The effects on gene expression that depend on the location of a gene with respect to its neighboring genes and region of chromosome. Stable position effects are sequence dependent. Variegated position effects depend on whether the gene is located in or adjacent to HETEROCHROMATIN or EUCHROMATIN.
Color of the iris.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.

Role for perinuclear chromosome tethering in maintenance of genome stability. (1/41)


Stwl modifies chromatin compaction and is required to maintain DNA integrity in the presence of perturbed DNA replication. (2/41)


Telomeric position effect--a third silencing mechanism in eukaryotes. (3/41)


Corepressive action of CBP on androgen receptor transactivation in pericentric heterochromatin in a Drosophila experimental model system. (4/41)


Linker histone H1 is essential for Drosophila development, the establishment of pericentric heterochromatin, and a normal polytene chromosome structure. (5/41)


The sea urchin sns5 insulator protects retroviral vectors from chromosomal position effects by maintaining active chromatin structure. (6/41)


Developmentally regulated MAPK pathways modulate heterochromatin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (7/41)


Drosophila mini-white model system: new insights into positive position effects and the role of transcriptional terminators and gypsy insulator in transgene shielding. (8/41)


Chromosomal position effects refer to the phenomenon where the location or position of a gene on a chromosome can affect its expression, or the rate at which it is transcribed and translated into a protein. This is because the organization of chromatin (the complex of DNA, RNA, and proteins that make up chromosomes) can influence gene activity.

In particular, genes that are located near the telomeres (the ends of chromosomes) or heterochromatin (densely packed regions of chromatin that are generally transcriptionally inactive) may be less active than genes located in more open, euchromatic regions of the chromosome. This is because these areas of the chromosome can be associated with repressive chromatin modifications and reduced accessibility of transcription factors and other regulatory proteins.

Position effects can also occur when a gene is translocated or inserted into a new location in the genome, such as through transgenesis or chromosomal rearrangements. In these cases, the expression of the gene may be altered due to its new chromosomal context and interactions with nearby regulatory elements. Position effects can therefore have important implications for genetic regulation and disease, including cancer and developmental disorders.

Eye color is a characteristic determined by variations in a person's genes. The color of the eyes depends on the amount and type of pigment called melanin found in the eye's iris.

There are three main types of eye colors: brown, blue, and green. Brown eyes have the most melanin, while blue eyes have the least. Green eyes have a moderate amount of melanin combined with a golden tint that reflects light to give them their unique color.

Eye color is a polygenic trait, which means it is influenced by multiple genes. The two main genes responsible for eye color are OCA2 and HERC2, both located on chromosome 15. These genes control the production, transport, and storage of melanin in the iris.

It's important to note that eye color can change during infancy and early childhood due to the development of melanin in the iris. Additionally, some medications or medical conditions may also cause changes in eye color over time.

Chromosome mapping, also known as physical mapping, is the process of determining the location and order of specific genes or genetic markers on a chromosome. This is typically done by using various laboratory techniques to identify landmarks along the chromosome, such as restriction enzyme cutting sites or patterns of DNA sequence repeats. The resulting map provides important information about the organization and structure of the genome, and can be used for a variety of purposes, including identifying the location of genes associated with genetic diseases, studying evolutionary relationships between organisms, and developing genetic markers for use in breeding or forensic applications.

Chromosomes are thread-like structures that exist in the nucleus of cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes. They are composed of DNA and proteins, and are typically present in pairs in the nucleus, with one set inherited from each parent. In humans, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46 chromosomes. Chromosomes come in different shapes and forms, including sex chromosomes (X and Y) that determine the biological sex of an individual. Changes or abnormalities in the number or structure of chromosomes can lead to genetic disorders and diseases.

A transgene is a segment of DNA that has been artificially transferred from one organism to another, typically between different species, to introduce a new trait or characteristic. The term "transgene" specifically refers to the genetic material that has been transferred and has become integrated into the host organism's genome. This technology is often used in genetic engineering and biomedical research, including the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural purposes or the creation of animal models for studying human diseases.

Transgenes can be created using various techniques, such as molecular cloning, where a desired gene is isolated, manipulated, and then inserted into a vector (a small DNA molecule, such as a plasmid) that can efficiently enter the host organism's cells. Once inside the cell, the transgene can integrate into the host genome, allowing for the expression of the new trait in the resulting transgenic organism.

It is important to note that while transgenes can provide valuable insights and benefits in research and agriculture, their use and release into the environment are subjects of ongoing debate due to concerns about potential ecological impacts and human health risks.

Kellum, R; Schedl, P (8 March 1991). "A position-effect assay for boundaries of higher order chromosomal domains". Cell. 64 (5 ... element of the chicken beta-globin domain serves as an insulator in human erythroid cells and protects against position effect ... Chromosomal alterations such as translocations, deletions and tandem duplications intersecting with insulated neighborhood ... Geyer, PK; Corces, VG (October 1992). "DNA position-specific repression of transcription by a Drosophila zinc finger protein". ...
The study demonstrated the effect of chromosomal positioning on gene expression. Dernburg also studied the role heterochromatin ... Specifically, she used FISH to monitor the chromosomal position of regions of heterochromatin-a tightly packed region of DNA ...
Wahl, GM; Robert de Saint Vincent B; Derose, ML (1984). "Effect of chromosomal position on amplification of transfected genes ... Effect of diversity on flood regulation (In a survey of the literature, the investigators could not find any studies) Effect of ... Allen A. P.; Gillooly J. F.; Savage V. M.; Brown J. H. (2006). "Kinetic effects of temperature on rates of genetic divergence ... 2001). "Effects of sampling standardization on estimates of Phanerozoic marine diversification". Proceedings of the National ...
Six second chromosomal mus mutations were isolated with wm4. A copy of wild-type white gene was placed adjacent to ... PEV is a position effect because the change in position of a gene from its original position to somewhere near a ... "position-effect". Tartof, Kenneth D.; Hobbs, Cheryl; Jones, Marilyn (1984-07-01). "A structural basis for variegating position ... Position-effect variegation (PEV) is a variegation caused by the silencing of a gene in some cells through its abnormal ...
"Mutation in a heterochromatin-specific chromosomal protein is associated with suppression of position-effect variegation in ... was originally discovered by Tharappel C James and Sarah Elgin in 1986 as a factor in the phenomenon known as position effect ... December 1999). "Heterochromatin protein 1 modifies mammalian PEV in a dose- and chromosomal-context-dependent manner". Nature ... "Identification of a nonhistone chromosomal protein associated with heterochromatin in Drosophila melanogaster and its gene". ...
The Hox genes are linked in four chromosomal clusters: Hoxa, Hoxb, Hoxc, and Hoxd. Their physical position on the chromosome ... This means that although Shh signaling is required, its effects change over time as the mesoderm is primed to respond to it ... Within the limb bud, expression of specific Hox genes varies as a function of the position along the anterior-posterior axis. ... Though limbs emerge at different locations in different species, their positions always correlate with the level of Hox gene ...
Bottorff D, Ebinu J, Stone JC (May 1999). "RasGRP, a Ras activator: mouse and human cDNA sequences and chromosomal positions". ... The drug was able to reverse certain effects of the mutation RASGRP1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000172575 - Ensembl, ...
She often collaborated with Karl on chromosomal studies, especially those related to the effects of radiation and chemicals on ... She worked for a year for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (1914-15) before taking up a position as an instructor of botany ... Radiomimetic effects on Veratrum (1968, with Karl Sax and Wayne Binns) Effects of sonic energy on chromosomes (1970, with Karl ... Radiomimetic effects (1965, with Karl Sax and H.J. Teas) Radiomimetic beverages, drugs, and mutagens (1966, with Karl Sax) ...
These phenotypes are often due to a chromosomal translocation such that the color gene is now close to a region of ... Position effect is the effect on the expression of a gene when its location in a chromosome is changed, often by translocation ... Position effects on gene expression in two different eucaryotic organisms". Molecular biology of the cell (4th ed.). New York: ... Position effect is also used to describe the variation of expression exhibited by identical transgenes that insert into ...
Reuter G, Giarre M, Farah J, Gausz J, Spierer A, Spierer P (March 1990). "Dependence of position-effect variegation in ... Zhao K, Hart CM, Laemmli UK (June 1995). "Visualization of chromosomal domains with boundary element-associated factor BEAF-32 ... the phantom of the modifier of position-effect variegation Su(var)3-7". Int. J. Dev. Biol. 46 (1): 167-71. PMID 11902679. This ...
position effect Any effect on the expression or functionality of a gene or sequence that is a consequence of its location or ... microdeletion A chromosomal deletion that is too short to cause any apparent change in morphology under a light microscope, ... Position effects are a major focus of research in the field of epigenetic inheritance. positional cloning A strategy for ... position effects, or infection by pathogens. variome vector Any DNA molecule used as a vehicle to artificially transport ...
Wallrath, LL; Elgin, SCR (1995-05-15). "Position effect variegation in Drosophila is associated with an altered chromatin ... Silver, L M; Elgin, S C (February 1976). "A method for determination of the in situ distribution of chromosomal proteins". Proc ... this phenomenon is known as Position-effect variegation. Nuclease digestion assays have confirmed that the eye phenotypes are ... She continued to isolate and characterize nonhistone chromosomal proteins but started studying Drosophila. After her postdoc, ...
2. Gain-of-function mutant (Sh5) (which changed the inactivation kinetics of the current, 3. Position effect conferred by the ... Salkoff found that the W32 chromosomal broke within or close to the Shaker gene. This study showing the location of the Shaker ... and position effect mutations where a breakpoint near the gene reduces expression of a normal gene product. All three classes ... These studies validated the Shaker gene as the structural locus of a potassium channel and guided a chromosomal "walking" ...
The Hox genes are "physically linked in four chromosomal clusters (Hoxa, Hoxb, Hoxc, Hoxd), and their physical position on the ... This means that although Shh signaling is required, its effects change over time as the mesoderm is primed to respond to it ... The position of the limb bud, and hence the AER, is specified by the expression boundaries of Hox genes in the embryonic trunk ... At these positions, the induction of cell outgrowth is thought to be mediated by a positive feedback loop of fibroblast growth ...
... they occupy consistent chromosomal positions, they may be polygenic or based on few genes, they may display additive, dominant ... The effect of genetic drift is larger in small populations, and smaller in large populations. Vigorous debates wage among ... Due to the damaging effects that mutations can have on cells, organisms have evolved mechanisms such as DNA repair to remove ... In organisms that use chromosomal crossover to exchange DNA and recombine genes, errors in alignment during meiosis can also ...
... and position effect. His main contributions to science include his analysis of genetic "linkage groups," which became a ... Campbell, Neil A.; Reece, Jane B. (2009). "Chapter 15: The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance". Biology (PDF) (Eighth ed.). San ... In this same time frame, Sturtevant was an outspoken opponent of eugenics and was interested in the effects of the atomic bomb ... He warned the public of possible harmful genetic effects of nuclear fallout despite supposedly low levels of ionizing radiation ...
... chromosomal translocation between the short (i.e. "p") arm of chromosome 2 at position 24 and the long (i.e. "q") arm of ... trisomy of chromosomes 7 and 12 and deletion of the long arm of chromosome 6 which have as yet unknown functional effects; and ... arm of chromosome 11 at position 21 with the q arm of chromosome 18 at position 21 (notated as a t(11;18)(q21;q21) ... Chromosomal abnormalities such as: 1) trisomy of chromosome 3 (24% of cases) which causes the overexpression of FOXP1, NFKBIZ, ...
Green-beard effect Gardner, Andy; Úbeda, Francisco (6 November 2017). "The meaning of intragenomic conflict". Nature Ecology & ... Transposons are autonomous replicating genes that encode the ability to move to new positions in the genome and therefore ... The best-studied examples include the neocentromeres (knobs) of maize, as well as several chromosomal rearrangements in mammals ... R. W. Beeman; K. S. Friesen; R. E. Denell (1992). "Maternal-effect selfish genes in flour beetles" (PDF). Science. 256 (5053): ...
The position of the first site upstream of the major rpoS promoter corresponds to a "classical activator" similarly found in ... The regulatory effect in this case is RpoS down regulation of SCOT expression in response to oxidative stress in B. ... Transcription of rpoS in E. coli is mainly regulated by the chromosomal rpoSp promoter. rpoSp promotes transcription of rpoS ... the lac promoter thereby suggesting that its effects on transcription are activating (Lange and Hengge-Aronis, 1994); in ...
The toxic effect of ethidium bromide (EtBr) on trypanosomas is caused by shift of their kinetoplastid DNA to Z-form. The shift ... Because of this property, Z-DNA is hypothesized to code for the boundary in nucleosome positioning. Since the placement of ... In mammalian cells, the presence of such sequences was found to produce large genomic fragment deletions due to chromosomal ... had little to no effect on pathogenicity of the virus in mice. In Contrast, Kim, Y. et al. also found that deleting all 83 ...
This deletion is thought to cause disease owing to a position effect that influences the transcription of nearby genes, rather ... The duplication, recombination, and deletion of subtelomeres allow for the creation of new genes and new chromosomal properties ... Sgo2 has also repressive effects for timing of subtelomeres replication by suppressing Sld3, a replication factor, at the start ... However, the use of inter-chromosomal circularization engenders chromosome instability by creating two centromeres in a single ...
Stevens greatly influenced the scientific community's transition to this new line of inquiry: Chromosomal sex determination. ... despite having equal qualification as him for a professorial position. Rosalind Franklin (1920-1958) - now recognized as an ... The Matilda effect was compared to the Matthew effect, whereby an eminent scientist often gets more credit than a comparatively ... "Matilda effect" was coined in 1993 by science historian Margaret W. Rossiter. Rossiter provides several examples of this effect ...
position effect Any effect on the expression or functionality of a gene or sequence that is a consequence of its location or ... Wallace effect Y-chromosomal Adam zygosity zygote Outline of evolution Index of evolutionary biology articles Glossary of ... Position effects are a major focus of research in the field of epigenetic inheritance. positive selection See directional ... maternal effect Any nongenetic effect of the mother on the phenotype of her offspring, owing to factors such as cytoplasmic ...
... and a chromosomal location of human orthodox 6p24.3. (6:7,389,496-7,418,037) Effects on modified protein - protein degradation ... in positions 329 and 349 and 2 active sites in positions 324 (which is a proton acceptor) and 341 (4-aspartylphosphate ... Effects on biological progress - cell growth, inhibited, triggered by K411-m1. The effect of the experimental mutation of one ... When amino acid residues are altered, we report the change, the name of the mutant (if known), and the effects of the mutation ...
... advantage of genetic mapping is that it can identify the relative position of genes based solely on their phenotypic effect. ... DNA probes that are specific for chromosomal regions or genes of interest are labeled with fluorochromes. By attaching ... A gene map helps point out the relative positions of genes and allows researchers to locate regions of interest in the genome. ... The essence of all genome mapping is to place a collection of molecular markers onto their respective positions on the genome. ...
... (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is ... In addition, gene dosage effects play a significant role. Thus, most duplicates are lost within a short period, however, a ... When the polymerase reattaches to the DNA strand, it aligns the replicating strand to an incorrect position and incidentally ... Mao R, Pevsner J (2005). "The use of genomic microarrays to study chromosomal abnormalities in mental retardation". Mental ...
DCC would fall into the chromosomal instability category. The chromosomal region of 18q has shown consistent LOH for nearly ... In a cancer state, the absence of DCC prevents the gradient from having an effect on the cell, making it more likely to ... into the mechanisms of DCC signaling and in-vitro studies of DCC modifications have solidified DCC's tumour suppressor position ... As the 18q chromosomal deletions were never resolved to be related solely to another gene, DCC was rapidly reaccepted as a ...
Experiments performed at microbeam facilities have since shown the existence of a bystander effect. A bystander effect is any ... Cell positioning must have high spatial resolution and reproducibility in order that the ion beam hit the target with a high ... Many biological endpoints have been studied including oncogenic transformation, apoptosis, mutations, and chromosomal ... it is necessary to be able to extrapolate from the effects of multiple traversals to the effects of single traversals of a ...
The director is Kunle Odunsi, MD who accepted the position in 2021. Odunsi is an expert in immunotherapy and vaccine therapy ... UChicago accomplishments include landmark prostate cancer treatment in 1939, the identification of the first chromosomal ... abnormality in leukemia in 1972, the 1988 discovery of the molecular mechanism by which tamoxifen blocks the effects of ...
March 2008). "Position of nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMMHC-IIA) mutations predicts the natural history of MYH9-related ... Ford HL, Silver DL, Kachar B, Sellers JR, Zain SB (December 1997). "Effect of Mts1 on the structure and activity of nonmuscle ... chromosomal localization, and upregulation during myeloid differentiation". Blood. 78 (7): 1826-33. doi:10.1182/blood.V78.7. ... Male and female animals underwent a standardized phenotypic screen to determine the effects of deletion. Twenty six tests were ...
Kellum, R; Schedl, P (8 March 1991). "A position-effect assay for boundaries of higher order chromosomal domains". Cell. 64 (5 ... element of the chicken beta-globin domain serves as an insulator in human erythroid cells and protects against position effect ... Chromosomal alterations such as translocations, deletions and tandem duplications intersecting with insulated neighborhood ... Geyer, PK; Corces, VG (October 1992). "DNA position-specific repression of transcription by a Drosophila zinc finger protein". ...
However, the loss of large sections of the genome or their relocation to new positions can also have dramatic effects. Often, ... Chromosomal breaks often lead to disruption of chromatin domains, sometimes with severe effects. "Imagine these domains as ... Better recognition of chromosomal diseases. Hi-C method improves detection of breaks and rearrangements in the genome ... In the clinical samples examined, the team was able to not only confirm the existing findings and specify the effect of ...
The possible adverse effects of cannabis on health include the following: impaired immunity; chromosomal damage; ... If it finally gains some position in the medical armamentarium, it will likely be a modest one, providing symptomatic rather ... and effects on driving an automobile.15 17. Harry S. Greenberg, M.D., and others recently studied the effects of smoking ... al., Short-term effects of smoking marijuana on balance in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal volunteers, Clinical ...
The effect of Buchnera genome evolution on gene expression levels has also been analysed in order to assess the constraints ... We have explored the possible conservation of relationships between mRNA abundances and chromosomal organization in the highly ... Moreover, transcriptomic analyses have demonstrated that, in free-living bacteria, gene transcription levels and chromosomal ... this work reveals a significant correlation between mRNA abundances and chromosomal organization of the aphid-symbiont Buchnera ...
He received a MS in molecular biology/biochemistry in 1990 and began work on position effect variegation and... read morenon- ... histone chromosomal proteins in Tom Grigliattis laboratory at the University of British Columbia. He collaborated with the ... He was named 2005s most innovative new scientist at Invitrogen, and now has the position of Sr. R&D Manager within Cell and ...
Effects of pregnancy on multiple sclerosis. An Israeli study of 338 women conducted to evaluate the MS relapse rate during each ... Sleeping position may have to be changed to one that minimizes backache. Specially shaped pillows have been recommended and ... no mutagenicity or production of chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes, and in rabbits no maternal or fetal toxicity at ... In a rhesus monkey model, high doses of IFN-β1a were not teratogenic but had a dose-dependent abortive effect. [51] In a ...
To explain the X,t(Y;22) individual, it was proposed that she was female because of a chromosomal position effect or delayed ...
Catabolite repressive effects of 5-thio-D-glucose on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.. 1985. *CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE DNA- ... Chromosomal assignment of five cancer-associated rat genes: Two thyroid hormone receptor (ERBA) genes, two ERBB genes and the ... GENE LOCALIZATION ON SORTED CHROMOSOMES - DEFINITIVE EVIDENCE ON THE RELATIVE POSITIONING OF GENES PARTICIPATING IN THE MOUSE ... Chromosomal assignment of five cancer-associated rat genes: two thyroid hormone receptor (ERBA) genes, two ERBB genes and the ...
Effects of pregnancy on multiple sclerosis. An Israeli study of 338 women conducted to evaluate the MS relapse rate during each ... Sleeping position may have to be changed to one that minimizes backache. Specially shaped pillows have been recommended and ... no mutagenicity or production of chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes, and in rabbits no maternal or fetal toxicity at ... In a rhesus monkey model, high doses of IFN-β1a were not teratogenic but had a dose-dependent abortive effect. [51] In a ...
Recent experiments have shown that in addition to control by cis regulatory elements, the local chromosomal context of a gene ... Although this chromosome-position dependent expression variation has been empirically mapped at high-resolution, the underlying ... Genetic context effects can override canonical cis regulatory elements in Escherichia coli. Scott A. Scholz, Chase D. Lindeboom ... Genetic context effects can override canonical cis regulatory elements in Escherichia coli ...
Meaning of position effect. What does position effect mean? Information and translations of position effect in the most ... Definition of position effect in the dictionary. ... These phenotypes are often due to a chromosomal translocation ... What does position effect mean?. Definitions for position effect. po·si·tion ef·fect. This dictionary definitions page includes ... Alternative searches for position effect:. *. Search for Synonyms for position effect. *. Search for Anagrams for position ...
... homologues of the dominant Drosophila modifier of position-effect-variegation (PEV) Su(var)3-9. Mammalian homologues contain, ... The chromo and SET domains are conserved sequence motifs present in chromosomal proteins that function in epigenetic control of ...
... expression technology gives major improvements in gene expression in stably-transfected mammalian cells through effects on the ... irrespective of the position of the transgene in the chromosome. ... and high-level gene expression irrespective of the chromosomal ...
... homologues of the dominant Drosophila modifier of position-effect-variegation (PEV) Su(var)3-9. Mammalian homologues contain, ... The chromo and SET domains are conserved sequence motifs present in chromosomal proteins that function in epigenetic control of ... The domain within your query sequence starts at position 1291 and ends at position 1307; the E-value for the PostSET domain ...
... in its native chromosomal context using CRISPR/Cas9 editing and novel Active Genetics reveals new features of CRM function ... Second, in several cases, apparently minor variations in the positions of chromosomal breakpoints or small indels, result in ... This effect may arise from the fact that deleted sequences in ri1 overlap with those missing in riΔ3. Consistent with this ... Evidence for potential chromosomal pairing dependent interactions between kni L2-CRM mutants.. (A-L) adult wings. (A) ri∆2/ri1 ...
... effect of ara-C provides several mechanisms of action that explain internucleotide and chain terminus positioning of ara-C ... residues, reinitiation of previously replicated DNA segments, and DNA strand or chromosomal breaks. The precise mechanism of ... Effects of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine incorporation on eukaryotic DNA template function.. D W Kufe, D Munroe, D Herrick ... Effects of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine incorporation on eukaryotic DNA template function.. D W Kufe, D Munroe, D Herrick ...
The Pantip-4 P(lacZ, w+) transposon is located at chromosomal position 54F and expresses the beta-galactosidase marker in the ... EFFECTS OF MUTATION. The adrift gene was identified by the phenotypic effect engendered by insertion of a transposable genetic ... Genetic map position - Classification - novel protein Cellular location - nuclear NCBI link: Entrez Gene. aft orthologs: ... adrift : Biological Overview , Regulation , Developmental Biology , Effects of Mutation , References Gene name - adrift ...
However, in differentiated cells, loss of HP1β has the opposite effect, perturbing maintenance of the differentiation state and ... Mutation in a heterochromatin-specific chromosomal protein is associated with suppression of position-effect variegation in ... Such effects are unique to HP1β.. To determine whether HP1β KO also affects later stages of differentiation, we compared the ... The distinct effects on gene expression and the different interaction partners of HP1β in ESCs and MEFs prompted us to test its ...
... especially chromosomal rearrangements in non-coding regions of the human genome, remai ... Computational Prediction of Position Effects of Apparently Balanced Human Chromosomal Rearrangements. Tammy Kammin, David J. ... resolution three-dimensional chromosomal structural data and transcriptional regulatory information to predict position effects ... We confirm gene-expression changes for a couple of candidate genes to exemplify the utility of our analysis of position effect ...
1995) Position effect variegation in Drosophila is associated with an altered chromatin structure. Genes Dev 9: 1263-1277. doi: ... The svspa-pol chromosome is marked with y+ due to a duplication of X-chromosomal material to the short, left arm of chromosome ... 2008) Telomeric position effect: A third silencing mechanism in eukaryotes. PLoS One 3: e3864. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003864 ... 2008) Exploiting position effects and the gypsy retrovirus insulator to engineer precisely expressed transgenes. Nat Genet 40: ...
Then we normalized the average coverage of blaNDM mapping reads to the average coverage of 10 different chromosomal genes used ... at position 333 and 3 substitutions (Q227H, E349K, and I532L). Two isolates had a different allele with a YRIK insertion and an ... To study the effect of the YRIN(K) motif insertion on cefiderocol resistance, we performed susceptibility testing on the ... and frequent chromosomal mutations in genes involved in siderophore-iron uptake. No feature alone is sufficient to confer ...
6. Chromosomal Position Effects. 7. Polycomb-group Proteins and Epigenetics. SECTION III: Epigenetic Technology. 8. Analyses of ... The Effects of Diet on Epigenetic Processes. 30. Environmental Agents and Epigenetic Effects 31. Impact of Infective Agents on ... Metabolic Effects on DNA Methylation. 19. Metabolism and Chromatin Dynamics SECTION VI: Functions of Epigenetics. 20. ... The biological processes impacted by epigenetics are vast and encompass effects in lower organisms and humans that include ...
Position. Spacecraft. (launch). Launch. date. Launch. time. Spacecraft. (landing). Landing. date. Landing. time. Mission. ... Yeast-Group Activation Packs (Yeast-GAP): Yeast-GAP studies the effects of genetic changes of yeast cells exposed to the space ... Chromosome-1 (Chromosomal Aberrations in Blood Lymphocytes of Astronauts-1),. Clinical Nutrition Assessment (Clinical Nutrition ... Izgib (Effect of Performance of Flight and Science Activities on the Function of On-Orbit Systems on ISS (Mathematical Model)), ...
To further investigate this chromosomal region, the magnitudes and directions of allelic effects at the eight common loci in ... conditioned by the composite interval mapping cofactors included in the model was calculated at the most likely QTL position. ... To detect significant allelic effect for single markers at the chromosomal region of interest, Wald statistics were applied [48 ... Allele effects of eight SNP covering the overlap among chromosome 7A1L QTL. Allele effects are presented as percentage relative ...
A genes chromosomal position and local chromatin structure can have profound consequences for its expression. We are ... We are particularly focused on the form of chromatin regulation known as transcriptional silencing and study its effects on ... OPEN LAB POSITIONS Produced by: Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego.. Main address:. 9500 ... interested in all aspects of these chromosomal and chromatin effects because they underlie epigenetic processes that are ...
We consider the effects of the environment and both intergenerational and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance on biology, ... position effect variegation (the silencing of a gene in some cells through its abnormal juxtaposition to heterochromatin) in ... Nature 502, 59-64 (2013). Single-cell Hi-C analysis shows that chromosomal compartments, TADs, chromatin contact insulation and ... We also note that cases of inheritance that do not involve chromosomal components have been documented14,17,18 and it will be ...
log10 p values (y-axis) of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are shown according to their chromosomal positions (x- ... We regressed the raw methylation levels on fixed-effect terms including methylation chip and LDD, and random-effect terms ... Physical positions are based on build 36 (NCBI) of the human genome. Also shown are the relative positions of genes mapping to ... Heterogeneity of estimated effect was expressed using Q (weighted sum of squares) and I2 (ratio of true heterogeneity to total ...
Extra chromosome at position 21. Female . Trisomy 21, also referred to as Downs syndrome, is a chromosomal aberration ... 600 among newborns and is one of the most common chromosomal … However, they can also have detrimental effects. About ... Chromosomal disorders are a result of an alteration in genetic material. A chromosomal disorder occurs when there is a change ... Chromosomal abnormalities are common causes of birth defects that can affect the brain and other parts of the body. Chromosomal ...
NON-TERATOGENIC EFFECTS Neonates exposed to antipsychotic drugs, during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk for ... Chromosomal aberrations in spermatocytes and abnormal sperm have been demonstrated in rodents tested with certain ... If hypotension occurs after parenteral dosing, place patient in head-low position with legs raised. If a vasoconstrictor is ... Potentiation of anticonvulsant effects does not occur.. However, it has been reported that phenothiazines may interfere with ...
  • When study lead author Neil Ganem of Dana-Farber used newly developed microscope equipment to watch living cancer cells for a week or more, he found that not only were such abnormal divisions quite rare, but the resulting daughter cells were so discombobulated by their chromosomal quirks, they generally survived for only a few days - far too briefly to deliver abnormal chromosome content to a tumor. (
  • The centrosomes' role is to construct the mitotic spindle, the axis along which the chromosome pairs position themselves as division proceeds. (
  • In this review, we focus on recent attempts to add additional origins into various ectopic chromosomal locations of the E. coli chromosome. (
  • Heterozygous translocation -- The relocation of a chromosomal segment to a different position in the genome of an individual with a gene pair having different alleles in the two chromosome sets of the diploid individual. (
  • The effects on gene expression that depend on the location of a gene with respect to its neighboring genes and region of chromosome. (
  • The following chromosomal conditions are associated with changes in the structure or number of copies of chromosome 11. (
  • The effects of epigenetics are vast, including tissue/organ regeneration, X-chromosome inactivation, and stem cell differentiation and genomic imprinting and aging. (
  • By genetical and cytological test methods, it was possible to place this Ds locus at a position demark- ing the proximal third of the short arm of chromosome g. (
  • The position of Ds in the short arm of chromosome 9, where it was first detected, has been designated the "standard position. (
  • When Ds is trans- posed from its standard position to another position in the short arm of chromosome 9, the new location may be readily de- termined. (
  • and the mechanism of re- moval of the fragment may be a tearing process, since unsaturated ends, capable of fusion, are produced in each of the chroma- tids of chromosome g at the position where the fragment was situated. (
  • If the spontaneous break occurs in the short arm of chromosome 9g at a position other than the Ds locus, several types of altered chromosomes g can be formed. (
  • The researchers applied a method called "Hi-C" (High-throughput Chromosome Conformation Capture) to samples from patients with developmental disorders suspected to be caused by chromosomal rearrangements. (
  • The presence of ribonucleotides in DNA is associated with genome instability, causing replication stress, chromosome fragility, gross chromosomal rearrangements, and other mutagenic events. (
  • We then tested this mutation (recF4101) on a multicopy plasmid for its ability to complement a recF chromosomal mutation and on the E. coli chromosome for its effect on sensitivity to UV irradiation. (
  • Gould and Wright advocated chromosomal speciation (chromosome rearrangements) theory for macroevolution but which are not valid. (
  • Background Balanced chromosomal rearrangements associated with abnormal phenotype are rare events, but may be challenging for genetic counselling, since molecular characterisation of breakpoints is not performed routinely. (
  • We used next-generation sequencing to characterise breakpoints of balanced chromosomal rearrangements at the molecular level in patients with intellectual disability and/or congenital anomalies. (
  • Results Among the 55 patients included (41 reciprocal translocations, 4 inversions, 2 insertions and 8 complex chromosomal rearrangements), we were able to detect 89% of chromosomal rearrangements (49/55). (
  • Usually, interpretation of chromosomal rearrangements is focused on alterations of linear genome sequence, underestimating the role of spatial chromatin organization. (
  • We highlight some tips to help physicians estimating the impact of chromosomal rearrangements on the patient phenotype. (
  • Computational Prediction of Position Effects of Apparently Balanced Human Chromosomal Rearrangements. (
  • 26 ) leveraged the CRISPR-Cas9 system to produce other chromosomal rearrangements, generating targeted mitotic recombination events in yeast to enable the fine mapping of trait variants. (
  • Chromosomal rearrangements may alter these interaction patterns and can thus be seen in the analysis. (
  • We have generated by X-ray irradiation two independent chromosomal rearrangements, Heidi and Tell, relocating Winkelried next to pericentromeric heterochromatin. (
  • Excision of the binding sites for GAL4 in the variegating rearrangements Heidi and Tell abolishes the modifier effect of the GAL4-HP1 chimera. (
  • Therefore, in the Heidi and Tell rearrangements, enhancement of position-effect variegation depends strictly both on the concentration of GAL4-HP1 and on the presence of its binding site in the vicinity of the reporter genes. (
  • However, the loss of large sections of the genome or their relocation to new positions can also have dramatic effects. (
  • Speciation is not always an extension of gradual, adaptive allelic substitution to greater effect, but may represent, as Goldschmidt argued, a different style of genetic change - rapid reorganization of the genome, perhaps non-adaptive. (
  • In some of these, a gross chromosomal alteration has accompanied the transposition of Ds. (
  • By cytological and genetical analyses of the cases involving gross chromosomal aber- rations, it has been possible to reconstruct in considerable detail the events that must have occurred to bring about a transposi- tion of the Ds locus. (
  • On the other hand, fusions of broken ends can bring about a transposition of the Ds locus without an accompanying gross chromosomal rear- rangement. (
  • Variegation of Winkelried in the rearranged transgenic lines responds to the loss and excess of doses of the dominant suppressors of position-effect variegation (PEV) Su(var)3-7 and Su(var)2-5. (
  • Winkelried therefore constitutes a unique tool to test the effect on variegation in cis of any factor fused to the GAL4 DNA binding domain. (
  • Epigenetic silencing by the HUSH complex mediates position-effect variegation in human cells. (
  • Forward genetic screens in Drosophila melanogaster for modifiers of position-effect variegation have revealed the basis of much of our understanding of heterochromatin. (
  • Recent studies strongly suggest that in bacteria, both the genomic pattern of DNA thermodynamic stability and the order of genes along the chromosomal origin-to-terminus axis are highly conserved and that this spatial organization plays a crucial role in coordinating genomic transcription. (
  • Position-oriented approaches have taken advantage of the intimate involvement of tumor suppressor gene inactivation through deletion to localize, identify, and demonstrate the involvement of these genes in carcinogenesis. (
  • Thus, the use of position-based strategies for mapping and isolating tumor suppressor genes remains a prime tool in their identification. (
  • Even if all genes remain intact after a chromosomal break, serious problems may occur. (
  • The team examined clinical samples from blood, skin and amniotic fluid of nine patients with chromosomal breaks but without damage to known genes. (
  • Co-localisation analyses across genetic effects on DNA methylation and 56 human traits identify 1520 co-localisations across 1325 unique CpGs and 34 phenotypes, including in disease-relevant genes, such as USP1 and DOCK7 (total cholesterol levels), and ICOSLG (inflammatory bowel disease). (
  • [ 1 ] Yet, their relative effects are difficult to determine, especially since most complex traits are controlled by many genetic variations of very small effect. (
  • About 1 percent of all people with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome have a chromosomal abnormality such as a rearrangement (translocation) that involves 11p15.5 or abnormal copying (duplication) or deletion of genetic material in this region. (
  • No genetic material is gained or lost in a balanced translocation, so these chromosomal changes usually do not cause any health problems. (
  • KW: Because there was currently a position open that was an interagency agreement funded position with Mike Shelby at NIEHS, and at that time Mike Shelby was integral to the genetic toxicology testing program here that was being developed. (
  • At Oak Ridge Associated Universities, they were looking more at the traditional in vivo mouse genetic toxicology endpoints, which were chromosomal damage endpoints. (
  • gene, now termed a tumor suppressor gene, is a genetic event resulting in loss or deletion of chromosomal material. (
  • In fact, Thomas Hunt Morgan, a mentor to Stevens who did not accept the theory of chromosomal inheritance at the time, is often credited with discovering the genetic basis for sex discrimination. (
  • liver tumors from interspecific hybrid, transgenic mice containing the sv40 early region linked to a mouse major urinary protein enhancer/promoter were analyzed for loss of heterozygosity to identify chromosomal regions which potentially contain genetic loci involved in multistep tumorigenesis. (
  • Multiple studies have shown that genetic effects have considerable impacts on DNA methylation levels at specific CpGs. (
  • Geographical Structure of the Y‐chromosomal Genetic Landscape of the Levant: A coastal‐inland contrast. (
  • All genetic change is adaptive (though some phenotypic effects, due to pleiotropy , etc., may not be). (
  • And phenotypes include many non-adaptive features by allometry and pleiotropy, but all are epiphenomena of primarily adaptive genetic changes and none can have any marked effect upon the organism (for, if inadaptive, they will lead to negative selection and elimination and, if adaptive, will enter the model in their own right). (
  • This thesis aims to develop an approach to quantify the yield of individual genotypes and to estimate parameters which may reveal the effects of genetic and environmental factors on the important plant processes controlling tuber yield variation among a large set of F1 (SH83-92-488  RH89-039-16) genotypes of potato and a set of standard cultivars covering a wide range of maturity types. (
  • Our molecular dissection of traits determining the dynamics of canopy cover, tuber bulking, and resource (radiation, nitrogen) use efficiencies identified several QTLs, the mapping position of each identified QTL, the interaction of QTL with environment (QTLE) and the magnitude of the QTL effect in explaining genetic variance in both SH and RH parental genomes. (
  • Chromosomal alterations such as translocations, deletions and tandem duplications intersecting with insulated neighborhood anchor sites can activate oncogenes. (
  • The ability of CRISPR-Cas9 to introduce several concurrent DSBs at defined positions has enabled engineering of tumor-associated chromosomal translocations resembling those observed in cancers, and hence to establish and test novel in vitro and in vivo tumor models ( 2 , 23 , 24 , 25 ). (
  • They were sister-chromatid exchange and chromosomal aberrations, and they got into micronucleus testing. (
  • The parent carries a chromosomal rearrangement between chromosomes 11 and 22 called a balanced translocation. (
  • either there was no chromosomal sex determination in the last common ancestor and both systems developed independently, or one lineage retained the ancestral sex chromosomes while in the other lineage a transition to the alternate system occurred. (
  • The classical analysis of chromosomal defects is done by a karyogram, which is a microscopic view of stained chromosomes. (
  • In addition, the Eastmond laboratory has an active research program in which molecular cytogenetic techniques are used to detect chromosomal alterations occurring in chemically exposed human populations. (
  • Chromosomal analysis is also performed on the amniotic fluid. (
  • Allele -- Any of the alternative forms of a gene that can occupy a particular chromosomal locus. (
  • We show that upon removal of the MARs, the locus becomes subject to position effects. (
  • Heterogeneity of expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) effects have been shown across gene expression processes. (
  • We argue that, while in E. coli the gradient of DNA thermodynamic stability and gene order along the origin-to-terminus axis represent major organizational features orchestrating temporal gene expression, the genomic sequence organization of Dickeya is more complex, demonstrating extended chromosomal domains of thermodynamically distinct DNA sequences eliciting specific transcriptional responses to various kinds of stress encountered during pathogenic growth. (
  • Both chimeras could complement E. coli chromosomal recF mutations. (
  • Welch RA, Hull R et al Molecular cloning and physical characterization of a chromosomal hemolysin from Escherichia coli. (
  • As a combined molecular and cytological approach, the major advantage of this visually appealing technique resides in its unique ability to provide an intermediate degree of resolution between DNA analysis and chromosomal investigations while retaining information at the single-cell level. (
  • We have carried out 3.5 μs molecular dynamics simulations of a single ribonucleotide incorporated at various translational and rotational positions in a nucleosome core particle. (
  • In one region (position 36), we changed the lysine codon (which is essential for ATPase, GTPase and kinase activity in other proteins having this phosphate binding loop) to an arginine codon. (
  • Most conventional vectors suffer from position effects and chromatin shut down thus resulting in gene silencing over time. (
  • Conceptually, FISH is a very straightforward technique that essentially consists in hybridizing a DNA probe to its complementary sequence on chromosomal preparations previously fixed on slides. (
  • Stable position effects are sequence dependent. (
  • Over the past decade, several programs have been developed to predict the probability that an observed sequence variant will have a deleterious effect on protein function. (
  • Although it may be difficult to know with certainty the effect of a single amino acid change on protein function, some understanding can be gained through our knowledge of protein biochemistry or gene sequence itself. (
  • In the past decade several programs have been developed with the goal of predicting whether or not an observed sequence variant is likely to have a deleterious effect on the protein product. (
  • In this paper, we compare the findings of four nucleotide- and amino acid-based algorithms aimed at predicting the effect of an observed nonsynonymous sequence variation. (
  • All of those analyses utilized chromosomal tar get sequences that had been retrieved both by plasmid res cue from a heterogenous population of targeted cells or by PCR based methods making use of a restricted level of genomic DNA isolated from personal targeted clones grown on 96 properly plates. (
  • To achieve this goal, we utilized a labor intensive technique involving isolating, expending, and executing plasmid rescue to retrieve chromosomal focusing on sequences for each indi vidual HEK 293 clone targeted. (
  • In mammalian biology, insulated neighborhoods are chromosomal loop structures formed by the physical interaction of two DNA loci bound by the transcription factor CTCF and co-occupied by cohesin. (
  • Chromatin position effects makes the generation of mammalian cell lines expressing the protein therapeutic a difficult, time consuming and expensive process. (
  • Effects of a recA operator mutation on mutant phenotypes conferred by lexA and recF mutations. (
  • Rotational and translational positions determine the structural and dynamic impact of a single ribonucleotide incorporated in the nucleosome. (
  • Epigenetics has been described as the structural adaptation of chromosomal regions so as to register, signal or perpetuate altered activity states[ 1 ]. (
  • Furthermore, nucleosome and chromatin assembly as well as nucleosome positioning are affected by the presence of ribonucleotides. (
  • While Stevens and Wilson worked on chromosomal sex determination simultaneously, they arrived at the conclusion independently. (
  • Stevens' discoveries about sex determination are the basis for many advancements in research on Turner syndrome and Down syndrome, as well as developments in the chromosomal basis of heredity. (
  • Contribution of this effects to the observed in vivo toxicity of OGT agents is unclear and requires further investigation. (
  • Although Stevens dedicated much of her life to her education and research, making crucial contributions to the field of genetics, the highest position she ever reached was as an associate in experimental morphology at Bryn Mawr College. (
  • The -log10 Pvalues of the SNPs are shown according to their chromosomal positions. (
  • Methylation levels at 34.2% of CpGs are affected by SNPs, and 98% of effects are cis -acting or within 1 Mbp of the tested CpG. (
  • and chromosomal investigations, while also retaining information at the single-cell level. (
  • However, research has shown that fields can exert an effect on biological systems below these limit values, but it is not known how this takes place, i.e., the interaction mechanism is not known, and it is not known if these effects are hazardous to our health, see further SCENIHR ( 7 ). (
  • Cell to cell variation in gene expression caused by chromosomal position effects. (
  • But it may also have deleterious effects that could make tumor cells susceptible to therapeutic attack. (
  • One of the main challenges not addressed by the current risk prediction tools are treatment related side-effects, such as neuropathy, bone marrow suppression, or deep-vein-thrombosis. (
  • Clinal patterns of human Y chromosomal diversity in continental Italy and Greece are dominated by drift and founder effects. (
  • Ear anomalies and hearing loss in patients with VACTERL association and the effect of maternal diabetes. (
  • They sometimes cause adverse health effects when inhaled or absorbed. (
  • The ATSDR toxicological profile succinctly characterizes the toxicologic and adverse health effects for the substance being described. (
  • special emphasis on accurate estimation of adverse health effects associated with chemical exposure in human populations. (
  • then combined subpopulation-specific results in a fixed-effects, inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis. (
  • In order to assess the prevalence of this effect and better understand its origins, we applied an autocorrelation analysis of the relationship between chromosomal position and expression level to a database of over 2000 individual yeast microarray experiments. (
  • A weighted correlation network analysis revealed that i) both transcriptome and methylome are organized in modules, ii) co-expression modules are generally not preserved in the methylation data and vice-versa, and iii) highly significant correlations exist between co-expression and co-methylation modules, suggesting the existence of factors that affect expression and methylation of different modules (i.e., trans effects at the level of modules). (
  • Severe side-effects are found in 5 to 20% of patients. (
  • However, the agronomy and whole crop physiology of tuber yield production is extremely complex, due to genotype and environment specific effects on crop physiological and morphological characteristics. (
  • A 97 kb-long eQTL signal for mitochondrial ribosomal protein L43 ( MRPL43 ) covered the gene, showing a heterogeneous effect size on gene products across expression stages. (
  • Individuals with the TGG haplotype at these three variants had higher levels of mRNA expression and ribosome occupancy than individuals with the GCA haplotype but lower protein levels, producing the flipped effect throughout the expression process. (
  • WP2 will assess, for the first time, the association of GWAS data in terms of side effects, such as neurotoxicity, clinical staging, blood chemistry and hematology parameters, bone disease, therapy response, progression free and overall survival. (
  • Here, we assess the scale of this problem by analyzing OGT hybridization-dependent off-target effects (HD OTE) in vitro , in animal models and clinical studies. (
  • However, prevalence of those polymorphisms and effects of cumulative resistance mechanisms have not been fully evaluated. (
  • The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii was 31.5%, and the selected models suggested that seropositive deer were culled earlier than seronegative ones, but this effect was only evident in females, in individuals with medium-good body condition, and in areas with greater human presence. (
  • Expertise / Discipline: study of occupational and environmental exposures to chemicals and radiation as risk factors for cancer, autoimmune diseases, and intermediate biologic effects. (
  • The effect of an amino acid substitution can range from negligible to severe depending on the biochemical properties of the substituted amino acid. (
  • It became a substitute for doing chromosomal aberration testing, which was arduous, time consuming, difficult on the scorer. (
  • Events at broader scale, from the origin of new species to long-ranging evolutionary trends, represent the same process, extended in time and effect - large numbers of allelic substitutions incorporated sequentially over long periods of time. (
  • Here, we investigated a specific technical effect previously reported to influence microarray data. (
  • This alteration eventuates in the production of breaks in the sister chromatids at the Ds position, 2§ previously described. (