A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
A hydrolase enzyme that converts L-asparagine and water to L-aspartate and NH3. EC 3.5.1.1.
A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Inborn errors of metabolism characterized by defects in specific lysosomal hydrolases and resulting in intracellular accumulation of unmetabolized substrates.
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
A group of inherited metabolic diseases characterized by the accumulation of excessive amounts of acid mucopolysaccharides, sphingolipids, and/or glycolipids in visceral and mesenchymal cells. Abnormal amounts of sphingolipids or glycolipids are present in neural tissue. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and skeletal changes, most notably dysostosis multiplex, occur frequently. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch56, pp36-7)
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Stretches of genomic DNA that exist in different multiples between individuals. Many copy number variations have been associated with susceptibility or resistance to disease.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
A genus of fungi of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales; most species are poisonous.
The area covering the terminal portion of ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of STOMACH at the cardiac orifice.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.

Multiplex single-tube screening for mutations in the Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS1) gene in Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients of Slavic origin. (1/873)

Patients with Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS) have a high risk to develop malignant diseases, most frequently B-cell lymphomas. It has been demonstrated that this chromosomal breakage syndrome results from mutations in the NBS1 gene that cause either a loss of full-length protein expression or expression of a variant protein. A large proportion of the known NBS patients are of Slavic origin who carry a major founder mutation 657del5 in exon 6 of the NBS1 gene. The prevalence of this mutation in Slav populations is reported to be high, possibly contributing to higher cancer risk in these populations. Therefore, if mutations in NBS1 are associated with higher risk of developing lymphoid cancers it would be most likely to be observed in these populations. A multiplex assay for four of the most frequent NBS1 mutations was designed and a series of 119 lymphoma patients from Slavic origin as well as 177 healthy controls were tested. One of the patients was a heterozygote carrier of the ACAAA deletion mutation in exon 6 (1/119). No mutation was observed in the control group, despite the reported high frequency (1/177). The power of this study was 30% to detect a relative risk of 2.0.  (+info)

Lymphoma development in Bax transgenic mice is inhibited by Bcl-2 and associated with chromosomal instability. (2/873)

Bax is a Bcl-2 family member that promotes apoptosis but has paradoxical effects on lymphoma development in p53-deficient mice. To better understand the mechanism of Bax-induced lymphoma development, the effect of Bax levels, p53 status and Bcl-2 coexpression on lymphoma development were determined. In addition, DNA content and cytogenetics were performed on young (premalignant) Lck-Bax mice as measures of genetic instability. Bax promoted lymphoma development in p53-deficient mice in a dose-dependent manner. Bax expression also led to lymphoma development in both p53 +/- and +/+ animals. Ploidy analysis in mice prior to the onset of overt thymic lymphomas demonstrated that Lck-Bax transgenic mice were more likely to be aneuploid and demonstrate increased chromosome instability. With tumor progression, aneuploidy increased and Bax expression was maintained. Importantly, coexpression of Bcl-2 delayed lymphoma development in Lck-Bax transgenic mice. These data support a model in which increased sensitivity to apoptosis leads directly to chromosome instability in developing T cells and may explain a number of paradoxical observations regarding Bcl-2 family members and the regulation of cancer.  (+info)

Chromosomal instability detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in surgical specimens of non-small cell lung cancer is associated with poor survival. (3/873)

PURPOSE: Chromosomal instability (CIN) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has yet to be well studied. We examined the relationship between CIN detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization and survival in patients with NSCLC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Touch preparations from 50 surgical specimens of NSCLC were studied. Tumors included 34 adenocarcinomas, 15 squamous cell carcinomas, and 1 large cell carcinoma. The pathologic stage was IA in 14, IB in 17, IIB in 8, IIIA in 9, and IIIB in 2 cases. Enumeration of chromosomes 3, 10, 11, and 17 was used to determine which tumors carried CIN. The association between CIN and survival was also analyzed. RESULTS: Disomy was most common, but tetrasomy and trisomy of the examined chromosomes were seen frequently. Fourteen tumors (28%) showed heterogeneity of all four chromosomes examined and were judged to be carrying CIN. Both univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that two factors, lymph node metastasis and CIN, were significant poor prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS: CIN in NSCLC detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization is an independent factor predicting a poor prognosis.  (+info)

Chromosomal instability rather than p53 mutation is associated with response to neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy in gastric carcinoma. (4/873)

PURPOSE: The objective of the study was to evaluate microsatellite alterations [microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH)] and mutation in the p53 gene in relation to response and patient survival to a cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in gastric cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Fifty-three pretherapeutic gastric carcinoma biopsies were analyzed with 11 microsatellite markers. The entire coding region of the p53 gene (exons 2-11) was analyzed for mutations by denaturing high-pressure liquid chromatography and sequencing. p53 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Patients were treated with a cisplatin-based, neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen. Therapy response was evaluated by computed tomography scan, endoscopy, and endoluminal ultrasound. The median follow-up of the patients was 45.6 months. RESULTS: p53 mutations were identified in 19 of the 53 (36%) analyzed tumors. No significant association with response or survival was found for p53 mutation or for p53 protein expression. MSI (either high-grade MSI or low-grade MSI) did not show a correlation with response. With respect to LOH, LOH at chromosome 17p13 showed a significant association with therapy response (P = 0.022) but did not reach statistical significance in terms of patient survival. The global LOH rate, expressed as fractional allelic loss (FAL), was assessed, and tumors were classified into tumors with a high (>0.5), medium (>0.25-0.5), and low (0-0.25) FAL value. A statistically significant association of FAL with therapy response was found (P = 0.003), with a high FAL being related to therapy response. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for FAL > 0.5 were 45%, 93%, 82%, and 72%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A high level of chromosomal instability (high FAL value) defines a subset of patients who are more likely to benefit from cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. p53 mutation status is not significantly associated with therapy response and is not a useful marker for response prediction.  (+info)

Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans rescue strains produce fit offspring, despite divergent centromere-specific histone alleles. (5/873)

The interaction between rapidly evolving centromere sequences and conserved kinetochore machinery appears to be mediated by centromere-binding proteins. A recent theory proposes that the independent evolution of centromere-binding proteins in isolated populations may be a universal cause of speciation among eukaryotes. In Drosophila the centromere-specific histone, Cid (centromere identifier), shows extensive sequence divergence between D. melanogaster and the D. simulans clade, indicating that centromere machinery incompatibilities may indeed be involved in reproductive isolation and speciation. However, it is presently unclear whether the adaptive evolution of Cid was a cause of the divergence between these species, or merely a product of postspeciation adaptation in the separate lineages. Furthermore, the extent to which divergent centromere identifier proteins provide a barrier to reproduction remains unknown. Interestingly, a small number of rescue lines from both D. melanogaster and D. simulans can restore hybrid fitness. Through comparisons of cid sequence between nonrescue and rescue strains, we show that cid is not involved in restoring hybrid viability or female fertility. Further, we demonstrate that divergent cid alleles are not sufficient to cause inviability or female sterility in hybrid crosses. Our data do not dispute the rapid divergence of cid or the coevolution of centromeric components in Drosophila; however, they do suggest that cid underwent adaptive evolution after D. melanogaster and D. simulans diverged and, consequently, is not a speciation gene.  (+info)

The Fanconi Anemia/BRCA signaling pathway: disruption in cisplatin-sensitive ovarian cancers. (6/873)

Ovarian tumors often exhibit chromosome instability and hypersensitivity to the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin. Recently, we have shown that this cellular phenotype may result from an acquired disruption of the Fanconi Anemia/BRCA (FA/BRCA) signaling pathway. Disruption results from methylation and silencing of one of the FA genes (FANCF), leading to cisplatin sensitivity. Restoration of this pathway is associated with demethylation of FANCF, leading to acquired cisplatinum resistance. The serial inactivation and reactivation of the FA/BRCA pathway has important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancers and related cancers.  (+info)

Long-term global gene expression patterns in irradiated human lymphocytes. (7/873)

Radiation-induced chromosomal instability has many features in common with genomic instability of cancer cells. In order to understand the delayed cellular response to ionizing radiation we have studied variations in the patterns of gene expression in primary human lymphocytes at various time points after gamma irradiation in vitro. Cells either exposed to 3 Gy of gamma rays in vitro or unexposed were subjected to long-term growth in bulk culture or as individual T-cell clones. Samples were taken at days 7, 17 or 55 from bulk cultures. The T-cell clones were harvested after 22-46 days. Total RNA was used to generate cDNA probes for hybridization to oligonucleotide arrays containing 12,625 gene templates (Affymetrix). The results showed that: (i) irradiation as well as culture time influence the gene expression patterns, (ii) the number of genes with increased or decreased expression in irradiated cells increases dramatically with increasing culture time, (iii) the changes of gene expression showed a significantly more diversified pattern in the irradiated T-cell clones than in non-irradiated clones. We conclude that the diversification of the transcriptome associated with radiation exposure reflects subtle changes of expression in many genes, rather than being the result of major changes in a few genes. Finally, (iv) we sorted out a set of genes whose change of expression correlates with radiation exposure in both bulk cultures and T-cell clones. Very few of these genes overlap with genes that change during the acute response to radiation. This set of genes may be regarded as a starting point for further studies of the cellular phenotype associated with radiation-induced genomic instability.  (+info)

Regional differences of somatic CAG repeat instability do not account for selective neuronal vulnerability in a knock-in mouse model of SCA1. (8/873)

Expression of unstable translated CAG repeats is the mutational mechanism in nine different neurodegenerative disorders. Although the products of genes harboring these repeats are widely expressed, a subset of neurons is vulnerable in each disease accounting for the different phenotypes. Somatic instability of the expanded CAG repeat has been implicated as a factor mediating the selective striatal neurodegeneration in Huntington disease. It remains unknown, however, whether such a mechanism contributes to the selective neurodegeneration in other polyglutamine diseases or not. To address this question, we investigated the pattern of CAG repeat instability in a knock-in mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1). Small pool PCR analysis on DNA from various neuronal and non-neuronal tissues revealed that somatic repeat instability was most remarkable in the striatum. In the two vulnerable tissues, cerebellum and spinal cord, there were substantial differences in the profiles of mosaicism. These results suggest that in SCA1 there is no clear causal relationship between the degree of somatic instability and selective neuronal vulnerability. The finding that somatic instability is most pronounced in the striatum of various knock-in models of polyglutamine diseases highlights the role of trans-acting tissue- or cell-specific factors in mediating the instability.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Loss of Pol32 in Drosophila melanogaster causes chromosome instability and suppresses variegation. AU - Tritto, Patrizia. AU - Palumbo, Valeria. AU - Micale, Lucia. AU - Marzulli, Marco. AU - Bozzetti, Maria Pia. AU - Specchia, Valeria. AU - Palumbo, Gioacchino. AU - Pimpinelli, Sergio. AU - Berloco, Maria. PY - 2015/3/31. Y1 - 2015/3/31. N2 - Pol32 is an accessory subunit of the replicative DNA Polymerase δ and of the translesion Polymerase ζ. Pol32 is involved in DNA replication, recombination and repair. Pol32 s participation in high- and low-fidelity processes, together with the phenotypes arising from its disruption, imply multiple roles for this subunit within eukaryotic cells, not all of which have been fully elucidated. Using pol32 null mutants and two partial loss-of-function alleles pol32rd1 and pol32rds in Drosophila melanogaster, we show that Pol32 plays an essential role in promoting genome stability. Pol32 is essential to ensure DNA replication in early ...
Chromosomal instability (CIN) in tumors is characterized by chromosomal abnormalities and an altered gene expression signature; however, the mechanism of CIN is poorly understood. CCND1 (which encodes cyclin D1) is overexpressed in human malignancies and has been shown to play a direct role in transcriptional regulation. Here, we used genome-wide ChIP sequencing and found that the DNA-bound form of cyclin D1 occupied the regulatory region of genes governing chromosomal integrity and mitochondrial biogenesis. Adding cyclin D1 back to Ccnd1-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts resulted in CIN gene regulatory region occupancy by the DNA-bound form of cyclin D1 and induction of CIN gene expression. Furthermore, increased chromosomal aberrations, aneuploidy, and centrosome abnormalities were observed in the cyclin D1-rescued cells by spectral karyotyping and immunofluorescence. To assess cyclin D1 effects in vivo, we generated transgenic mice with acute and continuous mammary gland-targeted cyclin D1 ...
Pericentromeric demethylation and chromosomal instability induced by chemicals. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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This gene encodes an evolutionarily-conserved protein containing an N-terminal chromodomain and a C-terminal SET domain. The encoded protein is a histone methyltransferase that trimethylates lysine 9 of histone H3, which results in transcriptional gene silencing. Loss of function of this gene disrupts heterochromatin formation and may cause chromosome instability. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013 ...
Chromosome instability (CIN) is an inherent enabling characteristic of cancer important for tumor initiation and progression and is observed in a majority of tumors (1⇓-3). It has been proposed that alterations resulting in genome instability happen early during tumor formation, allowing the accumulation of errors during DNA replication, repair, and chromosome segregation, thereby increasing the likelihood that a cell will acquire multiple genetic changes necessary for tumor progression (4). CIN is possibly the major contributor to intratumoral heterogeneity-that is, the presence of genetically distinct populations of cells within a single tumor that impacts treatment strategy, drug resistance, and tumor evolution (5⇓⇓-8). For these reasons, defining genes and pathways that drive CIN and understanding the mechanisms that underlie genome stability will contribute not only to an understanding of tumor etiology and progression but will also be relevant for guiding therapeutic strategies. The ...
Birkness JE, Spada NG, Miller C, Luketich JD, Nason KS, Sun W, Davison JM. Extreme chromosome 17 copy number instability is a prognostic factor in patients with gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma: A retrospective cohort study. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018 01; 57(1):28-34 ...
By studying the role of lysosomes in mitosis, an IDIBELL and UB group discovers that alterations in the separation of chromosomes cause a detectable nucleus morphology once mitosis has finished.
Principal Investigator:YAMASHITA Takayuki, Project Period (FY):1999 - 2000, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Hematology
plays roles in the regulation of the HR activity and in chromosome stability, and is likely responsible for controlling the HR activity by directly interacting with RAD51 ...
Centrosomes play critical roles in processes that ensure proper segregation of chromosomes and maintain the genetic stability of human cells. They contribute to mitotic spindle organization and regulate aspects of cytokinesis and cell cycle progression. We and others have shown that centrosomes are abnormal in most aggressive carcinomas. Moreover, centrosome defects have been implicated in chromosome instability and loss of cell cycle control in invasive carcinoma. Others have suggested that centrosome defects only occur late in tumorigenesis and may not contribute to early steps of tumor development. To address this issue, we examined pre-invasive human carcinoma in situ lesions for centrosome defects and chromosome instability. We found that a significant fraction of precursor lesions to some of the most common human cancers had centrosome defects, including in situ carcinomas of the uterine cervix, prostate, and female breast. Moreover, centrosome defects occurred together with mitotic spindle
Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a characteristic feature of cancer. In this review, we concentrate on mechanisms leading to CIN in myeloid neoplasia, i.e., myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The pathogenesis of myeloid neoplasia is complex and involves genetic and epigenetic alterations. Chromosome aberrations define specific subgroups and guide clinical decisions. Genomic instability may play an essential role in leukemogenesis by promoting the accumulation of genetic lesions responsible for clonal evolution. Indeed, disease progression is often driven by clonal evolution into complex karyotypes. Earlier studies have shown an association between telomere shortening and advanced MDS and underlined the important role of dysfunctional telomeres in the development of genetic instability and cancer. Several studies link chromosome rearrangements and aberrant DNA and histone methylation. Genes implicated in epigenetic control, like DNMT3A, ASXL1, EZH2 and TET2, have been
Chromosomal loss and rearrangement are known to be important signs of genetic instability in cancer cells, but the mechanisms behind these changes are unclear. We have begun an investigation of the contribution of segregational errors to chromosomal instability using oral carcinoma cells as our model system. In these cultures, we found frequent variations in chromosome numbers and structure between different cells from the same tumor cell culture. We believe that many of these abnormalities can be explained by chromosomal segregational defects.. The OSCC cells clearly had difficulty achieving normal metaphase alignment and anaphase chromosome separation. One simple model is that the kinetochores are defective for movement, and that this single defect causes chromosomes to lag at both metaphase and anaphase. Consistent with this model, approximately equal numbers of lagging chromosomes were observed in both metaphase and anaphase cells. One way to test this directly would be a real-time analysis ...
Genomic instability (GIN) is a hallmark of cancer cells that facilitates the acquisition of mutations conferring aggressive or drug-resistant phenotypes during cancer evolution. Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a form of GIN that involves frequent cytogenetic changes leading to changes in chromosome copy number (aneuploidy). While both CIN and aneuploidy are common characteristics of cancer cells, their roles in tumor initiation and progression are unclear. On the one hand, CIN and aneuploidy are known to provide genetic variation to allow cells to adapt in changing environments such as nutrient fluctuations and hypoxia. Patients with constitutive aneuploidies are more susceptible to certain types of cancers, suggesting that changes in chromosome copy number could positively contribute to cancer evolution. On the other hand, chromosomal imbalances have been observed to have detrimental effects on cellular fitness and might trigger cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Furthermore, mouse models for CIN have
MYC copy gain, chromosomal instability and PI3K activation as potential markers of unfavourable outcome in trastuzumab-treated patients with metastatic breast cancer. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Hannes Alfvén. Plasma instabilities are not well-known to the general public, or among astronomers. They refer to distortions that occur when plasmas are generated and confined. They are often confused with phenomena observed in fluid interactions: Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, or Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, for instance.. Since plasmas are conventional matter with a small percentage of ionized particles, they do not conform to kinetic energy principles, alone. Rather, matter in the plasma state is strongly influenced by electromagnetism, and does not obey any other force, including gravity, except peripherally. Many types of instability are observed in plasma: diocotron instabilities, kink instabilities, edge instabilities (that make fusion reactors impossible to control), sausage instabilities (deformations in plasma flow), reactive instabilities, etc.. A principle tenet of Electric Universe theory is that various plasmas (mostly hydrogen ions and helium nuclei) comprise 99.99% of the ...
CONICET Digital, el repositorio institucional del CONICET, un servicio gratuito para acceder a la producción científico-tecnológica de investigadores, becarios y demás personal del CONICET.
Read Chromosome instability and contents of heavy metals in amphibian from the Yugansk Reserve, Russian Journal of Ecology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Centrosome abnormalities and amplification are common characteristics of tumour cells. Aneuploidy and chromosomal instability are highly correlated with the appearance of multiple centrosomes.. ...
Principal Investigator:TAKUBO Kaiyo, Project Period (FY):2009 - 2011, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:一般, Research Field:Human pathology
We and others have demonstrated that TIF1γ was a tumor suppressor (24, 27-29), whose mechanism of action has remained elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that stable Tif1γ inactivation resulted in SAC and postmitotic checkpoint attenuation, leading to the accumulation of severe chromosomal abnormalities. As a result, Tif1γ-inactivated cells present mitotic defects increasing their tumor aggressiveness in animal models. Finally, we observed that low TIF1γ expression was associated with increased CIN in different types of human tumors. Therefore, this work highlights an original mechanism by which TIF1γ behaves as a tumor suppressor through its role in the control of mitosis, whose impairment may represent a major tumor-suppressive process.. First of all, we revealed here that the immediate consequence of TIF1γ depletion in different cell types (primary and immortalized MEFs, transformed or immortalized epithelial cells) resulted in a proliferation arrest, mitotic blockade, accumulation ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Transcriptional induction of cell-cycle regulatory proteins ensures proper timing of subsequent cell-cycle events. Here we show that the Forkhead transcription factor FoxM1 regulates expression of many G2-specific genes and is essential for chromosome stability. Loss of FoxM1 leads to pleiotropic ce …
The epigenetic framework guides events like replication, repair and transcription, which in turn themselves leave an imprint on chromatin and chromosomal structure. Understanding how modulation of chromatin during replication and repair influence cell fate decisions in normal development and disease represents a major challenge. By bringing together leading scientists in chromatin, replication, repair and epigenetics, this conference aims to inspire discussions and new ideas on the interplay between chromosome architecture, epigenetic inheritance and genome duplication ...
An experiment is performed to assess the prevalence of instability in univariate and bivariate macroeconomic time series relations and to ascertain whether various adaptive forecasting techniques successfully handle any such instability. Formal tests for instability and out-of-sample forecasts from sixteen different models are computed using a sample of 76 representative U.S. monthly postwar macroeconomic time series, constituting 5700 bivariate forecasting relations. The tests indicate widespread instability in univariate and bivariate autoregressive models. However, adaptive forecasting models, in particular time varying parameter models, have limited success in exploiting this instability to improve upon fixed-parameter or recursive autoregressive forecasts. ...
UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
Author: Perry Nickelston. Title: Five Hidden Signs of Instability. Summary: If you work with patients long enough, you come to realize a few in-the-trenches facts. Here are five biggies that require constant consideration...
Trouvez tous les livres de Schmeidler, Lacey - Instability, Liquidity and World Money. Sur eurolivre.fr,vous pouvez commander des livres anciens et neufs.COMPARER ET acheter IMMÉDIATEMENT au meilleur prix. 9783845404103
Haploids are a valuable tool for genomic studies in higher plants, especially those with huge genome size and long juvenile periods, such as conifers. In these species, megagametophyte cultures have been widely used to obtain haploid callus and somatic embryogenic lines. One of the main problems associated with tissue culture is the potential genetic instability of the regenerants. Because of this, chromosomal stability of the callus and/or somatic embryos should also be assessed. To this end, chromosome counting, flow cytometry and genotyping using microsatellites have been reported. Here, we present an overview of the work done in conifers, with special emphasis on the production of a haploid cell line in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster L.) and the use of a set of molecular markers, which includes Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellites or Single Sequence Repeats (SSRs), to validate chromosomal integrity confirming the presence of all chromosomic arms.
The Chromatin, Replication and Chromosomal Stability Conference took place on June 20-21 in Stockholm, Sweden. In this article, I outline the broad scientific program of the meeting which reflected the wide diversity in epigenetics research. Distinct histone modifications are linked with specific chromatin structures and intranuclear positioning, thereby impacting replication timing and replication initiation, which in turn are related to gene expression and cell differentiation. Interference in any of these interconnected mechanisms can result in DNA breakage and lead to the activation of repair pathways. The DNA repair mechanisms again are influenced by the chromatin structure. In summary, the conference highlighted the functional implication of epigenetics in chromatin compaction, transcription regulation, replication control and DNA repair. The tight control of all these mechanisms defines the final cellular character.
Many cancers have extremely high rates of chromosomal instability (CIN). Some cancers have chromosome segregation errors in every cell division, which would be detrimental to the growth of normal cells. Little is known about how cancers are able to thrive with high levels of CIN. We aim to determine how cells evolve to cope with CIN by creating a model system for persistent chromosomal instability in budding yeast. What types of mutations allow cells to adapt to a constantly shifting genomic content? What are the direct effects of CIN and aneuploidy on the health and viability of cells?. ...
Chromosomal instability has long been recognized as a hallmark of cancer. Cancer progresses as cells override the intrinsic system of checks and balances that normally prevents them from dividing in the presence of a damaged or aneuploid genome. Chromosomal instability is described as increased chromosome missegregation and often results in aneuploidy or the condition of having too many or too few chromosomes. Under normal physiologic conditions, cell-cycle traverse is carefully controlled by sequential posttranslational modifications, especially E3 ligase-mediated ubiquitination (1, 2). The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a major E3 ligase complex that promotes the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, and its activation is inhibited until surveillance mechanisms within the cell sense proper metaphase alignment and bipolar spindle attachment of chromosomes (2, 3). Activation of the APC/C occurs via interaction with a cofactor that confers specificity to the complex, either FZR1/CDH1 ...
Many cancers have extremely high rates of chromosomal instability (CIN). Some cancers have chromosome segregation errors in every cell division, which would be detrimental to the growth of normal cells. Little is known about how cancers are able to thrive with high levels of CIN. We aim to determine how cells evolve to cope with CIN by creating a model system for persistent chromosomal instability in budding yeast. What types of mutations allow cells to adapt to a constantly shifting genomic content? What are the direct effects of CIN and aneuploidy on the health and viability of cells? close ...
In a new study, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute scientists disprove a century-old theory about why cancer cells often have too many or too few chromosomes, and show that the actual reason may hold the key to a novel approach to cancer therapy.. Since the late 19th century, scientists have attributed the surplus or shortage of intact chromosomes in cancer cells to a kind of fragmentation in cell division: instead of dividing neatly into two identical daughter cells, as normal cells do, cancer cells were thought to frequently split into three or four cells, each with a motley assortment of chromosomes. This explosive division was thought to occur because many cancer cells have extra centrosomes, tiny circular structures that help pairs of chromosomes line up in preparation for cell division.. When study lead author Neil Ganem, PhD, of Dana-Farber used newly developed microscope equipment to watch living cancer cells for a week or more, he found that not only were such abnormal divisions quite rare, ...
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The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of copy number variations (CNV) on sporadic pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs) prognosis, to identify specific prognosis markers according to the known clinico-pathological classification. CGH array analysis was performed on 195 fresh-frozen …
NEW YORK, N.Y. (SEND2PRESS NEWSWIRE) -- The Sher Institutes of Reproductive Medicine (SIRM) announced today the introduction of the worlds first CGH-Risk Sharing Plan that guarantees qualified IVF patients a baby or offers a full refund of the clinics medical fees. CGH is an acronym for Comparative Genomic Hybridization - a genetic process that analyzes the chromosomal integrity of the egg or embryo prior to it being transferred to a womans uterus in the course of In Vitro Fertilization. - News from Sher Institute for Reproductive Medicine, issued by Send2Press Newswire
DNA ISH can be used to determine the structure of chromosomes. Fluorescent DNA ISH (FISH) can, for example, be used in medical diagnostics to assess chromosomal integrity. RNA ISH (hybridization histochemistry) is used to measure and localize mRNAs and other transcripts within tissue sections or whole mounts. ...
Ren, Y.; Lv, Q.; Yue, W.; Liu, B.; Zou, Z., 2019: The programmed cell death protein-1/programmed cell death ligand 1 expression, CD3+ T cell infiltration, NY-ESO-1 expression, and microsatellite instability phenotype in primary cutaneous melanoma and mucosal melanoma and their clinical significance and prognostic value: a study of 89 consecutive cases
UniSA researchers at the Centre for Cancer Biology (CCB) have discovered a new aspect of cancer biology that may help to battle the spread and growth of tumours.. The research focuses on aneuploid cells, which are often associated with abnormal chromosome content and cell division - and how an enzyme known as caspase-2, initially discovered by the lead researcher 25 years ago, can act to prevent their growth.. Research leaders, Professor Sharad Kumar and Dr Loretta Dorstyn with PhD student Swati Dawar, have discovered that caspase-2, which is found in all mammals, has the capacity to suppress cancer growth by working to destroy aneuploid cells.. Aneuploidy is a term that describes the abnormal chromosome content of a cell and occurs when there are failings during the normal division of a cell, Prof Kumar says.. Aneuploidy is a feature of the majority of human tumours and is known to lead to chromosomal instability that can promote cancer onset and progression and cause drug ...
Structures of thin films bonded on thick substrates are abundant in biological systems and engineering applications. Mismatch strains due to expansion of the films or shrinkage of the substrates can induce various modes of surface instabilities such as wrinkling, creasing, period doubling, folding, ridging, and delamination. In many cases, the film-substrate structures are not flat but curved. While it is known that the surface instabilities can be controlled by film-substrate mechanical properties, adhesion and mismatch strain, effects of the structures curvature on multiple modes of instabilities have not been well understood. In this paper, we provide a systematic study on the formation of multimodal surface instabilities on film-substrate tubular structures with different curvatures through combined theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. We first introduce a method to quantitatively categorize various instability patterns by analyzing their wave frequencies using fast Fourier ...
One-dimensional thermodynamic instabilities are phase transitions, not prohibited by Landaus argument because the energy of the domain wall which separates the two phases is infinite. Whether they actually occur in a given system of particles must be demonstrated on a case-by-case basis by examining the properties of the corresponding singular transfer integral (TI) equation. The present work deals with the generic Peyrard-Bishop model of DNA denaturation. In the absence of exact statements about the spectrum of the singular TI equation, I use Gauss-Hermite quadratures to achieve a single-parameter-controlled approach to rounding effects; this allows me to employ finite-size scaling concepts in order to demonstrate that a phase transition occurs and to derive the critical exponents.
Abstract: Supposing there exists no new physics stabilizing the weak scale, the Standard Model Higgs potential exhibits a true vacuum at large field values, rendering the electroweak vacuum metastable (i.e., long lived relative to the age of the Universe). While this scenario need not preclude our current existence, it may not reconcile with a period of large(ish)-field inflation---large fluctuations in the Higgs field, induced by the inflationary energy density, can lead to the field locally sampling the unstable/true vacuum part of the potential, with potentially disastrous consequences. Evaluating the extent to which large-field inflation and the Higgs vacuum instability are incompatible requires understanding (i) how Higgs fluctuations evolve during inflation and (ii) the fate of large local fluctuations that sample the part of the potential beyond the barrier that separates the electroweak and true vacua. In this talk, I will discuss both of these aspects, and explain the implications for ...
Instabilities in polymer processing limit production rates and may influence to some degree the optical or mechanical properties of the final product. One prominent example is the fountain flow instability, which takes place during the mold filling stage of an injection molding process. Old car bumpers which show light and dark lines are a famous example of an injection molded part in which such an instability occurred.
This media is available to current ISAKOS Members only. ISAKOS Members can log in to access all Global Link content. Non-Members can join ISAKOS today to gain full access to Global Link and all of the other ISAKOS Member benefits. ...
is negative, one expects curvature instabilities of the membrane and, in turn, these instabilities generate a pattern of domains that differ both in composition and in local curvature. Scaling arguments motivate the study of the family of singular perturbed energies ...
Strategies the pa- tient has used to reduce risk for infection are identified.1994; Zwangersschap and Shine, 1992; Mishima et al.
that instability can occur even after the full establishment of the primary flow. Chandrasekhars method is used in the analysis and the relationship between the stability parameter and the wave number of the disturbance for neutral stability is obtained.--Page 1 ...
2019 marks a year of instability and uncertainty reflected in the field of potential best picture nominees, from Parasite to Joker.
found that rearrangements involving telomere regions are associated with chromosomal instability in human fibroblasts that ... "Chromosomal instability". Nature. 357 (6379): 548. Bibcode:1992Natur.357..548S. doi:10.1038/357548a0. PMID 1608466. S2CID ... Genomic instability has been observed both in vitro and in vivo in the progeny of cells that are irradiated with heavy ions in ... In fact, only a small fraction of the initial damage is transduction of late chromosomal damage has also been measured in the ...
Walther, A.; Houlston, R.; Tomlinson, I. (2008-07-01). "Association between chromosomal instability and prognosis in colorectal ... "Chromosomal instability is a risk factor for poor prognosis of adenocarcinoma of the lung: Fluorescence in situ hybridization ... "Chromosomal Instability Confers Intrinsic Multi-Drug Resistance". Cancer Research. 71 (5): 1858-1870. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN ... "Cancer chromosomal instability: therapeutic and diagnostic challenges". EMBO Reports. 13 (6): 528-538. doi:10.1038/embor. ...
"Chromosomal instability drives metastasis through a cytosolic DNA response". Nature. 553 (7689): 467-472. doi:10.1038/ ...
... (NBS), is a rare autosomal recessive congenital disorder causing chromosomal instability, probably ... "A new chromosomal instability disorder: the Nijmegen breakage syndrome". Acta Paediatr Scand. 70 (4): 557-64. doi:10.1111/j. ... chromosome instability and fertility defects, but not the developmental defects that are typically found in other NBS patients ...
"Centrosome amplification drives chromosomal instability in breast tumor development". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 99 (4): 1978-1983 ... The presence of an inadequate number of centrosomes is very often linked to the appearance of genome instability and the loss ... Storchova, Z.; Pellman, D. (2004). "From polyploidy to aneuploidy, genome instability and cancer". Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 5 (1 ... "Centrosome amplification and instability occurs exclusively in aneuploid, but not in diploid colorectal cancer cell lines, and ...
It usually is a sign of genotoxic events and chromosomal instability. Micronuclei are commonly seen in cancerous cells and may ... extremely versatile and is one of the preferred methods to measure the level of chromosomal damage and chromosomal instability ... The frequencies of chromosomal aberrations, damaged cells, and micronuclei are significantly higher in smokers than non-smokers ... The major drawback of using micronucleus tests is that they cannot determine different types of chromosomal aberrations and can ...
... as well as chromosomal instability. MCM9, as well as MCM8, mutations are also associated with ovarian failure and chromosomal ... January 2015). "Exome sequencing reveals MCM8 mutation underlies ovarian failure and chromosomal instability". The Journal of ... December 2014). "MCM9 mutations are associated with ovarian failure, short stature, and chromosomal instability". American ... instability. The MCM8-MCM9 complex is likely required for the homologous recombinational repair of DNA double-strand breaks ...
This can lead to loss of cell viability and chromosomal instability. The presence of multipolar spindles in cancer cells is one ... Mitosis consists of two independent processes: the intra-chromosomal and the extra-chromosomal (formation of spindle) changes ...
"Metabolic aggressiveness in benign meningiomas with chromosomal instabilities". Cancer Research. 70 (21): 8426-8434. doi: ...
Pihan, G. a. (2013). Centrosome dysfunction contributes to chromosome instability, chromoanagenesis, and genome reprograming in ... complex chromosomal rearrangements. Nature Medicine, 18(11), 1630-8. doi:10.1038/nm.2988 Haffner, M. C., Aryee, M. J., Toubaji ... a catch-all term for events that generate complex structural chromosomal abnormalities. The mechanism underlying complex ... rapid genome evolution from complex chromosomal rearrangements. Genes & Development, 27(23), 2513-30. doi:10.1101/gad. ...
December 2014). "Mutant cohesin drives chromosomal instability in early colorectal adenomas". Human Molecular Genetics. 23 (25 ... Genome instability and cancer[edit]. SMC1A also takes part in DNA repair. The down-regulation of SMC1A causes genome ... Yatskevich S, Rhodes J, Nasmyth K (December 2019). "Organization of Chromosomal DNA by SMC Complexes". Annual Review of ... June 2003). "Inhibition of BUB1 results in genomic instability and anchorage-independent growth of normal human fibroblasts". ...
Castagnola P, Giaretti W (November 2005). "Mutant KRAS, chromosomal instability and prognosis in colorectal cancer". Biochimica ...
Micronuclei are usually a sign of genotoxic events and chromosomal instability (see Micronucleus). 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine ...
Genomic instability is a common feature of cancer; therefore understanding structural and chromosomal abnormalities can give ... another compilation of known chromosomal rearrangements. The CCAP has several goals: Integration of cytogenetic and physical ...
This instability, defined as frequent changes in chromosomal structure and number, may be the basis of the development of ... and chromosomal instability in head and neck tumours with dysfunctional telomeres". British Journal of Cancer. 87 (2): 202-7. ... As a result, several forms of chromosomal aberrations occur, including, but not limited to, binucleated cells, multipolar ...
Aoki K, Tamai Y, Horiike S, Oshima M, Taketo MM (2003). "Colonic polyposis caused by mTOR-mediated chromosomal instability in ... Both the Msh6 and Msh2 mutant mice develop gastrointestinal cancer but the tumours differ in their microsatellite instability ( ...
Produces extracellular superoxide under selected growth conditions that can generate chromosomal instability in mammalian cells ... "Extracellular Superoxide Production by Enterococcus faecalis Promotes Chromosomal Instability in Mammalian Cells". ...
"Restoration of telomerase activity rescues chromosomal instability and premature aging in Terc-/- mice with short telomeres." ... Furthermore, the intra-chromosomal distribution of telomere length in p-arms versus q-arms can be measured. Data from different ... The slide is then placed into a preheated oven where the chromosomal DNA in the cell is denatured at 80 °C for several minutes ... Telomeres are necessary at chromosome ends to prevent DNA-damage responses as well as genome instability. To this day, the Q- ...
... chromosomal instability is known to be induced by aromatic amines in urinary bladder cells. Chromosomal instability may lead to ... 2002) and even large scale chromosomal damage was observed in yeast and mammalian cells exposed to o-toluidine in vitro. More ... Research has indicated that o-toluidine is a mutagen and causes oxidative DNA damage and chromosomal damage (Skipper et al. ... chromosomal damage, and cytotoxicity. In the U.S., o-toluidine was first listed in the Third Annual Report on Carcinogens as ' ...
H2AX is an indicator of melanoma because of its high correlation to chromosomal instability (Warters et al., 2005). When high ... MiR-182 is a member of a miRNA cluster in a chromosomal locus that is most often amplified in melanoma (Segura et al. 2009). It ...
Chromosome instability syndromes are a group of disorders characterized by chromosomal instability and breakage. They often ... A chromosome abnormality, disorder, anomaly, aberration, or mutation is a missing, extra, or irregular portion of chromosomal ... Chromosome mutation was formerly used in a strict sense to mean a change in a chromosomal segment, involving more than one gene ... Governini L, Guerranti C, De Leo V, Boschi L, Luddi A, Gori M, Orvieto R, Piomboni P (2014). "Chromosomal aneuploidies and DNA ...
"The human XRCC9 gene corrects chromosomal instability and mutagen sensitivities in CHO UV40 cells". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. ... Stolz A, Ertych N, Bastians H (2011). "Tumor suppressor CHK2: regulator of DNA damage response and mediator of chromosomal ...
"SMAD4 mutations in colorectal cancer probably occur before chromosomal instability, but after divergence of the microsatellite ... instability pathway". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 98 (17): 9719-23. ...
The genetic mutations seen in serous carcinoma are chromosomal instability and mutations in TP53, an important tumor suppressor ... P53 mutations and chromosome instability are associated with serous carcinomas, which tend to resemble ovarian and Fallopian ... In women with Lynch syndrome-associated endometrial cancer, microsatellite instability is common. Development of an endometrial ...
He is primarily interested in: Mechanisms Genome instability-Repairs & Spatial dynamics of Chromosomal Territories vis-à- vis ...
... which further contributes to genomic instability. The high genomic instability of cruciform forming DNA sequences make them ... In the human genome, cruciform DNA structures are present in higher density within and surrounding chromosomal fragile sites, ... Cruciform structures can increase genomic instability and are involved in the formation of various diseases, such as cancer and ... Kurahashi H, Inagaki H, Ohye T, Kogo H, Kato T, Emanuel BS (September 2006). "Palindrome-mediated chromosomal translocations in ...
This instability is caused by additional mutations. This leads to metastasis, hyperproliferation and loss of control by the ... In the last stage, progression, the tumor has become karyotypically instable: morphological changes in the normal chromosomal ...
"Chromosomal instability drives metastasis through a cytosolic DNA response". Nature. 553 (7689): 467-472. Bibcode:2018Natur.553 ... Recent work identified a form of genetic instability in cancer called chromosome instability (CIN) as a driver of metastasis.[ ...
Powerful mutagens may result in chromosomal instability, causing chromosomal breakages and rearrangement of the chromosomes ... Other tests may check for various chromosomal aberrations such as chromatid and chromosomal gaps and deletions, translocations ... Its insertion into chromosomal DNA disrupts functional elements of the genes. Virus - Virus DNA may be inserted into the genome ... Some however may act on the replication mechanism and chromosomal partition. Many mutagens are not mutagenic by themselves, but ...
The determination of sex in E. socialis is chromosomal with heterogametic females. But, the primary sex-ratio i.e., the sex- ... and is thought to be caused by meiotic instability. Furthermore, the operational sex-ratio is also male-biased. Such a ratio is ... "Geographic Variation in Meiotic Instability in Eucheira socialis (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)". Annals of the Entomological Society ...
Political instability and local feuds, aggravated by the poverty of the dispossessed Marsh Arab population, remain a serious ... Y-chromosomal Aaron. *Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of the Near East ...
"Chromosomal instability in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas: A fluorescent in situ hybridization study using ... Currently, this type of analysis will only detect gains and losses of chromosomal material and will not detect balanced ... FISH is used by examining the cellular reproduction cycle, specifically interphase of the nuclei for any chromosomal ... due to subtle chromosomal features; FISH can elucidate these differences. FISH can also be used to detect diseased cells more ...
"Trans-generational radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the female enhances the action of chemical mutagens". Mutation ... Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability and Bystander Effects Clastogenic Factors and Transgenerational Effects". Radiation ... It has been shown that radiation damage including genome instability and carcinogenesis may occur transgenerationally in both ... "Epigenetic dysregulation underlies radiation-induced transgenerational genome instability in vivo". International Journal of ...
"Huang R C & Bonner J. Histone, a suppressor of chromosomal RNA synthesis. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. US 48:1216-22, 1962" (PDF). ... "Genomic instability in mice lacking histone H2AX". Science. 296 (5569): 922-7. Bibcode:2002Sci...296..922C. doi:10.1126/ ... Hannon Bozorgmehr J (Oct 2019). "The origin of chromosomal histones in a 30S ribosomal protein". Gene. doi:10.1016/j.gene. ... "Histone, a suppressor of chromosomal RNA synthesis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ...
Numerical and structural chromosomal aberrations identified by SKY, genomic imbalances detected by CGH, as well as FISH ... does not fulfill the criteria for an independent unicellular asexually reproducing species because of the notorious instability ... "Enzymatic and chromosomal characterization of HeLa variants". J. Cell Biol. 41 (3): 806-15. doi:10.1083/jcb.41.3.806. PMC ...
Such alterations are thought to occur early in progression to cancer and to be a likely cause of the genetic instability ... Genomic amplification occurs when a cell gains copies (often 20 or more) of a small chromosomal locus, usually containing one ... Translocation occurs when two separate chromosomal regions become abnormally fused, often at a characteristic location. A well- ... links to genetic instability". Carcinogenesis (review). 30 (7): 1073-81. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgp127. PMID 19468060.. ...
... cells of affected individuals exhibit chromosomal abnormalities, genomic instability, and sensitivity to mutagens.[7] ... Defective homologous recombination can cause mutation and genetic instability.[27] Such defective recombination can introduce ... "Genomic instability in laminopathy-based premature aging". Nat. Med. 11 (7): 780-5. doi:10.1038/nm1266. PMID 15980864.. ... which is caused by genomic instability and increased rates of mutation.[7] ...
It usually is a sign of genotoxic events and chromosomal instability. Micronuclei are commonly seen in cancerous cells and may ... extremely versatile and is one of the preferred methods to measure the level of chromosomal damage and chromosomal instability ... The frequencies of chromosomal aberrations, damaged cells, and micronuclei are significantly higher in smokers than non-smokers ... The major drawback of using micronucleus tests is that they cannot determine different types of chromosomal aberrations and can ...
Studies show that in cases of cancer and other genomic instability, higher levels of EEs can be observed. Mitochondrial DNA can ... Certain organisms, such as yeast, rely on chromosomal DNA replication to produce eccDNA whereas eccDNA formation can occur in ... Small polydispersed DNAs (spcDNAs) are commonly found in conjunction with genome instability. SpcDNAs are derived from ... Double minute chromosomes (DMs) are also extrachromosomal elements that are associated with genome instability. DMs are ...
Epigenetic reductions of DNA repair enzyme expression may likely lead to the genomic and epigenomic instability characteristic ... direct hypermethylation or hypomethylation of CpG islands of protein-encoding genes and alterations in histones and chromosomal ... a survey of current practices and re-evaluation of the role of microsatellite instability testing". Modern Pathology. 31 (11): ... "High microsatellite instability (MSI-H) colorectal carcinoma: a brief review of predictive biomarkers in the era of ...
இது ஒரு வகையான பரம்பரை அலகுகளில் (gene or in chromosomal DNA region) ஏற்படும் மாற்றங்களினால் அல்லது டி.என்.ஏ க்களில் பிறழ்வுகளை ... "Hypoxia and defective apoptosis drive genomic instability and tumorigenesis". Genes & Development 18 (17): 2095-107. doi ...
At the present time, there is no specific treatment that can undo any chromosomal abnormality, nor the genetic pattern seen in ... However, mostly because of the marker's instability and tendency to be lost during cell division (mitosis), some cells are ... A chromosome anomaly involves extra or missing chromosomal material, not changes within the genes such as Fragile X syndrome). ... Some individuals show other signs that can often be associated with chromosomal conditions, such as pectus excavatum, or a ...
2005). "Repeat instability: mechanisms of dynamic mutations". Nature Reviews Genetics. 6 (10): 729-742. doi:10.1038/nrg1689.. ... Microsatellites are used for assessing chromosomal DNA deletions in cancer diagnosis. Microsatellites are widely used for DNA ... This is likely due to homologous chromosomes with arms of unequal lengths causing instability during meiosis.[19] ... Amos W, Rubinsztein DC (1996). "Microsatellites show mutational bias and heterozygote instability". Nature Genetics. 13: 390- ...
She noticed chromosomal insertions, deletions, and translocations caused by these elements. These changes in the genome could, ... retrotransposition and genome instability". Cell. 110 (3): 277-80. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(02)00868-1. PMID 12176313. ... Multiple copies of the same sequence, such as Alu sequences, can hinder precise chromosomal pairing during mitosis and meiosis ... In bacteria, transposons can jump from chromosomal DNA to plasmid DNA and back, allowing for the transfer and permanent ...
This instability makes defining the exact affinity of PGI2 for IP difficult. It also makes it important to have stable ... Duncan AM, Anderson LL, Funk CD, Abramovitz M, Adam M (February 1995). "Chromosomal localization of the human prostanoid ... "Structural organization and chromosomal assignment of the human prostacyclin receptor gene". Genomics. 27 (1): 142-8. doi: ...
Chambers, Sarah C. (2003). "Little Middle Ground The Instability of a Mestizo Identity in the Andes, 18th and 19th centuries". ... "Inferring Continental Ancestry of Argentineans from Autosomal, Y-Chromosomal and Mitochondrial DNA". Annals of Human Genetics ... Chambers, Sarah C. (2003). "Little Middle Ground The Instability of a Mestizo Identity in the Andes, 18th and 19th centuries". ... international political instability was a key factor to drive immigration to Mexico; in this era Greeks, Romanians, Portuguese ...
The term episome was introduced by François Jacob and Élie Wollman in 1958 to refer to extra-chromosomal genetic material that ... DNA structural instability can be defined as a series of spontaneous events that culminate in an unforeseen rearrangement, loss ... A plasmid is a small, extrachromosomal DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from chromosomal DNA and can ... Yeast Replicative Plasmid (YRp), which transport a sequence of chromosomal DNA that includes an origin of replication. These ...
Lindahl T (April 1993). "Instability and decay of the primary structure of DNA". Nature. 362 (6422): 709-15. Bibcode:1993Natur. ... Chromosomal crossover is when two DNA helices break, swap a section and then rejoin. ... Non-homologous recombination can be damaging to cells, as it can produce chromosomal translocations and genetic abnormalities. ... The most common form of chromosomal crossover is homologous recombination, where the two chromosomes involved share very ...
The chromosomal defect in the Philadelphia chromosome is a reciprocal translocation, in which parts of two chromosomes, 9 and ... Moreover, it inhibits DNA repair, causing genomic instability and potentially causing the feared blast crisis in CML. ... Rowley JD (1973). "Letter: A new consistent chromosomal abnormality in chronic myelogenous leukaemia identified by quinacrine ... this chromosomal translocation is designated as t(9;22)(q34;q11). The symbol ABL is derived from Abelson, the name of a ...
Chromosomal aberrations involving this gene are associated with left-right axis malformation and mutations in this gene have ... "Manipulation of nonsense mediated decay identifies gene mutations in colon cancer Cells with microsatellite instability". ...
The resulting thermal instability driven convective flow automatically shuffles the PCR reagents from the hot and cold regions ... has greatly enhanced the more traditional task of genetic mapping by studying chromosomal crossovers after meiosis. Rare ...
de Grouchy J, de Nava C (August 1968). "A chromosomal theory of carcinogenesis". Ann. Intern. Med. 69 (2): 381-91. doi:10.7326/ ... System instability is a major contributing factor for genetic heterogeneity.[42] For the majority of cancers, genome ... De Grouchy J.; de Nava C. (1968). "A chromosomal theory of carcinogenesis". Ann Intern Med. 69: 381-91. doi:10.7326/0003-4819- ... In the decades that followed, cancer was recognized as having a clonal origin associated with chromosomal aberrations.[9][10][ ...
... are in a state of instability promoting their progression towards anaphase.[17] At this point, the chromosomes are ready to ... protective sequences of DNA on the end of a chromosome that prevent degradation of the chromosomal DNA, shorten. This ...
... expression and chromosomal localization". Biochim Biophys Acta. 1444 (3): 346-54. PMID 10095058. doi:10.1016/S0167-4781(99) ... messenger RNA stability is regulated by cis-acting instability elements present in the 3'-untranslated region.". Biochim. ...
The most common chromosomal aneuploidy is a trisomy of chromosome 21 which manifests itself as Down syndrome. Current ... DNA fragment analysis can also be used to determine such disease causing genetics aberrations as microsatellite instability ( ... "SoftGenetics Application Note - Microsatellite Instability Analysis with GeneMarker® Tamela Serensits" (PDF). SoftGenetics. ...
Caire, William; Zimmerman, Earl G. (1975). "Chromosomal and Morphological Variation and Circular Overlap in the Deer Mouse, ... and fragmented populations due to climate instability have also been cited.[10] ...
Genome instability[edit]. Cancers are known to exhibit genome instability or a mutator phenotype.[49] The protein-coding DNA ... Genomic amplification occurs when a cell gains many copies (often 20 or more) of a small chromosomal region, usually containing ... For example, inactivation of a single gene, coding for the p53 protein, will cause genomic instability, evasion of apoptosis ... Loss of capacity to repair genetic errors, leading to an increased mutation rate (genomic instability), thus accelerating all ...
More than likely, it is related to some other chromosomal property or function. Replication timing is correlated with the ... Spatiotemporal regulation of DNA replication in the human genome and its association with genomic instability and disease. Curr ... proceeds via the nearly synchronous firing of clusters of replication origins that replicate segments of chromosomal DNA (" ...
Prenatal sex steroid ratios (in terms of 2D:4D) and actual chromosomal sex dimorphism were found to operate differently on ... evidence for organising effects of sex hormones or developmental instability?". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 28 (3): 288-303. doi: ...
Chromosomal instability determines taxane response.. Swanton C1, Nicke B, Schuett M, Eklund AC, Ng C, Li Q, Hardcastle T, Lee A ... lines in response to MTS agents and observed that these genes are overexpressed in tumors exhibiting chromosomal instability ( ... A) Quantification of gene repression following paclitaxel treatment of cell lines with increasing chromosomal numerical ... Colorectal cancer cell lines with increasing chromosomal numerical heterogeneity uncouple mitotic arrest from cell death. Cell ...
Chromosomal instability and cytoskeletal defects in oral cancer cells. William S. Saunders, Michele Shuster, Xin Huang, Burhan ... Chromosomal instability and cytoskeletal defects in oral cancer cells. William S. Saunders, Michele Shuster, Xin Huang, Burhan ... Chromosomal instability and cytoskeletal defects in oral cancer cells Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Chromosomal instability and cytoskeletal defects in oral cancer cells. William S. Saunders, Michele Shuster, Xin Huang, Burhan ...
According to Pellman, chromosomal instability, it turns out, "is actually a side effect of the cells ability to cluster their ... Link Unraveled Between Chromosomal Instability, Centrosome Defects In Cancer Cells. by Sam Savage ... but the correction process creates other problems that result in chromosomal instability." ... "Such instability may be a double-edged sword. It may confer a survival benefit on cancer cells by enabling them to adapt to a ...
Another common finding in cancer cells is chromosomal instability, a condition in which cells change their chromosomal content ... Whole chromosome gain does not in itself confer cancer-like chromosomal instability. Anders Valind, Yuesheng Jin, Bo Baldetorp ... It is clear that chromosomal instability can lead to aneuploidy, but whether the opposite is true has been much debated in the ... Here, we show that aneuploidy does not, on its own, lead to chromosomal instability, even when cells acquire chromosome ...
... Nat Commun. 2018 Aug 1;9(1):3012. doi: ... in the presence of increased rates of chromosome instability. In patients, Plk1 overexpression correlates with improved ...
... Acta Paediatr Scand. 1981 Jul;70(4):557-64. doi: 10.1111 ... The clinical features and the chromosome aberrations as present in the proband are usually found in chromosomal breakage ... Cytogenetic studies in the proband revealed a typical form of chromosome instability with multiple rearrangements of ... syndromes, but it was possible to exclude each of the classical chromosomal breakage syndromes on clinical and/or cytogenetic ...
Checkpoint failure and chromosomal instability without lymphomagenesis in Mre11(ATLD1/ATLD1) mice.. Theunissen JW1, Kaplan MI, ... The mice also exhibited pronounced chromosomal instability. Despite this phenotypic spectrum, the animals were not prone to ... These data indicate that defective cell cycle checkpoints and chromosomal instability are insufficient to significantly enhance ... We propose that in Mre11(ATLD1/ATLD1) mice, genome instability and cell cycle checkpoint defects reduce viability in early ...
Chromosomal Instability Confers Intrinsic Multidrug Resistance. Alvin J.X. Lee, David Endesfelder, Andrew J. Rowan, Axel ... Chromosomal Instability Confers Intrinsic Multidrug Resistance. Alvin J.X. Lee, David Endesfelder, Andrew J. Rowan, Axel ... Chromosomal Instability Confers Intrinsic Multidrug Resistance. Alvin J.X. Lee, David Endesfelder, Andrew J. Rowan, Axel ... The more common form of genomic instability in CRC is chromosomal instability (CIN), resulting in ongoing numerical and ...
CFSs are chromosomal regions that are stable under normal conditions but display an increased rate of breakage under ... In particular, they are preferential sites for chromosomal aberrations, viral DNA integration and are linked to the onset of ... The mechanisms responsible for CFS instability are hotly debated but different models all point to their inability to complete ... leading to chromosome breakage and genome instability. A large subset of these hard to replicate regions are referred to as ...
Genomic instability may play an essential role in leukemogenesis by promoting the accumulation of genetic lesions responsible ... Clearly, genetic instability and clonal evolution are driving forces for leukemic transformation. Understanding the mechanisms ... Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a characteristic feature of cancer. In this review, we concentrate on mechanisms leading to ... and advanced MDS and underlined the important role of dysfunctional telomeres in the development of genetic instability and ...
Sigue las novedades científicas y divulgativas del centro. Introduce tu correo electrónico y suscríbete en nuestro boletín.. ...
The aneuploid index was calculated as the sum of all the consistent chromosomal gains or losses present in the karyotype. Thus ...
... July 07, 2020. A team from the Bellvitge ... Toroidal nucleus, a new biomarker of chromosomal instability. This study describes, for the first time, that cells that have ... Until now, the only biomarker to determine chromosomal instability was the micronucleus. The work led by Dr. Mauvezin presents ... This particular morphology represents a potential new biomarker for the identification of cells with chromosomal instability.. ...
Unravelling chromosomal instability in mammalian preimplantation embryos using single-cell genomics ... Olga Tšuiko „Unravelling chromosomal instability in mammalian preimplantation embryos using single-cell genomics". ... Olga Tšuiko „Unravelling chromosomal instability in mammalian preimplantation embryos using single-cell genomics" ... On 26 November at 15 Olga Tšuiko will defend her doctoral thesis „Unravelling chromosomal instability in mammalian ...
RAD51 Mutants Cause Replication Defects and Chromosomal Instability. Tae Moon Kim, Jun Ho Ko, Lingchuan Hu, Sung-A Kim, ... RAD51 Mutants Cause Replication Defects and Chromosomal Instability. Tae Moon Kim, Jun Ho Ko, Lingchuan Hu, Sung-A Kim, ... RAD51 Mutants Cause Replication Defects and Chromosomal Instability. Tae Moon Kim, Jun Ho Ko, Lingchuan Hu, Sung-A Kim, ... RAD51 Mutants Cause Replication Defects and Chromosomal Instability Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ...
Gene mutation rates (EGFR, KRAS, STK11, TP53), chromosomal instability, regional copy number, and genomewide DNA methylation ... Differential Pathogenesis of Lung Adenocarcinoma Subtypes Involving Sequence Mutations, Copy Number, Chromosomal Instability, ...
Chromosomal and microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer (Homo sapiens). From WikiPathways. Revision as of 11:47, 15 ... Pino MS, Chung DC; The chromosomal instability pathway in colon cancer.; Gastroenterology, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia* ... The first, known as chromosomal instability (CIN), results from a series of genetic changes that involve the activation of ... Genomic instability. Inactivating mutation. CSNK1A1L. CSNK1A1. CTNNB1. P. P. P. Survival. EXOC2. TBK1. REL. Cell-survival. ...
Chromosomal and microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer (Homo sapiens). From WikiPathways. Revision as of 19:20, 12 ... Pino MS, Chung DC; The chromosomal instability pathway in colon cancer.; Gastroenterology, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia* ... Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling in Colorectal Cancer Cells With Microsatellite Instability Despite Biallelic Mutations ...
DNA damage response curtails detrimental replication stress and chromosomal instability induced by the dietary carcinogen PhIP. ...
"Chromosomal Instability" by people in this website by year, and whether "Chromosomal Instability" was a major or minor topic of ... "Chromosomal Instability" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Alternative splicing of CHEK2 and codeletion with NF2 promote chromosomal instability in meningioma. Neoplasia. 2012 Jan; 14(1 ... EGFRvIII expression and PTEN loss synergistically induce chromosomal instability and glial tumors. Neuro Oncol. 2009 Feb; 11(1 ...
This type of chromosomal instability is by far the most frequent form of genetic instability among solid tumor cells and ... Prostate-specific membrane antigen associates with anaphase-promoting complex and induces chromosomal instability. Sigrid A. ... Mutations in the APC tumour suppressor gene cause chromosomal instability. Nat Cell Biol 2001;3:433-8. ... 6E, arrow, and F), which provided further evidence for chromosomal instability (38). ...
Testing for Herpesvirus Infection Is Essential in Children with Chromosomal-Instability Syndromes. Petra Lankisch, Heiko Adler ... While active EBV replication may obviously end up in significant clinical problems in patients with chromosomal instability ... Cases of herpesvirus infection in children with chromosomal instability syndromes, diagnosed since 2006 at the Department of ... Testing for Herpesvirus Infection Is Essential in Children with Chromosomal-Instability Syndromes ...
Centrosome amplification drives chromosomal instability in breast tumor development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002;99:1978-83. ... Association between chromosomal instability and prognosis in colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis. Gut 2008;57:941-50. ... Chromosomal instability detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in Japanese breast cancer patients. Clin Chim Acta 2001; ... Paradoxical relationship between chromosomal instability and survival outcome in cancer. Cancer Res 2011;71:3447-52. ...
The chromosomal instability phenotype initiated by partial Bre1b knockdown (shBre1b1 cells grown without doxycycline) for 3 ... Deficiency in Mammalian Histone H2B Ubiquitin Ligase Bre1 (Rnf20/Rnf40) Leads to Replication Stress and Chromosomal Instability ... Deficiency in Mammalian Histone H2B Ubiquitin Ligase Bre1 (Rnf20/Rnf40) Leads to Replication Stress and Chromosomal Instability ... Deficiency in Mammalian Histone H2B Ubiquitin Ligase Bre1 (Rnf20/Rnf40) Leads to Replication Stress and Chromosomal Instability ...
Thus, chromosomal instability seen in Ink4a/Arf deficient tumors in vitro may be unrelated to the original phenotype of the ... However, after multiple passages chromosomal instability becomes apparent as evidenced by increasing tetraploidy and aneuploidy ... We found that chromosomal instability in Ink4a/Arf deficient MEFs developed with the same timing as seen in cell lines derived ... To further evaluate the effect of Ink4a/Arf-deficiency on chromosomal stability in vitro, we isolated Ink4a/Arf deficient ...
However, lamin A/C-deficient cells exhibit a phenotype of chromosomal numerical instability, though the mechanism was not ... Thompson SL, Bakhoum SF, Compton DA: Mechanisms of chromosomal instability. Curr Biol. 2010, 20: 285-295. 10.1016/j.cub.2010.01 ... Holland AJ, Cleveland DW: Boveri revisited: chromosomal instability, aneuploidy and tumorigenesis. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2009 ... Nuclear envelope structural defects cause chromosomal numerical instability and aneuploidy in ovarian cancer. ...
... basal-like phenotype and displayed the highest chromosomal structural complexity and chromosomal numerical instability. We ... Paradoxical Relationship between Chromosomal Instability and Survival Outcome in Cancer. Publication: Research - peer-review › ... Chromosomal instability (CIN) is associated with poor prognosis in human cancer. However, in certain animal tumor models ... which correlates with DNA-based measures of structural chromosomal complexity and numerical CIN in vivo, to gene expression ...
Chromosomal Instability in Adult Retinal Stem Cells With High Proliferative Capacity and Differentiation Potentials ... Chromosomal Instability in Adult Retinal Stem Cells With High Proliferative Capacity and Differentiation Potentials ... M. Djojosubroto, M. Tekaya, D. Wanner, Y. Arsenijevic; Chromosomal Instability in Adult Retinal Stem Cells With High ... It is tempting to speculate that the higher genomic instability is related to cellular aging in adult RSCs. We are also ...
Two metrics of chromosomal instability were used; (i) Global Genomic Index (GGI), corresponding to the fraction of the genome ... Combining GGI and nbBP,we classified genomic profiles into 5 groups presenting distinct patterns of chromosomal instability and ... Our data show that CRC disease progression from stage 1 to stage 4 is not paralleled by increased levels of genetic instability ... We, also, asked whether the level of genomic instability was correlated to disease outcome in stage 2 and 3 CRCs. ...
  • It is clear that chromosomal instability can lead to aneuploidy, but whether the opposite is true has been much debated in the field of cancer biology. (pnas.org)
  • The concept that aneuploidy automatically triggers chromosomal instability has been propagated in the scientific literature in recent years. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we show that aneuploidy does not, on its own, lead to chromosomal instability, even when cells acquire chromosome alterations typical of cancer. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, somatic aneuploidy, found mainly in neoplastic tissue, is attributed to continuous chromosomal instability. (pnas.org)
  • that is, whether aneuploidy per se causes chromosomal instability, for example, in patients with inborn aneuploidy. (pnas.org)
  • We have addressed this issue by quantifying the level of somatic mosaicism, a proxy marker of chromosomal instability, in patients with constitutional aneuploidy by precise background-filtered dual-color FISH. (pnas.org)
  • Our findings show that even though constitutional aneuploidy was in some cases associated with low-level somatic mosaicism, it was insufficient to generate the cancer-like levels expected if aneuploidy single-handedly triggered cancer-like chromosomal instability. (pnas.org)
  • However, after multiple passages chromosomal instability becomes apparent as evidenced by increasing tetraploidy and aneuploidy, and the concomitant loss of clonality. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Herein, transduction of cyclin D1-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with the kinase dead KE mutant of cyclin D1 led to aneuploidy, abnormalities in mitotic spindle formation, autosome amplification, and chromosomal instability (CIN) by gene expression profiling. (jefferson.edu)
  • The aim of this thematic series was to bring together the latest research findings and conceptual developments in the field of chromosomal imbalances and cancer, publishing original research papers on the complex interplay of chromosomal instability and aneuploidy in cancerous and pre-cancerous lesions, and papers exploring potential translational aspects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, increased chromosomal aberrations, aneuploidy, and centrosome abnormalities were observed in the cyclin D1-rescued cells by spectral karyotyping and immunofluorescence. (jci.org)
  • One of the hallmarks of cancer formation and persistence is genomic instability, referring to the increased frequency in sequence mutation, chromosome rearrangement, and aneuploidy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clinical features and the chromosome aberrations as present in the proband are usually found in chromosomal breakage syndromes, but it was possible to exclude each of the classical chromosomal breakage syndromes on clinical and/or cytogenetic grounds. (nih.gov)
  • The more common form of genomic instability in CRC is chromosomal instability (CIN), resulting in ongoing numerical and structural chromosomal aberrations in cancer cells, leading to intratumoral heterogeneity ( 2, 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In particular, they are preferential sites for chromosomal aberrations, viral DNA integration and are linked to the onset of oncogenesis and other disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chromosomal aberrations and deoxyribonucleic acid single-strand breaks in adipose-derived stem cells during long-term expansion in vitro. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The mutant cells also have a high level of spontaneous chromosomal aberrations and 3-fold elevated sister chromatid exchange. (elsevier.com)
  • The spontaneous chromosomal aberrations in XRCC9 cDNA transformants were almost fully corrected whereas sister chromatid exchanges were unchanged. (elsevier.com)
  • Chromosomal aberrations were detected in 2/18 patients (11 %) before allogeneic SCT, in 12/13 patients (92 %) after 3 months, in all patients after 12 months and in all patients in the retrospective group after allogeneic SCT. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Reciprocal translocations were the most common aberrations, but all other types of stable, structural chromosomal aberrations were also observed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ionizing radiation has the capacity to induce chromosomal aberrations in a variety of human tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The goal of this study was to compare how accumulation of chromosomal aberrations in human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected cells correlates with the severity of cervical dysplastic lesions. (elsevier.com)
  • The less common pattern is microsatellite instability (MIN) caused by a deficiency in the mismatch repair apparatus. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The second, known as microsatellite instability (MSI), results from inactivation of the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1 and/or MSH2 by hypermethylation of their promoter, and secondary mutation of genes with coding microsatellites, such as transforming growth factor receptor II (TGF-RII) and BAX. (wikipathways.org)
  • Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling in Colorectal Cancer Cells With Microsatellite Instability Despite Biallelic Mutations in TGFBR2. (wikipathways.org)
  • Survival in stage II/III colorectal cancer is independently predicted by chromosomal and microsatellite instability, but not by specific driver mutations. (ox.ac.uk)
  • OBJECTIVES: Microsatellite instability (MSI) is an established marker of good prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC). (ox.ac.uk)
  • We assessed other molecular events including loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in 2p, 5q, 17q, and 18q, the CpG island methylation phenotype (CIMP), and microsatellite instability (MSI). (core.ac.uk)
  • Although CIMP is probably the cause of high-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI-H) sporadic CRCs, its role in microsatellite stable (MSS) tumors is debated. (elsevier.com)
  • We identified a set of genes repressed in multiple cell lines in response to MTS agents and observed that these genes are overexpressed in tumors exhibiting chromosomal instability (CIN). (nih.gov)
  • In vivo, Plk1 overexpression prevents the development of Kras-induced and Her2-induced mammary gland tumors, in the presence of increased rates of chromosome instability. (nih.gov)
  • Consistent molecular mechanisms responsible for the CIN + phenotype and hence means to target this pattern of genome instability in colorectal and other solid tumors remain poorly defined. (aacrjournals.org)
  • EGFRvIII expression and PTEN loss synergistically induce chromosomal instability and glial tumors. (umassmed.edu)
  • Thus, chromosomal instability seen in Ink4a/Arf deficient tumors in vitro may be unrelated to the original phenotype of the tumor in vivo. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • To better understand this seemingly contradictory relationship between CIN and cancer cell biological fitness and its relationship with clinical outcome, we applied the CIN70 expression signature, which correlates with DNA-based measures of structural chromosomal complexity and numerical CIN in vivo, to gene expression profiles of 2,125 breast tumors from 13 published cohorts. (dtu.dk)
  • Tumors with extreme CIN, defined as the highest quartile CIN70 score, were predominantly of the estrogen receptor negative (ER-), basal-like phenotype and displayed the highest chromosomal structural complexity and chromosomal numerical instability. (dtu.dk)
  • Stage 1, 2, 3 and 4 tumors did not differ significantly at the level of their CNA profiles precluding the conventional definition of a progression scheme based on increasing levels of genetic instability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While tumors of the high risk group were characterized by frequent fractional CNAs, low risk tumors presented predominantly whole chromosomal arm CNAs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, they suggest that stage 2-3 CRC with elevated genetic instability and particularly profiles with fractional CNA represent a subset of aggressive tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chromosomal instability (CIN) as part of genomic instability is an inherent characteristic of most solid tumors and is also involved in breast cancer development. (figshare.com)
  • Cyclin D1 is overexpressed in many human tumors, and Casimiro and colleagues investigate its role in driving a transcriptional program that promotes chromosome instability. (jci.org)
  • In lactotroph tumors, genome instability, especially quantity of gains, significantly predicted recurrence independently of invasion and proliferation (p-value = 0.02, OR = 1.2). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The presence of MYC CN gain with qPCR and the absence of PI3K activation were infrequent events 7 and 8 % of evaluable tumors, respectively, while 41 % of tumors had increased CEN CN in one or more chromosomes, indicative of chromosomal instability. (duhnnae.com)
  • Spontaneous chromosome missegregation events in aneuploid cells promote chromosomal instability (CIN) that may contribute to the acquisition of multidrug resistance in vitro and heighten risk for tumor relapse in animal models. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Dysfunctional DNA damage and mitotic spindle checkpoints resulting from these interactions may promote chromosomal instability and leave the hepatocyte unable to control DNA damage caused by oxidative stress mediated by HCV proteins, alcohol, and immune-mediated inflammation. (mysciencework.com)
  • Confirming the association of CIN rather than ploidy status with multidrug resistance, tetraploid isogenic cells that had arisen from diploid cell lines displayed lower drug sensitivity than their diploid parental cells only with increasing chromosomal heterogeneity and isogenic cell line models of CIN + displayed multidrug resistance relative to their CIN − parental cancer cell line derivatives. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tumor-initiating cells (TIC) that are responsible for tumorigenesis are a source of functional cellular heterogeneity, whereas chromosomal instability (CIN) is a source of karyotypic genetic diversity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chromosomal instability - as a process leading to abnormal chromosome content and heterogeneity - has been widely researched and increasingly referred to as driving force behind malignant transformation and defining factor for cancer evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several research groups have shown that heterogeneity and genomic instability are heavily correlated with poor patient outcomes and aggressive cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic instability or changes in chromosome structure and numbers is an important facet of oncogenesis. (pnas.org)
  • The consequence of genetic instability can be an alteration in copy number of one or more genes, a change in gene expression, or a change in gene structure such that the protein sequence is altered ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Genetic instability can result from changes in chromosome structure, through errors in DNA metabolism, repair, recombination, or other rearrangements of the DNA sequence ( 2 ), or from misregulation of the cell cycle, for example, uncoupling DNA replication from cell division ( 3 ) or centrosomal duplication from division ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Abnormalities in the chromosomal segregational apparatus are also likely to play an important role in genetic instability. (pnas.org)
  • One of the most striking manifestations of genetic instability in cancer cells is the variation observed in the karyotypes of different cells, even within the same tumor. (pnas.org)
  • Genomic instability may play an essential role in leukemogenesis by promoting the accumulation of genetic lesions responsible for clonal evolution. (mdpi.com)
  • Earlier studies have shown an association between telomere shortening and advanced MDS and underlined the important role of dysfunctional telomeres in the development of genetic instability and cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • Clearly, genetic instability and clonal evolution are driving forces for leukemic transformation. (mdpi.com)
  • The first, known as chromosomal instability (CIN), results from a series of genetic changes that involve the activation of oncogenes such as K-ras and inactivation of TSG such as p53, DCC/Smad4, and APC. (wikipathways.org)
  • It remains presently unclear whether disease progression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC), from early, to invasive and metastatic forms, is associated to a gradual increase in genetic instability and to a scheme of sequentially occurring Copy Number Alterations (CNAs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this work we set to determine the existence of such links between CRC progression and genetic instability and searched for associations with patient outcome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our data show that CRC disease progression from stage 1 to stage 4 is not paralleled by increased levels of genetic instability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is generally agreed that tumor progression occurs according to a scheme of gradual accumulation of genetic anomalies and that genetic instability is highest in most aggressive and metastatic forms of the disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Instead, adaptive mutation and amplification are parallel routes of inducible genetic instability allowing rapid evolution under stress, and escape from growth inhibition. (butler.edu)
  • Addressing these knowledge gaps regarding correlations among tissue-specific TLs, the relationship between TL and chromosomal instability, and tissue-specific genetic effects on TL is a critical step towards elucidating the role of TL in the etiology of cancer and other common diseases. (grantome.com)
  • These findings suggest that CIN and CIMP represent 2 independent and inversely related mechanisms of genetic and epigenetic instability in sporadic CRCs and confirm that MSI cancers arise as a consequence of CIMP. (elsevier.com)
  • Jaspers NG, Taalman RD, Baan C. Patients with an inherited syndrome characterized by immunodeficiency, microcephaly, and chromosomal instability: genetic relationship to ataxia telangiectasia. (medscape.com)
  • These data implicate multiple molecular and genetic pathways leading to different manifestations of genomic instability in GM10115 cells surviving exposure to DNA-damaging agents. (elsevier.com)
  • Correlation of 3q26 and 8q24 aneusomy with concurrent HPV infection may thus serve as a biomarker of genetic instability in HPV-infected cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results indicate that replication-induced genome instability and tumorigenicity can become caused by both genetic and non-genetic (elizabeth.g., diet) factors. (harrisbee.org)
  • Completely, our results display that development of malignancy is definitely mediated by a combination of genetic and non-genetic factors that affects the degree of replication-induced genomic instability. (harrisbee.org)
  • To examine whether gastric carcinoma (GC) with chromosomal instability (CIN-type GC), the largest category in the Cancer Genome Atlas classification, consists of a single genetic lineage, we conducted a multisampling analysis of genomic DNA copy-number profile. (figshare.com)
  • We used immunohistochemistry combined with classical cytogenetic analysis and spectral karyotyping to investigate the chromosomal segregation defects in cultured oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. (pnas.org)
  • These results indicate that some of the chromosomal instability observed within these cancer cells might be the result of cytoskeletal defects and breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. (pnas.org)
  • During mitotic division, we observed multiple segregational defects, including multipolar spindles, lagging chromosomes, and anaphase bridges, leading to chromosomal breakage at telophase into centric and acentric micronuclei. (pnas.org)
  • 2000) The human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins cooperate to induce mitotic defects and genomic instability by uncoupling centrosome duplication from the cell division cycle. (springer.com)
  • We show here that re‐introduction of one copy of the Terc gene in these mice via Terc +/− × Terc −/− crosses is sufficient to elongate critically short telomeres, rescue chromosomal instability and prevent severe proliferative defects in these mice. (embopress.org)
  • DNA double-strand break and chromosomal rejoining defects with misrejoining in Nijmegen breakage syndrome cells. (medscape.com)
  • Lymph node metastasis in oral cancer is strongly associated with chromosomal instability and DNA repair defects. (cdc.gov)
  • Altered mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint function, centrosome duplication, kinetochore function, and microtubule stability have been implicated in chromosome missegregation and the ensuing pattern of chromosomal instability (CIN) in cancer model systems ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Acting in multiple central processes like double-strand break repair, centrosome replication, and checkpoint control, BRCA1 participates in maintaining genomic integrity and protects the cell against genomic instability. (figshare.com)
  • The majority of these transcriptome and phenotypic changes arise self-employed of chromosomal instability since we have previously shown that cultured vMCF-7DNP53 show a normal centrosome and mitotic spindle phenotypes and that centrosome amplification and aberrant mitoses develop only following genotoxic stress or in the context of tumor growth (12). (laserpienteamarilla.com)
  • Oral squamous cell carcinomas are characterized by complex, often near-triploid karyotypes with structural and numerical variations superimposed on the initial clonal chromosomal alterations. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, these cells exhibited a wide range of structural chromosomal changes that included multiple breakpoints within the same chromosome. (asm.org)
  • Assessment of a limited number of chromosomal structural instabilities by use of massive parallel sequencing of cfDNA was sufficient to distinguish between prostate cancer and controls. (aaccjnls.org)
  • Our interest in prostate cancer is based on the recent discoveries that almost all cancer types exhibit chromosomal structural instability, through either progressive evolution or catastrophic genomic events ( 3 ). (aaccjnls.org)
  • Vajen B, Thomay K, Schlegelberger B. Induction of Chromosomal Instability via Telomere Dysfunction and Epigenetic Alterations in Myeloid Neoplasia. (mdpi.com)
  • To address these gaps, we propose to assess the cross-tissue correlations among telomere length measurements taken across many cancer-prone tissues and determine if these measures are correlated with chromosomal instability as measured by chromosomal alterations detected within the tissue samples. (grantome.com)
  • High CIN70 scores were significantly related to increased chromosomal alterations in TCGA cervical cancer patients, including a higher percentage of genome altered and a higher number of copy number alterations. (beds.ac.uk)
  • CIN70 score was found to be significantly associated with chromosomal alterations and para-aortic distant relapse in patients. (beds.ac.uk)
  • A high frequency of Chromosomal alterations was found in the exposed group in comparison with those observed in the unexposed group. (urosario.edu.co)
  • Numerical chromosomal alterations, fragilities and chromosomal breaks showed significant differences between exposed and unexposed groups. (urosario.edu.co)
  • The high frequency of both Chromosomal Alterations and DNA Damage Index observed in this study indicates an urgent need of intervention not only to prevent the increased risk of developing cancer but also to the application of strict health control and motivation to the use of appropriate protecting devices during work. (urosario.edu.co)
  • The way that extra centrosomes do cause chromosome instability, Ganem and his colleagues have discovered, is by setting up a tug-of-war for chromosomes that are eventually caught between newly forming daughter cells of a dividing cancer cell. (redorbit.com)
  • Chromosome instability is a hallmark of most cancer cells, arising when chromosomes are missegregated into daughter cells during division," said Ganem, who led the study with senior author David Pellman, MD, and co-author Susana Godinho, PhD, of Dana-Farber. (redorbit.com)
  • In contrast to previous studies that used less precise methods, we find that constitutional trisomy, even for large chromosomes that are often trisomic in cancer, does not confer a significantly elevated rate of somatic chromosomal mosaicism in individual cases. (pnas.org)
  • Cytogenetic studies in the proband revealed a typical form of chromosome instability with multiple rearrangements of chromosomes 7 and 14. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, Terc +/− progeny showed all chromosomes with detectable telomeres, and did not show chromosomal instability or premature aging. (embopress.org)
  • Thus, we would like to call attention to the existence of more literature on the investigation of herpesvirus infection in children with chromosomal instability syndromes (e.g. (asm.org)
  • While active EBV replication may obviously end up in significant clinical problems in patients with chromosomal instability syndromes, other herpesvirus infections may also become clinically relevant and should not be overlooked in the diagnostic workup. (asm.org)
  • Certain constellations of findings might suggest specific chromosomal syndromes, and ambiguous genitalia might be associated with sex chromosome abnormalities. (alpfmedical.info)
  • D'Andrea's focus is the molecular pathogenesis of the human chromosomal instability syndromes: Fanconi anemia (FA), ataxia-telangiectasia, and Bloom syndrome. (dana-farber.org)
  • abstract = "Chromosomal destabilization is one end point of the more general phenomenon of genomic instability. (elsevier.com)
  • Clarifying the mechanisms underlying CFS instability during tumorigenesis will further advance our understanding of cancer etiology and shed new light on cancer treatment. (frontiersin.org)
  • Kinase-independent role of cyclin D1 in chromosomal instability and mammary tumorigenesis. (jefferson.edu)
  • We conclude that the CDK-activating function of cyclin D1 is not necessary to induce either chromosomal instability or mammary tumorigenesis. (jefferson.edu)
  • These data suggest that cyclin D1 contributes to CIN and tumorigenesis by directly regulating a transcriptional program that governs chromosomal stability. (jci.org)
  • Chromosomal instability produces cytosolic micronuclei that rupture and activate a viral response pathway, driving metastasis. (sciencemag.org)
  • The problem of delayed genomic instability occurring in human cells in vivo has recently come to prominence as an important mechanism in radiation carcinogenesis. (radioprotection.org)
  • This particular morphology represents a potential new biomarker for the identification of cells with chromosomal instability. (brightsurf.com)
  • Until now, the only biomarker to determine chromosomal instability was the micronucleus. (brightsurf.com)
  • We propose that genomic instability triggered by Bre1 deficiency may be an important early step that precedes acquisition of an invasive phenotype, as we find decreased levels of BRE1A/B and dimethylated H3K79 in testicular seminoma and in the premalignant lesion in situ carcinoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These clones were then subjected to a series of assays to determine whether chromosomal instability is associated with a general 'mutator phenotype' and whether it modulates other end points of genomic instability. (elsevier.com)
  • Despite the numerous and diverse abnormalities, classical cytogenetic analyses of OSCC cells have revealed several consistent chromosomal changes, such as breakpoints at bands 1p11-1p13, 3p14, and 11q13 ( 6 ) and amplification of band 11q13 ( 7 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Adaptive amplification, an inducible chromosomal instability mechanism" by P. J. Hastings, H. K. Bull et al. (butler.edu)
  • These correlations may he explained by chromosomal destabilization, which can mediate gene amplification and can result in cellular lethality. (elsevier.com)
  • Kinase-independent role of cyclin D1 in chromosomal instability and ma" by Mathew C Casimiro, Gabriele Disante et al. (jefferson.edu)
  • show that in contrast to Cyclin D1-/- cells (left), those overexpressing Cyclin D (right) develop multiple centrosomes and abnormal spindle architecture, resulting in chromosomal instability. (jci.org)
  • Here, we used genome-wide ChIP sequencing and found that the DNA-bound form of cyclin D1 occupied the regulatory region of genes governing chromosomal integrity and mitochondrial biogenesis. (jci.org)
  • Premature activation of APC would provide less time for proper chromosome attachment and alignment and would thus reduce the fidelity of chromosomal segregation into daughter cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These findings led to suggestions that APC acts in chromosomal segregation and that APC inactivation leads to chromosomal instability (CIN). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, cancerous cells frequently contain multiple centrosomes [microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) (Box 1) that are required for proper chromosome segregation], which can lead to aberrant mitosis and errors in chromosomal segregation. (biologists.org)
  • CFSs are chromosomal regions that are stable under normal conditions but display an increased rate of breakage under replication stress. (frontiersin.org)
  • DNA damage response curtails detrimental replication stress and chromosomal instability induced by the dietary carcinogen PhIP. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Combined with a previously reported defect in homologous recombination, generation of R-loops is a likely initiator of replication stress and genomic instability in Bre1-deficient cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chromosomal instability in early cancer stages is caused by replication stress. (harrisbee.org)
  • Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a hallmark of many tumours and correlates with the presence of extra centrosomes. (nih.gov)
  • In the multipolar spindles, the poles demonstrated different levels of chromosomal capture and alignment, indicating functional differences between the poles. (pnas.org)
  • A mechanism linking extra centrosomes to chromosomal instability. (nih.gov)
  • According to Pellman, chromosomal instability, it turns out, "is actually a side effect of the cells' ability to cluster their excess centrosomes. (redorbit.com)
  • Tetraploidization can initiate chromosomal instability (CIN), probably owing to supernumerary centrosomes and the doubled chromosome mass. (biologists.org)
  • When study lead author Neil Ganem, PhD, of Dana-Farber used newly developed microscope equipment to watch living cancer cells for a week or more, he found that not only were such abnormal divisions quite rare, but the resulting daughter cells were so discombobulated by their chromosomal quirks, they generally survived for only a few days "" far too briefly to deliver abnormal chromosome content to a tumor. (redorbit.com)
  • Another common finding in cancer cells is chromosomal instability, a condition in which cells change their chromosomal content at a high rate. (pnas.org)
  • Colorectal cancer (CRC) is associated with at least 2 distinct patterns of genomic instability ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a characteristic feature of cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • The chromosomal instability pathway in colon cancer. (wikipathways.org)
  • Chromosomal instability (CIN) is associated with poor prognosis in human cancer. (dtu.dk)
  • Considering cancer patients treated with partial body irradiation as a relevant group at risk of developing a second cancer, research has been carried out to quantify chromosomal instability (ChI) occurring in their lymphocytes. (radioprotection.org)
  • Tumor suppressors, chromosomal instability, and hepatitis C virus-associated liver cancer. (mysciencework.com)
  • The mechanisms by which it causes cancer are unclear, but chronic immune-mediated inflammation and associated oxidative chromosomal DNA damage probably play a role. (mysciencework.com)
  • Chromosomal imbalances have been known as common features of cancer genomes for a long time. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The unifying research aim of the department is the understanding of genomic instability in human cancer in order to tailor therapies for cancer patients. (dana-farber.org)
  • AURKA overexpression is observed in various cancers including colon cancer, and a link between AURKA and chromosomal instability (CIN) has been proposed. (core.ac.uk)
  • These findings demonstrate that chromosomal instability plays an important role in cervical cancer, and is significantly associated with patient outcome. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The recent successes of CDK inhibitors in the clinic, combined with the potential for structure-based routes to the development of non-ATP-competitive CDK inhibitors, and evidence that CDK inhibitors may have use in suppressing chromosomal instability and in synthetic lethal drug combinations inspire optimism that CDK inhibitors will become important weapons in the fight against cancer. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Telomere dysfunction plays a crucial role in initiating or sustaining genomic instability, which is a major step in cancer progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increasing importance of genomic instability on cancer progression has been emphasized in recent years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequent of this genomic instability, the resulting cancer cells have the potential to diverge in sequence and gain new traits. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some genomic regions can raise specific problems for the replication machinery, leading to chromosome breakage and genome instability. (frontiersin.org)
  • To conclude, CGH array analysis showed genome instability was dependent on PitNET type. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Those individuals with higher rates of chromosome instability were associated with worse 5-year survival curves. (wikipedia.org)
  • We track the evolution of genomic instability in Bre1-deficient cells from replication-associated double-strand breaks (DSB) to specific genomic rearrangements that explain a rapid increase in DNA content and trigger breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Weemaes CM, Hustinx TW, Scheres JM, van Munster PJ, Bakkeren JA, Taalman RD. A new chromosomal instability disorder: the Nijmegen breakage syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Eleven Polish patients with microcephaly, immunodeficiency, and chromosomal instability: the Nijmegen breakage syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • In contrast, CIN + CRC cell lines are aneuploid and display a higher frequency of chromosomal missegregation errors during each mitosis relative to diploid cells ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Heavy charged particles are very effective at producing chromosomal exchanges with RBE values exceeding 30 in interphase (as visualized using premature chromosome condensation) and 10 at the post-irradiation mitosis for energetic iron (Fe) ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • indeed, among spontaneous miscarriages in humans with chromosomal abnormalities, triploidy and tetraploidy are responsible for approximately 20%, and this corresponds to 10% of total miscarriages (Carr et al. (biologists.org)
  • Analysis of chromosomal instability in human colorectal adenomas with two mutational hits at APC. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The aneuploid index was calculated as the sum of all the consistent chromosomal gains or losses present in the karyotype. (hindawi.com)
  • The majority of MSS CRCs demonstrate chromosomal instability (CIN) with frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at key tumor suppressor genes. (elsevier.com)
  • Two major mechanisms of genomic instability have been identified in sporadic CRC progression. (wikipathways.org)
  • The average number of double-positive cells increased from two cells in patients with a cytological interpretation of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance to 22 cells in low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and 99 cells in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, reflecting an accumulation of chromosomal abnormality with disease progression. (elsevier.com)
  • For this, we have crossed these mice with Terc +/− mice and analyzed telomere length, chromosomal instability and premature aging of the progeny. (embopress.org)
  • However, these associations are difficult to interpret, in part because it is not clear (1) how well telomere lengh in peripheral blood cells reflects telomere length in the tissues most relevant to disease and (2) if tissue-specific telomere length actually reflects levels of within-tissue chromosomal instabilit. (grantome.com)
  • In total these events cause problematic aneuploid cells with increased genomic instability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extreme chromosome 17 copy number instability is a prognostic factor in patients with gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma: A retrospective cohort study. (umassmed.edu)
  • HKU Scholars Hub: Inactivation Of Atm/atr Dna Damage Checkpoint Promotes Androgen Induced Chromosomal Instability In Prostate Epithelial Cells. (hku.hk)
  • We have begun to investigate the source of chromosomal instability in cultured cells derived from human OSCC. (pnas.org)
  • Misregulation of Scm3p/HJURP causes chromosome instability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human cells. (umassmed.edu)
  • MdmX regulates transformation and chromosomal stability in p53-deficient cells. (umassmed.edu)
  • Our data showed that silibinin inhibited expression of FAT10, TI-induced chromosome instability (CIN) as well as sensitizes cells to TI-induced apoptosis. (biologists.org)
  • Chromosomal instability of murine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in long-term culture and development of cloned embryos. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Thompson, Larry H. / The human XRCC9 gene corrects chromosomal instability and mutagen sensitivities in CHO UV40 cells . (elsevier.com)
  • We previously established that chromosomal instability can manifest in clones derived from single progenitor cells several generations after X-irradiation. (elsevier.com)
  • In fact, only a small fraction of the initial damage is transduction of late chromosomal damage has also been measured in the progeny of human lymphocytes that were exposed with much higher frequency in the progeny of cells that were exposed to heavy ions compared to gamma rays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genomic instability has been observed both in vitro and in vivo in the progeny of cells that are irradiated with heavy ions in several model systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • To this aim we analyzed a set of 162 Chromosomal Instable (CIN) CRCs comprising 131 primary carcinomas evenly distributed through stage 1 to 4, 31 metastases and 14 adenomas by array-CGH. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We, also, asked whether the level of genomic instability was correlated to disease outcome in stage 2 and 3 CRCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mechanisms responsible for CFS instability are hotly debated but different models all point to their inability to complete replication. (frontiersin.org)
  • This work serves as a precedent for the study of the mechanisms responsible for the degradation of essential mitotic proteins to prevent chromosomal instability. (brightsurf.com)
  • Genomic instability resulting in copy number variation is a hallmark of malignant transformation and may be identified through massive parallel sequencing. (aaccjnls.org)
  • To further evaluate the effect of Ink4a/Arf-deficiency on chromosomal stability in vitro, we isolated Ink4a/Arf deficient primary murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), serially passaged them, and analyzed their chromosomal stability by spectral karyotyping (a 24-color chromosome paint-FISH technique). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Robertson SA, Schoumans J, Looyenga BD, Yuhas JA, Zylstra CR, Koeman JM, Swiatek PJ, Teh BT and Williams BO: Spectral karyotyping of sarcomas and fibroblasts derived from Ink4a/Arf-deficient mice reveals chromosomal instability in vitro. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • High-dose chemotherapy and TBI leads to severe chromosomal damage in skin fibroblasts of patients after SCT. (biomedcentral.com)
  • found that rearrangements involving telomere regions are associated with chromosomal instability in human fibroblasts that occur many generations after exposure to accelerated heavy ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our findings demonstrate that ATM/ATR inactivation is a crucial step in promoting androgen-induced genomic instability and prostate carcinogenesis. (hku.hk)
  • Women with AMA are at increased risk of carrying a fetus with a chromosomal abnormality, especially trisomy 21 , and are routinely offered an amniocentesis. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Family studies are often indicated once a chromosomal abnormality has been identified in order to rule out carrier status of at risk individuals. (alpfmedical.info)