SMC complexes, cohesin, condensin and Smc5/6 complex (Smc5/6) were identified for their functions in chromosome cohesion, condensation and recombination. Later, it was shown that SMC complexes also control replication and transcription. Another important group of proteins involved in the maintenance of genome stability are the topoisomerases. These enzymes control DNA topology to ensure faithful replication, transcription and chromosome segregation ...
Thaete and colleagues (14) showed association of both SS18 and SS18-SSX with the DNA-dependent ATPase BRM, the catalytic subunit of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes. Subsequently, Kato and colleagues (15) showed that SS18 is a stable and integral component of SWI/SNF complexes using coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectroscopy in nuclear extracts of HeLa cells.. Middeljans and colleagues (16) extended these results by showing that the fusion oncoprotein is similarly incorporated into stable SWI/SNF complexes. All commonly observed subunits were recovered in reciprocal purifications between tandem affinity purification-tagged SS18-SSX1 and other subunits, indicating minimal perturbation of the core complex when the fusion oncogene is stably expressed in HEK293 cells. Kadoch and Crabtree (17) observed high-affinity binding of both SS18 and SS18-SSX to the core subunits of SWI/SNF, and immunodepletion of nuclear extracts showed undetectable levels outside of this association. In contrast with ...
Malignant rhabdoid tumours (MRTs) are extremely aggressive cancers of early childhood. They can occur in various locations, mainly the kidney, brain and soft tissues. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses have shown that the deletion of region 11.2 of the long arm of chromosome 22 (22q11.2) is a recurrent genetic characteristic of MRTs, indicating that this locus may encode a tumour suppressor gene. Here we map the most frequently deleted part of chromosome 22q11.2 from a panel of 13 MRT cell lines. We observed six homozygous deletions that delineate the smallest region of overlap between the cell lines. This region is found in the hSNF5/INI1 gene, which encodes a member of the chromatin-remodelling SWI/SNF multiprotein complexes. We analysed the sequence of hSNF5/INI1 and found frameshift or nonsense mutations of this gene in six other cell lines. These truncating mutations of one allele were associated with the loss of the other allele. Identical alterations were observed in corresponding primary ...
Perform reliable PCR with Bio-Rads CENPC1 primer pair, for Human. Designed for EvaGreen-based detection with digital PCR (ddPCR).
The high mobility group (HMG) proteins I and Y are well characterized nonhistone chromosomal proteins which bind to A·T-rich regions of DNA, and may regulate gene expression and/or DNA replication. We utilized a series of mouse mammary epithelial preneoplastic and tumor cell lines to explore the relationship between neoplastic transformation and HMG-I(Y) gene expression. The cell lines used in this study were originally derived from a single hyperplastic outgrowth, and exhibit a distinct gradient of preneoplastic to highly metastatic transformation states. We measured the levels of HMG-I(Y) gene expression in these cell lines during the different phases of cell growth in culture. At both subconfluent and confluent cell densities, elevated levels of HMG-I(Y) mRNA were directly correlated with the relative degree of neoplastic transformation and metastatic progression of these cells. HMG-I(Y) mRNA levels were always highest in proliferating cells. However, the differences in HMG-I(Y) gene ...
Complete information for SMCHD1 gene (Protein Coding), Structural Maintenance Of Chromosomes Flexible Hinge Domain Containing 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The lollipop plot above illustrates recurrent (observed in 3 or more out of 4440 TCGA tumor samples from 15 cancer types) and therefore potentially oncogenic missense mutations (click on Show Cancer Mutations). The bar plot below shows the proportion of tumor samples that have any kind of altering mutation(s) in the given protein. ...
PROT SYNTH & REG OF GENE - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation .ppt), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. sintesis dan regulasi ekspresi gen manusia.
J:131988 Han D, Jeon S, Sohn DH, Lee C, Ahn S, Kim WK, Chung H, Seong RH, SRG3, a core component of mouse SWI/SNF complex, is essential for extra-embryonic vascular development. Dev Biol. 2008 Mar 1;315(1):136-46 ...
Model of the interactions between HOAP and HP1 at SxlPe.(A) Maternal HOAP and HP1 cooperate to form a repressive complex which serves to reduce the sensitivity
GINS (Go Ichi Ni San; 5,1,2,3 in Japanese) is a heterotetrameric protein complex known to be essential for the establishment of DNA replication forks and the progression of the replisome. The GINS complex is known to be ...
Assembly of the Cdc45-Mcm2-7-GINS complex in human cells requires the Ctf4/And-1, RecQL4, and Mcm10 proteins Jun-Sub Im a,1 , Sang-Hee Ki a,1 , Andrea Farina b ...
Is there a reason why file handles are not acceptable for INIRead and INIWrite functions? ;;This works $output = IniRead(C:\Windows\avrack.ini, Settings, Volume, ) MsgBox(0, test, $output & @CRLF & @ERROR) ;;This doesnt $file = FileOpen(C:\Windows\avrack.ini, 0) $output = IniRead($file, S...
Viralnesia - Selama pandemi corona Covid-19 berlangsung, salah satu cara paling mudah dalam mencegah penyebaran virus ini adalah dengan rutin cuci tangan
购买我们的重组人Snf1lk2蛋白。Ab89856为有活性的全长蛋白,在昆虫细胞中生产并经过SDS-PAGE, Western blot, Functional Studies实验验证。中国80%以上现货。
Bukan mudah untuk berjaya, namun usaha berterusan tanpa putus asa membuatkan wanita gigih ini tampil sebagai saintis wanita seterusnya meraih anugerah berpresti
Makanan Pedas Baik??? Buruk??? Makanan berbumbu pedas merupakan salah satu ciri khas makanan Nusantara. Masakan Padang dari Sumatera Barat, salah satunya. Di daerah ini, menyantap makanan pedas sudah ...
Shirakawa H, Tsuda K, Yoshida M (May 1990). "Primary structure of non-histone chromosomal protein HMG2 revealed by the ... High-mobility group protein B3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HMGB3 gene.[3][4] ... This article on a gene on the human X chromosome and/or its associated protein is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding ... protein binding. • four-way junction DNA binding. • RNA binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cell nucleus. • chromosome ...
Nagaki S, Yamamoto M, Yumoto Y, Shirakawa H, Yoshida M, Teraoka H (May 1998). "Non-histone chromosomal proteins HMG1 and 2 ... High mobility group box 1 protein, also known as high-mobility group protein 1 (HMG-1) and amphoterin, is a protein that in ... Like the histones, HMGB1 is among the most important chromatin proteins. In the nucleus HMGB1 interacts with nucleosomes, ... transcription factors, and histones. This nuclear protein organizes the DNA and regulates transcription. After binding, HMGB1 ...
This gene encodes a member of the non-histone chromosomal high-mobility group protein family. The proteins of this family are ... Nagaki S, Yamamoto M, Yumoto Y, Shirakawa H, Yoshida M, Teraoka H (May 1998). "Non-histone chromosomal proteins HMG1 and 2 ... High-mobility group protein B2 also known as high-mobility group protein 2 (HMG-2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... "High mobility group proteins 1 and 2 can function as DNA-binding regulatory components for DNA-dependent protein kinase in ...
"Reversal of histone lysine trimethylation by the JMJD2 family of histone demethylases". Cell. 125 (3): 467-81. doi:10.1016/j. ... This gene is a member of the Jumonji domain 2 (JMJD2) family and encodes a protein with one JmjC domain, one JmjN domain, two ... Chromosomal aberrations and increased transcriptional expression of this gene are associated with esophageal squamous cell ... This nuclear protein belongs to the alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent hydroxylase superfamily. It functions as a trimethylation- ...
"Isopeptide linkage between nonhistone and histone 2A polypeptides of chromosomal conjugate-protein A24". Proceedings of the ... Later work on modification of histones led to the identification of an unexpected covalent modification of the histone protein ... These proteins are ubiquitinated by SCFTIR1, or SCF in complex with the auxin receptor TIR1. Degradation of Aux/IAA proteins ... Proteins are tagged for degradation with a small protein called ubiquitin. The tagging reaction is catalyzed by enzymes called ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins responsible for nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules ... Histone H1.3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H1D gene. ... "Isolation and characterization of two human H1 histone genes within clusters of core histone genes". Genomics. 10 (4): 940-8. ... The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins responsible for nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules ... 1988). "Two target sites for protein binding in the promoter region of a cell cycle regulated human H1 histone gene". Nucleic ... Histone H1.5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H1B gene. ... Chadwick BP, Willard HF (2001). "A Novel Chromatin Protein, Distantly Related to Histone H2a, Is Largely Excluded from the ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins responsible for nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules ... Histone H1t is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H1T gene. ... The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher ... "Entrez Gene: HIST1H1T histone cluster 1, H1t". Drabent B, Kardalinou E, Doenecke D (1991). "Structure and expression of the ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins responsible for nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules ... 2000). "Characterization of the histone H1-binding protein, NASP, as a cell cycle-regulated somatic protein". J. Biol. Chem. ... "Entrez Gene: HIST1H1A histone cluster 1, H1a". Du Clos TW, Zlock LT, Marnell L (1991). "Definition of a C-reactive protein ... 1995). "Expression and chromosomal mapping of the gene encoding the human histone H1.1". Hum. Genet. 94 (6): 633-9. doi:10.1007 ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins responsible for nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules ... 2000). "Characterization of the histone H1-binding protein, NASP, as a cell cycle-regulated somatic protein". J. Biol. Chem. ... Histone H1.2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H1C gene. ... "Entrez Gene: HIST1H1C histone cluster 1, H1c". Ohe Y, Hayashi H, Iwai K (1990). "Human spleen histone H1. Isolation and amino ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins responsible for nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules ... Histone H1.4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H1E gene. ... "Entrez Gene: HIST1H1E histone cluster 1, H1e". Ohe Y, Hayashi H, Iwai K (1986). "Human spleen histone H1. Isolation and amino ... "Isolation and characterization of two human H1 histone genes within clusters of core histone genes". Genomics. 10 (4): 940-8. ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... Histone H4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST2H4A gene. ... "Entrez Gene: HIST2H4A histone cluster 2, H4a". Green L, Van Antwerpen R, Stein J, et al. (1984). "A major human histone gene ... 1997). "Functional characterization of human nucleosome assembly protein-2 (NAP1L4) suggests a role as a histone chaperone". ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... "Entrez Gene: HIST1H4D histone cluster 1, H4d". Pauli U, Chrysogelos S, Stein G, et al. (1987). "Protein-DNA interactions in ... Histone H4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H4D gene. ... The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... 1987). "Protein-DNA interactions in vivo upstream of a cell cycle-regulated human H4 histone gene". Science. 236 (4806): 1308- ... Histone H4 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the HIST1H4I gene. ... 1991). "Isolation and characterization of two human H1 histone genes within clusters of core histone genes". Genomics. 10 (4): ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... 2001). "Methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 creates a binding site for HP1 proteins". Nature. 410 (6824): 116-20. Bibcode: ... Histone H3.1 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the HIST1H3A gene. ... 2004). "Np95 is a histone-binding protein endowed with ubiquitin ligase activity". Mol. Cell. Biol. 24 (6): 2526-35. doi: ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... Histone H3.1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H3H gene. ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-1178. Bibcode: ... The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... 2001). "Methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 creates a binding site for HP1 proteins". Nature. 410 (6824): 116-20. Bibcode: ... Histone H3.1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H3F gene. ... 1991). "Isolation and characterization of two human H1 histone genes within clusters of core histone genes". Genomics. 10 (4): ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... The protein encoded is a member of the histone H1 family. This gene contains introns, unlike most histone genes. The protein ... Histone H1oo is a protein that in humans is encoded by the H1FOO gene. ... March 2010). "Expression of human oocyte-specific linker histone protein and its incorporation into sperm chromatin during ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... Histone H3.1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H3E gene. ... "Entrez Gene: HIST1H3E histone cluster 1, H3e". Albig W, Kioschis P, Poustka A, et al. (1997). "Human histone gene organization ... "Isolation and characterization of two human H1 histone genes within clusters of core histone genes". Genomics. 10 (4): 940-8. ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... 2001). "Methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 creates a binding site for HP1 proteins". Nature. 410 (6824): 116-20. Bibcode: ... Histone H3.1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H3C gene. ... "Entrez Gene: HIST1H3C histone cluster 1, H3c". Albig W, Doenecke D (1998). "The human histone gene cluster at the D6S105 locus ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... Histone H1x is a protein that in humans is encoded by the H1FX gene. ... Nucleosomes consist of approximately 146 bp of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer composed of pairs of each of the four core ... PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human Histone H1x v t e. ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... Histone H3.1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H3I gene. ... "Entrez Gene: HIST1H3I histone cluster 1, H3i". Lusic M, Marcello A, Cereseto A, Giacca M (December 2003). "Regulation of HIV-1 ... The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... Histone H3.1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H3J gene. ... "Entrez Gene: HIST1H3J histone cluster 1, H3j". Lusic M, Marcello A, Cereseto A, Giacca M (2004). "Regulation of HIV-1 gene ... The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... 1998). "Core histones and HIRIP3, a novel histone-binding protein, directly interact with WD repeat protein HIRA". Mol. Cell. ... "Entrez Gene: HIST1H4A histone cluster 1, H4a". Pauli U, Chrysogelos S, Stein G, et al. (1987). "Protein-DNA interactions in ... Histone H4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H4A gene. ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... Histone H3.1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H3D gene. ... "Entrez Gene: HIST1H3D histone cluster 1, H3d". Albig W, Doenecke D (1998). "The human histone gene cluster at the D6S105 locus ... The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... Histone H3.1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H3G gene. ... "Entrez Gene: HIST1H3G histone cluster 1, H3g". Albig W, Doenecke D (1998). "The human histone gene cluster at the D6S105 locus ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode: ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... Histone H4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H4C gene. ... "Entrez Gene: HIST1H4C histone cluster 1, H4c". Drabent B, Kardalinou E, Bode C, Doenecke D (1995). "Association of histone H4 ... The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... "Entrez Gene: HIST1H4F histone cluster 1, H4f". Pauli U, Chrysogelos S, Stein G, et al. (1987). "Protein-DNA interactions in ... Histone H4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H4F gene. ... "Isolation and characterization of two human H1 histone genes within clusters of core histone genes". Genomics. 10 (4): 940-8. ...
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. ... Histone H3.2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST2H3C gene. ... Shankaranarayanan P, Chaitidis P, Kühn H, Nigam S (2001). "Acetylation by histone acetyltransferase CREB-binding protein/p300 ... This gene is found in a histone cluster on chromosome 1. This gene is one of four histone genes in the cluster that are ...
Though chloroplast DNA is not associated with true histones,[15] in red algae, a histone-like chloroplast protein (HC) coded by ... Arabidopsis thaliana has multiple isoforms of Toc75 that are named by the chromosomal positions of the genes that code for them ... Protein targeting and importEdit. See also: Protein targeting. The movement of so many chloroplast genes to the nucleus means ... A protein kinase drifting around on the outer chloroplast membrane can use ATP to add a phosphate group to the Toc34 protein, ...
UNKL: encoding protein RING finger protein unkempt-like. *VAT1L: encoding protein Vesicle amine transport protein 1 homolog (T ... LINC00273 encoding protein Long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 273. *LOC124220: encoding protein Zymogen granule protein 16 ... SHCBP1: encoding protein SHC SH2 domain-binding protein 1. *SLZ1: encoding protein SLX1 structure-specific endonuclease subunit ... CCDC113: encoding protein Coiled-coil domain-containing protein 113. *Ccdc78: encoding protein Coiled-coil domain-containing 78 ...
Hannon Bozorgmehr J (Oct 2019). "The origin of chromosomal histones in a 30S ribosomal protein". Gene. doi:10.1016/j.gene. ... Archaeal histones may well resemble the evolutionary precursors to eukaryotic histones.[12] Histone proteins are among the most ... Classes and histone variants[edit]. Five major families of histones exist: H1/H5, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.[2][4][5][6] Histones ... Histone synthesis[edit]. The first step of chromatin structure duplication is the synthesis of histone proteins: H1, H2A, H2B, ...
Protein SSX1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SSX1 gene.[3][4] ... SSX1, SSX2 and SSX4 genes have been involved in the t(X;18) chromosomal translocation characteristically found in all synovial ... 2002). "SYT associates with human SNF/SWI complexes and the C-terminal region of its fusion partner SSX1 targets histones". J. ... This article on a gene on the human X chromosome and/or its associated protein is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding ...
Telomere: Telomere-binding protein (TINF2). *Protamine. Histone. *H1. *H2A. *H2B. *H3. *H4 ... Chromosomal inversion. *Chromosomal translocation. *Numerical alterations *Aneuploidy. *Euploidy. *Polyploidy. *Paleopolyploidy ...
"Isopeptide linkage between nonhistone and histone 2A polypeptides of chromosomal conjugate-protein A24". Proceedings of the ... Later work on modification of histones led to the identification of an unexpected covalent modification of the histone protein ... The protein degradation processEdit. Ribbon diagram of ubiquitin, the highly conserved protein that serves as a molecular tag ... Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks ...
The first way is post translational modification of the amino acids that make up histone proteins. Histone proteins are made up ... For example, the term epigenetic has been used to describe any modification of chromosomal regions, especially histone ... Although histone modifications occur throughout the entire sequence, the unstructured N-termini of histones (called histone ... Chromatin is the complex of DNA and the histone proteins with which it associates. If the way that DNA is wrapped around the ...
protein binding. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor activity. • ubiquitin protein ligase binding. • ... by complexing with the HIV integrase and thereby aborting chromosomal integration of the provirus. HIV infected individuals who ... "Effects of histone acetylation and DNA methylation on p21( WAF1) regulation". World J. Gastroenterol. 8 (3): 400-5. doi ... cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • protein kinase inhibitor activity. • protein kinase binding. • ...
The critical concept of the histone code hypothesis is that the histone modifications serve to recruit other proteins by ... For example, phosphorylation of serine residues 10 and 28 on histone H3 is a marker for chromosomal condensation. Similarly, ... Histone-modifying enzymes. References[edit]. *^ Jenuwein T, Allis C (2001). "Translating the histone code". Science. 293 (5532 ... Histones are globular proteins with a flexible N-terminus (taken to be the tail) that protrudes from the nucleosome. Many of ...
... segments of DNA wound around cores of histone proteins.[52] The full set of hereditary material in an organism (usually the ... The probability of chromosomal crossover occurring between two given points on the chromosome is related to the distance ... 2002), I.3. Proteins: The Shape and Structure of Proteins *^ Alberts et al. (2002), I.3. Proteins: Protein Function Archived 25 ... like the fibers formed by the protein collagen. Proteins can bind to other proteins and simple molecules, sometimes acting as ...
... and changes in chromosomal architecture (caused by inappropriate expression of proteins such as HMGA2 or HMGA1).[79] Each of ... Examples of such modifications are changes in DNA methylation (hypermethylation and hypomethylation), histone modification[78] ... "Negative regulation of BRCA1 gene expression by HMGA1 proteins accounts for the reduced BRCA1 protein levels in sporadic breast ... miRNAs do not code for proteins, but can "target" protein-coding genes and reduce their expression. ...
Since assembly of kinetochore proteins at centromeres is affected by the methylation of cytosine and histone proteins, a ... assay is extremely versatile and is one of the preferred methods to measure the level of chromosomal damage and chromosomal ... The frequencies of chromosomal aberrations, damaged cells, and micronuclei are significantly higher in smokers than non-smokers ... It usually is a sign of genotoxic events and chromosomal instability. Micronuclei are commonly seen in cancerous cells and may ...
... that are recognized by the DnaA protein. DnaA protein plays a crucial role in the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication.[3] ... and with the assistance of bacterial histone-like proteins [HU] DnaA then unwinds an AT-rich region near the left boundary of ... Stoichiometry of DnaA and DnaB protein in initiation at the Escherichia coli chromosomal origin. J. Biol. Chem. 276:44919-25 ... The E. coli bacterial replication origin, called oriC consists of DNA sequences that are recognised by the DnaA protein, which ...
Arrow indicates the location of Barr body(Xi). Right: DNA associated histones protein detected ... Chromosomal component[edit]. The X-inactivation center (or simply XIC) on the X chromosome is necessary and sufficient to cause ... Compared to the Xa, the Xi has high levels of DNA methylation, low levels of histone acetylation, low levels of histone H3 ... Like Xist, the Tsix gene encodes a large RNA which is not believed to encode a protein. The Tsix RNA is transcribed antisense ...
C3orf14-Chromosome 3 open reading frame 14: predicted DNA binding protein.. *C3orf23: encoding protein Uncharacterized protein ... FRA3A encoding protein Fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(3)(p24.2). *FRMD4B encoding protein FERM domain containing ... ZBED2: encoding protein Zinc finger BED-type containing 2. *ZNF9: zinc finger protein 9 (a cellular retroviral nucleic acid ... TRAK1: trafficking kinesin-binding protein 1. *TRANK1: encoding protein Tetratricopeptide repeat and ankyrin repeat containing ...
Morgan HE, Jefferson LS, Wolpert EB, Rannels DE (Apr 1971). "Regulation of protein synthesis in heart muscle. II. Effect of ... complex chromosomal rearrangements, and cancer in mice". The American Journal of Pathology 162 (5): 1559-69. PMC 1851180. PMID ... "Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 transcriptional regulation: a novel crosstalk between histone modification H3K9ac and ETS1 ... a novel protein that protects against genotoxic stress". Human Molecular Genetics 13 (10): 1081-93. PMID 15044383. doi:10.1093/ ...
Das Histon H2AX ist ein Protein aus der Gruppe der Histone, das im Zellkern aller Eukaryoten vorkommt. Es stabilisiert die ... Chromosomal localization of the human histone H2A.X gene to 11q23.2-q23.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. . In: Hum. ... H2AX: the histone guardian of the genome.. . In: DNA Repair (Amst.). . 3, Nr. 8-9, 2004, S. 959-67. doi:10.1016/j.dnarep. ... Histone H2A variants H2AX and H2AZ.. . In: Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev.. . 12, Nr. 2, 2002, S. 162-9. doi:10.1016/S0959-437X(02) ...
The linear plasmids which contain a protein that has been covalently attached to the 5' end of the DNA strands are known as ... Certain organisms, such as yeast, rely on chromosomal DNA replication to produce eccDNA whereas eccDNA formation can occur in ... and due to the fact that the mtDNA molecule is not bound by or protected by histones, the mtDNA is more susceptible to DNA ... The size of an animal mtDNA plasmid is roughly 16.6 kb and although it contains genes for tRNA and mRNA synthesis, proteins ...
... direct hypermethylation or hypomethylation of CpG islands of protein-encoding genes and alterations in histones and chromosomal ... which produces the APC protein. The APC protein prevents the accumulation of β-catenin protein. Without APC, β-catenin ... The p53 protein, produced by the TP53 gene, normally monitors cell division and kills cells if they have Wnt pathway defects. ... Other proteins responsible for programmed cell death that are commonly deactivated in colorectal cancers are TGF-β and DCC ( ...
negative regulation of histone acetylation. • protein ubiquitination. • positive regulation of histone H3-K4 methylation. • DNA ... the reduction or silencing of this protein generates mutations and gross chromosomal rearrangements that can lead to ... Breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BRCA1 (/ˌbrækəˈwʌn/) gene.[5] ... positive regulation of histone H4-K16 acetylation. • cellular response to DNA damage stimulus. • protein deubiquitination. • ...
When expressed, the myoD gene produces a protein referred to as MyoD (or MyoD1), which can bind certain DNA sequences, stop ... Weintraub, H; Groudine, M (1976). "Chromosomal subunits in active genes have an altered conformation". Science. 193 (4256): 848 ... Riley, D; Weintraub, H (1979). "Conservative segregation of parental histones during replication in the presence of ... Benezra, R; Davis, RL; Lockshon, D; Turner, DL; Weintraub, H (1990). "The protein Id: a negative regulator of helix-loop-helix ...
A sequence alignment of mammalian histone proteins. Sequences are the middle 120-180 amino acid residues of the proteins. ... Paralogous chromosomal regions[edit]. Sometimes, large regions of chromosomes share gene content similar to other chromosomal ... histone-like nucleoid-structuring protein) but has a separate evolutionary origin and so is an analog. ... For instance, the plant Flu regulatory protein is present both in Arabidopsis (multicellular higher plant) and Chlamydomonas ( ...
... including histone and DNA methylation, histone acetylation and sumoylation, affect many aspects of chromosomal biology, ... binds and inhibits the CREB binding protein and p300 histone acetyltransferease activities on a repressed gene target, cyclin ... The protein SPAR has been found to be encoded by a lncRNA in mice and humans, and in vivo has biologically significant function ... In the broad sense, this mechanism allows the cell to harness RNA-binding proteins, which make up one of the largest classes ...
In order for the Giemsa stain to adhere correctly, all chromosomal proteins must be digested and removed. For humans, white ... Rather, the distribution of AT and the association of AT with other molecules like histones, for example, influences the ... Chromosomal evolution in higher plants. Nelson, London. p18 *^ IJdo JW, Baldini A, Ward DC, Reeders ST, Wells RA (October 1991 ... The fundamental number, FN, of a karyotype is the number of visible major chromosomal arms per set of chromosomes.[35][36] Thus ...
... one copy of Hsmar1 found in the SETMAR gene is under selection as it provides DNA-binding for the histone-modifying protein.[47 ... She noticed chromosomal insertions, deletions, and translocations caused by these elements. These changes in the genome could, ... Multiple copies of the same sequence, such as Alu sequences, can hinder precise chromosomal pairing during mitosis and meiosis ... In bacteria, transposons can jump from chromosomal DNA to plasmid DNA and back, allowing for the transfer and permanent ...
... which are associated with histone proteins. All chromosomal DNA is stored in the cell nucleus, separated from the cytoplasm by ... with histone proteins RNA/protein synthesis coupled in the cytoplasm RNA synthesis in the nucleus. protein synthesis in the ... Protein synthesis. Main article: Protein biosynthesis. Cells are capable of synthesizing new proteins, which are essential for ... The subunit protein of microfilaments is a small, monomeric protein called actin. The subunit of microtubules is a dimeric ...
... coli a histone like protein called integration host factor (IHF), which binds to the leader sequence, is responsible for the ... A subtype of chromosomal islands called phage-inducible chromosomal island (PICI) is excised from a bacterial chromosome upon ... Multiple Cas1 proteins have been characterised and their structures resolved.[81][82][83] Cas1 proteins have diverse amino acid ... Most CRISPR-Cas systems have a Cas1 protein. The phylogeny of Cas1 proteins generally agrees with the classification system.[62 ...
"The histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA arrests cancer cell growth, up-regulates thioredoxin-binding protein-2, and down- ... Ludwig DL, Kotanides H, Le T, Chavkin D, Bohlen P, Witte L (May 2001). "Cloning, genetic characterization, and chromosomal ... Thioredoxin-interacting protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TXNIP gene.[5][6] ... protein binding. • ubiquitin protein ligase binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cytosol. • mitochondrial intermembrane ...
DNA and histones make up what is called chromatin. Epigenetic modifications to the chromatin are copied during cell division. ... Adrian Bird defined epigenetics as "the structural adaptation of chromosomal regions so as to register, signal or perpetuate ... which is the part of a gene which determines the sequence of amino acids in the coded protein. ... An example is histone modification. So some definitions do not require heritability. ...
... chromosomal DNA is often termed "Chromatin" when it is bound to proteins in this manner, reflecting Walther Flemming's ... Kornberg found that roughly 200 bp of DNA are wrapped around an octamer of histone proteins. With Yahli Lorch, Kornberg showed ... Kornberg discovered the nucleosome as the basic protein complex packaging chromosomal DNA in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells ( ... The DNA is transcribed to mRNA by an enzyme, RNA polymerase II, with the help of many other proteins. Using yeast, Kornberg ...
Friend of Prmt1, a Novel Chromatin Target of Protein Arginine Methyltransferases Thamar Bryn van Dijk, Nynke Gillemans, Claudia ... The Chromatin-Associated Phf12 Protein Maintains Nucleolar Integrity and Prevents Premature Cellular Senescence Richard ...
Composition and Modification of Histone and Non-Histone Chromosomal Proteins. The safety and scientific validity of this study ... and non-histone chromosomal proteins, and to measure the relative levels of most known covalent modifications on histone and ... and non-histone chromosomal proteins, and to measure the relative levels of most known covalent modifications on histone and ... Composition and Modification of Histone and Non-Histone Chromosomal Proteins. ...
Composition and Modification of Histone and Non-Histone Chromosomal Proteins. ...
T1 - The non-histone chromosomal protein HMG-I(Y) contributes to repression of the immunoglobulin heavy chain germ-line ε RNA ... The non-histone chromosomal protein HMG-I(Y) contributes to repression of the immunoglobulin heavy chain germ-line ε RNA ... The non-histone chromosomal protein HMG-I(Y) contributes to repression of the immunoglobulin heavy chain germ-line ε RNA ... The non-histone chromosomal protein HMG-I(Y) contributes to repression of the immunoglobulin heavy chain germ-line ε RNA ...
"Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and whether "Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone" was a ... "Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone" by people in Profiles over the past ... Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone*Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone. *Proteins, Non-Histone Chromosomal ...
Along with a similar protein, HMGN1, the encoded protein may help maintain an open chromatin configuration around transcribable ... The protein has also been found to have antimicrobial activity against bacteria, viruses and fungi. [provided by RefSeq, Oct ... Binds to the inner side of the nucleosomal DNA thus altering the interaction between the DNA and the histone octamer. May be ... The protein encoded by this gene binds nucleosomal DNA and is associated with transcriptionally active chromatin. ...
The conformational properties of two non-histone chromosomal proteins (high-mobility-group proteins 1 and 2) have been studied ... Interaction of non-histone chromosomal proteins HMG1 and HMG2 with DNA. (opens in new tab) ... Interaction of non-histone chromosomal proteins HMG1 and HMG2 with DNA. (opens in new tab) ... Conformation and domain structure of the non-histone chromosomal proteins HMG 1 and 2. Domain interactions. (opens in new tab) ...
Acetyltransferases and Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone will be added to the citation. ... In 2008 the MeSH Heading "Gene Products, vpu" is replaced by the Supplementary Concept Record, "vpu protein, Human ... When the SCR ESCO2 protein, human is added to a citation, the MeSH Headings, ... immunodeficiency virus 1." In other words, search this "old" MeSH Heading as: vpu protein, Human immunodeficiency virus 1 [nm] ...
H5 histone --. Protamines --. Histone genes --. Histone variants --. Modifications of chromosomal proteins --. Acetylation --. ... Histones -- H1 histone -- Core histones: H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 -- H5 histone -- Protamines -- Histone genes -- Histone variants ... Synthesis and turnover of histones --. Nonhistone chromosomal proteins --. Structure of chromatin --. DNA-histone interactions ... Genes for other proteins --. Genes for acute-phase proteins --. Heat-shock protein genes --. Genes for structural proteins --. ...
Chromatin; Chromosomes/Non-histone Chromosomal Proteins; Gene Regulation; HMG Proteins; Mouse Physiology; Transcriptomics; ... Overview of the genotype of Hmgntm1/tm1 mice. Diagrams detailing structural domains of HMGN proteins and the mutations in them ... Protein Section, Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, NCI, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland ... The nuclei of most vertebrate cells contain members of the high mobility group N (HMGN) protein family, which bind specifically ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Non-Histone Chromosomal Proteins of Chemically Transformed Neoplastic Cells in ... Non-Histone Chromosomal Proteins of Chemically Transformed Neoplastic Cells in Tissue Culture. ...
Transcriptional induction of cell-cycle regulatory proteins ensures proper timing of subsequent cell-cycle events. Here we show ... CCNB1 protein, human * Ccnb1 protein, mouse * Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone * Cyclin B ... Transcriptional induction of cell-cycle regulatory proteins ensures proper timing of subsequent cell-cycle events. Here we show ...
E) Chromosomal aberrations following MMC treatment. HeLa cells were transfected with siRNAs and cells were treated with MMC. ... MHF1-MHF2, a histone-fold-containing protein complex, participates in the Fanconi anemia pathway via FANCM.. Singh TR1, Saro D ... MHF1-MHF2, a Histone-Fold-Containing Protein Complex, Participates in the Fanconi Anemia Pathway via FANCM ... MHF1-MHF2, a Histone-Fold-Containing Protein Complex, Participates in the Fanconi Anemia Pathway via FANCM ...
Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism* * Cell Differentiation * Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / metabolism* * Consensus Sequence ... a zinc-finger protein required for transcriptional insulation. CTCF is dispensable for cohesin loading onto DNA, but is needed ...
... histone gene-binding protein)-1 family were determined by hybridizing their cloned DNAs to genomic DNAs of nullitetrasomic and ... The genes for histones H1 and H2a, and for all members of the HBP-1 family except HBP-1a(1) are assumed to have different ... The genes for histone 2a and HBP-1a(17) are located in the RFLP maps of chromosomes 2B and 6A, respectively. Gene symbols are ... Genes for the other histones, H2b, H3 and H4, are found in high copy number and are dispersed among a large number of ...
Brain Histones. IV. Nonhistone Chromosomal Proteins (NHCP) of the Brain. V. DNA Polymerase. VI. RNA Polymerase. VII. Concluding ... Perturbation of Protein Synthesis in the Brain. III. Effect of LSD on the Translational Apparatus of the Brain. IV. Effect of ... 9 Analysis of Protein Synthesis in the Mammalian Brain Using LSD And Hyperthermia as Experimental Probes. I. Introduction. II. ... V. Effect of LSD and Hyperthermia on Brain Protein Synthesis In Vivo. VI. Effect of LSD and Hyperthermia on Subsequent Cell- ...
These are the proteins of the high mobility group... ... Analysis of HMG chromosomal proteins by SDS-polyacrylamide gel ... Interactions of a purified non-histone chromosomal protein with DNA and histones. Eur. J. Biochem. 47, 263-270.Google Scholar ... High Mobility Group Chromosomal Protein Chicken Erythrocyte Micrococcal Nuclease High Mobility Group Protein These keywords ... The primary structures of non-histone chromosomal proteins HMG1 and 2. FEBS Lett. 122, 264-270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Nodal protein‎ (20 В). *. ► Non-histone chromosomal proteins‎ (1 К, 68 В) ... Protein (lb); protein (nb); Protéin (su); Protein (hif); 朊 (lzh); بروتين (ar); Protein (br); ပရိုတိန်း (my); 蛋白質 (yue); Белок ( ... प्रोटिन (dty); Prótín (is); Protein (ms); protein (tr); لحمیات (ur); Bielkovina (sk); білок (uk); 蛋白质 (zh-cn); Protein (gsw); ... protein (sco); Уураг (mn); protein (nn); ಪ್ರೋಟೀನ್ (kn); پرۆتین (ckb); protein (en); fehérje (hu); પ્રોટિન (gu); प्रोटिन (new); ...
Non-histone chromosomal protein. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section"> ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. P40625. G0QVY7. G0R105. Ichthyophthirius ... "Tetrahymena HMG nonhistone chromosomal protein. Isolation and amino acid sequence lacking the N- and C-terminal domains of ...
Chromosomal Proteins. Genomic Distributions of non-Histone Chromosomal Proteins in D. melanogaster by ChIP-seq Pi: Gary Karpen ... Chromatin Binding Site Mapping of non-Histone Chromosomal Proteins in D. melanogaster by ChIP-seq Pi: Kevin White ... RNAi of non-Histone Chromosomal Proteins in D. melanogaster Pi: Gary Karpen ... Chromatin Binding Site Mapping of non-Histone Chromosomal Proteins in D. melanogaster Pi: Kevin White ...
Four variants and/or posttranslational modifications of histone H1-like proteins of Trypanosoma brucei brucei procyclic culture ... Crane-Robinson C (1985) How does H1 function in chromatin? In: (eds) Chromosomal proteins and gene expression. Plenum, New York ... Sanders C (1977) A method for the fractionation of the high-mobility group of non-histone proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun ... Toro GC, Galanti N (1988) H1 histone and histone variants inTrypanosoma cruzi. Exp Cell Res 174:16-24PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Histone: proteins that attach to DNA to form chromatin.. HLA locus: a region on chromosome 6 where many genes belonging to the ... 2009). Identification of novel dyslexia candidate genes through the analysis of a chromosomal deletion. Am. J. Med. Genet. B ... The cells are then lysed, the specific protein-DNA complexes are immunoprecipitated with antibody to the protein, and proteins ... One such epigenetic tag is acetylation of histones that causes relaxation of condensed chromatin, comprised of protein and DNA ...
Multifunctional Sin3 proteins bind histone deacetylases (HDACs) to assemble silencing complexes that selectively target ... It preferentially targets transcribed chromosomal regions and centromere cores. Defects in complex II abrogate global ... Complex II contains a nonessential Sin3 homolog, Pst2, and several conserved proteins. ... Histone acetylation is important in regulating DNA accessibility. ...
... protein is a 148 amino acid polypeptide ubiquitously expressed in normal cells and overexpressed in many malignancies. ... 0/Cell Cycle Proteins; 0/Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0/INCENP protein, human; 0/JTB protein, human; 0/Membrane Proteins ... Cell Cycle Proteins / chemistry, genetics, metabolism, physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / ... Membrane Proteins / chemistry, genetics, metabolism, physiology*. Mice. Mitosis / genetics. NIH 3T3 Cells. Neoplasm Proteins / ...
Histones and Nucleohistones. [D M P Phillips] -- 1 The Preparation and Characterization of Histones.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.1.1 ... Historical.- 1.2 Definition of Histones.- 1.3 Occurrence of Histones.- 1.3.1 Multicellular organisms.- 1.3.2 Unicellular ... ... 6.3.5 Histone structural modifications-some general conclusions.- 6.4 Changes in Acidic Chromosomal Proteins at Times of Gene ... 5.3.1 Histones in meiosis.- 5.3.2 Arginine-rich proteins of male gametes.- 5.3.3 Histone synthesis in embryos.- 5.4 The ...
Role of Loosely Bound Non-Histone Chromosomal Proteins and SnRNAs. IV. Tissue and Species Specificity of SnRNAs. V. Effect on ... Histone-Histone and DNA-Histone Interactions. V. Histone HI and Alignment of Nucleosomes. VI. Higher Order Packing. VII. ... Histone Deacetylase Activity in the Cell Cycle. VIII. Role of Histone Acetylation. References. 3. Role of HMG-Nucleosome ... Cell Cycle Studies of Histone Acetylation Using Physarum polycephalum as a Model System. IV. Acetate Content of H4 in the Cell ...
Recognizes and binds histone H3 tails methylated at Lys-9, leading to epigenetic repression. ... Heterochromatin protein 1. Short name: HP1. Alternative name(s):. Non-histone chromosomal protein C1A9 antigen ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. P05205. Q49BM3. B6UVR2. B6UVQ8. B6UVR1. B6UVQ6. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. P05205. Q49BM3. B6UVR2. B6UVR1. B4HYG3. B6UVQ6. ...
Non-histone chromosomal protein. *Non-histone chromosomal protein HMG-17-like 3 ... This means that the protein of interest is denatured. If you require a native form of the protein please use the live cell ... Proteins and Peptides. By product type. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Cell lines and ... The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) in 2010. Nucleic Acids Res. 38:D142-D148 (2010) . ...
A comparison between histone H1 and MDBP-2-H1 was achieved by analyzing reversed phase HPLC-purified and V8-digested proteins ... The histone H1 subtype H1 01 in MDBP-2-H1 has 150 amino acids, whereas the full-size histone H1 01 is 218 amino acids. The ... In rooster liver the most abundant histone H1 subtypes are H1 01 and H1 11L. Similarly, MDBP-2-H1 contains the same subtypes of ... difference in mass between the two proteins is explained by C-terminal truncation of histone H1 01. ...
Shirakawa H, Tsuda K, Yoshida M (May 1990). "Primary structure of non-histone chromosomal protein HMG2 revealed by the ... High-mobility group protein B3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HMGB3 gene.[3][4] ... This article on a gene on the human X chromosome and/or its associated protein is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding ... protein binding. • four-way junction DNA binding. • RNA binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cell nucleus. • chromosome ...
  • Genes for the other histones, H2b, H3 and H4, are found in high copy number and are dispersed among a large number of chromosomes. (naver.com)
  • The genes for histone 2a and HBP-1a(17) are located in the RFLP maps of chromosomes 2B and 6A, respectively. (naver.com)
  • Yet the assembly of DNA and proteins into active and inactive chromatin, and into chromosomes, is a process about which we know very little. (ubc.ca)
  • Without histones, the unwound DNA in chromosomes would be very long (a length to width ratio of more than 10 million to 1 in human DNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • During mitosis and meiosis, the condensed chromosomes are assembled through interactions between nucleosomes and other regulatory proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • We show that heterochromatin mediates chromatin fibre compaction at centromeres and promotes prominent inter-arm interactions within centromere-proximal regions, providing structural constraints crucial for proper genome organization.Loss of heterochromatin relaxes constraints on chromosomes, causing an increase in intra- and inter-chromosomal interactions.Together, our analyses uncover fundamental genome folding principles that drive higher-order chromosome organization crucial for coordinating nuclear functions. (nih.gov)
  • Loss of heterochromatin relaxes constraints on chromosomes, causing an increase in intra- and inter-chromosomal interactions. (nih.gov)
  • Passengers are tightly associated with chromosomes in the early stages of mitosis, and many of these proteins transiently concentrate at centromeres during metaphase ( Earnshaw and Mackay, 1994 ). (rupress.org)
  • We have suggested that passenger proteins might be mitotic cytoskeletal proteins whose association with chromosomes during prometaphase and metaphase targets them to the sites where they act during anaphase and telophase ( Earnshaw and Bernat, 1990 ). (rupress.org)
  • Consistent with gene silencing functions, PcG proteins have also been implicated in X inactivation, whereby one of the two female X chromosomes is inactivated to provide gene dosage between the sexes. (asm.org)
  • Chromatin refers to the complexes of histone proteins and chromosomal DNA that form nucleosomes, the fundamental structural unit of chromosomes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The dual problem of how to store this large amount of genetic information but also to keep it accessible for use and for faithful maintenance, copying, and distribution to daughter cells during cell division , is solved by using proteins to package the DNA into chromosomes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • During interphase, the genes carried on the chromosomes are transcribed , to form proteins needed by the cell. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Various proteins act to stabilize DNA in interphase, while additional proteins are required to condense the chromosomes over a thousandfold to form the compact chromosomes required for mitosis and cell division. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Acetylation of histone proteins in chromosomes tends to activate genes or facilitate transcription of genes into mRNA and translation of mRNA into protein. (wcrf.org)
  • Chromosomal replication requires HDAC alterations of histone proteins, the proteins that act like spools that wind DNA to help package and condense chromosomes and the viral genome. (eurekalert.org)
  • Wapl protein regulates binding of the cohesin complex to chromosomes during interphase and helps remove cohesin from chromosomes at mitosis. (biologists.org)
  • Along with a similar protein, HMGN1, the encoded protein may help maintain an open chromatin configuration around transcribable genes. (nih.gov)
  • Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. (meta.org)
  • The chromosomal locations of the genes in common wheat that encode the five histones and five members of the HBP (histone gene-binding protein)-1 family were determined by hybridizing their cloned DNAs to genomic DNAs of nullitetrasomic and telosomic lines of common wheat, Triticum aestivum cv. (naver.com)
  • The genes for histones H1 and H2a, and for all members of the HBP-1 family except HBP-1a(1) are assumed to have different phylogenetic origins. (naver.com)
  • Gene symbols are proposed for all genes whose chromosomal locations have been determined. (naver.com)
  • The organization of the histone genes in Drosophila melanogaster: functional and evolutionary implications. (naver.com)
  • Nuclear protein(s) binding to the conserved DNA hexameric sequence postulated to regulate transcription of wheat histone genes. (naver.com)
  • Organization and bidirectional transcription of H2A, H2B and H4 histone genes in rice embryos. (naver.com)
  • Cell-specific expression of plant histone H2A genes. (naver.com)
  • Next, we targeted a different genomic locus, the Drosophila melanogaster histone cluster, and identified several regulators of the essential histone locus and validated their functional association with genes within the locus. (pnas.org)
  • The recurrent chromosomal translocation t(6;9)(p23;q34) involving the DEK and NUP214 genes occurs in a subset of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia. (cancerindex.org)
  • We are focussing our current work on the molecular analyses of these genes and their products including DNA sequence analysis, cellular and developmental expression of theprotein products, dissecting the hierarchy of gene action and protein interactions in the assembly of chromatin in vivo. (ubc.ca)
  • In animals, genes encoding canonical histones are typically clustered along the chromosome, lack introns and use a stem loop structure at the 3' end instead of a polyA tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes encoding histone variants are usually not clustered, have introns and their mRNAs are regulated with polyA tails. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cell biology, autoantibodies have been extremely useful as probes for the identification of novel proteins and isolation of their corresponding genes. (rupress.org)
  • Chromosome 9 likely contains 800 to 900 genes that provide instructions for making proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Background Mapping the breakpoints in de novo balanced chromosomal translocations (BCT) in symptomatic individuals provides a unique opportunity to identify in an unbiased way the likely causative genetic defect and thus find novel human disease candidate genes. (bmj.com)
  • Polycomb group (PcG) genes encode regulatory proteins that control diverse developmental processes in animals and plants by repressing the transcription of developmental regulator genes. (biologists.org)
  • Use of enzymes and other proteins , which are coded for by DNA organized into genes and are produced through the action of messenger RNA intermediates and ribosomes . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The Polycomb (PcG) and Trithorax (TrxG) group proteins maintain repression or activation of target genes, respectively, and allow for "cellular memory" throughout subsequent cell divisions and development ( 30 ). (asm.org)
  • This supports the idea that K-to-M mutations recruit a demethylase (like KDM3B) to demethylate chromatin on the K9 residue of H3.3 proteins in the neighborhood, where it likely uncoils chromatin to allow activation of genes that should be silenced. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Chromosomal looping brings HOTTIP into close proximity to its target genes. (stanford.edu)
  • 2005) Spatial distribution of di- and tri-methyl lysine 36 of histone H3 at active genes. (springer.com)
  • Our data suggest that increasing cohesin stability interferes with PcG silencing at genes that are co-regulated by cohesin and PcG proteins. (biologists.org)
  • The nuclei of most vertebrate cells contain members of the high mobility group N (HMGN) protein family, which bind specifically to nucleosome core particles and affect chromatin structure and function, including transcription. (nih.gov)
  • Ausio J, Dong F, Holde K van (1989) Use of selectively trypsinized nucleosome core particles to analyze the role of the histone "tails" in the stabilization of the nucleosome. (springer.com)
  • Genomewide analysis of nucleosome density histone acetylation and HDAC function in fission yeast. (nature.com)
  • Vertebrate centromeres are epigenetically defined by nucleosomes containing the histone H3 variant, CENP-A. CENP-A nucleosome assembly requires the three-protein Mis18 complex (Mis18α, Mis18 , and M18BP1) that recruits the CENP-A chaperone HJURP to centromeres, but how the Mis18 complex recognizes centromeric chromatin is unknown. (bireme.br)
  • Schematic representation of the assembly of the core histones into the nucleosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] The linker histone H1 binds the nucleosome at the entry and exit sites of the DNA, thus locking the DNA into place [9] and allowing the formation of higher order structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The histone tails protrude from the nucleosome, and are subjected to a wide array of covalent modifications include methylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, phosphorylation, sumoylation, and ADP ribosylation ( Strahl and Allis, 2000 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling. (rcsb.org)
  • The nucleosome is a histone octamer containing two molecules each of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 assembled in one H3-H4 heterotetramer and two H2A-H2B heterodimers. (rcsb.org)
  • One of the main focuses of our lab is to develop novel epigenomic technologies to study combinations of histone modifications that are present on each histone and nucleosome. (riken.jp)
  • The primary unit of structure, the nucleosome, is composed of chromosomal DNA coiled around a histone protein complex. (informit.com)
  • H2B is a basic nuclear protein that is responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. (hindawi.com)
  • The complexes form a repeating unit, the nucleosome, which consists of an octomeric disc of histones with about two turns of DNA wrapped around the outside. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Thus, chromosomal DNA is organized as a string of nucleosome beads with a small amount of DNA connecting each bead. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The histone proteins interact extensively with one another to form the compact central disc of the nucleosomes, while specific amino acids have been identified that hold the DNA tightly onto the nucleosome surface. (encyclopedia.com)
  • While the details of this important process are still being deciphered, it is clear that there are enzymes in eukaryotic nuclei that can modify nucleosome structure or the structure of individual histones to loosen the histone-DNA contacts, thereby making the DNA available for transcription. (encyclopedia.com)
  • since DNA has a net negative charge, histone acetylation may reduce the electrostatic forces holding the DNA on the nucleosome. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Here, we applied our method to isolate the Drosophila melanogaster histone cluster in S2 cells to identify several factors including Vig and Vig2, two proteins that bind and regulate core histone H2A and H3 mRNA via interaction with their 3′ UTRs. (pnas.org)
  • Using a human autoimmune scleroderma serum that identifies a chromosomal protein in human cells and Drosophila embryos, we cloned the corresponding Drosophila gene that encodes the homologue of vertebrate titin based on protein size, sequence similarity, developmental expression and subcellular localization. (rupress.org)
  • Using this serum to screen a Drosophila expression library, we isolated the gene that encodes the chromosomal protein that proved to be the Drosophila homologue of vertebrate titin ( D-Titin ). (rupress.org)
  • Eighteen different Drosophila proteins have been classified as PcG members on the basis that HOX gene silencing is lost in animals that lack these proteins. (biologists.org)
  • The chromodomain (CD) of the Drosophila Polycomb protein exhibits preferential binding affinity for histone H3 when trimethylated at lysine 27. (asm.org)
  • Importantly, these proteins contain a highly conserved N-terminal chromodomain (CD), a module first identified in the Drosophila proteins heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) and Pc ( 24 ). (asm.org)
  • The CD binds to methylated histones: the CD of Drosophila HP1 binds histone H3K9me2 and me3, while that of Pc specifically binds K27me3 on H3 ( 2 , 9 , 16 , 18 ). (asm.org)
  • Now a paper from a laboratory at the Stowers Institute of Medical Research reports the first animal model created to assess the molecular effects of two different histone H3.3 mutations in the fruit fly Drosophila . (bio-medicine.org)
  • Polo kinase regulates the localization and activity of the chromosomal passenger complex in meiosis and mitosis in Drosophila melanogaster. (sdbonline.org)
  • Studies of acetylation and deacetylation in high mobility group proteins. (springer.com)
  • Histone acetylation is important in regulating DNA accessibility. (nature.com)
  • Kurdistani, S.K. & Grunstein, M. Histone acetylation and deacetylation in yeast. (nature.com)
  • However, histone acetylation is transient and does not adequately explain long-lasting transcriptional changes in HD. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, histone monoubiquitylation is a potential bridge between histone acetylation and methylation, leading to changes in gene expression in HD. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, its functions are still less well understood than other histone modifications such as methylation and acetylation. (frontiersin.org)
  • We also show that inhibition of RMS cell growth, survival and invasion, and repression of Sp transcription factors by the HDAC inhibitors are independent of histone acetylation but reversible after cotreatment with the antioxidant glutathione. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, the final protein is often a substrate for any of a number of post-translational modifications acetylation, methylation, carboxylation, glycosylation, etc. (informit.com)
  • Histone lysine acetylation is central to epigenetic control of gene transcription. (proteopedia.org)
  • Here, we report three three-dimensional solution structures of the bromodomains of the human transcriptional coactivators CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) bound to peptides derived from histone acetylation sites at lysines 36 and 9 in H3, and lysine 20 in H4. (proteopedia.org)
  • Acetylation and modulation of erythroid Kruppel-like factor (EKLF) activity by interaction with histone acetyltransferases. (proteopedia.org)
  • Hung HL, Kim AY, Hong W, Rakowski C, Blobel GA. Stimulation of NF-E2 DNA binding by CREB-binding protein (CBP)-mediated acetylation. (proteopedia.org)
  • One class of enzyme believed to modify nucleosomes for transcription is the histone acetyltransferases, which catalyze acetylation of specific lysines in the N-terminal tails of histones. (encyclopedia.com)
  • We show that suppression of MHF1 expression results in (1) destabilization of FANCM and MHF2, (2) impairment of DNA damage-induced monoubiquitination and foci formation of FANCD2, (3) defective chromatin localization of FA nuclear core complex proteins, (4) elevated MMC-induced chromosome aberrations, and (5) sensitivity to MMC and camptothecin. (nih.gov)
  • Grewal, S.I., Bonaduce, M.J. & Klar, A.J. Histone deacetylase homologs regulate epigenetic inheritance of transcriptional silencing and chromosome segregation in fission yeast. (nature.com)
  • This article on a gene on the human X chromosome and/or its associated protein is a stub . (wikipedia.org)
  • Understanding the details of this process has been limited because very few proteins involved in the assembly of chromosome structure have been discovered. (rupress.org)
  • The identification of titin as a chromosomal component provides a molecular basis for chromosome structure and elasticity. (rupress.org)
  • The bacterial chromosome, however, constitutes a comparatively open and expanded structure, accessible throughout the cell cycle to DNA-binding proteins, polymerases, and ribosomes ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • The apparent lack of a systemic hierarchy of nucleoid organization in bacteria was attributed to a low stability of histone-like protein-DNA complexes and the dynamic nature of the bacterial chromosome ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • The following chromosomal conditions are associated with changes in the structure or number of copies of chromosome 9. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 9q22.3 microdeletion is a chromosomal change in which a small piece of the long (q) arm of chromosome 9 is deleted in each cell. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A gene on chromosome 16p13.3 that encodes a ubiquitously expressed protein involved in the transcriptional coactivation of various transcription factors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Immunostaining revealed that the PRO1 chromosome fragment binds -tubulin and the serine 10-phosphorylated histone H3 specific for the active centromere. (hindawi.com)
  • This is the first experimental detection of the kinetochore proteins in Beta showing their active involvement in chromosome segregation in mitosis. (hindawi.com)
  • During mouse meiosis, the early prophase RAD51/DMC1 recombination protein sites, which are associated with the chromosome cores and which serve as markers for ongoing DNA-DNA interactions, are in ten-fold excess of the eventual reciprocal recombinant events. (biologists.org)
  • We propose that the capacity of this mouse Polycomb homolog to associate with the inactive X chromosome, or any other region of chromatin, depends not only on its chromodomain but also on the combination of histone modifications and RNA molecules present at its target sites. (asm.org)
  • The noncoding Xist transcript, which coats the X chromosome in cis and triggers X inactivation during early development, may also have a role in recruiting both PRC2 and PRC1 proteins to chromatin ( 7 , 26 , 27 ), as inducible Xist transgenes result in the rapid appearance of PRC2 and PRC1 proteins on the chromosome. (asm.org)
  • This gene is found in the large histone gene cluster on chromosome 6. (nih.gov)
  • These findings indicate that replisome assembly unites multiple histone‐binding activities, which jointly process parental histones to help preserve silent chromatin during the process of chromosome duplication. (embopress.org)
  • Since the binding of DNA by histones interferes with this access, cells have evolved specific mechanism to destabilize nucleosomes in chromosome regions that must be transcribed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cohesin is made up of the proteins Smc1, Smc3, Rad21 and Stromalin (SA), and is important for sister chromatid cohesion and proper chromosome segregation during mitosis. (biologists.org)
  • Panday A, Grove A. Yeast HMO1: Linker Histone Reinvented. (harvard.edu)
  • The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher order structures. (nih.gov)
  • The chromatin fiber is further compacted through the interaction of a linker histone, H1, with the DNA between the nucleosomes to form higher order chromatin structures. (fishersci.com)
  • High mobility group N proteins modulate the fidelity of the cellular transcriptional profile in a tissue- and variant-specific manner. (nih.gov)
  • Transcriptional induction of cell-cycle regulatory proteins ensures proper timing of subsequent cell-cycle events. (nih.gov)
  • Here we describe cohesin-binding sites in the human genome and show that most of these are associated with the CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), a zinc-finger protein required for transcriptional insulation. (nih.gov)
  • This ubiquitination facilitates methylation of histone H3 at K4 and K79, and accounts for the roles of Bre1 and its homologs in transcriptional regulation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • H3 'Lys-9' trimethylation represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression by recruiting HP1 (CBX1, CBX3 and/or CBX5) proteins to methylated histones. (hmdb.ca)
  • Reduction in uH2A reverses transcriptional repression and inhibits methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 in cell culture. (jneurosci.org)
  • In contrast, reduction in uH2B induces transcriptional repression and inhibits methylation of histone H3 at lysine 4. (jneurosci.org)
  • In this study, we have investigated whether histone monoubiquitylation plays a role in transcriptional dysregulation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Histone post-transcriptional modifications play essential roles in regulation of all DNA related processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent advances have defined critical roles of histone ubiquitination in transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. (frontiersin.org)
  • Major post-transcriptional modifications on histone H3 and H4 tails are also shown. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mediates transcriptional repression through interaction with histone deacetylase and the corepressor SIN3A. (abcam.com)
  • CBP_HUMAN ] Acetylates histones, giving a specific tag for transcriptional activation. (proteopedia.org)
  • The C-terminus of the protein can stimulate glucocorticoid receptor-dependent transcriptional activation. (hindawi.com)
  • Multifunctional Sin3 proteins bind histone deacetylases (HDACs) to assemble silencing complexes that selectively target chromatin. (nature.com)
  • Figure 3: Clr6 complexes have different roles in histone deacetylation. (nature.com)
  • Here, we present an adaptable chromatin purification system, CLASP, that capitalizes on the versatility of purified dCas9 RNA/protein complexes. (pnas.org)
  • Mammalian Bre1 complexes (BRE1A/B (RNF20/40) in humans and Bre1a/b (Rnf20/40) in mice) function similarly to their yeast homolog Bre1 as ubiquitin ligases in monoubiquitination of histone H2B. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Polycomb group (PcG) proteins exist in multiprotein complexes that modify chromatin to repress transcription. (biologists.org)
  • The Sce:Psc module acts as an E3 ligase for monoubiquitylation of histone H2A, an activity thought to be crucial for repression by PRC1-type complexes. (biologists.org)
  • Other histone modifications that are enriched on the Xi include H3K9me2 ( 4 , 13 ) and H4K20me1 ( 17 ), although the binding effectors that "read" these marks and the enzyme complexes that "write" these marks on the Xi have yet to be identified. (asm.org)
  • The eukaryotic replisome disassembles parental chromatin at DNA replication forks, but then plays a poorly understood role in the re‐deposition of the displaced histone complexes onto nascent DNA. (embopress.org)
  • We show that chromatin‐derived histone complexes can be bound simultaneously by Mcm2, Pol α and the histone chaperone FACT that is also a replisome component. (embopress.org)
  • Genomic sites of DNA methylation can be bound by methyl-CpG-binding domain proteins (MBDs) and specific zinc finger proteins, which can recruit co-repressor complexes to silence transcription on targeted loci. (xenbase.org)
  • HOTTIP RNA binds the adaptor protein WDR5 directly and targets WDR5/MLL complexes across HOXA, driving histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation and gene transcription. (stanford.edu)
  • The role of monoubiquitylation is still elusive because a single ubiquitin moiety is not sufficient to target proteins for turnover, and has been hypothesized to control the assembly or disassembly of multiprotein complexes by providing a protein-binding site. (springer.com)
  • suggesting these protein complexes may physically interact at some loci. (biologists.org)
  • The amino acid composition of these proteins, their ability to space nucleosomes regularly and to induce salt-dependent condensation of the chromatin indicated their histone H1 nature. (springer.com)
  • In biology , histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes . (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleosomes of centromeres are characterized by a special H3-like histone CENH3 [ 30 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In the nucleus HMGB1 interacts with nucleosomes, transcription factors, and histones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contact with core histones changes the structure of nucleosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two molecules of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) form an octamer, around which approximately 146 bp of DNA is wrapped in repeating units, called nucleosomes. (nih.gov)
  • Nucleosomes consist of approximately 146 bp of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer composed of pairs of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4). (fishersci.com)
  • Chromosomal DNA is packaged as nucleosomes with intervening stretches of uncomplexed DNA as a mechanism of compacting approximately 2 m of DNA required for the complete human genome into the small volume of a eukaryotic cell nucleus [ 3 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In addition, some transcription regulatory proteins bind more easily to their DNA target sites if the nucleosomes associated with those sites are acetylated. (encyclopedia.com)
  • INCENP (inner centromere protein), Aurora B kinase, survivin and borealin] is implicated in many mitotic processes. (portlandpress.com)
  • Binds to the inner side of the nucleosomal DNA thus altering the interaction between the DNA and the histone octamer. (nih.gov)
  • Highly conserved hexamer, octamer and nonamer motifs are positive cis-regulatory elements of the wheat histone H3 gene. (naver.com)
  • A histone octamer is composed of two copies of the core histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. (frontiersin.org)
  • Inside the nucleus, the chromatin fiber is built from a repetitive unit of 147 bp DNA wrapped twice around a histone octamer to generate a dynamic and flexible structure that is similar to beads on a string, which continuously changes in response to a variety of external and internal biological signals. (biologists.org)
  • DNA is normally coiled around proteins called histones, which when chemically modified at specific locations, aggregate into dense arrays to form heterochromatin. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In this RNAi-guided process, an enzyme called polymerase II copies or "transcribes" specific regions of DNA into RNA molecules, and somehow this modifies histones in those exact regions, thereby creating heterochromatin. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The histone-modifying proteins, which follow right along, establish heterochromatin. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A promoter element for the transcription of RNA from the germ-line mouse immunoglobulin ε heavy chain constant region gene is induced by interleukin(IL)-4 and lipopolysaccharide, and is bound at its transcription initiation sites by an IL-4-inducible nuclear protein, NF-BRE. (elsevier.com)
  • 3. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of compelxes between high mobility group protein 1 and DNA demonstrate that a low ionic strength a portion of the molecule rich in lysine and containing all the aromatic residues is bound to DNA, whilst a more acidic region of the chain remains free from the DNA. (meta.org)
  • FANCM is a Fanconi anemia nuclear core complex protein required for the functional integrity of the FANC-BRCA pathway of DNA damage response and repair. (nih.gov)
  • Post-synthetic modifications of nuclear proteins. (springer.com)
  • 1.13 Unusual Histones or Nuclear Proteins. (worldcat.org)
  • Inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide in late G2 phase has no apparent affect on nuclear assembly in telophase indicating that no new protein synthesis is required for reassembly of the nuclear envelope. (scribd.com)
  • Human proteins MECP2, MBD1, MBD2, MBD3, and MBD4 comprise a family of nuclear proteins related by the presence in each of a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD). (genecards.org)
  • Slowinski and coworkers noticed that there was a high correlation between H2B mRNA level and nuclear division index as well as histone labeling index in human glioma cell lines. (hindawi.com)
  • First isolated as a nuclear protein that binds to cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), this gene is now known to play critical roles in embryonic development, growth control, and homeostasis by coupling chromatin remodeling to transcription factor recognition. (origene.com)
  • It was identified as a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein that binds double-stranded DNA without sequence specificity. (google.ca)
  • This nuclear protein organizes the DNA and regulates transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • HMGB1 is a nuclear protein that binds to DNA and acts as an architectural chromatin-binding factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until about two decades ago, histones were regarded as a nuclear "sidekick," the mere packing material around which the glamorous DNA strands were wrapped. (bio-medicine.org)
  • For the HMG-1 family the most interesting results have, in contrast, been in structural studies of the proteins and studies on their interactions with other macromolecules. (springer.com)
  • Interactions of a purified non-histone chromosomal protein with DNA and histones. (springer.com)
  • Bender K, Betschart B, Hecker H (1992c) Histone-DNA interactions in the chromatin of procyclic Trypanosoma brucei brucei . (springer.com)
  • Intermediary metabolism is the result of millions of protein:protein interactions. (informit.com)
  • These interactions are context sensitive in the sense that a given protein can exhibit different characteristics and serve completely different functions in different environments. (informit.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene has intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity and also acts as a scaffold to stabilize additional protein interactions with the transcription complex. (origene.com)
  • These studies suggest a role in facilitating cooperative interactions between cis-acting proteins by promoting DNA flexibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, however, biologists have developed a greater appreciation for how DNA/histone interactions govern gene expression. (bio-medicine.org)
  • That analysis revealed that the presence of mutant histones globally dampens histone interactions with some of the usual repressor suspects. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The two enrichment strategies allow probing of methyl-CpG protein interactions in early vertebrate oocytes and embryos. (xenbase.org)
  • This gene encodes a protein with one SAP domain. (cancerindex.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the non-histone chromosomal high-mobility group protein family. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is intronless and encodes a replication-dependent histone that is a member of the histone H4 family. (nih.gov)
  • This gene encodes a member of the histone H1 family. (fishersci.com)
  • In 2012, investigators from multiple research institutions studying the sequence of the genome from cancer patients rocked the "chromatin world" when they independently reported that mutations in the gene that encodes histone H3.3 occurred in aggressive pediatric brain tumors. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The wapl gene encodes two proteins, a long form and a short form. (biologists.org)
  • 1.11 Histone Specificity. (worldcat.org)
  • Functional divergence between histone deacetylases in fission yeast by distinct cellular localization and in vivo specificity. (nature.com)
  • The various KDMs exhibit exquisite specificity for lysine demthylation of a particular histone, lysine and methylation state, the molecular basis of which is incompletely understood. (mskcc.org)
  • Specificity protein 1 (Sp1) transcription factor is overexpressed in human RMS tumors, and other Sp family members, including Sp3 and Sp4, are also overexpressed in RMS cell lines ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Greater insights into the biology of lymphomas may be achieved by integrating current genomic information with additional studies focused on the interrelationships in tumors of the patterns of chromatin protein expression, chromatin protein modification, and RNA expression profiling (both within bulk tumor and within specific microscopic tumor niches accessible by microdissection and cell sorting approaches). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These arrays will be probed with panels of protein and modification specific antibodies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Post-synthetic modification of high mobility group proteins. (springer.com)
  • Martienssen and others had previously found that RNAi guides this histone modification process, which occurs at the same time in the cell cycle when DNA is being duplicated. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Furthermore, it is not clear whether the modifications occur only in histones or whether induction of migration alters the modification levels on the DNA itself and also leads to changes in the organization of other known chromatin architectural proteins such as the HMG proteins. (biologists.org)
  • The present invention is based on the discovery that hexosamine, and in particular the dynamic O-GlcNAcylation of proteins (modification of proteins by the sugar N-acetylglucosamine) both causes insulin-resistance (a hallmark of type II diabetes) and is responsible for glucose toxicity in the disease. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Elevated Post-Translational Modification of Proteins by O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine in Various Tissues of Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki Rats Accompanied by Diabetic Complications", Acta Histochem. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • High Glucose and Insulin Promote O-GlcNAc Modification of Proteins, Including Alpha-Tubulin", Am J Physiol Endocrinal Metab, 284:E424-E434, 2003. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • One hallmark of PcG function is the histone modification, H3K27me3, specified by the PcG protein complex PRC2. (biologists.org)
  • This protein binds to cruciform and superhelical DNA and induces positive supercoils into closed circular DNA, and is also involved in splice site selection during mRNA processing. (cancerindex.org)
  • As part of its charge, the committee was asked to prepare a subreport evaluating methods for detecting potential unintended compositional changes across the spectrum of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA), proteins, metabolites and nutrients that may occur in food derived from cloned animals that have not been genetically modified via genetic engineering methods. (nap.edu)
  • Histone H2B mRNA level and histone labeling index may be a useful molecular predictor of the tumor response to radiation treatment in gliomas of the same histological grade [ 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Recognizes and binds histone H3 tails methylated at 'Lys-9', leading to epigenetic repression. (uniprot.org)
  • A structural perspective on readout of epigenetic histone and DNA methylation marks. (mskcc.org)
  • Small molecule epigenetic inhibitors targeted to histone lysine methyltransferases and demethylases. (mskcc.org)
  • Our mission is to understand the very complex regulations of cellular functions and regulations at the epigenetic level, with focus on histone modifications. (riken.jp)
  • Alteration of epigenetic enzyme activity, histone modifications and DNA-methylation is, in fact, typically associated with the ageing process. (mdpi.com)
  • Among modifications of specific histone residues, much attention has focused in the last decade on a distinctive pathway, mediated by the E3 ligase Bre1, which monoubiquitinates histone H2B at lysine 123 (H2BK123) in budding yeast and at lysine 120 (H2BK120) in humans. (aacrjournals.org)
  • H2B monoubiquitination plays an important role in regulation of transcription, being a prerequisite for normal levels of methylation of histone H3 residues K4 and K79 ( 5-8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The dynamic reversible methylation of lysine residues on histone proteins is central to chromatin biology. (mskcc.org)
  • Thus, it is important to determine whether the migration-induced changes in histone modifications are limited to H3K9me3 or occur on additional histone residues. (biologists.org)
  • When the protein is not acetylated, it stays in the nucleus, but hyperacetylation on lysine residues causes it to translocate into the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • These enzymes play a key role in the spatio-temporal control of gene transcription by performing site-specific methylation of lysine or arginine residues within the histone proteins of chromatin, thus effecting chromatin conformational changes that activate or repress gene transcription. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • SMARCB1 deletion by a complex three-way chromosomal translocation in an extrarenal malignant rhabdoid tumor. (uams.edu)
  • Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of the potent histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, panobinostat and vorinostat, as agents that inhibit RMS tumor growth in vivo , induce apoptosis, and inhibit invasion of RD and Rh30 RMS cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This finding was stunning, as researchers had never before associated histone mutations with any disease, much less a deadly tumor. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This is a cyclin dependant protein kinase called cyclin B-cdc2 (cdk1) kinase (cyclins are regulatory proteins that mediate the enzymatic activity of protein kinases) that plays a major role in the regulation of cell cycle. (scribd.com)
  • Disrupted interaction of huntingtin with Bmi-1, a component of the hPRC1L E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, increases monoubiquityl histone H2A (uH2A) levels in a cell culture model of HD. (jneurosci.org)
  • In particular, we will focus on how they are regulated by histone ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinating enzymes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Besides monoubiquitination, histone H2A and H2B can be modified by ubiquitin chains. (frontiersin.org)
  • Like other proteins, formation of K48-linked ubiquitin chains on histones targets them for proteasome mediated degradation. (frontiersin.org)
  • The small (76 amino acids) and highly conserved ubiquitin protein plays key roles in the physiology of eukaryotic cells. (springer.com)
  • Protein ubiquitylation has emerged as one of the most important intracellular signaling mechanisms, and in 2004 the Nobel Prize was awarded to Aaron Ciechanower, Avram Hersko, and Irwin Rose for their pioneering studies of the enzymology of ubiquitin attachment. (springer.com)
  • One of the most common features of protein ubiquitylation is the attachment of polyubiquitin chains (four or more ubiquitin moieties attached to each other), which is a widely used mechanism to target proteins for degradation via the 26S proteosome. (springer.com)
  • However, it is noteworthy that the first ubiquitylated protein to be identified was histone H2A, to which a single ubiquitin moiety is most commonly attached. (springer.com)
  • Indeed, a number of ubiquitin-binding domains have now been identified in both polyubiquitylated and monoubiquitylated proteins. (springer.com)
  • This review will discuss current research on the factors that regulate the attachment and removal of ubiquitin from histones, describe the relationship of histone ubiquitylation to histone methylation, and focus on the roles of ubiquitylated histones in gene expression. (springer.com)
  • 1997) Yeast DNA repair proteins Rad6 and Rad18 form a heterodimer that has ubiquitin conjugating, DNA binding, and ATP hydrolytic activities. (springer.com)
  • Chromosomal aberrations involving this region, increased expression of this gene, and the presence of antibodies against this protein are all associated with various diseases. (cancerindex.org)
  • CBP_HUMAN ] Note=Chromosomal aberrations involving CREBBP may be a cause of acute myeloid leukemias. (proteopedia.org)
  • Chromosomal aberrations involving HISTONE H4 is a cause of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-cell NHL). (nih.gov)
  • Eukaryotic gene regulation is a complex process, often coordinated by the action of tens to hundreds of proteins. (pnas.org)
  • Based on its small size, basic nature, cellular abundance, and sequence-independent DNA-binding capacity, the nucleoid-associated protein HU has long been characterized as the bacterial counterpart of eukaryotic histones ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • The proteins of this family are chromatin-associated and ubiquitously distributed in the nucleus of higher eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of eukaryotic cells carries the blueprint for the biosynthesis of cellular proteins and the control of cellular assembly and regulation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Alp13, an MRG family protein, is a component of fission yeast Clr6 histone deacetylase required for genomic integrity. (nature.com)
  • Histone deacetylase inhibitors dysregulate DNA repair proteins and antagonize metastasis-associated processes. (medworm.com)
  • it has intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity, and acetylates both histone and non-histone proteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Here we report the isolation and characterization of two histone-fold-containing FANCM-associated proteins, MHF1 and MHF2. (nih.gov)
  • 1 The Preparation and Characterization of Histones. (worldcat.org)
  • 1.12 Characterization of Histones. (worldcat.org)
  • Publications] Uesugi H., 他: 'Prevalence and characterization of novel P-ANCA,antibodies to the high mobility group non-histone chromosomal proteins HMG1 and HMG2,in systemic rheumatic diseases. (nii.ac.jp)
  • It coordinates the cell's activities, which include growth, intermediary metabolism, protein synthesis and cell division by regulating gene expression. (scribd.com)
  • Apart from their apparent molecular weights, all these proteins share many common structural features, as can be expected from their similar amino acid compositions and sequences. (springer.com)
  • Brandt WF, Holt C von (1986) Amino acid composition and gasphase sequence analysis of proteins and peptides from glass fiber and nitrocellulose membrane electro-blots. (springer.com)
  • Prostate androgen regulated (PAR) protein is a 148 amino acid polypeptide ubiquitously expressed in normal cells and overexpressed in many malignancies. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The unit molecular building block of proteins , which are chains of amino acids in a certain sequence. (pbs.org)
  • There are 20 main amino acids in the proteins of living things, and the properties of a protein are determined by its particular amino acid sequence. (pbs.org)
  • A series of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins , usually coded for by DNA . (pbs.org)
  • ERP was first cloned as a transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1-inducible protein encoded by the TSC36 gene from a mouse osteoblastic cell line, and later human and rat homologues were cloned from glioma cell lines and named due to their similarity at the amino acid sequence level to follistatin (an inhibitor of activin), termed an FS module. (nii.ac.jp)
  • One question was whether a single amino acid change like this could alter the way histone H3.3 interacts with other proteins," says Marc Morgan, Ph.D., a co-first author of the paper, "The mutant could be either losing or gaining something. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The protein methyltransferases (PMTs) represent a large class of enzymes that catalyse the methylation of side chain nitrogen atoms of the amino acids lysine or arginine at specific locations along the primary sequence of target proteins. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The human protein methyltransferases (PMTs) comprise a large class of enzymes that catalyse the methylation of specific lysine or arginine amino acid side chains within target proteins [ 1 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Direct transfer of the methyl group from SAM to the amino acid recipient then ensues, following a classic S N 2 mechanism, to yield the products S -adenosyl- l -homocysteine (SAH) and the methylated protein [ 1 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Each of these states of methylation at specific amino acid locations can have distinct conformational consequences for the target protein. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • However, about fifteen to twenty-five amino acids at the end of each histone extend outside the compact limits of the central protein core. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Building blocks of proteins that possess both a carboxyl (-COOH) and an amino (-NH 2 ) group attached to the same carbon atom and are water-soluble organic compounds. (wcrf.org)
  • wapl AG introduces a stop codon at amino acid 271 of the long form and produces a truncated protein. (biologists.org)
  • Diagrams detailing structural domains of HMGN proteins and the mutations in them used in this study are shown. (nih.gov)
  • Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression. (cancerindex.org)
  • Similar phenotypes are produced not only by mutations that displace Pol α from the replisome, but also by mutation of the previously identified histone‐binding motif in the CMG helicase subunit Mcm2, the human orthologue of which was shown to bind to histones H3 and H4. (embopress.org)
  • K-to-M' histone mutations: How repressing the repressors may drive tissue-specif. (bio-medicine.org)
  • What followed was a race by cancer researchers worldwide to discover how histone mutations might promote tumorigenesis. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Molecular biologists categorize these mutations as "K-to-M", because a normal lysine residue (symbolized by K) in the protein is replaced by methionine (M) through mutations in the DNA sequence. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In pediatric tumors, K-to-M mutations occurred at lysine residue 27 (K27) of histone H3.3. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This analysis of the H3K27 and H3K9 mutants confirmed in vivo that K-to-M mutations in histone H3.3 repress a key repressor, PRC2, but did not nail down how this happened. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This suggests that these mutations inappropriately pull a demethylating enzyme onto chromatin, which then erases methylation marks in histones around it," Morgan says. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Dynamic Interplay between O-Glycosylation and O-Phosphorylation of Nucleocytoplasmic Proteins", Journal of Biological Chemistry, 277(21):19229-19235, 2002. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The levels of histone phosphorylation and other PTMs were verified by deconvoluted MS spectra. (purdue.edu)
  • 1975) Changes in nucleolar proteins and their phosphorylation patterns during liver regeneration. (springer.com)
  • These heterochromatic regions, however, alternate with so-called "origins of replication" spots on the DNA where DNA-building proteins can bind, unzip the double-stranded DNA molecule to create a replication "fork," and begin to build a new strand of it. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The enzymes bind the universal methyl donor S -adenosyl- l -methionine (SAM) and the target protein to form a ternary complex. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Publications] Sobajima J., 他: 'Novel autoantigens of perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (P-ANCA) in ulcerative colitis : non-histone chromosomal proteins,HMG1 and HMG2. (nii.ac.jp)
  • also known as HMG-1 and HMG1), a protein that accumulates in serum and mediates delayed lethality and further induction of early proinflammatory cytokines. (google.ca)
  • In a recent study, Martienssen collaborated with scientists at the University of California at Berkeley and showed that the DNA-building proteins themselves could latch on to histone-modifying proteins and pull them along the replication fork. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Histones are subdivided into canonical replication-dependent histones that are expressed during the S-phase of cell cycle and replication-independent histone variants , expressed during the whole cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. (rcsb.org)
  • We report that these sites acquire replication protein A, RPA and the Escherichia coli MUTS homologue, MSH4p, and somewhat later the Bloom helicase, BLM, while simultaneously losing the RAD51/DMC1 component. (biologists.org)
  • Replisome assemblies unite multiple histone‐binding activities that jointly process parental histones during DNA replication. (embopress.org)
  • Furthermore, HPV reactivates host DNA replication in these differentiated cells, such that the replication proteins and substrates become available to support viral DNA amplification. (eurekalert.org)
  • Banerjee and colleagues hypothesized that inhibitors of histone deacetylases, or HDACs, would inhibit HPV DNA amplification because of their known mechanism of disrupting chromosomal DNA replication. (eurekalert.org)
  • Vorinostat inhibits many HDACs, so it might interrupt not only chromosomal replication but also viral DNA replication. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cell death could be attributable to DNA breakage when chromosomal DNA replication was interrupted. (eurekalert.org)
  • Around ca. 2008 it became clear that chromatin modifying proteins (CMPs), including examples of PMTs, not only performed critical roles in defining cell identity, differentiation and maturation in normal physiology, but could also play causal roles in human diseases when the activities of specific CMPs were dysregulated [ 1 , 4 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • One of the isolated cDNA clones was found to encode follistatin-related protein (FRP). (nii.ac.jp)
  • This protein shares regions of very high sequence similarity with protein p300 in its bromodomain, cysteine-histidine-rich regions, and histone acetyltransferase domain. (origene.com)
  • These experiments provide evidence of an unexpected link between this chromosomal protein and cytokinesis, and suggest that one function of INCENP may be to integrate the chromosomal and cytoskeletal events of mitosis. (rupress.org)
  • The present study involved the use of several INCENP truncation mutants to further analyze the function of this protein in mitosis. (rupress.org)
  • The methylated DNA binding protein-2-H1 (MDBP-2-H1), present in rooster liver, is a member of the histone H1 family which inhibits transcription by binding selectively to methylated promoters. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The goals of this protocol are to identify the global levels of all histones (including variant histones) and non-histone chromosomal proteins, and to measure the relative levels of most known covalent modifications on histone and non-histone chromosomal proteins. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Proteomic identification of histone post-translational modifications and proteins enriched at a DNA double-strand break. (uams.edu)
  • Wurtele, H. & Verreault, A. Histone post-translational modifications and the response to DNA double-strand breaks. (nature.com)
  • Histones are essential chromosomal proteins with large numbers of variants and post-translational modifications (PTMs). (purdue.edu)
  • Hotair binds to both Polycomb repressive complex 2, which methylates histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27), and Lsd1 complex, which demethylates histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4) in vivo. (stanford.edu)
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • The interaction of high-mobility-group protein 1 with DNA has also been studied. (meta.org)
  • High-mobility group protein B3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HMGB3 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • High mobility group box 1 protein, also known as high-mobility group protein 1 (HMG-1) and amphoterin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HMGB1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among them, histone ubiquitination has been discovered for more than three decades. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review, we will summarize our current understanding of histone ubiquitination and deubiquitination. (frontiersin.org)
  • We will then discuss the roles of histone ubiquitination in transcription and DNA damage response and the crosstalk between histone ubiquitination and other histone modifications. (frontiersin.org)
  • Finally, we will review the important roles of histone ubiquitination in stem cell biology and cancer. (frontiersin.org)
  • The writers, erasers, and readers of histone ubiquitination have also been linked to cancer development. (frontiersin.org)
  • 1999) Histone ubiquitination and chromatin remodeling in mouse spermatogenesis. (springer.com)
  • 2005) Silencing of unpaired chromatin and histone H2A ubiquitination in mammalian meiosis. (springer.com)
  • To fully understand the molecular mechanisms governing multiple steps in gene expression, including transcription and posttranscriptional regulation for a given gene, one must first identify the various protein factors involved in the process. (pnas.org)
  • SUV39H1 is targeted to histone H3 via its interaction with RB1 and is involved in many processes, such as repression of MYOD1-stimulated differentiation, regulation of the control switch for exiting the cell cycle and entering differentiation, repression by the PML-RARA fusion protein, BMP-induced repression, repression of switch recombination to IgA and regulation of telomere length. (hmdb.ca)
  • [1] [2] They are the chief protein components of chromatin , acting as spools around which DNA winds, and playing a role in gene regulation . (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent data are accumulating about the roles of diverse histone variants highlighting the functional links between variants and the delicate regulation of organism development. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the role for histone monoubiquitylation in the regulation of mammalian gene expression is primarily unknown. (jneurosci.org)
  • Even if a physical state were controlled by a single gene coding for a single protein, the up regulation of that gene would perturb the broader system many coding regions would be affected. (informit.com)
  • Here, we study the biological role of this protein family by systematic analysis of phenotypes and tissue transcription profiles in mice lacking functional HMGN variants. (nih.gov)
  • Our results indicate that the biochemical properties of the histone H1-like proteins contribute to the structural and functional differences between the chromatin of procyclic T. b. brucei and that of higher eukaryotes. (springer.com)
  • PAR pattern of expression and its dynamic localization suggested a functional relationship to chromosomal passenger proteins (CPP). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Recently, Li and colleagues found that histone H2B is a functional target of ARIDIA, which is involved in histone modifications [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Allan J, Harbone N, Rau DC, Gould H (1982) Participation of core histone tails in the stabilisation of the chromatin solenoid. (springer.com)
  • Application of recombinant bST is a biotechnology in which a recombinant-derived protein is administered by injection to the recipient animal without changing the animal's genetic composition or genome. (nap.edu)
  • In recent years, a lot of data on the genome-wide localisation of histone modifications (the "Epigenome") have been obtained and analysed. (riken.jp)
  • In genome-wide studies, PREs are recognized as DNA fragments that are binding sites for multiple PcG proteins. (biologists.org)
  • Combinatorial readout of dual histone modifications by paired chromatin-associated modules. (mskcc.org)
  • The CD is found in a wide range of chromatin-associated proteins, most with transcriptionally repressive functions. (asm.org)
  • This is the first report to show that histone monoubiquitylation regulates mammalian brain gene expression. (jneurosci.org)
  • Using antibodies that recognize methylated lysines, they discovered that a dose of the mutant protein was sufficient to decrease global methylation of normal histone H3.3 proteins at K27, just as loss of the PRC2 repressor would. (bio-medicine.org)